Sample records for foam flow conditions

  1. Generalized correlation for foam flow in tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cotter, Carol Lynnette

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Data collected allow for the determination of material parameters. The corresponding friction factors and generalized Reynolds numbers are calculated and their relationship examined. Results indicate that the flow of foam follows the same f = 16/NRe,gen...

  2. Dissipative flows of 2D foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isabelle Cantat; Renaud Delannay

    2005-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the flow of a liquid foam between two plates separated by a gap of the order of the bubble size (2D foam). We concentrate on the salient features of the flow that are induced by the presence, in an otherwise monodisperse foam, of a single large bubble whose size is one order of magnitude larger than the average size. We describe a model suited for numerical simulations of flows of 2D foams made up of a large number of bubbles. The numerical results are successfully compared to analytical predictions based on scaling arguments and on continuum medium approximations. When the foam is pushed inside the cell at a controlled rate, two basically different regimes occur: a plug flow is observed at low flux whereas, above a threshold, the large bubble migrates faster than the mean flow. The detailed characterization of the relative velocity of the large bubble is the essential aim of the present paper. The relative velocity values, predicted both from numerical and from analytical calculations that are discussed here in great detail, are found to be in fair agreement with experimental results.

  3. Transient foam flow in porous media with CAT Scanner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Dianbin; Brigham, W.E.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transient behavior is likely to dominate over most of the duration of a foam injection field project. Due to the lack of date, little is presently known about transient foam flow behavior. Foam flow does not follow established models such as the Buckley-Leverett theory, and no general predictive model has been derived. Therefore, both experimental data and a foam flow theory are needed. In this work, foam was injected at a constant mass rate into one-dimensional sandpacks of 1-in diameter and 24-in or 48-in length that had initially been saturate with distilled water. The system was placed in a cat Scanner. Data, obtained at room temperature and low pressure at various times, include both the pressure and saturation distributions. Pressure profiles showed that the pressure gradient is much greater behind the foam front than ahead of it. Moreover, the pressure gradients keep changing as the foam advances in the sandpack. This behavior differs from Buckley-Leverett theory. The CT scan results demonstrated gas channeling near the front, but eventually the foam block all these channels and sweeps the entire cross section after many pore volumes of injection. Three series of experiments were run: (1) surfactant adsorption measurements; (2) gas displacements of surfactant-laden solutions and (3) foam displacements. The first two series of experiments were made to provide the necessary parameters required to match the foam displacements. To this end, it was necessary to smooth the saturation history data, using a Langmuir-type formula. A theory was proposed based on the principles of the fractional flow curve construction method. This foam theory treats the foam as composed of infinitesimal slugs of gas of varying viscosities. The foam front has the lowest viscosity and foam at the injection end has the highest.

  4. Two-dimensional flows of foam: drag exerted on circular obstacles and dissipation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin Dollet; Florence Elias; Catherine Quilliet; Arnaud Huillier; Miguel Aubouy; Francois Graner

    2004-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A Stokes experiment for foams is proposed. It consists in a two-dimensional flow of a foam, confined between a water subphase and a top plate, around a fixed circular obstacle. We present systematic measurements of the drag exerted by the flowing foam on the obstacle, \\emph{versus} various separately controlled parameters: flow rate, bubble volume, solution viscosity, obstacle size and boundary conditions. We separate the drag into two contributions, an elastic one (yield drag) at vanishing flow rate, and a fluid one (viscous coefficient) increasing with flow rate. We quantify the influence of each control parameter on the drag. The results exhibit in particular a power-law dependence of the drag as a function of the solution viscosity and the flow rate with two different exponents. Moreover, we show that the drag decreases with bubble size, increases with obstacle size, and that the effect of boundary conditions is small. Measurements of the streamwise pressure gradient, associated to the dissipation along the flow of foam, are also presented: they show no dependence on the presence of an obstacle, and pressure gradient depends on flow rate, bubble volume and solution viscosity with three independent power laws.

  5. Foam flow around an obstacle: obstacle-wall interaction , B. Dollet2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Simon

    two-dimensional (2D) foams, such as can be made by squeezing a foam between two glass plates soFoam flow around an obstacle: obstacle-wall interaction S.J. Cox1 , B. Dollet2 , F. Graner2 1- chanics, University of Wales Aberystwyth, Ceredigion SY23 3BZ, UK, e-mail: foams@aber.ac.uk 2 Spectrom

  6. Localization of topological changes in Couette and Poiseuille flows of two-dimensional foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Simon

    -dimensional (2D) foams, such as can be made by squeezing a foam between parallel glass plates until it consistsLocalization of topological changes in Couette and Poiseuille flows of two-dimensional foams S. Quasistatic simulations show that the topological changes or plastic events that occur when an aqueous foam

  7. Quasistatic rheology of foams II. Continuous shear flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and numerically. We extract, from the images of the sheared foam, the plastic flow profiles and the modifications AND GEORGES DEBREGEAS2 1 Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Pierce Hall, 29 in the temporal and spatial correlations of the plastic events. The spa- tial fluctuations of the static stress

  8. Magnetic Resonance Flow Velocity and Temperature Mapping of a Shape Memory Polymer Foam Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Small IV, W; Gjersing, E; Herberg, J L; Wilson, T S; Maitland, D J

    2008-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Interventional medical devices based on thermally responsive shape memory polymer (SMP) are under development to treat stroke victims. The goals of these catheter-delivered devices include re-establishing blood flow in occluded arteries and preventing aneurysm rupture. Because these devices alter the hemodynamics and dissipate thermal energy during the therapeutic procedure, a first step in the device development process is to investigate fluid velocity and temperature changes following device deployment. A laser-heated SMP foam device was deployed in a simplified in vitro vascular model. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques were used to assess the fluid dynamics and thermal changes associated with device deployment. Spatial maps of the steady-state fluid velocity and temperature change inside and outside the laser-heated SMP foam device were acquired. Though non-physiological conditions were used in this initial study, the utility of MRI in the development of a thermally-activated SMP foam device has been demonstrated.

  9. Two-dimensional flow of foam around an obstacle: force measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin Dollet; Florence Elias; Catherine Quilliet; Christophe Raufaste; Miguel Aubouy; Francois Graner

    2004-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A Stokes experiment for foams is proposed. It consists in a two-dimensional flow of a foam, confined between a water subphase and a top plate, around a fixed circular obstacle. We present systematic measurements of the drag exerted by the flowing foam on the obstacle, \\emph{versus} various separately controlled parameters: flow rate, bubble volume, bulk viscosity, obstacle size, shape and boundary conditions. We separate the drag into two contributions, an elastic one (yield drag) at vanishing flow rate, and a fluid one (viscous coefficient) increasing with flow rate. We quantify the influence of each control parameter on the drag. The results exhibit in particular a power-law dependence of the drag as a function of the bulk viscosity and the flow rate with two different exponents. Moreover, we show that the drag decreases with bubble size, and increases proportionally to the obstacle size. We quantify the effect of shape through a dimensioned drag coefficient, and we show that the effect of boundary conditions is small.

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous foam flow Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at Los Angeles Collection: Physics 15 Self-Similar Collapse of Stationary Bulk Foams Tad W. Patzek Summary: preformed during the initial steady- state countercurrent flow of...

  11. Plastic flow of foams and emulsions in a channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dollet, B; Sbragaglia, M

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to understand the flow profiles of complex fluids, a crucial issue concerns the emergence of spatial correlations among plastic rearrangements exhibiting cooperativity flow behaviour at the macroscopic level. In this paper, the rate of plastic events in a Poiseuille flow is experimentally measured on a confined foam in a Hele-Shaw geometry. The correlation with independently measured velocity profiles is quantified. To go beyond a limitation of the experiments, namely the presence of wall friction which complicates the relation between shear stress and shear rate, we compare the experiments with simulations of emulsion droplets based on the lattice-Boltzmann method, which are performed both with, and without, wall friction. Our results indicate a correlation between the localisation length of the velocity profiles and the localisation length of the number of plastic events. Finally, unprecedented results on the distribution of the orientation of plastic events show that there is a non-trivial correla...

  12. Mechanical Characterization of Rigid Polyurethane Foams.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Wei-Yang

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Foam materials are used to protect sensitive components from impact loading. In order to predict and simulate the foam performance under various loading conditions, a validated foam model is needed and the mechanical properties of foams need to be characterized. Uniaxial compression and tension tests were conducted for different densities of foams under various temperatures and loading rates. Crush stress, tensile strength, and elastic modulus were obtained. A newly developed confined compression experiment provided data for investigating the foam flow direction. A biaxial tension experiment was also developed to explore the damage surface of a rigid polyurethane foam.

  13. Drag coefficient for the air-sea exchange: foam impact in hurricane conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golbraikh, Ephim

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A physical model is proposed for the estimation of the foam impact on the variation of the effective drag coefficient, C_d, with reference to the wind speed U10 in stormy and hurricane conditions. In the present model C_d is approximated by partitioning the sea surface into foam-covered and foam-free areas. Based on the available optical and radiometric measurements of the fractional foam coverage and the characteristic roughness of the sea-surface in the saturation limit of the foam coverage, the model yields the resulting dependence of C_d vs U10. This dependence is in fair agreement with that evaluated from field measurements of the vertical variation of the mean wind speed.

  14. 'Dark Matter' as a Quantum Foam In-Flow Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reginald T. Cahill

    2005-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The galactic `dark matter' effect is regarded as one of the major problems in fundamental physics. Here it is explained as a self-interaction dynamical effect of space itself, and so is not caused by an unknown form of matter. Because it was based on Kepler's Laws for the motion of the planets in the solar system the Newtonian theory of gravity was too restricted. A reformulation and generalisation of the Newtonian theory of gravity in terms of a velocity in-flow field, representing at a classical level the relative motion of a quantum-foam substructure to space, reveals a key dynamical feature of the phenomenon of gravity, namely the so called `dark matter' effect, which manifests not only in spiral galaxy rotation curves, but also in the borehole g anomaly, globular and galactic black holes, and in ongoing problems in improving the accuracy with which Newton's gravitational constant G is measured. The new theory of gravity involves an additional new dimensionless gravitational constant, and experimental data reveals this to be the fine structure constant. The new theory correctly predicts the globular cluster black hole masses, and that the `frame-dragging' effect is caused by vorticity in the in-flow. The relationship of the new theory of gravity to General Relativity which, like Newtonian gravity, does not have the `dark matter' dynamics, is explained.

  15. Yield drag in a two-dimensional foam flow around a circular obstacle: Effect of liquid fraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Simon

    Yield drag in a two-dimensional foam flow around a circular obstacle: Effect of liquid fraction of foams around a circular obstacle within a long channel. In experiments, we confine the foam between liquid and glass surfaces. In simulations, we use a deterministic software, the Surface Evolver

  16. Mechanistic Foam Flow Simulation in Heterogeneous and Multidimensional Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    -scale simulation is a vital component of the engineering and economic evaluation of any enhanced oil recovery (EOR Copyright 1997, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Received for review, April 24, 1997 Revised, July 23 generation, and foam propagation in rock formations. Efficient application and evaluation of candidates

  17. Flow in linearly sheared two dimensional foams: from bubble to bulk scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gijs Katgert; Andrzej Latka; Matthias E. Möbius; Martin van Hecke

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We probe the flow of two dimensional foams, consisting of a monolayer of bubbles sandwiched between a liquid bath and glass plate, as a function of driving rate, packing fraction and degree of disorder. First, we find that bidisperse, disordered foams exhibit strongly rate dependent and inhomogeneous (shear banded) velocity profiles, while monodisperse, ordered foams are also shear banded, but essentially rate independent. Second, we introduce a simple model based on balancing the averaged drag forces between the bubbles and the top plate and the averaged bubble-bubble drag forces. This model captures the observed rate dependent flows, and the rate independent flows. Third, we perform independent rheological measurements, both for ordered and disordered systems, and find these to be fully consistent with the scaling forms of the drag forces assumed in the simple model, and we see that disorder modifies the scaling. Fourth, we vary the packing fraction $\\phi$ of the foam over a substantial range, and find that the flow profiles become increasingly shear banded when the foam is made wetter. Surprisingly, our model describes flow profiles and rate dependence over the whole range of packing fractions with the same power law exponents -- only a dimensionless number $k$ which measures the ratio of the pre-factors of the viscous drag laws is seen to vary with packing fraction. We find that $k \\sim (\\phi-\\phi_c)^{-1}$, where $\\phi_c \\approx 0.84$, corresponding to the 2d jamming density, and suggest that this scaling follows from the geometry of the deformed facets between bubbles in contact. Overall, our work suggests a route to rationalize aspects of the ubiquitous Herschel-Bulkley (power law) rheology observed in a wide range of disordered materials.

  18. Experimental Investigation of the Effective Foam Viscosity in Unsaturated Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Zhong, Lirong; White, Mark D.; Szecsody, James E.

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Foam has the potential to effectively carry and distribute either aqueous or gaseous amendments to the deep vadose zone for contaminant remediation. However, the transport of foam in porous media is complicated because flow characteristics such as the effective viscosity are affected not only by foam properties but also by the sediment properties and flow conditions. We determined the average effective foam viscosity via a series of laboratory experiments and found that the effective foam viscosity increased with the liquid fraction in foam, the injection rate, and sediment permeability. These impacts are quantified with an empirical expression, which is further demonstrated with data from literature. The results show that the liquid fraction in foam and sediment permeability are two primary factors affecting effective foam viscosity. These results suggest that, when foam is used in deep vadose zone remediation, foam flow will not suffer from gravitational drainage and can distribute amendments uniformly in heterogeneous sediments.

  19. hal-00090531,version4-6Jul2007 Yield drag in a two-dimensional foam flow around a circular obstacle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    hal-00090531,version4-6Jul2007 Yield drag in a two-dimensional foam flow around a circular obstacle-dimensional flow of foams around a circular obstacle within a long channel. In experiments, we confine the foam between liquid and glass surfaces. In simulations, we use a deterministic software, the Surface Evolver

  20. Foam Transport in Porous Media - A Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Zhong, Lirong

    2009-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Amendment solutions with or without surfactants have been used to remove contaminants from soil. However, it has drawbacks such that the amendment solution often mobilizes the plume, and its movement is controlled by gravity and preferential flow paths. Foam is an emulsion-like, two-phase system in which gas cells are dispersed in a liquid and separated by thin liquid films called lamellae. Potential advantages of using foams in sub-surface remediation include providing better control on the volume of fluids injected, uniformity of contact, and the ability to contain the migration of contaminant laden liquids. It is expected that foam can serve as a carrier of amendments for vadose zone remediation, e.g., at the Hanford Site. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s EM-20 program, a numerical simulation capability will be added to the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) flow simulator. The primary purpose of this document is to review the modeling approaches of foam transport in porous media. However, as an aid to understanding the simulation approaches, some experiments under unsaturated conditions and the processes of foam transport are also reviewed. Foam may be formed when the surfactant concentration is above the critical micelle concentration. There are two main types of foams – the ball foam (microfoam) and the polyhedral foam. The characteristics of bulk foam are described by the properties such as foam quality, texture, stability, density, surface tension, disjoining pressure, etc. Foam has been used to flush contaminants such as metals, organics, and nonaqueous phase liquids from unsaturated soil. Ball foam, or colloidal gas aphrons, reportedly have been used for soil flushing in contaminated site remediation and was found to be more efficient than surfactant solutions on the basis of weight of contaminant removed per gram of surfactant. Experiments also indicate that the polyhedral foam can be used to enhance soil remediation. The transport of foam in porous media is complicated in that the number of lamellae present governs flow characteristics such as viscosity, relative permeability, fluid distribution, and interactions between fluids. Hence, foam is a non-Newtonian fluid. During transport, foam destruction and formation occur. The net result of the two processes determines the foam texture (i.e., bubble density). Some of the foam may be trapped during transport. According to the impacts of the aqueous and gas flow rates, foam flow generally has two regimes – weak and strong foam. There is also a minimum pressure gradient to initiate foam flow and a critical capillary for foam to be sustained. Similar to other fluids, the transport of foam is described by Darcy’s law with the exception that the foam viscosity is variable. Three major approaches to modeling foam transport in porous media are the empirical, semi-empirical, and mechanistic methods. Mechanistic approaches can be complete in principal but may be difficult to obtain reliable parameters, whereas empirical and semi-empirical approaches can be limited by the detail used to describe foam rheology and mobility. Mechanistic approaches include the bubble population-balance model, the network/percolation theory, the catastrophe theory, and the filtration theory. Among these methods, all were developed for modeling polyhedral foam with the exception that the method based on the filtration theory was for the ball foam (microfoam).

  1. Three-dimensional foam flow resolved by fast X-ray tomographic microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raufaste, Christophe; Mader, Kevin; Santucci, Stéphane; Mokso, Rajmund

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thanks to ultra fast and high resolution X-ray tomography, we managed to capture the evolution of the local structure of the bubble network of a 3D foam flowing around a sphere. As for the 2D foam flow around a circular obstacle, we observed an axisymmetric velocity field with a recirculation zone, and indications of a negative wake downstream the obstacle. The bubble deformations, quantified by a shape tensor, are smaller than in 2D, due to a purely 3D feature: the azimuthal bubble shape variation. Moreover, we were able to detect plastic rearrangements, characterized by the neighbor-swapping of four bubbles. Their spatial structure suggest that rearrangements are triggered when films faces get smaller than a characteristic area.

  2. Three-dimensional foam flow resolved by fast X-ray tomographic microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christophe Raufaste; Benjamin Dollet; Kevin Mader; Stéphane Santucci; Rajmund Mokso

    2015-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Thanks to ultra fast and high resolution X-ray tomography, we managed to capture the evolution of the local structure of the bubble network of a 3D foam flowing around a sphere. As for the 2D foam flow around a circular obstacle, we observed an axisymmetric velocity field with a recirculation zone, and indications of a negative wake downstream the obstacle. The bubble deformations, quantified by a shape tensor, are smaller than in 2D, due to a purely 3D feature: the azimuthal bubble shape variation. Moreover, we were able to detect plastic rearrangements, characterized by the neighbor-swapping of four bubbles. Their spatial structure suggest that rearrangements are triggered when films faces get smaller than a characteristic area.

  3. Yield drag in a two-dimensional foam flow around a circular obstacle: Effect of liquid fraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christophe Raufaste; B. Dollet; Simon Cox; Yi Jiang; François Graner

    2007-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the two-dimensional flow of foams around a circular obstacle within a long channel. In experiments, we confine the foam between liquid and glass surfaces. In simulations, we use a deterministic software, the Surface Evolver, for bubble details and a stochastic one, the extended Potts model, for statistics. We adopt a coherent definition of liquid fraction for all studied systems. We vary it in both experiments and simulations, and determine the yield drag of the foam, that is, the force exerted on the obstacle by the foam flowing at very low velocity. We find that the yield drag is linear over a large range of the ratio of obstacle to bubble size, and is independent of the channel width over a large range. Decreasing the liquid fraction, however, strongly increases the yield drag; we discuss and interpret this dependence.

  4. Rheology of nearly ideal 3d foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. D. Jones; K. N. Nordstrom; D. J. Durian

    2014-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We probe the complex rheology of nearly ideal 3d foam by flowing through a narrow column. The foams we investigate have large bubble size, to minimize the effects of coarsening, and are very dry. Foams of this type cannot be studied via conventional rheometry. The foam flows upward through a vertical rectangular column with a 4:1 cross-sectional aspect ratio, by bubbling gas through a soapy solution at the base of our apparatus. At the column's narrow surfaces are sticky boundaries, which create shear due to the zero velocity boundary condition. As expected, the flow profile between the adjacent slippery broad faces is flat, however the profile between the narrow, sticky faces exhibits a curved velocity profile that is dependent on gas flow rate. We are able to analyze a 2d velocity profile from a 3d bulk system. We employ particle image velocimetry to measure the strain rate, and compute the stress from the pressure drop along the channel, to investigate the local stress-strain relationships in a flowing foam. We find these dry foams to have a Hershel-Bulkley exponent of 0.21, which is significantly lower (more shear thinning) than other results shown in the literature for much wetter foams.

  5. Foam process models.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moffat, Harry K.; Noble, David R.; Baer, Thomas A. (Procter & Gamble Co., West Chester, OH); Adolf, Douglas Brian; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Mondy, Lisa Ann

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, we summarize our work on developing a production level foam processing computational model suitable for predicting the self-expansion of foam in complex geometries. The model is based on a finite element representation of the equations of motion, with the movement of the free surface represented using the level set method, and has been implemented in SIERRA/ARIA. An empirically based time- and temperature-dependent density model is used to encapsulate the complex physics of foam nucleation and growth in a numerically tractable model. The change in density with time is at the heart of the foam self-expansion as it creates the motion of the foam. This continuum-level model uses an homogenized description of foam, which does not include the gas explicitly. Results from the model are compared to temperature-instrumented flow visualization experiments giving the location of the foam front as a function of time for our EFAR model system.

  6. Interlaboratory comparison of four heat flow meter apparatuses on planed polyisocyanurate boards foamed with CFC-11

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, R.S.; McElroy, D.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Miller, R.G. (Walter (Jim) Research Corp., St. Petersburg, FL (USA)); Yarbrough, D.W. (Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (USA)); Zarr, R.R. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA))

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes an interlaboratory comparison of apparent thermal conductivity (k) results on planed polyisocyanurate (PIR) boards foamed with chlorofluorocarbon-11 (CFC-11). Sequential tests were conducted at 75{degrees}F (24{degrees}C) at four facilities on two rigid (PIR) boards, individually and as a pair, using four comparative heat flow meter apparatuses. The specimens were shipped from lab to lab, and testing yielded 15 k-values that have two standard deviation (2 {alpha}) value of 2.2% when described by: k(Btu{center dot}in./h{center dot}ft{sup 2}{center dot}F) = 0/1365 + 1.15 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} t k(W/m{center dot}K) = 0.0197 + 1.66 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} t, where t is the elapsed time in days after planing of the boards. An increased 2 {sigma} value for board 2 may be associated with a larger variation in thickness. The 15 thermal conductance (C) values have a 2 {sigma} value of 3.2% when described by: C(Btu/H{center dot}h{center dot}{sup 2}{center dot}{degrees}F) = 0.1069 + 1.20 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} t. Thus, the 2 {sigma} (k-values) of the interlaboratory comparison is not reduced by comparing C values. 5 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  7. Surfactant monitoring by foam generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullen, Ken I. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for monitoring the presence or absence of active surfactant or other surface active agents in a solution or flowing stream based on the formation of foam or bubbles is presented. The device detects the formation of foam with a light beam or conductivity measurement. The height or density of the foam can be correlated to the concentration of the active surfactant present.

  8. Experiments for foam model development and validation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Cote, Raymond O.; Moffat, Harry K.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Mahoney, James F. (Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, MO); Russick, Edward Mark; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Thompson, Kyle Richard; Kraynik, Andrew Michael; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Gorby, Allen D.

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of experiments has been performed to allow observation of the foaming process and the collection of temperature, rise rate, and microstructural data. Microfocus video is used in conjunction with particle image velocimetry (PIV) to elucidate the boundary condition at the wall. Rheology, reaction kinetics and density measurements complement the flow visualization. X-ray computed tomography (CT) is used to examine the cured foams to determine density gradients. These data provide input to a continuum level finite element model of the blowing process.

  9. VOLUME 87, NUMBER 17 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 22 OCTOBER 2001 Deformation and Flow of a Two-Dimensional Foam under Continuous Shear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debrégeas, Georges

    ­3]. For such sys- tems, thermal energies are orders of magnitude lower than the typical energy required to relax. But the resulting flow field may still differ a lot from what would be expected for a molecular liquid. Dry sand. In this Letter, we report the formation of shear bands in aqueous foams. We believe that foams may shed light

  10. Epoxy Foam Encapsulants: Processing and Dielectric Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linda Domeier; Marion Hunter

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dielectric performance of epoxy foams was investigated to determine if such materials might provide advantages over more standard polyurethane foams in the encapsulation of electronic assemblies. Comparisons of the dielectric characteristics of epoxy and urethane encapsulant foams found no significant differences between the two resin types and no significant difference between as-molded and machined foams. This study specifically evaluated the formulation and processing of epoxy foams using simple methylhydrosiloxanes as the flowing agent and compared the dielectric performance of those to urethane foams of similar density.

  11. Fluctuating initial conditions and fluctuations in elliptic and triangular flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. K. Chaudhuri

    2012-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In heavy ion collisions, event-by-event fluctuations in participating nucleon positions can lead to triangular flow. With fluctuating initial conditions, flow coefficients will also fluctuate. In a hydrodynamic model, we study the fluctuations in elliptic and triangular flow, due to fluctuating initial conditions. Both elliptic and triangular flow fluctuates strongly, triangular flow more strongly than the elliptic flow. Strong fluctuations greatly reduce the sensitivity of elliptic and triangular flow to viscosity.

  12. Experimental evidence of foam homogenization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicolaie, Ph.; Olazabal-Loume, M.; Tikhonchuk, V. [Univ. Bordeaux-CNRS-CEA, CELIA F-33405 Talence cedex (France); Fujioka, S.; Sunahara, A. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Borisenko, N.; Gus'kov, S.; Orekov, A. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS Leninskii Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Grech, M. [Max-Planck-Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Riazuelo, G. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Labaune, C. [Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Velechowski, J. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 2, 166 27 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Univ. Bordeaux-CNRS-CEA, CELIA F-33405 Talence cedex (France)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The propagation of an ionization wave through a subcritical foam is studied under inertial confinement fusion conditions. Independent measurements of the ionization wave velocity are compared with hydrodynamic simulations and analytical models. It is shown that simulations of a homogeneous material at equivalent density strongly overestimate the front velocity. The internal foam structure can be accounted for with a simple model of foam homogenization that allows improving agreement between experiment and calculations.

  13. Numerical Investigation of Flow Induced Noise in a Simplified HVAC Duct with OpenFOAM.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Cong

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? Due to the growing demand for comfort, the noise generated by HVAC components should be considered by the designers. Flow induced noise is one… (more)

  14. Foams in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsden, S.S.

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1978 a literature search on selective blocking of fluid flow in porous media was done by Professor S.S. Marsden and two of his graduate students, Tom Elson and Kern Huppy. This was presented as SUPRI Report No. TR-3 entitled ''Literature Preview of the Selected Blockage of Fluids in Thermal Recovery Projects.'' Since then a lot of research on foam in porous media has been done on the SUPRI project and a great deal of new information has appeared in the literature. Therefore we believed that a new, up-to-date search should be done on foam alone, one which would be helpful to our students and perhaps of interest to others. This is a chronological survey showing the development of foam flow, blockage and use in porous media, starting with laboratory studies and eventually getting into field tests and demonstrations. It is arbitrarily divided into five-year time periods. 81 refs.

  15. Fluctuating initial conditions and fluctuations in elliptic and triangular flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, A K

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In heavy ion collisions, event-by-event fluctuations in participating nucleon positions can lead to triangular flow. In a hydrodynamic model with fluctuating initial conditions, we study the fluctuations in elliptic and triangular flow. Both elliptic and triangular flow fluctuates strongly. Strong fluctuations greatly reduces the sensitivity of elliptic and triangular flow on viscosity.

  16. Foam patterns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaudhry, Anil R; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M; Neece, Faurice D; Singh, Nipendra P; Westendorf, Travis

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of creating a foam pattern comprises mixing a polyol component and an isocyanate component to form a liquid mixture. The method further comprises placing a temporary core having a shape corresponding to a desired internal feature in a cavity of a mold and inserting the mixture into the cavity of the mold so that the mixture surrounds a portion of the temporary core. The method optionally further comprises using supporting pins made of foam to support the core in the mold cavity, with such pins becoming integral part of the pattern material simplifying subsequent processing. The method further comprises waiting for a predetermined time sufficient for a reaction from the mixture to form a foam pattern structure corresponding to the cavity of the mold, wherein the foam pattern structure encloses a portion of the temporary core and removing the temporary core from the pattern independent of chemical leaching.

  17. Low density microcellular foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeMay, J.D.

    1991-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular foam which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 [mu]m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process. 8 figures.

  18. Low density microcellular foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeMay, James D. (Castro Valley, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular foam which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 .mu.m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process.

  19. Treatment of concentrated industrial wastewaters originating from oil shale and the like by electrolysis polyurethane foam interaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiernan, Joan E. (Novato, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly concentrated and toxic petroleum-based and synthetic fuels wastewaters such as oil shale retort water are treated in a unit treatment process by electrolysis in a reactor containing oleophilic, ionized, open-celled polyurethane foams and subjected to mixing and laminar flow conditions at an average detention time of six hours. Both the polyurethane foams and the foam regenerate solution are re-used. The treatment is a cost-effective process for waste-waters which are not treatable, or are not cost-effectively treatable, by conventional process series.

  20. Drainage induced convection rolls in foams (revised version)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Simon

    , where soap solution is added to the foam at constant flow rate, the irregular motion in the beer glass results for convection in quasi two-dimensional foams (monolayers of bubbles between two glass platesDrainage induced convection rolls in foams (revised version) S. Hutzler, S.J. Cox*, E. Janiaud

  1. Liquid foams of graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alcazar Jorba, Daniel

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid foams are dispersions of bubbles in a liquid. Bubbles are stabilized by foaming agents that position at the interface between the gas and the liquid. Most foaming agents, such as the commonly used sodium dodecylsulfate, ...

  2. Analysis of pressure drops under reversing flow conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krazinski, J.L.; Holtz, R.E.; Uherka, K.L.; Lottes, P.A.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines pressure-drop data from the Reversing Flow Test Facility (RFTF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The data comprise part of an initial series of measurements conducted with pressurized helium gas under reversing flow conditions. The characteristics of fluid pressure drops in compressible, reversing flows are discussed in the paper and compared with pressure-drop measurements for steady, incompressible flows. The methodology used to calculate instantaneous mass flows in the test section of the RFTF is summarized. The measured pressure drops are analyzed in terms of their frictional and inertial components. Pressure-drop data are presented for both tubes and wire mesh regenerators over a range of flow reversal frequencies. The results are discussed with reference to other experimental data and analytical models available in the literature. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. The effects between two slotted plate flow meter under single, two, three components flow condition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Sang Hyan

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    THE INTERACTION BETWEEN A TWO SLOTTED PLATE FLOW METER UNDER ONE, TWO, OR THREE COMPONENT FLOW CONDITIONS A Thesis by SANG HYUN PARK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2004 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering THE INTERACTION BETWEEN A TWO SLOTTED PLATE FLOW METER UNDER ONE, TWO, OR THREE COMPONENT FLOW...

  4. Low density microcellular foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeMay, James D. (Castro Valley, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular from which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 .mu.m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process.

  5. Biopolymer foams - Relationship between material characteristics and foaming behavior of cellulose based foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, F., E-mail: florian.rapp@ict.fraunhofer.de, E-mail: anja.schneider@ict.fraunhofer.de; Schneider, A., E-mail: florian.rapp@ict.fraunhofer.de, E-mail: anja.schneider@ict.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology ICT (Germany); Elsner, P., E-mail: peter.elsner@ict.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology ICT, Germany and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT (Germany)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Biopolymers are becoming increasingly important to both industry and consumers. With regard to waste management, CO{sub 2} balance and the conservation of petrochemical resources, increasing efforts are being made to replace standard plastics with bio-based polymers. Nowadays biopolymers can be built for example of cellulose, lactic acid, starch, lignin or bio mass. The paper will present material properties of selected cellulose based polymers (cellulose propionate [CP], cellulose acetate butyrate [CAB]) and corresponding processing conditions for particle foams as well as characterization of produced parts. Special focus is given to the raw material properties by analyzing thermal behavior (differential scanning calorimetry), melt strength (Rheotens test) and molecular weight distribution (gel-permeation chromatography). These results will be correlated with the foaming behavior in a continuous extrusion process with physical blowing agents and underwater pelletizer. Process set-up regarding particle foam technology, including extrusion foaming and pre-foaming, will be shown. The characteristics of the resulting foam beads will be analyzed regarding part density, cell morphology and geometry. The molded parts will be tested on thermal conductivity as well as compression behavior (E-modulus, compression strength)

  6. Inhibition of slug front corrosion in multiphase flow conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H.J. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States); Jepson, W.P. [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion at the slug front at the bottom of a pipeline is identified as one of the worst cases of corrosion occurring in the pipeline which carries unprocessed multiphase production with a high level of CO{sub 2} gas. One objective of the study in recommending a subsea completion to shore was to determine if commercial corrosion inhibitors can control this type of corrosion using carbon steel pipeline. Thus, inhibitors which showed excellent performance in the lab using the Rotating Cylinder Electrode system (RCE) were further evaluated to confirm their performance in a flow loop simulating the test conditions predicted from the flow modeling for the proposed pipeline. The performance profile of two commercial inhibitors were determined in a 4 in. flow loop at 7O C, 100 psig CO{sub 2} partial pressure in corrosive brines with or without ethylene glycol and/or light hydrocarbon. Results showed that the carbon steel pipeline could be adequately protected at low temperature using a commercial corrosion inhibitor to meet the designed life of the pipeline. Ethylene glycol, which is used in the pipeline to prevent hydrate formation, reduces the corrosivity of the brine and gives no effect on inhibitor performance under the slug flow conditions. A good agreement in inhibitor performance was observed between the flow loop and the RCE testing. The uninhibited corrosion rate of the test brine in this study is in good agreement with the predicted value using deWaard and Williams correlation for CO{sub 2} corrosion.

  7. Foam generator and viscometer apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Troy D.; Pickell, Mark B.; Volk, Leonard J.

    2004-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and process to generate a liquid-gas-surfactant foam and to measure its viscosity and enable optical and or electronic measurements of physical properties. The process includes the steps of pumping selected and measured liquids and measured gases into a mixing cell. The mixing cell is pressurized to a desired pressure and maintained at a desired pressure. Liquids and gas are mixed in the mixing cell to produce a foam of desired consistency. The temperature of the foam in the mixing cell is controlled. Foam is delivered from the mixing cell through a viscometer under controlled pressure and temperature conditions where the viscous and physical properties of the foam are measured and observed.

  8. A Conductivity Relationship for Steady-state Unsaturated Flow Processes under Optimal Flow Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H. H.

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimality principles have been used for investigating physical processes in different areas. This work attempts to apply an optimal principle (that water flow resistance is minimized on global scale) to steady-state unsaturated flow processes. Based on the calculus of variations, we show that under optimal conditions, hydraulic conductivity for steady-state unsaturated flow is proportional to a power function of the magnitude of water flux. This relationship is consistent with an intuitive expectation that for an optimal water flow system, locations where relatively large water fluxes occur should correspond to relatively small resistance (or large conductance). Similar results were also obtained for hydraulic structures in river basins and tree leaves, as reported in other studies. Consistence of this theoretical result with observed fingering-flow behavior in unsaturated soils and an existing model is also demonstrated.

  9. Foam Processing of Textiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bafford, R. A.; Namboodri, C. G.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    limits line speed of finishing ranges, the use of foam has led to doubling of line speeds. Foam finishing has also led to reduction in the consumption of chemical agents per unit of fabric because foam finishing provides for more uniform distribution...

  10. DEVELOPMENT STATUS OF A SiC-FOAM BASED FLOW CHANNEL INSERT FOR A U.S.-ITER DCLL TBM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    , CA, 91331, U.S.A. The U.S.-ITER DCLL (Dual Coolant Liquid Lead) TBM (Test Blanket Module) uses a Flow structure. I. INTRODUCTION The U.S. ITER Double Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) Test Blanket Module (TBM liquid breeder (PbLi) at elevated temperatures of more than 700 o C and at low velocities of ~10 cm

  11. The gradient flow running coupling with twisted boundary conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Ramos

    2014-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the gradient flow for Yang-Mills theories with twisted boundary conditions. The perturbative behavior of the energy density $\\langle E(t)\\rangle$ is used to define a running coupling at a scale given by the linear size of the finite volume box. We compute the non-perturbative running of the pure gauge $SU(2)$ coupling constant and conclude that the technique is well suited for further applications due to the relatively mild cutoff effects of the step scaling function and the high numerical precision that can be achieved in lattice simulations. We also comment on the inclusion of matter fields.

  12. Revisiting Johnson and Jackson boundary conditions for granular flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Tingwen; Benyahia, Sofiane

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, we revisit Johnson and Jackson boundary conditions for granular flows. The oblique collision between a particle and a flat wall is analyzed by adopting the classic rigid-body theory and a more realistic semianalytical model. Based on the kinetic granular theory, the input parameter for the partial-slip boundary conditions, specularity coefficient, which is not measurable in experiments, is then interpreted as a function of the particle-wall restitution coefficient, the frictional coefficient, and the normalized slip velocity at the wall. An analytical expression for the specularity coefficient is suggested for a flat, frictional surface with a low frictional coefficient. The procedure for determining the specularity coefficient for a more general problem is outlined, and a working approximation is provided.

  13. Elliptic Flow from Nonequilibrium Color Glass Condensate Initial Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruggieri, M; Plumari, S; Greco, V

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A current goal of relativistic heavy ion collisions experiments is the search for a Color Glass Condensate as the limiting state of QCD matter at very high density. In viscous hydrodynamics simulations, a standard Glauber initial condition leads to estimate $4\\pi \\eta/s \\sim 1$, while a Color Glass Condensate modeling leads to at least a factor of 2 larger $\\eta/s$. Within a kinetic theory approach based on a relativistic Boltzmann-like transport simulation, we point out that the out-of-equilibrium initial distribution proper of a Color Glass Condensate reduces the efficiency in building-up the elliptic flow. Our main result at RHIC energy is that the available data on $v_2$ are in agreement with a $4\\pi \\eta/s \\sim 1$ also for Color Glass Condensate initial conditions, opening the possibility to describe self-consistently also higher order flow, otherwise significantly underestimated, and to pursue further the search for signatures of the Color Glass Condensate.

  14. Method and apparatus for measuring coupled flow, transport, and reaction processes under liquid unsaturated flow conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGrail, Bernard P. (Pasco, WA); Martin, Paul F. (Richland, WA); Lindenmeier, Clark W. (Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for measuring coupled flow, transport and reaction processes under liquid unsaturated flow conditions. The method and apparatus of the present invention permit distinguishing individual precipitation events and their effect on dissolution behavior isolated to the specific event. The present invention is especially useful for dynamically measuring hydraulic parameters when a chemical reaction occurs between a particulate material and either liquid or gas (e.g. air) or both, causing precipitation that changes the pore structure of the test material.

  15. On stability condition for bifluid flows with surface tension : application to microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    On stability condition for bifluid flows with surface tension : application to microfluidics C immiscible bifluid flows with surface tension are here considered. Since Brackbill, Kothe and Zemach (J mixing dynamics inside microdroplets. Key words: surface tension, curvature, stability condition, bifluid

  16. High performance polymeric foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gargiulo, M.; Sorrentino, L. [Institute for Composite and Biomedical Materials (IMCB)-CNR, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Iannace, S. [Institute for Composite and Biomedical Materials (IMCB)-CNR, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy) and Technological District on Polymeric and Composite Materials Engineering and Structures (IMAST), P.le E.Fermi 1, location Porto del Granatello, 80055 Portici (Naples)

    2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this work was to investigate the foamability of high-performance polymers (polyethersulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyetherimide and polyethylenenaphtalate). Two different methods have been used to prepare the foam samples: high temperature expansion and two-stage batch process. The effects of processing parameters (saturation time and pressure, foaming temperature) on the densities and microcellular structures of these foams were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy.

  17. Smolt Responses to Hydrodynamic Conditions in Forebay Flow Nets of Surface Flow Outlets, 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Hedgepeth, J. B.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Anderson, Michael G.; Deng, Zhiqun; Khan, Fenton; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Sather, Nichole K.; Serkowski, John A.; Steinbeck, John R.

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study provides information on juvenile salmonid behaviors at McNary and The Dalles dams that can be used by the USACE, fisheries resource managers, and others to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance fish passage. We researched smolt movements and ambient hydrodynamic conditions using a new approach combining simultaneous acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and acoustic imaging device (AID) measurements at surface flow outlets (SFO) at McNary and The Dalles dams on the Columbia River during spring and summer 2007. Because swimming effort vectors could be computed from the simultaneous fish and flow data, fish behavior could be categorized as passive, swimming against the flow (positively rheotactic), and swimming with the flow (negatively rheotactic). We present bivariate relationships to provide insight into fish responses to particular hydraulic variables that engineers might consider during SFO design. The data indicate potential for this empirical approach of simultaneous water/fish measurements to lead to SFO design guidelines in the future.

  18. Compressive properties of a closed-cell aluminum foam as a function of strain-rate and temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cady, Carl M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gray, Ill, George T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liu, Cheng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lovato, Manuel L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukai, T [JAPAN

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The compressive constitutive behavior of a closed-cell aluminum foam (ALPORAS) manufactured by Shinko Wire Co. in Japan was evaluated under static and dynamic loading conditions as a function of temperature. High-strain-rate tests (1000-2000 s{sup -1}) were conducted using a split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). Quasi-static and intermediate-strain-rate tests were conducted on a hydraulic load frame. A small but discernable change in the flow stress behavior as a function of strain rate was measured. The deformation behavior of the Al-foam was however found to be strongly temperature dependent under both quasi-static and dynamic loading. Localized deformation and stress state instability during testing of metal foams is discussed in detail since the mechanical behavior over the entire range of strain rates indicates non-uniform deformation. Additionally, investigation of the effect of residual stresses created during manufacturing on the mechanical behavior was investigated.

  19. Pipe viscometry of foams C. Enzendorfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ValkĂł, Peter

    Pipe viscometry of foams C. Enzendorfer Institute of Drilling and Production, Mining University This paper describes a method for extracting useful information from small-scale pipe viscometer,and quality was determined in pipes of five diameters. The flow curves showed a marked dependenceon

  20. Electrically conductive rigid polyurethane foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neet, T.E.; Spieker, D.A.

    1983-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A rigid, moldable polyurethane foam comprises about 2 to 10 weight percent, based on the total foam weight, of a carbon black which is CONDUCTEX CC-40-220 or CONDUCTEX SC, whereby the rigid polyurethane foam is electrically conductive and has essentially the same mechanical properties as the same foam without carbon black added.

  1. Flow conditions of fresh mortar and concrete in different pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.jacobsen@ntnu.n [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Dept of Structural Engineering, Trondheim (Norway); Haugan, Lars; Hammer, Tor Arne [SINTEF Byggforsk AS Building and Infrastructure, Trondheim (Norway); Kalogiannidis, Evangelos [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Dept of Structural Engineering, Trondheim (Norway)

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The variation in fresh concrete flow rate over the pipe cross section was investigated on differently coloured and highly flowable concrete mixes flowing through pipes of different materials (rubber, steel, acryl). First, uncoloured (gray) concrete was poured through the pipe and the pipe blocked. Similar but coloured (black) concrete was then poured into the pipe filled with gray concrete, flowing after the gray concrete for a while before being blocked and hardened. The advance of the colouring along the pipe wall (showing boundary flow rate) was observed on the moulded concrete surface appearing after removing the pipe from the hardened concrete. The shapes of the interfaces between uncoloured and coloured concrete (showing variation of flow rate over the pipe cross section) were observed on sawn surfaces of concrete half cylinders cut along the length axes of the concrete-filled pipe. Flow profiles over the pipe cross section were clearly seen with maximum flow rates near the centre of the pipe and low flow rate at the pipe wall (typically rubber pipe with reference concrete without silica fume and/or stabilizers). More plug-shaped profiles, with long slip layers and less variation of flow rate over the cross section, were also seen (typically in smooth acrylic pipes). Flow rate, amount of concrete sticking to the wall after flow and SEM-images of pipe surface roughness were observed, illustrating the problem of testing full scale pumping.

  2. Numerical study of the effects of upstream flow condition upon orifice flow meter performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, G.L.; Panak, D.L.; DeOtte, R.E. Jr. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.)

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experimental work has shown that when the mean velocity profile upstream of an orifice plate has a deficit on the centerline and higher velocities at the outer edges of the pipe, the pressure drop across the orifice is greater than if the flow upstream is fully developed. It is proposed that this increase in [Delta]P is directly correlated with the radial distribution of momentum upstream of the orifice plate. In an effort to investigate how the upstream flow condition affects the pressure distribution along the pipe wall and to determine if the hypothesis is correct, Creare.X Inc. 's FLUENT numerical analysis program was used to simulate the effects. Two [beta] ratios (0.50 and 0.75) have been considered with various mean velocity inlet profiles. Inlet profiles include the 1/16th, 1/7th, 1/8th, 1/9th and 1/10th power law power law, uniform flow, and two linear distributions. The results indicate that there is a correlation between the second and third-order moments of momentum and the value of the discharge coefficient. This empirical correlation, after being fully verified by experimental data, can be used to estimate the change in the coefficient of discharge given the inlet velocity profile.

  3. Tetrade Spin Foam Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Mikovic

    2005-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a spin foam model of four-dimensional quantum gravity which is based on the integration of the tetrads in the path integral for the Palatini action of General Relativity. In the Euclidian gravity case we show that the model can be understood as a modification of the Barrett-Crane spin foam model. Fermionic matter can be coupled by using the path integral with sources for the tetrads and the spin connection, and the corresponding state sum is based on a spin foam where both the edges and the faces are colored independently with the irreducible representations of the spacetime rotations group.

  4. Foam encapsulated targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuckolls, John H. (Livermore, CA); Thiessen, Albert R. (Livermore, CA); Dahlbacka, Glen H. (Livermore, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Foam encapsulated laser-fusion targets wherein a quantity of thermonuclear fuel is embedded in low density, microcellular foam which serves as an electron conduction channel for symmetrical implosion of the fuel by illumination of the target by one or more laser beams. The fuel, such as DT, is contained within a hollow shell constructed of glass, for example, with the foam having a cell size of preferably no greater than 2 .mu.m, a density of 0.065 to 0.6.times.10.sup.3 kg/m.sup.3, and external diameter of less than 200 .mu.m.

  5. In-situ and thin-specimen aging of experimental polyisocyanurate roof insulation foamed with alternative blowing agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, J.E.; Courville, G.E.; Graves, R.S.; Linkous, R.L.; McElroy, D.L.; Weaver, F.J.; Yarbrough, D.W.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports apparent thermal conductivity (k) values from field and laboratory aging tests on a set of industry-produced, experimental polyisocyanurate (PIR) laminated boardstock foamed with hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) as alternatives to chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). The PIR boards were blown with five gases: CFC-11, HCFC-123, HCFC-14lb, and 50/50 and 65/35 blends of HCFC-123/HCFC-14lb. The k-values were determined from 0 to 50{degree}C (30 to 120{degree}F) using techniques that meet ASTM C 114 (Thin Heater Apparatus) and ASTM C 518 (Heat Flow Meter Apparatus). Results on laminate boards with facers provide an independent laboratory check on the increase in k observed for field exposure in the ORNL Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (RTRA). The observed laboratory increase in k was between 8% and 11% for a 240 day field exposure in the RTRA. A thin-specimen aging procedure established the long-term thermal resistance of gas-filled foams. Thin specimens were planed from the industry-produced boardstock foams and aged at 24 and 65{degree}C (75{degree}F and 150{degree}F) for up to 300 days. An exponential dependency of k with the quantity (diffusion coefficient X time){sup {1/2}}/ thickness, provide effective diffusion coefficients for air components into the foams and blowing agent out of the foams. The foams blown with alternative blowing agents exhibited k-values 3 to 16% (average 9.4%) above CFC-11 foams under similar conditions. Field exposures were conducted on specimens under single ply EPDM membranes in the RTRA for over 400 days. Hourly averages of panel temperature and heat flux were analyzed to obtain K as a function of mean temperature on a week by week basis. The relative performance of test specimens of HCFC-14B under a black and under a white membrane is reported. 29 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Diagnosis of Fracture Flow Conditions with Acoustic Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, Roberto

    2014-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    that this turbulent flow can generate sound as fluid flows from the fracture into the well. According to Testud et al. (2009) it is widely known that industry pipe systems, valves, taps and orifices whistle when fluid flows through them. Lacombe et al. (2013... of the fluid downstream of the shear layer (Lacombe et al. 2013). During this process there is a transfer of energy from the fluid moving to vortices that create sound. Poldervaart et al. (1974) illustrated how vortices can act as an acoustic source in Fig...

  7. The Effect of Pressure Difference Control on Hydraulic Stability in a Variable Flow Air Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Z.; Fu, Y.; Chen, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyzes the effects of different pressure difference control methods on hydraulic stability in a variable flow air conditioning system when it is applied to different air conditioning water systems. According to control method and water...

  8. Rigid zeolite containing polyurethane foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, C.B.

    1984-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A closed cell rigid polyurethane foam has been prepared which contains up to about 60% by weight of molecular sieves capable of sorbing molecules with effective critical diameters of up to about 10 A. The molecular sieve component of the foam can be preloaded with catalysts or with reactive compounds that can be released upon activation of the foam to control and complete crosslinking after the foam is formed. The foam can also be loaded with water or other flame-retarding agents, after completion. Up to about 50% of the weight of the isocyanate component of the foam can be replaced by polyimide resin precursors for incorporation into the final polymeric network.

  9. Long lasting decontamination foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Demmer, Ricky L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tripp, Julia L. (Pocatello, ID); Cooper, David C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Karen E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions and methods for decontaminating surfaces are disclosed. More specifically, compositions and methods for decontamination using a composition capable of generating a long lasting foam are disclosed. Compositions may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6. Such compositions may further include affinity-shifting chemicals. Methods may include decontaminating a contaminated surface with a composition or a foam that may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6.

  10. Spatial and temporal analysis and experiments of annular two-phase flow under microgravity conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carron, Igor

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , sounding rockets, the Shuttle or the future Space Station. Under zero-g conditions the time average base state geometry of gas-liquid flow in cylindrical channels should be axisymmetric (as in vertical flow on Earth) because buoyancy does not act.../16/86. 62 23 Experimental set-up of 1987. 24 Experimental set-up of 1990. 65 66 25 Different flow conditions for the 1987 flights, from top to bottom: wavy turbulent, two bubbles touching each other or annular, wavy turbulent- laminar, slug flow. . 67...

  11. Module Development and Simulation of the Variable Refrigerant Flow Air Conditioning System under Cooling Conditions in Energyplus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Y.; Wu, J.; Wang, R.; Shiochi, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-2 Module Development and Simulation of the Variable Refrigerant Flow Air Conditioning System under Cooling Conditions in Energyplus Yanping Zhou Jingyi..., especially for those who ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-2 show some interest about high-efficiency systems like VRF, it becomes of interest to compare the VRF to other systems and evaluate VRF?s performance...

  12. On fluid flow in a heterogeneous medium under nonisothermal conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.W., Vasco

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An asymptotic technique, valid in the presence of smoothly-varying heterogeneity, provides explicit expressions for the velocity of a propagating pressure and temperature disturbance. The governing equations contain nonlinear terms due to the presence of temperature-dependent coefficients and due to the advection of fluids with differing temperatures. Two cases give well-defined expressions in terms of the parameters of the porous medium: the uncoupled propagation of a pressure disturbance and the propagation of a fully coupled temperature and pressure disturbance. The velocity of the coupled disturbance or front, depends upon the medium parameters and upon the change in temperature and pressure across the front. For uncoupled flow, the semi-analytic expression for the front velocity reduces to that associated with a linear diffusion equation. A comparison of the asymptotic travel time estimates with calculations from a numerical simulator indicates reasonably good agreement for both uncoupled and coupled disturbances.

  13. Three-Dimensional Nonreflecting Boundary Conditions for Swirling Flow in Turbomachinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giles, Mike

    Three-Dimensional Nonreflecting Boundary Conditions for Swirling Flow in Turbomachinery Pierre turbomachinery problems. Based on the use of precalculated far-field acoustic eigenmodes for a mean flow THERE are different approaches to analyze turbomachinery unsteadiness. These methods vary from the use of linearized

  14. On stability condition for bifluid flows with surface tension: Application to microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Pascal

    On stability condition for bifluid flows with surface tension: Application to microfluidics Ce simulations of microfluidic flows using a Level Set method, namely the exploration of different mixing-vol- umes; Microfluidics; Droplets 1. Introduction Analysis and algorithms derived herein are the result

  15. FLOW CONDITIONING DESIGN IN THICK LIQUID PROTECTION S.G. Durbin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    issuing downwards from nozzles of thickness (small dimension) = 1 cm into ambient air for Reynolds conditioner was studied. As the flow conditioning element immediately upstream of the nozzle inlet, fine, and that free-surface fluctuations are strongly affected by changes in flow conditioner design, even in the near

  16. Development of a flow-condition-based interpolation 9-node element for incompressible flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banijamali, Bahareh

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Navier-Stokes equations are widely used for the analysis of incompressible laminar flows. If the Reynolds number is increased to certain values, oscillations appear in the finite element solution of the Navier-Stokes ...

  17. Effect of Coal Properties and Operation Conditions on Flow Behavior of Coal Slag in Entrained Flow Gasifiers: A Brief Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang,Ping; Massoudi, Mehrdad

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is a potentially promising clean technology with an inherent advantage of low emissions, since the process removes contaminants before combustion instead of from flue gas after combustion, as in a conventional coal steam plant. In addition, IGCC has potential for cost-effective carbon dioxide capture. Availability and high capital costs are the main challenges to making IGCC technology more competitive and fully commercial. Experiences from demonstrated IGCC plants show that, in the gasification system, low availability is largely due to slag buildup in the gasifier and fouling in the syngas cooler downstream of the gasification system. In the entrained flow gasifiers used in IGCC plants, the majority of mineral matter transforms to liquid slag on the wall of the gasifier and flows out the bottom. However, a small fraction of the mineral matter (as fly ash) is entrained with the raw syngas out of the gasifier to downstream processing. This molten/sticky fly ash could cause fouling of the syngas cooler. Therefore, it is preferable to minimize the quantity of fly ash and maximize slag. In addition, the hot raw syngas is cooled to convert any entrained molten fly slag to hardened solid fly ash prior to entering the syngas cooler. To improve gasification availability through better design and operation of the gasification process, better understanding of slag behavior and characteristics of the slagging process are needed. Slagging behavior is affected by char/ash properties, gas compositions in the gasifier, the gasifier wall structure, fluid dynamics, and plant operating conditions (mainly temperature and oxygen/carbon ratio). The viscosity of the slag is used to characterize the behavior of the slag flow and is the dominating factor to determine the probability that ash particles will stick. Slag viscosity strongly depends on the temperature and chemical composition of the slag. Because coal has varying ash content and composition, different operating conditions are required to maintain the slag flow and limit problems downstream. This report briefly introduces the IGCC process, the gasification process, and the main types and operating conditions of entrained flow gasifiers used in IGCC plants. This report also discusses the effects of coal ash and slag properties on slag flow and its qualities required for the entrained flow gasifier. Finally this report will identify the key operating conditions affecting slag flow behaviors, including temperature, oxygen/coal ratio, and flux agents.

  18. Research Plan: Foam Delivery of Remedial Amendments to Deep Vadose Zone for Metals and Radionuclides Remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Lirong; Hart, Andrea T.; Szecsody, James E.; Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Ankeny, Mark; Hull, Laurence; Oostrom, Martinus; Freshley, Mark D.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2009-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Research proposals were submitted to the Scientific and Technical Basis for In Situ Treatment of Metals and Radionuclides Technical Working Group under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management Office (specifically, EM-22). After a peer review and selection process, the proposal, “Foam Delivery of Remedial Amendments to Deep Vadose Zone for Metals and Radionuclides Remediation,” submitted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was selected for support by the program. A research plan was requested for this EM funded project. The overall objective of this project is to develop foam delivery technology for the distribution of remedial amendments to deep vadose zone sediments for in situ immobilization of metal and radionuclide contaminants. The focus of this research in FY 2009 is on the physical aspects of the foam delivery approach. Specific objectives are to 1) study the foam quality (i.e. the gas volume fraction in foam) influence on injection pressure, 2) study the sediment air permeability influence on injection pressure, 3) investigate liquid uptake in sediment and determine whether a water front will be formed during foam delivery, 4) test amendment distance (and mass) delivery by foam from the injection point, 5) study the enhanced sweeping over heterogeneous systems (i.e., low K zones) by foam delivery relative to water-based delivery under vadose zone conditions, and 6) numerically simulate foam delivery processes in the vadose zone. Laboratory scale experiments will be conducted at PNNL to study a range of basic physical aspects of the foam propagation in sediments, including foam quality and sediment permeability influence on injection pressure, liquid uptake, and foam sweeping across heterogeneous systems. This study will be augmented with separate studies to be conducted at MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) to evaluate foam transport and amendment delivery at the intermediate-scale. The results of intermediate-scale tests will be used to bridge the gap between the small-scale foam transport studies and the field-scale demonstration. Numerical simulation studies on foam delivery under vadose conditions will be performed to simulate observed foam transport behavior under vadose zone conditions and predict the foam delivery performance at field-scale.

  19. Comments on Cahill's Quantum Foam Inflow Theory of Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. D. Martin

    2004-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We reveal an underlying flaw in Reginald T. Cahill's recently promoted quantum foam inflow theory of gravity. It appears to arise from a confusion of the idea of the Galilean invariance of the acceleration of an individual flow with what is obtained as an acceleration when a homogeneous flow is superposed with an inhomogeneous flow. We also point out that the General Relativistic covering theory he creates by substituting a generalized Painleve-Gullstrand metric into Einstein's field equations leads to absurd results.

  20. Fluctuating initial condition and smoothening effect on elliptic and triangular flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haque, Md Rihan; Chaudhuri, A K

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In heavy ion collisions, event-by-event fluctuations in participating nucleon positions can lead to triangular flow. Generally, one uses Monte-Carlo Glauber model to obtain the participating nucleon positions. To use in a hydrodynamic model, the positions needs to be smoothened. We study the effect of smoothening of Glauber Monte-Carlo initial conditions on elliptic and triangular flow. It is shown that integrated as well as differential elliptic and triangular flow remain largely unaltered, irrespective of functional form of the smoothening function, or the smoothening parameter

  1. Fluctuating initial condition and smoothening effect on elliptic and triangular flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Md. Rihan Haque; Victor Roy; A. K. Chaudhuri

    2012-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In heavy ion collisions, event-by-event fluctuations in participating nucleon positions can lead to triangular flow. Generally, one uses Monte-Carlo Glauber model to obtain the participating nucleon positions. To use in a hydrodynamic model, the positions needs to be smoothened. We study the effect of smoothening of Glauber Monte-Carlo initial conditions on elliptic and triangular flow. It is shown that integrated as well as differential elliptic and triangular flow remain largely unaltered, irrespective of functional form of the smoothening function, or the smoothening parameter

  2. Two-phase stratified flow regime transition analysis for low gravity conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Kathryn M.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    liquid, and dispersed bubble. This study lends well to stratified flow analysis because Taitel and Dukler [23] assumed an equilibrium stratified condition and developed transition models to the slug and annular regimes from this initial state. Also... This thesis follows the style of the A~lh~EllItlg. concentrated on low gravity conditions other than zero-g, such as moon gravity (1/6 g) or Mars gravity (1/3 g). This work concerns the development of a stratified flow regime transition model which...

  3. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi.

    1989-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  4. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed.

  5. Method of preparation of removable syntactic foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Derzon, D.K.; Nelson, J.S.; Rand, P.B.

    1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Easily removable, environmentally safe, low-density, syntactic foams are disclosed which are prepared by mixing insoluble microballoons with a solution of water and/or alcohol-soluble polymer to produce a pourable slurry, optionally vacuum filtering the slurry in varying degrees to remove unwanted solvent and solute polymer, and drying to remove residual solvent. The properties of the foams can be controlled by the concentration and physical properties of the polymer, and by the size and properties of the microballoons. The suggested solute polymers are non-toxic and soluble in environmentally safe solvents such as water or low-molecular weight alcohols. The syntactic foams produced by this process are particularly useful in those applications where ease of removability is beneficial, and could find use in packaging recoverable electronic components, in drilling and mining applications, in building trades, in art works, in the entertainment industry for special effects, in manufacturing as temporary fixtures, in agriculture as temporary supports and containers and for delivery of fertilizer, in medicine as casts and splints, as temporary thermal barriers, as temporary protective covers for fragile objects, as filters for particulate matter, which matter may be easily recovered upon exposure to a solvent, as in-situ valves (for one-time use) which go from maximum to minimum impedance when solvent flows through, and for the automatic opening or closing of spring-loaded, mechanical switches upon exposure to a solvent, among other applications. 1 fig.

  6. Method of preparation of removable syntactic foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jr., Charles (Albuquerque, NM); Derzon, Dora K. (Albuquerque, NM); Nelson, Jill S. (Albuquerque, NM); Rand, Peter B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Easily removable, environmentally safe, low-density, syntactic foams are disclosed which are prepared by mixing insoluble microballoons with a solution of water and/or alcohol-soluble polymer to produce a pourable slurry, optionally vacuum filtering the slurry in varying degrees to remove unwanted solvent and solute polymer, and drying to remove residual solvent. The properties of the foams can be controlled by the concentration and physical properties of the polymer, and by the size and properties of the microballoons. The suggested solute polymers are non-toxic and soluble in environmentally safe solvents such as water or low-molecular weight alcohols. The syntactic foams produced by this process are particularly useful in those applications where ease of removability is beneficial, and could find use in packaging recoverable electronic components, in drilling and mining applications, in building trades, in art works, in the entertainment industry for special effects, in manufacturing as temporary fixtures, in agriculture as temporary supports and containers and for delivery of fertilizer, in medicine as casts and splints, as temporary thermal barriers, as temporary protective covers for fragile objects, as filters for particulate matter, which matter may be easily recovered upon exposure to a solvent, as in-situ valves (for one-time use) which go from maximum to minimum impedance when solvent flows through, and for the automatic opening or closing of spring-loaded, mechanical switches upon exposure to a solvent, among other applications.

  7. Spherical Foams in Flat Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carl D. Modes; Randall D. Kamien

    2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Regular tesselations of space are characterized through their Schlafli symbols {p,q,r}, where each cell has regular p-gonal sides, q meeting at each vertex, and r meeting on each edge. Regular tesselations with symbols {p,3,3} all satisfy Plateau's laws for equilibrium foams. For general p, however, these regular tesselations do not embed in Euclidean space, but require a uniform background curvature. We study a class of regular foams on S^3 which, through conformal, stereographic projection to R^3 define irregular cells consistent with Plateau's laws. We analytically characterize a broad classes of bulk foam bubbles, and extend and explain recent observations on foam structure and shape distribution. Our approach also allows us to comment on foam stability by identifying a weak local maximum of A^(3/2)/V at the maximally symmetric tetrahedral bubble that participates in T2 rearrangements.

  8. Foam drilling simulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paknejad, Amir Saman

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    , ...............................................................................................................(2.25) where; =b Pressure drop across the bit Pbh = Bottom-hole pressure nn = Nozzle velocity M = Gas molecular weight mg = Mass of gas ml = Mass of liquid Heat Capacity Like any two-phase mixture, heat capacity of foam is the average... weighted heat capacity of each phase. Heat capacity of liquid-phase which is usually water, is a constant known value, however, heat capacity of gas-phase varies with temperature and pressure. Variation of gas specific heat with pressure...

  9. Artificial boundary conditions for stationary Navier-Stokes flows past bodies in the half-plane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boeckle, Christoph

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss artificial boundary conditions for stationary Navier-Stokes flows past bodies in the half-plane, for a range of low Reynolds numbers. When truncating the half-plane to a finite domain for numerical purposes, artificial boundaries appear. We present an explicit Dirichlet condition for the velocity at these boundaries in terms of an asymptotic expansion for the solution to the problem. We show a substantial increase in accuracy of the computed values for drag and lift when compared with results for traditional boundary conditions. We also analyze the qualitative behavior of the solutions in terms of the streamlines of the flow. The new boundary conditions are universal in the sense that they depend on a given body only through one constant, which can be determined in a feed-back loop as part of the solution process.

  10. Final Report: Use of Graphite Foam as a Thermal Performance Enhancement of Heavy Hybrid Propulsion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klett, James William [ORNL; Conklin, Jim [ORNL

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory's graphite foam has the potential to be used as a heat exchanger for the Army's Future Combat System Manned Ground Vehicle and thus has the potential to improve its thermal performance. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program FLOW3D was used to develop a new CFD model for the graphite foam to be used in the development of a proper heat exchanger. The program was calibrated by first measuring the properties of the solid foams and determining the parameters to be used in the CFD model. Then the model was used to predict within 5% error the performance of finned foam heat sinks. In addition, the f factors and j factors commonly used to predict pressure drop and heat transfer were calculated for both the solid and finned structures. There was some evidence that corrugating the foams would yield higher j/f ratios than state of the art heat exchangers, confirming previously measured data. Because the results show that the CFD model was validated, it is recommended that the funding for Phases 2 through 5 be approved for the design of both the finned heat exchanger using tubes and round fin structures and the solid foam design using corrugated foams. It was found that the new CFD model using FLOW3D can predict both solid foam heat transfer and finned foam heat transfer with the validated model parameters. In addition, it was found that the finned foam structures exhibited j/f ratios that indicate that significant heat transfer is occurring within the fin structures due to aerodynamically induced flow, which is not present in solid aluminum fin structures. It is possible that the foam surfaces can act as turbulators that increase heat transfer without affecting pressure drop, like the vortex generators seen in state of the art heat exchangers. These numbers indicate that the foam can be engineered into an excellent heat exchanger. It was also found that corrugating the solid foams would increase the j/f ratio dramatically, allowing the solid foams to compete directly with standard heat exchangers. Although corrugated L1 foam samples have not been produced (attempts are under way), it is possible that their j/f ratio can be even higher than those of the finned structures.

  11. CO[sub 2] flow patterns under multiphase flow: Heterogeneous field-scale conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Y.B.; Lim, M.T.; Pope, G.A.; Sepehrnoori, K. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States))

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A finite-difference, equation-of-state (EOS), compositional simulator has been used to study CO[sub 2] flooding. First, unstable first-contact-miscible (FCM) displacements were simulated with a fine mesh to investigate the transition from gravity override to viscous fingering. Next, a direct comparison was made for FCM and multiple-contact-miscible (MCM) displacements under the same conditions to investigate effects of phase behavior on the growth of viscous fingers. Then, the effects of gravity, physical dispersion, capillary pressure, phase behavior, and heterogeneity were combined and simulated for CO[sub 2] flooding on a field scale with stochastic permeability fields.

  12. IMPACT OF BOUNDARY-LAYER CUTTING AND FLOW CONDITIONING ON FREE-SURFACE BEHAVIOR IN TURBULENT LIQUID SHEETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    IMPACT OF BOUNDARY-LAYER CUTTING AND FLOW CONDITIONING ON FREE-SURFACE BEHAVIOR IN TURBULENT LIQUID dimension) = 1 cm into ambient air are compared with empirical correlations at a nearly prototypical term, for a well- conditioned jet but is not a substitute for well-designed flow conditioning. I

  13. Joint Industry/Government Research Project: Comparison of thermal aging for roof exposures and thin-specimens of experimental polyisocyanurate insulation foamed with alternative blowing agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, R.S.; Christian, J.E.; McElroy, D.L.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports apparent thermal conductivity (k) values from field exposures and laboratory aging of a set of industry-produced, experimental polyisocyanurate (PIR) laminated boardstock foamed with hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) as alternative to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The k-values were determined from 0 to 50{degree}C using techniques that meet ASTM C 1114 (Thin Heater Apparatus) and ASTM C 518 (Heat Flow Meter Apparatus). The increase in k observed for field exposure in the ORNL Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (RTRA) was confirmed by independent laboratory tests. The observed laboratory increase in k was about the same, between 17 and 22%, for all three blowing agent foams for a 450 day field exposure in the RTRA. Thin specimens were planed from the industry-produced boardstock foams and aged at 24 and 65{degree}C for up to 460 days. The foams blown with alternative blowing agents exhibited long-term k-values 7 to 15% above those for CFC foams under similar conditions. Field exposures were conducted on specimens under single ply EPDM membranes in the RTRA for over 680 days. Hourly averages of panel temperature and heat flux were analyzed to obtain k as a function of mean insulation temperature on a week-by-week basis. The k-values derived from the field data provided effective diffusion coefficients for air in the foam, which were within 7% of those obtained from the thin-specimen aging procedure at 24%C except for one sample. The relative performance of test specimens of HCFC-141b under a black and under a white membrane is reported, and data suggest that differences are relatively small. 26 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Permeability-dependent propagation of polyacrylamides under near-wellbore flow conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zitha, P.; Chauveteau, G.; Zaitoun, A. [Inst. Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of polyacrylamide flow-induced retention has been observed in core experiments simulating near-wellbore flow conditions. The retention is due to the bridging of pore throats by adsorbed macromolecules previously stretched under elongational flow. It occurs in low-to-medium permeability granular packs (up to k = 1,000 mD in the test conditions) and leads to progressive but severe plugging. The present paper shows that polymer placement in the reservoir surrounding the wellbore can be very different from what is predicted from stable values of polymer mobility. In heterogeneous reservoirs, polymer penetration in low-permeability layers is expected to be strongly reduced, thus allowing a deeper penetration into higher permeability zones. The polymer can thus improve reservoir conformance around the wellbore when injected directly through the entire opened interval. Near-wellbore polymer or gel treatments may thus not require zone isolation to be efficient.

  15. An investigation of effects of flow conditioning on straight tube Coriolis meter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shukla, Shashank

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coriolis meter, despite being very accurate in single phase conditions, fails to accurately measure two-phase flows. It poses a complex fluid-structure interaction problem in case of two-phase operation; there is a scarcity of theoretical models...

  16. MULTIPHASE FLOW SIMULATION WITH VARIOUS BOUNDARY CONDITIONS Z. CHEN, R. E. EWING, and M. ESPEDAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewing, Richard E.

    commonly used boundary conditions for groundwater hydrology and petroleum engineering problems can­ water hydrology and petroleum engineering is considered. The phase flow equations are given be incorporated into the pressure­saturation formu­ lation. INTRODUCTION In petroleum reservoir simulation

  17. Turbulent heat transfer in parallel flow boundary layers with streamwise step changes in surface conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindberg, W.R.; Lee, R.C.; Smathers, L.B. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie (United States))

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the convective heat/mass transfer behavior of a turbulent boundary layer with parallel streamlines. The most notable example of such flow is an atmospheric boundary layer with a steady mean wind in the absence of topography. The classic, two-dimensional problem involves the surface boundary condition of a finite-length step change in temperature/concentration in the streamwise direction of an atmospheric flow. In the literature on geophysical evapotranspiration, this problem is known as Sutton's problem (cf. Sutton, 1934, and Brutsaert, 1984). This flow situation is equally applicable to heat/mass transfer in solar ponds, ground solar collectors, and heated roadways, as examples. The present note revisits the Sutton problem, with the can Driest eddy diffusivity model, and expands the types of boundary conditions that are examined to include surface changes in temperature/concentration and fluxes. The parallel streamline condition allows for Graetz-type solutions, with boundary conditions at the surface and in the far flow field. The predicted results are presented as a series of power law correlations of the relevant nondimensional parameters.

  18. Coarse graining methods for spin net and spin foam models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bianca Dittrich; Frank C. Eckert; Mercedes Martin-Benito

    2011-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We undertake first steps in making a class of discrete models of quantum gravity, spin foams, accessible to a large scale analysis by numerical and computational methods. In particular, we apply Migdal-Kadanoff and Tensor Network Renormalization schemes to spin net and spin foam models based on finite Abelian groups and introduce `cutoff models' to probe the fate of gauge symmetries under various such approximated renormalization group flows. For the Tensor Network Renormalization analysis, a new Gauss constraint preserving algorithm is introduced to improve numerical stability and aid physical interpretation. We also describe the fixed point structure and establish an equivalence of certain models.

  19. Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well...

  20. Sampling Point Compliance Tests for 325 Building at Set-Back Flow Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Glissmeyer, John A.; Barnett, J. M.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The stack sampling system at the 325 Building (Radiochemical Processing Laboratory [RPL]) was constructed to comply with the American National Standards Institute’s (ANSI’s) Guide to Sampling Airborne Radioactive Materials in Nuclear Facilities (ANSI N13.1-1969). This standard provided prescriptive criteria for the location of radionuclide air-sampling systems. In 1999, the standard was revised (Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances From the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities [ANSI/Health Physics Society [HPS] 13.1-1999]) to provide performance-based criteria for the location of sampling systems. Testing was conducted for the 325 Building stack to determine whether the sampling system would meet the updated criteria for uniform air velocity and contaminant concentration in the revised ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 standard under normal operating conditions (Smith et al. 2010). Measurement results were within criteria for all tests. Additional testing and modeling was performed to determine whether the sampling system would meet criteria under set-back flow conditions. This included measurements taken from a scale model with one-third of the exhaust flow and computer modeling of the system with two-thirds of the exhaust flow. This report documents the results of the set-back flow condition measurements and modeling. Tests performed included flow angularity, uniformity of velocity, gas concentration, and particle concentration across the duct at the sampling location. Results are within ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 criteria for all tests. These tests are applicable for the 325 Building stack under set-back exhaust flow operating conditions (980 - 45,400 cubic feet per minute [cfm]) with one fan running. The modeling results show that criteria are met for all tests using a two-fan configuration exhaust (flow modeled at 104,000 cfm). Combined with the results from the earlier normal operating conditions, the ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 criteria for all tests are met for all configurations: one, two, or three fans (normal).

  1. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  2. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1997-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  3. The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At present, regulation of water flow by means of pump frequency conversion is one of the major methods for power-saving in central air conditioning systems. In this article, optimization regulation for central air conditioning system on the basis...

  4. Supercapacitors based on carbon foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaschmitter, James L. (6291 Alisal St., Pleasanton, CA 94566); Mayer, Steven T. (16026 Selborne Dr., San Leandro, CA 94578); Pekala, Richard W. (802 Cliffside Dr., Pleasant Hill, CA 94523)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc-1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m.sup.2 /g-1000 m.sup.2 /g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved.

  5. Supercapacitors based on carbon foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.

    1993-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc-1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m[sup 2]/g-1000 m[sup 2]/g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved. 9 figures.

  6. Foam shell project: Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Overturf, G.; Reibold, B.; Cook, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schroen-Carey, D. [WJSA (United States)

    1994-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report on their work to produce a foam shell target for two possible applications: (1) as liquid-layered cryogenic target on Omega Upgrade, and (2) as a back-up design for the NIF. This target consists of a roughly 1 mm diameter and 100 {mu}m thick spherical low-density foam shell surrounding a central void. The foam will be slightly overfilled with liquid D{sub 2} or DT, the overfilled excess being symmetrically distributed on the inside of the shell and supported by thermal gradient techniques. The outside of the foam is overcoated with full density polymer which must be topologically smooth. The technology for manufacturing this style of foam shell involves microencapsulation techniques and has been developed by the Japanese at ILE. Their goal is to determine whether this technology can be successfully adapted to meet US ICF objectives. To this end a program of foam shell development has been initiated at LLNL in collaboration with both the General Atomics DOE Target Fabrication Contract Corporation and the Target Fabrication Group at LLE.

  7. Metal-doped organic foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rinde, James A. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic foams having a low density and very small cell size and method for producing same in either a metal-loaded or unloaded (nonmetal loaded) form are described. Metal-doped foams are produced by soaking a polymer gel in an aqueous solution of desired metal salt, soaking the gel successively in a solvent series of decreasing polarity to remove water from the gel and replace it with a solvent of lower polarity with each successive solvent in the series being miscible with the solvents on each side and being saturated with the desired metal salt, and removing the last of the solvents from the gel to produce the desired metal-doped foam having desired density cell size, and metal loading. The unloaded or metal-doped foams can be utilized in a variety of applications requiring low density, small cell size foam. For example, rubidium-doped foam made in accordance with the invention has utility in special applications, such as in x-ray lasers.

  8. Identification of the Flow Resistance Coefficient and Validation of a Building Air Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou, Z.; Lian, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for HRC estimation is investigated in this paper. And some conclusions can be got as follows: 1) The MGO method is applicable for S value identification. The method is based on the principle for multi goal optimization. The process can be widely used...ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency, Vol. IV-11-2 Zhijian Hou Identification of the Flow Resistance Coefficient and Validation of a Building Air Conditioning System Zhiwei Lian...

  9. Inflow performance relationship curves in two-phase and three-phase flow conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sukarno, P.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research investigates inflow performance relationship IPR curves for two and three-phase flow conditions, using a one-dimensional, three-phase cylindrical reservoir simulator. Using the simulator, a new method for predicting future IPR curves was developed. IPR curves for two-phase flow conditions from a well producing from low permeability formations are also presented. The purpose of this investigation is to predict the IPR curves at pseudo-steady state conditions using flowing test data obtained during the transient period. The new equations have also been applied to data from the simulator with good agreement. Three-phase IPR curves are also determined by using the simulator, and seven different hypothetical three-phase reservoir cases were studied. Three-hundred and eighty five data points were collected using 5 different values of water cut. Regression analysis techniques were applied to the data points and the new equations for predicting the three-phase IPR curves were developed. Comparison of the new equations to results from the simulator show excellent agreement.

  10. MECHANISTIC STUDIES OF IMPROVED FOAM EOR PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William R. Rossen

    2005-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to widen the application of foam to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by investigating fundamental mechanisms of foams in porous media. This research will lay the groundwork for more applied research on foams for improved sweep efficiency in miscible gas, steam and surfactant-based EOR. Task 1 investigates the pore-scale interactions between foam bubbles and polymer molecules. Task 2 examines the mechanisms of gas trapping, and interaction between gas trapping and foam effectiveness. Task 3 investigates mechanisms of foam generation in porous media.

  11. MECHANISTIC STUDIES OF IMPROVED FOAM EOR PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William R. Rossen

    2005-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to widen the application of foam to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by investigating fundamental mechanisms of foams in porous media. This research is to lay the groundwork for more-applied research on foams for improved sweep efficiency in miscible gas, steam and surfactant-based EOR. Task 1 investigates the pore-scale interactions between foam bubbles and polymer molecules. Task 2 examines the mechanisms of gas trapping, and interaction between gas trapping and foam effectiveness. Task 3 investigates mechanisms of foam generation in porous media.

  12. Engineering the Quantum Foam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reginald T. Cahill

    2005-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1990 Alcubierre, within the General Relativity model for space-time, proposed a scenario for `warp drive' faster than light travel, in which objects would achieve such speeds by actually being stationary within a bubble of space which itself was moving through space, the idea being that the speed of the bubble was not itself limited by the speed of light. However that scenario required exotic matter to stabilise the boundary of the bubble. Here that proposal is re-examined within the context of the new modelling of space in which space is a quantum system, viz a quantum foam, with on-going classicalisation. This model has lead to the resolution of a number of longstanding problems, including a dynamical explanation for the so-called `dark matter' effect. It has also given the first evidence of quantum gravity effects, as experimental data has shown that a new dimensionless constant characterising the self-interaction of space is the fine structure constant. The studies here begin the task of examining to what extent the new spatial self-interaction dynamics can play a role in stabilising the boundary without exotic matter, and whether the boundary stabilisation dynamics can be engineered; this would amount to quantum gravity engineering.

  13. Assessment of Oxidation in Carbon Foam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Seung Min

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon foams exhibit numerous unique properties which are attractive for light weight applications such as aircraft and spacecraft as a tailorable material. Carbon foams, when exposed to air, oxidize at temperatures as low as 500-600 degrees Celsius...

  14. Buoyancy Effects on Smoldering of Polyurethane Foam 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torero, Jose L

    1992-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study has been carried out to investigate the effects of buoyancy on smoldering of polyurethane foam. The experiments are conducted with a high void fraction flexible polyurethane foam as fuel and air as ...

  15. Determination of foam stability at constant pressure in the Plateau-Biggs borders of the foam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khristov, K.I.; Exerowa, D.R.; Kurgljakov, P.M.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The lifetime of a foam column (or of a part of the column) is a parameter widely used as a characteristic of foam stability. During the destruction process, the pressure in the upper layers of the foam changes (the height H of the foam column decreases) and the lifetime of the different layers of the foam column will be different. Therefore, the lifetime of a foam column at constant pressure in the Plateau-Gibbs borders (constant along the height of the column and with time) is a much more accurate characteristic of foam stability.

  16. Carbon foam characterization tensile evaluation of carbon foam ligaments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verdugo Rodriguez, Rogelio Alberto

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    of Gibson and Ashby [5], [6]. The materials they studied were a high purity alumina with relative densities ranging from 0.09 to 0.25, an alumina-mullite (0.08-0.23) and an alumina-10% zirconia (0.08-0.19). They used scanning electron micrographs... of foam microstructure have been developed to model the foam mechanical behavior where the deformation of the bulk sample is predicted by the deformation of the unit cell. The model most widely used is that of Gibson and Ashby which is represented as a...

  17. Panelized wall system with foam core insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kosny, Jan (Oak Ridge, TN); Gaskin, Sally (Houston, TX)

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A wall system includes a plurality of wall members, the wall members having a first metal panel, a second metal panel, and an insulating core between the first panel and the second panel. At least one of the first panel and the second panel include ridge portions. The insulating core can be a foam, such as a polyurethane foam. The foam can include at least one opacifier to improve the k-factor of the foam.

  18. Pore-Scale Characterization of Biogeochemical Controls on Iron and Uranium Speciation under Flow Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearce, Carolyn I.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Zhang, Changyong; Heald, Steve M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.

    2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Etched silicon microfluidic pore network models (micromodels) with controlled chemical and redox gradients, mineralogy, and microbiology under continuous flow conditions are used for the incremental development of complex microenvironments that simulate subsurface conditions. We demonstrate the colonization of micromodel pore spaces by an anaerobic Fe(III)-reducing bacterial species (Geobacter sulfurreducens) and the enzymatic reduction of a bioavailable Fe(III) phase within this environment. Using both X-ray Microprobe and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy, we investigate the combined effects of the precipitated Fe(III) phases and the microbial population on uranium biogeochemistry under flow conditions. Precipitated Fe(III) phases within the micromodel were most effectively reduced in the presence of an electron shuttle (AQDS), and Fe(II) ions adsorbed onto the precipitated mineral surface without inducing any structural change. In the absence of Fe(III), U(VI) was effectively reduced by the microbial population to insoluble U(IV), which was precipitated in discrete regions associated with biomass. In the presence of Fe(III) phases, however, both U(IV) and U(VI) could be detected associated with biomass, suggesting re-oxidation of U(IV) by localized Fe(III) phases. These results demonstrate the importance of the spatial localization of biomass and redox active metals, and illustrate the key effects of pore-scale processes on contaminant fate and reactive transport.

  19. Foam vessel for cryogenic fluid storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spear, Jonathan D (San Francisco, CA)

    2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Cryogenic storage and separator vessels made of polyolefin foams are disclosed, as are methods of storing and separating cryogenic fluids and fluid mixtures using these vessels. In one embodiment, the polyolefin foams may be cross-linked, closed-cell polyethylene foams with a density of from about 2 pounds per cubic foot to a density of about 4 pounds per cubic foot.

  20. Process for epoxy foam production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Celina, Mathias C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An epoxy resin mixture with at least one epoxy resin of between approximately 60 wt % and 90 wt %, a maleic anhydride of between approximately 1 wt % and approximately 30 wt %, and an imidazole catalyst of less than approximately 2 wt % where the resin mixture is formed from at least one epoxy resin with a 1-30 wt % maleic anhydride compound and an imidazole catalyst at a temperature sufficient to keep the maleic anhydride compound molten, the resin mixture reacting to form a foaming resin which can then be cured at a temperature greater than 50.degree. C. to form an epoxy foam.

  1. Heat exchanger using graphite foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campagna, Michael Joseph; Callas, James John

    2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat exchanger is disclosed. The heat exchanger may have an inlet configured to receive a first fluid and an outlet configured to discharge the first fluid. The heat exchanger may further have at least one passageway configured to conduct the first fluid from the inlet to the outlet. The at least one passageway may be composed of a graphite foam and a layer of graphite material on the exterior of the graphite foam. The layer of graphite material may form at least a partial barrier between the first fluid and a second fluid external to the at least one passageway.

  2. Spacetime Foam and Dark Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Jack Ng

    2008-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to quantum fluctuations, spacetime is foamy on small scales. The degree of foaminess is found to be consistent with the holographic principle. One way to detect spacetime foam is to look for halos in the images of distant quasars. Applying the holographic foam model to cosmology we "predict" that the cosmic energy density takes on the critical value; and basing only on existing archived data on active galactic nuclei from the Hubble Space Telescope, we also "predict" the existence of dark energy which, we argue, is composed of an enormous number of inert "particles" of extremely long wavelength. We speculate that these "particles" obey infinite statistics.

  3. CPUF - a chemical-structure-based polyurethane foam decomposition and foam response model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, Thomas H. (Brigham Young University, Provo, UT); Thompson, Kyle Richard; Erickson, Kenneth L.; Dowding, Kevin J.; Clayton, Daniel (Brigham Young University, Provo, UT); Chu, Tze Yao; Hobbs, Michael L.; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus III

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Chemical-structure-based PolyUrethane Foam (CPUF) decomposition model has been developed to predict the fire-induced response of rigid, closed-cell polyurethane foam-filled systems. The model, developed for the B-61 and W-80 fireset foam, is based on a cascade of bondbreaking reactions that produce CO2. Percolation theory is used to dynamically quantify polymer fragment populations of the thermally degrading foam. The partition between condensed-phase polymer fragments and gas-phase polymer fragments (i.e. vapor-liquid split) was determined using a vapor-liquid equilibrium model. The CPUF decomposition model was implemented into the finite element (FE) heat conduction codes COYOTE and CALORE, which support chemical kinetics and enclosure radiation. Elements were removed from the computational domain when the calculated solid mass fractions within the individual finite element decrease below a set criterion. Element removal, referred to as ?element death,? creates a radiation enclosure (assumed to be non-participating) as well as a decomposition front, which separates the condensed-phase encapsulant from the gas-filled enclosure. All of the chemistry parameters as well as thermophysical properties for the CPUF model were obtained from small-scale laboratory experiments. The CPUF model was evaluated by comparing predictions to measurements. The validation experiments included several thermogravimetric experiments at pressures ranging from ambient pressure to 30 bars. Larger, component-scale experiments were also used to validate the foam response model. The effects of heat flux, bulk density, orientation, embedded components, confinement and pressure were measured and compared to model predictions. Uncertainties in the model results were evaluated using a mean value approach. The measured mass loss in the TGA experiments and the measured location of the decomposition front were within the 95% prediction limit determined using the CPUF model for all of the experiments where the decomposition gases were vented sufficiently. The CPUF model results were not as good for the partially confined radiant heat experiments where the vent area was regulated to maintain pressure. Liquefaction and flow effects, which are not considered in the CPUF model, become important when the decomposition gases are confined.

  4. Experimental analysis of the vorticity and turbulent flow dynamics of a pitching airfoil at realistic flight (helicopter) conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahoo, Dipankar

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    was improved understanding of the fundamental vorticity and turbulent flow physics for a dynamically stalling airfoil at realistic helicopter flight conditions. An experimental program was performed on a large-scale (C = 0.45 m) dynamically pitching NACA 0012...

  5. Method of making a cyanate ester foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A cyanate ester resin mixture with at least one cyanate ester resin, an isocyanate foaming resin, other co-curatives such as polyol or epoxy compounds, a surfactant, and a catalyst/water can react to form a foaming resin that can be cured at a temperature greater than 50.degree. C. to form a cyanate ester foam. The cyanate ester foam can be heated to a temperature greater than 400.degree. C. in a non-oxidative atmosphere to provide a carbonaceous char foam.

  6. Low density, microcellular foams, preparation, and articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, A.T.

    1982-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A microcellular low-density foam of poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) particularly useful for forming targets for inertial confinement fusion has been developed. Articles made from the foam have been machined to tolerances of 0.0001 inch, although the densities of the fragile foam are low (about 10 to about 100 mg/cc) and the cell sizes are small (about 10 to about 30 ..mu..m). Methods for forming the foam and articles are given. The yield strength of the foam of the invention is higher than was obtained in other structures of this same material.

  7. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air-Conditioning: Demonstrated Performance and Cost Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.; Lowenstein, A.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling loads must be dramatically reduced when designing net-zero energy buildings or other highly efficient facilities. Advances in this area have focused primarily on reducing a building's sensible cooling loads by improving the envelope, integrating properly sized daylighting systems, adding exterior solar shading devices, and reducing internal heat gains. As sensible loads decrease, however, latent loads remain relatively constant, and thus become a greater fraction of the overall cooling requirement in highly efficient building designs, particularly in humid climates. This shift toward latent cooling is a challenge for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. Traditional systems typically dehumidify by first overcooling air below the dew-point temperature and then reheating it to an appropriate supply temperature, which requires an excessive amount of energy. Another dehumidification strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove water from air more efficiently; however, these systems are large and increase fan energy consumption due to the increased airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors. A third dehumidification strategy involves high flow liquid desiccant systems. These systems require a high maintenance separator to protect the air distribution system from corrosive desiccant droplet carryover and so are more commonly used in industrial applications and rarely in commercial buildings. Both solid desiccant systems and most high-flow liquid desiccant systems (if not internally cooled) add sensible energy which must later be removed to the air stream during dehumidification, through the release of sensible heat during the sorption process.

  8. Virtual Measurement in Pipes, Part 1: Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure Under Multi-Phase Flow and Inclined Wellbore Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    SPE 30975 Virtual Measurement in Pipes, Part 1: Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure Under Multi-Phase Flow, 163245 SPEUT. Abstract Pressure drop prediction in pipes is an old petroleum engineering problem. There is a long history of attempts to develop empirical correlations to predict the pressure drop in pipes. Some

  9. Nanostructured metal foams: synthesis and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luther, Erik P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tappan, Bryce [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mueller, Alex [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mihaila, Bogdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Volz, Heather [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cardenas, Andreas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Papin, Pallas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veauthier, Jackie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stan, Marius [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication of monolithic metallic nanoporous materials is difficult using conventional methodology. Here they report a relatively simple method of synthesizing monolithic, ultralow density, nanostructured metal foams utilizing self-propagating combustion synthesis of novel metal complexes containing high nitrogen energetic ligands. Nanostructured metal foams are formed in a post flame-front dynamic assembly with densities as low as 0.011 g/cc and surface areas as high as 270 m{sup 2}/g. They have produced metal foams via this method of titanium, iron, cobalt, nickel, zirconium, copper, palladium, silver, hafnium, platinum and gold. Microstructural features vary as a function of composition and process parameters. Applications for the metal foams are discussed including hydrogen absorption in palladium foams. A model for the sorption kinetics of hydrogen in the foams is presented.

  10. Blast mitigation capabilities of aqueous foam.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, William Franklin; Larsen, Marvin Elwood; Boughton, Bruce A.

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of tests involving detonation of high explosive blanketed by aqueous foam (conducted from 1982 to 1984) are described in primarily terms of recorded peak pressure, positive phase specific impulse, and time of arrival. The investigation showed that optimal blast mitigation occurs for foams with an expansion ratio of about 60:1. Simple analyses representing the foam as a shocked single phase mixture are presented and shown inadequate. The experimental data demonstrate that foam slows down and broadens the propagated pressure disturbance relative to a shock in air. Shaped charges and flyer plates were evaluated for operation in foam and appreciable degradation was observed for the flyer plates due to drag created by the foam.

  11. Activated, coal-based carbon foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, Darren Kenneth; Plucinski, Janusz Wladyslaw

    2004-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An ablation resistant, monolithic, activated, carbon foam produced by the activation of a coal-based carbon foam through the action of carbon dioxide, ozone or some similar oxidative agent that pits and/or partially oxidizes the carbon foam skeleton, thereby significantly increasing its overall surface area and concurrently increasing its filtering ability. Such activated carbon foams are suitable for application in virtually all areas where particulate or gel form activated carbon materials have been used. Such an activated carbon foam can be fabricated, i.e. sawed, machined and otherwise shaped to fit virtually any required filtering location by simple insertion and without the need for handling the "dirty" and friable particulate activated carbon foam materials of the prior art.

  12. Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, D. S.; Dutton, Bryan C.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    oxy-fired furnaces. E-glass foams were generated in a fused-81.05.K 1. Introduction Glass foams generated in glass-that the stability of E-glass foam decreased with increasing

  13. Aqueous foam toxicology evaluation and hazard review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous foams are aggregates of bubbles mechanically generated by passing air or other gases through a net, screen, or other porous medium that is wetted by an aqueous solution of surface-active foaming agents (surfactants). Aqueous foams are important in modem fire-fighting technology, as well as for military uses for area denial and riot or crowd control. An aqueous foam is currently being developed and evaluated by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a Less-Than-Lethal Weapon for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of the aqueous foam developed for the NIJ and to determine whether there are any significant adverse health effects associated with completely immersing individuals without protective equipment in the foam. The toxicity of the aqueous foam formulation developed for NIJ is determined by evaluating the toxicity of the individual components of the foam. The foam is made from a 2--5% solution of Steol CA-330 surfactant in water generated at expansion ratios ranging from 500:1 to 1000:1. SteoI CA-330 is a 35% ammonium laureth sulfate in water and is produced by Stepan Chemical Company and containing trace amounts (<0.1%) of 1,4-dioxane. The results of this study indicate that Steol CA-330 is a non-toxic, mildly irritating, surfactant that is used extensively in the cosmetics industry for hair care and bath products. Inhalation or dermal exposure to this material in aqueous foam is not expected to produce significant irritation or systemic toxicity to exposed individuals, even after prolonged exposure. The amount of 1,4-dioxane in the surfactant, and subsequently in the foam, is negligible and therefore, the toxicity associated with dioxane exposure is not significant. In general, immersion in similar aqueous foams has not resulted in acute, immediately life-threatening effects, or chronic, long-term, non-reversible effects following exposure.

  14. Flow Components in a NaK Test Loop Designed to Simulate Conditions in a Nuclear Surface Power Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Godfroy, Thomas J. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Propulsion Research and Technology Applications Branch/ER24, MSFC, AL 35812 (United States)

    2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A test loop using NaK as the working fluid is presently in use to study material compatibility effects on various components that comprise a possible nuclear reactor design for use on the lunar surface. A DC electromagnetic (EM) pump has been designed and implemented as a means of actively controlling the NaK flow rate through the system and an EM flow sensor is employed to monitor the developed flow rate. These components allow for the matching of the flow rate conditions in test loops with those that would be found in a full-scale surface-power reactor. The design and operating characteristics of the EM pump and flow sensor are presented. In the EM pump, current is applied to a set of electrodes to produce a Lorentz body force in the fluid. A measurement of the induced voltage (back-EMF) in the flow sensor provides the means of monitoring flow rate. Both components are compact, employing high magnetic field strength neodymium magnets thermally coupled to a water-cooled housing. A vacuum gap limits the heat transferred from the high temperature NaK tube to the magnets and a magnetically-permeable material completes the magnetic circuit. The pump is designed to produce a pressure rise of 34.5 kPa, and the flow sensor's predicted output is roughly 20 mV at the loop's nominal flow rate of 0.114 m{sup 3}/hr.

  15. Process for preparing silicon carbide foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whinnery, L.L.; Nichols, M.C.; Wheeler, D.R.; Loy, D.A.

    1997-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing near net shape, monolithic, porous SiC foams is disclosed. Organosilicon precursors are used to produce polymeric gels by thermally induced phase separation, wherein, a sufficiently concentrated solution of an organosilicon polymer is cooled below its solidification temperature to form a gel. Following solvent removal from the gel, the polymer foam is pretreated in an oxygen plasma in order to raise its glass transition temperature. The pretreated foam is then pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to form a SiC foam. 9 figs.

  16. Process for preparing silicon carbide foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whinnery, LeRoy Louis (Livermore, CA); Nichols, Monte Carl (Livermore, CA); Wheeler, David Roger (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas Anson (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing near net shape, monolithic, porous SiC foams is disclosed. Organosilicon precursors are used to produce polymeric gels by thermally induced phase separation, wherein, a sufficiently concentrated solution of an organosilicon polymer is cooled below its solidification temperature to form a gel. Following solvent removal from the gel, the polymer foam is pretreated in an oxygen plasma in order to raise its glass transition temperature. The pretreated foam is then pyrolized in an inert atmosphere to form a SiC foam.

  17. Effects related to spacetime foam in astrophysics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Kirillov

    2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    On the quantum stage spacetime had the foam-like structure. When the Universe cools the foam structure temperes and therefore the Friedman model represents only the mean picture. We show that effects of the foamed structure we observe now as the Dark Matter and Dark Energy phenomena. We also show that free particles undergo a specific scattering on the foam-like structure. This explains the origin of the diffuse component of the X-ray background and gives a rather simple picture for the origin of Gamma-ray bursts.

  18. New Spin Foam Models of Quantum Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Mikovic

    2005-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a brief and a critical review of the Barret-Crane spin foam models of quantum gravity. Then we describe two new spin foam models which are obtained by direct quantization of General Relativity and do not have some of the drawbacks of the Barret-Crane models. These are the model of spin foam invariants for the embedded spin networks in loop quantum gravity and the spin foam model based on the integration of the tetrads in the path integral for the Palatini action.

  19. Effects of mesh density and flow conditioning in simulating 7-pin wire wrapped fuel pins.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J. G.; Babin, B. R.; Pointer, W. D.; Fischer, P. F. (Mathematics and Computer Science); ( NE); (Kansas State Univ.)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to the goals outlined by the U.S. Department of Energy's Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program, Argonne National Laboratory has initiated an effort to create an integrated multi-physics multi-resolution thermal hydraulic simulation tool package for the evaluation of nuclear power plant design and safety. As part of this effort, the applicability of a variety of thermal hydraulic analysis methods for the prediction of heat transfer and fluid dynamics in the wire-wrapped fuel-rod bundles found in a fast reactor core is being evaluated. The work described herein provides an initial assessment of the capabilities of the general purpose commercial computational fluid dynamics code Star-CD for the prediction of fluid dynamic characteristics in a wire wrapped fast reactor fuel assembly. A 7-pin wire wrapped fuel rod assembly based on the dimensions of fuel elements in the concept Advanced Burner Test Reactor [1] was simulated for different mesh densities and domain configurations. A model considering a single axial span of the wire wrapped fuel assembly was initially used to assess mesh resolution effects. The influence of the inflow/outflow boundary conditions on the predicted flow fields in the single-span model were then investigated through comparisons with the central span region of models which included 3 and 5 spans. The change in grid refinement had minimal impact on the inter-channel exchange within the assembly resulting in roughly a 5 percent maximum difference. The central span of the 3-span and 5-span cases exhibits much higher velocities than the single span case,, with the largest deviation (15 to 20 percent) occurring furthest away from the wire spacer grids in the higher velocity regions. However, the differences between predicted flow fields in the 3-span and 5-span models are minimal.

  20. Thermalization, Isotropization and Elliptic Flow from Nonequilibrium Initial Conditions with a Saturation Scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco Ruggieri; Francesco Scardina; Salvatore Plumari; Vincenzo Greco

    2014-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article we report on our results about the computation of the elliptic flow of the quark-gluon-plasma produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions, simulating the expansion of the fireball by solving the relativistic Boltzmann equation for the parton distribution function tuned at a fixed shear viscosity to entropy density ratio $\\eta/s$. Our main goal is to put emphasis on the role of a saturation scale in the initial gluon spectrum, which makes the initial distribution far from a thermalized one. We find that the presence of the saturation scale reduces the efficiency in building-up the elliptic flow, even if the thermalization process is quite fast $\\tau_{therm} \\approx 0.8 \\,\\rm fm/c$ and the pressure isotropization even faster $\\tau_{isotr} \\approx 0.3 \\,\\rm fm/c$. The impact of the non-equilibrium implied by the saturation scale manifests for non-central collisions and can modify the estimate of the viscosity respect to the assumption of full thermalization in $p_T$-space. We find that the estimate of $\\eta/s$ is modified from $\\eta/s \\approx 2/4\\pi$ to $\\eta/s \\approx 1/4\\pi$ at RHIC and from $\\eta/s \\approx 3/4\\pi$ to $\\eta/s \\approx 2/4\\pi$ at LHC. We complete our investigation by a study of the thermalization and isotropization times of the fireball for different initial conditions and values of $\\eta/s$ showing how the latter affects both isotropization and thermalization. Lastly, we have seen that the range of values explored by the phase-space distribution function $f$ is such that at $p_T<0.5\\, \\rm GeV$ the inner part of the fireball stays with occupation number significantly larger than unity despite the fast longitudinal expansion, which might suggest the possibility of the formation of a transient Bose-Einstein Condensate.

  1. Use of an Accurate DNS Particulate Flow Method to Supply and Validate Boundary Conditions for the MFIX Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhi-Gang Feng

    2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The simulation of particulate flows for industrial applications often requires the use of two-fluid models, where the solid particles are considered as a separate continuous phase. One of the underlining uncertainties in the use of the two-fluid models in multiphase computations comes from the boundary condition of the solid phase. Typically, the gas or liquid fluid boundary condition at a solid wall is the so called no-slip condition, which has been widely accepted to be valid for single-phase fluid dynamics provided that the Knudsen number is low. However, the boundary condition for the solid phase is not well understood. The no-slip condition at a solid boundary is not a valid assumption for the solid phase. Instead, several researchers advocate a slip condition as a more appropriate boundary condition. However, the question on the selection of an exact slip length or a slip velocity coefficient is still unanswered. Experimental or numerical simulation data are needed in order to determinate the slip boundary condition that is applicable to a two-fluid model. The goal of this project is to improve the performance and accuracy of the boundary conditions used in two-fluid models such as the MFIX code, which is frequently used in multiphase flow simulations. The specific objectives of the project are to use first principles embedded in a validated Direct Numerical Simulation particulate flow numerical program, which uses the Immersed Boundary method (DNS-IB) and the Direct Forcing scheme in order to establish, modify and validate needed energy and momentum boundary conditions for the MFIX code. To achieve these objectives, we have developed a highly efficient DNS code and conducted numerical simulations to investigate the particle-wall and particle-particle interactions in particulate flows. Most of our research findings have been reported in major conferences and archived journals, which are listed in Section 7 of this report. In this report, we will present a brief description of these results.

  2. Alloy Foam Diesel Emissions Control School Bus Implementation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alloy Foam Diesel Emissions Control School Bus Implementation Alloy Foam Diesel Emissions Control School Bus Implementation Poster presentation from the 2007 Diesel...

  3. Efficient continuous dryer for flexible polyurethane foam and cleaning apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jody, B.; Daniels, E.; Libera, J.A.

    1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of cleaning polyurethane foams where the material is transported through a wash station while alternately soaking the polyurethane foam in an organic solvent and squeezing solvent from the polyurethane foam a number of times. Then the polyurethane foam is sent through a rinse or solvent transfer station for reducing the concentration of solvent in the foam. The rinsed polyurethane foam is sent to a drying station wherein the foam is repeatedly squeezed while being exposed to hot air to remove wet air from the foam. 4 figs.

  4. Molecular dynamics simulations of oscillatory Couette flows with slip boundary conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolai V. Priezjev

    2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of interfacial slip on steady-state and time-periodic flows of monatomic liquids is investigated using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The fluid phase is confined between atomically smooth rigid walls, and the fluid flows are induced by moving one of the walls. In steady shear flows, the slip length increases almost linearly with shear rate. We found that the velocity profiles in oscillatory flows are well described by the Stokes flow solution with the slip length that depends on the local shear rate. Interestingly, the rate dependence of the slip length obtained in steady shear flows is recovered when the slip length in oscillatory flows is plotted as a function of the local shear rate magnitude. For both types of flows, the friction coefficient at the liquid-solid interface correlates well with the structure of the first fluid layer near the solid wall.

  5. Second order adaptive boundary conditions for exterior flow problems: non-symmetric stationary flows in two dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    called "artificial boundary conditions" to replace the boundary conditions at infinity. To solve this problem we construct -- by combining results from dynamical systems theory with matched asymptotic field depending explicitly on drag and lift and describing the solution to second and dominant third

  6. Development of Steel Foam Materials and Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth Kremer; Anthony Liszkiewicz; James Adkins

    2004-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past few years there has been a growing interest in lightweight metal foams. Demands for weight reduction, improved fuel efficiency, and increased passenger safety in automobiles now has manufacturers seriously considering the use of metal foams, in contrast to a few years ago, when the same materials would have been ruled out for technical or economical reasons. The objective of this program was to advance the development and use of steel foam materials, by demonstrating the advantages of these novel lightweight materials in selected generic applications. Progress was made in defining materials and process parameters; characterization of physical and mechanical properties; and fabrication and testing of generic steel foam-filled shapes with compositions from 2.5 wt.% to 0.7 wt.% carbon. A means of producing steel foam shapes with uniform long range porosity levels of 50 to 60 percent was demonstrated and verified with NDE methods. Steel foam integrated beams, cylinders and plates were mechanically tested and demonstrated advantages in bend stiffness, bend resistance, and crush energy absorption. Methods of joining by welding, adhesive bonding, and mechanical fastening were investigated. It is important to keep in mind that steel foam is a conventional material in an unconventional form. A substantial amount of physical and mechanical properties are presented throughout the report and in a properties database at the end of the report to support designer's in applying steel foam in unconventional ways.

  7. Damping of liquid sloshing by foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alban Sauret; François Boulogne; Jean Cappello; Emilie Dressaire; Howard A. Stone

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When a container is set in motion, the free surface of the liquid starts to oscillate or slosh. Such effects can be observed when a glass of water is handled carelessly and the fluid sloshes or even spills over the rims of the container. However, beer does not slosh as readily as water, which suggests that foam could be used to damp sloshing. In this work, we study experimentally the effect on sloshing of a liquid foam placed on top of a liquid bath. We generate a monodisperse two-dimensional liquid foam in a rectangular container and track the motion of the foam. The influence of the foam on the sloshing dynamics is experimentally characterized: only a few layers of bubbles are sufficient to significantly damp the oscillations. We rationalize our experimental findings with a model that describes the foam contribution to the damping coefficient through viscous dissipation on the walls of the container. Then we extend our study to confined three-dimensional liquid foam and observe that the behavior of 2D and confined 3D systems are very similar. Thus we conclude that only the bubbles close to the walls have a significant impact on the dissipation of energy. The possibility to damp liquid sloshing using foam is promising in numerous industrial applications such as the transport of liquefied gas in tankers or for propellants in rocket engines.

  8. Carbon Foam for Fuel Cell Humidification R. D. Ott, P. Kadolkar, J. W. Klett

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /min) Air in 0.17 kg/min Air out Water in Heater block (32 W/cm2) #12;Current Status of Research Previous air with water · With increased water flow rate into the foam Decreased simulated electronics temperature (heater block) Decreased outlet temperature Increased RH of outlet air 0 50 100 150 200 0 5 10 15

  9. Augmented Foam Sculpting for Capturing 3D Models Michael R. Marner Bruce H. Thomas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bruce

    Augmented Foam Sculpting for Capturing 3D Models Michael R. Marner Bruce H. Thomas University. A designer physically sculpts a 3D model from foam using a hand-held hot wire foam cut- ter. Both the foamD model from foam using a hand-held hot wire foam cutter. Both the foam and cutting tool are tracked

  10. Chemical Engineering and Processing 43 (2004) 149160 Minimum superficial gas velocity for onset of foaming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    ; Foam fractionation; Slag foaming; Glass foam 1. Introduction Semi-batch foams or pneumatic foams protein concentration [2]. In food processes or in glass melting furnaces, foam is unde- sirable since of foaming Laurent Pilona,, Raymond Viskantab a Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, University

  11. Redox and ATP control of photosynthetic cyclic electron flow in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (I) aerobic conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Redox and ATP control of photosynthetic cyclic electron flow in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (I, requires the production of ATP and NADPH in a ratio of 3:2. The oxygenic photosynthetic chain can function following two different modes: the linear electron flow which produces reducing power and ATP

  12. Groundwater flow and salt transport in a subterranean estuary2 driven by intensified wave conditions3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Candea, George

    groundwater discharge, aquifer-ocean exchange, coastal45 aquifer, numerical modeling.46 #12;1. Introduction47 A numerical study, based on a density-dependent variably saturated groundwater flow model,26 was conducted1 Groundwater flow and salt transport in a subterranean estuary2 driven by intensified wave

  13. Sensor Fish Characterization of Fish Passage Conditions through John Day Dam Spillbay 20 with a Modified Flow Deflector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, Joanne P.

    2011-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Fish passage conditions over a modified deflector in Spillbay 20 at John Day Dam were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objectives of the study were to describe and compare passage exposure conditions at two spill discharges, 2.4 and 4.0 thousand cubic feet per second (kcfs), identifying potential fish injury regions within the routes, and to evaluate a low-tailwater condition at the 2.4-kcfs discharge. The study was performed in April 2010 concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish data were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe collision and shear events; 2) differences in passage conditions between treatments; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates. Nearly all Sensor Fish significant events were classified as collisions; the most severe occurred at the gate, on the spillbay chute, or at the deflector transition. Collisions in the gate region were observed only during the 2.4-kcfs discharge, when the tainter gate was open 1.2 ft. One shear event was observed during the evaluation, occurring at the deflector transition during passage at the 2.4-kcfs discharge at low tailwater. Flow quality, computed using the Sensor Fish turbulence index, was best for passage at the low-flow low-tailwater condition as well. The worst flow quality was observed for the 4.0-kcfs test condition. Contrasting the passage exposure conditions, the 2.4-kcfs low-tailwater treatment would be most deleterious to fish survival and well-being.

  14. High temperature adhesive silicone foam composition, foam generating system and method of generating foam. [For access denial

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mead, J.W.; Montoya, O.J.; Rand, P.B.; Willan, V.O.

    1983-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Access to a space is impeded by generation of a sticky foam from a silicone polymer and a low boiling solvent such as a halogenated hydrocarbon. In a preferred aspect, the formulation is polydimethylsiloxane gel mixed with F502 Freon as a solvent and blowing agent, and pressurized with CO/sub 2/ in a vessel to about 250 PSI, whereby when the vessel is opened, a sticky and solvent resistant foam is deployed. The foam is deployable, over a wide range of temperatures, adhering to wet surfaces as well as dry, is stable over long periods of time and does not propagate flame or lose adhesive properties during an externally supported burn.

  15. Second law analysis of water flow through smooth microtubes under adiabatic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parlak, Nezaket; Guer, Mesut; Ari, Vedat; Kuecuek, Hasan; Engin, Tahsin [The University of Sakarya, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Esentepe Campus, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the study, a second law analysis for a steady-laminar flow of water in adiabatic microtubes has been conducted. Smooth microtubes with the diameters between 50 and 150 {mu}m made of fused silica were used in the experiments. Considerable temperature rises due to viscous dissipation and relatively high pressure losses of flow were observed in experiments. To identify irreversibility of flow, rate of entropy generation from the experiments have been determined in the laminar flow range of Re = 20-2200. The second law of thermodynamics was applied to predict the entropy generation. The results of model taken from the literature, proposed to predict the temperature rise caused by viscous heating, correspond well with the experimental data. The second law analysis results showed that the flow characteristics in the smooth microtubes distinguish substantially from the conventional theory for flow in the larger tubes with respect to viscous heating/dissipation (temperature rise of flow) total entropy generation rate and lost work. (author)

  16. Measurement of two-phase flow at the core upper plenum interface under simulated reflood conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, D.G.; Combs, S.K.; Bagwell, M.E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Objectives of the Instrument Development Loop program were to simulate flows at the core/upper plenum interface during the reflood phase of a LOCA and to develop instruments for measuring mass-flows at this interface. A tie plate drag body was developed and tested successfully, and the data obtained were shown to be equivalent to pressure drops. The tie-plate drag body gave useful measurements in pure downflow, and the drag/turbine combination correlates with mass flow for high upflow. (DLC)

  17. Passive Acoustic Detection of Wind Turbine In-Flow Conditions for Active Control and Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, Nathan E.

    2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Wind is a significant source of energy; however, the human capability to produce electrical energy still has many hurdles to overcome. One of these is the unpredictability of the winds in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The ABL is highly turbulent in both stable and unstable conditions (based on the vertical temperature profile) and the resulting fluctuations can have a dramatic impact on wind turbine operation. Any method by which these fluctuations could be observed, estimated, or predicted could provide a benefit to the wind energy industry as a whole. Based on the fundamental coupling of velocity fluctuations to pressure fluctuations in the nearly incompressible flow in the ABL, This work hypothesizes that a ground-based array of infrasonic pressure transducers could be employed to estimate the vertical wind profile over a height relevant for wind turbines. To analyze this hypothesis, experiments and field deployments were conducted. Wind tunnel experiments were performed for a thick turbulent boundary layer over a neutral or heated surface. Surface pressure and velocity probe measurements were acquired simultaneously. Two field deployments yielded surface pressure data from a 49 element array. The second deployment at the Reese Technology Center in Lubbock, TX, also included data from a smaller aperture, 96-element array and a 200-meter tall meteorological tower. Analysis of the data successfully demonstrated the ability to estimate the vertical velocity profile using coherence data from the pressure array. Also, dynamical systems analysis methods were successful in identifying and tracking a gust type event. In addition to the passive acoustic profiling method, this program also investigated a rapid response Doppler SODAR system, the optimization of wind turbine blades for enhanced power with reduced aeroacoustic noise production, and the implementation of a wireless health monitoring system for the wind turbine blades. Each of these other objectives was met successfully. The use of phase unwrapping applied to SODAR data was found to yield reasonable results for per-pulse measurements. A health monitoring system design analysis was able to demonstrate the ability to use a very small number of sensors to monitor blade health based on the blade's overall structural modes. Most notable was the development of a multi-objective optimization methodology that successfully yielded an aerodynamic blade design that produces greater power output with reduced aerodynamic loading noise. This optimization method could be significant for future design work.

  18. Vertical Flow Dynamics in Kelp Forests: Implications for Nutrient Uptake, Condition and Survival

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Matthew S.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    change and ENSO impacts on kelp forests. As yet, we areVertical Flow Dynamics in Kelp Forests: Implications forof ocean waves on giant kelp fronds results in the vertical

  19. Visualization of flow boiling in an annular heat exchanger under reduced gravity conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Westheimer, David Thomas

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work examines the effects of gravitational acceleration on the flow boiling process. A test facility focusing on an annular heat exchanger was designed, built out of borosilicate glass, and flown on NASA's KC-135 reduced gravity airplane...

  20. Nonlocal and localized analyses of conditional mean transient flow in bounded, randomly heterogeneous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tartakovsky, Daniel M.

    TERMS: 1829 Hydrology: Groundwater hydrology; 1869 Hydrology: Stochastic processes; 3210 Mathematical Geophysics: Modeling; 3230 Mathematical Geophysics: Numerical solutions; KEYWORDS: transient flow.1029/2003WR002099. 1. Introduction [2] Hydraulic parameters vary randomly in space and are therefore often

  1. The physical properties of microcellular composite foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyitray, A.M.; Williams, J.M.; Onn, D.; Witek, A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (USA). Applied Thermal Physics Lab.)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently we reported on a method of preparing microcellular composite foams. In this procedure an open-celled polystyrene foam is prepared by the polymerization of a high-internal-phase water-in-oil emulsion containing styrene, divinylbenzene, surfactant, free-radial initiator and water. After drying, the cells of the polystyrene foam are then filled with other materials such as aerogel or resoles. The physical properties of these materials, e.g., surface area, density, thermal conductivity, and compressive strength will be presented. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  2. Spin Foam Models from the Tetrad Integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Mikovic

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a class of spin foam models of four-dimensional quantum gravity which is based on the integration of the tetrad one-forms in the path integral for the Palatini action of General Relativity. In the Euclidian gravity case this class of models can be understood as a modification of the Barrett-Crane spin foam model. Fermionic matter can be coupled by using the path integral with sources for the tetrads and the spin connection, and the corresponding state sum is based on a spin foam where both the edges and the faces are colored independently with the irreducible representations of the spacetime rotations group.

  3. Low density inorganic foams fabricated using microwaves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.; Gregory, T.G.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of our work was to determine if high temperature foams could be made using microwave heating; and if so, to investigate some of their properties. Several foams were made and their compressive strengths, tensile strengths and densities were determined. Foams were made of glass, metal-glass, glass-fiber, metal-glass-fiber, and fly ash. The microwave source used was a Litton model 1521 microwave oven which operated at 2.45 GHz and had an output of 700 watts.

  4. Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Polyurethane Foam for Use as Cask Impact Limiter in Accidental Drop Scenarios - 12099

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasparek, Eva M.; Voelzke, Holger; Scheidemann, Robert; Zencker, Uwe [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, 12200 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rigid, closed-cell polyurethane foams are frequently used as cask impact limiters in nuclear materials and hazardous waste transport due to their high energy-absorption potential. When assessing the cask integrity in accidental scenarios based on numerical simulations, a description of the foam damping properties is required for different strain rates and for a wide temperature range with respect to waste heat generation in conjunction with critical operating and environmental conditions. Implementation and adaption of a respective finite element material model strongly relies on an appropriate experimental data base. Even though extensive impact experiments were conducted e.g. in Sandia National Laboratories, Savannah River National Laboratory and by Rolls Royce plc, not all relevant factors were taken into account. Hence, BAM who is in charge of the mechanical evaluation of such packages within the approval procedure in Germany, incorporated systematic test series into a comprehensive research project aimed to develop numerical methods for a couple of damping materials. In a first step, displacement driven compression tests have been performed on confined, cubic specimens at five loading rates ranging from 0.02 mm/s to 3 m/s at temperatures between +90 deg. C and -40 deg. C. Materials include two different polyurethane foam types called FR3718 and FR3730 having densities of 280 kg/m{sup 3} and 488 kg/m{sup 3} from the product line-up of General Plastics Manufacturing Company. Their data was used to adapt an advanced plasticity model allowing for reliably simulating cellular materials under multi-axial compression states. Therefore, an automated parameter identification procedure had been established by combining an artificial neural network with local optimization techniques. Currently, the selected numerical material input values are validated and optimized by means of more complex loading configurations with the prospect of establishing methods applicable to impact limiters under severe accidental conditions. The reference data base is provided by experiments, where weights between 212 kg and 1200 kg have been dropped from heights between 1.25 m and 7 m on confined 10 cm cubic foam specimens. By presenting the deviations between experimental values and the corresponding output of finite element simulations, the potentials and restrictions of the resulting models are highlighted. Systematic compression tests on polyurethane foams had been performed at BAM test site within the framework of a research project on impact limiters for handling casks for radioactive waste. The experimental results had been used to adapt numerical models for simulating the behaviour of different foam types at different temperatures. The loading speed, however, turned out to have a major influence on their flow curves that can not be captured by simple strain-rate dependent multipliers. Especially for guided drop tests that come close to real accidental scenarios there is a significant gap between experimental and numerical results even when applying such advanced material models. Hence, the extensive data base is currently deployed for expanding the standard algorithms to include adequate dynamic hardening factors. (authors)

  5. 23.11.2014bo Akademi Univ -Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/36 7. Air conditioning, cooling towers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    23.11.2014Ă?bo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/36 7. Air conditioning, cooling towers Ron Zevenhoven Ă?bo Akademi University Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 2/36 7.1 Humid air #12;23.11.2014 Ă?bo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow

  6. Quasi-steady model for predicting temperature of aqueous foams circulating in geothermal wellbores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackwell, B.F.; Ortega, A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A quasi-steady model has been developed for predicting the temperature profiles of aqueous foams circulating in geothermal wellbores. The model assumes steady one-dimensional incompressible flow in the wellbore; heat transfer by conduction from the geologic formation to the foam is one-dimensional radially and time-dependent. The vertical temperature distribution in the undisturbed geologic formation is assumed to be composed of two linear segments. For constant values of the convective heat-transfer coefficient, a closed-form analytical solution is obtained. It is demonstrated that the Prandtl number of aqueous foams is large (1000 to 5000); hence, a fully developed temperature profile may not exist for representative drilling applications. Existing convective heat-transfer-coefficient solutions are adapted to aqueous foams. The simplified quasi-steady model is successfully compared with a more-sophisticated finite-difference computer code. Sample temperature-profile calculations are presented for representative values of the primary parameters. For a 5000-ft wellbore with a bottom hole temperature of 375{sup 0}F, the maximum foam temperature can be as high as 300{sup 0}F.

  7. Ice stream basal conditions from block-wise surface data inversion and simple regression models of ice stream flow: Application to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyce, C. Kevin

    Ice stream basal conditions from block-wise surface data inversion and simple regression models of ice stream flow: Application to Bindschadler Ice Stream O. V. Sergienko,1 R. A. Bindschadler,2 P. L; published 4 December 2008. [1] Widespread basal conditions controlling ice stream flows are still beyond

  8. Coated foams, preparation, uses and articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duchane, D.V.; Barthell, B.L.

    1982-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrophobic cellular material is coated with a thin hydrophilic polymer skin which stretches tightly over the foam but which does not fill the cells of the foam, thus resulting in a polymer-coated foam structure having a smoothness which was not possible in the prior art. In particular, when the hydrophobic cellular material is a specially chosen hydrophobic polymer foam and is formed into arbitrarily chosen shapes prior to the coating with hydrophilic polymer, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets of arbitrary shapes can be produced by subsequently coating the shapes with metal or with any other suitable material. New articles of manufacture are produced, including improved ICF targets, improved integrated circuits, and improved solar reflectors and solar collectors. In the coating method, the cell size of the hydrophobic cellular material, the viscosity of the polymer solution used to coat, and the surface tension of the polymer solution used to coat are all very important to the coating.

  9. Math of Popping Bubbles in a Foam

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in which liquids mix or in the formation of solid foams such as those used to cushion bicycle helmets. Applying these equations, they used supercomputers at DOE's National Energy...

  10. Statistical Mechanics of Two-dimensional Foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc Durand

    2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The methods of statistical mechanics are applied to two-dimensional foams under macroscopic agitation. A new variable -- the total cell curvature -- is introduced, which plays the role of energy in conventional statistical thermodynamics. The probability distribution of the number of sides for a cell of given area is derived. This expression allows to correlate the distribution of sides ("topological disorder") to the distribution of sizes ("geometrical disorder") in a foam. The model predictions agree well with available experimental data.

  11. Evaluation of aqueous-foam surfactants for geothermal drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rand, P.B.; Montoya, O.J.

    1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous foams are potentially useful drilling and cleanout fluids for geothermal applications. Successful use of foams requires surfactants (foaming agents) that can survive in the high-temperature geothermal environment. In this study, solutions of aqueous-foam-forming surfactants have been exposed to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) and 310/sup 0/C (590/sup 0/F) in various chemical environments to determine if they can survive and make foams after exposure. Comparison of foams before and after exposure and the change in solution pH were used to evaluate their performance. Controlled liquid-volume-fraction foams, made in a packed-bed foam generator, were used for all tests. These tests have shown that many commercially available surfactants can survive short high-temperature cycles in mild acids, mild bases, and salt solutions as evidenced by their ability to make foams after exposure to high temperatures.

  12. INVESTIGATION OF PERIODIC BOUNDARY CONDITIONS IN MULTIPASSAGE CASCADE FLOWS USING OVERSET GRIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tuncer, Ismail H.

    . Computational results are presented for two and four passage, subsonic and tran­ sonic flows through a turbine and a compressor cascade. The overset grid solutions over the multi­passage periodic domains agree well in Refers to inflow exit Refers to outflow a Acoustic speed A Max. amplitude of the plunging motion c Blade

  13. Susceptibility and predictability of conditions for preferential flow Zhi Wang1 and Jan Feyen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhi "Luke"

    Institute for Land and Water Management, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Coen J. Ritsema DLO Winand Staring Centre for Integrated Land, Soil and Water Research, Wageningen, Netherlands Abstract unstable preferen- tial flow) in porous media affects the efficiency of oil recovery from a reservoir

  14. Real time monitoring of multiple wells flowing under pseudosteady state condition by using Kalman filtering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Suresh

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work develops a method for the real time monitoring of well performance by using Kalman filtering. A system of two or more wells draining the same reservoir under pseudo steady state condition is monitored simultaneously to estimate both...

  15. Numerical simulation of the flow over a coastal structure in depth-limited conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginting, Victor Eralingga

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of detailed measurements of irregular wave transformation in front of the structure in depth-limited conditions. The second data set consists of several test runs to study the irregular wave reflection and runup on the coastal structure in depth...

  16. Comparison of in-cylinder scavenging flows in a two-stroke cycle engine under motored and fired conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles, P.C.; Green, R.M.; Witze, P.O.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The in-cylinder flow field of a loop-scavenged, two-stroke engine has been characterized using laser Doppler velocimetry. The radial component of gas velocity was measured along the axis of the cylinder for both motored and fired operation. Measurements were obtained under conditions simulating both crankcase and external blower driven scavenging. Mean profiles of the radial velocity show marked differences in the global flow structure between motored and fired operation for both scavenging methods. These differences persist throughout the scavenging process and survive compression of the fresh charge. Root mean square (rms) velocity fluctuations near TDC were also determined, and significant differences between motored and fired operation are observed. The rms fluctuations are found to correlate well with the mean shear during compression.

  17. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning: General Guidance and Site Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dehumidification or latent cooling in buildings is an area of growing interest that has been identified as needing more research and improved technologies for higher performance. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems typically expend excessive energy by using overcool-and-reheat strategies to dehumidify buildings. These systems first overcool ventilation air to remove moisture and then reheat the air to meet comfort requirements. Another common strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove moisture from the air more efficiently; however, these systems increase fan energy consumption because of the high airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors and can add heat of absorption to the ventilation air. Alternatively, liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) technology provides an innovative dehumidification solution that: (1) eliminates the need for overcooling and reheating from traditional cooling systems; and (2) avoids the increased fan energy and air heating from solid desiccant rotor systems.

  18. Experiments to Populate and Validate a Processing Model for Polyurethane Foam: Additional Data for Structural Foams.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Rekha R.; Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry; Long, Kevin Nicholas; Russick, Edward M.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We are developing computational models to help understand manufacturing processes, final properties and aging of structural foam, polyurethane PMDI. Th e resulting model predictions of density and cure gradients from the manufacturing process will be used as input to foam heat transfer and mechanical models. BKC 44306 PMDI-10 and BKC 44307 PMDI-18 are the most prevalent foams used in structural parts. Experiments needed to parameterize models of the reaction kinetics and the equations of motion during the foam blowing stages were described for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 in the first of this report series (Mondy et al. 2014). BKC 44307 PMDI-18 is a new foam that will be used to make relatively dense structural supports via over packing. It uses a different catalyst than those in the BKC 44306 family of foams; hence, we expect that the reaction kineti cs models must be modified. Here we detail the experiments needed to characteriz e the reaction kinetics of BKC 44307 PMDI-18 and suggest parameters for the model based on these experiments. In additi on, the second part of this report describes data taken to provide input to the preliminary nonlinear visco elastic structural response model developed for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 foam. We show that the standard cu re schedule used by KCP does not fully cure the material, and, upon temperature elevation above 150 o C, oxidation or decomposition reactions occur that alter the composition of the foam. These findings suggest that achieving a fully cured foam part with this formulation may be not be possible through therma l curing. As such, visco elastic characterization procedures developed for curing thermosets can provide only approximate material properties, since the state of the material continuously evolves during tests.

  19. Factors Contributing to Petroleum Foaming. 2. Synthetic Crude Oil Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    to the petroleum industry. Nonaqueous foams occur in the production of and refining of crude oil. Crude oil foamsFactors Contributing to Petroleum Foaming. 2. Synthetic Crude Oil Systems Nael N. Zaki, Michael K can pose major problems for operators of gas/oil separation plants, causing a loss of crude

  20. Effect of Heating Rate on Glass Foaming: Transition to Bulk Foam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.

    2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Foaming of glass is an undesirable side effect of glass fining. According to a recent experimental study, the gas-phase volume in the melt heated at a constant rate dramatically increased with an increased rate of heating. This observation indicates that an increased rate of heating (a natural consequence of the increased processing rate experienced as a result of transition to oxy-fuel firing) may exert a substantial influence on glass foaming in advanced glass-melting furnaces. This paper attributes this effect to the change of mode of foam formation in response to an increased rate of heating.

  1. Finite element modeling of syntactic foam.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, Michael L.

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A decomposition model has been developed to predict the response of removable syntactic foam (RSF) exposed to fire-like heat fluxes. RSF consists of glass micro-balloons (GMB) in a cured epoxy polymer matrix. A chemistry model is presented based on the chemical structure of the epoxy polymer, mass transport of polymer fragments to the bulk gas, and vapor-liquid equilibrium. Thermophysical properties were estimated from measurements. A bubble nucleation, growth, and coalescence model was used to describe changes in properties with the extent of reaction. Decomposition of a strand of syntactic foam exposed to high temperatures was simulated.

  2. Spacetime Foam Model of the Schwarzschild Horizon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jarmo Makela; Ari Peltola

    2004-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a spacetime foam model of the Schwarzschild horizon, where the horizon consists of Planck size black holes. According to our model the entropy of the Schwarzschild black hole is proportional to the area of its event horizon. It is possible to express geometrical arguments to the effect that the constant of proportionality is, in natural units, equal to one quarter.

  3. Investigation of Kelvin-like solid foams for potential engineering applications: An attractive set of geometrical and thermo-hydraulic properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prashant Kumar

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Open cell foams have diverse industrial applications e.g. heat exchangers, structured reactors, filtration due to their unique properties such as high porosity and high specific surface area. In order to theoretically determine the geometric specific surface area and relationships between geometrical parameters of isotropic open cell foams, a generalized mathematical correlation was developed. For this purpose the tetrakaidecahedron geometry was used and different shapes of strut cross-sections of foam structures were taken explicitly into account. The derived correlation to predict geometrical properties can be easily extended to different strut shapes. 3-D numerical simulations at pore scale were performed to study the pressure drop characteristics and effective thermal conductivity. Fluid flow through open cell foam was performed in three different regimes: Darcy regime, transition regime and inertia regime. Importance of geometrical properties on fluid flow characteristics and their inclusion in the proposed correlations for predicting pressure drop is discussed. Can Ergun parameters have constant numerical values or not is also extensively discussed. Three different correlations were derived to predict the effective thermal conductivity for both, isotropic and anisotropic open cell foams. Geometrical parameters of foam matrix were introduced in the correlations to predict effective thermal conductivity.

  4. Bonding Low-density Nanoporous Metal Foams Using Sputtered Solder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bono, M; Cervantes, O; Akaba, C; Hamza, A; Foreman, R; Teslich, N

    2007-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method has been developed for bonding low-density nanoporous metal foam components to a substrate using solder that is sputtered onto the surfaces. Metal foams have unusual properties that make them excellent choices for many applications, and as technologies for processing these materials are evolving, their use in industry is increasing dramatically. Metal foams are lightweight and have advantageous dynamic properties, which make them excellent choices for many structural applications. They also provide good acoustic damping, low thermal conductivity, and excellent energy absorption characteristics. Therefore, these materials are commonly used in the automotive, aerospace, construction, and biomedical industries. The synthesis of nanoporous metal foams with a cell size of less then 1 {micro}m is an emerging technology that is expected to lead to widespread application of metal foams in microdevices, such as sensors and actuators. One of the challenges to manufacturing components from metal foams is that they can be difficult to attach to other structures without degrading their properties. For example, traditional liquid adhesives cannot be used because they are absorbed into foams. The problem of bonding or joining can be particularly difficult for small-scale devices made from nanoporous foam, due to the requirement for a thin bond layer. The current study addresses this problem and develops a method of soldering a nanoporous metal foam to a substrate with a bond thickness of less than 2 {micro}m. There are many applications that require micro-scale metal foams precisely bonded to substrates. This study was motivated by a physics experiment that used a laser to drive a shock wave through an aluminum foil and into a copper foam, in order to determine the speed of the shock in the copper foam. To avoid disturbing the shock, the interface between the copper foam and the aluminum substrate had to be as thin as possible. There are many other applications that could benefit from the bonding technology developed in this study, such as small-scale lightweight structural members, high-strength thermal insulating layers for electronics, and micro-scale mechanical dampers, to name but a few. Each of these applications requires one or more small metal foam components precisely bonded to a substrate. Several methods for bonding metal foam components have been developed by previous researchers. Macroscopic metal foam parts have been successfully bonded by laser welding to create T-sections and butt joints. Ultrasonic welding has been used to join aluminum sheet metal to aluminum foam for structural applications. These methods work well for bonding large foam components, but reducing these methods to a smaller length scale would be challenging. One method that has shown great potential for bonding layers of metal foams to substrates is a brazing process that uses a sputter-deposited interface material. Shirzadi et al.[9] have demonstrated bonds between stainless steel foam and a stainless steel substrate using a layer of copper-titanium filler metal that is sputtered onto the interface surfaces. The foam pieces that they bonded were approximately 10 mm in diameter and 10 mm thick with a cell size of approximately 200 {micro}m. After depositing the filler material, pressing the materials together, and heating them with an induction heater, bonds were achieved without causing significant damage to the foam. The current study also uses a sputter-deposited interface material to bond foam to a substrate. However, in contrast to previous work, the current study examines bonding microscale pieces of fragile nanoporous metal foam. In this study, a method is developed to bond a thin sheet of fragile, low-density nanoporous copper foam to an aluminum foil substrate of thickness 40 {micro}m. By sputter depositing an indium-silver alloy onto the foam and the substrate, a solder joint with a thickness of less than 2 {micro}m was achieved.

  5. Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Dutton, Bryan C.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming generated in crucible has been studied with a specific goal to understand the impact of increased water content on foaming in oxy-fired furnaces. E-glass foams were generated in a fused-quartz crucible located in a quartz window furnace equipped with video recording. The present study showed that humidity in the furnace atmosphere destabilizes foam, while other gases have little effect on foam stability. This study suggests that the higher foaming in oxy-fired furnace compared to air-fired is caused by the effect of water on early sulfate decomposition, promoting more efficient refining gas generation from sulfate (known as “dilution effect”).

  6. Military housing foam application and analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres, J. J.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia and Forest City have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), the partnership provides a unique opportunity to take technology research and development from demonstration to application in sustainable communities. This project consists of two activities conducted in Hawaii that focus on performance, integration and application of energy saving technologies. Hawaii has many energy challenges, making this location an excellent testbed for these activities. Under this project, spray foam technology was applied at military housing on Oahu and the consumption data collected. A cost benefit and operational analysis of the foam was completed. The second phase of this project included design, integration, and analysis of photovoltaic systems at a military community on Oahu. This phase of the project was conducted as part of Forest City's second Solar America Showcase Award.

  7. Dynamical Heterogeneities in Grains and Foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olivier Dauchot; Douglas J. Durian; Martin van Hecke

    2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamical heterogeneities have been introduced in the context of the glass transition of molecular liquids and the lengthscale associated with them has been argued to be at the origin of the observed quasi-universal behaviour of glassy systems. Dense amorphous packings of granular media and foams also exhibit slow dynamics, intermittency and heterogeneities. We review a number of recent experimental studies of these systems, where one has direct access to the relevant space-time dynamics, allowing for direct visualisations of the dynamical heterogeneities. On one hand these visualisations provide a unique opportunity to access the microscopic mechanisms responsible for the growth of dynamical correlations. On the other hand focussing on the differences in these heterogeneities in microscopically different systems allows to discuss the range of the analogies between molecular thermal glasses and athermal glasses such as granular media and foams. Finally this review is the opportunity to discuss various approaches to actually extract quantitatively the dynamical lengthscale from experimental data.

  8. Design of composite plastic foams for improved cushioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eskew, James Oliver

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . As shown in Appendix A, the three test foams for 28 this research are all nonlinear. Expanded polystyrene is a tangent-type material; polyurethane and polyethylene are anomalous-type materials. Tangent Type Anomalous Type U) (D U) Linear Type... group resins (polyester or polyether) . Poly- urethane foams are used frequently as cushioning materials because of their extremely resilient properties. For flexible foams, the polyols are primarily long- chain polyoxypropylene diols, with a small...

  9. ENHANCEMENT OF STRUCTURAL FOAM MATERIALS BY INCORPORATION OF GASIFIER SLAG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olin Perry Norton; Ronald A. Palmer; W. Gene Ramsey

    2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As advanced gasification technology is increasingly adopted as an energy source, disposal of the resulting slag will become a problem. We have shown that gasifier slag can be incorporated into foamed glass, which is currently being manufactured as an abrasive and as an insulating material. The slag we add to foamed glass does not simply act as filler, but improves the mechanical properties of the product. Incorporation of gasifier slag can make foamed glass stronger and more abrasion resistant.

  10. Doping of carbon foams for use in energy storage devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Morrison, R.L.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1994-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymeric foam precursor, wetted with phosphoric acid, is pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to produce an open-cell doped carbon foam, which is utilized as a lithium intercalation anode in a secondary, organic electrolyte battery. Tests were conducted in a cell containing an organic electrolyte and using lithium metal counter and reference electrodes, with the anode located there between. Results after charge and discharge cycling, for a total of 6 cycles, indicated a substantial increase in the energy storage capability of the phosphorus doped carbon foam relative to the undoped carbon foam, when used as a rechargeable lithium ion battery. 3 figs.

  11. Doping of carbon foams for use in energy storage devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Morrison, Robert L. (Modesto, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymeric foam precursor, wetted with phosphoric acid, is pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to produce an open-cell doped carbon foam, which is utilized as a lithium intercalation anode in a secondary, organic electrolyte battery. Tests were conducted in a cell containing an organic electrolyte and using lithium metal counter and reference electrodes, with the anode located therebetween. Results after charge and discharge cycling, for a total of 6 cycles, indicated a substantial increase in the energy storage capability of the phosphorus doped carbon foam relative to the undoped carbon foam, when used as a rechargeable lithium ion battery.

  12. Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites Project Officer: Dan KingGreg Stillman Total budget: 300 K April 24 , 2013 Principal Investigator: Dr. Toshifumi...

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminium foam fitted Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aluminium foam under either... -cell 6101 aluminium foam in relation to its fracture ... Source: Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit - Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary...

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous foam stabilized Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Minnesota Collection: Engineering 11 Self-Similar Collapse of Stationary Bulk Foams Tad W. Patzek Summary: review of the extensive literature on foam stability and Ostwald...

  15. Application of convolution and average pressure approximation for solving non-linear flow problems. constant pressure inner boundary condition for gas flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhakupov, Mansur

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    character of the solution), each of the existing approximate solutions does have disadvantages. The purpose of this work is to provide a solution mechanism for the case of timedependent real gas flow which contains as few "limitations" as possible...

  16. WATER-QUALITY CONDITIONS DURING LOW FLOW IN THE LOWER YOUGHIOGHENY RIVER BASIN, PENNSYLVANIA, OCTOBER 5-7, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James I. Sams, III, Karl T. Schroeder; Terry E. Ackman; J. Kent Crawford; Kim L. Otto

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In October 1998, a chemical synoptic survey was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, in the Lower Youghiogheny River Basin in Pennsylvania to give a snap-shot of present (1998) water quality during low-flow conditions. Water samples from 38 sites--12 mainstem sites, 22 tributaries, and 4 mine discharges that discharge directly to the Youghiogheny River--were used to identify sources of contaminants from mining operations. Specific conductance, water temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen were measured in the field at each site and concentrations of major ions and trace elements were measured in the laboratory. Unaccounted for gains and losses in streamflow were measured during the study. Unaccounted for losses in streamflow might be attributed to water loss through streambed fractures. Extensive mine tunnels are present in the basin and loss of water to these tunnels seems likely. Unaccounted for gains in streamflow may be from unmeasured tributaries or surface seeps, but most of the gains are suspected to come from artesian flow through fractures in the streambed from underground mine pools. Influent flows of rust-colored water were noted in some river sections. The pH values for all the samples collected during this survey were above 5.8, and most (33 of 38 samples) were above 7.0. Samples from the four mine-discharge sites also had pH values between 6.3 and 6.7. The lowest pH (5.8) was in a tributary, Galley Run. All 38 sampling sites had net alkalinity. The alkalinity load in the Youghiogheny River increased between Connellsville and McKeesport from 35 to 79 tons per day. Above Smithton, the measured alkalinity load in the Lower Youghiogheny River agreed well with the estimated alkalinity load. Below Smithton, measured alkalinity loads in the Lower Youghiogheny River are greater than calculated loads, resulting in unaccounted for gains in alkalinity. These gains are believed to be from seeps in the streambed. Approximately one-third of the load of total alkalinity in the Youghiogheny River at McKeesport is attributed to Sewickley Creek, which contributes 14 tons per day. Sulfate concentrations in the Youghiogheny River steadily increase from 33 milligrams per liter at Connellsville to 77 milligrams per liter near McKeesport. The measured concentrations of sulfate exceeded Pennsylvania water-quality standards at four tributary sites (Galley Run, Hickman Run, Sewickley Creek, and Gillespie Run) and all four mine-discharge sites but not at any main-stem sites. A large increase in sulfate load between West Newton and Sutersville can be attributed almost entirely to the contribution from Sewickley Creek (49 tons per day). Approximately 25 percent of the load measured between Connellsville and McKeesport is unaccounted for. These gains are believed to be from seeps in the streambed from underground mine pools. Similar patterns also were observed for loads of sodium, calcium, and magnesium. Unmeasured inputs from mine rainage are believed to be the source of these loads. Elevated concentrations (above background levels) of chemicals associated with drainage from coal-mining operations were measured in samples from tributaries, especially from Galley Run, Gillespie Run, and Sewickley Creek, and from the mine-discharge sites. The synoptic survey conducted for this study was successful in identifying generalized reaches of the Youghiogheny River where unaccounted for loads of constituents associated with mining activities are entering the river. However, the survey was not able to pinpoint the location of these loads. Remote-sensing techniques, such as thermal infrared imaging by the National Energy Technology Laboratory, could be useful for determining the precise locations of these inputs.

  17. Potpourri of Los Alamos National Laboratory foam efforts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, J.M.; Wilkerson, M.H.; Wrobleski, D.A.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation provides an update on microcellular foam research efforts at Los Alamos. Topics include the influence of pressure on the phase separation of poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) from organic solution, a new concept of phase diagrams, physical testing of foams, and recent emulsion polymerization results.

  18. Mechanical properties and energy absorption characteristics of a polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goods, S.H.; Neuschwanger, C.L.; Henderson, C.; Skala, D.M.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tension, compression and impact properties of a polyurethane encapsulant foam have been measured as a function of foam density. Significant differences in the behavior of the foam were observed depending on the mode of testing. Over the range of densities examined, both the modulus and the elastic collapse stress of the foam exhibited power-law dependencies with respect to density. The power-law relationship for the modulus was the same for both tension and compression testing and is explained in terms of the elastic compliance of the cellular structure of the foam using a simple geometric model. Euler buckling is used to rationalize the density dependence of the collapse stress. Neither tension nor compression testing yielded realistic measurements of energy absorption (toughness). In the former case, the energy absorption characteristics of the foam were severely limited due to the inherent lack of tensile ductility. In the latter case, the absence of a failure mechanism led to arbitrary measures of energy absorption that were not indicative of true material properties. Only impact testing revealed an intrinsic limitation in the toughness characteristics of the material with respect to foam density. The results suggest that dynamic testing should be used when assessing the shock mitigating qualities of a foam.

  19. Factors Contributing to Petroleum Foaming. 1. Crude Oil Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    of the crude oil and the type of separation scheme used, foaming problems can curtail crude oil productionFactors Contributing to Petroleum Foaming. 1. Crude Oil Systems Michael K. Poindexter,*, Nael N, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 Received August 28, 2001 Gas/oil separation can often be accompanied

  20. Sandia-Power Surety Task Force Hawaii foam analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntyre, Annie

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Secretary of Defense (OSD) Power Surety Task Force was officially created in early 2008, after nearly two years of work in demand reduction and renewable energy technologies to support the Warfighter in Theater. The OSD Power Surety Task Force is tasked with identifying efficient energy solutions that support mission requirements. Spray foam insulation demonstrations were recently expanded beyond field structures to include military housing at Ft. Belvoir. Initial results to using the foam in both applications are favorable. This project will address the remaining key questions: (1) Can this technology help to reduce utility costs for the Installation Commander? (2) Is the foam cost effective? (3) What application differences in housing affect those key metrics? The critical need for energy solutions in Hawaii and the existing relationships among Sandia, the Department of Defense (DOD), the Department of Energy (DOE), and Forest City, make this location a logical choice for a foam demonstration. This project includes application and analysis of foam to a residential duplex at the Waikulu military community on Oahu, Hawaii, as well as reference to spray foam applied to a PACOM facility and additional foamed units on Maui, conducted during this project phase. This report concludes the analysis and describes the utilization of foam insulation at military housing in Hawaii and the subsequent data gathering and analysis.

  1. Mechanical Properties of a Metal Powder-Loaded Polyurethane Foam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. L. Neuschwanger; L. L. Whinnery; S. H. Goods

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quasi-static compression tests have been performed on polyurethane foam specimens. The modulus of the foam exhibited a power-law dependence with respect to density of the form: E* {proportional_to} {rho}*{sup n}, where n = 1.7. The modulus data is well described by a simple geometric model (attributed to the work of Gibson and Ashby) for closed-cell foam in which the stiffness of the foam is governed by the flexure of the cell struts and cell walls. The compressive strength of the foam is also found to follow a power-law behavior with respect to foam density. In this instance, Euler buckling is used to rationalize the density dependence. The modulus of the polyurethane foam was modified by addition of a gas atomized, spherical aluminum powder. Additions of 30 and 50 weight percent of the powder significantly increased the foam modulus. However, there were only slight increases in modulus with 5 and 10 weight percent additions of the metal powder. Strength was also slightly increased at high loading fractions of powder. This increase in modulus and strength could be predicted by combining the above geometric model with a well-known model describing the effect on modulus of a rigid dispersoid in a compliant matrix.

  2. Mechanical Inhibition of Foam Formation via a Rotating Nozzle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ristenpart, William

    have been devel- oped to minimize the impact of foams [2]. Anti-foaming agents are added to prevent environmental disposal problems, and increase the overall process cost and complexity [3]. Non report a design for a rotating nozzle that prevents successive collocated impacts, thereby minimizing

  3. Recovery of flexible polyurethane foam from shredder residue.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniels, E. J.; Jody, b. J.

    1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a patented, continuous process for the recovery of flexible polyurethane foam (PUF) from auto shredder residue (ASR). To test the process, Argonne researchers conceived of, designed, and built a continuous foam washing and drying system that was pilot-tested at a shredder facility for six months. Economic analysis of the process, using manufacturers' quotes and operating data from Argonne's pilot plant, indicates a payback of less than two years for a plant producing about 1,000 ton/yr of foam. Samples of clean foam were shipped to three major foam reprocessors; all three indicated that the quality of the PUF recovered by the Argonne process met their requirements. Tests of the recovered foam by an independent testing laboratory showed that the recycled foam met the specifications for several automotive applications, including carpet padding, headliner, and sound-suppression support materials. Recovery of foam reduces the mass and the volume of material going to the landfill by about 5% and 30%, respectively. Annually, recovery will save about 1.2 x 10{sup 12} Btu of energy, cut the amount of solid waste being landfilled by about 150,000 tons, and eliminate the emission of about 250 tons of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the air.

  4. Foams and granular media known state of mat-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Simon

    Foams and granular media 2 known state of mat- design glasses with de- perties on an industrial n disordered ail in this review, mod- proaches to the glass ledge of advanced liq- renormalization group, FIG a broad range of lengthscales, such as atomic (top left), colloidal (top right) systems, but also in foams

  5. Carbon dioxide foam with surfactants used below their critical micelle concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhlman, M.I.; Lau, H.C.; Falls, A.H.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory results demonstrate that adsorption on sandstones is minimized and foam performance improved by reducing the ethoxylate chain length in alcohol ethoxy sulfonates and blending unethoxylated and ethoxylated sulfonates to optimize desirable properties. These properties include increased mobility reduction, more gas-oil foam formation, and enhanced surfactant transport in the oil and water, which all appear to be negatively affected by the presence of long ethoxylate chains in a surfactant. A series of experiments are used to show that laboratory adsorption measurements can only be extrapolated to reservoirs by (1) replicating the anaerobic conditions of reservoirs, (2) matching the reservoir pH in a CO{sub 2} flood and (3) differentiating authogenic minerals from drilling mud found in reservoir cores.

  6. Climatological conditions for the subpolar North Atlantic during the field campaign of the Greenland Flow Distortion Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pickart, Robert S.

    of the Greenland Flow Distortion Experiment G.W.K. Moore Department of Physics University of Toronto R.S. Pickart January 21, 2009 #12; 2 Abstract: Due to its high topography, Greenland results in significant to help document this flow distortion as part of the international research project called the Greenland

  7. Foam and gel methods for the decontamination of metallic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nunez, Luis; Kaminski, Michael Donald

    2007-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Decontamination of nuclear facilities is necessary to reduce the radiation field during normal operations and decommissioning of complex equipment. In this invention, we discuss gel and foam based diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) chemical solutions that are unique in that these solutions can be applied at room temperature; provide protection to the base metal for continued applications of the equipment; and reduce the final waste form production to one step. The HEDPA gels and foams are formulated with benign chemicals, including various solvents, such as ionic liquids and reducing and complexing agents such as hydroxamic acids, and formaldehyde sulfoxylate. Gel and foam based HEDPA processes allow for decontamination of difficult to reach surfaces that are unmanageable with traditional aqueous process methods. Also, the gel and foam components are optimized to maximize the dissolution rate and assist in the chemical transformation of the gel and foam to a stable waste form.

  8. Method of forming a foamed thermoplastic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duchane, D.V.; Cash, D.L.

    1984-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid thermoplastic polymer is immersed in an immersant solution comprising a compatible carrier solvent and an infusant solution containing an incompatible liquid blowing agent for a time sufficient for the immersant solution to infuse into the polymer. The carrier solvent is then selectively extracted, preferably by a solvent exchange process in which the immersant solution is gradually diluted with and replaced by the infusant solution, so as to selectively leave behind the infustant solution permanently entrapped in the polymer. The polymer is then heated to volatilize the blowing agent and expand the polymer into a foamed state.

  9. The effect of velocity boundary conditions on the heat transfer and flow topology in two-dimensional Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Poel, Erwin P; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of various velocity boundary condition is studied in two-dimensional Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection. Combinations of no-slip, stress-free and periodic boundary conditions are used on both the sidewalls and the horizontal plates. For the studied Rayleigh numbers Ra between $10^8$ and $10^{11}$ the heat transport is lower for $\\Gamma = 0.33$ than for $\\Gamma = 1$ in case of no-slip sidewalls. This is surprisingly opposite for stress-free sidewalls, where the heat transport increases for lower aspect-ratio. In wider cells the aspect-ratio dependence is observed to disappear for $\\text{Ra} \\ge 10^{10}$. Two distinct flow types with very different dynamics can be seen, mostly dependent on the plate velocity boundary condition, namely roll-like flow and horizontal zonal flow, which have a substantial effect on the dynamics and heat transport in the system. The predominantly horizontal zonal flow suppresses heat flux and is observed for stress-free and asymmetric plates. Low aspect-ratio periodic sidewall s...

  10. Hybrid fiber reinforced Composite Phenolic foam Amit Desai, Steven R. Nutt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    Composite Center Hybrid Composite Phenolic foams were reinforced with glass and aramid fibers in different the hybrid foams exhibited higher strength and modulus as compared to foams reinforced with only glass with only glass fibers of different length , the elastic properties of foam such as modulus and density do

  11. Pyrophoric metal-carbon foam composites and methods of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gash, Alexander E. (Brentwood, CA); Satcher, Jr., Joe H. (Patterson, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Baumann, Theodore F. (Discovery Bay, CA); Worsley, Marcus A. (Belmont, CA)

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for creating a pyrophoric material according to one embodiment includes thermally activating a carbon foam for creating micropores therein; contacting the activated carbon foam with a liquid solution comprising a metal salt for depositing metal ions in the carbon foam; and reducing the metal ions in the foam to metal particles. A pyrophoric material in yet another embodiment includes a pyrophoric metal-carbon foam composite comprising a carbon foam having micropores and mesopores and a surface area of greater than or equal to about 2000 m.sup.2/g, and metal particles in the pores of the carbon foam. Additional methods and materials are also disclosed.

  12. Bubble statistics and coarsening dynamics for quasi-two dimensional foams with increasing liquid content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. E. Roth; C. D. Jones; D. J. Durian

    2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the statistics of bubble size, topology, and shape and on their role in the coarsening dynamics for foams consisting of bubbles compressed between two parallel plates. The design of the sample cell permits control of the liquid content, through a constant pressure condition set by the height of the foam above a liquid reservoir. We find that in the scaling state, all bubble distributions are independent not only of time but also of liquid content. For coarsening, the average rate decreases with liquid content due to the blocking of gas diffusion by Plateau borders inflated with liquid. By observing the growth rate of individual bubbles, we find that von Neumann's law becomes progressively violated with increasing wetness and with decreasing bubble size. We successfully model this behavior by explicitly incorporating the border blocking effect into the von Neumann argument. Two dimensionless bubble shape parameters naturally arise, one of which is primarily responsible for the violation of von Neumann's law for foams that are not perfectly dry.

  13. Evaluation of Foaming and Antifoam Effectiveness During the WTP Oxidative Leaching Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burket, P. R.; Jones, T. M.; White, T. L.; Crawford, C. L.; Calloway, T. B

    2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct small-scale foaming and antifoam testing using a Hanford waste simulant subjected to air sparging during oxidative leaching. The foaminess of Hanford tank waste solutions was previously demonstrated by SRNL during WTP evaporator foaming studies and in small scale air sparger studies. The commercial antifoam, Dow Corning Q2-3183A was recommended to mitigate the foam in the evaporators and in vessel equipped with pulse jet mixers and air spargers. Currently, WTP is planning to use air spargers in the HLW Lag Storage Vessels (HLP-VSL-00027A/B), the Ultrafiltration Vessels (UFP-VSL-00002A&B), and the HLW Feed Blend Vessel (HLPVSL-00028) to assist the performance of the Pulse Jet Mixers (PJM). The previous air sparger antifoam studies conducted by SRNL researchers did not evaluate the hydrogen generation rate expected from antifoam additions or the effectiveness of the antifoam during caustic leaching or oxidative leaching. The fate of the various antifoam components and breakdown products in the WTP process under prototypic process conditions (temperature & radiation) was also not investigated. The effectiveness of the antifoam during caustic leaching, expected hydrogen generation rate associated with antifoam addition, and the fate of various antifoam components are being conducted under separate SRNL research tasks.

  14. Rigid polyurethane foam (RPF) technology for Countermine (Sea) Program -- Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodfin, R.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Exploratory Sensors and Munitions Dept.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Exploratory Sensors and Munitions Dept.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Phase 1 report documents the results of one of the subtasks that was initiated under the joint Department of Energy (DOE)/Department of Defense (DoD) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Countermine Warfare. The development of a foam that can neutralize mines and barriers and allow the safe passage of amphibious landing craft and vehicles was the objective of this subtask of the Sea Mine Countermeasures Technology program. This phase of the program concentrated on laboratory characterization of foam properties and field experiments with prefabricated foam blocks to determine the capability of RPF to adequately carry military traffic. It also established the flammability characteristics of the material under simulated operational conditions, extended the understanding of explosive cavity formation in RPF to include surface explosions, established the tolerance to typical military fluids, and the response to bullet impact. Many of the basic analyses required to establish the operational concept are reported. The initial field experiments were conducted at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC) of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM in November 1995 through February 1996.

  15. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion in an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.

  16. Note and calculations concerning elastic dilatancy in 2D glass-glass liquid foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    François Molino; Pierre Rognon; Cyprien Gay

    2010-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    When deformed, liquid foams tend to raise their liquid contents like immersed granular materials, a phenomenon called dilatancy. We have aready described a geometrical interpretation of elastic dilatancy in 3D foams and in very dry foams squeezed between two solid plates (2D GG foams). Here, we complement this work in the regime of less dry 2D GG foams. In particular, we highlight the relatively strong dilatancy effects expected in the regime where we have predicted rapid Plateau border variations.

  17. Proceedings of the 1993 non-fluorocarbon insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning technology workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. An elastic, plastic, viscous model for slow shear of a liquid foam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philippe Marmottant; François Graner

    2007-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We suggest a scalar model for deformation and flow of an amorphous material such as a foam or an emulsion. To describe elastic, plastic and viscous behaviours, we use three scalar variables: elastic deformation, plastic deformation rate and total deformation rate; and three material specific parameters: shear modulus, yield deformation and viscosity. We obtain equations valid for different types of deformations and flows slower than the relaxation rate towards mechanical equilibrium. In particular, they are valid both in transient or steady flow regimes, even at large elastic deformation. We discuss why viscosity can be relevant even in this slow shear (often called "quasi-static") limit. Predictions of the storage and loss moduli agree with the experimental literature, and explain with simple arguments the non-linear large amplitude trends.

  19. Innovative Technologies to Manufacture Hybrid Metal Foam/Composite Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrino, L.; Durante, M.; Franchitti, S. [DIMP, University of Naples 'Federico II', P.le Tecchio, 80-80125 Naples (Italy); Sorrentino, L.; Tersigni, L. [DII, University of Cassino, Via G. Di Biasio, 43-03043 Cassino (Italy)

    2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this paper is to verify the technological feasibility to realize hybrid metal-foam/composite component and the mechanical performances of the final structure. The hybrid component is composed by a cylindrical core in aluminum foam, the most used between those commercially available, and an outer layer in epoxy/S2-glass, manufactured by filament winding technology.A set of experimental tests have been carried out, to the aim to estimate the improvement of the hybrid component characteristics, compared to the sum of the single components (metal foam cylinder and epoxy/S2-glass tube).

  20. Electrochemical study of multi-electrode microbial fuel cells under fed-batch and continuous flow conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electrochemical study of multi-electrode microbial fuel cells under fed-batch and continuous flow November 2013 Available online 18 December 2013 Keywords: Multi-electrode Microbial fuel cells Hydraulic connected microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was compared with the reactors operated using individual electrical

  1. Investigating the changes in matrix and fracture properties and fluid flow under different stress-state conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muralidharan, Vivek

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    pressure of 500 psi................................................................33 3.16 The average flow rate comparison between laboratory and simulation results at 5 cc/min and each different overburden pressure.............................35... .........................................................................................................87 xiii FIGURE Pa ge 5.28 Sample scans taken along the length of the core with 500 psi overburden pressure...

  2. Method for making thin carbon foam electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Morrison, Robert L. (Modesto, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for fabricating thin, flat carbon electrodes by infiltrating highly porous carbon papers, membranes, felts, metal fibers/powders, or fabrics with an appropriate carbon foam precursor material. The infiltrated carbon paper, for example, is then cured to form a gel-saturated carbon paper, which is subsequently dried and pyrolyzed to form a thin sheet of porous carbon. The material readily stays flat and flexible during curing and pyrolyzing to form thin sheets. Precursor materials include polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polymethylacrylonitrile (PMAN), resorcinol/formaldehyde, catechol/formaldehyde, phenol/formaldehyde, etc., or mixtures thereof. These thin films are ideal for use as high power and energy electrodes in batteries, capacitors, and fuel cells, and are potentially useful for capacitive deionization, filtration and catalysis.

  3. Method for fabricating composite carbon foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy.

  4. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid partides being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy.

  5. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1999-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  6. Method for making thin carbon foam electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pekala, R.W.; Mayer, S.T.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Morrison, R.L.

    1999-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for fabricating thin, flat carbon electrodes by infiltrating highly porous carbon papers, membranes, felts, metal fibers/powders, or fabrics with an appropriate carbon foam precursor material is disclosed. The infiltrated carbon paper, for example, is then cured to form a gel-saturated carbon paper, which is subsequently dried and pyrolyzed to form a thin sheet of porous carbon. The material readily stays flat and flexible during curing and pyrolyzing to form thin sheets. Precursor materials include polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polymethylacrylonitrile (PMAN), resorcinol/formaldehyde, catechol/formaldehyde, phenol/formaldehyde, etc., or mixtures thereof. These thin films are ideal for use as high power and energy electrodes in batteries, capacitors, and fuel cells, and are potentially useful for capacitive deionization, filtration and catalysis.

  7. Note and calculations concerning elastic dilatancy in 2D glassglass liquid foams Francois Molino, Pierre Rognon, and Cyprien Gay #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recanati, Catherine

    Note and calculations concerning elastic dilatancy in 2D glass­glass liquid foams Fran�cois Molino: October 30, 2010) When deformed, liquid foams tend to raise their liquid contents like immersed granular dilatancy in 3D foams and in very dry foams squeezed between two solid plates (2D GG foams). Here, we

  8. A three-dimensional numerical model of predevelopment conditions in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Agnese, F.A.; O'Brien, G.M.; Faunt, C.C.; Belcher, W.R.; San Juan, Carma

    2002-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In the early 1990's, two numerical models of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system were developed by the U.S. Department of Energy. In general, the two models were based on the same basic hydrogeologic data set. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy requested that the U.S. Geological Survey develop and maintain a ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region in support of U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of developing this ''second-generation'' regional model was to enhance the knowledge and understanding of the ground-water flow system as new information and tools are developed. The U.S. Geological Survey also was encouraged by the U.S. Department of Energy to cooperate to the fullest extent with other Federal, State, and local entities in the region to take advantage of the benefits of their knowledge and expertise. The short-term objective of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system project was to develop a steady-stat e representation of the predevelopment conditions of the ground-water flow system utilizing the two geologic interpretations used to develop the previous numerical models. The long-term objective of this project was to construct and calibrate a transient model that simulates the ground-water conditions of the study area over the historical record that utilizes a newly interpreted hydrogeologic conceptual model. This report describes the result of the predevelopment steady-state model construction and calibration.

  9. Spectroscopic diagnosis of foam z-pinch plasmas on SATURN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash, T.J.; Derzon, M.S.; Allshouse, G.; Deeney, C.; Jobe, D.; McGurn, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacFarlane, J.J.; Wang, P. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States)

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid and annular silicon aerogel and agar foams were shot on the accelerator SATURN to study plasma initiation, acceleration, and stagnation. SATURN delivers 7 MA with a 50 nsec rise time to these foam loads. We fielded several spectroscopic diagnostics to measure plasma parameters throughout the z-pinch discharge. A spatially resolved single frame time-gated EUV spectrometer measured the extent of plasma ablation off the surface foam. A time integrated crystal spectrometer showed that characteristic K shell radiation of silicon in the aerogel and of S and Na impurities in the agar were all attenuated when the foam loads were coated with a conductive layer of gold. The time resolved pinhole camera showed that in general the quality of the pinch implosions was poor but improved with increasing efforts to improve current continuity such as prepulse and conductive coatings.

  10. Graphite Foams for Lithium-Ion Battery Current Collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Tiegs, Terry N [ORNL; Kiggans, Jim [ORNL; Jang, Young-Il [ORNL; Klett, James William [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphite open-cell foams, with their very high electronic and thermal conductivities, may serve as high surface area and corrosion resistant current collectors for lithium-ion batteries. As a proof of principle, cathodes were prepared by sintering carbon-coated LiFePO4 particles into the porous graphite foams. Cycling these cathodes in a liquid electrolyte cell showed promising performance even for materials and coatings that have not been optimized. The specific capacity is not limited by the foam structure, but by the cycling performance of the coated LiFePO4 particles. Upon extended cycling for more than 100 deep cycles, no loss of capacity is observed for rates of C/2 or less. The uncoated graphite foams will slowly intercalate lithium reversibly at potentials less than 0.2 volts versus lithium.

  11. Spectroscopic diagnosis of foam z-pinch plasmas on SATURN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash, T.J.; Derzon, M.S.; Allshouse, G.; Deeney, C.; Jobe, D.; Seaman, J.; Gilliland, T.; McGurn, J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1193 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1193 (United States); MacFarlane, J.J.; Wang, P. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)] [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid and annular silicon aerogel and agar foams were imploded on the SATURN accelerator to study plasma initiation, acceleration, and stagnation. SATURN delivers 7 MA with a 50 ns rise time to these foam loads. We fielded several spectroscopic diagnostics to measure plasma parameters throughout the z-pinch discharge. A spatially resolved single frame time-gated extreme ultraviolet spectrometer measured the extent of plasma ablation off the surface of the foam. A time integrated crystal spectrometer showed that characteristic K shell radiation of silicon in the aerogel and of sulfur and sodium impurities in the agar were attenuated when the foam loads were coated with a conductive layer of gold. A time-resolved pinhole camera showed that in general the quality of the pinch implosions was poor but improved with increasing efforts to improve current continuity such as prepulse and conductive coatings. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Assessment of the application of acoustic emission technology for monitoring the presence of sand under multiphase flow condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Alej, M., E-mail: m.elalej@cranfield.ac.uk; Mba, D., E-mail: m.elalej@cranfield.ac.uk; Yeung, H., E-mail: m.elalej@cranfield.ac.uk [School of Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 OAL (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The monitoring of multiphase flow is an established process that has spanned several decades. This paper demonstrates the use of acoustic emission (AE) technology to investigate sand transport characteristic in three-phase (air-water-sand) flow in a horizontal pipe where the superficial gas velocity (VSG) had a range of between 0.2 ms{sup ?1} to 2.0 ms{sup ?1} and superficial liquid velocity (VSL) had a range of between 0.2 ms{sup ?1} to 1.0 ms{sup ?1}. The experimental findings clearly show a correlation exists between AE energy levels, sand concentration, superficial gas velocity (VSG) and superficial liquid velocity (VSL)

  13. Fluid dynamics of rivulet flow between plates W. Drenckhan, H. Ritacco, A. Saint-Jalmes, A. Saugey, P. McGuinness, A. van der Net, D. Langevin, and D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    spaced, vertical glass plates. Such a "rivulet" is bounded by two liquid/solid and two mobile liquid/gas interfaces, posing fluid dynamic problems of direct relevance to local fluid flow in liquid foams/liquid or liquid/gas interfaces, as found in foams and emulsions, which respond to flow by adjusting their shape

  14. Method of making metal-doped organic foam products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rinde, James A. (Livermore, CA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic foams having a low density and very small cell size and method for roducing same in either a metal-loaded or unloaded (nonmetal loaded) form are described. Metal-doped foams are produced by soaking a polymer gel in an aqueous solution of desired metal salt, soaking the gel successively in a solvent series of decreasing polarity to remove water from the gel and replace it with a solvent of lower polarity with each successive solvent in the series being miscible with the solvents on each side and being saturated with the desired metal salt, and removing the last of the solvents from the gel to produce the desired metal-doped foam having desired density cell size, and metal loading. The unloaded or metal-doped foams can be utilized in a variety of applications requiring low density, small cell size foam. For example, rubidium-doped foam made in accordance with the invention has utility in special applications, such as in x-ray lasers.

  15. A computational study of ultrasonic film thickness measurements in annular two-phase flows under microgravity conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pautz, Shawn Daniel

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    wave equation: 11 V p(x, t) ? z z' = S(x, t), o p(x, t) c'(x) cl' (2. 1) where p(x, t) is the sound pressure, c(x) is the sound speed of propagation, and S(x, t) is a time-dependent source. Equation (2. 1) is derived from conservation laws... of level liquid film with epoxy layer, 2D approximation . . . . . 55 4. 13 Return signal of level liquid film with epoxy layer, 2D approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 5. 1 Maximum return amplitude vs. interfacial slope for smooth annular flow...

  16. 129 Iodine: A New Hydrologic Tracer for Aquifer Recharge Conditions Influenced by River Flow Rate and Evapotranspiration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwehr, K. A.; Santschi, P. H.; Moran, J. E.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    analogy to chloride ? Long term database Chloride: Analogy for Iodide y = 5.27x -0.32 R 2 = 0.53 R = 0.73 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 SARPD Monthly Flow m 3 s -1 S ARP D [ C l - ] m e q / L Monthly values INSET: Annual median values.... GW y = 0.46x + 1.27 R 2 = 0.96 -2 -1 0 1 2 -3 -2 -1 0 log [Cl - GW ] or log [Cl - SARPD ] meq/L lo g [ C l - PP T ] m e q/ L ...

  17. Simulation of steady-state and transient sodium boiling experiments in a seven-pin bundle under flow rundown conditions by using BODYFIT-1FE code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, B.C.J.; Sha, W.T.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A seven-pin rod bundle under flow rundown conditions was simulated by using the computer code BODYFIT-1FE (BOunDarY-FITted Coordinate System - 1 phase, Fully-Elliptic). In this code, the complicated rod bundle configuration is first transformed into rectangular geometry with uniform meshes. The transformed governing equations for all the thermal-hydraulic variables are then solved. The results of the simulation are presented here. All the predicted values agree favorably with the measured data. 7 refs., 20 figs.

  18. Sufficient condition for a finite-time singularity in a high-symmetry Euler flow: Analysis and statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    City, Iowa 52242 Received 20 March 1995 A sufficient condition is obtained for the development that for fixed total energy, pxxxx is predominantly positive with the average value growing with the numbers spontaneously, dissipa- tion intervenes, and the dynamical balance between the two processes determines

  19. Phase and foam behavior study of CO{sub 2}-based foams at reservoir temperature and pressure. Final report, August 20, 1990--July 15, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whiting, W.B.; Lim, K.H.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major objective of the Enhanced Oil Recovery Program at Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is to develop technologies based on CO{sub 2}, foams, emulsions, or other fluid dispersions that will alleviate viscous fingering and mobility control problems that severely limit the production of oil by miscible CO{sub 2}, flooding. In this project, data on the phase behavior of a model surfactant/water system were generated both to help in modeling work for phase behavior and dispersion morphologies and to provide an efficient experimental methodology for determination of these data from flow calorimetric measurements. The project consists of two separate but compatible subtasks, the results of which are described in detail in the two parts of the main body of this report.

  20. Alkali corrosion resistant coatings and ceramic foams having superfine open cell structure and method of processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Jr., Jesse J. (Christiansburg, VA); Hirschfeld, Deidre A. (Elliston, VA); Li, Tingkai (Blacksburg, VA)

    1993-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkali corrosion resistant coatings and ceramic foams having superfine open cell structure are created using sol-gel processes. The processes have particular application in creating calcium magnesium zirconium phosphate, CMZP, coatings and foams.

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced lost foam Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    H. Thomas Summary: Augmented Foam Sculpting for Capturing 3D Models Michael R. Marner Bruce H. Thomas University... . A designer physically sculpts a 3D model from foam using a...

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminum foam core Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    core Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: aluminum foam core Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 The FORMGRIP Process: Foaming of Reinforced...

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous foam toxicology Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Collection: Materials Science 13 Self-Similar Collapse of Stationary Bulk Foams Tad W. Patzek Summary: Figure 6. Wet foam pregenerated from a 0.4 wt. Vo aqueous solution...

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - acid foams implanted Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SUPRI-A Group Collection: Fossil Fuels 24 Self-Similar Collapse of Stationary Bulk Foams Tad W. Patzek Summary: Self-Similar Collapse of Stationary Bulk Foams Tad W. Patzek Dept....

  5. Control of Vapor Dispersion and Pool Fire of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) with Expansion Foam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun, Geun Woong

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    , this study aimed to obtain key parameters, such as the temperature changes of methane and foam and the extent reduction of vapor concentration. This study also focused on identifying the effectiveness of foam and thermal exclusion zone by investigating...

  6. Strain localization and cyclic damage of polyurethane foam cylinders: experimental tests and theoretical model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Strain localization and cyclic damage of polyurethane foam cylinders: experimental tests subject to progressive damage. The chain of springs models the strain localization, and the second series qualitative agreement with the experiments. Keywords: polyurethane foams; strain localization; cyclic damage

  7. The Effect of Moisture Absorption on the Physical Properties of Polyurethane Shape Memory Polymer Foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Ya-Jen

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of moisture absorption on the glass transition temperature (Tg) and stress/strain behavior of network polyurethane shape memory polymer (SMP) foams has been investigated. With our ultimate goal of engineering polyurethane SMP foams...

  8. Redox reaction and foaming in nuclear waste glass melting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, J.L.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and is an attempt to analyze and estimate the effects of feed composition variables and reducing agent variables on the expected chemistry of reactions occurring in the cold cap and in the glass melt in the nuclear waste glass Slurry-fed, joule-heated melters as they might affect foaming during the glass-making process. Numerous redox reactions of waste glass components and potential feed additives, and the effects of other feed variables on these reactions are reviewed with regard to their potential effect on glass foaming. A major emphasis of this report is to examine the potential positive or negative aspects of adjusting feed with formic acid as opposed to other feed modification techniques including but not limited to use of other reducing agents. Feed modification techniques other than the use of reductants that should influence foaming behavior include control of glass melter feed pH through use of nitric acid. They also include partial replacement of sodium salts by lithium salts. This latter action (b) apparently lowers glass viscosity and raises surface tension. This replacement should decrease foaming by decreasing foam stability.

  9. Carbon or graphite foam as a heating element and system thereof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ott, Ronald D. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; McMillan, April D. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Choudhury, Ashok (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2004-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature regulator includes at least one electrically conductive carbon foam element. The foam element includes at least two locations adapted for receiving electrical connectors thereto for heating a fluid, such as engine oil. A combustion engine includes an engine block and at least one carbon foam element, the foam element extending into the engine block or disposed in thermal contact with at least one engine fluid.

  10. Foaming of E-Glass II (Report for G Plus Project for PPG)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    PNNL-15394 Foaming of E-Glass II (Report for G Plus Project for PPG) D.-S. Kim M. Portch J. Matyas Foaming of E-Glass II (Report for G Plus Project for PPG) D.-S. Kim M. Portch J. Matyas P. R. Hrma Pacific of glass batch chemical composition on E-glass foaming. The present study also included reruns of foam

  11. HPC realization of a controlled turbulent round jet using OpenFOAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Önder, Asim

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present paper investigates high performance computing abilities of OpenFOAM for a low Reynolds number ($Re_D=2000$) axisymmetric jet subject to multiple zero net mass flux (ZNMF) actuators. First, parallel performance of OpenFOAM is tested by performing a scaling study up to $2048$ processors on a supercomputer of Flemish Supercomputer Center(VSC). Then, a method to improve the parallel efficiency is proposed. The method is based on developing a hybrid concept to calculate the statistical moments. This new concept combines ensemble and time averaging in order to allow data sampling in parallel. The motivation is obtaining a reduction in the walltime to collect turbulent statistics which is observed to be the dominating part in the ZNMF controlled jet flow. Employing this parallel statistical averaging approach in combination with regular grid partitioning parallelism, allowed us conducting DNS cases on $P=624$ processors with an overall speed-up of $S_e=540.56$ and a parallel efficiency of $E_e=0.87$. The...

  12. OPTIMISATION OF EXTRUDED POLYMER FOAM BY THE RESIDENT TIME DISTRIBUTION APPROACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to simulate the twin-screw extruder[1] to [11] . In this paper, we have studied the processing of polystyrene foam by extrusion in a single screw extruder coupled with a gear pump. The basic principle of foamingOPTIMISATION OF EXTRUDED POLYMER FOAM BY THE RESIDENT TIME DISTRIBUTION APPROACH Frédéric Leonardi

  13. Foam Control using a Fluidized Bed of Hydrophobic Particles by Clara Mata*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Daniel D.

    distillation and Delay-Coker reactors. However, foaming and defoaming are not yet understood. Foams trap gas in oil reservoirs, insulation, construction and refining processes such as Vacuum distillation and Delay gas fraction than the bubbly mixture from which it comes. The high gas hold-up in foams is undesirable

  14. Composites: Part B 44 (2013) 584591 584 Tensile Properties of Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Multiscale Syntactic Foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Nikhil

    The mechanical behavior of hollow glass microballoon-epoxy matrix syntactic foams reinforced with carbon compositions of syntactic foams, epoxy resins filled with glass microballoons are widely studied due to the extensive use of epoxy resins in aerospace applications [5-7]. Studies on these glass/epoxy syntactic foams

  15. 1Cellular Polymers, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2007 On the Bulk Modulus of Open Cell Foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lakes, Roderic

    Hydrostaticcompressionoffoamisofinterestinavarietyofcontextsincluding under-sea applications. Syntactic foam, for instance, consists of hollow glass1Cellular Polymers, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2007 On the Bulk Modulus of Open Cell Foams © Rapra Technology, 2007 On the Bulk Modulus of Open Cell Foams B. Moore, T. Jaglinski, D.S. Stone§ and R.S. Lakes

  16. Glass foams: formation, transport properties, and heat, mass, and radiation transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    Glass foams: formation, transport properties, and heat, mass, and radiation transfer Andrei G depend, to a large extent, on foams formed on the surface of the molten glass and of the batch due models for thermophysical and transport properties and heat, mass, and radiation transfer in glass foams

  17. Sedimenting discs in a two-dimensional foam I. T. Davies, S. J. Cox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Simon

    -dimensional foams can be thought of as a monolayer of bubbles squeezed between two glass plates. We choose to probeSedimenting discs in a two-dimensional foam I. T. Davies, S. J. Cox Institute of Mathematics in a dry two-dimensional, monodisperse foam is studied. This, a variation of the classical Stokes

  18. Foaming of E-Glass (Report for G Plus Project for PPG)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    PNNL-14625 Foaming of E-Glass (Report for G Plus Project for PPG) D. Kim P.. Hrma Pacific Northwest This document was printed on recycled paper. (8/00) #12;PNNL-14625 Foaming of E-Glass (Report for G Plus Project atmosphere on E-glass foaming, specifically focused on its water content to understand the effect of oxy

  19. Experimental characterization and numerical simulations of a syntactic-foam/glass-bre composite sandwich

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corigliano, Alberto

    Experimental characterization and numerical simulations of a syntactic-foam/glass-®bre composite core. Such core consists of a syntactic foam made by hollow glass microspheres embedded in an epoxy. Keywords: A. Glass ®bre; Composite sandwich; Syntactic foam; Mechanical tests; Numerical simulations (FE) 1

  20. Plateau border bulimia transition: discontinuities expected in three simple experiments on 2D liquid foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    be observable. II. 2D GLASS-GLASS FOAM GEOMETRICAL VADEMECUM In the present section, we shall provide a geometri- cal description and some corresponding results for two- dimensional foams squeezed between two glass liquid foams Pierre Rognon, Fran¸cois Molino, and Cyprien Gay Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, CNRS, UPR

  1. Plateau border bulimia transition: discontinuities expected in three simple experiments on 2D liquid foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recanati, Catherine

    be observable. II. 2D GLASS-GLASS FOAM GEOMETRICAL VADEMECUM In the present section, we shall provide a geometri- cal description and some corresponding results for two- dimensional foams squeezed between two glass liquid foams Pierre Rognon, Fran#24;cois Molino, and Cyprien Gay #3; Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal

  2. Method for epoxy foam production using a liquid anhydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Celina, Mathias (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An epoxy resin mixture with at least one epoxy resin of between approximately 50 wt % and 100 wt %, an anhydride cure agent of between approximately 0 wt % and approximately 50 wt %, a tert-butoxycarbonyl anhydride foaming agent of between proximately 0.1-20 wt %, a surfactant and an imidazole or similar catalyst of less than approximately 2 wt %, where the resin mixture is formed from at least one epoxy resin with a 1-10 wt % tert-butoxycarbonyl anhydride compound and an imidazole catalyst at a temperature sufficient to keep the resin in a suitable viscosity range, the resin mixture reacting to form a foaming resin which in the presence of an epoxy curative can then be cured at a temperature greater than 50.degree. C. to form an epoxy foam.

  3. Parabolic-Dish Solar Concentrators of Film on Foam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barton, Sean A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Parabolic and spherical mirrors are constructed of aluminized PET polyester film on urethane foam. During construction, the chosen shape of the mirror is created by manipulating the elastic/plastic behavior of the film with air pressure. Foam is then applied to the film and, once hardened, air pressure is removed. At an f-number of 0.68, preliminary models have an optical angular spread of less than 0.25 degrees, a factor of 3.3 smaller than that for a perfectly spherical mirror. The possibility exists for creating large-lightweight mirrors with excellent shape and stiffness. These "film-on-foam" construction techniques may also be applicable to parabolic-trough solar concentrators but do not appear to be suitable for optical imaging applications because of irregularities in the film.

  4. Ultra-low density microcellular polymer foam and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, R.F.; Brown, J.D.

    1996-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultra-low density, microcellular open-celled polymer foam and a method for making such foam are disclosed. A polymer is dissolved in a heated solution consisting essentially of at least one solvent for the dissolution of the polymer in the heated solution and the phase inversion of the dissolved polymer to a liquid gel upon sufficient cooling of the heated solution. The heated solution is contained in a containment means provided with a nucleating promoting means having a relatively rough surface formed of fixed nucleating sites. The heated solution is cooled for a period of time sufficient to form a liquid gel of the polymer by phase inversion. From the gel, a porous foam having a density of less than about 12.0 mg/cm{sup 3} and open porosity provided by well interconnected strut morphology is formed.

  5. Surfactant Based Enhanced Oil Recovery and Foam Mobility Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. A combination of two surfactants was found to be particularly effective for application in carbonate formations at low temperature. A formulation has been designed for a particular field application. The addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. The design of the process to maximize the region of ultra-low IFT is more challenging since the ratio of soap to synthetic surfactant is a parameter in the conditions for optimal salinity. Compositional simulation of the displacement process demonstrates the interdependence of the various components for oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluated to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs. UTCHEM is a reservoir simulator specially designed for surfactant EOR. It has been modified to represent the effects of a change in wettability. Simulated case studies demonstrate the effects of wettability.

  6. Method for providing a low density high strength polyurethane foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whinnery, Jr., Leroy L.; Goods, Steven H.; Skala, Dawn M.; Henderson, Craig C.; Keifer, Patrick N.

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method for making a polyurethane closed-cell foam material exhibiting a bulk density below 4 lbs/ft.sup.3 and high strength. The present embodiment uses the reaction product of a modified MDI and a sucrose/glycerine based polyether polyol resin wherein a small measured quantity of the polyol resin is "pre-reacted" with a larger quantity of the isocyanate in a defined ratio such that when the necessary remaining quantity of the polyol resin is added to the "pre-reacted" resin together with a tertiary amine catalyst and water as a blowing agent, the polymerization proceeds slowly enough to provide a stable foam body.

  7. Electrical conductivity of dispersions: from dry foams to dilute suspensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Feitosa; S. Marze; A. Saint-Jalmes; D. J. Durian

    2005-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We present new data for the electrical conductivity of foams in which the liquid fraction ranges from two to eighty percent. We compare with a comprehensive collection of prior data, and we model all results with simple empirical formul\\ae. We achieve a unified description that applies equally to dry foams and emulsions, where the droplets are highly compressed, as well as to dilute suspensions of spherical particles, where the particle separation is large. In the former limit, Lemlich's result is recovered; in the latter limit, Maxwell's result is recovered.

  8. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for two-phase flow in the vicinity of the repository in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Undisturbed conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HELTON,JON CRAIG; BEAN,J.E.; ECONOMY,K.; GARNER,J.W.; MACKINNON,ROBERT J.; MILLER,JOEL D.; SCHREIBER,JAMES D.; VAUGHN,PALMER

    2000-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results obtained in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant are presented for two-phase flow the vicinity of the repository under undisturbed conditions. Techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, examination of scatterplots, stepwise regression analysis, partial correlation analysis and rank transformation are used to investigate brine inflow, gas generation repository pressure, brine saturation and brine and gas outflow. Of the variables under study, repository pressure is potentially the most important due to its influence on spallings and direct brine releases, with the uncertainty in its value being dominated by the extent to which the microbial degradation of cellulose takes place, the rate at which the corrosion of steel takes place, and the amount of brine that drains from the surrounding disturbed rock zone into the repository.

  9. Thermal-fluid and electrochemical modeling and performance study of a planar solid oxide electrolysis cell : analysis on SOEC resistances, size, and inlet flow conditions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yildiz, B.; Smith, J.; Sofu, T.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory and Idaho National Laboratory researchers are analyzing the electrochemical and thermal-fluid behavior of solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) for high temperature steam electrolysis using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. The major challenges facing commercialization of steam electrolysis technology are related to efficiency, cost, and durability of the SOECs. The goal of this effort is to guide the design and optimization of performance for high temperature electrolysis (HTE) systems. An SOEC module developed by FLUENT Inc. as part of their general CFD code was used for the SOEC analysis by INL. ANL has developed an independent SOEC model that combines the governing electrochemical mechanisms based on first principals to the heat transfer and fluid dynamics in the operation of SOECs. The ANL model was embedded into the commercial STAR-CD CFD software, and is being used for the analysis of SOECs by ANL. The FY06 analysis performed by ANL and reported here covered the influence of electrochemical properties, SOEC component resistances and their contributing factors, SOEC size and inlet flow conditions, and SOEC flow configurations on the efficiency and expected durability of these systems. Some of the important findings from the ANL analysis are: (1) Increasing the inlet mass flux while going to larger cells can be a compromise to overcome increasing thermal and current density gradients while increasing the cell size. This approach could be beneficial for the economics of the SOECs; (2) The presence of excess hydrogen at the SOEC inlet to avoid Ni degradation can result in a sizeable decrease in the process efficiency; (3) A parallel-flow geometry for SOEC operation (if such a thing be achieved without sealing problems) yields smaller temperature gradients and current density gradients across the cell, which is favorable for the durability of the cells; (4) Contact resistances can significantly influence the total cell resistance and cell temperatures over a large range of operating potentials. Thus it is important to identify and avoid SOEC stack conditions leading to such high resistances due to poor contacts.

  10. Development of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor for Air Pollution Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Development of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor for Air Pollution Control Eunsung Kan, Marc A. Deshusses: 10.1002/bit.10767 Abstract: A new type of bioreactor for air pollution con- trol has been developed. The new process relies on an organic-phase emulsion and actively growing pollutant- degrading

  11. Holographic study of conventional and negative Poisson's ratio metallic foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lakes, Roderic

    . Inhomogeneous, non-affine deformation was observed holographically in both foam materials. Introduction in this series were determined from displacement measurements of high magnification video tapes of the tensile a very useful and reliable tool to determine the Poisson's ratio of orthotropic FRP (Fiber Reinforced

  12. PRODUCTION OF FOAMS, FIBERS AND PITCHES USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Pete G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed processes for converting coal feedstocks to carbon products, including coal-derived pitch, coke foams and fibers based on solvent extraction processes. A key technology is the use of hydrogenation accomplished at elevated temperatures and pressures to obtain a synthetic coal pitch. Hydrogenation, or partial direct liquefaction of coal, is used to modify the properties of raw coal such that a molten synthetic pitch can be obtained. The amount of hydrogen required to produce a synthetic pitch is about an order of magnitude less than the amount required to produce synthetic crude oil. Hence the conditions for synthetic pitch production consume very little hydrogen and can be accomplished at substantially lower pressure. In the molten state, hot filtration or centrifugation can be used to separate dissolved coal chemicals from mineral matter and insolubles (inertinite), resulting in the production of a purified hydrocarbon pitch. Alternatively, if hydrogenation is not used, aromatic hydrocarbon liquids appropriate for use as precursors to carbon products can obtained by dissolving coal in a solvent. As in the case for partial direct liquefaction pitches, undissolved coal is removed via hot filtration or centrifugation. Excess solvent is boiled off and recovered. The resultant solid material, referred to as Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore or SECO, has been used successfully to produce artificial graphite and carbon foam.

  13. Surfactant Based Enhanced Oil Recovery and Foam Mobility Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller

    2006-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. A mixture of two surfactants was found to be particularly effective for application in carbonate formations at low temperature. The mixture is single phase for higher salinity or calcium concentrations than that for either surfactant used alone. This makes it possible to inject the surfactant slug with polymer close to optimal conditions and yet be single phase. A formulation has been designed for a particular field application. It uses partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide for mobility control. The addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of naphthenic soap and significant reduction of synthetic surfactant adsorption. The design of the process to maximize the region of ultra-low IFT takes advantage of the observation that the ratio of soap to synthetic surfactant is a parameter in the conditions for optimal salinity. Even for a fixed ratio of soap to surfactant, the range of salinity for low IFT was wider than that reported for surfactant systems in the literature. Low temperature, forced displacement experiments in dolomite and silica sandpacks demonstrate that greater than 95% recovery of the waterflood remaining oil is possible with 0.2% surfactant concentration, 0.5 PV surfactant slug, with no alcohol. Compositional simulation of the displacement process demonstrates the role of soap/surfactant ratio on passage of the profile through the ultralow IFT region, the importance of a wide salinity range of low IFT, and the importance of the viscosity of the surfactant slug. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluated to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs as well as a drive fluid for ASP flooding. UTCHEM is a reservoir simulator specially designed for surfactant EOR. It has been modified to represent the effects of a change in wettability produced by surfactant injection.

  14. FLOW CONDITIONING DESIGN IN TURBULENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /L) · Free surface = interface between fluorescing (bright) water and (dark) air · Image obliquely with B-Injection Fusion Energy) #12;3 Motivation · Effective protection Minimize clearance between edge of liquid sheet) at FWHM · Positioning controlled by two linear stages · Water seeded with TiO2 particles (typical dia. 0

  15. Note and calculations concerning elastic dilatancy in 2D glass-glass liquid foams Francois Molino, Pierre Rognon, and Cyprien Gay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Note and calculations concerning elastic dilatancy in 2D glass-glass liquid foams Fran¸cois Molino 30, 2010) When deformed, liquid foams tend to raise their liquid contents like immersed granular dilatancy in 3D foams and in very dry foams squeezed between two solid plates (2D GG foams). Here, we

  16. Current initiation in low-density foam z-pinch plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derzon, M.; Nash, T.; Allshouse, G. [and others

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low density agar and aerogel foams were tested as z-pinch loads on the SATURN accelerator. In these first experiments, we studied the initial plasma conditions by measuring the visible emission at early times with a framing camera and 1-D imaging. At later time, near the stagnation when the plasma is hotter, x-ray imaging and spectral diagnostics were used to characterize the plasma. Filamentation and arcing at the current contacts was observed. None of the implosions were uniform along the z-axis. The prime causes of these problems are believed to be the electrode contacts and the current return configuration and these are solvable. Periodic phenomena consistent with the formation of instabilities were observed on one shot, not on others, implying that there may be a way of controlling instabilities in the pinch. Many of the issues involving current initiation may be solvable. Solutions are discussed.

  17. Environmental Conditions Environmental Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Environmental Conditions Environmental Conditions Appendix II The unique geology, hydrology and instream habitat. This chapter examines how environmental conditions in the Deschutes watershed affect, the discussion characterizes the environmental conditions within three watershed areas: the Lower Deschutes

  18. CO/sub 2/ foam flooding performance vs. rock wettability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lescure, B.M.; Claridge, E.L.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO/sub 2/ flooding projects have shown large potential for oil recovery, but in many cases the volumetric sweep efficiency is greatly limited by gravity tonguing and/or viscous fingering. To reduce these effects foam could be used as an alternative to WAG CO/sub 2/ injection. Experiments on the CO/sub 2/ foam process were conducted in a 1/4 5-spot reservoir model in order to investigate the effect of rock wetting state and total CO/sub 2/ slug size on secondary and tertiary extra-oil recovery. Laboratory model results show that the process is more successful in an oil-wet medium than in a water-wet medium due to larger surfactant adsorption in the water-wet medium. Also, requirements for optimal CO/sub 2/ slug size are smaller than in the WAG process, with larger extra oil recovery for both secondary and tertiary floods.

  19. Effects of quantum space time foam in the neutrino sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus; H. Päs; U. Sarkar

    2000-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss violations of CPT and quantum mechanics due to interactions of neutrinos with space-time quantum foam. Neutrinoless double beta decay and oscillations of neutrinos from astrophysical sources (supernovae, active galactic nuclei) are analysed. It is found that the propagation distance is the crucial quantity entering any bounds on EHNS parameters. Thus, while the bounds from neutrinoless double beta decay are not significant, the data of the supernova 1987a imply a bound being several orders of magnitude more stringent than the ones known from the literature. Even more stringent limits may be obtained from the investigation of neutrino oscillations from active galactic nuclei sources, which have an impressive potential for the search of quantum foam interactions in the neutrino sector.

  20. Carbon foam characterization: sandwich flexure, tensile and shear response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarzynski, Melanie Diane

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    pitches. More recently, new manufacturing developments have been made at Oakridge National Laboratory (ORNL) [4,5]. Changes in the manufacturing process have led to enhancement of certain thermal properties, and are leading the way to use of carbon foam.... As the material becomes more available to industry, the list of potential applications will continue to grow; however, there are some promising potential applications currently under development. ORNL is currently investigating and applying the unique thermal...

  1. Problems associated with the use of urea-formaldehyde foam for residential insulation. Part II. The effects of temperature and humidity on free formaldehyde, extractable formaldehyde, formaldehyde emission, and physical characteristics of the foam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schutte, W.C.; Cole, R.S.; Frank, C.W.; Long, K.R.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of testing with two products of urea-formaldehyde based foams are described. Results of three products have previously been reported. Methods for detection and quantitative determination of formaldehyde, design of the experimental chambers, and the procedures are described. Samples of Product D were monitored for about 29 days and samples of Product E were monitored for 60 days in chambers and results are tabulated for formaldehyde emission. Additional tests performed on the two products are: extractable formaldehyde (high and low temperature conditions); free formaldehyde (high and low temperature conditions); comparison of free formaldehyde concentration; density (high and low temperature conditions); shrinkage (high and low temperature conditions). Control panels were constructed to simulate a wall in a home and observations were made and compared with results of the experimental products.

  2. Low-density hydrocarbon foams for laser fusion targets: Progress report, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haendler, B.L.; Buckley, S.R.; Chen, C.; Cook, A.R.; Cook, R.C.; Hair, L.M.; Kong, F.M.; Kramer, H.D.; Letts, S.A.; Overturf, G.E. III

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes progress made in the development of direct-drive hydrocarbon foam targets for laser inertial confinement fusion during 1987. The foam materials are polystyrene, resorcinol-formaldehyde, carbonized resorcinol-formaldehyde, and cellulose acetate. The processes for making the foams, their properties, characterization techniques, and the relationship of their properties to target specifications are presented. Progress in the creation and testing of prototype targets is also described.

  3. Explosively driven low-density foams and powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viecelli, James A. (Orinda, CA); Wood, Lowell L. (Simi Valley, CA); Ishikawa, Muriel Y. (Livermore, CA); Nuckolls, John H. (Danville, CA); Pagoria, Phillip F. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Hollow RX-08HD cylindrical charges were loaded with boron and PTFE, in the form of low-bulk density powders or powders dispersed in a rigid foam matrix. Each charge was initiated by a Comp B booster at one end, producing a detonation wave propagating down the length of the cylinder, crushing the foam or bulk powder and collapsing the void spaces. The PdV work done in crushing the material heated it to high temperatures, expelling it in a high velocity fluid jet. In the case of boron particles supported in foam, framing camera photos, temperature measurements, and aluminum witness plates suggest that the boron was completely vaporized by the crush wave and that the boron vapor turbulently mixed with and burned in the surrounding air. In the case of PTFE powder, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of residues recovered from fragments of a granite target slab suggest that heating was sufficient to dissociate the PTFE to carbon vapor and molecular fluorine which reacted with the quartz and aluminum silicates in the granite to form aluminum oxide and mineral fluoride compounds.

  4. Microsoft Word - NETL-TRS-2-2013_Foamed Cement_20140124.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultimately, this research will provide industry the knowledge to ensure long-term well integrity and safe operation of wells in which foamed cements are used. Computed...

  5. Thermal Characterization of Graphitic Carbon Foams for Use in Thermal Storage Applications.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drummond, Kevin P.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? Highly conductive graphitic foams are currently being studied for use as thermal conductivity enhancers (TCEs) in thermal energy storage (TES) systems. TES systems store… (more)

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminium foam manufacturing Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science and Metallurgy, Composites and Coatings Group Collection: Materials Science 5 Fracture and microstructure of open-cell aluminium foam1 Summary: 47 Chapter 5 Fracture and...

  7. Pitch-based carbon foam heat sink with phase change material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing a carbon foam heat sink is disclosed which obviates the need for conventional oxidative stabilization. The process employs mesophase or isotropic pitch and a simplified process using a single mold. The foam has a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts. The foam material can be made into a composite which is useful in high temperature sandwich panels for both thermal and structural applications. The foam is encased and filled with a phase change material to provide a very efficient heat sink device.

  8. Pitch-based carbon foam heat sink with phase change material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing a carbon foam heat sink is disclosed which obviates the need for conventional oxidative stabilization. The process employs mesophase or isotropic pitch and a simplified process using a single mold. The foam has a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts. The foam material can be made into a composite which is useful in high temperature sandwich panels for both thermal and structural applications. The foam is encased and filled with a phase change material to provide a very efficient heat sink device.

  9. Synthesis of Mesocellular Silica Foams with Tunable Window and Cell Dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong

    Polystyrene microspheres coated with cationic surfactants are easily prepared by micro- emulsion templates. These silica foams resemble dense aerogels. Introduction Because of their greatly enhanced pore

  10. The use of coated micropowders to reduce radiation heat transfer in foam insulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marge, Arlene Lanciani

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polyurethane foam is the most effective insulation currently available for buildings. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) blowing agents, which have low thermal conductivities, contribute highly to the effectiveness of this insulation. ...

  11. Shock compression of low-density foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, N.C.

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Shock compression of very low density micro-cellular materials allows entirely new regimes of hot fluid states to be investigated experimentally. Using a two-stage light-gas gun to generate strong shocks, temperatures of several eV are readily achieved at densities of roughly 0.5--1 g/cm{sup 3} in large, uniform volumes. The conditions in these hot, expanded fluids are readily found using the Hugoniot jump conditions. We will briefly describe the basic methodology for sample preparation and experimental measurement of shock velocities. We present data for several materials over a range of initial densities. This paper will explore the applications of these methods for investigations of equations of state and phase diagrams, spectroscopy, and plasma physics. Finally, we discus the need for future work on these and related low-density materials.

  12. Low volume flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meixler, Lewis D. (East Windsor, NJ)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The low flow monitor provides a means for determining if a fluid flow meets a minimum threshold level of flow. The low flow monitor operates with a minimum of intrusion by the flow detection device into the flow. The electrical portion of the monitor is externally located with respect to the fluid stream which allows for repairs to the monitor without disrupting the flow. The electronics provide for the adjustment of the threshold level to meet the required conditions. The apparatus can be modified to provide an upper limit to the flow monitor by providing for a parallel electronic circuit which provides for a bracketing of the desired flow rate.

  13. A moving overset grid method for interface dynamics applied to non-Newtonian HeleShaw flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelley, Michael

    of boundary conditions. Ă? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Consider two parallel glass with complex liquids such as liquid crystals [7,8], polymer solutions and melts [39,40], clays [12], and foams

  14. Numerical analysis of hypersonic continuum and rarefied gas flows near blunt probes is presented under conditions of intensive gas blowing from the surface.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riabov, Vladimir V.

    1 Abstract Numerical analysis of hypersonic continuum and rarefied gas flows near blunt probes injection, hydrogen combustion, hypersonic flow, exponential box-scheme, direct-simulation Monte-Carlo method. 1 Introduction Numerical and experimental studies [1, 2] of aerothermodynamics of hypersonic

  15. Geophysical Monitoring of Foam used to Deliver Remediation Treatments within the Vadose Zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yuxin; Hubbard, Susan; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Foam is a promising vehicle for delivering amendments into the vadose zone for in situ remediation; it is an approach being considered for in situ treatment and stabilization of metals and radionuclides located within the deep vadose zone of the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site, WA. A central aspect of evaluating the effectiveness of this approach is the ability to monitor foam distribution, its transformation, and the reactions that it induces in the subsurface, ideally in a non-invasive manner. In this study, we performed laboratory experiments to evaluate the potential of geophysical methods (complex resistivity and time domain reflectometry, TDR) as tools for monitoring foam assisted amendment delivery in the deep vadose zone. Our results indicated great sensitivity of electrical methods to foam transportation and evolution in unsaturated porous media that were related to foam bubble coalescence and drainage processes. Specifically, we observed (1) a decrease of electrical resistivity (increase of electrical conductivity) by over an order of magnitude in both silica sand and natural sediment matrices during foam transportation; (2) an increase of resistivity (decrease of conductivity) by over two fold during foam coalescence and drainage; (3) a distinct phase and imaginary conductivity signature related to the evolution of water films on sediment grains during foam injection and evolution processes. To assist with the interpretation of these data, TDR measurements were used to monitor moisture content, which provided complementary information about foam distribution and drainage. Our results clearly demonstrated the sensitivity of electrical and TDR signals to foam transportation and evolution in unsaturated porous media and suggested the potential of these methods for monitoring the response of a system to foam based remediation treatments at field scales.

  16. Foaming of E-Glass II (Report for G Plus Project for PPG)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Portch, Matthew P.; Matyas, Josef; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent

    2005-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In a previous study, the effect of the furnace atmosphere on E glass foaming was investigated with the specific goal to understand the impact of increased water content on foaming in oxy-fired furnaces. The present study extended the previous study and focused on the effect of glass batch chemical composition on E-glass foaming. The present study also included reruns of foam tests performed in a previous study, which resulted in the same trend: the foaming extent increased nearly linearly with the heating rate and no foam was produced when CO2 + 55% H2O atmosphere was introduced at 300°C. It was shown that the lack of foaming in the test with CO2 + 55% H2O atmosphere introduced at 300°C was caused by a loss of sulfate at T <1250°C because of higher water content at the early stages of melting. The tests with new batches in the present study showed that replacing quicklime with limestone tend to decrease foaming, possibly caused by increased sulfate loss during early stages of melting in the batch with limestone. The batches where Na2SO4 was replaced with NaNO3, NaNO3 + CeO2, or CeO2, produced only very limited foaming regardless of the replacing components. As expected, the foaming extent increased as the sulfate content in the batch increased. The results of the present study suggest that foaming can be reduced by using limestone over quicklime and by decreasing the sulfate addition to a minimum required for refining.

  17. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Robert M. (320 S. Wilson Ave., Bozeman, MT 59715)

    1999-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under fill pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  18. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Robert M. (320 S. Wilson Ave., Bozeman, MT 59715)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under full pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  19. Effects of surfactants on the microstructure of porous ceramic scaffolds fabricated by foaming for bone tissue engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Xi, E-mail: nano-sun@hotmail.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Lushan Road South, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Ruan Jianming [State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Chen Qiyuan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Lushan Road South, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

    2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A porous scaffold comprising a {beta}-tricalcium phosphate matrix and bioactive glass powders was fabricated by foaming method and the effects of surfactants as foaming agent on microstructure of scaffolds were investigated. Foaming capacity and foam stability of different surfactants in water firstly were carried out to evaluate their foam properties. The porous structure and pore size distribution of the scaffolds were systematically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and an optical microscopy connected to an image analyzer. The results showed that the foam stability of surfactant has more remarkable influence on their microstructure such as pore shape, size and interconnectivity than the foaming ability of one. Porous scaffolds fabricated using nonionic surfactant Tween 80 with large foam stability exhibited higher open and total porosities, and fully interconnected porous structure with a pore size of 750-850 {mu}m.

  20. Deformation rate effects on failure modes of open-cell Al foams and textile cellular materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    September 2005 Abstract The compressive behavior of open-cell aluminum alloy foam and stainless steel woven: Metallic cellular materials; Dynamic compression; Aluminum foams; Woven textile lattice 0020-7683/$ - see are of attracting interest for a variety of automotive, locomotive, marine, and aerospace applications (Gibson

  1. Thermal degradation of new and aged urethane foam and epon 826 epoxy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Mills, Bernice E.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy was used to monitor the decomposition as a function of temperature for the foam and epoxy as a function of temperature in the range of 60C to 170C. Samples were studied with one day holds at each of the studied temperatures. Both new (FoamN and EpoxyN) and aged (FoamP and EpoxyP) samples were studied. During these ~10 day experiments, the foam samples lost 11 to 13% of their weight and the EpoxyN lost 10% of its weight. The amount of weight lost was difficult to quantify for EpoxyP because of its inert filler. The onset of the appearance of organic degradation products from FoamP began at 110C. Similar products did not appear until 120C for FoamN, suggesting some effect of the previous decades of storage for FoamP. In the case of the epoxies, the corresponding temperatures were 120C for EpoxyP and 110C for EpoxyN. Suggestions for why the aged epoxy seems more stable than newer sample include the possibility of incomplete curing or differences in composition. Recommendation to limit use temperature to 90-100C for both epoxy and foam.

  2. Polystyrene foam products equation of state as a function of porosity and fill gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulford, Roberta N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swift, Damian C [LLNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An accurate EOS for polystyrene foam is necessary for analysis of numerous experiments in shock compression, inertial confinement fusion, and astrophysics. Plastic to gas ratios vary between various samples of foam, according to the density and cell-size of the foam. A matrix of compositions has been investigated, allowing prediction of foam response as a function of the plastic-to-air ratio. The EOS code CHEETAH allows participation of the air in the decomposition reaction of the foam. Differences between air-filled, Ar-blown, and CO{sub 2}-blown foams are investigated, to estimate the importance of allowing air to react with products of polystyrene decomposition. O{sub 2}-blown foams are included in some comparisons, to amplify any consequences of reaction with oxygen in air. He-blown foams are included in some comparisons, to provide an extremum of density. Product pressures are slightly higher for oxygen-containing fill gases than for non-oxygen-containing fill gases. Examination of product species indicates that CO{sub 2} decomposes at high temperatures.

  3. Liquid Foams D. Weaire, S.J. Cox and K. Brakke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Simon

    is clumsy in English and it is elusive in French. The book is mainly based upon a series of papers of Foams (Weaire and Hutzler 1999) is a broad introduction, mostly con- centrating on liquid foams, close to the optimum for electrical or thermal conductivity (Durand et al. 2004). For other properties

  4. Fracture enhanced in-situ foam remediation. Topical report, July 1995-December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdiah, P.; Misra, B.R.; Conrad, J.R.; Srivastava, V.J.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to determine the technical feasibility of soil fracturing as an enhancement to transportation of foam and foam-assisted site remediation. This project is part of an overall effort by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) to develop technologies for cost-effective, in-situ remediation of soils.

  5. Geometric classification of open-cell metal foams using X-ray micro-computed tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bock, Jessica, E-mail: bock6@illinois.edu; Jacobi, Anthony M., E-mail: a-jacobi@illinois.edu

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The geometry of foams has long been an area of interest, and a number of idealized geometric descriptions have been proposed. In order to acquire detailed, quantitative, geometric data for aluminum open-cell metal foams, X-ray {mu}CT is employed. The X-ray {mu}CT images are analyzed using specialized software, FoamView Registered-Sign , from which geometric information including strut length and pore shapes are extracted. The X-ray {mu}CT analysis allows comparison of the ideal geometric models to the actual geometric characteristics of the metal foam samples. The results reveal a high variability in ligament length, as well as features supporting the ideal geometry known as the Weaire-Phelan unit cell. The geometric findings provide information useful for improving current models of open-cell metal foam. Applications can range from predicting heat transfer or load failure to predicting liquid retention. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminum open-cell metal foams are geometrically classified Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray micro-computed tomography and specialized software are used to gather geometric data Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The foams are shown to have a high variability in strut length Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Weaire-Phelan unit cell is shown to be a better representative of these foams.

  6. Effect of Gas Diffusion on Mobility of Foam for Enhanced Oil Recovery Lars E. Nonnekes1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Simon

    Effect of Gas Diffusion on Mobility of Foam for Enhanced Oil Recovery Lars E. Nonnekes1 Foam can improve the sweep efficiency of gas injected into oil reservoirs for enhanced oil recovery University William Richard Rossen Email: W.R.Rossen@tudelft.nl Abstract Transport of gas across

  7. Foaming of E-Glass (Report for G Plus Project for PPG)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent; Dutton, Bryan C.

    2004-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of foams generated in the crucible melts was investigated to study the effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming, specifically focused on its water content to understand the effect of oxy-firing. A quartz-crucible furnace equipped with video recording was used to observe the behavior and to evaluate stability of foams generated from the PPG E-glass under various atmospheres. The present study preliminarily concluded that the higher foaming in oxy-fired furnace compared to air-fired is caused by the effect of water on early sulfate decomposition, promoting more efficient refining gas generation from sulfate (known as ''dilution effect''), not by the effect of humidity on foam lamella stability. A plausible explanation for the difference between soda-lime glass and E-glass in the end result of the dilution effect on glass refining and foaming is presented. A preliminary experiment on the effect of heating rate also suggests that thermal history of glass melting can be a major factor in the rate of E-glass foaming. Approaches to develop the methods to reduce foaming in oxy-fired furnace are recommended.

  8. JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 34 (1999) 637 644 Cell nucleation in solid-state polymeric foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Vipin

    JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 34 (1999) 637­ 644 Cell nucleation in solid-state polymeric foams-mail: holl@u.washington.edu The mechanism for nucleation phenomenon in solid-state microcellular foams. The nucleation phenomenon is thermally activated at the effective glass transition temperature of the gas

  9. Control of the specific growth rate of Bacillus subtilis for the production of biosurfactant lipopeptides in bioreactors with foam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ]. However, the foam also entraps some biomass quantity and consequently reduces the biomass quantity to extract it by foaming. The control law is designed to maintain a constant specific biomass growth rate of biomass induced by the foaming. Previous experiments have provided a model of the process and values

  10. Impact Strength of High Relative Density Solid State CO, Blown CPET Microcellular Foams Impact Strength of High Relative Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Vipin

    is an increased glass transition temperature (T,), thus requiring higher foaming temperatures. Baldwin and SuhImpact Strength of High Relative Density Solid State CO, Blown CPET Microcellular Foams ImpactTerephthalate) Microcellular Foams Vipin KurnaW, Richard P Juntunena, and Chris Barlowb University of Washington, Seattle

  11. Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming Dong-Sang Kim a,*, Bryan C. Dutton b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming Dong-Sang Kim a,*, Bryan C. Dutton b , Pavel R in revised form 21 August 2006 Abstract The effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming has been studied with the specific goal of understanding the impact of increased water content on foaming in oxy-fired furnaces. E-glass

  12. Turbulence Considerations for Comparing Ecosystem Exchange over Old-Growth and Clear-Cut Stands For Limited Fetch and Complex Canopy Flow Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wharton, S; Schroeder, M; Paw U, K T; Falk, M; Bible, K

    2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide, water vapor and energy fluxes were measured using eddy covariance (EC) methodology over three adjacent forests in southern Washington State to identify stand-level age-effects on ecosystem exchange. The sites represent Douglas-fir forest ecosystems at two contrasting successional stages: old-growth (OG) and early seral (ES). Here we present eddy flux and meteorological data from two early seral stands and the Wind River AmeriFlux old-growth forest during the growing season (March-October) in 2006 and 2007. We show an alternative approach to the usual friction velocity (u*) method for determining periods of adequate atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) mixing based on the ratio of mean horizontal ({bar u}) and vertical ({bar w}) wind flow to a modified turbulent kinetic energy scale (uTKE). This new parameter in addition to footprint modeling showed that daytime CO{sub 2} fluxes (F{sub NEE}) in small clear-cuts (< 10 hectares) can be measured accurately with EC if micrometeorological conditions are carefully evaluated. Peak midday CO{sub 2} fluxes (F{sub NEE} = -14.0 to -12.3 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) at OG were measured in April in both 2006 and 2007 before bud break when air and soil temperatures and vapor pressure deficit were relatively low, and soil moisture and light levels were favorable for photosynthesis. At the early seral stands, peak midday CO{sub 2} fluxes (F{sub NEE} = -11.0 to -8.7 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) were measured in June and July while spring-time CO{sub 2} fluxes were much smaller (F{sub NEE} = -3.8 to -3.6 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}). Overall, we measured lower evapotranspiration (OG = 230 mm; ES = 297 mm) higher midday F{sub NEE} (OG F{sub NEE} = -9.0 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}; ES F{sub NEE} = -7.3 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and higher Bowen ratios (OG {beta} = 2.0. ES {beta} = 1.2) at the old-growth forest than at the ES sites during the summer months (May-August). Eddy covariance studies such as ours add critical land-atmosphere exchange data for an abundant, but rarely studied Douglas-fir age class.

  13. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herk, A.; Baker, R.; Prahl, D.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using 'L' clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and 'picture framing' the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  14. Corrosion-resistant Foamed Cements for Carbon Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama T.; Gill, S.; Pyatina, T., Muraca, A.; Keese, R.; Khan, A.; Bour, D.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cementitious material consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate designed as an alternative thermal-shock resistant cement for the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) wells was treated with cocamidopropyl dimethylamine oxide-based compound as foaming agent (FA) to prepare numerous air bubble-dispersed low density cement slurries of and #61603;1.3 g/cm3. Then, the foamed slurry was modified with acrylic emulsion (AE) as corrosion inhibitor. We detailed the positive effects of the acrylic polymer (AP) in this emulsion on the five different properties of the foamed cement: 1) The hydrothermal stability of the AP in 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cements; 2) the hydrolysis-hydration reactions of the slurry at 85 and #61616;C; 3) the composition of crystalline phases assembled and the microstructure developed in autoclaved cements; 4) the mechanical behaviors of the autoclaved cements; and, 5) the corrosion mitigation of carbon steel (CS) by the polymer. For the first property, the hydrothermal-catalyzed acid-base interactions between the AP and cement resulted in Ca-or Na-complexed carboxylate derivatives, which led to the improvement of thermal stability of the AP. This interaction also stimulated the cement hydration reactions, enhancing the total heat evolved during cement’s curing. Addition of AP did not alter any of the crystalline phase compositions responsible for the strength of the cement. Furthermore, the AP-modified cement developed the porous microstructure with numerous defect-free cavities of disconnected voids. These effects together contributed to the improvement of compressive-strength and –toughness of the cured cement. AP modification of the cement also offered an improved protection of CS against brine-caused corrosion. There were three major factors governing the corrosion protection: 1) Reducing the extents of infiltration and transportation of corrosive electrolytes through the cement layer deposited on the underlying CS surfaces; 2) inhibiting the cathodic reactions at the corrosion site of CS; 3) extending the coverage of cement over CS surfaces; and, 4) improving the adherence of the cement to CS surfaces. Thus, the CS’s corrosion rate of 176 milli inch/per year (mpy) for 1 wt% FA-foamed cement without AP was considerably reduced to 69 mpy by adding only 2 wt% AP. Addition of AP at 10 wt% further reduced this rate to less than 10 mpy.

  15. Measurement of two-phase flow at the core/upper plenum interface for a PWR geometry under simulated reflood conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, D.G.; Combs, S.K.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Instrument Development Loop (IDL) Program is part of the International 2D/3D Refill and Reflood Experimental and Analytical Research Program. Among the objectives of the International Program are: the study of the steam binding effect during reflood flow distribution (chimney effect) in a heated core; and the study of flow hydrodynamics in the core, downcomer and upper plenum during refill and reflood. Three experimental facilities were used in these studies: a one-bundle air/water loop, a three-bundle air/water loop, and a one-bundle steam/water loop. The loops represent full-scale vertical sections of the UPTF, extending from spray nozzles to the top of the upper plenum and including a short length of dummy fuel rods, upper end boxes, core support plate and control rod guide tubes. Three flow regimes were identified and studied: (1) all liquid down; (2) countercurrent flow in which gas (or vapor) goes up and liquid goes both up and down; and (3) cocurrent flow in which both gas (or vapor) and liquid go up.

  16. Applied Composite Materials, 2005. 12(3-4): p. 247-261 247 Enhancement of Energy Absorption in Syntactic Foams by Nanoclay Incorporation for Sandwich

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Nikhil

    70803 ABSTRACT Syntactic foams are closed pore foams fabricated by the mechanical mixing of hollow glass in Syntactic Foams by Nanoclay Incorporation for Sandwich Core Applications Nikhil Gupta1 and Rahul Maharsia2 foams due to the incorporation of nano-sized clay (nanoclay) particles. A surface modified clay, Nanomer

  17. Development of a Well Intervention Toolkit to Analyze Initial Wellbore Conditions and Evaluate Injection Pressures, Flow Path, Well Kill, and Plugging Procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paknejad, Amir S

    2009-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Target Well ?? Bubble velocity, m/sec ?? Mean gas velocity ?? Homogeneous velocity ?? Gas-bubble slip velocity Vgas Gas volume in standard condition, scf Xg Influx volume, ft 3 Xm Mud volume, ft 3 Voil Oil volume in stock tank condition...; ?? = ???? ???? , ................................................................................................................. (2.32) Where; Rs = solution gas-oil ratio, scf/stb Vgas = gas volume in standard condition, scf Voil = Oil volume in stock tank condition, stb At pressures above the bubble point, the solution GOR remains constant. Below the bubble point...

  18. Method and apparatus for producing a carbon based foam article having a desired thermal-conductivity gradient

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Cameron, Christopher Stan (Sanford, NC) [Sanford, NC

    2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A carbon based foam article is made by heating the surface of a carbon foam block to a temperature above its graphitizing temperature, which is the temperature sufficient to graphitize the carbon foam. In one embodiment, the surface is heated with infrared pulses until heat is transferred from the surface into the core of the foam article such that the graphitizing temperature penetrates into the core to a desired depth below the surface. The graphitizing temperature is maintained for a time sufficient to substantially entirely graphitize the portion of the foam article from the surface to the desired depth below the surface. Thus, the foam article is an integral monolithic material that has a desired conductivity gradient with a relatively high thermal conductivity in the portion of the core that was graphitized and a relatively low thermal conductivity in the remaining portion of the foam article.

  19. Bright x-ray sources from laser irradiation of foams with high concentration of Ti

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pérez, F., E-mail: perez75@llnl.gov; Patterson, J. R.; May, M.; Colvin, J. D.; Biener, M. M.; Wittstock, A.; Kucheyev, S. O.; Charnvanichborikarn, S.; Satcher, J. H.; Gammon, S. A.; Poco, J. F.; Fournier, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Fujioka, S.; Zhang, Z.; Ishihara, K.; Tanaka, N.; Ikenouchi, T.; Nishimura, H. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-density foams irradiated by a 20 kJ laser at the Omega laser facility (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY, USA) are shown to convert more than 5% of the laser energy into 4.6 to 6.0?keV x rays. This record efficiency with foam targets is due to novel fabrication techniques based on atomic-layer-deposition of Ti atoms on an aerogel scaffold. A Ti concentration of 33 at.?% was obtained in a foam with a total density of 5?mg/cm{sup 3}. The dynamics of the ionization front through these foams were investigated at the 1 kJ laser of the Gekko XII facility (Institute for Laser Engineering, Osaka, Japan). Hydrodynamic simulations can reproduce the average electron temperature but fail to predict accurately the heat front velocity in the foam. This discrepancy is shown to be unrelated to the possible water adsorbed in the foam but could be attributed to effects of the foam micro-structure.

  20. Numerical simulation of the fluid flow and heat transfer processes during scavenging in a two-stroke engine under steady-state conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castro Gouveia, M. de; Reis Parise, J.A. dos; Nieckele, A.O. (Pontificia Univ. Catolica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical simulation of the scavenging process in a two-stroke flat-piston model engine has been developed. Air enters the cylinder circumferentially, inducting a three-dimensional turbulent swirling flow. The problem was modeled as a steady-state axisymmetric flow through a cylinder with uniform wall temperature. The steady-state regime was simulated by assuming the piston head fixed at the bottom dead center. The calculation was performed employing the {kappa}-{epsilon} model of turbulence. A comparison of the results obtained for the flow field with available experimental data showed very good agreement, and a comparison with an available numerical solution revealed superior results. The effects of the Reynolds number, inlet port angles, and engine geometry on the flow and in-cylinder heat transfer characteristics were investigated. The Nusselt number substantially increases with larger Reynolds numbers and a smaller bore-to-stroke ratio. It is shown that the positioning of the exhaust value(s) is the main parameter to control the scavenging process.

  1. Constitutive Model for the Time-Dependent Mechanical Behavior of 430 Stainless Steel and FeCrAlY Foams in Sulfur-Bearing Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanical behavior of 430 stainless steel and pre-oxidized FeCrAlY open-cell foam materials of various densities was evaluated in compression at temperatures between 450 C and 600 C in an environment containing hydrogen sulfide and water vapor. Both materials showed negligible corrosion due to the gaseous atmosphere for up to 168 hours. The monotonic stress-strain response of these materials was found to be dependent on both the strain rate and their density, and the 430 stainless steel foam materials exhibited less stress relaxation than FeCrAlY for similar experimental conditions. Using the results from multiple hardening-relaxation and monotonic tests, an empirical constitutive equation was derived to predict the stress-strain behavior of FeCrAlY foams as a function of temperature and strain rate. These results are discussed in the context of using these materials in a black liquor gasifier to accommodate the chemical expansion of the refractory liner resulting from its reaction with the soda in the black liquor.

  2. Foam composition for treating asbestos-containing materials and method of using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Block, J.; Krupkin, N.V.; Kuespert, D.R.; Nishioka, G.M.; Lau, J.W.K.; Palmer, N.I.

    1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an acid component, at least about 0.1% by weight of a source of fluoride ions, and a stable foam forming amount of a foaming agent system having both cationic and non-ionic functionality. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition in the form of a foam also disclosed.

  3. Heat transfer in sound propagation and attenuation through gas-liquid polyhedral foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuri M. Shtemler; Isaac R. Shreiber

    2007-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A cell method is developed, which takes into account the bubble geometry of polyhedral foams, and provides for the generalized Rayleigh-Plesset equation that contains the non-local in time term corresponding to heat relaxation. The Rayleigh-Plesset equation together with the equations of mass and momentum balances for an effective single-phase inviscid fluid yield a model for foam acoustics. The present calculations reconcile observed sound velocity and attenuation with those predicted using the assumption that thermal dissipation is the dominant damping mechanism in a range of foam expansions and sound excitation frequencies.

  4. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Lost Foam Thin Wall - Feasibility of Producing Lost Foam Castings in Aluminum and Magnesium Based Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fasoyinu, Yemi [CanmetMATERIALS] [CanmetMATERIALS; Griffin, John A. [University of Alabama - Birmingham] [University of Alabama - Birmingham

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, production of near-net shape components by lost foam casting will make significant inroad into the next-generation of engineering component designs. The lost foam casting process is a cost effective method for producing complex castings using an expandable polystyrene pattern and un-bonded sand. The use of un-bonded molding media in the lost foam process will impose less constraint on the solidifying casting, making hot tearing less prevalent. This is especially true in Al-Mg and Al-Cu alloy systems that are prone to hot tearing when poured in rigid molds partially due to their long freezing range. Some of the unique advantages of using the lost foam casting process are closer dimensional tolerance, higher casting yield, and the elimination of sand cores and binders. Most of the aluminum alloys poured using the lost foam process are based on the Al-Si system. Very limited research work has been performed with Al-Mg and Al-Cu type alloys. With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, and given the high-strength-to-weight-ratio of magnesium, significant weight savings can be achieved by casting thin-wall (? 3 mm) engineering components from both aluminum- and magnesium-base alloys.

  5. Developing & tailoring multi-functional carbon foams for multi-field response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarzynski, Melanie Diane

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As technological advances occur, many conventional materials are incapable of providing the unique multi-functional characteristics demanded thus driving an accelerated focus to create new material systems such as carbon and graphite foams...

  6. Cellular Foams: A Potential Innovative Solid Breeder Material for Fusion Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharafat, S.; Ghoniem, N.; Williams, B.; Babcock, J. [University of California Los Angeles (United States)

    2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceramic foam and cellular materials are being used in a wide variety of industries and are finding ever growing number of applications. Over the past decade advances in manufacturing of cellular materials have resulted in ceramics with highly uniform interconnected porosities ranging in size from a few {mu}m to several mm. These relatively new ceramic foam materials have a unique set of thermo-mechanical properties, such as excellent thermal shock resistance and high surface to volume ratios. Based on new advances in processing ceramic foams, we suggest the development of ceramic foams or cellular ceramics for solid breeders in fusion reactor blankets. A cellular breeder material has a number of thermo-mechanical advantages over pebble beds, which can enhance blanket performance, improve operational stability, and reduce overall blanket costs.

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - abrogating foam cell Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mathematics 2 List of Publications 1. E. Amsterdam, P.R. Onck, J.Th.M. De Hosson. Fracture and microstructure of Summary: of open-cell aluminium foam. Journal of Materials...

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminium foam core Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mathematics 5 List of Publications 1. E. Amsterdam, P.R. Onck, J.Th.M. De Hosson. Fracture and microstructure of Summary: of open-cell aluminium foam. Journal of Materials...

  9. Novel application of foam for in-situ soil remediation. Topical report, April 1992-September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilbane, J.J.; Liu, B.Y.; Conrad, J.R.; Srivastava, V.J.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the task is to evaluate the use of foams to deliver surfactants, bacteria, solvents, and/or nutrients to promote in-situ bioremediation of soils contaminated with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or to evaluate the use of foams to render contaminants available for physical collection and subsequent degradation. This task consists of two subtasks: (1) Literature Survey of Related Technologies and (2) Preliminary Experimental Investigations of Interfacial Phenomenon and the Use of Foams to Remediate Contaminated Sites. An extensive literature review was completed in which abstracts of more than one hundred technical articles were prepared. Laboratory studies to investigate the use of foams to remediate PAH-contaminated soil were performed with several Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) soils as well as with model experimental systems.

  10. Method of forming a continuous polymeric skin on a cellular foam material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duchane, David V. (Los Alamos, NM); Barthell, Barry L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrophobic cellular material is coated with a thin hydrophilic polymer skin which stretches tightly over the outer surface of the foam but which does not fill the cells of the foam, thus resulting in a polymer-coated foam structure having a smoothness which was not possible in the prior art. In particular, when the hydrophobic cellular material is a specially chosen hydrophobic polymer foam and is formed into arbitrarily chosen shapes prior to the coating with hydrophilic polymer, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets of arbitrary shapes can be produced by subsequently coating the shapes with metal or with any other suitable material. New articles of manufacture are produced, including improved ICF targets, improved integrated circuits, and improved solar reflectors and solar collectors. In the coating method, the cell size of the hydrophobic cellular material, the viscosity of the polymer solution used to coat, and the surface tensin of the polymer solution used to coat are all very important to the coating.

  11. Application of Genetic Algorithms and Thermogravimetry to Determine the Kinetics of Polyurethane Foam in Smoldering Combustion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rein, Guillermo; Lautenberger, Chris; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Torero, Jose L; Urban, David

    In this work, the kinetic parameters governing the thermal and oxidative degradation of flexible polyurethane foam are determined using thermogravimetric data and a genetic algorithm. These kinetic parameters are needed ...

  12. Effect of microstructure of closed cell foam on strength and effective stiffness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sue, Ji Woong

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    structure of the foam. A low- boiling, inert liquid fluorocarbon is mixed in with the polyol. When the polymerization reaction takes place, the exotherm is sufficient to cause the fluorocarbon to volatilize and act as blowing agent. It should also...

  13. Microsoft Word - NETL-TRS-2-2014_Addendum 1 to Foamed Cement...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Addendum 1 to Computed Tomography and Statistical Analysis of Bubble Size Distributions in Atmospheric-Generated Foamed Cement 6 March 2014 Office of Fossil Energy NETL-TRS-2-2014...

  14. SYNTACTIC AND COMPOSITE FOAMS Whispering gallery mode-based micro-optical sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ă?tĂĽgen, Volkan

    SYNTACTIC AND COMPOSITE FOAMS Whispering gallery mode-based micro-optical sensors for structural and filament wound pipes has been studied, where one of the glass fibers is replaced by an optical fiber

  15. Adding Complex Terrain and Stable Atmospheric Condition Capability to the Simulator for On/Offshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churchfield, M. J.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation describes changes made to NREL's OpenFOAM-based wind plant aerodynamics solver so that it can compute the stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer and flow over terrain. Background about the flow solver, the Simulator for Off/Onshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) is given, followed by details of the stable stratification/complex terrain modifications to SOWFA, along with some preliminary results calculations of a stable atmospheric boundary layer and flow over a simple set of hills.

  16. Combined effects of Reynolds number, turbulence intensity and periodic unsteady wake flow conditions on boundary layer development and heat transfer of a low pressure turbine blade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozturk, Burak

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    .18 (S R =80 mm)........................................103 Figure 11.1. Static pressure distributions at Re=110,000 and reduced frequencies S=0, 1.59, 3.18 (no rod, 160 mm, 80 mm), SS=Separation start, SE= Separation end...................................................110 Figure 11.2. Time-averaged hot-film distributions at Re=110,000 and reduced frequencies S=0, 1.59, 3.18 (no rod, 160 mm, 80 mm)...........................112 Figure 11.3. Ensemble averaged velocity as a function for (a) steady flow case S=0 (S R...

  17. Advanced geothermal foam drilling systems (AFS) -- Phase 1 final report, Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. C. Maurer

    1999-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An advanced coiled-tubing foam drilling system is being developed where two concentric strings of coiled tubing are used to convey water and air to the hole bottom where they are mixed together to produce foam for underbalanced drilling. This system has the potential to significantly reduce drilling costs by increasing drilling rates (due to the motor being powered by water), and reducing compressor and nitrogen costs (due to lower gas pressures and volumes).

  18. FOAM FORMATION IN THE SALTSTONE PRODUCTION FACILITY: EVALUATION OF SOURCES AND MITIGATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cozzi, A.

    2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Saltstone Production Facility receives waste from Tank 50H for treatment. Influents into Tank 50H include the Effluent Treatment Project waste concentrate, H-Canyon low activity waste and General Purpose Evaporator bottoms, Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit decontaminated salt solution, and salt solution from the Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjust campaign. Using the Waste Characterization System (WCS), this study tracks the relative amounts of each influent into Tank 50H, as well as the total content of Tank 50H, in an attempt to identify the source of foaming observed in the Saltstone Production Facility hopper. Saltstone has been using antifoam as part of routine processing with the restart of the facility in December 2006. It was determined that the maximum admix usage in the Saltstone Production Facility, both antifoam and set retarder, corresponded with the maximum concentration of H-Canyon low activity waste in Tank 50H. This paper also evaluates archived salt solutions from Waste Acceptance Criteria analysis for propensity to foam and the antifoam dosage required to mitigate foaming. It was determined that Effluent Treatment Project contributed to the expansion factor (foam formation) and General Purpose Evaporator contributed to foaminess (persistence). It was also determined that undissolved solids contribute to foam persistence. It was shown that additions of Dow Corning Q2-1383a antifoam reduced both the expansion factor and foaminess of salt solutions. The evaluation of foaming in the grout hopper during the transition from water to salt solution indicated that higher water-to-premix ratios tended to produce increased foaming. It was also shown that additions of Dow Corning Q2-1383a antifoam reduced foam formation and persistence.

  19. Structural insulated panels produced from recycled Expanded-Polystrene (EPS) foam scrap. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grinnell, A.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents a research project undertaken to assess the feasibility of using scrap reground expanded polystyrene (EPS) in the manufacture of structural insulated panels (SIPs) in order to save material costs and reduce the amount of EPS waste products to be disposed. The project team, managed by Steven Winter Associates, Inc., a Norwalk, Connecticut-based building systems research and consulting firm included: Thermal Foams, Inc., a Buffalo-based manufacturer of EPS products; BASF Corp., the world`s largest producer of EPS beads; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which performed thermal tests (ASTM C-518); RADCO, Inc. which performed material properties tests: density (ASTM C-303), flexural strength (ASTM C-203), tensile strength (ASTM D-1623), and transverse load test of SIPs panels (ASTM E-72). The report documents the manufacturing and testing process and concludes that there was relatively little difference in the thermal and structural characteristics under normal loading conditions of the panels tested with varying amount of regrind (from 10% - 25%) and those made with 100% virgin beads. The report recommends that additional tests be undertaken, but suggests that, based on the test results, reground EPS can be successfully used in the cores of SIPs in amounts up to 25%.

  20. In-situ aging of roof systems containing polyisocyanurate roof insulation foamed with alternative blowing agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desjarlais, A.O.; Christian, J.E.; Graves, R.S.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental polyisocyanurate (PIR) foam roof insulations with permeable facers were installed in roofing systems and continuously monitored for thermal performance for four years. The foams were produced using a specific formulation that represented current technology in 1989 and were blown with CFC-11, HCFC-123, and HCFC-141b. These foams were installed in roof systems comprised of loosely-laid insulation boards covered by either a loosely-laid single ply white or black membrane. The in-situ testing was carried out on an outdoor test facility, the Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (RTRA). Additional specimens of these foams were aged in the laboratory and periodically evaluated using laboratory measurement equipment. This paper summarizes the in-situ data compiled to date, compares these data with the laboratory results, and examines whether the proposed laboratory procedure for accelerating the aging of foams by the slicing and scaling method accurately predicts the aging characteristics of these materials installed in roof systems. These experiments are part of a joint industry/government project established to evaluate the technical viability of alternative HCFC blowing agents for rigid closed-cell polyisocyanurate foam roof insulations. Members of the project are the US Department of Energy (DOE)/Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Society of the Plastics Industry-Polyurethane Division (SPI), the Polyisocyanurate Insulation Manufacturers Association (PIMA), and the National Roofing Contractors Association (NRCA).

  1. Cellular morphology of organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on alkali alumino-silicate matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verdolotti, Letizia; Capasso, Ilaria; Lavorgna, Marino [Institute of Composite and Biomedical Materials, National Research Council, Naples (Italy); Liguori, Barbara; Caputo, Domenico [Department of Chemical, Materials and Industrial Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Iannace, Salvatore [Institute of Composite and Biomedical Materials, National Research Council, Naples, Italy and IMAST SCRAL, Piazza Bovio 22 Napoli 80133 (Italy)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on an alkali alumino-silicate matrix were prepared by using different foaming methods. Initially, the synthesis of an inorganic matrix by using aluminosilicate particles, activated through a sodium silicate solution, was performed at room temperature. Subsequently the viscous paste was foamed by using three different methods. In the first method, gaseous hydrogen produced by the oxidization of Si powder in an alkaline media, was used as blowing agent to generate gas bubbles in the paste. In the second method, the porous structure was generated by mixing the paste with a “meringue” type of foam previously prepared by whipping, under vigorous stirring, a water solution containing vegetal proteins as surfactants. In the third method, a combination of these two methods was employed. The foamed systems were consolidated for 24 hours at 40°C and then characterized by FTIR, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compression tests. Low density foams (?500 Kg/m{sup 3}) with good cellular structure and mechanical properties were obtained by combining the “meringue” approach with the use of the chemical blowing agent based on Si.

  2. Flow Past a Sphere and a Prolate Spheroid at Low Reynolds Numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Youfeng

    2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    thoroughly. The first part of this work is to investigate variations of the flow past a sphere occurring with increasing Reynolds number up to 400. The code used in this thesis is OpenFOAM which is an open source package providing a solver based...

  3. Efficient plasma production by intense laser irradiation of low density foam targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tripathi, S.; Chaurasia, S.; Munda, D. S.; Gupta, N. K.; Dhareshwar, L. J. [Laser and Neutron Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 85 (India); Nataliya, B. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental investigations conducted on low density structured materials, such as foams have been presented in this paper. These low density foam targets having a density greater than the critical density of the laser produced plasma ({rho}{sub cr{approx_equal}}3 mg{center_dot}cm{sup -3} at laser wavelength 1.06 {mu}m) have been envisaged to have enhanced laser absorption. Experiments were done with an indigenously developed, focused 15 Joule/500 ps Nd: Glass laser at {lambda} = 1064 nm. The focused laser intensity on the target was in the range of I{approx_equal}10{sup 13}-2x10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. Laser absorption was determined by energy balance experiments. Laser energy absorption was observed to be higher than 85%. In another set of experiments, low density carbon foam targets of density 150 mg/cc were compared with the solid carbon targets. The x-ray emission in the soft x-ray region was observed to increase in foam target by about 1.8 times and 2.3 times in carbon foam and Pt doped foam as compared to solid carbon. Further, investigations were also carried out to measure the energy transmitted through the sub-critical density TAC foam targets having a density less than 3 mg/cc. Such targets have been proposed to be used for smoothening of intensity ripples in a high power laser beam profile. Transmission exceeding 1.87% has been observed and consistent with results from other laboratories.

  4. SURFACTANT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY AND FOAM MOBILITY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope; Richard E. Jackson

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactants makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. Also, the addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluted to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs. UTCHEM is a reservoir simulator specially designed for surfactant EOR. A dual-porosity version is demonstrated as a potential scale-up tool for fractured reservoirs.

  5. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Forging Process to Reproduce a 3D Aluminium Foam Complex Shape

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filice, Luigino; Gagliardi, Francesco; Umbrello, Domenico [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Calabria, P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Serbia and Montenegro) (Italy); Shivpuri, Rajiv [Department of Industrial, Welding and System Engineering, Ohio State University, 1971 Neil Avenue, 210 Baker Systems, Columbus, OH 43210-1217 (United States)

    2007-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Metallic foams represent one of the most exciting materials introduced in the manufacturing scenario in the last years. In the study here addressed, the experimental and numerical investigations on the forging process of a simple foam billet shaped into complex sculptured parts were carried out. In particular, the deformation behavior of metallic foams and the development of density gradients were investigated through a series of experimental forging tests in order to produce a selected portion of a hip prosthesis. The human bone replacement was chosen as case study due to its industrial demand and for its particular 3D complex shape. A finite element code (Deform 3D) was utilized for modeling the foam behavior during the forging process and an accurate material rheology description was used based on a porous material model which includes the measured local density. Once the effectiveness of the utilized Finite Element model was verified through the comparison with the experimental evidences, a numerical study of the influence of the foam density was investigated. The obtained numerical results shown as the initial billet density plays an important role on the prediction of the final shape, the optimization of the flash as well as the estimation of the punch load.

  6. Thermo-mechanical characterisation of low density carbon foams and composite materials for the ATLAS upgrade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isaac, Bonad

    As a result of the need to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN-Geneva by 2020, the ATLAS detector requires an upgraded inner tracker. Up- grading the ATLAS experiment is essential due to higher radiation levels and high particle occupancies. The design of this improved inner tracker detector involves development of silicon sensors and their support structures. These support structures need to have well un- derstood thermal properties and be dimensionally stable in order to allow efficient cooling of the silicon and accurate track reconstruction. The work presented in this thesis is an in- vestigation which aims to qualitatively characterise the thermal and mechanical properties of the materials involved in the design of the inner tracker of the ATLAS upgrade. These materials are silicon carbide foam (SiC foam), low density carbon foams such as PocoFoam and Allcomp foam, Thermal Pyrolytic Graphite (TPG), carbon/carbon and Carbon Fibre Re- inforced Polymer (CFRP). The work involve...

  7. Experiments to populate and validate a processing model for polyurethane foam :

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mondy, Lisa Ann; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Shelden, Bion; Soehnel, Melissa Marie; O'Hern, Timothy J.; Grillet, Anne; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Wyatt, Nicholas B.; Russick, Edward Mark; Bauer, Stephen J.; Hileman, Michael Bryan; Urquhart, Alexander; Thompson, Kyle Richard; Smith, David Michael

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We are developing computational models to elucidate the expansion and dynamic filling process of a polyurethane foam, PMDI. The polyurethane of interest is chemically blown, where carbon dioxide is produced via the reaction of water, the blowing agent, and isocyanate. The isocyanate also reacts with polyol in a competing reaction, which produces the polymer. Here we detail the experiments needed to populate a processing model and provide parameters for the model based on these experiments. The model entails solving the conservation equations, including the equations of motion, an energy balance, and two rate equations for the polymerization and foaming reactions, following a simplified mathematical formalism that decouples these two reactions. Parameters for the polymerization kinetics model are reported based on infrared spectrophotometry. Parameters describing the gas generating reaction are reported based on measurements of volume, temperature and pressure evolution with time. A foam rheology model is proposed and parameters determined through steady-shear and oscillatory tests. Heat of reaction and heat capacity are determined through differential scanning calorimetry. Thermal conductivity of the foam as a function of density is measured using a transient method based on the theory of the transient plane source technique. Finally, density variations of the resulting solid foam in several simple geometries are directly measured by sectioning and sampling mass, as well as through x-ray computed tomography. These density measurements will be useful for model validation once the complete model is implemented in an engineering code.

  8. Flow Distances on Open Flow Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Liangzhu; Shi, Peiteng; Wang, Jun; Huang, Xiaohan; Zhang, Jiang

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Open flow network is a weighted directed graph with a source and a sink, depicting flux distributions on networks in the steady state of an open flow system. Energetic food webs, economic input-output networks, and international trade networks, are open flow network models of energy flows between species, money or value flows between industrial sectors, and goods flows between countries, respectively. Flow distances (first-passage or total) between any given two nodes $i$ and $j$ are defined as the average number of transition steps of a random walker along the network from $i$ to $j$ under some conditions. They apparently deviate from the conventional random walk distance on a closed directed graph because they consider the openness of the flow network. Flow distances are explicitly expressed by underlying Markov matrix of a flow system in this paper. With this novel theoretical conception, we can visualize open flow networks, calculating centrality of each node, and clustering nodes into groups. We apply fl...

  9. Electrical conductivity of open-cell metal foams K.P. Dharmasena and H.N.G. Wadley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    with high heat transfer coefficients.1 Other uses as load-supporting electrochemical storage structures alsoElectrical conductivity of open-cell metal foams K.P. Dharmasena and H.N.G. Wadley Department to represent an open-cell aluminum foam and a simplified electrical resistor network derived to model low

  10. The high strain rate response of PVC foams and end-grain balsa wood V.L. Tagarielli, V.S. Deshpande, N.A. Fleck *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleck, Norman A.

    The high strain rate response of PVC foams and end-grain balsa wood V.L. Tagarielli, V.S. Deshpande are adequately approximated by power-law fits. The compressive yield strength of the H250 PVC foam and balsa wood sĂ?1 . In contrast, the H100 PVC foam displays only a small elevation in uniaxial compressive

  11. Simulation of the Bishop Steam Foam Pilot by T.W. Patzek and N.A. h4yhiil, Shell Development Co.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    ,.. SEW SPE 18786 Simulation of the Bishop Steam Foam Pilot by T.W. Patzek and N.A. h4yhiil, Shell a simple model of steam foam transport and apply it to the Shell Kern River Bishop pilot. The only an incremental 5.5 percent OOIP recovery due to steam foam and additional 3 percent OOIP due to infill wells

  12. Structural Engineering and Mechanics, Vol. 12, No. 2 (2001) 169-188 169 Mechanical behaviour of a syntactic foam/glass fibre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corigliano, Alberto

    of a syntactic foam/glass fibre composite sandwich: experimental results* Enrico Papa 1 and Alberto Corigliano 1 interconnecting the skins; the core is filled with a polymer matrix/glass microspheres syntactic foam; additional behaviour of this composite sandwich. Key words: mechanical tests; syntactic foam; glass fibre; composite

  13. Validation of Heat Transfer Thermal Decomposition and Container Pressurization of Polyurethane Foam.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Sarah Nicole; Dodd, Amanda B.; Larsen, Marvin E. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Suo-Anttila, Jill M. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Erickson, Kenneth L

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer foam encapsulants provide mechanical, electrical, and thermal isolation in engineered systems. In fire environments, gas pressure from thermal decomposition of polymers can cause mechanical failure of sealed systems. In this work, a detailed uncertainty quantification study of PMDI-based polyurethane foam is presented to assess the validity of the computational model. Both experimental measurement uncertainty and model prediction uncertainty are examined and compared. Both the mean value method and Latin hypercube sampling approach are used to propagate the uncertainty through the model. In addition to comparing computational and experimental results, the importance of each input parameter on the simulation result is also investigated. These results show that further development in the physics model of the foam and appropriate associated material testing are necessary to improve model accuracy.

  14. Low density microcellular carbon or catalytically impregnated carbon foams and process for their preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hooper, R.W.; Pekala, R.W.

    1987-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Machinable and structurally stable, low density microcellular carbon, and catalytically impregnated carbon, foams, and process for their preparation, are provided. Pulverized sodium chloride is classified to improve particle size uniformity, and the classified particles may be further mixed with a catalyst material. The particles are cold pressed into a compact having internal pores, and then sintered. The sintered compact is immersed and then submerged in a phenolic polymer solution to uniformly fill the pores of the compact with phenolic polymer. The compact is then heated to pyrolyze the phenolic polymer into carbon in the form of a foam. Then the sodium chloride of the compact is leached away with water, and the remaining product is freeze dried to provide the carbon, or catalytically impregnated carbon, foam.

  15. Aging of polyurethane foam insulation in simulated refrigerator panels -- Initial results with third-generation blowing agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkes, K.E.; Gabbard, W.A.; Weaver, F.J.

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory data are presented on the effect of constant-temperature aging on the apparent thermal conductivity of polyurethane foam insulation for refrigerators and freezers. The foam specimens were blown with HCFC-141b and with three of its potential replacements -- HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, and cyclopentane. Specimens were aged at constant temperatures of 90 F, 40 F, and {minus}10 F. Thermal conductivity measurements were made on two types of specimens: full-thickness simulated refrigerator panels containing foam enclosed between solid plastic sheets, and thin slices of core foam cut from similar panels. Results are presented for about 250 days of aging for the core-foam specimens and for the first six months of aging for the full-thickness panels.

  16. Aging of Polyurethane Foam Insulation in Simulated Refrigerator Panels--One-Year Results with Third-Generation Blowing Agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabbard, W.A.; Weaver, F.J.; Wilkes, K.E.

    1999-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory data are presented on the effect of constant-temperature aging on the apparent thermal conductivity of polyurethane foam insulation for refrigerators and freezers. The foam specimens were blown with HCFC-141b and with three of its potential replacements--HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, and cyclopentane. Specimens were aged at constant temperatures of 90 F, 40 F, and {minus}10 F. Thermal conductivity measurements were made on two types of specimens: full-thickness simulated refrigerator panels containing foam enclosed between solid plastic sheets, and thin slices of core foam cut from similar panels. Results are presented for the first year of a multi-year study for the full-thickness panels and for about 1-1/2 years of aging for the core-foam specimens.

  17. Two-dimensional heterogeneous model for a reticulated-foam photocatalytic reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Changrani, R.G.; Raupp, G.B.

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 2-D heterogeneous convection reaction model for a gas-solid lamp-in-tube annular photocatalytic reactor is presented. The catalyst (TiO{sub 2}) is supported on a reticulated-foam monolithic structure placed in the annular space between the UV lamp and the reactor wall. Mass balances for individual species are coupled through the reaction-rate expression that appears in the boundary condition at the fluid-solid interface in heterogeneous catalytic reactor models. The heterogeneous reaction rate is modeled using semiempirical Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHHW) kinetics with adsorption constants for various species. The local volumetric rate of energy absorption (LVREA) term in the rate expression was computed using a 3-D polychromatic radiation-field model. The overall system of nonlinear partial differential equations was solved using a combination of the Crank-Nicolson method and the globally convergent Newton-Raphson method. The apparent, average quantum yield in the LHHW kinetic rate form is the single adjustable parameter in the model. Isopropanol (IPA) was chosen as the test contaminant to conduct experimental performance measurements for model validation. Model-predicted radial and axial profiles for bulk and surface concentration reveal that the extent to which mass transport influences the operation of a photocatalytic reactor is determined largely by the local magnitude of the LVREA. Similitude in the scale-up of an annular lamp-in-tube heterogeneous photocatalytic reactor is achieved only when the dimensionless radial radiation profile, as well as corresponding magnitudes of a geometric number, the Peclet number, the Stanton number, and the photocatalytic analog of the Damkoehler number, are identical.

  18. Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and Oriented Strand Board Roof Sheathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grin, A.; Smegal, J.; Lstiburek, J.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell spray polyurethane foam insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990's to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated moisture related incidents reported anecdotally that raise potential concerns about the overall hygrothermal performance of these systems. The incidents related to rainwater leakage and condensation concerns. Condensation concerns have been extensively studied by others and are not further discussed in this report. This project involved hygrothermal modeling of a range of rainwater leakage and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs using spray foam insulation. All of the roof assemblies modeled exhibited drying capacity to handle minor rainwater leakage. All field evaluation locations of in-service residential roofs had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. Explorations of eleven in-service roof systems were completed. The exploration involved taking a sample of spray foam from the underside of the roof sheathing, exposing the sheathing, then taking a moisture content reading. All locations had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. One full-roof failure was reviewed, as an industry partner was involved with replacing structurally failed roof sheathing. In this case the manufacturer's investigation report concluded that the spray foam was installed on wet OSB based on the observation that the spray foam did not adhere well to the substrate and the pore structure of the closed cell spray foam at the ccSPF/OSB interface was indicative of a wet substrate.

  19. FINAL REPORT FOR DE-FG02-03ER46071 ENTITLED, "UNDERSTANDING FOAM RHEOLOGY FROM THE MICROSCOPIC TO THE MACROSCOPIC SCALE"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Dennin

    2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This research effort is focused on understanding the mechanical response of foams, and other complex fluids, from the microscopic to the macroscopic level. The research uses a model two-dimensional system: bubble rafts. Bubble rafts are a single layer of gas bubbles with liquid walls that float on a water surface. The work involves studies of the macroscopic response of foam under various conditions of external forcing, mesoscopic studies of bubble motion, and systematic variations of the microscopic details of the system. In addition to characterizing the specific properties of the bubble raft, a second aim of the research is to provide experimental tests of various general theories that have recently been developed to characterize complex fluids. Primarily, the focus is on testing the proposed jamming phase diagram paradigm. This paradigm suggests that a general â??jammedâ?ť state of matter exists and is common to a wide range of systems, including foam, colloids, granular matter, glasses, and emulsions. Therefore,we have extended our research in two directions. First, we have included studies of plastic bead rafts. These are systems of plastic beads floating on the air-water interface. The advantage of plastic beads is that they do not pop, so they can be studied for the much longer periods of time required to measure the slow dynamics associated with the jammed state. Also, they allow us to explore a different density regime than the bubbles. Second, to better understand the role of defects in jamming behavior, we have done a few experiments on the impact of defects on domain growth.

  20. Combination nickel foam expanded nickel screen electrical connection supports for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert; Prevish, Thomas; Bronson, Angela; George, Raymond A.

    2007-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel assembly is made, wherein rows (14, 25) of fuel cells (17, 19, 21, 27, 29, 31), each having an outer interconnection (20) and an outer electrode (32), are disposed next to each other with corrugated, electrically conducting expanded metal mesh member (22) between each row of cells, the corrugated mesh (22) having top crown portions and bottom portions, where the top crown portion (40) have a top bonded open cell nickel foam (51) which contacts outer interconnections (20) of the fuel cells, said mesh and nickel foam electrically connecting each row of fuel cells, and where there are no more metal felt connections between any fuel cells.

  1. Rigid Polyurethane Foam (RPF) Technology for Countermines (Sea) Program Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WOODFIN,RONALD L.; FAUCETT,DAVID L.; HANCE,BRADLEY G.; LATHAM,AMY E.; SCHMIDT,C.O.

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Phase II report documents the results of one subtask initiated under the joint Department of Energy (DOE)/Department of Defense (DoD) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Countermine Warfare. The development of Rigid Polyurethane Foams for neutralization of mines and barriers in amphibious assault was the objective of the tasking. This phase of the program concentrated on formation of RPF in water, explosive mine simulations, and development of foam and fabric pontoons. Field experimentation was done primarily at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC) of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM between February 1996 and September 1998.

  2. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 89, 023002 (2014) Breaking of non-Newtonian character in flows through a porous medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    AND PROCEDURES Our yield stress fluid is a water-in-oil emulsion (81% water, 19% oil) prepared by dispersing, in which a wide range of complex fluids (foams, polymers, emulsions) are used to improve oil recovery [3 stress fluid flow inside a model bead packing with a NMR technique which provides straight- forward

  3. Elliptic and Hexadecapole flow of charged hadron in viscous hydrodynamics with Glauber and Color Glass Condensate initial conditions for Pb-Pb collision at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=2.76 TeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Victor; Chaudhuri, A K

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The experimentally measured elliptic ($v_{2}$) and hexadecapole ($v_{4}$) flow of charged particles as a function of transverse momentum ($p_{T}$) at midrapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV are compared with the relativistic viscous hydrodynamic model simulations. The simulations are carried out for two different initial energy density profiles obtained from (i) Glauber model, and (ii) Color Glass Condensate (CGC) model. Comparison to experimental data for 10-20% to 40-50% centrality, shows that a centrality dependent shear viscosity to entropy density ($\\eta/s$) ratio with values ranging between 0.0 to 0.12 are needed to explain the $v_{2}$ data for simulations with the Glauber based initial condition. Whereas for the CGC based initial conditions a slightly higher value of $\\eta/s$ is preferred, around 0.08 to 0.16. From the comparison of the $v_{4}$ simulated results to the corresponding experimental measurements we observe that for the centralities 20-30% to 40-50% the $\\eta/s...

  4. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2002-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, the thrust areas include the following: Internal drives, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes, fluid displacements and the effect of instabilities and heterogeneities and the flow of fluids with yield stress. These find respective applications in foamy oils, the evolution of dissolved gas, internal steam drives, the mechanics of concurrent and countercurrent vapor-liquid flows, associated with thermal methods and steam injection, such as SAGD, the in-situ combustion, the upscaling of displacements in heterogeneous media and the flow of foams, Bingham plastics and heavy oils in porous media and the development of wormholes during cold production.

  5. System Description for the K-25/K-27 D&D Project Polyurethane Foam Delivery System, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boris, G.

    2008-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Foam Delivery System used in the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) project for the K-25/K-27 Buildings at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) is comprised of a trailer-mounted Gusmer{reg_sign} H20/35 Pro-TEC Proportioning Unit and the associated equipment to convey electrical power, air, and foam component material to the unit. This high-pressure, plural-component polyurethane foam pouring system will be used to fill process gas and non-process equipment/piping (PGE/P) within the K-25/K-27 Buildings with polyurethane foam to immobilize contaminants prior to removal. The system creates foam by mixing isocyanate and polyol resin (Resin) component materials. Currently, the project plans to utilize up to six foaming units simultaneously during peak foaming activities. Also included in this system description are the foam component material storage containers that will be used for storage of the component material drums in a staging area outside of the K-25/K-27 Buildings. The Foam Delivery System and foam component material storage enclosures (i.e., Foaming Component Protective Enclosures) used to store polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (PMDI) component material are identified as Safety Significant (SS) Structures, Systems and Components (SSC) in the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) for the project, Documented Safety Analysis for the K-25 and K-27 Facilities at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, DSA-ET-K-25/K-27-0001.

  6. Design and development of a multi-shot foam projectile toy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skaggs, Alan M. (Alan Michael)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this research was to design and develop a working prototype of a new toy for Hasbro®'s Nerfe line of foam projectile toys. Several years ago, Hasbro approached the MIT CADlab about developing a new method for ...

  7. Detailed energy distributions in laser-produced plasmas of solid gold and foam gold planar targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Yunsong [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China) [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Lu; Yang, Jiamin; Shang, Wanli [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)] [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Foam gold was proposed to increase the laser to x-ray conversion efficiency due to its important applications. To understand the mechanism of x-ray enhancement, the detailed energy distributions and plasma profiles for laser-irradiated solid gold and foam gold targets were studied comparatively by hydrodynamic simulations using the code Multi-1D. It is confirmed that the radiation heat wave is subsonic for the normal solid gold target, while supersonic for the foam gold target. The shock wave, which is behind the supersonic radiation heat wave for the foam gold target, generates a plasma temperature gradient with high temperature near the shock wave front to produce an additional net outward radiation for enhancement of the x-ray emission. Much larger inward plasma velocity is also driven by the shock wave as an initial plasma velocity for the laser deposition and electron thermal conduct zone, which decreases the expanding plasma kinetic energy loss and helps to increase the x-ray radiation.

  8. Squeezing particle-stabilized emulsions into biliquid foams equation of state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Andrew

    porous materials,14 and for shelf life.20 Here, we measure the equation of state of water-in-oil (w/o) PR emulsions via centrifugal compression and we interpret our results using a quantitative model adapted fromSqueezing particle-stabilized emulsions into biliquid foams ­ equation of state Louison Maurice

  9. Reduced fibre breakage in a glass-fibre reinforced thermoplastic through foaming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael

    Reduced fibre breakage in a glass-fibre reinforced thermoplastic through foaming G. Zhang, M The processing of a glass fibre-reinforced polypropylene in the presence of a chemical blowing agent was found,3], and the fibre orientation [4­6]; all factors determining the surface area available for transmission of stresses

  10. Aging of polyurethane insulation foamed with second- and third-generation blowing agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkes, K.E.; Gabbard, W.A.; Weaver, F.J.

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are presented on two studies of the effect of aging on the apparent thermal conductivity of polyurethane foam insulation for refrigerators. Both studies are cooperative projects between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Appliance Research Consortium. The first study has been ongoing for four years and involves evaluation of second generation blowing agents: HCFC-141b and HCFC-142/22 blend with CFC-11 for comparison. The second study has recently started and involves third generation blowing agents: HFC-134a, HFC-245fa. and cyclopentane with HCFC-141b for comparison. Both studies consist of periodic thermal measurements on panels made with solid steel and/or plastic skins and a core of foam to simulate refrigerator walls, and measurements on thin slices with cut faces to characterize the core foam. Laboratory data are presented on four years of aging of panels containing second generation blowing agents. Preliminary data are presented for the third generation blowing agents. The data on panels are compared with predictions of computer models of foam aging.

  11. Extended LargeQ Potts Model Simulation of Foam Drainage Yi Jiang and James A. Glazier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurien, Susan

    as brewing, lubrication, oil recovery, and fire­ fighting. Characterizing their structure and evolution in an unstable in­ terface or in viscous fingering. Instead, the mean­field theory predicts a flat interface­ illary effects and gravity balance. For pulsed drainage, as liquid drains from the top of the foam

  12. Society of Petroleum Engineers Simulation of Foam Transport in Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Society of Petroleum Engineers SPE 26402 Simulation of Foam Transport in Porous Media A.R. Kovscek, T.W. Patzek, and C.J. Radke, U. of California SPE Members Copyright 1993, Society of Petroleum and Exhibition of the Society of Petroleum Engineers held in Houston, Texas, 3-6 October 1993. This paper

  13. Analysis of Principal Gas Products During Combustion of Polyether Polyurethane Foam at Different Irradiance Levels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bustamante Valencia, Lucas; Rogaume, Thomas; Guillaume, Eric; Rein, Guillermo; Torero, Jose L

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper studies the release of the principal gas species produced during the combustion of a non-flame-retarded Polyether Polyurethane Foam (PPUF) of density of 20.9 kg/m^3 in the cone calorimeter. Five irradiance levels are studied: 10, 20, 30...

  14. INTERFACIAL AND TRANSPORT PHENOMENA IN CLOSED-CELL FOAMS Submitted to the Faculty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    INTERFACIAL AND TRANSPORT PHENOMENA IN CLOSED-CELL FOAMS A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty Sylvania, Techneglas, and Owens Corning provided the glass samples as well as help- ful criticisms the Purdue Glass Laboratory for sharing his expertise on glass and for letting me use his laboratory

  15. Microfabrication-Compatible Nanoporous Gold Foams as Biomaterials for Drug Delivery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seker, Erkin

    Microfabrication-Compatible Nanoporous Gold Foams as Biomaterials for Drug Delivery Erkin Seker different samples: (i) 12 mm-diameter circular plain glass cover slips; (ii) 5 mm-diameter gold spots patterned on the glass cover slips; (iii) 5 mm-diameter np-Au spots patterned on the glass cover slips

  16. MHD duct flows under hydrodynamic “slip” condition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smolentsev, S.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    9. Morley, N.B. , Medina, A. , Abdou, M.A. : Measurements ofSmolentsev, S. , Moreau, R. , Abdou, M. : Characterization

  17. Direct-Expansion Air-Conditioning System Performance in Low Humidity Applications: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khattar, M. K.; Keebaugh, D.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DIRECT-EXPANSION AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE IN LOW HUMIDITY APPLICATIONS: A CASE STUDY MUKESH K. KHATTAR, P.E. DENNIS KEEBAUGH, P.E. Senior Systems Engineer Senior Research Engineer Florida Solar Energy Center Shenandoah Solar Center... warehouse. The flat gravel roof is exposed to sun. The 16' ceiling is insulated with two inch spray foam. Entrance to the warehouse is through sealed and insulated doors located on the west partition wall. The air -conditioning sys tem on this leased...

  18. A preliminary study of acoustic propagation in thick foam tissue scaffolds composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, N G; Morgan, S P; Povey, M J W

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The exclusive ability of acoustic waves to probe the structural, mechanical and fluidic properties of foams may offer novel approaches to characterise the porous scaffolds employed in tissue engineering. Motivated by this we conduct a preliminary investigation into the acoustic properties of a typical biopolymer and the feasibility of acoustic propagation within a foam scaffold thereof. Focussing on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), we use a pulse-echo method to determine the longitudinal speed of sound, whose temperature-dependence reveals the glass transition of the polymer. Finally, we demonstrate the first topographic and tomographic acoustic images of polymer foam tissue scaffolds.

  19. A preliminary study of acoustic propagation in thick foam tissue scaffolds composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. G. Parker; M. L. Mather; S. P. Morgan; M. J. W. Povey

    2010-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The exclusive ability of acoustic waves to probe the structural, mechanical and fluidic properties of foams may offer novel approaches to characterise the porous scaffolds employed in tissue engineering. Motivated by this we conduct a preliminary investigation into the acoustic properties of a typical biopolymer and the feasibility of acoustic propagation within a foam scaffold thereof. Focussing on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), we use a pulse-echo method to determine the longitudinal speed of sound, whose temperature-dependence reveals the glass transition of the polymer. Finally, we demonstrate the first topographic and tomographic acoustic images of polymer foam tissue scaffolds.

  20. Cotton flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali Ulas Ozgur Kisisel; Ozgur Sarioglu; Bayram Tekin

    2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the conformally invariant Cotton tensor, we define a geometric flow, the "Cotton flow", which is exclusive to three dimensions. This flow tends to evolve the initial metrics into conformally flat ones, and is somewhat orthogonal to the Yamabe flow, the latter being a flow within a conformal class. We define an entropy functional, and study the flow of nine homogeneous spaces both numerically and analytically. In particular, we show that the arbitrarily deformed homogeneous 3-sphere flows into the round 3-sphere. Two of the nine homogeneous geometries, which are degenerated by the Ricci flow, are left intact by the Cotton flow.

  1. Modeling the dynamic response of low-density, reticulated, elastomeric foam impregnated with Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawson, Matthew A. (Matthew Aaron), 1983-

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Engineering cellular solids, such as honeycombs and foams, are widely used in applications ranging from thermal insulation to energy absorption. Natural cellular materials, such as wood, have been used in structures for ...

  2. Brazing open cell reticulated copper foam to stainless steel tubing with vacuum furnace brazed gold/indium alloy plating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, Stanley R. (Windsor, SC); Korinko, Paul S. (Aiken, SC)

    2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of fabricating a heat exchanger includes brush electroplating plated layers for a brazing alloy onto a stainless steel tube in thin layers, over a nickel strike having a 1.3 .mu.m thickness. The resultant Au-18 In composition may be applied as a first layer of indium, 1.47 .mu.m thick, and a second layer of gold, 2.54 .mu.m thick. The order of plating helps control brazing erosion. Excessive amounts of brazing material are avoided by controlling the electroplating process. The reticulated copper foam rings are interference fit to the stainless steel tube, and in contact with the plated layers. The copper foam rings, the plated layers for brazing alloy, and the stainless steel tube are heated and cooled in a vacuum furnace at controlled rates, forming a bond of the copper foam rings to the stainless steel tube that improves heat transfer between the tube and the copper foam.

  3. Aging of Polyurethane Foam Insulation in Simulated Refrigerator Panels--Three-Year Results with Third-Generation Blowing Agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkes, K.E.

    2001-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory data are presented on the effect of constant-temperature aging on the apparent thermal conductivity of polyurethane foam insulation for refrigerators and freezers. The foam specimens were blown with HCFC-141b and with three of its potential replacements--HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, and cyclopentane. Specimens were aged at constant temperatures of 90 F, 40 F, and -10 F. Thermal conductivity measurements were made on two types of specimens: full-thickness simulated refrigerator panels containing foam enclosed between solid plastic sheets, and thin slices of core foam cut from similar panels. Results are presented for the first three years of a multi-year aging study. Preliminary comparisons of measured data with predictions of a mathematical aging model are presented.

  4. Aging of Polyurethane Foam Insulation in Simulated Refrigerator Panels--Two-Year Results with Third-Generation Blowing Agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkes, K.E.

    2001-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory data are presented on the effect of constant-temperature aging on the apparent thermal conductivity of polyurethane foam insulation for refrigerators and freezers. The foam specimens were blown with HCFC-141b and with three of its potential replacements--HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, and cyclopentane. Specimens were aged at constant temperatures of 90 F, 40 F, and {minus}10 F. Thermal conductivity measurements were made on two types of specimens: full-thickness simulated refrigerator panels containing foam enclosed between solid plastic sheets, and thin slices of core foam cut from similar panels. Results are presented for the first two years of a multi-year aging study. Preliminary comparisons of measured data with predictions of a mathematical aging model are presented.

  5. The Dynamic Compressive Response of an Open-Cell Foam Impregnated With a Non-Newtonian Fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawson, Matthew A.

    The response of a reticulated, elastomeric foam filled with colloidal silica under dynamic compression is studied. Under compression beyond local strain rates on the order of 1 s[superscript ?1], the non-Newtonian, colloidal ...

  6. Final Report - "Foaming and Antifoaming and Gas Entrainment in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization Processes"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasan, Darsh T.

    2007-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford site are in the process of stabilizing millions of gallons of radioactive waste slurries remaining from production of nuclear materials for the Department of Energy (DOE). The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS is currently vitrifying the waste in borosilicate glass, while the facilities at the Hanford site are in the construction phase. Both processes utilize slurry-fed joule-heated melters to vitrify the waste slurries. The DWPF has experienced difficulty during operations. The cause of the operational problems has been attributed to foaming, gas entrainment and the rheological properties of the process slurries. The rheological properties of the waste slurries limit the total solids content that can be processed by the remote equipment during the pretreatment and meter feed processes. Highly viscous material can lead to air entrainment during agitation and difficulties with pump operations. Excessive foaming in waste evaporators can cause carryover of radionuclides and non-radioactive waste to the condensate system. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the surface phenomena, suspension rheology and bubble generation of interactions that lead to foaming and air entrainment problems in the DOE High Level and Low Activity Radioactive Waste separation and immobilization processes were pursued under this project. The first major task accomplished in the grant proposal involved development of a theoretical model of the phenomenon of foaming in a three-phase gas-liquid-solid slurry system. This work was presented in a recently completed Ph.D. thesis (9). The second major task involved the investigation of the inter-particle interaction and microstructure formation in a model slurry by the batch sedimentation method. Both experiments and modeling studies were carried out. The results were presented in a recently completed Ph.D. thesis. The third task involved the use of laser confocal microscopy to study the effectiveness of three slurry rheology modifiers. An effective modifier was identified which resulted in lowering the yield stress of the waste simulant. Therefore, the results of this research have led to the basic understanding of the foaming/antifoaming mechanism in waste slurries as well as identification of a rheology modifier, which enhances the processing throughput, and accelerates the DOE mission. The objectives of this research effort were to develop a fundamental understanding of the physico-chemical mechanisms that produced foaming and air entrainment in the DOE High Level (HLW) and Low Activity (LAW) radioactive waste separation and immobilization processes, and to develop and test advanced antifoam/defoaming/rheology modifier agents. Antifoams/rheology modifiers developed from this research ere tested using non-radioactive simulants of the radioactive wastes obtained from Hanford and the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  7. Rapid oxidation/stabilization technique for carbon foams, carbon fibers and C/C composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, Seng; Tan, Cher-Dip

    2004-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An enhanced method for the post processing, i.e. oxidation or stabilization, of carbon materials including, but not limited to, carbon foams, carbon fibers, dense carbon-carbon composites, carbon/ceramic and carbon/metal composites, which method requires relatively very short and more effective such processing steps. The introduction of an "oxygen spill over catalyst" into the carbon precursor by blending with the carbon starting material or exposure of the carbon precursor to such a material supplies required oxygen at the atomic level and permits oxidation/stabilization of carbon materials in a fraction of the time and with a fraction of the energy normally required to accomplish such carbon processing steps. Carbon based foams, solids, composites and fiber products made utilizing this method are also described.

  8. Fabrication of thin-wall hollow nickel spheres and low density syntactic foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clancy, R.B.; Sanders, T.H. Jr.; Cochran, J.K.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A process has been developed to fabricate thin-wall hollow spheres from conventional oxide powders at room temperature. The polymer- bonded powder shells are fired in air to sinter the walls, leaving the shells either impervious or porous. Alternatively, the oxide shells can be preferentially reduced to produce thin-wall hollow metal spheres which can be bonded together to produce an ultra light weight closed-cell foam. Processing and properties of this class of low density structures will be discussed.

  9. The Federal manufactured home construction and safety standards -- implications for foam panel construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, A.D.; Schrock, D.W.; Flintoft, S.A.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report reviews the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development construction code for (HUD-code) manufactured homes, Part 3280: Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards (the HUD Code), to identify sections that might be relevant in determining if insulated foam core panels (or structural insulated panels, SIPs) meet the requirements of Part 3280 for use in manufactured home construction. The U.S. Department of Energy and other parties are interested in the use of SIPs in residential construction, including HUD-Code manufactured homes, because the foam panels can have a higher effective insulation value than standard stud-framed construction and use less dimensional lumber. Although SIPs have not been used in manufactured housing, they may be well suited to the factory production process used to manufacture HUD-Code homes and the fact that they require less virgin timber may reduce the effect of volatile and increasing timber prices. Part 3280 requirements for fire resistance, wind resistance, structural load strength, ventilation, transportation shock, and thermal protection are reviewed. A brief comparison is made between the HUD Code requirements and data collected from foam panel manufacturers. 8 refs.

  10. Optimization of Design and Manufacturing Process of Metal Foam Filled Anti-Intrusion Bars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villa, Andrea; Mussi, Valerio [Laboratorio MUSP-via Turotti 9, 29122 Piacenza (Italy); Strano, Matteo [Politecnico di Milano-Dipartimento di Meccanica, via La Masa 1, 20156, Milan (Italy)

    2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of an anti-intrusion bar for automotive use is to absorb the kinetic energy of the colliding bodies that is partially converted into internal work of the bodies involved in the crash. The aim of this paper is to investigate the performances of a new kind of anti-intrusion bars for automotive use, filled with metallic foams. The reason for using a cellular material as a filler deals with its capacity to absorb energy during plastic deformation, while being lightweight. The study is the evolution of a previous paper presented by the authors at Esaform 2010 and will present new results and findings. It is conducted by evaluating some key technical issues of the manufacturing problem and by conducting experimental and numerical analyses. The evaluation of materials and shapes of the closed sections to be filled is made in the perspective of a car manufacturer (production costs, weight reduction, space availability in a car door, etc.). Experimentally, foams are produced starting from an industrial aluminium precursor with a TiH{sub 2} blowing agent. Bars are tested in three point bending, in order to evaluate their performances in terms of force-displacement response and other specific performance parameters. In order to understand the role of interface between the inner surface of the tube and the external surface of the foam, different kinds of interface are tested.

  11. Dryout droplet distribution and dispersed flow film boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Wayne S.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dispersed flow film boiling is characterized by liquid-phase droplets entrained in a continuous vapor-phase flow. In a previous work at MIT, a model of dispersed flow heat transfer was developed, called the Local Conditions ...

  12. UZ Flow Models and Submodels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Wu

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) flow models and submodels, as well as the flow fields that have been generated using the UZ flow model(s) of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this report, the term ''UZ model'' refers to the UZ flow model and the several submodels, which include tracer transport, temperature or ambient geothermal, pneumatic or gas flow, and geochemistry (chloride, calcite, and strontium) submodels. The term UZ flow model refers to the three-dimensional models used for calibration and simulation of UZ flow fields. This work was planned in the ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.7). The table of included Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs), Table 6.2-11, is different from the list of included FEPs assigned to this report in the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Table 2.1.5-1), as discussed in Section 6.2.6. The UZ model has revised, updated, and enhanced the previous UZ model (BSC 2001 [DIRS 158726]) by incorporating the repository design with new grids, recalibration of property sets, and more comprehensive validation effort. The flow fields describe fracture-fracture, matrix-matrix, and fracture-matrix liquid flow rates, and their spatial distributions as well as moisture conditions in the UZ system. These three-dimensional UZ flow fields are used directly by Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The model and submodels evaluate important hydrogeologic processes in the UZ as well as geochemistry and geothermal conditions. These provide the necessary framework to test hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales, and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic conditions. In addition, the limitations of the UZ model are discussed in Section 8.11.

  13. Security Conditions

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This Notice ensures that DOE uniformly meets the requirements of the Homeland Security Advisory System outlined in Homeland Security Presidential Directive-3, Threat Conditions and Associated Protective Measures, dated 3-11-02, and provides responses specified in Presidential Decision Directive 39, U.S. Policy on Counterterrorism (U), dated 6-21-95. It cancels DOE N 473.8, Security Conditions, dated 8-7-02. Extended until 7-7-06 by DOE N 251.64, dated 7-7-05 Cancels DOE N 473.8

  14. JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 2012, IN PRESS DOI: 10.1007/S10853-012-6927-8 Viscoelastic properties of hollow glass particle filled vinyl ester matrix syntactic foams: effect of temperature and loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Nikhil

    properties of hollow glass particle filled vinyl ester matrix syntactic foams: effect of temperature compositions of syntactic foams. Storage modulus, loss modulus, and glass transition temperature (Tg@poly.edu Abstract Viscoelastic properties of hollow particle reinforced composites called syntactic foams

  15. Materials Science and Engineering A, 2006. 427(1-2): p. 331-342 331 Comparison of Compressive Properties of Layered Syntactic Foams having Gradient in Microballoon Volume Fraction and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Nikhil

    ]. The microstructure of syntactic foams is shown in Figure 1, where glass microballoons are dispersed in an epoxy resin foam. Glass microballoons are embedded in an epoxy resin matrix. Figure 2. Compressive stress Properties of Layered Syntactic Foams having Gradient in Microballoon Volume Fraction and Wall Thickness

  16. Final Technical Report Quantification and Standardization of Pattern Properties for the Control of the Lost Foam Casting Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Michaels

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project takes a fresh look at the ''white side'' of the lost foam casting process. We have developed the gel front hypothesis for foam pyrolysis behavior and the magnetic metal pump method for controlling lost foam casting metal fill event. The subject of this report is work done in the improvement of the Lost Foam Casting Process. The original objective of this project was to improve the control of metal fill by understanding the influence of foam pattern and coating properties on the metal fill event. Relevant pattern properties could then be controlled, providing control of the metal fill event. One of the original premises of this project was that the process of metal fill was relatively well understood. Considerable previous work had been done to develop fluid mechanical and heat transfer models of the process. If we could just incorporate measured pattern properties into these models we would be able predict accurately the metal fill event. As we began to study the pyrolysis behavior of EPS during the metal fill event, we discovered that the chemical nature of this event had been completely overlooked in previous research. Styrene is the most prevalent breakdown product of EPS pyrolysis and it is a solvent for polystyrene. Much of the styrene generated by foam pyrolysis diffuses into intact foam, producing a molten gel of mechanically entangled polystyrene molecules. Much of the work of our project has centered on validation of this concept and producing a qualitative model of the behavior of EPS foam undergoing pyrolysis in a confined environment. A conclusion of this report is that styrene dissolution in EPS is a key phenomenon in the pyrolysis process and deserves considerable further study. While it is possible to continue to model the metal fill event parametrically using empirical data, we recommend that work be undertaken by qualified researchers to directly characterize and quantify this phenomenon for the benefit of modelers, researchers, and workers in the field. Another original premise of this project was that foam pattern and coating properties could be used to efficiently control metal fill. After studying the structure of EPS foam in detail for the period of this contract, we have come to the conclusion that EPS foam has an inherent variability at a scale that influences metal fill behavior. This does not allow for the detailed fine control of the process that we originally envisioned. We therefore have sought other methods for the control of the metal fill event. Of those, we now believe that the magnetic metal pump shows the most promise. We have conducted two casting trials using this method and preliminary results are very encouraging. A conclusion of our report is that, while every effort should continue to be made to produce uniform foam and coatings, the use of the magnetic metal pump should be encouraged and closed loop control mechanisms should be developed for this pouring method.

  17. SPRAY FOAM IN ACCESSIBLE SPACES:BEST PRACTICES AND CASE STUDIES FOR RETROFIT IN MIXED-HUMID CLIMATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Gant, Kathy [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating and cooling the house is one of the homeowners major expenses. Reducing these costs, saving energy, and creating a healthier, more comfortable indoor environment are good reasons to consider improving the building thermal envelope. Improvements usually consider increasing the amount of insulation, reducing the infiltration of outside air, and controlling moisture in existing buildings. This report describes the use of spray foam materials to insulate, seal, and control moisture. This discussion is limited to treating areas that are accessible. What is accessible, however, can vary depending on the type of renovation. If the building has been gutted or exterior surfaces removed, there are more options. This report will look at areas to consider for spray foam application and discuss the types of spray foams available and their uses. A number of case studies are presented to show the effectiveness of this retrofit in existing houses based on performance data.

  18. REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Chin; Xiaolei Sun; George W. Roberts; Amornmart Sirijarhuphan; Sourabh Pansare; James G. Goodwin Jr; Richard W. Rice; James J. Spivey

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrocarbon fuels must be reformed in a series of steps to provide hydrogen for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Preferential oxidation (PROX) is one method to reduce the CO concentration to less than 10 ppm in the presence of {approx}40% H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and steam. This will prevent CO poisoning of the PEMFC anode. Structured supports, such as ceramic monoliths, can be used for the PROX reaction. Alternatively, metal foams offer a number of advantages over the traditional ceramic monolith.

  19. Production of High Quality Dust Control Foam to Minimize Moisture Addition to Coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Termine, F.; Jordan, S. T.

    of their suitability. Seven foam generators were evaluated: two were packed columns of honeycomb, two were static mixers with different mixing media, one was a tube containing a concentric fritted air pipe, and two were low- and high-pressure venturi mi xers.... The air and solution have a common inlet to the packed column and static mixer type foamers. The air for the venturi foamers is added to the turbulent solution after the venturi throat. The mixing in the tube foamer is achieved by blowing air through...

  20. Measurements of continuous mix evolution in a high energy density shear flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loomis, E., E-mail: loomis@lanl.gov; Doss, F.; Flippo, K.; Fincke, J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the novel integration of streaked radiography into a counter-flowing High Energy Density (HED) shear environment that continually measures a growing mix layer of Al separating two low-density CH foams. Measurements of the mix width allow us to validate compressible turbulence models and with streaked imaging, make this possible with a minimal number of experiments on large laser facilities. In this paper, we describe how the HED counter-flowing shear layer is created and diagnosed with streaked radiography. We then compare the streaked data to previous two-dimensional, single frame radiography and radiation hydrodynamic simulations of the experiment with inline compressible turbulent mix models.

  1. Flow chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morozov, Victor (Manassas, VA)

    2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A flow chamber having a vacuum chamber and a specimen chamber. The specimen chamber may have an opening through which a fluid may be introduced and an opening through which the fluid may exit. The vacuum chamber may have an opening through which contents of the vacuum chamber may be evacuated. A portion of the flow chamber may be flexible, and a vacuum may be used to hold the components of the flow chamber together.

  2. Classification of Two-Phase Flow Patterns by Ultrasonic Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Asok

    in addition to several other factors such as the bulk flow rate, fluid properties, and flow boundary conditions [1]. Characterization of flow patterns and identification of the associ- ated flow regimes instrumentation, both for void fraction identification and flow pattern classification. High-speed photog- raphy

  3. Geological flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. N. Bratkov

    2008-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper geology and planetology are considered using new conceptual basis of high-speed flow dynamics. Recent photo technics allow to see all details of a flow, 'cause the flow is static during very short time interval. On the other hand, maps and images of many planets are accessible. Identity of geological flows and high-speed gas dynamics is demonstrated. There is another time scale, and no more. All results, as far as the concept, are new and belong to the author. No formulae, pictures only.

  4. Microstructural characterization of low-density foams. [Silica, resorcinol/formaldehyde, cellulose/acetate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, C.W.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-density foams (of the order 0.1 g/cm/sup 3/) synthesized from silica aerogel, resorcinol/formaldehyde, and cellulose acetate have fine, delicate microstructures that are extremely difficult to characterize. Improved low-voltage resolution of an SEM equipped with a field-emission gun (FESEM) does permit these materials to be examined directly without coating and at sufficient magnification to reveal the microstructures. Light coatings applied by ion-beam deposition can stabilize the specimens to some extent and reduce electron charging without seriously altering the microstructure, but coatings applied by conventional techniques usually obliterate these microstructures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is required to provide unambiguous microstructural interpretations. However, TEM examinations of these materials can be severely restricted by specimen preparation difficulties and electron-beam damage, and considerable care must be taken to ensure that reasonably accurate TEM results have been obtained. This work demonstrates that low-voltage FESEM analyses can be used to characterize microstructures in these foams, but TEM analyses are required to confirm the FESEM analyses and perform quantitative measurements. 19 refs., 11 figs.

  5. Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spray polyurethane foams (SPFs) have advantages over alternative insulation methods because they provide air sealing in complex assemblies, particularly roofs. Spray foam can provide the thermal, air, and vapor control layers in both new and retrofit construction. Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell SPF insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990s to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated incidents of failures (either sheathing rot or SPF delamination) that raise some general concerns about the hygrothermal performance and durability of these systems. The primary risks for roof systems are rainwater leaks, condensation from diffusion and air leakage, and built-in construction moisture. This project directly investigated rain and indirectly investigated built-in construction moisture and vapor drives. Research involved both hygrothermal modeling of a range of rain water leakage scenarios and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs. Other variables considered were climate zone, orientation, interior relative humidity, and the vapor permeance of the coating applied to the interior face of open cell SPF.

  6. An approach to model validation and model-based prediction -- polyurethane foam case study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowding, Kevin J.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Enhanced software methodology and improved computing hardware have advanced the state of simulation technology to a point where large physics-based codes can be a major contributor in many systems analyses. This shift toward the use of computational methods has brought with it new research challenges in a number of areas including characterization of uncertainty, model validation, and the analysis of computer output. It is these challenges that have motivated the work described in this report. Approaches to and methods for model validation and (model-based) prediction have been developed recently in the engineering, mathematics and statistical literatures. In this report we have provided a fairly detailed account of one approach to model validation and prediction applied to an analysis investigating thermal decomposition of polyurethane foam. A model simulates the evolution of the foam in a high temperature environment as it transforms from a solid to a gas phase. The available modeling and experimental results serve as data for a case study focusing our model validation and prediction developmental efforts on this specific thermal application. We discuss several elements of the ''philosophy'' behind the validation and prediction approach: (1) We view the validation process as an activity applying to the use of a specific computational model for a specific application. We do acknowledge, however, that an important part of the overall development of a computational simulation initiative is the feedback provided to model developers and analysts associated with the application. (2) We utilize information obtained for the calibration of model parameters to estimate the parameters and quantify uncertainty in the estimates. We rely, however, on validation data (or data from similar analyses) to measure the variability that contributes to the uncertainty in predictions for specific systems or units (unit-to-unit variability). (3) We perform statistical analyses and hypothesis tests as a part of the validation step to provide feedback to analysts and modelers. Decisions on how to proceed in making model-based predictions are made based on these analyses together with the application requirements. Updating modifying and understanding the boundaries associated with the model are also assisted through this feedback. (4) We include a ''model supplement term'' when model problems are indicated. This term provides a (bias) correction to the model so that it will better match the experimental results and more accurately account for uncertainty. Presumably, as the models continue to develop and are used for future applications, the causes for these apparent biases will be identified and the need for this supplementary modeling will diminish. (5) We use a response-modeling approach for our predictions that allows for general types of prediction and for assessment of prediction uncertainty. This approach is demonstrated through a case study supporting the assessment of a weapons response when subjected to a hydrocarbon fuel fire. The foam decomposition model provides an important element of the response of a weapon system in this abnormal thermal environment. Rigid foam is used to encapsulate critical components in the weapon system providing the needed mechanical support as well as thermal isolation. Because the foam begins to decompose at temperatures above 250 C, modeling the decomposition is critical to assessing a weapons response. In the validation analysis it is indicated that the model tends to ''exaggerate'' the effect of temperature changes when compared to the experimental results. The data, however, are too few and to restricted in terms of experimental design to make confident statements regarding modeling problems. For illustration, we assume these indications are correct and compensate for this apparent bias by constructing a model supplement term for use in the model-based predictions. Several hypothetical prediction problems are created and addressed. Hypothetical problems are used because no guidance was provided concern

  7. OmniBrace: A Fast Acting Expanding Foam Splint for Orthopedic Injuries Anisha Bapna, Margaret Lees, William Littlefield, Harrison Rose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGaughey, Alan

    utilizes expanding polyurethane foam technology to provide immediate temporary immobilization to orthopedic professionals · Emergency responders · Sports medics · Military field medics There are 225,000 registered EMS personnel in the US alone, as well as nearly 20,000 sports medics, all requiring immobilization equipment

  8. DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A RECTANGULAR HE-COOLED REFRACTORY FOAM HX-CHANNEL FOR DIVERTOR APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    a thin (~ 2mm) layer of open-cell refractory foam bonded underneath the heated surface to enhance heat the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) was considered by Malang et al. in 2001, but not pursued due to uncertainties in predicting the heat transfer coefficient and due to geometric considerations [2]. Recently, we

  9. DESIGN OF FOAM COVERING FOR ROBOTIC ARMS TO ENSURE HUMAN SAFETY Lingqi Zeng and Gary M. Bone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bone, Gary

    and experimental peak impact force results is 8%. 1. INTRODUCTION Whether in industrial applications such as teach programming, or service applications such as rescue robots, robotic manipulators are operating closer and maintain, which limits their applicability. Using foam to cover the robot arm surface is a simple

  10. The application of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) to suppress LNG vapor and LNG pool fire thermal radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suardin, Jaffee Arizon

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ............... 131 Figure 85. Un-mitigated continuous spill - hydrocarbon camera snapshots .................. 133 Figure 86. Foamglas hydrocarbon camera snapshots ..................................................... 134 Figure 87. Methane cloud characteristics... - no suppression and with expansion foam .. 134 Figure 88. Methane concentration profile in the 65m 2 pit during Foamglas?PFS application .................................................................................................... 136 Figure 89. Methane...

  11. Long-Term Stabilization of Foams and Emulsions with In-Situ Formed Microparticles from Hydrophobic Cellulose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velev, Orlin D.

    and ethanol/ water mixtures. As these HP stock solutions were sheared in aqueous media, micron sized cellulose Cellulose Hartmut A. Wege, Sejong Kim, Vesselin N. Paunov, Qixin Zhong,*,§ and Orlin D. Velev*, Department a simple method to produce foams and emulsions of extraordinary stability by using hydrophobic cellulose

  12. Z .Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science 7 2002 228 234 Slow dynamics in glasses, gels and foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weeks, Eric R.

    Z .Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science 7 2002 228 234 Slow dynamics in glasses, gels and foams Luca CipellettiU , Laurence Ramos Groupe de Dynamique des Phases Condensees, Uni. Keywords: Aging; Lightscattering; Glass; Gel; Colloids; Rheolgy 1. Introduction Disordered, out

  13. Numerical and experimental investigations on the interaction of light wire-array Z-pinches with embedded heavy foam converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Delong; Ding, Ning; Sun, Shunkai [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)] [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Ye, Fan; Ning, Jiamin; Hu, Qingyuan; Chen, Faxin; Qin, Yi; Xu, Rongkun; Li, Zhenghong [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)] [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of a light tungsten wire-array Z-pinch with an embedded heavy foam converter, whose mass ratio is typically less than 0.16, is numerically analyzed and experimentally investigated on the 1.3 MA “QiangGuang I” facility. Computational results show that this implosion process can be divided into three stages: acceleration of the tungsten wire-array plasma, collision, and stagnation. The tungsten plasma is accelerated to a high speed by the J?×?B force and interacts weakly with the foam plasma in the first stage. Strong energy conversions take place in the second collision stage. When the high speed tungsten plasma impacts on the foam converter, the plasma is thermalized and a radial radiation peak is produced. Meanwhile, a shock wave is generated due to the collision. After the shock rebounds from the axis and meets the W/Foam boundary, the plasma stagnates and the second radial radiation peak appears. The collision and stagnation processes were observed and the two-peak radial radiation pulse was produced in experiments. Increasing the wire-array radius from 4?mm to 6?mm, the kinetic energy of the tungsten plasma is increased, causing a stronger thermalization and generating a higher first radiation peak. Experimental results also showed a higher ratio of the first peak to the second peak in the case of larger wire-array radius. If we add a thin CH film cover onto the surface of the embedded foam converter, the first radiation peak will be hardly changed, because the acceleration of the tungsten plasma is not evidently affected by the film cover. However, the second radiation peak decreases remarkably due to the large load mass and the corresponding weak compression.

  14. Cooling Flows or Heating Flows?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Binney

    2003-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    It is now clear that AGN heat cooling flows, largely by driving winds. The winds may contain a relativistic component that generates powerful synchrotron radiation, but it is not clear that all winds do so. The spatial and temporal stability of the AGN/cooling flow interaction are discussed. Collimation of the winds probably provides spatial stability. Temporal stability may be possible only for black holes with masses above a critical value. Both the failure of cooling flows to have adiabatic cores and the existence of X-ray cavities confirm the importance of collimated outflows. I quantify the scale of the convective flow that the AGN Hydra would need to drive if it balanced radiative inward flow by outward flow parallel to the jets. At least in Virgo any such flow must be confined to r<~20 kpc. Hydrodynamical simulations suggest that AGN outbursts cannot last longer than ~25 Myr. Data for four clusters with well studied X-ray cavities suggests that heating associated with cavity formation approximately balances radiative cooling. The role of cosmic infall and the mechanism of filament formation are briefly touched on.

  15. Failure of a gas well to respond to a foam hydraulic fracturing treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rauscher, B.D.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Well No. 1 (not the real name of the well) is not producing gas at maximum capacity following a foam hydraulic fracturing treatment performed upon completion of the well in 1987. The failure of the stimulation treatment, which has affected other wells throughout the field, was due to a combination of three factors: (1) downward fracture growth and proppant settling during injection (2) embedment due to a high pressure drawdown in the wellbore during flowback procedures, and (3) poor cleanup of the fracture fluid due to high capillary pressures. The following are recommendations to help improve future fracturing treatments throughout the field: (1) Fracture at lower treating pressures; (2) Improve perforating techniques; (3) Change flowback procedures; and (4) Evaluate using N{sub 2} as a fracture fluid.

  16. Measurement of emission diameter as a function of time on foam z- pinch plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazier, S.E.; Barber, T.L. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Derzon, M.S.; Kellogg, J.W.

    1996-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a streaked imaging capability to make time-resolved measurements of the emission size for low density foam z-pinches. By lens coupling visible emission from the z-pinch target to an array of fiber optics we obtained the emission profile in the visible as a function of time with radial resolution of 300 {mu}m. To measure the emission at temperatures greater than {approx}40 eV the source was slit-imaged or pin-hole imaged onto an x-ray filtered scintillator. Non-uniformities in both visible and x-ray emission were observed. We describe the diagnostics, the image unfold process, and results from the instrument for both visible and x-ray measurements.

  17. Evaluation of Experimental Parameters in the Accelerated Aging of Closed-Cell Foam Insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Vanderlan, Michael [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conductivity of many closed-cell foam insulation products changes over time as production gases diffuse out of the cell matrix and atmospheric gases diffuse into the cells. Thin slicing has been shown to be an effective means of accelerating this process in such a way as to produce meaningful results. Efforts to produce a more prescriptive version of the ASTM C1303 standard test method led to the ruggedness test described here. This test program included the aging of full size insulation specimens for time periods of five years for direct comparison to the predicted results. Experimental parameters under investigation include: slice thickness, slice origin (at the surface or from the core of the slab), thin slice stack composition, product facings, original product thickness, product density, and product type. The test protocol has been completed and this report provides a detailed evaluation of the impact of the test parameters on the accuracy of the 5-year thermal conductivity prediction.

  18. Synthesis of bulk metallic glass foam by powder extrusion with a fugitive second phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Min Ha; Sordelet, Daniel J. [Materials and Engineering Physics Program, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2006-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk metallic glass foams with 12 mm in diameter and 30 mm in length having a density of 4.62 g/cm{sup 3} (approximately 58.3% of theoretical) were fabricated by extruding a powder mixture comprised of 60 vol % Ni{sub 59}Zr{sub 20}Ti{sub 16}Si{sub 2}Sn{sub 3} metallic glass blended with 40 vol % brass followed by dissolution of the fugitive brass in an aqueous HNO{sub 3} solution. The final structure consists of continuously connected, high aspect ratio metallic glass struts surrounded by {approx}40 vol % of homogeneously distributed ellipsoid-shaped pores having nominal diameters between 10 and 50 {mu}m.

  19. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2001-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is an investigation of various multi-phase and multiscale transport and reaction processes associated with heavy oil recovery. The thrust areas of the project include the following: Internal drives, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes, fluid displacements and the effect of instabilities and heterogeneities and the flow of fluids with yield stress. These find respective applications in foamy oils, the evolution of dissolved gas, internal steam drives, the mechanics of concurrent and countercurrent vapor-liquid flows, associated with thermal methods and steam injection, such as SAGD, the in-situ combustion, the upscaling of displacements in heterogeneous media and the flow of foams, Bingham plastics and heavy oils in porous media and the development of wormholes during cold production.

  20. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    2001-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is an investigation of various multi-phase and multiscale transport and reaction processes associated with heavy oil recovery. The thrust areas of the project include the following: Internal drives, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes, fluid displacements and the effect of instabilities and heterogeneities and the flow of fluids with yield stress. These find respective applications in foamy oils, the evolution of dissolved gas, internal steam drives, the mechanics of concurrent and countercurrent vapor-liquid flows, associated with thermal methods and steam injection, such as SAGD, the in-situ combustion, the upscaling of displacements in heterogeneous media and the flow of foams, Bingham plastics and heavy oils in porous media and the development of wormholes during cold production.

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - artificial boundary conditions Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    obtained from satellite (above) and GPS mea- surements 1 as boundary conditions. The ice... by Glen's flow law: Boundary conditions are ... Source: Langhorne, Pat - Department...

  2. International Journal of Crashworthiness, 2012, 17(3): p. 327-336 Mechanical Properties and Failure Mechanisms of Closed-Cell PVC Foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Nikhil

    guidelines. Keywords: Foam; cellular polymer; mechanical properties; impact; automotive material. 1 into increased fuel economy and reduced pollution in transportation applications. In addition, high compressive with uniform cell structure and improved mechanical properties can be chemically synthesized through

  3. Constraints on flow regimes in wide-aperture fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.

    2004-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, significant advances have been made in our understanding of the complex flow processes in individual fractures, aided by flow visualization experiments and conceptual modeling efforts. These advances have led to the recognition of several flow regimes in individual fractures subjected to different initial and boundary conditions. Of these, the most important regimes are film flow, rivulet flow, and sliding of droplets. The existence of such significantly dissimilar flow regimes has been a major hindrance in the development of self-consistent conceptual models of flow for single fractures that encompass all the flow regimes. The objective of this study is to delineate the existence of the different flow regimes in individual fractures. For steady-state flow conditions, we developed physical constraints on the different flow regimes that satisfy minimum energy configurations, which enabled us to segregate the wide range of fracture transmissivity (volumetric flow rate per fracture width) into several flow regimes. These are, in increasing order of flow rate, flow of adsorbed films, flow of sliding drops, rivulet flow, stable film flow, and unstable (turbulent) film flow. The scope of this study is limited to wide-aperture fractures with the flow on the opposing sides of fracture being independent.

  4. Comment on “Velocity boundary conditions at a tokamak resistive wall” [Phys. Plasmas 21, 032506 (2014)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakharov, Leonid E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Li, Xujing [Institute of Computational Mathematics and Scientific/Engineering Computing, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper gives the derivation of the MHD boundary condition for the plasma flow to the wall during disruptions.

  5. Self-Organized Amorphous TiO2 Nanotube Arrays on Porous Ti Foam for Rechargeable Lithium and Sodium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bi, Zhonghe [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Menchhofer, Paul A [ORNL; Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Bridges, Craig A [ORNL; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL; Guo, Bingkun [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-organized amorphous TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) were successfully fabricated on both Ti foil and porous Ti foam through electrochemical anodization techniques. The starting Ti foams were fabricated using ARCAM s Electron Beam Melting (EBM) technology. The TiO2 NTAs on Ti foam were used as anodes in lithium ion batteries; they exhibited high capacities of 103 Ahcm-2 at 10 Acm-2 and 83 Ahcm-2 at 500 Acm-2, which are two to three times higher than those achieved on the standard Ti foil, which is around 40 Ahcm-2 at 10 Acm-2 and 24 Ahcm-2 at 500 Acm-2, respectively. This improvement is mainly attributed to higher surface area of the Ti foam and higher porosity of the nanotube arrays layer grown on the Ti foam. In addition, a Na-ion half-cell composed of these NTAs anodes and Na metal showed a self-improving specific capacity upon cycling at 10 Acm-2. These results indicate that TiO2 NTAs grown on Ti porous foam are promising electrodes for Li-ion or Na-ion rechargeable batteries.

  6. Flow cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van den Engh, G.

    1995-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A Faraday cage is described which encloses the flow chamber of a cytometer. Ground planes associated with each field deflection plate inhibit electric fields from varying the charge on designated events/droplets and further concentrates. They also increase forces applied to a passing charged event for accurate focus while concomitantly inhibiting a potential shock hazard. 4 figs.

  7. Three-dimensional jamming and flows of soft glassy materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillaume Ovarlez; Quentin Barral; Philippe Coussot

    2011-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Various disordered dense systems such as foams, gels, emulsions and colloidal suspensions, exhibit a jamming transition from a liquid state (they flow) to a solid state below a yield stress. Their structure, thoroughly studied with powerful means of 3D characterization, exhibits some analogy with that of glasses which led to call them soft glassy materials. However, despite its importance for geophysical and industrial applications, their rheological behavior, and its microscopic origin, is still poorly known, in particular because of its nonlinear nature. Here we show from two original experiments that a simple 3D continuum description of the behaviour of soft glassy materials can be built. We first show that when a flow is imposed in some direction there is no yield resistance to a secondary flow: these systems are always unjammed simultaneously in all directions of space. The 3D jamming criterion appears to be the plasticity criterion encountered in most solids. We also find that they behave as simple liquids in the direction orthogonal to that of the main flow; their viscosity is inversely proportional to the main flow shear rate, as a signature of shear-induced structural relaxation, in close similarity with the structural relaxations driven by temperature and density in other glassy systems.

  8. Treatment of concentrated industrial wastewaters originating from oil shale and the like by electrolysis polyurethane foam interaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiernan, Joan E. (38 Clay Ct., Novato, CA 94947)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly concentrated and toxic petroleum-based and synthetic fuels wastewaters such as oil shale retort water are treated in a unit treatment process by electrolysis in a reactor containing oleophilic, ionized, open-celled polyurethane foams and subjected to mixing and l BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention described herein arose in the course of, or under, Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098 between the U.S. Department of Energy and the University of California.

  9. Comparison of the bubble size distribution in silicate foams using 2-dimensional images and 3-dimensional x-ray microtomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert, G.; Baker, D.R.; Rivers, M.L.; Allard, E.; Larocque, J. (McGill); (UC)

    2005-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Three silicate glasses were hydrated at high pressure and then heated at atmospheric pressure to exsolve the water into bubbles and create foams. The bubble size distribution in these foams was measured by x-ray microtomography on the GSECARS BM-13 beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. The bubble area distributions were measured in two dimensions using the image slices produced from the microtomography and the software ImageJ. The bubble volume distributions were measured from the three-dimensional tomographic images with the BLOB3D software. We found that careful analysis of the microtomography data in both two and three dimensions was necessary to avoid the physically unrealistic, experimental artifact of identifying and counting many small bubbles whose surfaces were not defined by a septum of glass. When this artifact was avoided the foams demonstrated power-law distributions of bubble sizes in both two and three dimensions. Conversion of the power-law exponents for bubble areas measured in two dimensions to exponents for bubble volumes usually agreed with the measured three dimensional volume exponents. Furthermore, the power-law distributions for bubble volumes typically agree with multiple theories of bubble growth, all of which yield an exponent of 1 for the cumulative bubble volume distribution. The measured bubble volume distributions with exponents near 0.3 can be explained by diffusive growth as proposed by other authors, but distributions with exponents near 1.4 remain to be explained and are the subject of continuing research on the effects of water concentration and melt viscosity on foaming behavior.

  10. Laboratory investigations of effective flow behavior in unsaturated heterogeneous sands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildenschild, Dorthe

    Laboratory investigations of effective flow behavior in unsaturated heterogeneous sands D, Lyngby Abstract. Two-dimensional unsaturated flow and transport through heterogeneous sand was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of five homogeneous

  11. SFTEL: Flow Cell | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flow Cell EMSL's Subsurface Flow and Transport Experimental Laboratory offers several meter-scale flow cells and columns for research in saturated and unsaturated porous media....

  12. Interpretation of Array Production Logging Measurements in Horizontal Wells for Flow Profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liao, Lulu

    2013-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    and possible back flow of denser phases result in misinterpretation of the inflow distribution. To assess the downhole flow conditions more accurately, logging tools have been developed to overcome the flow regime related issues. Multiple-sensor array tools...

  13. Some hydrodynamic characteristics of bubbly mixtures flowing vertically upward in tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Sewell C.

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation of bubbly flow has been conducted in vertical plexiglass tubes using air and water at atmospheric pressure. The bubbly flow pattern is an entrance condition or a non-fully developed flow. A spontaneous ...

  14. Design considerations for a steam-injection pilot with in-situ foaming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, M.H.; Sanyal, S.K.; Horn, A.J.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report reviews the necessary aspects of the planning, operation, evaluation, environmental impact and cost to implement a field pilot of steam injection with in-situ foaming. The Stanford University Petroleum Research Institute (SUPRI) is planning to implement such a pilot in Kern County, California. The cost of the pilot will be shared by the US Department of Energy and an oil company. Some important aspects of drilling and completion programs and their specifications, permits from regulatory bodies, and downhole tools to improve steam stimulation are discussed. The essential surface facilities which include water treatment plant, steam generator, demulsifier and dehydrator are considered. The necessary laboratory research in support of the pilot has been recommended. The formation evaluation and reservoir engineering effort for the pilot has been divided into three phases: reservoir definition, reservoir monitoring and post-pilot study. Appropriate techniques applicable to each phase of the test have been discussed. The environmental impact regulations as related to the steam injection process have been considered. In particular, the environmental problems associated with the burning of crude oil and desulfurization of flue gas have been discussed. Other environmental considerations such as solid and liquid waste disposal, health and safety are also discussed. An estimate of the cost of this field test is presented. Three scenarii (for pilots with high, medium, and low investment potentials, respectively) are presented. Since this report was prepared, a specific site for the supri pilot has been chosen. Appendices G and H present the details on this site.

  15. A C. elegans-based foam for rapid on-site detection of residual live virus.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negrete, Oscar A.; Branda, Catherine; Hardesty, Jasper O. E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Tucker, Mark David (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Kaiser, Julia N. (Global Product Management, Hilden, Germany); Kozina, Carol L.; Chirica, Gabriela S.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the response to and recovery from a critical homeland security event involving deliberate or accidental release of biological agents, initial decontamination efforts are necessarily followed by tests for the presence of residual live virus or bacteria. Such 'clearance sampling' should be rapid and accurate, to inform decision makers as they take appropriate action to ensure the safety of the public and of operational personnel. However, the current protocol for clearance sampling is extremely time-intensive and costly, and requires significant amounts of laboratory space and capacity. Detection of residual live virus is particularly problematic and time-consuming, as it requires evaluation of replication potential within a eukaryotic host such as chicken embryos. The intention of this project was to develop a new method for clearance sampling, by leveraging Sandia's expertise in the biological and material sciences in order to create a C. elegans-based foam that could be applied directly to the entire contaminated area for quick and accurate detection of any and all residual live virus by means of a fluorescent signal. Such a novel technology for rapid, on-site detection of live virus would greatly interest the DHS, DoD, and EPA, and hold broad commercial potential, especially with regard to the transportation industry.

  16. Exterior Rigid Foam Insulation at the Edge of a Slab Foundation, Fresno, California (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exterior rigid foam insulation at the edge of the slab foundation was a unique feature for this low-load, unoccupied test house in a hot-dry climate and may be more appropriate for climates with higher heating loads. U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team IBACOS worked with National Housing Quality Award winner Wathen-Castanos Hybrid Homes, Inc., to assess the performance of this feature in a single-family detached ranch house with three bedrooms and two full bathrooms constructed on a slab-on-grade foundation in Fresno, California. One challenge during installation of the system was the attachment of the butyl flashing to the open framing. To solve this constructability issue, the team added a nailer to the base of the wall to properly attach and lap the flashing. In this strategy, R-7.5, 1.5-in.-thick extruded polystyrene was installed on the exterior of the slab for a modeled savings of 4,500 Btu/h on the heating load.

  17. Thermal characterization and model free kinetics of aged epoxies and foams using TGA and DSC methods.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Nissen, April

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two classes of materials, poly(methylene diphenyl diisocyanate) or PMDI foam, and cross-linked epoxy resins, were characterized using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), to help understand the effects of aging and %E2%80%9Cbake-out%E2%80%9D. The materials were evaluated for mass loss and the onset of decomposition. In some experiments, volatile materials released during heating were analyzed via mass spectroscopy. In all, over twenty materials were evaluated to compare the mass loss and onset temperature for decomposition. Model free kinetic (MFK) measurements, acquired using variable heating rate TGA experiments, were used to calculate the apparent activation energy of thermal decomposition. From these compiled data the effects of aging, bake-out, and sample history on the thermal stability of materials were compared. No significant differences between aged and unaged materials were detected. Bake-out did slightly affect the onset temperature of decomposition but only at the highest bake-out temperatures. Finally, some recommendations for future handling are made.

  18. Dissipation flow-frames: particle, energy, thermometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ván, P

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We associate the following physical co-mover conditions of to different frame choices: i) Eckart: particle flow, ii) Landau-Lifshitz: energy flow, iii) J\\"uttner: moving thermometer frame. The role of fixing a flow-frame is analysed with respect to local equilibrium concentrating on dissipative currents and forces in single component relativistic fluids. The special role of a "J\\"uttner frame" is explored and contrasted to the more common Eckart and Landau-Lifshitz choices.

  19. Dissipation flow-frames: particle, energy, thermometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Ván; T. S. Biró

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We associate the following physical co-mover conditions of to different frame choices: i) Eckart: particle flow, ii) Landau-Lifshitz: energy flow, iii) J\\"uttner: moving thermometer frame. The role of fixing a flow-frame is analysed with respect to local equilibrium concentrating on dissipative currents and forces in single component relativistic fluids. The special role of a "J\\"uttner frame" is explored and contrasted to the more common Eckart and Landau-Lifshitz choices.

  20. Mobility control of chemical EOR fluids using foam in highly fractured reservoirs.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzale?z Llama, Oscar

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Highly fractured and vuggy oil reservoirs represent a challenge for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods. The fractured networks provide flow paths several orders of magnitude… (more)

  1. Integrable magnetic geodesic flows on Lie groups

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexey A. Magazev; Igor V. Shirokov; Yuriy Y. Yurevich

    2011-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Right-invariant geodesic flows on manifolds of Lie groups associated with 2-cocycles of corresponding Lie algebras are discussed. Algebra of integrals of motion for magnetic geodesic flows is considered and necessary and sufficient condition of integrability in quadratures is formulated. Canonic forms for 2-cocycles of all 4-dimensional Lie algebras are given and integrable cases among them are separated.

  2. Microstructure and Rheology of a Flow-Induced Structured Phase...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    salt concentration. In our work, by introducing external flow conditions via microfluidics, these micellar structures can follow very different trajectories on the phase map...

  3. NF-kB activity-dependent P-selectin involved in ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation in U937 cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yi, E-mail: wangyi2004a@126.com [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai First People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200080 (China)] [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai First People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200080 (China); Wang, Xiang; Sun, Minghui; Zhang, Zhenyu; Cao, Heng; Chen, Xiaoqing [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai First People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200080 (China)] [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai First People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200080 (China)

    2011-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: {yields} Ox-LDL induced foam cell formation in the human U937 promonocytic cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. {yields} Ox-LDL induced expression of P-selectin through degradation of IkBa and augment of NF-kB activity and protein level during macrophage-derived foam cell formation. {yields} P-selectin and NF-kB may be identified as pivotal regulators of ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. {yields} Therapy based on the inhibition of P-selectin and NF-kB may complement conventional treatments to prevent atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) plays a critical role in regulation of atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the role of Nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) activity-dependent P-selectin in ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation during atherosclerosis. In this study, we first investigated ox-LDL induced foam cell formation in the human U937 promonocytic cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of U937 cells with ox-LDL increased lipid accumulation as well as intracellular cholesterol content. Next, a comparative analysis of gene expression profiling using cDNA microarray and Real-time-PCR indicated that ox-LDL exposure induced, in three treated groups, an extremely marked increase in the mRNA level of P-selectin. Protein levels of P-selectin and its upstream regulators IkBa and NF-kB showed that NF-kB pathway is involved in the ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. Finally, overexpression of NF-kB significantly accelerated, whereas, inhibition of NF-kB with siRNA remarkably attenuated ox-LDL-induced macrophage-derived foam cell formation. It was concluded that the activity of NF-kB is augmented during macrophage-derived foam cell formation. Activation of NF-kB increased, whereas, inhibition of NF-kB decreased ox-LDL-induced P-selectin expression and lipid accumulation in macrophages, suggesting ox-LDL induced expression of P-selectin through degradation of IkBa and activation of NF-kB in the regulation of foam cell formation.

  4. Theoretical uncertainty of orifice flow measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Husain, Z.D. [Daniel Flow Products, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Orifice meters are the most common meters used for fluid flow measurement, especially for measuring hydrocarbons. Meters are rugged, mechanically simple, and well suited for field use under extreme weather conditions. Because of their long history of use and dominance in the fluid flow measurement, their designs, installation requirements, and equations for flow rate calculation have been standardized by different organizations in the United States and internationally. These standards provide the guideline for the users to achieve accurate flow measurement. and minimize measurement uncertainty. This paper discusses different factors that contribute to the measurement inaccuracy and provide an awareness to minimize or eliminate these errors. Many factors which influence the overall measurement uncertainty are associated with the orifice meter application. Major contributors to measurement uncertainty include the predictability of flow profile, fluid properties at flowing condition, precision of empirical equation for discharge coefficient, manufacturing tolerances in meter components, and the uncertainty associated with secondary devices monitoring the static line pressure, differential pressure across the orifice plate, flowing temperature, etc. Major factors contributing to the measurement uncertainty for a thin, concentric, square-edged orifice flowmeter are as follows: (a) Tolerances in prediction of coefficient of discharge, (b) Predictability in defining the physical properties of the flowing fluid, (c) Fluid flow condition, (d) Construction tolerances in meter components, (e) Uncertainty of secondary devices/instrumentation, and (f) Data reduction and computation. Different factors under each of the above areas are discussed with precautionary measures and installation procedures to minimize or eliminate measurement uncertainty.

  5. On the Geodesic Nature of Wegner's Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuichi Itto; Sumiyoshi Abe

    2012-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Wegner's method of flow equations offers a useful tool for diagonalizing a given Hamiltonian and is widely used in various branches of quantum physics. Here, generalizing this method, a condition is derived, under which the corresponding flow of a quantum state becomes geodesic in a submanifold of the projective Hilbert space, independently of specific initial conditions. This implies the geometric optimality of the present method as an algorithm of generating stationary states. The result is illustrated by analyzing some physical examples.

  6. X-ray micro-tomography investigation of the foaming process in the system of waste glass–silica mud–MnO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ducman, V., E-mail: vilma.ducman@zag.si [ZAG Ljubljana, Dimi?eva 12, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Korat, L.; Legat, A. [ZAG Ljubljana, Dimi?eva 12, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mirti?, B. [NTF, Ašker?eva 12, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In case of foamed lightweight aggregates (LWAs), porosity is introduced by the addition of a foaming agent to the glassy matrix, which degasses at an elevated temperature, so that the resulting gases remain trapped inside the glassy structure. The efficiency of action of MnO{sub 2} as a foaming agent in waste glass and waste glass/silica mud systems was studied. Samples were fired at different temperatures and with different dwelling times at a certain temperature, and the development of porosity was investigated by means of X-ray micro-tomography. It was found that, with the prolongation in dwelling times, the number of pores decreased, while, on the other hand, the volume of these pores increased, and that the addition of silica mud increases the foaming temperature and slows down the foaming process. - Highlights: • Preparation of lightweight aggregate from waste glass, silica sludge, and MnO{sub 2} • DTA/TG investigation of MnO{sub 2} • Characterization of pore-forming process by means of X-ray micro-tomography (?cT)

  7. Problems associated with the use of urea-formaldehyde foam for residential insulation. Part IV. Relevance of materials standards to problems associated with the use of urea-formaldehyde foam insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, K.R.; Schutte, W.C.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The insulation industry is essentially self-regulated; therefore, the question arises as to whether or not increased public regulation would be effective in controlling problems associated with the use of urea-formaldehyde foam as residential insulation. The relevancy of public regulation to controlling problems such as off-gassing of formaldehyde associated with the use of the products through the introduction of materials standards and quality assurance of manufacture and installation is discussed. The use of urea-formaldehyde insulation may be divided into three phases-manufacture, installation, and behavioral phases. The relevance of materials standards and quality assurance for each phase is discussed.

  8. The impact of low-Z impurities on x-ray conversion efficiency from laser-produced plasmas of low-density gold foam targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Yunsong [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China) [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shang, Wanli; Yang, Jiamin; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Wenhai; Li, Zhichao; Guo, Liang; Zhan, Xiayu; Du, Huabing; Deng, Bo [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)] [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Pu, Yikang [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)] [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is an important approach to improve the x-ray conversion efficiency of laser-ablated high-Z plasmas by using low initial density materials for various applications. However, unavoidable low-Z impurities in the manufacture process of low-density high-Z foam targets will depress this effect. A general easy-to-use analytical model based on simulations was developed to evaluate the quantitative impact of impurities within the gold foam target on laser to x-ray conversion efficiency. In addition, the x-ray conversion efficiencies of 1 g/cm{sup 3} gold foams with two different initial contents of impurities were experimentally investigated. Good agreements have been achieved between the model results and experiments.

  9. Modeling of bubbly and slug flow behavior under microgravity conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Longeot, Matthieu Jean-Sebastien

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 31 4. 1 Time dependent pressure gradient for parabola 2, set 2 on day 7/10/92. . 40 4. 2 Comparison between 0-g experimental friction factor pressure gradient for test section 1 and test section 2. . 45 4. 3 Comparison between the theoretical (fw... I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I a/' (~i oi/I I I 'I I I I I I I I 'I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I oo Vl ct w ac oo t oa t oo oo oa ot vl t ao t v1 ata cI R S oa oa ta 't u1...

  10. ORIGINAL PAPER Conditional simulations of wateroil flow in heterogeneous porous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Zhiming

    water standards. Thus, a small amount of NAPL can contaminate large volumes of groundwater over a long period of time. Therefore, it is very important to understand the processes associated with contaminant is a complicated mixture of hydrocarbon fluids, brine, porous rock and fractures. The structure of the void space

  11. On fluid flow in a heterogeneous medium under nonisothermal conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D.W., Vasco

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aver- age of the heat capacity of the liquid and the heatthe volumetric heat capacity of the liquid, and K T = ?K l

  12. Original article Influence of heating conditions in continuous-flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , holding and cooling phases. When milk was heated in a continuous microwave heating system, at 90 °C and cooling times. vitamin B1 / vitamin B2 / milk / microwave heating Résumé -- Étude de l'effet des exchange systems on the vitamin B1 and B2 content of milk Isabel SIERRA, Concepción VIDAL

  13. A survey of air flow models for multizone structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feustel, H.E.; Dieris, J.

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air flow models are used to simulate the rates of incoming and outgoing air flows for a building with known leakage under given weather and shielding conditions. Additional information about the flow paths and air-mass flows inside the building can only by using multizone air flow models. In order to obtain more information on multizone air flow models, a literature review was performed in 1984. A second literature review and a questionnaire survey performed in 1989, revealed the existence of 50 multizone air flow models, all developed since 1966, two of which are still under development. All these programs use similar flow equations for crack flow but differ in the versatility to describe the full range of flow phenomena and the algorithm provided for solving the set of nonlinear equations. This literature review was found that newer models are able to describe and simulate the ventilation systems and interrelation of mechanical and natural ventilation. 27 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy SMARRT): Manufacturing Advanced Engineered Components Using Lost Foam Casting Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry Littleton; John Griffin

    2011-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was a subtask of Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (�¢����Energy SMARRT�¢���) Program. Through this project, technologies, such as computer modeling, pattern quality control, casting quality control and marketing tools, were developed to advance the Lost Foam Casting process application and provide greater energy savings. These technologies have improved (1) production efficiency, (2) mechanical properties, and (3) marketability of lost foam castings. All three reduce energy consumption in the metals casting industry. This report summarizes the work done on all tasks in the period of January 1, 2004 through June 30, 2011. Current (2011) annual energy saving estimates based on commercial introduction in 2011 and a market penetration of 97% by 2020 is 5.02 trillion BTU�¢����s/year and 6.46 trillion BTU�¢����s/year with 100% market penetration by 2023. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.03 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  15. Propeller Flow Meter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enciso, Juan; Santistevan, Dean; Hla, Aung K.

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Propeller flow meters are commonly used to measure water flow rate. They can also be used to estimate irrigation water use. This publication explains how to select, install, read and maintain propeller flow meters....

  16. Dispersed flow film boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoder, Graydon L.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dispersed flow consists of small liquid droplets entrained in a flowing vapor. This flow regime can occur in cryogenic equipment, in steam generators, and during nuclear reactor loss of coolant accidents. A theoretical ...

  17. Bacteria in shear flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcos, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria are ubiquitous and play a critical role in many contexts. Their environment is nearly always dynamic due to the prevalence of fluid flow: creeping flow in soil, highly sheared flow in bodily conduits, and turbulent ...

  18. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yorstos, Yanis C.

    2002-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The emphasis of this work was on investigating the mechanisms and factors that control the recovery of heavy oil with the objective to improve recovery efficiencies. For this purpose the interaction of flow transport and reaction at various scales from the pore network to the field scales were studied. Particular mechanisms to be investigated included the onset of gas flow in foamy oil production and in in-situ steam drive, gravity drainage in steam processes, the development of sustained combustion fronts and the propagation of foams in porous media. Analytical, computational and experimental methods were utilized to advance the state of the art in heavy oil recovery. Successful completion of this research was expected to lead to improvements in the Recovery efficiency of various heavy oil processes.

  19. Study of liquid retention in fixed-bed reactors with upward flow of gas and liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, X.L.; Euzen, J.P. (Inst. Francais du Petrole, Vernaison (France)); Wild, G. (Lab. des Sciences du Genie Chimique, Nancy (France))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A literature survey of the measurement techniques for the determination of liquid retention in cocurrent upward gas and liquid flow in fixed-bed reactors is presented. A number of these techniques were used in this work in columns of different diameters (Dc = 0.05 m, 0.10 m, and 0.15 m). Porous alumina particles of two different diameters (dp = 0.002 m and 0.0028 m) with both nonfoaming (water, cyclohexane, heptane, and propanol) and foaming liquids (kerosene, LCO, and diesel fuel) have been investigated. The gas used was either air or N[sub 2]. The methods investigated include volumetry, gravimetry, gammametry, and determination of residence-time distribution by tracer technique. A simple correlation for the prediction of total gas and liquid retention for bubble and pulsed flow is proposed and verified.

  20. Impact of boundaries on velocity profiles in bubble rafts Yuhong Wang, Kapilanjan Krishan, and Michael Dennin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennin, Michael

    92697-4575 (Dated: November 7, 2005) Under conditions of sufficiently slow flow, foams, colloids, and an important issue in these systems is the role of the confining boundaries. For foams, three basic systems); and confined bubble rafts (bubbles confined between the surface of water below and a glass plate on top). Often

  1. Multiphase flow calculation software

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.

  2. New boundary conditions for granular fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark D. Shattuck

    2007-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We present experimental evidence, which contradicts the the standard boundary conditions used in continuum theories of non-cohesive granular flows for the velocity normal to a boundary u.n=0, where n points into the fluid. We propose and experimentally verify a new boundary condition for u.n, based on the observation that the boundary cannot exert a tension force Fb on the fluid. The new boundary condition is u.n=0 if Fb.n>=0 else n.P.n=0, where P is the pressure tensor. This is the analog of cavitation in ordinary fluids, but due the lack of attractive forces and dissipation it occurs frequently in granular flows.

  3. Aerogels: stiff foams composed of up to 99.8% air Silica aerogel is the world's lowest-density solid: 1 mg/cm3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fominov, Yakov

    #12;Aerogels: stiff foams composed of up to 99.8% air Silica aerogel is the world's lowest-density solid: 1 mg/cm3 Aerogels hold 15 different records for material properties, including best insulator 2.38 g piece of aerogel supports a 2.5 kg brick. #12;#12;#12;l = m Ă? n unit vector in orbital space

  4. Materials Science and Engineering A, 2011, 528(1-2): p. 7596 7605 High strain rate compressive response ofsyntactic foams: trends in mechanical properties and failure mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Nikhil

    comprising hollow particles dispersed in a matrix material. Available studies on high strain rate compressive with respect to the material composition. Syntactic foams reinforced with micro- and nano-sized fibers are a class of porous materials in which thin-walled hollow particles are dispersed in a matrix material

  5. Seal inlet disturbance boundary conditions for rotordynamic models and influence of some off-design conditions on labyrinth rotordynamic instability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xi, Jinxiang

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Systematic parametric studies were performed to better understand seal-inlet rotordynamics. A CFD-perturbation model was employed to compute the seal-inlet flow disturbance quantities. Seal inlet disturbance boundary condition correlations were...

  6. Nonlinear model-based control of two-phase flow in risers by feedback linearization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    conditions at offshore oilfields. The slugging flow constitutes an unstable and highly nonlinear system and flow rates (Storkaas (2005), Storkaas and Skogestad (2007)). The oscillatory flow condition in offshore disturbances or plant changes. We aim to find a robust control solution for anti-slug control systems

  7. Measurement Of The Fluid Flow Load On A Globe Valve Stem Under Various Cavitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Measurement Of The Fluid Flow Load On A Globe Valve Stem Under Various Cavitation Conditions)" #12;Measurement Of The Fluid Flow Load On A Globe Valve Stem Under Various Cavitation Conditions, cavitation, fluid flow load, CFD. Abstract: The evaluation of fluid forces on the stem is important for wear

  8. Prediction of flow rates through an orifice at pressures corresponding to the transition between molecular and isentropic flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeMuth, S.F.; Watson, J.S.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model of compressible flow through an orifice, in the region of transition from free molecular to isentropic expansion flow, has been developed and tested for accuracy. The transitional or slip regime is defined as the conditions where molecular interactions are too many for free molecular flow modeling, yet not great enough for isentropic expansion flow modeling. Due to a lack of literature establishing a well-accepted model for predicting transitional flow, it was felt such work would be beneficial. The model is nonlinear and cannot be satisfactorily linearized for a linear regression analysis. Consequently, a computer routine was developed which minimized the sum of the squares of the residual flow for the nonlinear model. The results indicate an average accuracy within 15% of the measured flow throughout the range of test conditions. Furthermore, the results of the regression analysis indicate that the transitional regime lies between Knudsen numbers of approximately 2 and 45. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Grid sensitivity in low Reynolds number hypersonic continuum flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutledge, W.H. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Hoffmann, K.A. (Wichita State Univ., KS (USA). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A computational scheme is presented to solve the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations over a blunt body at high altitude, high Mach number atmospheric reentry flow conditions. This continuum approach is directed to low Reynolds/low density hypersonic flows by accounting for non-zero bulk viscosity effects in near frozen flow conditions. A significant difference from previous studies is the inclusion of the capability to model non-zero bulk viscosity effects. The grid definition for these low Reynolds number, viscous dominated flow fields is especially important in terms of numerical stability and accurate heat transfer solutions. 11 refs., 15 figs.

  10. Terms and Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Testbed Results Current Testbed Research Proposal Process Terms and Conditions Dark Fiber Testbed Performance (perfSONAR) Software & Tools Development Partnerships...

  11. Variational bounds on the energy dissipation rate in body-forced shear flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrov, Nikola

    , the bulk (space and time averaged) dissipation rate per unit mass is proportional to the power required applied to many flows driven by boundary conditions, including shear flows and a variety of thermal

  12. Interpreting Horizontal Well Flow Profiles and Optimizing Well Performance by Downhole Temperature and Pressure Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhuoyi

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    be used to obtain downhole flow conditions, which is key information to control and optimize horizontal well production. However, the fluid flow in the reservoir is often multiphase and complex, which makes temperature and pressure interpretation very...

  13. Recirculation on a single stage of vertical flow constructed wetland: treatment limits and operation modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Recirculation on a single stage of vertical flow constructed wetland: treatment limits French vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) plant comprises two stages of treatment which the first and treatment performances in different operating conditions. Results showed good performances

  14. Flow Split Venturi, Axially-Rotated Valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walrath, David E. (Laramie, WY); Lindberg, William R. (Laramie, WY); Burgess, Robert K. (Sheridan, WY); LaBelle, James (Murrieta, CA)

    2000-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides an axially-rotated valve which permits increased flow rates and lower pressure drop (characterized by a lower loss coefficient) by using an axial eccentric split venturi with two portions where at least one portion is rotatable with respect to the other portion. The axially-rotated valve typically may be designed to avoid flow separation and/or cavitation at full flow under a variety of conditions. Similarly, the valve is designed, in some embodiments, to produce streamlined flow within the valve. An axially aligned outlet may also increase the flow efficiency. A typical cross section of the eccentric split venturi may be non-axisymmetric such as a semicircular cross section which may assist in both throttling capabilities and in maximum flow capacity using the design of the present invention. Such a design can include applications for freeze resistant axially-rotated valves and may be fully-opened and fully-closed in one-half of a complete rotation. An internal wide radius elbow typically connected to a rotatable portion of the eccentric venturi may assist in directing flow with lower friction losses. A valve actuator may actuate in an axial manner yet be uniquely located outside of the axial flow path to further reduce friction losses. A seal may be used between the two portions that may include a peripheral and diametrical seal in the same plane. A seal separator may increase the useful life of the seal between the fixed and rotatable portions.

  15. When Does Aid Conditionality Work?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montinola, Gabriella R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    institutions may tailor conditions for success because theytailor their conditions for success, and they are especially

  16. Ultrasonic flow metering system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gomm, Tyler J. (Meridian, ID); Kraft, Nancy C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mauseth, Jason A. (Pocatello, ID); Phelps, Larry D. (Pocatello, ID); Taylor, Steven C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for determining the density, flow velocity, and mass flow of a fluid comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the fluid. A system for determining flow velocity uses two of the inventive circuits with directional transmitters and receivers, one of which is set at an angle to the direction of flow that is different from the others.

  17. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McFarland, Andrew R. (College Station, TX); Rodgers, John C. (Santa Fe, NM); Ortiz, Carlos A. (Bryan, TX); Nelson, David C. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elbow mass flow meter. The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity.

  18. Post-processing of polymer foam tissue scaffolds with high power ultrasound: a route to increased pore interconnectivity, pore size and fluid transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N J Watson; R K Johal; Y Reinwald; L J White; A M Ghaemmaghami; S P Morgan; F R A J Rose; M J W Povey; N G Parker

    2013-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We expose thick polymer foam tissue scaffolds to high power ultrasound and study its effect on the openness of the pore architecture and fluid transport through the scaffold. Our analysis is supported by measurements of fluid uptake during insonification and imaging of the scaffold microstructure via x-ray computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy and acoustic microscopy. The ultrasonic treatment is found to increase the mean pore size by over 10%. More striking is the improvement in fluid uptake: for scaffolds with only 40% water uptake via standard immersion techniques, we can routinely achieve full saturation of the scaffold over approximately one hour of exposure. These desirable modifications occur with no loss of scaffold integrity and negligible mass loss, and are optimized when the ultrasound treatment is coupled to a pre-wetting stage with ethanol. Our findings suggest that high power ultrasound is a highly targetted and efficient means to promote pore interconnectivity and fluid transport in thick foam tissue scaffolds.

  19. Bypass flow computations on the LOFA transient in a VHTR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu-Hsin Tung [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan). Inst. of Nuclear Engineering and Science; Richard W. Johnson [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Yuh-Ming Ferng [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan). Inst. of Nuclear Engineering and Science; Ching-Chang Chieng [City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong). Dept. of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bypass flow in the prismatic gas-cooled very high temperature reactor (VHTR) is not intentionally designed to occur, but is present in the gaps between graphite blocks. Previous studies of the bypass flow in the core indicated that the cooling provided by flow in the bypass gaps had a significant effect on temperature and flow distributions for normal operating conditions. However, the flow and heat transports in the core are changed significantly after a Loss of Flow Accident (LOFA). This study aims to study the effect and role of the bypass flow after a LOFA in terms of the temperature and flow distributions and for the heat transport out of the core by natural convection of the coolant for a 1/12 symmetric section of the active core which is composed of images and mirror images of two sub-region models. The two sub-region models, 9 x 1/12 and 15 x 1/12 symmetric sectors of the active core, are employed as the CFD flow models using computational grid systems of 70.2 million and 117 million nodes, respectively. It is concluded that the effect of bypass flow is significant for the initial conditions and the beginning of LOFA, but the bypass flow has little effect after a long period of time in the transient computation of natural circulation.

  20. Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Zyvoloski

    2003-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this model report is to document the components of the site-scale saturated-zone flow model at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in accordance with administrative procedure (AP)-SIII.lOQ, ''Models''. This report provides validation and confidence in the flow model that was developed for site recommendation (SR) and will be used to provide flow fields in support of the Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application. The output from this report provides the flow model used in the ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'', MDL-NBS-HS-000010 Rev 01 (BSC 2003 [162419]). The Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport model then provides output to the SZ Transport Abstraction Model (BSC 2003 [164870]). In particular, the output from the SZ site-scale flow model is used to simulate the groundwater flow pathways and radionuclide transport to the accessible environment for use in the TSPA calculations. Since the development and calibration of the saturated-zone flow model, more data have been gathered for use in model validation and confidence building, including new water-level data from Nye County wells, single- and multiple-well hydraulic testing data, and new hydrochemistry data. In addition, a new hydrogeologic framework model (HFM), which incorporates Nye County wells lithology, also provides geologic data for corroboration and confidence in the flow model. The intended use of this work is to provide a flow model that generates flow fields to simulate radionuclide transport in saturated porous rock and alluvium under natural or forced gradient flow conditions. The flow model simulations are completed using the three-dimensional (3-D), finite-element, flow, heat, and transport computer code, FEHM Version (V) 2.20 (software tracking number (STN): 10086-2.20-00; LANL 2003 [161725]). Concurrently, process-level transport model and methodology for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain using FEHM V 2.20 are being carried out in the model report, ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'', MDL-NBS-HS-000010 Rev 01 (BSC 2003 [162419]). The velocity fields are calculated by the flow model, described herein, independent of the transport processes, and are then used as inputs to the transport model. Justification for this abstraction is presented in the model report, ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'', MDL-NBS-HS-000021 (BSC 2003 [164870]).

  1. A new precision flow calorimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Mark Gezer

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    differences. With no sample fluid flowing, a supply of electrical power is fed to the inner calorimeter. The reference fluid is evaporated with this electrical power and the thermo-syphon system is brought to controlled steady-state conditions of pressure... calorimeter is kept cooler than the inner calorimeter for reasons discussed in chapter 4. Thus the above mentioned procedure is essential to avoid condensation in Freon@-11 vapor lines. The thermo-syphon ensures a saturated Freon&-11 vapor phase in the top...

  2. Solvothermal synthesis of NiAl double hydroxide microspheres on a nickel foam-graphene as an electrode material for pseudo-capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Momodu, Damilola; Bello, Abdulhakeem; Dangbegnon, Julien; Barzeger, Farshad; Taghizadeh, Fatimeh; Fabiane, Mopeli; Manyala, Ncholu, E-mail: ncholu.manyala@up.ac.za [Department of Physics, Institute of Applied Materials, SARChI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028, South Africa. (South Africa); Johnson, A. T. Charlie [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we demonstrate excellent pseudo-capacitance behavior of nickel-aluminum double hydroxide microspheres (NiAl DHM) synthesized by a facile solvothermal technique using tertbutanol as a structure-directing agent on nickel foam-graphene (NF-G) current collector as compared to use of nickel foam current collector alone. The structure and surface morphology were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, Raman spectroscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopies respectively. NF-G current collector was fabricated by chemical vapor deposition followed by an ex situ coating method of NiAl DHM active material which forms a composite electrode. The pseudocapacitive performance of the composite electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, constant charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The composite electrode with the NF-G current collector exhibits an enhanced electrochemical performance due to the presence of the conductive graphene layer on the nickel foam and gives a specific capacitance of 1252 F g{sup ?1} at a current density of 1 A g{sup ?1} and a capacitive retention of about 97% after 1000 charge–discharge cycles. This shows that these composites are promising electrode materials for energy storage devices.

  3. A general methodology for inverse estimation of the elastic and anelastic properties of anisotropic open-cell porous materials—with application to a melamine foam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuenca, Jacques, E-mail: jcuenca@kth.se; Van der Kelen, Christophe; Göransson, Peter [Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory for Sound and Vibration Research, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 8, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper proposes an inverse estimation method for the characterisation of the elastic and anelastic properties of the frame of anisotropic open-cell foams used for sound absorption. A model of viscoelasticity based on a fractional differential constitutive equation is used, leading to an augmented Hooke's law in the frequency domain, where the elastic and anelastic phenomena appear as distinctive terms in the stiffness matrix. The parameters of the model are nine orthotropic elastic moduli, three angles of orientation of the material principal directions and three parameters governing the anelastic frequency dependence. The inverse estimation consists in numerically fitting the model on a set of transfer functions extracted from a sample of material. The setup uses a seismic-mass measurement repeated in the three directions of space and is placed in a vacuum chamber in order to remove the air from the pores of the sample. The method allows to reconstruct the full frequency-dependent complex stiffness matrix of the frame of an anisotropic open-cell foam and in particular it provides the frequency of maximum energy dissipation by viscoelastic effects. The characterisation of a melamine foam sample is performed and the relation between the fractional-derivative model and other types of parameterisations of the augmented Hooke's law is discussed.

  4. A New Approach to Computing Max Flows using Electrical Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajamani, Sriram K.

    A New Approach to Computing Max Flows using Electrical Flows Yin Tat Lee (MIT) Satish Rao (UC-Kelner-Madry-Spielman-Teng'11]: approximate flow in time Uses electrical flows. 7 #12;Electrical Flows 3 1 S t 8 #12;Electrical Flows Identify Graph with Resistor Network R(e)=1/w(e) 1/3 S t 1 9 #12;Electrical Flows Electrical flow

  5. Low flow fume hood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Geoffrey C. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Feustel, Helmut E. (Albany, CA); Dickerhoff, Darryl J. (Berkeley, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fume hood is provided having an adequate level of safety while reducing the amount of air exhausted from the hood. A displacement flow fume hood works on the principal of a displacement flow which displaces the volume currently present in the hood using a push-pull system. The displacement flow includes a plurality of air supplies which provide fresh air, preferably having laminar flow, to the fume hood. The displacement flow fume hood also includes an air exhaust which pulls air from the work chamber in a minimally turbulent manner. As the displacement flow produces a substantially consistent and minimally turbulent flow in the hood, inconsistent flow patterns associated with contaminant escape from the hood are minimized. The displacement flow fume hood largely reduces the need to exhaust large amounts of air from the hood. It has been shown that exhaust air flow reductions of up to 70% are possible without a decrease in the hood's containment performance. The fume hood also includes a number of structural adaptations which facilitate consistent and minimally turbulent flow within a fume hood.

  6. Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor (LEFR) is a modular, lab scale, single-user reactor for the study of catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP). This system can be employed to study a variety of reactor conditions for both in situ and ex situ CFP.

  7. Investigation of flow in centrifugal impeller with tandem inducer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nishida, Akira

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    resulted in significantly increased interest in flow problems related to centrifugal compressors. This is because a centrifugal compressor has a reasonably high efficiency, and can be compactly designed for a high pressure ratio per stage, also a... line rotating with impeller Kinematic viscosity Pressure ratio referred to stagnation conditions Density Shear stress at the wall Flow coefficient = meridional flow velocity at impeller inlet / UZ Pressure rise coefficient = stagnation...

  8. Conditional data watchpoint management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdick, Dean Joseph (Austin, TX); Vaidyanathan, Basu (Austin, TX)

    2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method, system and computer program product for managing a conditional data watchpoint in a set of instructions being traced is shown in accordance with illustrative embodiments. In one particular embodiment, the method comprises initializing a conditional data watchpoint and determining the watchpoint has been encountered. Upon that determination, examining a current instruction context associated with the encountered watchpoint prior to completion of the current instruction execution, further determining a first action responsive to a positive context examination; otherwise, determining a second action.

  9. Flow reversal power limit for the HFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Lap Y.; Tichler, P.R.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) undergoes a buoyancy-driven reversal of flow in the reactor core following certain postulated accidents. Uncertainties about the afterheat removal capability during the flow reversal has limited the reactor operating power to 30 MW. An experimental and analytical program to address these uncertainties is described in this report. The experiments were single channel flow reversal tests under a range of conditions. The analytical phase involved simulations of the tests to benchmark the physical models and development of a criterion for dryout. The criterion is then used in simulations of reactor accidents to determine a safe operating power level. It is concluded that the limit on the HFBR operating power with respect to the issue of flow reversal is in excess of 60 MW.

  10. Results of Large-Scale Testing on Effects of Anti-Foam Agent on Gas Retention and Release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Charles W.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Arm, Stuart T.; Butcher, Mark G.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Park, Walter R.; Slaugh, Ryan W.; Su, Yin-Fong; Wend, Christopher F.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Alzheimer, James M.; Bailey, Jeffrey A.; Cooley, Scott K.; Hurley, David E.; Johnson, Christian D.; Reid, Larry D.; Smith, Harry D.; Wells, Beric E.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2008-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection’s Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) will process and treat radioactive waste that is stored in tanks at the Hanford Site. The waste treatment process in the pretreatment facility will mix both Newtonian and non-Newtonian slurries in large process tanks. Process vessels mixing non-Newtonian slurries will use pulse jet mixers (PJMs), air sparging, and recirculation pumps. An anti-foam agent (AFA) will be added to the process streams to prevent surface foaming, but may also increase gas holdup and retention within the slurry. The work described in this report addresses gas retention and release in simulants with AFA through testing and analytical studies. Gas holdup and release tests were conducted in a 1/4-scale replica of the lag storage vessel operated in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Applied Process Engineering Laboratory using a kaolin/bentonite clay and AZ-101 HLW chemical simulant with non-Newtonian rheological properties representative of actual waste slurries. Additional tests were performed in a small-scale mixing vessel in the PNNL Physical Sciences Building using liquids and slurries representing major components of typical WTP waste streams. Analytical studies were directed at discovering how the effect of AFA might depend on gas composition and predicting the effect of AFA on gas retention and release in the full-scale plant, including the effects of mass transfer to the sparge air. The work at PNNL was part of a larger program that included tests conducted at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that is being reported separately. SRNL conducted gas holdup tests in a small-scale mixing vessel using the AZ-101 high-level waste (HLW) chemical simulant to investigate the effects of different AFAs, their components, and of adding noble metals. Full-scale, single-sparger mass transfer tests were also conducted at SRNL in water and AZ-101 HLW simulant to provide data for PNNL’s WTP gas retention and release modeling.

  11. Method for use of hydraulically or electrically controlled solenoids under failed on conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolenbaugh, Jonathan M.; Naqi, Syed

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to operate a clutch device in an electro-mechanical transmission mechanically-operatively coupled to an internal combustion engine and at least one electric machine includes, in response to a failure condition detected within a flow control device configured to facilitate flow of hydraulic fluid for operating the clutch device, selectively preventing the flow of hydraulic fluid from entering the flow control device and feeding the clutch device. Synchronization of the clutch device is initiated when the clutch device is intended for activation, and only if the clutch device is synchronized, the flow of hydraulic fluid is selectively permitted to enter the flow control device to activate the clutch device.

  12. IPR Conditions, 25 January 2006 1 Intellectual Property Rights Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Cindio, Fiorella

    IPR Conditions, 25 January 2006 1 Intellectual Property Rights Conditions for Collaborative Research Projects (IPR Conditions) I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES These rules should promote the protection guarantee the protection of the participants' intellectual assets. These IPR Conditions establish rules

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - applying dynamic flow-density Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Collection: Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization 17 Dynamic Origin-Destination Demand Flow Estimation under Congested Traffic Conditions Xuesong Zhou Summary: for the...

  14. Modeling multiphase flow for high viscosity liquids: a study of vertical/inclined zero net liquid flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Jose Ramon

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This experimental study investigates the effects of inclination angle and fluid viscosity on zero net liquid flow (ZNLF). Predicting liquid holdup under ZNLF conditions is necessary in several types of petroleum industry operations. These include...

  15. Flow focusing in unsaturated fracture networks: A numerical investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Keni; Wu, Yu-Shu; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Liu, Hui-Hai

    2003-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical modeling study is presented to investigate flow-focusing phenomena in a large-scale fracture network, constructed using field data collected from the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the proposed repository site for high-level nuclear waste. The two-dimensional fracture network for an area of 100 m x 150 m contains more than 20,000 fractures. Steady-state unsaturated flow in the fracture network is investigated for different boundary conditions and rock properties. Simulation results indicate that flow paths are generally vertical, and that horizontal fractures mainly provide pathways between neighboring vertical paths. In addition to fracture properties, flow-focusing phenomena are also affected by rock-matrix permeability, with lower matrix permeability leading to a high degree of flow focusing. The simulation results further indicate that the average spacing between flow paths in a layered system tends to increase and flow tends to becomes more focused, with depth.

  16. Cyclotron resonance in plasma flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Agapitov, O. V.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V. [LPC2E/CNRS-University of Orleans, Orleans (France)] [LPC2E/CNRS-University of Orleans, Orleans (France)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is devoted to the mechanism of particle acceleration via resonant interaction with the electromagnetic circular wave propagating along the inhomogeneous background magnetic field in the presence of a plasma flow. We consider the system where the plasma flow velocity is large enough to change the direction of wave propagation in the rest frame. This system mimics a magnetic field configuration typical for inner structure of a quasi-parallel shock wave. We consider conditions of gyroresonant interaction when the force corresponding to an inhomogeneity of the background magnetic field is compensated by the Lorentz force of the wave-magnetic field. The wave-amplitude is assumed to be about 10% of the background magnetic field. We show that particles can gain energy if kv{sub sw}>?>kv{sub sw}??{sub c} where k is the wave number, v{sub sw} is a plasma flow velocity, and ? and ?{sub c} are the wave frequency and the particle gyrofrequency, respectively. This mechanism of acceleration resembles the gyrosurfing mechanism, but the effect of the electrostatic field is replaced by the effect of the magnetic field inhomogeneity.

  17. Flow dynamics and solute transport in unsaturated rock fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, G. W.

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rock fractures play an important role in flow and contaminant transport in fractured aquifers, production of oil from petroleum reservoirs, and steam generation from geothermal reservoirs. In this dissertation, phenomenological aspects of flow in unsaturated fractures were studied in visualization experiments conducted on a transparent replica of a natural, rough-walled rock fracture for inlet conditions of constant pressure and flow rate over a range of angles of inclination. The experiments demonstrated that infiltrating liquid proceeds through unsaturated rock fractures along non-uniform, localized preferential flow paths. Even in the presence of constant boundary conditions, intermittent flow was a persistent flow feature observed, where portions of the flow channel underwent cycles of snapping and reforming. Two modes of intermittent flow were observed, the pulsating blob mode and the rivulet snapping mode. A conceptual model for the rivulet snapping mode was proposed and examined using idealized, variable-aperture fractures. The frequency of intermittent flow events was measured in several experiments and related to the capillary and Bond numbers to characterize this flow behavior.

  18. Process for retarding fluid flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandford, B.B.; Zillmer, R.C.

    1989-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for retarding the flow of fluid in a subterranean formation, comprising: (a) introducing an effective amount of a gel-forming composition into a subterranean formation, the gel-forming composition being operable when gelled in the formation for retarding the flow of fluid therein. The gel-forming composition consists of: i. a first substance dissolved in water to form an aqueous solution, the first substance being selected from the group consisting of polyvivyl alcohols, and mixtures thereof, wherein the gel-forming composition contains an amount of the first substance of from about 0.5 to about 5 weight percent of the gel-forming composition, and ii. an effective amount of glutaraldehyde which is operable for forming a weakly acidic condition having a pH from about 5.5 to less than 7 in the gel-forming composition and also operable for promoting crosslinking of the first substance and glutaraldehyde and for forming a gel from the gel-forming composition under the weakly acidic condition within a period of time no greater than about 5 days without adding an acidic catalyst to the gel-forming composition to lower the pH of the gel-forming composition below about 5.5.

  19. Turbulent flow in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar S. Gupta; Siddhartha Sen

    2010-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate the possibility of a turbulent flow of electrons in graphene in the hydrodynamic region, by calculating the corresponding turbulent probability density function. This is used to calculate the contribution of the turbulent flow to the conductivity within a quantum Boltzmann approach. The dependence of the conductivity on the system parameters arising from the turbulent flow is very different from that due to scattering.

  20. Mineralogy under extreme conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu, Jinfu (CIW)

    2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We have performed measurements of minerals based on the synchrotron source for single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, inelastic scattering, spectroscopy and radiography by using diamond anvil cells. We investigated the properties of iron (Fe), iron-magnesium oxides (Fe, Mg)O, silica(SiO{sub 2}), iron-magnesium silicates (Fe, Mg)SiO{sub 3} under simulated high pressure-high temperature extreme conditions of the Earth's crust, upper mantle, low mantle, core-mantle boundary, outer core, and inner core. The results provide a new window on the investigation of the mineral properties at Earth's conditions.