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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flush toilet bathtub" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

World Toilet Day: Celebrate Sanitation and Efficient Flushing! | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

World Toilet Day: Celebrate Sanitation and Efficient Flushing! World Toilet Day: Celebrate Sanitation and Efficient Flushing! World Toilet Day: Celebrate Sanitation and Efficient Flushing! November 15, 2010 - 5:01pm Addthis Scott Minos Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Believe it or not, this Friday, November 19 is World Toilet Day, an annual event hosted by the World Toilet Organization since 2001 to raise awareness for proper sanitation world-wide. From outhouses to water closets, humans devising creative ways to relieve themselves of nature's call can be traced back at least as far as 3,000 B.C., when Scottish settlements featured stone huts equipped with drains extending from recesses in their walls. Later, around 1,700 B.C., the Greeks built definite latrines featuring large, earthenware pans connected

2

OMB No. 038-R0459 EIA 457B  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

is a room with a flush toilet, bathtub or shower, and a sinkwashbasin with running water. A half-bath has at least a flush toilet oj bathtub or shower, but does not have all...

3

OMB No. 1905-0093 * EIA 457B  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

is a room with a flush toilet, bathtub or shower, and a sinkwashbasin with running water. A half-bath has at least a flush toilet or bathtub or shower, but does not have all...

4

Form Approved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

is a room with a flush toilet, bathtub or shower, and a sinkwashbasin with running water. A half-bath has at least a flush toilet or bathtub or shower, but does not have all...

5

Best Management Practice: Toilets and Urinals | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Toilets and Urinals Toilets and Urinals Best Management Practice: Toilets and Urinals October 7, 2013 - 3:12pm Addthis Toilets and urinals can account for nearly one-third of building water consumption. Old and inefficient toilet and urinal fixtures can be a major source of water waste in most commercial, residential, and institutional buildings, making the savings potential in this area significant. Overview Current Federal law requires residential toilets (flush tank type) manufactured and sold in the U.S. after January 1, 1994, to use no more than 1.6 gallons per flush (gpf). Similarly, commercial toilets (flushometer valve type) manufactured and sold after January 1, 1997, must use no more than 1.6 gpf. Urinals must use no more than 1.0 gpf. There are also toilets and urinals available on the market that exceed

6

Illinois Town Launches Toilet Rebate Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Town Launches Toilet Rebate Program Town Launches Toilet Rebate Program Illinois Town Launches Toilet Rebate Program June 11, 2010 - 4:23pm Addthis Paul Lester Communications Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy What are the key facts? The EPA estimates toilets account for about 30 percent of an average home's indoor water use. Replacing inefficient toilets with new WaterSense toilets could save almost 2 billion gallons of water per day throughout the country, according to the EPA. The city of Aurora, Illinois, has launched a rebate program that aims to help residents avoid flushing money and energy down the toilet. Aurora is using $10,000 of its $1.5 million Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) for the city's Water Saving Toilet Rebate Program, which gives residents $100 if they purchase efficient

7

Method and device for disinfecting a toilet bowl  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a method and device for disinfecting a flush toilet. The device is an electrocell mounted in the tank of the toilet, with two wire mesh electrodes immersed in the water in the tank and a battery applying approximately one to two volts of electric potential to the electrodes so that they chemically reduce a portion of the water in the tank to hydrogen peroxide. Then, when the tank is flushed, the peroxide is carried into the bowl where it can kill bacteria.

Almon, A.C.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

8

Method and device for disinfecting a toilet bowl  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and device are disclosed for disinfecting a flush toilet. The device is an electrolytic cell mounted in the tank of the toilet, with two wire mesh electrodes immersed in the water in the tank and a battery applying approximately one to two volts of electric potential to the electrodes so that they chemically reduce a portion of the water in the tank to hydrogen peroxide. Then, when the tank is flushed, the peroxide is carried into the bowl where it can kill bacteria. 2 figs.

Almon, A.C.

1997-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

9

On Crevecoeur's bathtub-shaped failure rate model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crevecoeur (1993) developed a three-parameter bathtub-shaped failure rate model that enjoys nice mathematical properties and justification from engineering perspectives. In this paper, we derive the explicit formulas for the maximum likelihood estimation ... Keywords: Bathtub curve, Censoring, Failure rate, Lifetime failure data, Maximum likelihood estimation, Poisson process, Reliability, Repairable system

Junfeng Liu; Yi Wang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Some Like It Hot: How to Heat a 'Nano Bathtub' the JILA Way  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some Like It Hot: How to Heat a 'Nano Bathtub' the JILA Way. For Immediate Release: July 21, 2010. ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

11

Automatic toilet seat lowering apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat. A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat.

Guerty, Harold G. (Palm Beach Gardens, FL)

1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

12

Assessment of user satisfaction of restrooms with existing toilet fixtures and new low consumption fixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This research in Langford Building 'A', Texas A&M University, is an attempt to determine the user satisfaction of the new, low consumption toilet fixtures and lavatory valves. 253 surveys were given to the subjects, during the four phases of upgrading the restroom fixtures, to find and compare user satisfaction in each phase. The four phases were: 1. The as-is condition of the flush valves and the lavatory valve. 2. Low consumption manual flush valve and low consumption manual lavatory valve. 3. Old style low consumption automatic flush valve and low consumption automatic lavatory valve. 4. Low consumption manual flush valve and low consumption automatic lavatory valve. The survey analysis for the building showed a positive response from the users for the low consumption valves, but not for the automatic valves, as they did not function as they were expected to.

Vankamamidi, Neelima Raman

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

A new exponential-type distribution with constant, decreasing, increasing, upside-down bathtub and bathtub-shaped failure rate function  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new three-parameter exponential-type family of distributions which can be used in modeling survival data, reliability problems and fatigue life studies is introduced. Its failure rate function can be constant, decreasing, increasing, upside-down bathtub ... Keywords: Exponential distribution, Failure rate function, Generalized exponential distribution, Lifetime data

Artur J. Lemonte

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Federal Energy Management Program: Best Management Practice: Toilets and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Toilets and Urinals to someone by E-mail Toilets and Urinals to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Best Management Practice: Toilets and Urinals on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Best Management Practice: Toilets and Urinals on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Best Management Practice: Toilets and Urinals on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Best Management Practice: Toilets and Urinals on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Best Management Practice: Toilets and Urinals on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Best Management Practice: Toilets and Urinals on AddThis.com... Sustainable Buildings & Campuses Operations & Maintenance Greenhouse Gases Water Efficiency Basics

15

Microsoft Word - S09629_Flushing2013  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Alternate Water Supply System Alternate Water Supply System Flushing Plan Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site January 2013 LMS/RVT/S09629 This page intentionally left blank LMS/RVT/S09629 Alternate Water Supply System Flushing Plan Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site January 2013 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy AWSS Flushing Plan, Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site January 2013 Doc. No. S09629 Page i Contents Abbreviations .................................................................................................................................. ii 1.0 Introduction ............................................................................................................................1 2.0 Background ............................................................................................................................1

16

Microsoft Word - S07263_NatFlushing  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Review of the Natural Flushing Review of the Natural Flushing Groundwater Remedy at the Old Rifle Legacy Management Site, Rifle, Colorado July 2011 LMS/RFO/S07263 This page intentionally left blank LMS/RFO/S07263 Review of the Natural Flushing Groundwater Remedy at the Old Rifle Legacy Management Site, Rifle, Colorado July 2011 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy Review of the Natural Flushing Groundwater Remedy-Old Rifle, Rifle, Colorado July 2011 Doc. No. S07263 Page i Contents Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................. iii Executive Summary .........................................................................................................................v

17

Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Final Report:Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8 Support.August 2004

18

Flushing, Michigan: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Flushing, Michigan: Energy Resources Flushing, Michigan: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 43.0630833°, -83.8510732° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.0630833,"lon":-83.8510732,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

19

Double Shell Tank (DST) Diluent and Flush Subsystem Specification  

SciTech Connect

The Double-Shell Tank (DST) Diluent and Flush Subsystem is intended to support Waste Feed Delivery. The DST Diluent and Flush Subsystem specification describes the relationship of this system with the DST System, describes the functions that must be performed by the system, and establishes the performance requirements to be applied to the design of the system. It also provides references for the requisite codes and standards. The DST Diluent and Flush Subsystem will treat the waste for a more favorable waste transfer. This will be accomplished by diluting the waste, dissolving the soluble portion of the waste, and flushing waste residuals from the transfer line. The Diluent and Flush Subsystem will consist of the following: The Diluent and Flush Station(s) where chemicals will be off-loaded, temporarily stored, mixed as necessary, heated, and metered to the delivery system; and A piping delivery system to deliver the chemicals to the appropriate valve or pump pit Associated support structures. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations. This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program.

GRAVES, C.E.

2000-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

20

W-320 waste retrieval sluicing system transfer line flushing volume and frequency calculation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The calculations contained in this analysis document establish the technical basis for the volume, frequency, and flushing fluid to be utilized for routine Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS) process line flushes. The WRSS was installed by Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 Sluicing. The double contained pipelines being flushed have 4 inch stainless steel primary pipes. The flushes are intended to prevent hydrogen buildup in the transfer lines and to provide ALARA conditions for maintenance personnel.

Bailey, J.W.

1997-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flush toilet bathtub" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

W-320 waste retrieval sluicing system transfer line flushing volume and frequency calculation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The calculations contained in this analysis document establish the technical basis for the volume, frequency, and flushing fluid to be utilized for routine Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS) process line flushes. The WRSS was installed by Project W-320, Tank 24 I-C-106 Sluicing. The double contained pipelines being flushed have 4 inch stainless steel primary pipes. The flushes are intended to prevent hydrogen build up in the transfer lines and to provide ALARA conditions for maintenance personnel.

Bailey, J.W.

1997-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

22

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Saves Water With High-Efficiency Toilet and Urinal Program: Best Management Practice Case Study #6 - Toilets and Urinals (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a longstanding, successful sustainability program that focuses on energy and water efficiency as well as environmental protection. Because MSFC was built in the 1960s, most of the buildings house outdated, inefficient restroom fixtures. The facility engineering team at MSFC developed an innovative efficiency model for replacing these older toilets and urinals.

Not Available

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Technology to Toilets: Can Microfinance and IT Help Solve the World's Sanitation Crisis?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Approximately 2.5 billion people do not have access to a toilet; instead, they have no choice but to practice open defecation, having a potentially detrimental effect on their health. This paper asks whether microfinance and IT can play a role in tackling ... Keywords: Grameen Telephone, Health, Information Technology, Microfinance, Microfinance Institutions, Sanitation

Karl Dayson; Jack Sim

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Final Report- Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Final Report - Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support

25

Evaluation of Soil Flushing for Application to the Deep Vadose Zone in the Hanford Central Plateau  

SciTech Connect

Soil flushing was included in the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau as a technology with the potential to remove contaminants from the vadose zone. Soil flushing operates through the addition of water, and if necessary an appropriate mobilizing agent, to mobilize contaminants and flush them from the vadose zone and into the groundwater where they are subsequently captured by a pump-and-treat system. There are uncertainties associated with applying soil flushing technology to contaminants in the deep vadose zone at the Hanford Central Plateau. The modeling and laboratory efforts reported herein are intended to provide a quantitative assessment of factors that impact water infiltration and contaminant flushing through the vadose zone and into the underlying groundwater. Once in the groundwater, capture of the contaminants would be necessary, but this aspect of implementing soil flushing was not evaluated in this effort. Soil flushing was evaluated primarily with respect to applications for technetium and uranium contaminants in the deep vadose zone of the Hanford Central Plateau.

Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Zhang, Z. F.; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Schramke, Janet A.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.; Gordon, Kathryn A.; Last, George V.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Rotary seal with enhanced lubrication and contaminant flushing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A resilient, ring shaped interference-type hydrodynamic rotary seal having waves on the lubricant side which provide increased film thickness and flushing action by creating contact pressure induced angulated restrictions formed by abrupt restrictive diverters. The angulated restrictions are defined by projecting ridges, corners at the trailing edge of the waves, or simply by use of a converging shape at the trailing edge of the waves which is more abrupt than the gently converging hydrodynamic inlet shape at the leading edge of the waves. The abrupt restrictive diverter performs two functions; a restricting function and a diverting function. The angulated restrictions cause a local film thickness restriction which produces a damming effect preventing a portion of the lubricant from leaking out of the dynamic sealing interface at the trailing edge of the wave, and results in a much thicker lubricant film thickness under the waves. This contributes to more film thickness in the remainder of the dynamic sealing interface toward the environment because film thickness tends to decay gradually rather than abruptly due to the relative stiffness of the seal material. Because of the angle of the abrupt restrictive diverter relative to the relative rotation direction, in conjunction with the restriction or damming effect, a strong diverting action is produced which pumps lubricant across the dynamic sealing interface toward the environment. The lubricant diversion is caused by the component of the rotational velocity tangent to the abrupt restrictive diverter. The component of rotational velocity normal to the abrupt restrictive diverter causes a portion of the lubricant film to be pumped past the abrupt restrictive diverter, thereby assuring adequate lubrication thereof.

Dietle, Lannie L. (Sugar Land, TX)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Influence of Cold Pools Downstream of Mountain Barriers on Downslope Winds and Flushing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of cold pools downstream of mesoscale mountain barriers on downslope winds and flushing is investigated in this study by means of a numerical mesoscale model. The model is compared with existing analytical and numerical solutions. ...

Tsengdar J. Lee; Roger A. Pielke; Robert C. Kessler; John Weaver

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

A Flushing Model of Onslow Bay, North Carolina, Based on Intrusion Volumes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Onslow Bay, North Carolina, is repeatedly flushed by intrusions of Gulf Stream water. An exponential dilution model based on intrusion models indicates 2060 days are required for 50% dilution of Bay waters.

Larry P. Atkinson; Leonard J. Pietrafesa

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Toilet Learning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... ideas or suggestions. We find a consistent approach is the best way to get children on the right track in using the bathroom.

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

30

Subsonic Tests of a Flush Air Data Sensing System Applied to a Fixed-Wing Micro Air Vehicle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flush air data sensing (FADS) systems have been successfully tested on the nose tip of large manned/unmanned air vehicles. In this paper we investigate the application of a FADS system on the wing leading edge of a micro (unmanned) air vehicle (MAV) ... Keywords: Extended minimum resource allocating neural networks, Fault accommodation, Flush air data sensing systems, Micro (unmanned) air vehicle

Ihab Samy; Ian Postlethwaite; Dawei Gu

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Cost-benefit analysis of cosolvent flushing to treat groundwater contamination source areas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in the zone beneath the water table can be a virtually permanent source of groundwater contamination that cannot be remediated by currently available technologies. Cosolvent flushing is a new technology that has the potential to remediate these sites and could pose a solution to the problem of DNAPL source areas. A computer model was developed to determine the cost and time to remediate an aquifer using cosolvent flushing. Included in the model is a module to calculate the costs of recycling the alcohol that is used as the cosolvent. The model was validated using site conditions to a prior study. It was determined that recycling the cosolvent allows cosolvent flushing to be a cost effective alternative to surfactant flushing, another new technology being considered for DNAPL source remediation. Sensitivity analysis of the model was conducted by varying the saturation percentage of contaminant, percentage and type of alcohol used in the cosolvent mixture, site hydraulic conductivity, and the contaminant. Five alcohols were modeled: methanol, ethanol, 1-isopropanol, 2-isopropanol, and tert-butyl-alcohol (TBA). 1-Isopropanol, 2-isopropanol, and TBA were always more expensive than methanol and ethanol.

Anason, S.L.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Crimp sealing of tubes flush with or below a fixed surface  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for crimp sealing and severing tubes flush or below a fixed surface. Tube crimping below a fixed surface requires an asymmetric die and anvil configuration. The anvil must be flat so that, after crimping, it may be removed without deforming the crimped tubes. This asymmetric die and anvil is used when a ductile metal tube and valve assembly are attached to a pressure vessel which has a fixed surface around the base of the tube at the pressure vessel. A flat anvil is placed against the tube. Die guides are placed against the tube on a side opposite the anvil. A pinch-off die is inserted into the die guides against the tube. Adequate clearance for inserting the die and anvil around the tube is needed below the fixed surface. The anvil must be flat so that, after crimping, it may be removed without deforming the crimped tubes.

Fischer, J.E.; Walmsley, D.; Wapman, P.D.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

33

Crimp sealing of tubes flush with or below a fixed surface  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for crimp sealing and severing tubes flush or below a fixed surface. Tube crimping below a fixed surface requires an asymmetric die and anvil configuration. The anvil must be flat so that, after crimping, it may be removed without deforming the crimped tubes. This asymmetric die and anvil is used when a ductile metal tube and valve assembly are attached to a pressure vessel which has a fixed surface around the base of the tube at the pressure vessel. A flat anvil is placed against the tube. Die guides are placed against the tube on a side opposite the anvil. A pinch-off die is inserted into the die guides against the tube. Adequate clearance for inserting the die and anvil around the tube is needed below the fixed surface. The anvil must be flat so that, after crimping, it may be removed without deforming the crimped tubes. 8 figs.

Fischer, J.E.; Walmsley, D.; Wapman, P.D.

1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

34

10 MWe solar pilot plant, Daggett, California. Flushing and steam blows preoperational test procedure 980. Revision: 0  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Prescribed steps are given for flushing and steam blowing the condenser hotwell, deaerator, inline demineralizers, thermal storage subsystem flash tank, and steam lines of the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant. Included are acceptance criteria, precautions, a list of test equipment, initial conditions, procedures and data collection, and system restoration. (LEW)

Williams, D.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Method for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells by flushing with inert gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method using oxygen removal for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells. A cost-effective, 4.degree. C. storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. Preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels and reduction in hemolysis and in membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4.degree. C. for prolonged periods of time is achieved by removing oxygen therefrom at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing with an inert gas. Adenosine triphosphate levels of the stored red blood cells are boosted in some samples by addition of ammonium phosphate.

Bitensky, Mark W. (Los Alamos, NM); Yoshida, Tatsuro (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Method for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells by flushing with inert gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed using oxygen removal for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells. A cost-effective, 4 C storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. Preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels and reduction in hemolysis and in membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4 C for prolonged periods of time is achieved by removing oxygen from the red blood cells at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing with an inert gas. Adenosine triphosphate levels of the stored red blood cells are boosted in some samples by addition of ammonium phosphate. 4 figs.

Bitensky, M.W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

37

Question 8  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Tap Water * Public Phone * Laundry Facilities * Flush Toilets * Location: in Dead Man's Flats, 14.4 km east of Banff Park Gates Open: Year-Round ...

38

Removal of contaminants from fine-grained soils using electrokinetic flushing. Semiannual report, July 1 through December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report details the status of work conducted on the use of electrokinetics (EK) to remediate a fine grained soil contaminated with lead. The experimental work entails soil collection and characterization, soil adsorption and desorption of lead, and experimental setup construction and testing. Test soil was collected from Northern Erie County, New York and underwent standard preparation and physical/chemical characterization. The soil is a silt loam with a low hydraulic permeability ({approx} 10{sup {minus}7} cm/s), a large amount of fine materials, moderate organic carbon content, and a moderately high cation exchange capacity (CEC). The soil has a low indigenous lead content and is slightly acidic. The soil was artificially contaminated with lead to concentrations of 95, 800, and 7,600 mg Pb/kg soil. Lead desorption experiments were conducted using several concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3}, EDTA, CaCl{sub 2}, acetic acid, and tap water. HCl, HNO{sub 3}, and EDTA desorbed the majority of the soil-bound lead. Acetic acid and CaCl{sub 2} were less effective while tap water was ineffective. An experimental apparatus consisting of a consolidation unit and electrokinetic (EK) soil reactor to mimic EK flushing in the field was designed and constructed. The experimental unit underwent testing to determine if water could be moved through the soil under an applied electric current. Significant quantities of water were moved through soil. Based on limited results, water movement increased with increased conductivity. The pH and conductivity of the reservoir waters were monitored during the reactor testing. With time, the pH at the cathode dropped to less than 4 and at the anode was raised to about 10. Conductivities of the two reservoirs increased from their initial values because of ion migration from the soil into the reservoirs and the increase in either H{sup +} and OH{sup {minus}}.

Reed, B.E.; Berg, M.T.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Identification and evaluation of alternatives for the disposition of fluoride fuel and flush salts from the molten salt reactor experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document presents an initial identification and evaluation of the alternatives for disposition of the fluoride fuel and flush salts stored in the drain tanks at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It will serve as a resource for the U.S. Department of Energy contractor preparing the feasibility study for this activity under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). This document will also facilitate further discussion on the range of credible alternatives, and the relative merits of alternatives, throughout the time that a final alternative is selected under the CERCLA process.

NONE

1996-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

40

Appliances and Commercial Equipment Standards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Closets (Flush Toilets) Water Closets (Flush Toilets) Sign up for e-mail updates on regulations for this and other products The Department of Energy (DOE) has regulated the energy efficiency level of water closets (flush toilets) since 1992. Water closets (flush toilets) dispose of human waste by using water to flush it through a drainpipe to another location. The current standard will result in approximately $132.2 billion in savings for products shipped from 2007-2026. The Standards and Test Procedures for this product are related to Rulemaking for Plumbing Products Test Procedure. Recent Updates | Standards | Test Procedures | Waiver, Exception, and Exemption Information | Statutory Authority | Historical Information | Contact Information Recent Updates DOE published a final rule regarding test procedures for showerheads, faucets, water closets, urinals, and commercial prerinse spray valves. 78 FR 62970 (October 23, 2013). For more information, please see the rulemaking page.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flush toilet bathtub" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Controlled angular redirection of light via nanoimprinted disordered gratings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

= mold, noxious off-gases, respiratory problems #12;Stressful work environments Lack of daylight, ventilation, connection with nature ­ eye-strain #12;The Fix ­ Priority on health More daylighting In stairs irrigation system. Or low-flush or dual flush toilets #12;Use Less Land Mixed use land planning = fewer car

42

The Human Bathtub: Safety and Risk Predictions Including the Dynamic Probability of Operator Errors  

SciTech Connect

Reactor safety and risk are dominated by the potential and major contribution for human error in the design, operation, control, management, regulation and maintenance of the plant, and hence to all accidents. Given the possibility of accidents and errors, now we need to determine the outcome (error) probability, or the chance of failure. Conventionally, reliability engineering is associated with the failure rate of components, or systems, or mechanisms, not of human beings in and interacting with a technological system. The probability of failure requires a prior knowledge of the total number of outcomes, which for any predictive purposes we do not know or have. Analysis of failure rates due to human error and the rate of learning allow a new determination of the dynamic human error rate in technological systems, consistent with and derived from the available world data. The basis for the analysis is the 'learning hypothesis' that humans learn from experience, and consequently the accumulated experience defines the failure rate. A new 'best' equation has been derived for the human error, outcome or failure rate, which allows for calculation and prediction of the probability of human error. We also provide comparisons to the empirical Weibull parameter fitting used in and by conventional reliability engineering and probabilistic safety analysis methods. These new analyses show that arbitrary Weibull fitting parameters and typical empirical hazard function techniques cannot be used to predict the dynamics of human errors and outcomes in the presence of learning. Comparisons of these new insights show agreement with human error data from the world's commercial airlines, the two shuttle failures, and from nuclear plant operator actions and transient control behavior observed in transients in both plants and simulators. The results demonstrate that the human error probability (HEP) is dynamic, and that it may be predicted using the learning hypothesis and the minimum failure rate, and can be utilized for probabilistic risk analysis purposes. (authors)

Duffey, Romney B. [Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd., 2251 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, ON, L5K 1B2 (Canada); Saull, John W. [International Federation of Airwothiness, 14 Railway Approach, East Grinstead, West Sussex, RH19 1BP (United Kingdom)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 The bathtub vortex in a rotating container  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Optics and Plasma Research Dept., DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark 4 The Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17

Lautrup, Benny

44

Section 6.2 Toilets and Urinals: Greening Federal Facilities...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

there are four common varieties of uri- nals: the siphonic jet urinal, washoutwash-down uri- nals, blowout urinals, and waterless urinals. All of these must meet Federal...

45

Penguin Toilets: Order (2010-CW-1615) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

had failed to certify that certain models of water closets comply with the applicable water conservation standards. The Order adopted a Compromise Agreement, which reflected...

46

Penguin Toilets: Proposed Penalty (2010-CW-1615) | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

LLC failed to certify a variety of water closets as compliant with the applicable water conservation standards. DOE regulations require a manufacturer (which includes...

47

Energy Cost Calculator for Urinals | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Urinals Urinals Energy Cost Calculator for Urinals October 8, 2013 - 2:38pm Addthis Vary water cost, frequency of operation, and /or efficiency level. INPUT SECTION This calculator assumes that early replacement of a urinal or toilet will take place with 10 years of life remaining for existing fixture. Input the following data (if any parameter is missing, calculator will set to default value). Defaults Water Saving Product Urinal Urinal Gallons per Flush gpf 1.0 gpf Quantity to be Purchased 1 Water Cost (including waste water charges) $/1000 gal $4/1000 gal Flushes per Day flushes 30 flushes Days per Year days 260 days Calculate Reset OUTPUT SECTION Performance per Your Choice Typical Existing Unit Recommended Level (New Unit) Best Available

48

Low temperature barrier wellbores formed using water flushing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of forming an opening for a low temperature well is described. The method includes drilling an opening in a formation. Water is introduced into the opening to displace drilling fluid or indigenous gas in the formation adjacent to a portion of the opening. Water is produced from the opening. A low temperature fluid is applied to the opening.

McKinzie, II; John, Billy [Houston, TX; Keltner, Thomas Joseph [Spring, TX

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

49

Pantex flushes fire hydrants | National Nuclear Security Administratio...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure...

50

Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.5 Residential Construction and Housing Market  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

7 7 Materials Used in the Construction of a 2,272 Square-Foot Single-Family Home 13,837 board-feet of lumber 12 interior doors 13,118 square feet of sheathing 6 closet doors 19 tons of concrete 2 garage doors 3,206 square feet of exterior siding material 1 fireplace 3,103 square feet of roofing material 3 toilets, 2 bathtubs, 1 shower stall 3,061 square feet of insulation 3 bathroom sinks 6,050 square feet of interior wall material 15 kitchen cabinets, 5 other cabinets 2,335 square feet of interior ceiling material 1 kitchen sink 226 linear feet of ducting 1 range, 1 refrigerator, 1 dishwasher, 1 garbage disposal, 1 range hood 19 windows 1 washer, 1 dryer 4 exterior doors (3 hinged, 1 sliding) 1 heating and cooling system 2,269 square feet of flooring material Source(s):

51

Waterless Urinals: Features, Benefits and Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Billions of gallons of water are used annually to flush toilets in the United States. Consequences of this usage include consumption of natural resources and construction of new infrastructure to treat and transmit potable water and wastewater. Waterless, or no-flush urinals, may help mitigate these effects and offer other advantages, including lower utility charges, improved restroom hygiene, and decreased fixture maintenance. Some notable caveats include possible lack of acceptance by users, odor control problems, and rejection by code officials. As urine is about 96% liquid, no additional water is really needed to wash it down the drain. The waterless, urinal, looking much like its conventional counterpart, takes advantage of this concept with generally positive results. This paper will discuss the design, applications, operation, maintenance, advantages, and disadvantages of waterless urinals. The results of two surveys of current users will be shared. A case study from a Texas school district will be also presented.

Bristow, G.; McClure, J. D.; Fisher, D.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Wynkoop Building Performance Measurement: Water  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the water analysis performance for the Denver, Colorado Wynkoop Building. The Wynkoop Building (Figure 1) was built in 2006 as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 8 Headquarters intended to house over 900 occupants in the 301,292 gross square feet (248,849 rentable square feet). The building was built on a brownfield in the Lower Downtown Historic District as part of an urban redevelopment effort. The building was designed and constructed through a public-private partnership with the sustainable design elements developed jointly by General Services Administration (GSA) and EPA. That partnership is still active with all parties still engaged to optimize building operations and use the building as a Learning Laboratory. The building design achieved U.S. Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED-NC) Gold Certification in 2008 (Figure 2) and a 2008 EPA Energy Star Rating of 96 with design highlights that include: (1) Water use was designed to use 40% less than a typical design baseline. The design included low flow fixtures, waterless urinals and dual flush toilets; (2) Native and adaptive vegetation were selected to minimize the need for irrigation water for landscaping; and (3) Energy use intensity was modeled at 66.1 kBtus/gross square foot, which is 39% better than ASHRAE 90.1 1999. The Wynkoop Building water use (10 gallons/square foot) was measured at lower than industry average (15 gallons/square foot) and GSA goals (13 gallons/square foot), however, it was higher than building management expected it would be. The type of occupants and number of occupants can have a significant impact on fixture water use. The occupancy per floor varied significantly over the study time period, which added uncertainty to the data analysis. Investigation of the fixture use on the 2nd, 5th, and 7th floors identified potential for water use reduction if the flush direction of the dual-flush toilet handles was reversed. The building management retrofitted the building's toilets with handles that operated on reduced flush when pushed down (0.8 gallons) and full flush when pulled up (1.1 gallons). The water pressure on the 5th floor (< 30 psi) is less than half the pressure on the 7th floor (>80 psi). The measured water savings post-retrofit was lower on the 5th floor than the 7th floor. The differences in water pressure may have had an impact on the quantity of water used per floor. The second floor water use was examined prior to and following the toilet fixture retrofit. This floor is where conference rooms for non-building occupants are available for use, thus occupancy is highly variable. The 3-day average volume per flush event was higher post-retrofit (0.79 gallons per event), in contrast to pre-retrofit (0.57 gallons per event). There were 40% more flush events post retrofit, which impacted the findings. Water use in the third floor fitness center was also measured for a limited number of days. Because of water line accessibility, only water use on the men's side of the fitness center was measured and from that the total fitness center water use was estimated. Using the limited data collected, the fitness center shower water use is approximately 2% of the whole building water use. Overall water use in the Wynkoop Building is below the industry baseline and GSA expectations. The dual flush fixture replacement appears to have resulted in additional water savings that are expected to show a savings in the total annual water use.

Fowler, Kimberly M.; Kora, Angela R.

2012-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

53

Wynkoop Building Performance Measurement: Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is a summary of the water analysis performance for the Denver, Colorado Wynkoop Building. The Wynkoop Building (Figure 1) was built in 2006 as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 8 Headquarters intended to house over 900 occupants in the 301,292 gross square feet (248,849 rentable square feet). The building was built on a brownfield in the Lower Downtown Historic District as part of an urban redevelopment effort. The building was designed and constructed through a public-private partnership with the sustainable design elements developed jointly by General Services Administration (GSA) and EPA. That partnership is still active with all parties still engaged to optimize building operations and use the building as a Learning Laboratory. The building design achieved U.S. Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED-NC) Gold Certification in 2008 (Figure 2) and a 2008 EPA Energy Star Rating of 96 with design highlights that include: (1) Water use was designed to use 40% less than a typical design baseline. The design included low flow fixtures, waterless urinals and dual flush toilets; (2) Native and adaptive vegetation were selected to minimize the need for irrigation water for landscaping; and (3) Energy use intensity was modeled at 66.1 kBtus/gross square foot, which is 39% better than ASHRAE 90.1 1999. The Wynkoop Building water use (10 gallons/square foot) was measured at lower than industry average (15 gallons/square foot) and GSA goals (13 gallons/square foot), however, it was higher than building management expected it would be. The type of occupants and number of occupants can have a significant impact on fixture water use. The occupancy per floor varied significantly over the study time period, which added uncertainty to the data analysis. Investigation of the fixture use on the 2nd, 5th, and 7th floors identified potential for water use reduction if the flush direction of the dual-flush toilet handles was reversed. The building management retrofitted the building's toilets with handles that operated on reduced flush when pushed down (0.8 gallons) and full flush when pulled up (1.1 gallons). The water pressure on the 5th floor (80 psi). The measured water savings post-retrofit was lower on the 5th floor than the 7th floor. The differences in water pressure may have had an impact on the quantity of water used per floor. The second floor water use was examined prior to and following the toilet fixture retrofit. This floor is where conference rooms for non-building occupants are available for use, thus occupancy is highly variable. The 3-day average volume per flush event was higher post-retrofit (0.79 gallons per event), in contrast to pre-retrofit (0.57 gallons per event). There were 40% more flush events post retrofit, which impacted the findings. Water use in the third floor fitness center was also measured for a limited number of days. Because of water line accessibility, only water use on the men's side of the fitness center was measured and from that the total fitness center water use was estimated. Using the limited data collected, the fitness center shower water use is approximately 2% of the whole building water use. Overall water use in the Wynkoop Building is below the industry baseline and GSA expectations. The dual flush fixture replacement appears to have resulted in additional water savings that are expected to show a savings in the total annual water use.

Fowler, Kimberly M.; Kora, Angela R.

2012-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

54

Flushing sprawl down the drain : is TIF an option for Vermont growth center wastewater projects?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In keeping with a long history of striving to preserve its traditional settlement pattern and promote smart growth, Vermont's most recent growth management policies encourage municipalities to plan for and accommodate ...

Markarian, Molly E. (Molly Elizabeth)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Evaluation of potential for MSRE spent fuel and flush salt storage and treatment at the INEL  

SciTech Connect

The potential for interim storage as well as for treatment of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment spent fuel at INEL has been evaluated. Provided that some minimal packaging and chemical stabilization prerequisites are satisfied, safe interim storage of the spent fuel at the INEL can be achieved in a number of existing or planned facilities. Treatment by calcination in the New Waste Calcining Facility at the INEL can also be a safe, effective, and economical alternative to treatment that would require the construction of a dedicated facility. If storage at the INEL is chosen for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) spent fuel salts, their transformation to the more stable calcine solid would still be desirable as it would result in a lowering of risks. Treatment in the proposed INEL Remote-Handled Immobilization Facility (RHIF) would result in a waste form that would probably be acceptable for disposal at one of the proposed national repositories. The cost increment imputable to the treatment of the MSRE salts would be a small fraction of the overall capital and operating costs of the facility or the cost of building and operating a dedicated facility. Institutional and legal issues regarding shipments of fuel and waste to the INEL are summarized. The transfer of MSRE spent fuel for interim storage or treatment at the INEL is allowed under existing agreements between the State of idaho and the Department of energy and other agencies of the Federal Government. In contrast, current agreements preclude the transfer into Idaho of any radioactive wastes for storage or disposal within the State of Idaho. This implies that wastes and residues produced from treating the MSRE spent fuel at locations outside Idaho would not be acceptable for storage in Idaho. Present agreements require that all fuel and high-level wastes stored at the INEL, including MSRE spent fuel if received at the INEL, must be moved to a location outside Idaho by the year 2035.

Ougouag, A.M.; Ostby, P.A.; Nebeker, R.L.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Flushing sprawl down the drain : is TIF an option for Vermont growth center wastewater projects?.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In keeping with a long history of striving to preserve its traditional settlement pattern and promote smart growth, Vermont's most recent growth management policies encourage (more)

Markarian, Molly E. (Molly Elizabeth)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.3 Commercial Sector Water Consumption  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

5 5 Normalized Annual End Uses of Water in Select Hotels in Western United States (Gallons per Room per Year) (1) Fixture/End Use Bathtub (2) Faucets Showers Toilets Leaks Laundry Ice making (3) Other/misc. indoor Total Indoor Use Number of Rooms Logged average daily use, kgal: Peak instantaneous demand, gpm: Benchmarking Values for Hotels N Indoor Use, gal./day/occupied room 98 Cooling Use, gal./year/occupied room 97 Note(s): Source(s): 25th Percentile of Users 60 - 115 7,400 - 41,600 Based on four budget hotels and one luxury hotel. Three budget hotels in Southern California, one in Phoenix, AZ. Luxury hotel in Los Angeles, CA. 1) Water use data for the buildings was collected over a few days. Estimates of annual use were created by accounting for seasonal use and other variables, billing data, and interviews with building managers. 2) Based on one hotel. 3) Based on three hotels. 5) The

58

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Saves Water With High-Efficiency Toilet and Urinal Program: Best Management Practice Case Study #6 „ Toilets and Urinals (Fact Sheet), Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

the National Aeronautics and Space the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a longstanding, successful sustainability program that focuses on energy and water efficiency as well as environmental protection. MSFC's key operations include propulsion and transportation systems for the space shuttle and Ares rockets. MSFC also provides advanced engineering and operations for International Space Station systems. Located in Huntsville, Alabama, adjacent to Redstone Arsenal, MSFC has more than 4.5 million square feet of building space occupied by 7,000 personnel. MSFC consumes approximately 240 million gallons of potable water annually, supplied through the City of Huntsville. MSFC is known for breaking new ground and pushing the

59

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Saves Water With High-Efficiency Toilet and Urinal Program: Best Management Practice Case Study #6 „ Toilets and Urinals (Fact Sheet), Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the National Aeronautics and Space the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a longstanding, successful sustainability program that focuses on energy and water efficiency as well as environmental protection. MSFC's key operations include propulsion and transportation systems for the space shuttle and Ares rockets. MSFC also provides advanced engineering and operations for International Space Station systems. Located in Huntsville, Alabama, adjacent to Redstone Arsenal, MSFC has more than 4.5 million square feet of building space occupied by 7,000 personnel. MSFC consumes approximately 240 million gallons of potable water annually, supplied through the City of Huntsville. MSFC is known for breaking new ground and pushing the

60

Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.4 WaterSense  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

4 WaterSense 4 WaterSense March 2012 8.4.1 WaterSense List of Covered Products and Efficiency Specifications Covered Product Lavatory Faucets (1) Toilets (2) Urinals Shower Heads Irrigation Control Equipment (3) Pre-Rinse Spray Valves (4) Water Softeners - (4) - WaterSense Landscape Irrigation Partners as of February 2012: 2001 (5) Note(s): Source(s): In Progress 1) GPM = gallons per minute. 2) GPF = gallons per flush. 3) Mulitiple criteria for irrigation includes requirements for percentage reduction in irrigation adequacy and irrigation excess, as well as conformance to supplemental capability requirements 4) Final criteria for these categories have not been set. These are criteria levels that WaterSense is considering. 5) WaterSense qualifies individuals as partners via private programs certified by WaterSense.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flush toilet bathtub" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Best Management Practice: Alternate Water Sources | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Best Management Practice: Alternate Water Sources Best Management Practice: Alternate Water Sources Best Management Practice: Alternate Water Sources October 8, 2013 - 9:50am Addthis Many Federal facilities may have water uses that can be met with non-potable water from alternate water sources. Potentially available alternative water sources for Federal sources include municipal-supplied reclaimed water, treated gray water from on-site sanitary sources, and storm water. Overview On-site alternative water sources are most economic if included in the original design. Common uses for these sources include landscape irrigation, ornamental pond and fountain filling, cooling tower make-up, and toilet and urinal flushing. Municipal-Supplied Reclaimed Water Municipal supplied reclaimed water has been treated and recycled for

62

Methodology for Use of Reclaimed Water at Federal Locations  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fort Carson Golf Course, irrigated with reclaimed water. Fort Carson Golf Course, irrigated with reclaimed water. Water can be reused in three main ways: 1. Water Recycle: Discharge water from an application or process is used again in the same application, such as recycling the final laundry rinse water for the next cycle. 2. On-site Water Reuse: Discharge water from one application or process that is captured, minimally treated, and is utilized in another application. Examples include gray water (1) reused for toilet or urinal flushing. 3. Water Reclaim: Also termed, reclaimed wastewater, is effluent generated by a wastewater treat- ment facility that is treated to a level that is appropriate for use in another application. Examples

63

Layout 1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Few stop to consider the consequences Few stop to consider the consequences of their daily ablutions, the washing of clothes, the watering of lawns, and the flush of a toilet. However, wastewater treatment-one of the cornerstones of modern civilization-is inside this issue 2. Finishers Convene in NM Spot Awards 3. Termites in Costa Rica 4. Profile: Erika Lindquist 5. Plant Pathogens Decoded OPA Recipients 6. Young Investigator Winner 8. Spotlight on Safety 9. Hazards of Being a Microbiologist 10. All About Webfeeds 11. Eukaryotic Finishing at Stanford 12. Symbiotic Tree Fungus 17. New CSP Targets 19. Pichia stipitis 20. Aspergillus niger PRIMER the October 2006 Volume 3 Issue 2 First Tree Genome Is Published: Poplar Holds Promise as Renewable Bioenergy Resource Wood from a common tree may one day figure prominently in meeting trans-

64

SWEEP - Save Water & Energy Education Program  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to develop, monitor, analyze, and report on an integrated resource-conservation program highlighting efficient residential appliances and fixtures. The sites of study were 50 homes in two water-constrained communities located in Oregon. The program was designed to maximize water savings to these communities and to serve as a model for other communities seeking an integrated approach to energy and water resource efficiency. The program included the installation and in-place evaluation of energy- and water-efficient devices including the following: horizontal axis clothes washers (and the matching clothes dryers), resource-efficient dishwashers, an innovative dual flush low-flow toilet, low-flow showerheads, and faucet aerators. The significance of this activity lies in its integrated approach and unique metering evaluation of individual end-use, aggregated residential total use, and system-wide energy and water benefits.

Sullivan, Gregory P.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Hillman, Tim C.; Hadley, Adam; Ledbetter, Marc R.; Payson, David R.

2001-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

65

Sizing the first flush and its effect on the storage-reliability-yield behavior of rainwater harvesting in Rwanda  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rainwater harvesting is a technology used to supply water for domestic purposes in developing countries. Rooftop rainwater harvesting involves collection of rainwater from a rooftop via a guttering system and storage in a ...

Doyle, Kelly C. (Kelly Carroll)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Water Efficiency Technology Fact Sheet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

toilets have been an established technology for more than 30 years, and perhaps longer in site-built forms. As they require little to no water, composting toilet systems can provide a solution to sanitation and environmental problems in unsewered, rural, and suburban areas and in both developed and underdeveloped countries. A composting (or biological) toilet system contains and processes excrement, toilet paper, carbon additive, and sometimes, food waste. Unlike a septic system, a composting toilet system relies on unsaturated conditions where aerobic bacteria break down waste. This process is similar to a yard waste composter. If sized and maintained properly, a composting toilet breaks down waste 10 to 30 % of

United States; Composting Toilets

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Sensing from the basement: a feasibility study of unobtrusive and low-cost home activity recognition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The home deployment of sensor-based systems offers many opportunities, particularly in the area of using sensor-based systems to support aging in place by monitoring an elders activities of daily living. But existing approaches to home activity recognition are typically expensive, difficult to install, or intrude into the living space. This paper considers the feasibility of a new approach that reaches into the home via the existing infrastructure. Specifically, we deploy a small number of low-cost sensors at critical locations in a homes water distribution infrastructure. Based on water usage patterns, we can then infer activities in the home. To examine the feasibility of this approach, we deployed real sensors into a real home for six weeks. Among other findings, we show that a model built on microphone-based sensors that are placed away from systematic noise sources can identify 100 % of clothes washer usage, 95 % of dishwasher usage, 94 % of showers, 88 % of toilet flushes, 73 % of bathroom sink activity lasting ten seconds or longer, and 81 % of kitchen sink activity lasting ten seconds or longer. While there are clear limits to what activities can be detected when analyzing water usage, our new approach represents a sweet spot in the tradeoff between what information is collected at what cost.

James Fogarty

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Faucets,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Faucets, Showerheads, Toilets, and Urinals to someone by E-mail Faucets, Showerheads, Toilets, and Urinals to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Faucets, Showerheads, Toilets, and Urinals on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Faucets, Showerheads, Toilets, and Urinals on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Faucets, Showerheads, Toilets, and Urinals on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Faucets, Showerheads, Toilets, and Urinals on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Faucets, Showerheads, Toilets, and Urinals on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Faucets, Showerheads, Toilets, and Urinals on

69

Climate Change and Water Resources in California: The Cost of Conservation versus Supply Augmentation for the East Bay Municipal Utility District  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

more efficient washers, dishwashers, and toilets; incentivestoilets, showerheads, dishwashers, and washing machines (showerheads, washers, and dishwashers; and 2. Services, such

Mourad, Bessma

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Checklist of Host-Parasite Interactions of the Order Crocodylia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mississippiensis. East Texas, USA. Stomach (via flushing).Unidentified cestode. East Texas. Stomach (via flushing).Intestine. MLC (2010); Texas, and Southern USA. NHM (2010);

Tellez, Marisa

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Urban Water Conservation along the Rio Grande  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Not long ago, conversations on urban water demand were not only rare but dull. Today, especially in the West and Southwest, these conversations can turn into heated debates. The question of who has enough water for the future has pitted urban interests against agriculture and financial resources against cultural values. Water supply is finite, even if it is part of a cycle. Water may be plentiful in some places and scarce in others. Until we are ready to make water conservation a pattern of behavior to use less water, our demand will continue to grow as our population grows. Although water conservation is not an answer to all growth, it does offer an alternative to acquiring some new water supplies. Water conservation is almost always the least expensive water supply alternative. Water conservation can have two definitions. First and most often, conservation is considered a reduction in the amount of water used. Each person uses less. An alternative definition implies more efficient use of water. We waste less. Less waste can be attributed to best management practices, more efficient hardware or literally less water running into the streets from irrigation systems. Urban water conservation incorporates watersaving measures and incentives for the home, on the landscape and throughout the city water distribution system. It is easy to differentiate between water-saving measures and incentives. A water-saving measure such as a water-efficient toilet reduces the amount used each and every time it is flushed. Or, a rain sensor turns off a sprinkler system during rain showers. In contrast, incentives encourage the wise use of water through education, ordinances or scheduling. Educational programs suggest water reductions in the landscape, ordinances mandate how much turf is planted, and schedules tell homeowners when to irrigate. Combined, measures and incentives provide a water conservation program.

Silvey, Valeen; Kaiser, Ronald; Lesikar, Bruce; Runyan, Craig

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

JA  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

toilets, and showerheads) , heating, ventilation , and air conditioning systems, and appliances; installation of drip-irrigation systems; improvements in generator efficiency...

73

CRITICAL NATIONAL NEED IDEA Development of UV-based ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Protection Energy estimates that about a quarter of the clean water consumed in a US home is used in toilets, closely followed by laundry. ...

2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

74

Section 3.4 General Landscaping Principles: Greening Federal...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Graywater is untreated wastewater generated within the facility from shower and bath, laundry, and bath- room sinks (not from toilets, urinals, kitchen sinks, or dishwashers). In...

75

Federal Energy Management Program: Energy Cost Calculator for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Urinals Vary water cost, frequency of operation, and or efficiency level. INPUT SECTION This calculator assumes that early replacement of a urinal or toilet will take place with...

76

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

water and wasted embodied energy. While 5% of California'senergy intensive (94). Water- inefficient fixtures and fittings (toilets, showerheads, urinals, faucets) represent both wasted

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Slide 1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

waterless urinals, low flow toilets, flow restrictors on sinks and showers and efficient commercial dishwasher Comprehensive waste management Environmental Metric Percent...

78

Saving Water Saves Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Test Procedure for Dishwashers, Federal Register, Vol. 68,e.g. , ,clothes washers or dishwashers that use less totalhes Washers Toilet s Dishwashers Figure 2a. Household Water

McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Building Energy Code | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

toilets, faucets and shower heads. Builders must also provide the option for the homeowner to purchase Energy Star rated dishwashers and clothes washers and various water...

80

Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing More Documents & Publications Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report - Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flush toilet bathtub" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing U. S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support January 2004 Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing More Documents & Publications Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing

82

Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing More Documents & Publications Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing Final Report - Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical

83

ECOVILLAGE FACTS The complex includes 50 apartments (18 original and 32 new)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, community gatherings o Kitchen o Playroom o Dryers for Ecovillage residents o Solar water heater o Solar of the Ecovillage apartments include: o solar tubes and compact fluorescent lighting o low-flow toilets College-harvested wood o natural building techniques o a composting toilet o a net-metering solar electric

Baltisberger, Jay H.

84

< Previous: August is Blue on Planet Green  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

our electric cars. In order to fill up we would have to either raid the toilets at all the gas they are some people already planning already to install a toilet in the trunk of a bio-electric car electricity when placed in mud and wastewater, has been evolved into a far more productive strain, as part

Lovley, Derek

85

Defense Waste Processing Facility Process Enhancements  

Remote Operations Flushing Requirements Reliable Separation Efficiency ... Eliminate/minimize storage and handling hazards of formic acid 2.

86

Microsoft Word - S09423_AWSS  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Alternate Water Supply System Alternate Water Supply System Flushing Plan Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site October 2012 LMS/RVT/S09423 LMS/RVT/S09423 Alternate Water Supply System Flushing Plan Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site October 2012 U.S. Department of Energy AWSS Flushing Plan, Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site October 2012 Doc. No. S09423 Page i Contents Abbreviations .................................................................................................................................. ii

87

Sustainable Features of McKinney ISD Elementary School  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Students planning to attend McKinney Independent School District's newest 70,000 square foot elementary school when it opens in the fall of 2000 are in for a special treat. In addition to standard elementary school curriculum, students will have the unique opportunity to study wind and solar energy, feed their frogs and take care of the school's water habitat, learn in classrooms illuminated by the sun rather than electric light, water their bean plants (which they keep in the school's greenhouse) with harvested rainwater, and check the weather at the campus weather station. This project was named by the American Institute of Architects to the Earth Day Top 10 List for Environmentally Responsible Design Projects in the nation Sustainable design is environmentally sensitive architecture and engineering - the ability to meet today's needs without compromising the resources available to future generations. Environmental conservation is only one of the reasons to consider sustainable design. Studies are showing that the various environmental benefits of sustainable design also benefit our children in the classroom. Another major element of sustainable design is called "Eco Education", a concept that incorporates the sustainable school into the curriculum so that students can understand its design and how it impacts the environment. It's a tremendous teaching tool for students to learn about environmental conservation. Harvesting rainwater is a perfect example. By collecting rainwater from the roof of the building and channeling it to one of six on-campus storage tanks, . enough water can be collected to flush toilets and water the grounds. Other elements of sustainable design include site planning and landscape management; the use of recycled building materials; solar systems; wind energy; geothermal energy (using the Earth's natural energy to heat and cool the building), energy recovery, and high energy efficiency. The primary goal of sustainable design is to protect a site's existing environment. As much as possible, we need to understand and maximize the natural conditions of a new project's site and incorporate its features into the overall design. That's what sustainability is all about. The purpose of this paper is to present the specific sustainable features of the McKinney ISD Elementary School and the process of integrating sustainability criteria in all phases of the school's life cycle

McClure, J. D.; Estes, J. M.; Keep, G.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Loads, capacity, and failure rate modeling  

SciTech Connect

Both failure rate and load capacity (stress-strength) interferenece methodologies are employed in the reliability analysis at nuclear facilities. Both of the above have been utilized in a heuristic failure rate model in terms of load capacity inference. Analytical solutions are used to demonstrate that infant mortality and random aging failures may be expressed implicity in terms of capacity variability, load variability, and capacity deterioration, and that mode interactions play a role in the formation of the bathtub curve for failure rates.

Lewis, E.E.; Chen, Hsin-Chieh

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

89

Sol-Char: Producing Char from Waste using Solar Energy  

A recent Reinvent the Toilet Challenge put forth by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation called for researchers to develop sanitation solutions that are affordable and desirable to use, render fecal waste harmless within a short time-span, are ...

90

Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 2   Examples of applications and parts made with vacuum infusion...small aircraft Industrial Fan blades, part for fish counting unit, toilet bowl, oil

91

What the latest discoveries tell us about the Big Bang, dark matter and multiple universes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The intriguing science behind moral judgements WHAT MAKES US DISGUSTED? Stephen Hawking New film: the verdict) of your bowl movements, is stuck with the Bluetooth pin 0000, making it an easy target. BLUETOOTH TOILETS

Bechtel, William

92

Wood for energy at Bedgebury Forest Bedgebury visitor centre's  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an educational room, café, visitor information office and toilet and shower facilities. A self-contained bike is stored outside but stacked off the ground to allow air to circulate. It is essential that the chips

93

PROJECTS FROM FEDERAL REGION IX DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROPRIATE ENERGY TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM PART II  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

within the house includes: passive solar heating and coolingof the house. Technical Details: The passive constructionhouse" (Other technologies include solar domestic water heating, composting toilet, energy efficient conservation devices, passive

Case, C.W.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Site Environmental Report for 2002, Volume 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Municipal Utility District CY 2002. The list includes self-Utility District, 4 or recirculated to flush contaminants from the subsurface. Table 6-5 lists

Pauer, Ron

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Microsoft Word - S06815_2010 Ann Rpt  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

to stakeholder concerns that large storms could generate runoff from Many Devils Wash, causing contaminants to flush into the San Juan River, DOE installed an automated...

96

STRATEGIC PLAN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Tabletop exercises were conducted for incidents at Shea and Yankee Stadiums, the US Open in Flushing Meadow Park and John F. Kennedy ...

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

97

Russian Foreign Policy in the South Caucasus.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??For about a decade, Russia has been a flush with money, and economic prosperity after the financial chaos of the 1990s. This boom has been (more)

Marksberry, Brian R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Feature Detection, Characterization and Confirmation Methodology: Final Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

location of major drilling, fluid loss, high transmissivity,drilling process, type of drilling fluids used to flush theFor example, drilling fluids including compressed air,

Karasaki, Kenzi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

CX-006944: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination CX-006944: Categorical Exclusion Determination Remove Insulation from High Point Flush Pump Drain Valve CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 10032011...

100

EA-1406: Ground Water Compliance at the New Rifle, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site, Rifle, Colorado  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposed compliance strategy of natural flushing combined with institutional controls and continued monitoring for the New Rifle uranium mill...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flush toilet bathtub" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

An Inspection Well Data Analyzing Approach to Residual Oil Distribution After Polymer Flooding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As one of the widely applied EOR methods in China, polymer flooding can gain about 10% incremental oil recovery. Meanwhile, most producing wells have been in high water cut period, subsurface displacement is still non-uniform and some non-flushed layers ... Keywords: after polymer flooding, residual oil, distribution law, inspection well, flush degree

Wang Zhengbo, Ye Yinzhu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Welding Methods for Tailored Blanks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...methods both with and without filler wire by Toyota since 1986. Filler wire is used for applications that have an exposed weld in the finished product, such as body side frames. Filler wire welds are ground flush to improve surface appearance after welding. Welds that do not require a flush surface...

103

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

891 - 15900 of 28,560 results. 891 - 15900 of 28,560 results. Download Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing Final Report:Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8 Support.August 2004 http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/rejuvenating-permeable-reactive-barriers-chemical-flushing Download Final Report- Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support Final Report - Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/final-report-rejuvenating-permeable-reactive-barriers-chemical Download U.S. Department of Energy 2008 Annual FOIA Report U.S. Department of Energy 2008 Annual FOIA Report

104

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

01 - 18310 of 29,416 results. 01 - 18310 of 29,416 results. Download Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing Final Report:Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8 Support.August 2004 http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/rejuvenating-permeable-reactive-barriers-chemical-flushing Download Final Report- Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support Final Report - Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/final-report-rejuvenating-permeable-reactive-barriers-chemical Download iManage Strategic Integrated Procurement Enterprise System

105

BEFORE THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WASHINGTON,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PENGUIN TOILETS, LLC PENGUIN TOILETS, LLC Respondent Issued: October 8, 2010 Case Number: 2010-C W-161 By the General Counsel, U.S. Department of Energy: 1. In this Order, I adopt the attached Compromise Agreement entered into between the U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE") and Penguin Toilets, LLC ("Respondent"). The Compromise Agreement resolves the case initiated to pursue a civil penalty for violations of the compliance certification requirements at 10 C.F.R. § 430.62. 2. The DOE and Respondent have negotiated the terms of the Compromise Agreement that resolve this matter. A copy of the Compromise Agreement is attached hereto and incorporated by reference. 3. After reviewing the terms of the Compromise Agreement and evaluating the facts before me, I find that the public interest would be served by adopting the Compromise

106

Rainier Mesa CAU Infiltration Model using INFILv3  

SciTech Connect

The outline of this presentation are: (1) Model Inputs - DEM, Precipitation, Air temp, Soil props, Surface geology, Vegetation; (2) Model Pre-processing - Runoff Routing and sinks, Slope and Azimuth, Soil Ksat reduction with slope (to mitigate bathtub ring), Soil-Bedrock Interface permeabilities; (3) Model Calibration - ET using PEST, Chloride mass balance data, Streamflow using PEST; (4) Model Validation - Streamflow data not used for calibration; (5) Uncertainty Analysis; and (6) Results. Conclusions are: (1) Average annual infiltration rates =11 to 18 mm/year for RM domain; (2) Average annual infiltration rates = 7 to 11 mm/year for SM domain; (3) ET = 70% of precipitation for both domains; (4) Runoff = 8-9% for RM; and 22-24% for SM - Apparently high average runoff is caused by the truncation of the lowerelevation portions of watersheds where much of the infiltration of runoff waters would otherwise occur; (5) Model results are calibrated to measured ET, CMB data, and streamflow observations; (6) Model results are validated using streamflow observations discovered after model calibration was complete; (7) Use of soil Ksat reduction with slope to mitigate bathtub ring was successful (based on calibration results); and (8) Soil-bedrock K{_}interface is innovative approach.

Levitt, Daniel G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwicklis, Edward M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

107

Method of producing a methane rich gas mixture from mine gas  

SciTech Connect

A pressure-swing adsorption system is used to enrich the methane content of mine gas obtained from bores around mine shafts or galleries from the customary 25 to 45% by volume to a product gas quality of 50% by volume. Using a carbon molecular sieve adsorbent, the adsorption is carried out at 5 to 8 bar and is followed by a uniflow expansion to an intermediate pressure and a counterflow expansion to a flushing pressure of 1.1 to 2 bar. Counterflow flushing is carried out with waste gas and the product gas is a mixture of the gases obtained by counterflow expansion and flushing.

Richter, E.; Giessler, K.; Knoblauch, K.; Korbacher, W.

1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

108

BSC-254BSC-255 BRONFMAN BRIDGE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TBL-211A TPL-205 TPL-204 TPL-207 TOILET TPL-215A TPL-215 STUDY AREA TCL-216 TCL-217A TCL-217 TCL-213 TCL-202 TCL-206 TCL-205 BRIDGE TCL-212 TCL-211 TCL-208 TCL-209 TCL-210 BRIDGE ELEV 203 200 BSC-216

Aalberts, Daniel P.

109

Poulet free  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thierry, a mascot at a fast-food chicken restaurant, is celebrating his 35th birthday alone in the toilets. That same day, clumsy Thierry has an accident. Rejected by the city as he has been by life, Thierry makes a curious discovery that will change ...

Anne-Laure Beaujard

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Nr vi planlgger den fremtidige udvikling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

toilets, and, also in the case at Mpala, supply a biogas #12;v plant. This type of system, considering system. Among wind, hydro, solar and biogas, we concluded that everything except wind has great potential generators o Only Biogas Each of these scenarios was then compared to the existing system at Mpala

111

' t i l n o o n e i s h u n g r y Most Wanted Items  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, including juice boxes Canned Vegetables low sodium, no salt added Canned Proteins Tuna, salmon, chicken, peanut butter, beans Hygiene Items diapers, deodorants for men & women, feminine products, toilet paper, tissues, soap, toothpaste, shampoo Condiments tomato based sauces, light soy sauce, ketchup, mustard

Ungerleider, Leslie G.

112

Non-perishable Food cake / cookie / brownie mix  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

canned soup 17 canned vegetables 30 coffee / tea / hot chocolate 11 condensed/evaporated milk cooking oil deodorant 8 shampoo/ kid's tearless shampoo 9 hair styling product lotion 2 cotton swabs makeup disposable razors 7 shaving cream 4 toilet paper tissues band aids baby powder 1 babe wipes 2 cortisone cream 3

Lawson, Catherine L.

113

Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.2 Residential Sector Water Consumption  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

4 Per Capita Use of Hot Water in Single Family Homes by End Use (Gallons per Capita per Day) (1) FixtureEnd Use Toilet 0.0 0.0 0.0% 0.0% Clothes Washer 3.9 10.1 15.5% 27.8% Shower...

114

Market Impact By 2015, an estimated 40-48% of new nonresidential construction by value will be green,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. · Buildings represent 73% of U.S electricity consumption 10 . · Green buildings consume less energy emissions (the equivalent of removing 15,000 cars from the road for one year) 15 . · A month's supply of electricity for 43,000 households could be saved if 1% of American homes replace an older toilet with a Water

115

Product Development in the Industrial/Chemical Process Industry Carol Ann McDevitt, P.Eng.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tower blowdown, pass-through (once-through) cooling water, recycled treated wastewater for toilet boilers. All replaced with economic feasibility. C. Need calculation to demonstrate less than 5% annual a written plan that summarizes the overall A. Same methods and procedures used as in the implementing

de Weck, Olivier L.

116

Vol. 2003, Issue 36, pp. nf17, 10 September 2003 [DOI: 10.1126/sageke.2003.36.nf17  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Document URL: http://sageke.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/sageke;2003/36/nf17 Science , . This article sophomore year in 1987. "It was actually a science experiment gone awry," confesses Gazzaley with a giggle into the toilet bowl. But he had miscalculated the power of the reaction: The resulting explosion shook

117

Understanding Wye Using Traditional Timber to Connect Young People  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biblins Youth Campsite accessible to groups from all backgrounds and abilities by improving facilities constructed. · Solar powered toilets and shower facilities will be installed before the end of 2007 and opened to follow for successful projects. · Joined-up thinking is essential between FC staff, stakeholders

118

ANN-based residential water end-use demand forecasting model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bottom-up urban water demand forecasting based on empirical data for individual water end uses or micro-components (e.g., toilet, shower, etc.) for different households of varying characteristics is undoubtedly superior to top-down estimates originating ... Keywords: Artificial neural network, Residential water demand forecasting, Water demand management, Water end use, Water micro-component

Christopher Bennett; Rodney A. Stewart; Cara D. Beal

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Commercial and institutional kitchen exhaust systems  

SciTech Connect

This article addresses design requirements for commercial and institutional kitchen exhaust systems. The topics of the article include design considerations, toilet exhaust, dishwasher exhaust, grease hood exhaust, codes and standards, design concerns, common problems, and fire suppression. A side bar on ducts, plenums and housings is also included.

McGuire, A.B. (McGuire Engineers, Chicago, IL (United States))

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

ORDER TOTAL FOR ALL PAGES: CUSTOMER DETAILS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2.80£ -£ Dishwash Tablets - sml , Ecover, 25x20g 5.35£ -£ Natural Eucalyptus Disinfectant , Bio - D, 1l 2.70£ -£ Dishwash Rinse Aid , Ecover, 500ml 3.50£ -£ Toilet Cleaner - with nozzle , Bio - D, 750

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flush toilet bathtub" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

01 - 16610 of 29,416 results. 01 - 16610 of 29,416 results. Download Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final ReportPhase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical FlushingU. S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 SupportJanuary 2004 http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/phase-ii-performance-evaluation-permeable-reactive-barriers-and Download Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/final-report-phase-ii-performance-evaluation-permeable-reactive

122

--No Title--  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

periodically), lubricate them, and to check the flow. This will be done throughout F-Area Flush Fire Hydrants Savannah River Site Aiken South Carolina CBU-F-2011-0019, Rev. 0...

123

Analysis of Fluctuating Static Pressure Measurements in the National Transonic Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dynamic measurements of fluctuating static pressure levels were taken with flush-mounted, high-frequency response pressure transducers at 11 locations in the circuit of the National Transonic Facility (NTF) across the complete operating range of this ...

Igoe William B.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

CX-005514: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2F Evaporator Feed Pump Flush Water Piping Pipe SupportCX(s) Applied: B2.5Date: 02/03/2011Location(s): Aiken, South CarolinaOffice(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office

125

NTRCI Legacy Engine Research and Development Project Final Technical Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Finally, to simplify the requirements for the roton tip seals and to enhance the introduction and combustion of fuel, a flush-mount fuel injector was designed, manufactured and demonstrated in the GEN2.5B prototype.

Connie Smith-Holbert; Joseph Petrolino; Bart Watkins; David Irick

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

126

Quantification of and Controls on Dinitrogen and Nitrous Oxide Fluxes from Terrestrial Ecosystems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and then 100 g was weighed into each sample jar (490 mL).The jars were sealed on viton gaskets with aluminum lidssepta for gas sampling. The jars were flushed with N 2 for

Yang, Wendy Hui-I

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Multipolar corneal-shaping electrode with flexible removable skirt  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure relates to a multipolar probe using radiofrequency energy to reshape the cornea of an eye. The surface of the cornea is flushed continuously with a conductive coolant during operation.

Doss, James D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

--No Title--  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Remove insulation at ED-641000-FLW-V-6 AND 7 which is located in a clean area at the high point. Remove insulation from High Point Flush Pump Drain Valve Savannah River Site Aiken...

129

CX-006409: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Flush Fire HydrantsCX(s) Applied: B1.3Date: 05/11/2011Location(s): Aiken, South CarolinaOffice(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office

130

Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Ubiquitous Information Management and Communication  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Welcome to the 6th International Conference on Ubiquitous Information Management and Communication (ICUIMC) 2012. This year the conference is held in Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia, a city dominated by the tallest skyscrapers in Southeast Asia and flushed with ...

Suk-Han Lee; Lajos Hanzo; Roslan Ismail; Dongsoo S. Kim; Min Young Chung; Sang-Won Lee

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Apparatus and method for photochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photochemical vapor deposition apparatus includes a reactor housing having a window in one wall above a reaction chamber in the housing. A transparent curtain divides the reaction chamber into a reaction zone and a flush zone. At least one substrate is mounted in the reaction zone in light communication with the window so that ultraviolet radiation may penetrate through the window into the reaction zone. The window is kept clear by a gas flowing through the flush zone.

Jackson, Scott C. (Wilmington, DE); Rocheleau, Richard E. (Wilmington, DE)

1987-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

132

Sandia National Laboratories: Z Pulsed Power Facility: Z Research: Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Energy Picture of Z Machine Z machine contributes to clean-energy technologies The importance of Z in solving the world's energy challenges is directly connected to its fusion potential. Inertial confinement fusion for peaceful production of electricity has always been of interest to Sandia's pulsed power sciences. But today, in light of growing concern about the health of our planet and considering our escalating energy needs, the development of fusion technology is especially promising for several reasons First, the fuel needed for fusion is virtually limitless - deuterium, an isotope of hydrogen, is abundant in seawater; tritium is bred in the fusion power plant process. Half a bathtub full of seawater in a fusion reaction could produce as much energy as 40 train cars of coal.

133

X-ray science taps bug biology to design better materials and reduce  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

News News Press Releases Feature Stories In the News Experts Guide Media Contacts Social Media Photos Videos Fact Sheets, Brochures and Reports Summer Science Writing Internship Caddiesflies spin an adhesive silk underwater to build nets to capture food and build protective shelter. Pictured is that silk magnified. Courtesy: Bennett Addison. Click to enlarge. Caddiesflies spin an adhesive silk underwater to build nets to capture food and build protective shelter. Pictured is that silk magnified. Courtesy: Bennett Addison. Click to enlarge. "(Caddisfly silk) is really not much stronger than super glue, but try to put super glue in your bathtub without it ever getting a chance to dry," says Jeff Yarger, professor of chemistry, biochemistry and physics at Arizona State University. Courtesy: Bennett Addison. Click to enlarge.

134

Slide 1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Economics of an Economics of an Integrated World Oil Market William Nordhaus Sterling Professor of Economics Yale University Plenary Address Energy Information Administration 2009 Energy Conference: A New Climate for Energy April 7, 2009 This is not a bathtub. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 Price ($ per barrel) Weekly oil prices for 15 sources around the world. Source: EIA. The Integrated World Oil Market 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Sidi Kerir Iran Light Libya Es Sider Libyan and Iranian Prices [$ per barrel, 1979 - 2009 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 Year Region 1 Region 2 Region 3 Region 4 Region 5 Region 6 Price of sawlogs ($ per 1000 board-feet) A Not-So-Integrated Market: Douglas Fir Log #2 in Pacific Northwest

135

Empty Bowl Project needs volunteers and attendees  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Empty Bowl Project Needs Volunteers and Attendees Empty Bowl Project Needs Volunteers and Attendees Community Connections: Our link to Northern New Mexico Communities Latest Issue:Dec. 2013 - Jan. 2014 All Issues » submit Empty Bowl Project needs volunteers and attendees Volunteers are needed during the evening of March 15 to help set up the kitchen and on March 16 to assist cleanup. February 1, 2013 dummy image Read our archives. Contacts Editor Linda Anderman Email Community Programs Office Kurt Steinhaus Email In addition to food and fun, music by the Craig Martin Experience and other musicians, as well as a silent auction, are planned. Join Self Help, Inc. as it holds its 20th anniversary Empty Bowl event on Saturday, March 16 from 11 a.m. to 2 p.m. at the Betty Ehart Senior Center, 1101 Bathtub Row, Los Alamos.

136

Underground barrier construction apparatus with soil-retaining shield  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for building a horizontal underground barrier by cutting through soil and depositing a slurry, preferably one which cures into a hardened material. The apparatus includes a digging means for cutting and removing soil to create a void under the surface of the ground, a shield means for maintaining the void, and injection means for inserting barrier-forming material into the void. In one embodiment, the digging means is a continuous cutting chain. Mounted on the continuous cutting chain are cutter teeth for cutting through soil and discharge paddles for removing the loosened soil. This invention includes a barrier placement machine, a method for building an underground horizontal containment barrier using the barrier placement machine, and the underground containment system. Preferably the underground containment barrier goes underneath and around the site to be contained in a bathtub-type containment.

Gardner, Bradley M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Smith, Ann Marie (Pocatello, ID); Hanson, Richard W. (Spokane, WA); Hodges, Richard T. (Deer Park, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

What Steps Do You Take to Use Less Water? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Use Less Water? Use Less Water? What Steps Do You Take to Use Less Water? November 18, 2010 - 6:30am Addthis On Monday, Scott told you about World Toilet Day and how an efficient toilet can cut down on your family's water use. There are plenty of ways you can use less water, from turning off the faucet while brushing your teeth to taking shorter showers, and we know you probably have other ideas. So tell us: What steps do you take to use less water? Each Thursday, you have the chance to share your thoughts on a question about energy efficiency or renewable energy for consumers. E-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov. Addthis Related Articles 15 Ways to Save on Your Water Heating Bill Musings on Water (and Power) This Month on Energy Savers: November 2010

138

Sustainability of Tourism in Bhutan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Although the fine is not very substantial, operators might not get trekking permits for the next season if they are charged with two violations in a particular season. The Department has also constructed permanent campsites, rest houses and toilet... means that the growth of the industry will place emphasis on the preservation of the countrys culture, environment and traditional lifestyle. 5 Planning Commission Secretariat, Royal Government of Bhutan: Bhutan 2020: A Vision for Peace, Prosperity...

Dorji, Tandi

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval Air Station Oceana  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Location at NAS Oceana. Location at NAS Oceana. by these changes, including bachelor housing, hangers, the galley, office buildings, the chapel, and maintenance facilities. This ESPC also included installing ground source heat pumps in three buildings, adding digital control systems to increase heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) efficiency, efficient lighting retrofits, and other water conservation measures. These other water conservation measures include over 5,000 water efficient domestic fixtures, includ- ing faucets, showerheads, and toilets

140

Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval Air Station Oceana  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Location at NAS Oceana. Location at NAS Oceana. by these changes, including bachelor housing, hangers, the galley, office buildings, the chapel, and maintenance facilities. This ESPC also included installing ground source heat pumps in three buildings, adding digital control systems to increase heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) efficiency, efficient lighting retrofits, and other water conservation measures. These other water conservation measures include over 5,000 water efficient domestic fixtures, includ- ing faucets, showerheads, and toilets

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flush toilet bathtub" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Condition Assessment Survey (CAS) Program. Deficiency standards and inspections methods manual: Volume 6, 0.06 Interior construction  

SciTech Connect

General information is presented for asset determinant factor/CAS repair codes/CAS cost factors; guide sheet tool & material listing; testing methods; inspection frequency; standard system design life tables; system work breakdown structure; and general system/material data. Deficiency standards and inspection methods are presented for conventional and specialty partitions, toilet partitions & accessories, interior doors, paint finishes/coatings/ wall covering systems; floor finishing systems; and ceiling systems.

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Water-Using Equipment: Domestic  

SciTech Connect

Water management is an important aspect of energy engineering. This article addresses water-using equipment primarily used for household purposes, including faucets, showers, toilets, urinals, dishwashers, and clothes washers, and focuses on how the equipment can be optimized to save both water and energy. Technology retrofits and operation and maintenance changes are the primary methods discussed for water and energy conservation. Auditing to determine current consumption rates is also described for each technology.

Solana, Amy E.; McMordie-Stoughton, Katherine L.

2006-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

143

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

801 - 5810 of 28,560 results. 801 - 5810 of 28,560 results. Download EA-1613: Final Environmental Assessment Proposed High Explosive Pressing Facility http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/ea-1613-final-environmental-assessment Download Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final ReportPhase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical FlushingU. S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 SupportJanuary 2004 http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/phase-ii-performance-evaluation-permeable-reactive-barriers-and Download Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive

144

pH Meter probe assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An assembly for mounting a pH probe in a flowing solution, such as a sanitary sewer line, which prevents the sensitive glass portion of the probe from becoming coated with grease, oil, and other contaminants, whereby the probe gives reliable pH indication over an extended period of time. The pH probe assembly utilizes a special filter media and a timed back-rinse feature for flushing clear surface contaminants of the filter. The flushing liquid is of a known pH and is utilized to check performance of the probe.

Hale, Charles J. (San Jose, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

pH Meter probe assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An assembly for mounting a pH probe in a flowing solution, such as a sanitary sewer line, which prevents the sensitive glass portion of the probe from becoming coated with grease, oil, and other contaminants, whereby the probe gives reliable pH indication over an extended period of time. The pH probe assembly utilizes a special filter media and a timed back-rinse feature for flushing clear surface contaminants of the filter. The flushing liquid is of a known pH and is utilized to check performance of the probe. 1 fig.

Hale, C.J.

1983-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

146

Status of the US National Inertial Fusion ProgramSNL Z Facility UR/LLE OMEGA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for inertial fusion and high energy density physics · NIF 81% complete, first ignition experiments planned Ignition Facility is 85 % complete NIF concentrates 1.8 Mega Joules of energy into a mm3 size target -- it needs to be flush left -- keep horizontal within Title/Logo limits at the top #12;7 NIF has executed

147

Red clover-derived isoflavones and mammographic breast density: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial [ISRCTN42940165  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Murkies AL, Lombard C, Strauss BJ, Wilcox G, Burger HG, Morton MS: Dietary flour supplementation decreases post- menopausal hot flushes: effect of soy and wheat. Maturitas 1995, 21:189-195. 58. Brzezinski A, Adlercreutz H, Shaoul R, Rsler A, Shmueli A...

Atkinson, Charlotte; Warren, Ruth M L; Sala, Evis; Dowsett, Mitch; Dunning, Alison M; Healey, Catherine S; Runswick, Shirley; Day, Nicholas E; Bingham, Sheila

2004-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

148

Final Scientific/Technical Report Grant title: Use of ARM Measurements of Spectral Zenith Radiance for Better Understanding of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes and Aerosol-Cloud Interaction This is a collaborative project with the NASA GSFC project of Dr. A. Marshak and W. Wiscombe (PIs). This report covers BU activities from February 2011 to June 2011 and BU "?no-cost extension" activities from June 2011 to June 2012. This report summarizes results that complement a final technical report submitted by the PIs in 2011.  

SciTech Connect

Main results are summarized for work in these areas: spectrally-invariant approximation within atmospheric radiative transfer; spectral invariance of single scattering albedo for water droplets and ice crystals at weakly absorbing wavelengths; seasonal changes in leaf area of Amazon forests from leaf flushing and abscission; and Cloud droplet size and liquid water path retrievals from zenith radiance measurements.

Knyazikhin, Y

2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

149

Improved photoelectrodialytic cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multicompartment photoelectrodialytic demineralization cell is provided with a buffer compartment interposed between the product compartment and a compartment containing an electrolyte solution. Semipermeable membranes separate the buffer compartment from the product and electrolyte compartments. The buffer compartment is flushed to prevent leakage of the electrolyte compartment from entering the product compartment.

Murphy, G.W.

1981-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

150

Electrochemical planarization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a process for fabricating planarized thin film metal interconnects for integrated circuit structures, a planarized metal layer is etched back to the underlying dielectric layer by electropolishing, ion milling or other procedure. Electropolishing reduces processing time from hours to minutes and allows batch processing of multiple wafers. The etched back planarized thin film interconnect is flush with the dielectric layer. 12 figures.

Bernhardt, A.F.; Contolini, R.J.

1993-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

151

Electrochemical planarization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a process for fabricating planarized thin film metal interconnects for integrated circuit structures, a planarized metal layer is etched back to the underlying dielectric layer by electropolishing, ion milling or other procedure. Electropolishing reduces processing time from hours to minutes and allows batch processing of multiple wafers. The etched back planarized thin film interconnect is flush with the dielectric layer.

Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

This book contains a compendium of protocols currently in use in our laboratory, and is an update of our previous methods book. Many of these methods did not  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

it ideal as a universal solvent for cleaning and flushing away all manner of waste from human activities of conventional waste management techniques. To accomplish these objectives, novel waste treatment and process the major environment focus. Water pollution occurs when the discharge of waste impairs water quality

Lai, Zhi-Chun

153

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Chemolithotrophic acetogenic H2/CO2 utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(Hamilton no. 79476). The eluent was 0.016 N H2SO4 at a flow rate of 0.4 ml min 1 . Biogas analysis was performed on 1-ml aliquots of headspace gas collected with an N2-flushed airtight syringe. The biogas

Lovley, Derek

154

Engineering Bacteria for Production of Rhamnolipid as an Agent for Enhanced  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was conditioned with brine, flushed with the oil, and waterflooded to a trapped oil condition (in this case of a waterflooded sand-pack core by rhamnolipid flooding. A: Profile of oil recovery (triangle) and IFT (circle from a completely waterflooded sand-pack for this particular rhamnolipid surfactant. After 1 pore

Goddard III, William A.

155

Separation and purification of xenon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Xenon is separated from a mixture of xenon and krypton by extractive distillation using carbon tetrafluoride as the partitioning agent. Krypton is flushed out of the distillation column with CF.sub.4 in the gaseous overhead stream while purified xenon is recovered from the liquid bottoms. The distillation is conducted at about atmospheric pressure or at subatmospheric pressure.

Schlea, deceased, Carl Solomon (LATE OF Aiken, SC)

1978-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

156

Photoelectrodialytic cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multicompartment photoelectrodialytic demineralization cell is provided with a buffer compartment interposed between the product compartment and a compartment containing an electrolyte solution. Semipermeable membranes separate the buffer compartment from the product and electrolyte compartments. The buffer compartment is flushed to prevent leakage of the electrolyte compartment from entering the product compartment.

Murphy, George W. (2328 Ashwood, Norman, OK 73069)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

SETL for Internet Data Processing David Bacon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-accessing features: courtship, ornaments, and chasing. Female X. nigrensis prefer males of large or intermediate size.31 (Presens) and Loliresp (LoligoSystems) software control programs. The flush pump was used to remove. The courtship behaviors of large and intermediate sized males can include a number of behaviors including

Mohri, Mehryar

158

Circulo: Saving Energy with Just-In-Time Hot Water Recirculation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The average home in the US flushes 1000's of gallons of water down the drain each year while standing at the fixture and waiting for hot water. Some households use a pump for hot water recirculation (HWR) to ensure that hot water is always immediately ... Keywords: Energy and Water Conservation, Hot Water Recirculation

Andrew Frye, Michel Goraczko, Jie Liu, Anindya Prodhan, Kamin Whitehouse

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Facies correlation and basin analysis of Ivishak Formation, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), Alaska  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Ivishak Formation forms a regressive-transgressive deposit. The stratigraphic divisions are (1) a lower prograding deltaic unit of massive sandstone; (2) a middle fluvial unit of sandstone, shale, and minor conglomerate; and (3) an upper destructive deltaic unit of thin-bedded to massive sandstone, these Ivishak units defined in ANWR are recognized in the subsurface and traced over much of the North Slope. Basin analysis consisted of isopach and percent-sandstone mapping and paleocurrent measurement of 15 outcrops. Formation thickness averages 400 ft (120 m) with a northeast-trending depocenter axis through the Romanzof Mountains. Paleocurrent data define two main provenances of quartz-chert sands: northeast and east. Paleocurrents are oriented normal to, and dip toward, the basin axis. Outcrops located within the axis record bidirectional transport. A Lower Cretaceous unconformity (LCU) truncates the Ivishak in the Sadlerochit Mountains. Here, Neocomian pebble shale rests atop the Ivishak, with Shublik through Kingak formations missing. The LCU truncation is part of a regional unconformity that occurs along the north side of the North Slope. Ivishak units thin near the unconformity, suggesting an older high, which the authors term the Nularvik high. This high is part of a regional trend extending through ANWR from the Point Thomson area to bathtub syncline.

McMillen, K.J.; Colvin, M.D.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

ESPC ENABLE: ECM Summary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ESPC ENABLE: ECM Summary ESPC ENABLE: ECM Summary ECM Included Not Included Lighting * Lamps, Ballasts, Fixtures * Controls: Occupancy, Day lighting (on/off, dimming) * Solar Lighting (off-grid installations allowed) Water * Sanitary plumbing fixtures: sinks, toilets, urinals, showers * Irrigation * Leak repair * Domestic/commercial hot water heaters * Water based appliances: dishwasher, ice machine, clothes washer, etc. * Heating/Cooling system improvements (cooling towers, once through cooling, condensate reclaim) HVAC Controls Whole building control strategies including: * Time/Temperature Set-back * Demand/Night Ventilation * Advanced Controls 1 : Energy Management Control Systems (EMCS) / Building Automation Systems (BAS) HVAC Equipment Basic whole building/system one-for-one replacement

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flush toilet bathtub" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

U.S. Department of Energy National Environmental Policy Act Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

St. Clair Shores St. Clair Shores Location: City St. Clair Shores MI American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Proposed Action or Project Description 1) Conduct energy audits for six municipal buildings; 2) energy efficiency retrofits for six municipal buildings-retrofits are limited to the following activities: retrofit of lighting systems, replacement of HVAC systems, replacement of windows, caulking windows, removal and replacement of insulation, installation of additional insulation, replacement of water heaters, and replacement of toilets; 3) installation of a vertical wind turbine demonstration project involving four small 2,000 kWh/year capacity units at the City Hall

162

ESPC ENABLE: ECM Summary  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ESPC ENABLE: ECM Summary ESPC ENABLE: ECM Summary ECM Included Not Included Lighting * Lamps, Ballasts, Fixtures * Controls: Occupancy, Day lighting (on/off, dimming) * Solar Lighting (off-grid installations allowed) Water * Sanitary plumbing fixtures: sinks, toilets, urinals, showers * Irrigation * Leak repair * Domestic/commercial hot water heaters * Water based appliances: dishwasher, ice machine, clothes washer, etc. * Heating/Cooling system improvements (cooling towers, once through cooling, condensate reclaim) HVAC Controls Whole building control strategies including: * Time/Temperature Set-back * Demand/Night Ventilation * Advanced Controls 1 : Energy Management Control Systems (EMCS) / Building Automation Systems (BAS) HVAC Equipment Basic whole building/system one-for-one replacement

163

U.S. Department of Energy National Environmental Policy Act Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

GA-County-Hall GA-County-Hall Location: County Hall GA American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Proposed Action or Project Description 1) Develop an energy efficiency and conservation block grant strategy (completed); 2) implement energy efficiency retrofits for municipal buildings-upgrading lighting systems (28 facilities), including the purchase, installation, and operation of a bulb eater machine to crush and package the glass of old light bulbs in accordance with EPA guidelines for disposal; upgrading the laundry dryer; installing vending misers; installing variable speed drives; installing energy recovery units and controls on toilet exhausts; installing or reprogramming heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) direct digital controls;

164

Interview of Brian Harrison  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Hendon, and were likely to move further out; that was thought to be appalling as it would drag the estate down; I remember my parents complaining about somebody shouting to her husband in the garden from an upstairs window; you just didn't do that sort... term in 1954 for putting a clepsydra above one of these holes and attaching to the arm that tilted when a certain amount of water had gone out, a toilet roll, which then plunged down, much to everyone's excitement, into the Hall in assembly after...

Harrison, Brian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Water-Using Equipment: Commercial and Industrial  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water is an important aspect of many facets in energy engineering. While the previous article detailed domestic related water-using equipment such as toilets and showerheads, this article focuses on various types of water-using equipment in commercial and industrial facilities, including commercial dishwashers and laundry, single-pass cooling equipment, boilers and steam generators, cooling towers, and landscape irrigation. Opportunities for water and energy conservation are explained, including both technology retrofits and operation and maintenance changes. Water management planning and leak detection are also included as they are essential to a successful water management program.

Solana, Amy E.; McMordie-Stoughton, Katherine L.

2006-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

166

Investigation of Neptunium Precipitator Cleanout Options  

SciTech Connect

Oxalate precipitation followed by filtration is used to prepare plutonium oxalate. Historically, plutonium oxalate has tended to accumulate in the precipitation tanks. These solids are periodically removed by flushing with concentrated (64 percent) nitric acid. The same precipitation tanks will now be used in the processing of neptunium. Literature values indicate that neptunium oxalate may not be as soluble as plutonium oxalate in nitric acid. Although a wide variety of options is available to improve neptunium oxalate solubility for precipitator flushing, most of these options are not practical for use. Many of these options require the use of incompatible or difficult to handle chemicals. Other options would require expensive equipment modifications or are likely to lead to product contamination. Based on review of literature and experimental results, the two best options for flushing the precipitator are (1) 64 percent nitric acid and (2) addition of sodium permanganate follow ed by sodium nitrite. Nitric acid is the easiest option to implement. It is already used in the facility and will not lead to product contamination. Experimental results indicate that neptunium oxalate can be dissolved in concentrated nitric acid (64 percent) at 60 degree C to a concentration of 2.6 to 5.6 grams of Np/liter after at least three hours of heating. A lower concentration (1.1 grams of Np/liter) was measured at 60 degree C after less than two hours of heating. These concentrations are acceptable for flushing if precipitator holdup is low (approximately 100-250 grams), but a second method is required for effective flushing if precipitator holdup is high (approximately 2 kilograms). The most effective method for obtaining higher neptunium concentrations is the use of sodium permanganate followed by the addition of sodium nitrite. There is concern that residual manganese from these flushes could impact product purity. Gas generation during permanganate addition is also a concern. Experimental results indicate that a solubility of at least 40 grams of Np/liter can be obtained using permanganate at ambient temperature, although it is expected that even higher neptunium concentrations can be achieved.

Hill, B.C.

2003-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

167

CX-006939: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

9: Categorical Exclusion Determination 9: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-006939: Categorical Exclusion Determination Flushing of the Ellenton Header & R-Normal River Water Lines CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 10/10/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, National Energy Technology Laboratory The R-Normal and Ellenton Header river water lines are part of a system previously used to supply reactor cooling water, and will now be used to provide water to the Ameresco Biomass Cogeneration Facility (BCF) for steam and electricity generation. Diminished flows in the pipelines have allowed the accumulation of sediment and clams, which may impact the ability of the small river water pump to supply sufficient water to the BCF. SRS is planning to flush the lines using flow generated by three 25,000 gallon per

168

Alternate Water Supply System  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Alternate Water Supply Alternate Water Supply System Flushing Report Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site January 2008 Office of Legacy Management DOE M/1570 2008 - -L Work Performed Under DOE Contract No. for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. DE-AC01-02GJ79491 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Office of Legacy Management Office of Legacy Management Office of Legacy Management U.S. Department of Energy This page intentionally left blank DOE-LM/1570-2008 Alternate Water Supply System Flushing Report Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site January 2008 Work Performed by S.M. Stoller Corporation under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-02GJ79491 for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, Colorado This page intentionally left blank

169

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

41 - 9850 of 28,560 results. 41 - 9850 of 28,560 results. Download CX-006939: Categorical Exclusion Determination Flushing of the Ellenton Header & R-Normal River Water Lines CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 10/10/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-006939-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-006944: Categorical Exclusion Determination Remove Insulation from High Point Flush Pump Drain Valve CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 10/03/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-006944-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-006951: Categorical Exclusion Determination

170

Document ID Number: RL-721 REV4 NEPA REVIEW SCREENING FORM  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5, Rev 0 5, Rev 0 I. Project Title: MSA Annual Categorical Exclusion for Polychlorinated Biphenyl Removal under 10 CFR 1021, Subpart D, Appendix B, Bl.l7 II. Project Description and Location (including Time Period over which proposed action will occur and Project Dimensions ·e.g., acres displaced/disturbed, excavation length/depth, area/location/number of buildings, etc.): Mission Support Alliance (MSA) and its subcontractors perform removal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-containing items (including, but not limited to, transformers and capacitors), PCB-containing oils flushed from transformers, PCB-flushing solutions, and PCB-containing spill materials from buildings or other aboveground locations in accordance with applicable requirements (40 CFR part 761). PCB and PCB-containing items will be

171

 

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The R-Normal and Ellenton Header river water lines are part of a system previously used to supply reactor cooling water, and will now be used to The R-Normal and Ellenton Header river water lines are part of a system previously used to supply reactor cooling water, and will now be used to provide water to the Ameresco Biomass Cogeneration Facility (BCF) for steam and electricity generation. Diminished flows in the pipelines have allowed the accumulation of sediment and clams, which may impact the ability of the small river water pump to supply sufficient water to the BCF. SRS is planning to flush the lines using flow generated by three 25,000 gallon per minute (gpm) river water pumps to pressurize the lines and push the accumulated material out of the lines at a series of 17,500 gpm blowoff valves. Flushing of the Ellenton Header & R-Normal River Water Lines Savannah River Site Aiken

172

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: B1.17 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7 7 Categorical Exclusion Determinations: B1.17 Existing Regulations B1.17: Polychlorinated biphenyl removal Removal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-containing items (including, but not limited to, transformers and capacitors), PCB-containing oils flushed from transformers, PCB-flushing solutions, and PCB-containing spill materials from buildings or other aboveground locations in accordance with applicable requirements (such as 40 CFR part 761). Previous Regulations Categorical Exclusion Determinations dated before November 14th, 2011 were issued under previous DOE NEPA regulations. See the Notice of Final Rulemaking (76 FR 63763, 10/13/2011) for information changes to this categorical exclusion. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD January 9, 2013 CX-009806: Categorical Exclusion Determination

173

Dispersivity Testing of Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells: Monticello, Utah,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Dispersivity Testing of Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells: Dispersivity Testing of Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells: Monticello, Utah, November 2005 Through February 2008 Dispersivity Testing of Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells: Monticello, Utah, November 2005 Through February 2008 Dispersivity Testing of Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells: Monticello, Utah, November 2005 Through February 2008 Dispersivity Testing of Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells: Monticello, Utah, November 2005 Through February 2008 More Documents & Publications Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Third (March 2006) Coring and Analysis of Zero-Valent Iron Permeable

174

Enhanced Oil Recovery | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Enhanced Oil Recovery Enhanced Oil Recovery Enhanced Oil Recovery Cross-section illustrating how carbon dioxide and water can be used to flush residual oil from a subsurface rock formation between wells. Cross-section illustrating how carbon dioxide and water can be used to flush residual oil from a subsurface rock formation between wells. Crude oil development and production in U.S. oil reservoirs can include up to three distinct phases: primary, secondary, and tertiary (or enhanced) recovery. During primary recovery, the natural pressure of the reservoir or gravity drive oil into the wellbore, combined with artificial lift techniques (such as pumps) which bring the oil to the surface. But only about 10 percent of a reservoir's original oil in place is typically produced during primary recovery. Secondary recovery techniques extend a

175

Performance of a Permeable Reactive Barrier Using Granular Zero-Valent  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Performance of a Permeable Reactive Barrier Using Granular Performance of a Permeable Reactive Barrier Using Granular Zero-Valent Iron: FY 2004 Annual Report Durango, Colorado, Disposal Site Performance of a Permeable Reactive Barrier Using Granular Zero-Valent Iron: FY 2004 Annual Report Durango, Colorado, Disposal Site Performance of a Permeable Reactive Barrier Using Granular Zero-Valent Iron: FY 2004 Annual Report Durango, Colorado, Disposal Site Performance of a Permeable Reactive Barrier Using Granular Zero-Valent Iron: FY 2004 Annual Report Durango, Colorado, Disposal Site More Documents & Publications Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing

176

DOE_CX-00032_-_%5B1104270743%5D.pdf  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

32 32 CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION FOR THE CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF A DILUENTS/FLUSH SYSTEM AND ASSOCIATED FACILITY, AND AN INSTRUMENTATION, CONTROL, AND ELECTRICAL FACILITY AT THE 241-AW AND 241-AY/AZ TANK FARMS, 200 EAST AREA, HANFORD SITE, RICHLAND, WASHINGTON Proposed Action The U.S. Department of Energy, (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Richland Operations Office (RL) propose to construct and operate a DiluentslFlush system (DFS) and associated facility, as well as an Instrumentation, Control, and Electrical (ICE) facility at the 241-AW and 241-AY/AZ Tank Farms. Location of Action The work will take place within the 200 East Area, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Description of Proposed Action The 241-AW and 241-AY/AZ tank farms require the construction and subsequent operation of electrical

177

Slide 1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Testing Hybrid Sulfur Single Cell Testing Hybrid Sulfur Single Cell and Three Cell Stack John L. Steimke, Timothy Steeper and David Herman April 20, 2009 SRNL-STI-2009-00262 Hybrid Sulfur Electrolyzer Workshop, April 2009 2 SRNL-STI-2009-00262 Outline * Single cell stack electrolyzer testing Work to reduce or eliminate sulfur formation * Multi-cell stack electrolyzer testing * System upgrades * Future plans 3 SRNL-STI-2009-00262 Electrolyzer Cell Schematic Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) H+ Porous platinized carbon anode Liquid flowfield Gas and liquid flowfield SO2, H2O and H2SO4 SO2, H2O and H2SO4 Porous platinized carbon cathode Hydrogen, H2O, SO2, S and maybe H2S + - H2O 4 SRNL-STI-2009-00262 Schematic of Single Cell Test Facility Water Reactant Vent Relief Valve Drain Pump Flush Water In + - Electrolyzer cell Rupture Disk Flush

178

Process for treatment of residual gas  

SciTech Connect

A process is disclosed for the treatment of the residual gases which are produced when hydrogen sulfide is reduced, by combustion, to elementary sulfur by the Claus process. The residual gases are fed through a heated conduit and gas scrubber, wherein the temperature of those residual gases are maintained above the melting point of sulfur. A portion of the raw coke oven gas condensate is admitted to the gas scrubber to be returned to the coke oven battery main from the flushing liquid separator as flushing liquor. The residual gases are then conducted through the coke oven gas purification process equipment along with the raw coke oven gas where the residual gases are intermixed with the raw coke oven gas prior to tar separation.

Nolden, K.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Results of the quarterly tritium survey of Fourmile Branch and its seeplines in the F and H areas of SRS: December 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) established a quarterly monitoring program of the Fourmile Branch (FMB) stream and its associated seepline down gradient from the F- and H- Area seepage basins. The program surveys and tracks changes in tritium, specific conductivity, and pH for the seepline water. Measurements from the seventh quarterly survey (December 1993) showed similar to slightly lower tritium and conductivity measurements and similar pH values compared to measurements from previous studies. Changes in tritium concentrations and conductivity values, as compared to previous surveys, are attributed to the flushing of tritium from the system and the seasonal rise in the water table since the September 1993 sampling event. Overall results of the tritium survey and related stream monitoring data continue to indicate that the tritium plume that resulted from operation of the seepage basins in flushing from the FMB system.

Rogers, V.A.; Dixon, K.L.; Looney, B.B.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Using chemically reactive tracers to determine temperature characteristics of geothermal reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The rates of most chemical reactions are very sensitive to temperature, and this property can be used to measure temperature patterns in geothermal reservoirs. Two approaches are considered: reverse-flush and flow-through. Both of these can indicate thermal drawdown faster than the measurement of produced-fluid temperature. The reverse-flush approach is more difficult to carry out and interferes more with normal operation, but it gives the earlier indication of thermal drawdown and yields more information when using a single reaction. In both approaches, injecting a suite of reactants can yield bivariate time-temperature distributions which give temperature distributions as functions of fluid residence time. Applications to Hot Dry Rock systems are considered throughout the paper. Results of early kinetics studies of candidate tracer reactions also are reported.

Robinson, B.A.; Tester, J.W.; Brown, L.F.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flush toilet bathtub" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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181

Preoperational practices for steam generators and secondary-system components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

PWR operating experience has shown that proper control of steam generator and secondary plant cleanliness during construction will prevent corrosion of critical components, minimize impurity transport to the steam generators, and minimize startup delays. This volume contains the following guidelines which address preoperational practices: Preoperational Flushing, Cleaning, and Layup of PWR Steam/Feedwater/Condensate Systems, Revision 1; and Guidelines to Minimize Contamination of PWR Steam Generators during Plant Construction, Revision 1. The guidelines provide specific recommendations and associated justifications for maintaining steam generator cleanliness during shipment, storage, and installation; and secondary plant cleanliness during construction. Recommendations for preoperational cleaning and flushing of secondary systems are also provided. 1 ref., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Not Available

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Microsoft Word - 12104911 DVP  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Alternate Water Supply System Alternate Water Supply System Sampling at the Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site February 2013 LMS/RVT/S01012 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-October 2012, Riverton, Wyoming February 2013 RIN 12104911 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Locations of Flushing Hydrants and Isolation Valve ......................................................................3 Data Assessment Summary ..............................................................................................................5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification Checklist .............................................................7

183

Elimination of ``memory`` from sample handling and inlet system of a mass spectrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This paper describes a method for preparing the sample handling and inlet system of a mass spectrometer for analysis of a subsequent sample following analysis of a previous sample comprising the flushing of the system interior with supercritical CO{sub 2} and venting the interior. The method eliminates the effect of system ``memory`` on the subsequent analysis, especially following persistent samples such as xenon and krypton.

Chastgner, P.

1991-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

184

APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Apr. 2008, p. 24242432 Vol. 74, No. 8 0099-2240/08/$08.00 0 doi:10.1128/AEM.02341-07  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. In addition, CO2 can be used as a flush gas to extract coal-bed methane, while at the same time trapping Mercury (Hg) Content (ppm, whole coal basis) of Indiana Coal Beds 3-4 3.1.4. Indiana Coal Characteristics-7 3.2.3. Indiana's Coal Resources by Coal Bed (Billion short tons) 3-8 3.2.4. Coal Reserves, by County

Macalady, Jenn

185

Method for fabricating photovoltaic device having improved short wavelength photoresponse  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Amorphous p-i-n silicon photovoltaic cells with improved short wavelength photoresponse are fabricated with reduced p-dopant contamination at the p/i interface. Residual p-dopants are removed by flushing the deposition chamber with a gaseous mixture capable of reacting with excess doping contaminants prior to the deposition of the i-layer and subsequent to the deposition of the p-layer.

Catalano, Anthony W. (P.O. Box 557, Rushland, PA 18956)

1989-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

186

TRANSPORT OF WASTE SIMULANTS IN PJM VENT LINES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The experimental work was conducted to determine whether there is a potential for waste simulant to transport or 'creep' up the air link line and contaminate the pulse jet vent system, and possibly cause long term restriction of the air link line. Additionally, if simulant creep occurred, establish operating parameters for washing down the line. The amount of the addition of flush fluids and mixer downtime must be quantified.

Qureshi, Z

2007-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

187

Apparatus and method for downhole injection of radioactive tracer  

SciTech Connect

The disclosure relates to downhole injection of radioactive .sup.82 Br and monitoring its progress through fractured structure to determine the nature thereof. An ampule containing granular .sup.82 Br is remotely crushed and water is repeatedly flushed through it to cleanse the instrument as well as inject the .sup.82 Br into surrounding fractured strata. A sensor in a remote borehole reads progress of the radioactive material through fractured structure.

Potter, Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM); Archuleta, Jacobo R. (Espanola, NM); Fink, Conrad F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

DEEP VADOSE ZONE TREATABILITY TEST PLAN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

{sm_bullet} Treatability test plan published in 2008 {sm_bullet} Outlines technology treatability activities for evaluating application of in situ technologies and surface barriers to deep vadose zone contamination (technetium and uranium) {sm_bullet} Key elements - Desiccation testing - Testing of gas-delivered reactants for in situ treatment of uranium - Evaluating surface barrier application to deep vadose zone - Evaluating in situ grouting and soil flushing

GB CHRONISTER; MJ TRUEX

2009-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

189

Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing HVAC calculations, Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320, readily retrievable. The report contains the following calculations: Exhaust airflow sizing for Tank 241-C-106; Equipment sizing and selection recirculation fan; Sizing high efficiency mist eliminator; Sizing electric heating coil; Equipment sizing and selection of recirculation condenser; Chiller skid system sizing and selection; High efficiency metal filter shielding input and flushing frequency; and Exhaust skid stack sizing and fan sizing.

Bailey, J.W.

1998-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

190

Report on the analysis of field data relating to the reliability of solar hot water systems.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Utilities are overseeing the installations of thousand of solar hot water (SHW) systems. Utility planners have begun to ask for quantitative measures of the expected lifetimes of these systems so that they can properly forecast their loads. This report, which augments a 2009 reliability analysis effort by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), addresses this need. Additional reliability data have been collected, added to the existing database, and analyzed. The results are presented. Additionally, formal reliability theory is described, including the bathtub curve, which is the most common model to characterize the lifetime reliability character of systems, and for predicting failures in the field. Reliability theory is used to assess the SNL reliability database. This assessment shows that the database is heavily weighted with data that describe the reliability of SHW systems early in their lives, during the warranty period. But it contains few measured data to describe the ends of SHW systems lives. End-of-life data are the most critical ones to define sufficiently the reliability of SHW systems in order to answer the questions that the utilities pose. Several ideas are presented for collecting the required data, including photometric analysis of aerial photographs of installed collectors, statistical and neural network analysis of energy bills from solar homes, and the development of simple algorithms to allow conventional SHW controllers to announce system failures and record the details of the event, similar to how aircraft black box recorders perform. Some information is also presented about public expectations for the longevity of a SHW system, information that is useful in developing reliability goals.

Menicucci, David F. (Building Specialists, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Evaluation of compost specifications for stormwater management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Urban development will continue to increase in Texas because of population growth and urban sprawl. Despite the desire for urbanization and expansion of the economy, this growth increases the amount of construction, which, if not properly managed, can increase non-point source pollution and threaten surface water quality. Therefore, Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) has approved and promoted the use of compost as a stormwater best management practice (BMP) during highway construction. The objectives of this study were to construct and calibrate an indoor rainfall simulator and to determine the effectiveness of using compost rather than conventional hydroseeding or topsoil to reduce erosion from disturbed soils. Runoff rates, interrill erosion, and interrill erodibility were determined and compared across five compost treatments following TxDOT specifications for compost applied as an erosion control and two control treatments of topsoil (TS) and hydroseeding (HS) applied at 5 cm depth. The simulator produced 89% uniformity using ten Veejet 80100 nozzles at a target rate of 100 mm h-1. The surface runoff was collected after 5 minutes of rainfall (first flush) and during the last 30 minutes of rainfall (steady-state). The first flush mean runoff for GUC-5 treatment was significantly higher than all other treatments. All other treatments; 50% woodchips and 50% compost blend (ECC-1.3, ECC-5), and hydroseeding (HS) had significantly lower runoff and erosion rates compared to topsoil (TS) and compost manufactured topsoil (CMT) at first flush and steady-state. Furthermore, there were no performance differences between 1.3 cm and 5 cm compost applications at first flush or steady-state. The results of this project indicate that particle size, soil moisture capabilities, and time at which rainfall is applied affect surface runoff. TxDOT specification of using ECC at 5 cm depth on a max of 3:1 slope should be reconsidered. An ECC application depth of 1.3 cm was effective in reducing first flush runoff and interrill erosion rates.

Birt, Lindsay Nicole

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

CX-004377: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7: Categorical Exclusion Determination 7: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004377: Categorical Exclusion Determination Oregon American Recovery and Reinvestment Act State Energy Program - Heard Farms CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 11/01/2010 Location(s): Oregon Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office Heard Farms is proposing to use $161,381 in State Energy Program funding to install floating covers on two waste processing lagoons in lieu of adding an additional 150 horsepower of aeration equipment. The lagoons are used for the processing of local and regional sewage, holding tank water, chemical toilet waste and grease trap waste from restaurants. The gases captured under the covers will be destroyed by flare, eliminating odor and high levels of greenhouse gases. The existing permit for the waste

193

Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.3 Commercial Sector Water Consumption  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

4 4 Normalized Annual End Uses of Water in Select Supermarkets in Western United States (1) Fixture/End Use Toilets/Urinals Other/Misc. Indoor (2) Cooling Total Building Size (SF) Benchmarking Values for Supermarkets (3) N Indoor Use with Cooling, gal./SF/year 38 Indoor Use with Cooling, gal./SF/daily transaction 38 Note(s): Source(s): 25th Percentile of Users 52 - 64 9 - 16 1) Water use data for the buildings was collected over a few days. Estimates of annual use were created by accounting for seasonal use and other variables, billing data, and interviews with building managers. 2) Includes water for sinks, spraying vegetables, cleaning, etc. 3) The study derived efficiency benchmarks by analyzing measured data and audit data. The benchmark was set at the lower 25th percentile of

194

Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.3 Commercial Sector Water Consumption  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

3 3 Normalized Annual End Uses of Water in Select Restaurants in Western United States (1) Fixture/End Use (2) Faucets Dishwashing Toilets/Urinals Ice Making Total Indoor Use (3) (4) (4) Building Size (SF) Seats: Meals: Benchmarking Values for Restaurants (6) N Gal./SF/year 90 Gal./meal 90 Gal./seat/day 90 Gal./employee/day 90 Note(s): Source(s): American Water Works Association Research Foundation, Commercial and Institutional End Uses of Water, 2000. 25th Percentile of Users 130 - 331 6 - 9 20 - 31 86 - 122 Familiy-style dine-in establishments. Four restaurants in southern California, one in Phoenix, AZ. 1) Water use data for the buildings was collected over a few days. Estimates of annual use were created by accounting for seasonal use and other variables, billing data, and

195

Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.3 Commercial Sector Water Consumption  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

6 6 Normalized Annual End Uses of Water in Two California High Schools Fixture/End Use Toilet Urinal Faucet Shower Kitchen Misc. uses (2) Cooling Leaks Swimming Pool Total Use Benchmarking Values for Schools (3) N Indoor Use, Gal./sq. ft./year 142 Indoor Use, Gal./school day/student 141 Cooling Use, Gal./sq. ft./year 35 Note(s): Source(s): 8 - 20 1) Water use data for the buildings was collected over a few days. Estimates of annual use were created by accounting for seasonal use and other variables, billing data, and interviews with building managers. 2) One high school. 3) The study derived efficiency benchmarks by analyzing measured data and audit data. The benchmark was set at the lower 25th percentile of users. American Water Works Association Research Foundation, Commercial and Institutional End Uses of Water, 2000.

196

Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CA-City-Cathedral City CA-City-Cathedral City Location: City Cathedral City CA American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Proposed Action or Project Description 1) Community CFL program, 2) technical consultant for Energy and Climate Action Plan, 3) Civic Center light retrofit, 4) HVAC retrofit project, 5) wind turbine project, 6) high efficiency toilet incentive, and 7) develop electric vehicle charging infrastructures in previously disturbed parking lots (two devices at two locations). Conditions: None Categorical Exclusion(s) Applied: A1, A9, A11, B1.32, B2.5, B5.1 *-For the complete DOE National Environmental Policy Act regulations regarding categorical exclusions, see Subpart D of 10 CFR10 21 This action would not: threaten a violation of applicable statutory, regulatory, or permit requirements for environment, safety, and health,

197

CX-003770: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

770: Categorical Exclusion Determination 770: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-003770: Categorical Exclusion Determination Maine-County-York CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, A11, B2.5, B5.1 Date: 09/09/2010 Location(s): York County, Maine Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program. 1) Conduct energy audits of County Emergency Management Building and York County Courthouse; 2) establish revolving loan fund; and 3) building retrofits to York County Jail (1977) which includes replacing roof, windows, and doors; insulating and sealing walls; general air sealing and weather stripping; inspecting and cleaning duct work; replacing air conditioning/heating units; electrical equipment removal/replacement; lighting replacement; and faucet and toilet replacements.

198

CX-000031: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

31: Categorical Exclusion Determination 31: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-000031: Categorical Exclusion Determination Pueblo de Cochiti Energy Efficiency Retrofits CX(s) Applied: B5.1, B2.5, A1 Date: 11/02/2009 Location(s): Pueblo de Cochiti, New Mexico Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program. The proposed activity includes implementing energy efficiency retrofits on up to five (5) tribal residences. Energy efficiency retrofits may include (a) installation of Energy Star rated appliances (for example, refrigerators, stoves and hoods, and furnaces), (b) incorporation of other Energy Star rated products (such as, windows, doors, and lighting fixtures), and ? installation of compact fluorescent lamp bulbs, low flow toilets and

199

Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ME-County-York ME-County-York Location: County York ME American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Proposed Action or Project Description 1) Conduct energy audits of County Emergency Management Building and York County Courthouse; 2) establish revolving loan fund; and 3) building retrofits to York County Jail (1977) which includes replacing roof, windows, and doors; insulating and sealing walls; general air sealing and weather stripping; inspecting and cleaning duct work; replacing air conditioning/heating units; electrical equipment removal/replacement; lighting replacement; and faucet and toilet replacements. Conditions: None Categorical Exclusion(s) Applied: A1, A9, A11, B2.5, B5.1 *-For the complete DOE National Environmental Policy Act regulations regarding categorical exclusions, see Subpart D of 10 CFR10 21

200

Musings on Water (and Power) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Musings on Water (and Power) Musings on Water (and Power) Musings on Water (and Power) January 9, 2012 - 4:46pm Addthis Stephanie Price Communicator, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Yes, this is energy related, very directly in my case. My household water comes from a well, and every drop of water that I use in the house has to be pumped out of the ground by an electrically operated pump; therefore, the less water I use, the less the pump has to operate, and the less electricity is used. (This is true for municipal water users too - there's a lot of electricity involved in providing potable water to a city and treating the wastewater.) This past summer I replaced my bathroom faucets with low-flow faucets (kitchen yet to be done). The showerheads are also low flow, as are the toilets, which were replaced years ago, which helps reduce water (and

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flush toilet bathtub" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

City-Davis City-Davis Location: City Davis CA American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Proposed Action or Project Description: 1) Convert high-pressure sodium, cobra head street lights to LED lights, and replace lights in Central Park; 2) conduct audits on city buildings; air sealing, insulation, redesign/rezone HVAC, purchase and install HVAC equipment, and install ductwork at City Hall (1927); and replace HVAC systems with energy efficient units; 3) financial incentive program for homeowners to replace toilets; and 4) replace gasoline-powered vehicles with hybrid vehicles. Conditions: Historic preservation clause applies to this application (City Hall [1927] is City of Davis Landmark) Categorical Exclusion(s) Applied: A1, A9, B1.32, B2.5, B5.1 *-For the complete DOE National Environmental Policy Act regulations regarding categorical exclusions, see Subpart D of 10 CFR10 21

202

Princeton Plasma Physics Lab - Lab Leadership  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

lab-leadership en Adam Cohen lab-leadership en Adam Cohen http://www.pppl.gov/people/adam-cohen

From Hot Cells to Hot PlasmasCohen approaches science challenges with practicalityBy John GreenwaldAdam Cohen grew up as the family handyman. "I was the kid who tacked down the carpet, repaired the roof, fixed the toilet and worked on the car," he said of his youth in northern New Jersey. "I would pull apart batteries and tear apart things and try to make them work again."That Mr. Fixit

203

 

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

components components The proposed activity will involve energy efficiency upgrades to the Tribal Head Start building. Proposed retrofits include window upgrades to double-pane, insulated, tempered glass to conserve electricity for heating and cooling; upgrading the water heater to an on-demand style; upgrading the dishwasher to an Energy Star model; lowering a 12 foot ceiling to 9 feet to conserve energy for heating; replacing toilets and faucets with water-saving models; replacing fluorescent lighting with more energy efficient fixtures and bulbs; and upgrading to programmable thermostats. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants Pueblo of Tesuque Energy Efficiency Retrofits Pueblo of Tesuque New Mexico Dec 7, 2009 Mary Martin Print Form for Records

204

U.S. Department of Energy NEPA Categorical Exclusion Determination Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program OK-TRIBE-DELAWARE NATION Location: Tribe OK-TRIBE- DELAWARE NATION OK American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Proposed Action or Project Description: The Delaware Nation of Oklahoma proposes to 1) convert tribal-owned gasoline vehicles to compressed natural gas and 2) purchase new thermostats with integrated heating/air conditioning timers to adjust the temperature when the building is not in use and install low-flow toilet kits on tribal buildings. Conditions: None Categorical Exclusion(s) Applied: A1, B2.5, B5.1 *-For the complete DOE National Environmental Policy Act regulations regarding categorical exclusions, see Subpart D of 10 CFR10 21 This action would not: threaten a violation of applicable statutory, regulatory, or permit requirements for environment, safety, and health,

205

CX-005085: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

085: Categorical Exclusion Determination 085: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-005085: Categorical Exclusion Determination California-City-Cathedral City CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, A11, B1.32, B2.5, B5.1 Date: 01/21/2011 Location(s): Cathedral City, California Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program. 1) Community Compact Fluourescent Lamp program, 2) technical consultant for Energy and Climate Action Plan, 3) Civic Center light retrofit, 4) Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning retrofit project, 5) wind turbine project, 6) high efficiency toilet incentive, and 7) develop electric vehicle charging infrastructures in previously disturbed parking lots (two devices at two locations). DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-005085_0.pdf

206

U.S. Department of Energy NEPA Categorical Exclusion Determination Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

FL-City-North Port FL-City-North Port Location: City North Port FL American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Proposed Action or Project Description: 1) Retain consultant to develop energy efficiency and conservation strategy; 2) install two electric vehicle charging stations; 3) financial incentive program for homeowners; partner with Sarasota County in the CERIP Program to include rebates to homeowners, home energy efficiency kits with smart strips, CFLs, faucet aerators, caulk, gasket seals, and toilet leak prevention kits; loans for homeowners for energy improvements; and educational programs; and 4) lighting retrofits at Mullen Center and Fire Station #81. Conditions: None Categorical Exclusion(s) Applied: A1, A9, A11, B5.1. B5.23 *-For the complete DOE National Environmental Policy Act regulations regarding categorical exclusions, see Subpart D of 10 CFR10 21

207

Colorado Springs Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Colorado Springs Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Windows, Doors, & Skylights Commercial Weatherization Appliances & Electronics Sealing Your Home Ventilation Maximum Rebate Visit website for details Program Info State Colorado Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Duct Sealing: 40% of job up to $100 Dishwasher: $50 Gas Boiler: $250 Gas Furnace: $250 Gas Water Heater: $50 Insulation and Air Sealing: 40% of job up to $200 Irrigation: varies Refrigerator: $50 + $50 recycle bonus Toilets: up to $75 (max 2) Windows: $4.67/sq ft, up to $200 Provider Residential Efficiency Incentives Colorado Springs Utilities offers a variety of energy and water efficiency

208

The Universe Adventure - Today's Universe  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4: Today's Accelerating Universe 4: Today's Accelerating Universe The Universe Today Dark matter has aided in forming the universe we see today; however, many questions regarding the cosmos remain. What is the status of the Universe today? We know the Universe is expanding... But what do we know about the expansion? Supernova survey. Surveys of supernova provide scientists with information about the history of the Universe. Classroom Cosmology Classroom Cosmology: Toilet Paper Cosmology In 1997 advances in telescope technology allowed astronomers to conduct redshift surveys of very distant type Ia supernovae. This enabled them to look further back into the Universe's history than previously possible. Their stunning results rivaled Hubble's original discovery and turned cosmology on its head. While most theoretical models predicted that the

209

Adam Cohen | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Adam Cohen Adam Cohen Deputy Director for Operations From Hot Cells to Hot Plasmas Cohen approaches science challenges with practicality By John Greenwald Adam Cohen grew up as the family handyman. "I was the kid who tacked down the carpet, repaired the roof, fixed the toilet and worked on the car," he said of his youth in northern New Jersey. "I would pull apart batteries and tear apart things and try to make them work again." That Mr. Fixit attitude has taken Cohen from nuclear submarine service in the U.S. Navy to chief operations officer at Argonne National Laboratory to senior science adviser at the U.S. Department of Energy. Now as deputy director for operations at the U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) since 2009, he oversees functions ranging

210

CX-006627: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

6627: Categorical Exclusion Determination 6627: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-006627: Categorical Exclusion Determination Elverta Maintenance Facility Remodel CX(s) Applied: B1.4, B1.15, B2.1, B2.3, B2.5 Date: 08/24/2011 Location(s): Sacramento County, California Office(s): Western Area Power Administration-Sierra Nevada Region The Elverta Maintenance Facility remodeling project will include an expanded parking garage and workshop facility and also include the following site improvements; (I) mezzanine for storage; (2) two separate workshop areas; (3) five pull-through parking bays; and (4) one toilet room. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-006627.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-005938: Categorical Exclusion Determination EIS-0323-S1: Draft Supplement Environmental Impact Statement

211

Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

AZ-TRIBE-KAIBAB BAND OF PAIUTE INDIAN TRIBE AZ-TRIBE-KAIBAB BAND OF PAIUTE INDIAN TRIBE Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program Location: Tribe AZ-TRIBE-KAIBAB BAND OF PAIUTE INDIAN TRIBE AZ American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Proposed Action or Project Description The Kaibab Band of Paiute Indian Tribe of Arizona proposes to install energy efficient appliances and perform energy efficient retrofits to homes on the Kaibab Paiute Indian Reservation. These retrofits would include siding, roofing, windows, doors, and other areas of the home losing heat, using excess water, or other non-efficient areas (e.g., replace/upgrade/install water efficient appliances, water saving taps, other water fixtures [low-flow shower heads, low-flow faucet aerators, low-flow toilets]).

212

 

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

This determination is limited to the retrofit activities specified above. EECBG funds shall not be utilized for retrofit activities outside of these This determination is limited to the retrofit activities specified above. EECBG funds shall not be utilized for retrofit activities outside of these parameters without the prior written approval of the DOE. X - B5.1 Actions to conserve energy The proposed activity includes implementing energy efficiency retrofits on up to five (5) tribal residences. Energy efficiency retrofits may include (a) installation of Energy Star rated appliances (e.g., refrigerators, stoves and hoods, and furnaces), (b) incorporation of other Energy Star rated products (e.g., windows, doors, and lighting fixtures), and (c) installation of compact fluorescent lamp bulbs, low-flow toilets and fixtures, and tankless water heaters. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants

213

Innovative conservation housing. Final progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new passive solar thermal storage brick was developed and tested. A new insulating curtain concept was developed to assist in passive solar heating and cooling. A steel truss was designed to replace the wood truss in solar attic applications where the wood truss typically suffers some 50% loss of structural strength. Improvements were made of the dry composting toilet and grey water recycling for homes. An algae cultivation system was created for production of food, feed, fertilizer, or biomass as needed for home, farm, or industry. New concepts were explored in the areas of economy shelter, solar hot water heating, home generation of electricity, edible landscapes and other home food production, growing of fiber crops for cottage industry, storage, insulation, solar cooking, and solar refrigeration. (LEW)

Nuttle, D.A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

A Systems Framework for Assessing Plumbing Products-Related Water Conservation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reducing the water use of plumbing productstoilets, urinals, faucets, and showerheads has been a popular conservation measure. Improved technologies have created opportunities for additional conservation in this area. However, plumbing products do not operate in a vacuum. This paper reviews the literature related to plumbing products to determine a systems framework for evaluating future conservation measures using these products. The main framework comprises the following categories: water use efficiency, product components, product performance, source water, energy, and plumbing/sewer infrastructure. This framework for analysis provides a starting point for professionals considering future water conservation measures to evaluate the need for additional research, collaboration with other standards or codes committees, and attachment of additional metrics to water use efficiency (such as performance).

Williams, Alison; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Lutz, James

2011-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

215

Domestic Water Conservation Technologies: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Federal Technology Alert (Booklet)  

SciTech Connect

Executive Order 13123 calls for the Federal government to conserve water as well as energy in its 500,000 facilities. To help set priorities among water-saving measures, the Federal Energy Management Program conducted a study of Federal water use in 1997. The study indicated that the government consumes more than 50% of its water in just three types of Federal facilities: housing, hospitals, and office buildings. These facilities have enough kitchens, rest rooms, and laundry areas to provide facility managers with many opportunities to begin reducing their water use (and utility costs) with appropriate water-saving fixtures and products. Therefore, this Federal Technology Alert focuses on domestic technologies, products, and appliances such as water-efficient faucets, showerheads, toilets, urinals, washing machines, and dishwashers. Conserving water also saves the energy needed to treat, pump, and heat that water in homes, businesses, and other buildings.

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Alaska village demonstration projects. Report to the Congress  

SciTech Connect

The Alaska Village Demonstration Projects (AVDP) were authorized by Section 113, P.L. 92-500 (86 STAT 816), for the purpose of demonstrating methods to improve sanitary conditions in native villages of Alaska. Central community facilities have been constructed in the native villages of Emmonak and Wainwright to provide a safe water supply; toilets, bathing, and laundry facilities; and sewage and solid waste disposal. Although there has not been enough time to allow full operation and evaluation of these facilities, it is apparent that the technology is available to provide these basic utility services to the demonstration villages. A major issue still to be addressed is the lack of clear responsibility for the operation and maintenance of the facilities after the Environmental Protection Agency demonstration program is completed. Adequate local resources to operate the installations are lacking. Continued experience with the AVDP is needed to complete evaluation and develop recommendations in relation to the establishment of a statewide program.

1973-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

The Energy General Store, sunscreen production and sales: A business plan for Tucson Urban League  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Tucson Urban League, in an effort to reduce its dependence on federal grants for the operation of community programs, proposes to establish a profit-making component of the agency which has been named Park Avenue Enterprises. Initially, Park Avenue Enterprises will consist of three divisions: Wood Unlimited, Weatherization-Home Repair, and The Energy General Store. Wood Unlimited will market, fabricate, and install wood products including cabinets, pallets, crates, and other custom items. The Weatherization-Home Repair division of PAE will be labor intensive and designed to provide unique energy-saving services. Finally, The Energy General Store division of PAE will provide goods and services conducive to principles of energy conservation: sunscreens, low-flow showerheads, energy-efficient light bulbs, toilet tank insert, and other conservation items. The Energy General Store is also planned to be a resource for information and ideas in energy and water conservation. This plan will use sunscreen production and marketing as its focus.

Clarke, R.; Goldberg, A.; Johnson, C.; Robinson, M.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

RESULTS FROM ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST AND SECOND STRIP EFFLUENT COALESCER ELEMENTS FROM RADIOACTIVE OPERATIONS OF THE MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The coalescer elements for the Strip Effluent (SE) acid within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) experienced elevated differential pressure drop during radioactive operations. Following the end of operations for the first Macrobatch campaign and soon after start of the second Macrobatch campaign, personnel removed the coalescer media and provided to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for diagnostic investigation of the causes of reduced flow. This report summarizes those studies. Two Strip Effluent (SE) coalescers were delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). One was removed from the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) between processing of Macrobatch 1 and 2 (coalescer 'Alpha'), and the second was removed from MCU after processing of {approx}24,000 gallons of salt solution (coalescer 'Beta'). Both coalescers underwent the same general strip acid flush program to reduce the dose and were delivered to SRNL for analysis of potential occluding solids. Analysis of Coalescer Alpha indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids and aluminosilicate solids, while analysis of Coalescer Beta indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids, but no aluminosilicates. Leaching studies on sections of both coalescers were performed. The results indicate that the coalescers had different amounts of solids present on them at the time of removal. Finally, samples of free liquids retrieved from both coalescers indicate no excessive amounts of CSSX solvent present. Given the strip acid flushing that occurred in the SE coalescers, the solids we detected on the coalescers are probably indicative of a larger quantity of these solids present before the strip acid flushing. Under this scenario, the excessive pressure drops are due to the solids and not from organic fouling.

Peters, T.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

219

Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Progress reports are presented for the following projects: systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; site remediation technologies--drain-enhanced soil flushing (DESF) for organic contaminants removal; excavation systems for hazardous waste sites; chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls; development of organic sensors--monolayer and multilayer self-assembled films for chemical sensors; Winfield Lock and Dam remediation; Winfield cleanup survey; assessment of technologies for hazardous waste site remediation--non-treatment technologies and pilot scale test facility implementation; assessment of environmental remediation storage technology; assessment of environmental remediation excavation technology; assessment of environmental remediation monitoring technology; and remediation of hazardous sites with steam reforming.

Not Available

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Cased-hole measurement of oil in place, San Joaquin Valley, California  

SciTech Connect

A log-inject-log (LIL) method was used to measure residual oil through casing in a reservoir with relatively fresh formation water. Water saturations calculated from pulsed-neutron-capture cross sections logged before and after injection of brine agree within about 10 saturation units (s.u.) with saturations previously measured from cores and from the electromagnetic propagation tool (EPT) run in openhole. Well completion and injection procedures were designed to achieve uniform injection without altering the unconsolidated sand containing liquids at low pressures. Residual oil in place (OIP) measured by cores, the EPT, and the LIL method represents saturation after thorough flushing by water. 15 refs.

Neuman, C.H.; Oden, A.L.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flush toilet bathtub" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

CX-009637: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7: Categorical Exclusion Determination 7: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-009637: Categorical Exclusion Determination Removing Items or Materials Containing Polychlorinated Biphenyls CX(s) Applied: B1.17 Date: 11/19/2012 Location(s): Tennessee, California, California, Virginia Offices(s): Oak Ridge Office The proposed actions would involve removal of items containing various levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), including transformers, capacitors, light ballasts, hydraulic systems, gaskets, coatings, and insulation. The proposed actions also include routine maintenance and flushing of equipment such as hydraulic systems and transformers. CX-009637.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-010358: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-007979: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-009676

222

2005 EIA-821 SURVEY: LINE-BY-LINE REFERENCE GUIDE  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Page 1 Page 1 2012 EIA-821 SURVEY: LINE-BY-LINE REFERENCE GUIDE Kerosene Line No. Sold directly to consumers for: 1 Residential Use (Non-Farm): * Backup generator * Home heating and cooking * Personal lawn equipment * EXCLUDE: Apartment buildings and Farmhouses 2 Commercial Use: * Apartment building * Bank * Casino * Church * College/School/Institution * Department/Retail store * Environmental clean-up service * Flushing fuel lines * Forestry service * Golf course * Government (Federal, State, local, and district; INCLUDE fuel used in vehicles) * Hazardous waste company * Hospital * Hotel/Motel * Landfill site government owned * Landscaping * Laundry company * Lumber yard that sells the lumber * Medical service * Port Authority/publicly owned port or loading dock

223

Recommendation on changing interfaces of W-058 and W-236A  

SciTech Connect

This position paper recommends changes to improve the interface between the Cross-Site Transfer System (Project W-058) and the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (Project W-236A) to handle planned waste retrieval and storage operations. Appendix A includes cost estimates and schedule impacts for each project. The cost estimates, schedule impacts, and this position paper will be the basis for writing a change request to formally implement these changes on Project W-236A and Project W-058/W-028. Recommendations are made on pipeline rerouting, pump and configuration, and flushing configuration.

Light, J.M.

1994-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

224

Test rig and particulate deposit and cleaning evaluation processes using the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A rig and test program for determining the amount, if any, of contamination that will collect in the passages of a fluid flow system, such as a power plant fluid delivery system to equipment assemblies or sub-assemblies, and for establishing methods and processes for removing contamination therefrom. In the presently proposed embodiment, the rig and test programs are adapted in particular to utilize a high-pressure, high-volume water flush to remove contamination from substantially the entire fluid delivery system, both the quantity of contamination and as disposed or deposited within the system.

Schroder, Mark Stewart (Hendersonville, NC); Woodmansee, Donald Ernest (Schenectady, NY); Beadie, Douglas Frank (Greer, SC)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This reports reports the progress/efforts performed on six technical projects: 1. systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; 2. site remediation technologies (SRT):drain- enhanced soil flushing for organic contaminants removal; 3. SRT: in situ bio-remediation of organic contaminants; 4. excavation systems for hazardous waste sites: dust control methods for in-situ nuclear waste handling; 5. chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls; and 6. development of organic sensors: monolayer and multilayer self-assembled films for chemical sensors.

Not Available

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Hydrogen gas sensor and method of manufacture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sensor for measuring the pressure of hydrogen gas in a nuclear reactor, and method of manufacturing the same. The sensor comprises an elongated tube of hydrogen permeable material which is connected to a pressure transducer through a feedthrough tube which passes through a wall at the boundary of the region in which hydrogen is present. The tube is pressurized and flushed with hydrogen gas at an elevated temperature during the manufacture of the sensor in order to remove all gasses other than hydrogen from the device.

McKee, John M. (Hinsdale, IL)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Update on Transition to Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

On November 8, 2005, the EPA Administrator signed a direct final rule that will shift the retail compliance date for offering ULSD for highway use from September 1, 2006, to October 15, 2006. The change will allow more time for retail outlets and terminals to comply with the new 15 parts per million (ppm) sulfur standard, providing time for entities in the diesel fuel distribution system to flush higher sulfur fuel out of the system during the transition. Terminals will have until September 1, 2006, to complete their transitions to ULSD. The previous deadline was July 15, 2006.

Information Center

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

METHOD OF CHEMICAL DECONTAMINATION OF STAINLESS STEEL NUCLEAR FACILITIES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical method is given for removing activated corrosion products on the primary system surfaces of a pressurized water reactor. The corrosion product deposits are composed chiefly of magnetite (Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/) with small amounts of nickel and chromium oxides. The corroded surfaces are first flushed with a caustic permanganate primary solution consisting of sodium hydroxide and potassium permanganate followed by a secondary rinse solution of ammonium citrate and citric acid containing the complexing agent Versene in small amounts. Demineralized water is used to clean out the primary and secondary solutions and a 60-minute drying period precedes the rinse solution. (AEC)

Pancer, G.P.; Zegger, J.L.

1961-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

229

Measure Guideline: Water Management at Tub and Shower Assemblies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to the high concentrations of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home's structure a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. This guide shows how to install fundamental waterproofing strategies to prevent water related issues at shower and tub areas. When conducting a total gut rehab of a structure or constructing a new home, best practice installation and detailing for effective waterproofing are critically important at bathtub and shower assemblies. Water management issues in a structure may go unrecognized for long periods, so that when they are finally observed, the damage from long-term water exposure is extensive. A gut rehab is often undertaken when a home has experienced a natural disaster or when the homeowners are interested in converting an old, high-energy-use building into a high-quality, efficient structure that meets or exceeds one of the national energy standards, such as ENERGY STAR or LEED for homes. During a gut rehab, bath areas need to be replaced with diligent attention to detail. Employing effective water management practices in the installation and detailing of tub and shower assemblies will minimize or eliminate water issues within the building cavities and on the finished surfaces. A residential tub-and-shower surround or shower-stall assembly is designed to handle a high volume of water - 2.5 gallons per minute, with multiple baths occurring during a typical day. Transitions between dissimilar materials and connections between multiple planes must be installed with care to avoid creating a pathway for water to enter the building assemblies. Due to the high volume of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home's structure, a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. At each stage of construction, successive trades must take care not to create a defect nor to compound or cover up a previous trade's defect. Covering a defect hides the inevitable point of failure and may even exacerbate the situation.

Dickson, B.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

LTC 1073 vacuum blasting (concrete) human factors assessment -- Baseline (summary)  

SciTech Connect

The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high capacity, direct pressure blasting system incorporating a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast head. A vacuum system removes dust and debris from the surfaces as it is blasted. After cleaning the surface, the abrasive, together with the rust or coating that was removed from the surface, is vacuumed into the machine through the suction hose. The dust separator contains angled steel collision pads, working with the force of gravity, to allow any reusable abrasive to fall back into the pressure vessel. The filters are manually back flushed to prevent clogging. After back flushing, dust is dumped from the dust chamber into the dust collection bag or drum by operation of the bellows valve. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on dust and noise exposure. Dust exposure was found to be minimal, but noise exposure was potentially significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place may cause the results to be inapplicable to indoor settings. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment. Other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

231

DECONTAMINATION OF CELLS 6 AND 7, BUILDING 3019, FOLLOWING PLUTONIUM- RELEASE INCIDENT  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the evaporation explosion in the Radiochemical Processing Pilot Plant on Nov. 20, 1959, two cells were contaminated with plutonium to a transferable level of 10/sup 8/ d/m/100 sq cm. The area involved measures 40 by 20 by 27 ft high with a total surface area, including equipment, of 10,000 sq ft. The cells were decontaminated by a factor of 1000 in five months by removing loose equipment, debris, and shielding blocks and flushing with 430,600 liters of various decontaminating reagents. The remaining contamination (10/sup 4/ - 10/ sup 5/ d/-m/100 sq cm) was fixed to the surface with three coats of paint. The general beta-gamma radiation background was decreased from 2000 to 30 mr/hr and the long-lived alpha contamination in the air was reduced from 2 x 10/sup -10/ to 8 x 10/sup -13/ mu c/cc. Approximately 141 g of plutonium was flushed from the cell surfaces. The total direct effort expended was 3000 man-hr including 250 entries into the cell, 175 of which were made in plastic air suits. There were no overexposares from beta-gamma radiation and no detectable increase in the body burden of plutonium of any individual involved. (auth)

Parrott, J.R.

1961-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

232

The Effect of Steady Winds on Radon-222 Entry from soil into houses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wind affects the radon-222 entry rate from soil into buildings and the resulting indoor concentrations. To investigate this phenomenon, we employ a previously tested three-dimensional numerical model of soil-gas Bow around houses, a commercial computational fluid dynamics code, an established model for determining ventilation rates in the presence of wind, and new wind tunnel results for the ground-surface pressure field caused by wind. These tools and data, applied under steady-state conditions to a prototypical residential building, allow us (1) to determine the complex soil-gas flow patterns that result from the presence of wind-generated ground-surface pressures, (2) to evaluate the effect of these flows on the radon concentration in the soil, and (3) to calculate the effect of wind on the radon entry rate and indoor concentration. For a broad range of soil permeabilities, two wind speeds, and two wind directions, we quantify the"flushing" effect of wind on the radon in the soil surrounding a house, and the consequent sharp decrease in radon entry rates. Experimental measurements of the time-dependent radon concentration in soil gas beneath houses confirm the existence of wind-induced flushing. Comparisons are made to modeling predictions obtained while ignoring the effect of the wind-generated ground-surface pressures. These investigations lead to the conclusion that wind-generated ground-surface pressures play a significant role in determining radon entry rates into residential buildings. [References: 26

Riley, W.J.; Gadgil, A.J.; Bonnefous, Y.C.; Nazaroff, W.W.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Biogeochemistry in Sea Ice: CICE model developments  

SciTech Connect

Polar primary production unfolds in a dynamic sea ice environment, and the interactions of sea ice with ocean support and mediate this production. In spring, for example, fresh melt water contributes to the shoaling of the mixed layer enhancing ice edge blooms. In contrast, sea ice formation in the fall reduces light penetration to the upper ocean slowing primary production in marine waters. Polar biogeochemical modeling studies typically consider these types of ice-ocean interactions. However, sea ice itself is a biogeochemically active medium, contributing a significant and, possibly, essential source of primary production to polar regions in early spring and fall. Here we present numerical simulations using the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE) with prognostic salinity and sea ice biogeochemistry. This study investigates the relationship between sea ice multiphase physics and sea ice productivity. Of particular emphasis are the processes of gravity drainage, melt water flushing, and snow loading. During sea ice formation, desalination by gravity drainage facilitates nutrient exchange between ocean and ice maintaining ice algal blooms in early spring. Melt water flushing releases ice algae and nutrients to underlying waters limiting ice production. Finally, snow loading, particularly in the Southern Ocean, forces sea ice below the ocean surface driving an upward flow of nutrient rich water into the ice to the benefit of interior and freeboard communities. Incorporating ice microphysics in CICE has given us an important tool for assessing the importance of these processes for polar algal production at global scales.

Jeffery, Nicole [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hunke, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elliott, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turner, Adrian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

234

Guidelines for sampling and analyzing solutions from aquifer thermal-energy-storage systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The successful aquifer storage and retrieval of energy in the form of heated or chilled water require that the engineered system be compatible with the natural ground-water system. The composition of the ground water must be well known to predict and avoid potential problems that heating or cooling the water may create for operation of the plant. This paper presents a set of guidelines for sampling and analyzing solutions from simulated or real groundwater energy storage systems. Sampling guidelines include methods for flushing wells of stagnant water and monitoring selective solution parameters (pH, Eh, temperature or conductivity) as indicators of the efficiency of flushing. Certain unstable groundwater parameters (temperature, pH, Eh, dissolved oxygen, and conductivity) should be measured onsite. It is recommended that alkalinity, sulfide, and ammonia determinations be done within 24 hr of sampling. In addition to these field measurements, samples of the ground water should be filtered, preserved, and stored for laboratory analysis of major cations, anions, trace metals, organic and inorganic carbon and certain redox couples (Fe/sup 2 +//Fe/sup 3 +/ and As/sup 3 +//As/sup 5 +/). The final results of the analysis should be verified by computing the cation-anion balance and comparing measured conductivity with the solution analysis.

Deutsch, W.J.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Factors influencing algal biomass in hydrologically dynamic salt ponds in a subtropical salt marsh  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The interface between land and water is often a dynamic zone that responds to relatively short-term climatic and hydrologic forces. Coastal salt marshes occupy this zone between land and sea and typically are comprised of vegetated marsh intersected by channels and shallow ponds that are subject to flooding by winds, tides, and storm surges. Coastal salt marshes are widely regarded as zones of high macrophyte productivity. However, microalgae may contribute more to salt marsh productivity than previously realized, underscoring the importance of understanding algal dynamics in such systems. Benthic and planktonic chlorophyll-a (surrogate for total algal biomass), sediment AFDW, total suspended solids, salinity, and nutrients were examined in marsh ponds in the subtropical Guadalupe Estuary, TX, USA to determine the effects of hydrologic connections on algal biomass in this system. From May 2005 May 2006 there were several pond connection, disconnection, and desiccation events. During periods of disconnection, algal biomass was higher in both the benthos and the water column than during connection events when supposed flushing occurred. Connection events also flushed out high NH4 accumulating in pond surface waters, but did not increase NOx. Therefore, the primary source of DIN seemed to be nutrient cycling within the ponds. There was a temporal effect on surface water salinity, which increased throughout the sampling period as bay water levels and subsequent pond connections decreased, demonstrating interannual variability and the link between seasons (wet vs. dry) and marsh inundation patterns (high water periods vs. low water periods) in this estuary.

Miller, Carrie J.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

DETERMINATION OF LIQUID FILM THICKNESS FOLLOWING DRAINING OF CONTACTORS, VESSELS, AND PIPES IN THE MCU PROCESS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) identified the caustic side solvent extraction (CSSX) process as the preferred technology to remove cesium from radioactive waste solutions at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As a result, Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) began designing and building a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) in the SRS tank farm to process liquid waste for an interim period until the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) begins operations. Both the solvent and the strip effluent streams could contain high concentrations of cesium which must be removed from the contactors, process tanks, and piping prior to performing contactor maintenance. When these vessels are drained, thin films or drops will remain on the equipment walls. Following draining, the vessels will be flushed with water and drained to remove the flush water. The draining reduces the cesium concentration in the vessels by reducing the volume of cesium-containing material. The flushing, and subsequent draining, reduces the cesium in the vessels by diluting the cesium that remains in the film or drops on the vessel walls. MCU personnel requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers conduct a literature search to identify models to calculate the thickness of the liquid films remaining in the contactors, process tanks, and piping following draining of salt solution, solvent, and strip solution. The conclusions from this work are: (1) The predicted film thickness of the strip effluent is 0.010 mm on vertical walls, 0.57 mm on horizontal walls and 0.081 mm in horizontal pipes. (2) The predicted film thickness of the salt solution is 0.015 mm on vertical walls, 0.74 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.106 mm in horizontal pipes. (3) The predicted film thickness of the solvent is 0.022 mm on vertical walls, 0.91 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.13 mm in horizontal pipes. (4) The calculated film volume following draining is: (a) Salt solution receipt tank--1.6 gallons; (b) Salt solution feed tank--1.6 gallons; (c) Decontaminated salt solution hold tank--1.6 gallons; (d) Contactor drain tank--0.40 gallons; (e) Strip effluent hold tank--0.33 gallons; (f) Decontaminated salt solution decanter--0.37 gallons; (g) Strip effluent decanter--0.14 gallons; (h) Solvent hold tank--0.30 gallon; and (i) Corrugated piping between contactors--16-21 mL. (5) After the initial vessel draining, flushing the vessels with 100 gallons of water using a spray nozzle that produces complete vessel coverage and draining the flush water reduces the source term by the following amounts: (i) Salt solution receipt tank--63X; (ii) Salt solution feed tank--63X; (iii) Decontaminated salt solution hold tank--63X; (iv) Contactor drain tank--250X; (v) Strip effluent hold tank--300X; (vi) Decontaminated salt solution decanter--270X; (vii) Strip effluent decanter--710X; (viii) Solvent hold tank--330X. Understand that these estimates of film thickness are based on laboratory testing and fluid mechanics theory. The calculations assume drainage occurs by film flow. Much of the data used to develop the models came from tests with very ''clean'' fluids. Impurities in the fluids and contaminants on the vessels walls could increase liquid holdup. The application of film thickness models and source term reduction calculations should be considered along with operational conditions and H-Tank Farm/Liquid Waste operating experience. These calculations exclude the PVV/HVAC duct work and piping, as well as other areas that area outside the scope of this report.

Poirier, M; Fernando Fondeur, F; Samuel Fink, S

2006-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

237

Tritium in the World Trade Center September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attack: It's Possible Sources and Fate  

SciTech Connect

Traces of tritiated water (HTO) were determined at World Trade Center (WTC) ground zero after the 9/11/01 terrorist attack. A method of ultralow-background liquid scintillation counting was used after distilling HTO from the samples. A water sample from the WTC sewer, collected on 9/13/01, contained 0.174{plus_minus}0.074 (2{sigma}) nCi/L of HTO. A split water sample, collected on 9/21/01 from the basement of WTC Building 6, contained 3.53{plus_minus}0.17 and 2.83{plus_minus}0.15 nCi/L, respectively. Several water and vegetation samples were analyzed from areas outside the ground zero, located in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and Kensico Reservoir. No HTO above the background was found in those samples. All these results are well below the levels of concern to human exposure. Several tritium radioluminescent (RL) devices were investigated as possible sources of the traces of tritium at ground zero. Tritium is used in self-luminescent emergency EXIT signs. No such signs were present inside the WTC buildings. However, it was determined that Boeing 767-222 aircraft operated by the United Airlines that hit WTC Tower 2 as well as Boeing 767-223ER operated by the American Airlines, that hit WTC Tower 1, had a combined 34.3 Ci of tritium at the time of impact. Other possible sources of tritium include dials and lights of fire and emergency equipment, sights and scopes in weaponry, as well as time devices equipped with tritium dials. It was determined that emergency equipment was not a likely source. However, WTC hosted several law-enforcement agencies such as ATF, CIA, US Secret Service and US Customs. The ATF office had two weapon vaults in WTC Building 6. Also 63 Police Officers, possibly carrying handguns with tritium sights, died in the attack. The weaponry containing tritium was therefore a likely and significant source of tritium. It is possible that some of the 2830 victims carried tritium watches, however this source appears to be less significant that the other two. The fate of tritium in the attack depended on its chemistry. Any tritium present in the vicinity of jet-fuel explosion or fire would convert to HTO. The molecular tritium is also known to quickly exchange with water adsorbed on surfaces at ambient temperatures. Therefore, the end product of reacted tritium was HTO. A part of it would disperse into the atmosphere and a part would remain on site. The dynamic aspect of HTO removal was investigated taking into a consideration water flow at ground zero. Most of ground zero is encircled by the Slurry Wall, 70 ft deep underground, called a Bathtub. Approximately three million gallons of water were hosed on site in the fire-fighting efforts, and 1 million gallons fell as rainwater, between 9/11 and 9/21 (the day of the reported measurement). The combined water percolated through the debris down to the bottom of the Bathtub dissolving and removing HTO with it. That water would meet and combine with the estimated 26 million gallons of water that leaked from the Hudson River as well as broken mains, during the same period of 10 days after the attack. The combined water was collecting in the PATH train tunnel and continuously being pumped out to prevent flooding. A %Box model of water flow was developed to describe the above scenario. Considering the uncertainty in the amount of tritium present from sources other than the aircraft, as well as the dynamic character of tritium removal from the site, it is feasible to provide only a qualitative picture of the fate and behavior of tritium at WTC with the limited experimental data available. If the time history of tritium concentration at WTC had been measured, this study could have been a tracer study of water flow at WTC possibly useful to civil engineering.

Parekh, P; Semkow, T; Husain, L; Haines, D; Woznial, G; Williams, P; Hafner, R; Rabun, R

2002-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

238

Application of the Evacuated Canister System for Removing Residual Molten Glass From the West Valley Demonstration Project High-Level Waste Melter  

SciTech Connect

The principal mission of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is to meet a series of objectives defined in the West Valley Demonstration Project Act (Public Law 96-368). Chief among these is the objective to solidify liquid high-level waste (HLW) at the WVDP site into a form suitable for disposal in a federal geologic repository. In 1982, the Secretary of Energy formally selected vitrification as the technology to be used to solidify HLW at the WVDP. One of the first steps in meeting the HLW solidification objective involved designing, constructing and operating the Vitrification (Vit) Facility, the WVDP facility that houses the systems and subsystems used to process HLW into stainless steel canisters of borosilicate waste-glass that satisfy waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for disposal in a federal geologic repository. HLW processing and canister production began in 1996. The final step in meeting the HLW solidification objective involved ending Vit system operations and shut ting down the Vit Facility. This was accomplished by conducting a discrete series of activities to remove as much residual material as practical from the primary process vessels, components, and associated piping used in HLW canister production before declaring a formal end to Vit system operations. Flushing was the primary method used to remove residual radioactive material from the vitrification system. The inventory of radioactivity contained within the entire primary processing system diminished by conducting the flushing activities. At the completion of flushing activities, the composition of residual molten material remaining in the melter (the primary system component used in glass production) consisted of a small quantity of radioactive material and large quantities of glass former materials needed to produce borosilicate waste-glass. A special system developed during the pre-operational and testing phase of Vit Facility operation, the Evacuated Canister System (ECS), was deployed at the West Valley Demonstration Project to remove this radioactively dilute, residual molten material from the melter before Vit system operations were brought to a formal end. The ECS consists of a stainless steel canister of the same size and dimensions as a standard HLW canister that is equipped with a special L-shaped snorkel assembly made of 304L stainless steel. Both the canister and snorkel assembly fit into a stainless steel cage that allows the entire canister assembly to be positioned over the melter as molten glass is drawn out by a vacuum applied to the canister. This paper describes the process used to prepare and apply the ECS to complete molten glass removal before declaring a formal end to Vit system operations and placing the Vit Facility into a safe standby mode awaiting potential deactivation.

May, Joseph J.; Dombrowski, David J.; Valenti, Paul J.; Houston, Helene M.

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

239

Thermo-chemical conversion of dairy waste based biomass through direct firing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Growing rates of manure produced from large dairies have increased concern for the environmental quality of nearby streams and watersheds. Typically the manure from the freestalls on these dairies is flushed with water to a mechanical separator. Here, flushed dairy biomass (DB) is parted into separated solids and separated liquid. The separated liquid is discharged into lagoons for treatment and eventual land application. This thesis proposes thermodynamic models for firing DB in small scale boiler systems that would eliminate land application and lagoons, which are being claimed to be the source of nutrient leaching and overloading. Fuel analysis of flushed DB from a dairy in central Texas show that it contains 93%moisture (%M), 3%ash (%A), and 4%combustibles (%Cb), while separated DB solids contain 81%M, 2%A, and 17%Cb. The dry, ash-free higher heating value of DB is approximately 20,000 kJ/kg. Using dry, ash-free results, computations can be made over ranges of %M and %A. For example, DB containing 70%M requires 9.74%Cb to vaporize all moisture and produce gaseous products of combustion at 373 K, but requires 17.82%Cb to burn in a regenerative combustor with a flame temperature of 1200 K. Separated solids that are pressed in an auger to 70%M (3%A and 27%Cb) can burn at 1200 K with exhaust temperatures of up to 1130 K and a minimum required heat exchanger effectiveness of 15%. Pressed solids can thus be fired in a boiler, where the remaining separated liquid can be used as feed water. The pressed solids only can release about 30% of the heat required to vaporize the remaining unclean feed water. However, pressed DB solids can be blended with drier fuels to vaporize almost all the unclean water. The low quality steam produced from the unclean water can be used in thermal processes on the farm. A similar system can be developed for vacuumed DB without the need to vaporize unclean feed water. As for large dairies with anaerobic digester systems already installed, directly firing the produced biogas in a small scale boiler system may be another way to similarly vaporize the remaining effluent.

Carlin, Nicholas Thomas

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

POST-OPERATIONAL TREATMENT OF RESIDUAL NA COOLLANT IN EBR-2 USING CARBONATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At the end of 2002, the Experimental Breeder Reactor Two (EBR-II) facility became a U.S. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted site, and the RCRA permit1 compelled further treatment of the residual sodium in order to convert it into a less reactive chemical form and remove the by-products from the facility, so that a state of RCRA 'closure' for the facility may be achieved (42 U.S.C. 6901-6992k, 2002). In response to this regulatory driver, and in recognition of project budgetary and safety constraints, it was decided to treat the residual sodium in the EBR-II primary and secondary sodium systems using a process known as 'carbonation.' In early EBR-II post-operation documentation, this process is also called 'passivation.' In the carbonation process (Sherman and Henslee, 2005), the system containing residual sodium is flushed with humidified carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The water vapor in the flush gas reacts with residual sodium to form sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and the CO{sub 2} in the flush gas reacts with the newly formed NaOH to make sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}). Hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) is produced as a by-product. The chemical reactions occur at the exposed surface of the residual sodium. The NaHCO{sub 3} layer that forms is porous, and humidified carbon dioxide can penetrate the NaHCO{sub 3} layer to continue reacting residual sodium underneath. The rate of reaction is controlled by the thickness of the NaHCO{sub 3} surface layer, the moisture input rate, and the residual sodium exposed surface area. At the end of carbonation, approximately 780 liters of residual sodium in the EBR-II primary tank ({approx}70% of original inventory), and just under 190 liters of residual sodium in the EBR-II secondary sodium system ({approx}50% of original inventory), were converted into NaHCO{sub 3}. No bare surfaces of residual sodium remained after treatment, and all remaining residual sodium deposits are covered by a layer of NaHCO{sub 3}. From a safety standpoint, the inventory of residual sodium in these systems was greatly reduced by using the carbonation process. From a regulatory standpoint, the process was not able to achieve deactivation of all residual sodium, and other more aggressive measures will be needed if the remaining residual sodium must also be deactivated to meet the requirements of the existing environmental permit. This chapter provides a project history and technical summary of the carbonation of EBR-II residual sodium. Options for future treatment are also discussed.

Sherman, S.; Knight, C.

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flush toilet bathtub" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.2 Residential Sector Water Consumption  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

2 2 1999 Single-Family Home Daily Water Consumption by End Use (Gallons per Capita) (1) Fixture/End Use Toilet 18.5 18.3% Clothes Washer 15 14.9% Shower 11.6 11.5% Faucet 10.9 10.8% Other Domestic 1.6 1.6% Bath 1.2 1.2% Dishwasher 1 1.0% Leaks 9.5 9.4% Outdoor Use (2) 31.7 31.4% Total (2) 101 100% Note(s): Source(s): Average gallons Total Use per capita per day Percent 1) Based analysis of 1,188 single-family homes at 12 study locations. 2) Total Water use derived from USGS. Outdoor use is the difference between total and indoor uses. American Water Works Association Research Foundation, Residential End Uses of Water, 1999; U.S. Geological Survey, Estimated Use of Water in the U.S. in 2000, U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1268, 2004, Table 6, p. 17; and Vickers, Amy, Handbook of Water Use and Conservation, June 2002, p. 15.

242

Saving Water Saves Energy  

SciTech Connect

Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as wellas for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energyconsumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigatinglandscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport andtreat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32 percent ofnatural gas consumption is related to water. There is a criticalinterdependence between energy and water systems: thermal power plantsrequire cooling water, and water pumping and treatment require energy.Energy efficiency can be increased by a number of means, includingmore-efficient appliances (e.g., clothes washers or dishwashers that useless total water and less heated water), water-conserving plumbingfixtures and fittings (e.g., showerheads, faucets, toilets) and changesin consumer behavior (e.g., lower temperature set points for storagewater heaters, shorter showers). Water- and energy-conserving activitiescan help offset the stress imposed on limited water (and energy) suppliesfrom increasing population in some areas, particularly in drought years,or increased consumption (e.g., some new shower systems) as a result ofincreased wealth. This paper explores the connections between householdwater use and energy, and suggests options for increased efficiencies inboth individual technologies and systems. Studies indicate that urbanwater use can be reduced cost-effectively by up to 30 percent withcommercially available products. The energy savings associated with watersavings may represent a large additional and largely untappedcost-effective opportunity.

McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

243

The effect of efficiency standards on water use and water heating energy use in the US: A detailed end-use treatment  

SciTech Connect

Water heating is an important end-use, accounting for roughly 16% of total primary energy consumption in the US residential sector. Recently enacted efficiency standards on water heaters and hot water-using equipment (e.g., dishwashers, clothes washers, showerheads, and faucets) will substantially affect the energy use of water heaters in the future. Assessment of current and future utility programs and government policies requires that regulators, resource planners, and forecasters understand the effects of these regulations. In order to quantify these impacts, this paper presents a detailed end-use breakdown of household hot and cold water use developed for the US Department of Energy. This breakdown is based on both previous studies and new data and analysis. It is implemented in a spreadsheet forecasting framework, which allows significant flexibility in specifying end-use demands and linkages between water heaters and hot water-using appliances. We disaggregate total hot and cold water use (gallons per day) into their component parts: showers, baths, faucets (flow dominated and volume dominated), toilets, landscaping/other, dishwashers, and clotheswashers. We then use the end-use breakdown and data on equipment characteristics to assess the impacts of current efficiency standards on hot water use and water heater energy consumption.

Koomey, J.G.; Dunham, C.; Lutz, J.D.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Projects from Federal Region IX: Department of Energy Appropriate Energy Technology Program. Part II  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Details and progress of appropriate energy technology programs in Region IX are presented. In Arizona, the projects are Solar Hot Water for the Prescott Adult Center and Solar Prototype House for a Residential Community. In California, the projects are Solar AquaDome Demonstration Project; Solar Powered Liquid Circulating Pump; Appropriate Energy Technology Resource Center; Digester for Wastewater Grown Aquatic Plants; Performance Characteristics of an Anaerobic Wastewater Lagoon Primary Treatment System; Appropriate Energy/Energy Conservation Demonstration Project; Solar Energy for Composting Toilets; Dry Creek Rancheria Solar Demonstration Projects; Demonstration for Energy Retrofit Analysis and Implementation; and Active Solar Space Heating System for the Integral Urban House. In Hawaii, the projects are: Java Plum Electric; Low-Cost Pond Digesters for Hawaiian Pig Farm Energy Needs; Solar Beeswax Melter; Methane Gas Plant for Operating Boilers and Generating Steam; and Solar Water Heating in Sugarcane Seed-Treatment Plants. A Wind-Powered Lighted Navigation Buoys Project for Guam is also described. A revised description of the Biogas Energy for Hawaiian Small Farms and Homesteads is given in an appendix.

Case, C.W.; Clark, H.R.; Kay, J.; Lucarelli, F.B.; Rizer, S.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Review of Literature for Inputs to the National Water Savings Model and Spreadsheet Tool-Commercial/Institutional  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is developing a computer model and spreadsheet tool for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to help estimate the water savings attributable to their WaterSense program. WaterSense has developed a labeling program for three types of plumbing fixtures commonly used in commercial and institutional settings: flushometer valve toilets, urinals, and pre-rinse spray valves. This National Water Savings-Commercial/Institutional (NWS-CI) model is patterned after the National Water Savings-Residential model, which was completed in 2008. Calculating the quantity of water and money saved through the WaterSense labeling program requires three primary inputs: (1) the quantity of a given product in use; (2) the frequency with which units of the product are replaced or are installed in new construction; and (3) the number of times or the duration the product is used in various settings. To obtain the information required for developing the NWS-CI model, LBNL reviewed various resources pertaining to the three WaterSense-labeled commercial/institutional products. The data gathered ranged from the number of commercial buildings in the United States to numbers of employees in various sectors of the economy and plumbing codes for commercial buildings. This document summarizes information obtained about the three products' attributes, quantities, and use in commercial and institutional settings that is needed to estimate how much water EPA's WaterSense program saves.

Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Melody, Moya; Lutz, James

2009-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

246

Implementing Rainwater Harvesting Systems on the Texas A&M Campus for Irrigation Purposes: A Feasibility Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Increasing population and increasing urbanization threatens both the health and availability of water resources. The volume and timing of water that is readily available may not be sufficient to supply the demand for potable water in urban areas. Rainwater harvesting is a water conservation strategy that may help alleviate water scarcity and protect the environment. The benefits of collecting rainwater and utilizing it as irrigation water are both tangible and non-tangible. Through collecting and reusing rainwater, grey water may be utilized as a practical resource. Although grey water is not safe to drink, it is safe for other uses such as toilet water, cleaning water, and irrigation. By utilizing rainwater harvesting, a facility saves the cost of purchasing potable water from the local water supply, and the local water supply is not as stressed. In addition, the volume of runoff that flows into local rivers will be reduced, and as a result, the erosion of river banks will be lessened, and ecosystem health may be sustained. The use of rainwater harvesting contributes to the sustainability of building design, calculated using LEED points. This study investigates the water conservation, economic, LEED design, and stormwater benefits of rainwater harvesting for the Texas A&M Campus. With tangible and non-tangible benefits, rainwater harvesting should prove to be a viable and appropriate solution to the conserving and sustaining of natural resources on Texas A&M Universitys campus.

Saour, William

2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

247

Alturas Lake Creek Flow Augmentation, 1986 Final Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two alternatives were outlined in the first statement of work as possibilities for flow augmentation in Alturas Lake Creek. The alternatives were to raise the level of Alturas Lake and to acquire necessary water rights in Alturas Lake Creek. The first alternative considered in the study was raising the water level at Alturas Lake with a low head dam. Raising Alturas Lake, appeared feasible in that it provided the necessary fish flows in Alturas Lake Creek. However, raising the level of Alturas Lake has adverse effects to other resources and forced pursuing the second alternative as defined in this report. Some of these effects included: flooding Smokey Bear boat ramp, inundation of recreation beaches for extended periods, flooding of the campground and some of the road system, potentially contaminating the quality of lake water from flooded toilet vaults, and destroying the conifer canopy around the lake. Maintenance and operation costs of the dam, along with the need to have a watermaster to distribute flows over the course of the irrigation season, raised additional concerns that detracted from this alternative. The second alternative considered was the acquisition of water rights. This led to an appraisal of the water right values which was completed by BPA with a comparison appraisal done by the Forest Service.

Andrews, John; Lloyd, John; Webster, Bert (Sawtooth National Forest, Twin Falls, ID)

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Microsoft PowerPoint - 3-01 Spires_Enhanced Chemical Cleaning at SRS.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Presentation to: EM Waste Processing Technical Exchange 11/16/2010 Renee H. Spires Project Manager Savannah River Remediation Print Close 2 Tank Closure Strategy Bulk Waste Removal Mechanical Heel Removal Chemical Cleaning Annulus Cleaning Final Sampling Grout Tank Cooling Coil Flushing 7 Steps, 5-6 Year Duration Print Close 3 Cleaning with Oxalic Acid Tank 16 * Oxalic Acid is the best all-purpose acid for SRS carbon steel tanks - Dissolves sludge - Compatible with carbon steel - Used on Tanks 16, 5 and 6 * Bulk Oxalic Acid cleaning has worked well, but managing the spent acid is difficult - Prolongs sludge washing - Impacts evaporator operation - Adds to salt inventory - Extends processing life cycle - Impacts grout quality - Adds vaults Print Close 4 The Case for ECC * Standard operations to get the residual waste

249

Brrrrr. It's Cold In There! | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Brrrrr. It's Cold In There! Brrrrr. It's Cold In There! Brrrrr. It's Cold In There! March 2, 2010 - 11:27am Addthis Eric Barendsen Energy Technology Program Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy This winter has seemed like an especially long one to me. I'm ready to wear shorts and enjoy nice, long summer days. Alas, the reality is that it will probably be cold for at least another month here in Washington, D.C. All that cold air robs not only our jacketed bodies of warmth, but it also carries heat away from the places where we want it most this time of year: our homes, apartments, and businesses. All that heat loss costs money. I've been in friends' houses that just never seem to stay warm, even when their furnace kicks on every 15 or 20 minutes. I can just hear the swishing sound of them flushing money down the

250

NEPA COMPLIANCE SURVEY  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

~ ~ ' Project Information Project Title: Restoration of 51-63-SX-1 0 Date: 12/28/2009 DOE Code: Contractor Code: Project Lead: Jeff Jones Project Overview 1. What are the environmental impacts? The Location of this project is 51-63-SX-1 0. The duration is going to be approx. 3-days. Before we do 2. What is the legal location? any digging and welding we will be flushing the flowline . We will be digging down approx. 5ft. cutting the wellhead off and welding a legal plate to it. We will then do the same with the flowline. Once this is done 3. What is the duration of the project? we will be tilling and seeding location with native grasses. The machinery to be used is as follows: 4. What major equipment will be used if backhoe, Blade, Welder, Ford tractor, Seeder.

251

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Environmental Management | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

May 4, 2011 May 4, 2011 CX-005761: Categorical Exclusion Determination 707-C Storm Drain Repairs CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 05/04/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office April 28, 2011 CX-005765: Categorical Exclusion Determination Feed Pump Flush Water Connection/Lifting Bail Interference (General - F/H Tank Farms) CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 04/28/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office April 28, 2011 CX-005892: Categorical Exclusion Determination Columbia River Inter-Tidal Fish Commission Use of White Bluffs Boat Launch and Hanford Town Boat Ramp for Salmon Tagging CX(s) Applied: B3.8 Date: 04/28/2011 Location(s): Richland, Washington Office(s): Environmental Management, Office of River Protection-Richland

252

U.S. Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion Determination Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

REMOVING ITEMS OR REMOVING ITEMS OR MATERIALS CONTAINING POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) (CX-GEN-002) Program or Field Office: Oak Ridge Office, Oak Ridge, Tennessee Location(s) (City/County/State): Oak Ridge, TN; Berkeley, CA; Menlo Park, CA; Newport News, VA; and other DOE-operated facilities and ancillary areas associated with these sites, programs, and projects Proposed Action Description: The proposed actions would involve removal of items containing various levels of PCBs, including transformers, capacitors, light ballasts, hydraulic systems, gaskets, coatings, and insulation. The proposed actions also include routine maintenance and flushing of equipment such as hydraulic systems and transformers. Other routine operations, such as PCB spill response and cleanup, would

253

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: B1.3 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

May 24, 2011 May 24, 2011 CX-006398: Categorical Exclusion Determination Sidewalk Installation at 623-34G CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 05/24/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office May 20, 2011 CX-005965: Categorical Exclusion Determination Alvey District Wood Poles: Eugene-Lane Number 1, Eugene-Alvey Number 2, and Hawkins-Alvey Number 1 CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 05/20/2011 Location(s): Lane County, Oregon Office(s): Bonneville Power Administration May 19, 2011 CX-006404: Categorical Exclusion Determination Install a Pressure Regulator and Relief Valve on the Tank 26 Flush Water Piping CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 05/19/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office

254

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

81 - 990 of 29,416 results. 81 - 990 of 29,416 results. Page EA-1332: Leasing Land for the Siting, Construction and Operation of a Commercial AM Radio Antenna at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to lease approximately 3 acres of land at the U.S. Department of Energy's Los Alamos National Laboratory on the southeast tip of... http://energy.gov/nepa/ea-1332-leasing-land-siting-construction-and-operation-commercial-am-radio-antenna-los-alamos Page EA-1406: Ground Water Compliance at the New Rifle, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site, Rifle, Colorado This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposed compliance strategy of natural flushing combined with institutional controls and continued monitoring for the New Rifle uranium mill...

255

NEPA COMPLIANCE SURVEY  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8 8 Project lnfonnation Project Title: Restoration of 62-42 SX 10 DOE Code: Project Lead: Jeff Jones Project Overview We will be restoring this location 62-42 SX-1 0. What are the environmental Date: 2/25/2010 Contractor Code: impacts? We will be removing all oil contaminated soil from location to the landfarm and recording it in the book. W e 2. What is the legal location? will then back fill with clean fill dirt from sec.20. We will remove well head and place a dry hole marker. 3. What is the duration of the project? Flush flowline and remove it. Then we will till the location and plant with native grasses. 4. What major equipment will be used if any (work over rig, drilling rig , 3-4 days etc.)? The equipment to be used will be a backhoe, tiller, dumptruck, and welder.

256

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

41 - 9850 of 26,764 results. 41 - 9850 of 26,764 results. Download CX-005481: Categorical Exclusion Determination Grant for State Sponsored Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Projects - Montclair State University Solar Farm CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 03/29/2011 Location(s): Montclair, New Jersey Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-005481-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-005813: Categorical Exclusion Determination Fire Department Personnel to Perform Annual Flush of Hydrants and Prove Curb Valves CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 03/29/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-005813-categorical-exclusion-determination

257

Microsoft PowerPoint - 3-03_pt 1_Davis_Waste Removal & Tank Closures.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Waste Removal & Tank Closure Waste Removal & Tank Closure New Technologies Neil Davis Deputy Program Manager Waste Removal & Tank Closure November 16, 2010 Print Close 2 * SRR baseline is to use 2 mechanical and 1 chemical technology on each tank - Large slurry mixer pumps - Hydrolancing/Robotic vacuum system - Oxalic acid * Technologies in hand * Incremental improvements to meet evolving mission needs and to have a defendable Maximum Extent Practical basis Point of View Print Close 3 Program Status Bulk Waste Removal Mechanical Heel Removal Chemical Cleaning Annulus Cleaning Isolation/Final Sampling Grout Tank Cooling Coil Flushing Tanks 4, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, & 15 in progress 2 tanks closed 15 more in progress Tank 8 being prepped for chemical cleaning Tanks 5, 6 & 16 in progress Tanks 5&6 in progress

258

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: B1.3 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

May 20, 2011 May 20, 2011 CX-005965: Categorical Exclusion Determination Alvey District Wood Poles: Eugene-Lane Number 1, Eugene-Alvey Number 2, and Hawkins-Alvey Number 1 CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 05/20/2011 Location(s): Lane County, Oregon Office(s): Bonneville Power Administration May 19, 2011 CX-006404: Categorical Exclusion Determination Install a Pressure Regulator and Relief Valve on the Tank 26 Flush Water Piping CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 05/19/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office May 19, 2011 CX-006403: Categorical Exclusion Determination Enhanced Low Activity Waste Disposal Premix Silo Area Modifications CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 05/19/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office

259

Solar Water Heaters and the Economy | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Water Heaters and the Economy Solar Water Heaters and the Economy Solar Water Heaters and the Economy July 11, 2012 - 11:59am Addthis Ernie Tucker Editor, National Renewable Energy Laboratory These are the days of hot sun and mortgage refinance frenzy. Somehow, they've both combined in my mind to make me ponder the economics of a solar water heater. Because the sun's been beating down on our garden hose, the initial flush of water can be very hot. The warm spray reminded me of the times on camping trips when we'd bring along a portable solar shower -- essentially a black plastic bag with a tube and shower nozzle -- for bathing. While not an endless supply (perhaps 10 gallons), it was a very enjoyable luxury. Of course, it assumes that there's plenty of sunshine, but if so -- voila -- a

260

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: South Carolina | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

May 24, 2011 May 24, 2011 CX-006398: Categorical Exclusion Determination Sidewalk Installation at 623-34G CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 05/24/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office May 19, 2011 CX-006404: Categorical Exclusion Determination Install a Pressure Regulator and Relief Valve on the Tank 26 Flush Water Piping CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 05/19/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office May 19, 2011 CX-006403: Categorical Exclusion Determination Enhanced Low Activity Waste Disposal Premix Silo Area Modifications CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 05/19/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flush toilet bathtub" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Microsoft Word - CX-HotSpringsGravityDrainsFY12_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR-Bell-1 SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Todd Nicholson Project Manager - TELF-TPP-3 Proposed Action: Install gravity drain system and oil stop valves, reshape west side perimeter ditch and flush out yard drains at the Hot Springs Substation. PP&A Project No.: 2383 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B4.6, Additions and modifications to transmission facilities Location: T21N, R24W, S14, PM, Sanders County, Montana Proposed by: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Description of the Proposed Action: Using directional drilling equipment, approximately 3,644 linear feet of gravity drain line will be installed under the existing electrical manhole system located in the Hot Springs Substation 230 and 500 Kilovolt (kV) yards. Each manhole

262

News Release: DOE to Conduct Additional Groundwater Tests at Riverton  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

to Conduct Additional Groundwater Tests at to Conduct Additional Groundwater Tests at Riverton UMTRCA Site News Release: DOE to Conduct Additional Groundwater Tests at Riverton UMTRCA Site July 30, 2012 - 11:08am Addthis News Contact: Contractor, Judy Miller, S.M. Stoller Corporation Public Affairs (970) 248-6363 jmiller@lm.doe.gov Tests will indicate progress of current groundwater remediation strategy The U.S. Department of Energy will conduct additional characterization work at the Riverton, WY, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) Site this summer, including extensive groundwater and soil sampling. The Department will use the sampling results to update the site conceptual model and to develop a revised groundwater flow and transport model to more accurately simulate natural flushing processes.

263

Process and apparatus for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from soil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and process for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from subsurface soil is provided having filter zone adjacent an external expander ring. The expander ring creates a void within the soil substrate which encourages the accumulation of soil-borne fluids. The fluids migrate along a pressure gradient through a plurality of filters before entering a first chamber. A one-way valve regulates the flow of fluid into a second chamber in further communication with a collection tube through which samples are collected at the surface. A second one-way valve having a reverse flow provides additional communication between the chambers for the pressurized cleaning and back-flushing of the apparatus. 8 figs.

Rossabi, J.; May, C.P.; Pemberton, B.E.; Shinn, J.; Sprague, K.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

264

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

71 - 25780 of 31,917 results. 71 - 25780 of 31,917 results. Download CX-005513: Categorical Exclusion Determination Enhanced Chemical Cleaning of Waste Tanks to Improve Actinide Solubility CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 02/04/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-005513-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-005514: Categorical Exclusion Determination 2F Evaporator Feed Pump Flush Water Piping Pipe Support CX(s) Applied: B2.5 Date: 02/03/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-005514-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-005526: Categorical Exclusion Determination

265

CX-008678: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

678: Categorical Exclusion Determination 678: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-008678: Categorical Exclusion Determination Hot Springs Substation Gravity Drain Install CX(s) Applied: B4.6 Date: 07/19/2012 Location(s): Montana Offices(s): Bonneville Power Administration Install gravity drain system and oil stop valves, reshape west side perimeter ditch and flush out yard drains at the Hot Springs Substation. Using directional drilling equipment, approximately 3,644 linear feet of gravity drain line will be installed under the existing electrical manhole system located in the Hot Springs Substation 230 and 500 Kilovolt (kV) yards. Microsoft Word - CX-HotSpringsGravityDrainsFY12_WEB.doc More Documents & Publications EIS-0285-SA-81: Supplement Analysis CX-005010: Categorical Exclusion Determination

266

Document  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

06 Federal Register 06 Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 49 / Monday, March 14, 2011 / Notices stainless steel canisters where the mixture hardened into a solid glass waste form. DOE used the vitrification melter as part of this process, specifically to melt glass frit (material used in making glass) together with reprocessing waste sludge and treatment material (spent ion removal resin). DOE operated the vitrification melter between 1996 and 2002. In 2002, prior to shut down, the vitrification melter was flushed three times with decontamination solutions and emptied using an evacuated canister process so as to remove key radionuclides to the maximum extent technically and economically practical. After completing this decontamination, a small amount of hardened residual

267

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: B1.3 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

May 2, 2011 May 2, 2011 CX-007145: Categorical Exclusion Determination Empire-Electrical District 5 Double Circuit Upgrade Amendment CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 05/02/2011 Location(s): Pinal County, Arizona Office(s): Western Area Power Administration-Desert Southwest Region April 28, 2011 CX-007144: Categorical Exclusion Determination Empire-Electrical District 5 Double Circuit Upgrade Amendment CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 04/28/2011 Location(s): Pinal County, Arizona Office(s): Western Area Power Administration-Desert Southwest Region April 28, 2011 CX-005765: Categorical Exclusion Determination Feed Pump Flush Water Connection/Lifting Bail Interference (General - F/H Tank Farms) CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 04/28/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office

268

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

21 - 6730 of 28,905 results. 21 - 6730 of 28,905 results. Download CX-005807: Categorical Exclusion Determination Radiological Evidence Examination Facility (REEF) Full Activation Scenario Training Exercise CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 03/29/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-005807-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-005813: Categorical Exclusion Determination Fire Department Personnel to Perform Annual Flush of Hydrants and Prove Curb Valves CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 03/29/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-005813-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-005822: Categorical Exclusion Determination

269

NEPA COMPLIANCE SURVEY  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

67 67 Project lnfonnation Project Title: Restoration of 63-S-11 Date: 1212112009 DOE Code: Contractor Code: Project Lead: Jeff Jones Project Overview The environmental impacts will be minimal since this is an already disturbed area. The loc. is 63-S-11 . The 1. What are the environmental impacts? duration of this project will be approx. 4 days. We will flush the flowline and cut it off below surface and cap it. We will also do the same with the wellhead and then weld a location marker on it. The final stage will be to Ull 2. What is the legal location? and seed with native foilage.The equipment to be used is as follows backhoe, Blade, Welder. tiller. and 3. What is the duration of the project? seeder. 4. What major equipment will be used if any (work over rig, drilling rig,

270

Savannah River Site - Salt Waste Processing Facility: Briefing on the Salt Waste Processing Facility Independent Technical Review  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Salt Waste Processing Facility Independent Technical Review Harry Harmon January 9, 2007 2 U.S. Department of Energy Outline * SWPF Process Overview * Major Risks * Approach for Conducting Review * Discussion of Findings * Conclusions 3 U.S. Department of Energy Salt Waste Processing Facility 4 U.S. Department of Energy SWPF Process Overview Alpha Finishing Process CSSX Alpha Strike Process MST/ Sludge Cs Strip Effluent DSS 5 U.S. Department of Energy BOTTOM LINE The SWPF Project is ready to move into final design. 6 U.S. Department of Energy Major Risks * Final geotechnical data potentially could result in redesign of the PC-3 CPA base mat and structure. * Cost and schedule impacts arising from the change from ISO-9001 to NQA-1 quality assurance requirements. * The "de-inventory, flush, and then hands-on

271

City and County of Denver - Solar Panel Permitting (Colorado) | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Panel Permitting (Colorado) Solar Panel Permitting (Colorado) City and County of Denver - Solar Panel Permitting (Colorado) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction General Public/Consumer Industrial Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Heating & Cooling Water Heating Program Info State Colorado Program Type Solar/Wind Permitting Standards Provider Department of Development Services Construction, Electrical, Plumbing and Zoning Permits* are required for Photovoltaic (PV) systems installed in the city of Denver. Denver provides same day permit review for most solar panel projects. More complex engineering projects may still be required to go through the Plan Review process. To obtain Zoning Permits for flush mounted solar panels, applicants must

272

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Environmental Management | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

31, 2011 31, 2011 CX-005801: Categorical Exclusion Determination Polymer Synthesis, Corrosion, and Electrochemical Tests in Lab D-0115 CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 03/31/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office March 30, 2011 CX-005805: Categorical Exclusion Determination Vegetative Response to Metal Exposure in a Growing Media CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 03/30/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office March 29, 2011 CX-005822: Categorical Exclusion Determination Fire Department Personnel to Flush Hydrants and Prove Curb Valves in Forestry and Burma Road CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 03/29/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office

273

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: South Carolina | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

January 24, 2012 January 24, 2012 CX-007626: Categorical Exclusion Determination Lapeyre Stair Installation CX(s) Applied: B2.5 Date: 01/24/2012 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office January 24, 2012 CX-007625: Categorical Exclusion Determination Flush Fire Water Distribution Lines to Remove Sediment CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 01/24/2012 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office January 24, 2012 CX-007624: Categorical Exclusion Determination Copper Catalyzed Peroxide Destruction of Tank 48H Tetraphenylborate Wastes CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 01/24/2012 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office January 23, 2012 CX-007973: Categorical Exclusion Determination Concrete Culverts Storage in K-Area

274

Solar Water Heaters and the Economy | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heaters and the Economy Water Heaters and the Economy Solar Water Heaters and the Economy July 11, 2012 - 11:59am Addthis Ernie Tucker Editor, National Renewable Energy Laboratory These are the days of hot sun and mortgage refinance frenzy. Somehow, they've both combined in my mind to make me ponder the economics of a solar water heater. Because the sun's been beating down on our garden hose, the initial flush of water can be very hot. The warm spray reminded me of the times on camping trips when we'd bring along a portable solar shower -- essentially a black plastic bag with a tube and shower nozzle -- for bathing. While not an endless supply (perhaps 10 gallons), it was a very enjoyable luxury. Of course, it assumes that there's plenty of sunshine, but if so -- voila -- a warm and sudsy campsite clean-up is possible.

275

2009 Annual Inspection and Status Report for the  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Hallam, Nebraska Hallam, Nebraska May 2013 Page 1 2013 Annual Inspection and Status Report for the Hallam, Nebraska, Decommissioned Reactor Site Summary The former Hallam Nuclear Power Facility (HNPF) was inspected on May 1, 2013. The IHX building and the grass cover on the foundation of the former reactor building, were in good condition. No cause for a follow-up inspection was identified. There are 19 groundwater monitoring wells at the Hallam site. Four of the 19 wells are flush mount in design and are locked using a special tool. The other 15 wells require a pad lock. It was reported in June 2012, as the wells were being sampled, that the pad locks were hard to work and needed to be replaced. All of the 15 wells requiring pad locks received a new lock during the

276

I-  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

JIJW I a. JIJW I a. I- - - - DOE F 1326.8 United States Government Department of Energy memorandum DATE: August 16, 2006 Audit Report Number: OAS-L-06-17 REPLY TO ATTN OF; TG-36 (A06ET010) SUBJECT: Audit of the "Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Cleanup Project" TO: Manager, Oak Ridge Office INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE In July 1998, the Department signed a Record of Decision with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Facility. The objective of the Record of Decision was to select the action for removing fuel and flush salts from the reactor in order to reduce the potential risk from the highly radioactive salt. The removal process encompassed melting the salt mixture,

277

NEPA COMPLIANCE SURVEY  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

9 9 Project Information Project Title: Restoration of 73 SX 1 OH DOE Code: Project Lead: Jeff Jones Project Overview We will be restoring this location 73 SX 10H. What are the environmental Date: 3/3/2010 Contractor Code: impacts? We will be removing all oil contaminated soil from location to the landfarm and recording it in the book. We 2. What is the legal location? will then back fill with clean fill dirt from sec.20. We will remove well head and place a dry hole marker. 3. What is the duration of the project? Flush flowline and remove it.Then we will till the location and plant with native grasses. 4. What major equipment will be used if any (work over rig , drilling rig, 3-4 days etc.)? The equipment to be used will be a backhoe, tiller, dumptruck, and welder.

278

EA-1399: Final Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

99: Final Environmental Assessment 99: Final Environmental Assessment EA-1399: Final Environmental Assessment Ground Water Compliance at the Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of selecting a ground water compliance strategy for the Gunnison, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. (Figures 1 and 2). This Environmental Assessment (EA) discusses two alternatives and the effects associated with each. The two alternatives are (1) natural flushing coupled with institutional controls and continued monitoring and (2) no action. The compliance strategy must meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards defined in Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 192, Subpart B, in areas where ground water beneath and around the site is

279

NEPA COMPLIANCE SURVEY  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

283 283 Project Information Project Title: Restoration of61 -36-SX-10 DOE Code: Project Lead: Jeff Jones Project Ove rview We will be restoring this location 61 -36-SX-10. What are the environmental Da te: 2-9-2010 Cont rac tor Code: impacts? We will be removing all oil contaminated soil from location to the landfarm and recording it in the book. We 2. What is the legal location? will then back fill with clean fill dirt from sec.20. We will remove well head and place a dry hole marlFlush flowline and remove it. Then we will till the location and plant with native grasses. 4. What major equipment will be used if any (worl< over rig, drilling rig, 3-4 days etc.)? The equipment to be used will be a backhoe, tiller, dumptruck. and welder.

280

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

91 - 8600 of 29,416 results. 91 - 8600 of 29,416 results. Download CX-006408: Categorical Exclusion Determination Build a New Classified Computer System Vault Type Room (VTR) in 703-44A to Replace the Classified Computer VTR in 703-A Room E077 CX(s) Applied: B1.31 Date: 05/11/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-006408-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-006409: Categorical Exclusion Determination Flush Fire Hydrants CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 05/11/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-006409-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-005757: Categorical Exclusion Determination

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flush toilet bathtub" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

CX-004560: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

560: Categorical Exclusion Determination 560: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004560: Categorical Exclusion Determination Tennessee-County-Hamilton CX(s) Applied: A9, B2.5, B5.1 Date: 11/24/2010 Location(s): Hamilton County, Tennessee Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program. 1) Install green roof on Health Department East Third Street Headquarters Facility, 2) create Go Green Education Program and technical consultant services to develop program, 3) lighting replacement project to replace incandescent lighting with more energy efficient technology, 4) building energy audits/assessment by technical consultant and purchase assessment software, 5) conduct energy efficiency upgrades to the McDaniel Building (lighting replacements, light-emitting diode lights in exit signs, automatic flush

282

Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

TN-County-Hamilton TN-County-Hamilton Location: County Hamilton TN American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Proposed Action or Project Description 1) Install green roof on Health Department East Third Street HQ Facility, 2) create Go Green Education Program and technical consultant services to develop program, 3) lighting replacement project to replace incandescent lighting with more energy efficient technology, 4) building energy audits/assessment by technical consultant and purchase assessment software, 5) conduct energy efficiency upgrades to the McDaniel Building (lighting replacements, light-emitting diode lights in exit signs, automatic flush valves, and faucet and occupancy sensors), and 6) replace lighting at Chester Foster Park Pavilion and upgrade electrical system.

283

Welcome to the Efficient Windows Collaborative  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gas Fills Gas Fills Why use a gas fill? An improvement that can be made to the thermal performance of insulating glazing units is to reduce the conductance of the air space between the layers. Originally, the space was filled with air or flushed with dry nitrogen just prior to sealing. In a sealed-glass insulating unit, air currents between the two panes of glazing carry heat to the top of the unit along the inner pane and settle down the outer pane into cold pools at the bottom. Filling the space with a less conductive, more viscous, or slow-moving gas minimizes the convection currents within the space, reducing conduction through the gas and the overall heat transfer between the interior and exterior. Manufacturers generally use argon or krypton gas fills, with measurable

284

Apps for Vehicles: What are some examples of vehicle data applications? |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Apps for Vehicles: What are some examples of vehicle data applications? Apps for Vehicles: What are some examples of vehicle data applications? Home > Groups > Developer Submitted by JessicaLyman on 7 December, 2012 - 09:08 1 answer Points: 1 * Insurance companies offering cheaper products by directly measuring driving behavior * Smart phone navigation systems are optimizing routes based on how commute-schedules compares to actual traffic and weather changes * Helping consumers understand the cost and overall potential of electric drive vehicles * Enhanced security with real-time notification of a vehicle security breach. * Informing parents of teen-driving behavior * Greater visibility around vehicle maintenance needs - new tires, oil changes, transmission flushes, windshield wiper fluid refills. JessicaLyman on 7 December, 2012 - 09:09

285

CX-006972: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

72: Categorical Exclusion Determination 72: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-006972: Categorical Exclusion Determination 285-H Cooling Tower Basin Well Water Makeup Supply Bypass CX(s) Applied: B1.5 Date: 09/16/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, National Energy Technology Laboratory Install bypass on makeup well water supply to cooling tower 285-11H per M-MT-H-07595. The location of the work is outdoors in the vicinity of, and adjacent to the 285-H basin and the 285-11H tower. This modification will not change the chemical or physical parameters of the water entering the 285-11H basin, nor will it change the ultimate destination of flush water or basin overflow. The only consequential change will be the chemical characteristics of the 285-H overflow. Due to the new bypass entering the

286

NEPA COMPLIANCE SURVEY  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4 4 Project Information Project Title: Restoration ofT -6-3 Date: 11/10/2009 DOE Code: Contractor Code: Proje ct Le ad: Jeff Jones Project Overview The environmental impact will be minimal. The location is T -6-3. The duration of this project is approx. two 1. What are the environmental impacts? weeks. We will be removing the treater and building. Taking the building to 25X14. Taking the treater to the scrap yard to cut up for scrap.Aiso we will remove the manifold building and take that to 25X14 also. The 2. What is the legal location? piping that goes along with this will be flushed and capped.Then we will blade and level location till and 3. What is the duration of the project? seed with native species of plants and grasses. The equipment used in this project will be as follows:

287

Categorical Exclusion (CX) Determinations By Date | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

9, 2011 9, 2011 CX-006404: Categorical Exclusion Determination Install a Pressure Regulator and Relief Valve on the Tank 26 Flush Water Piping CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 05/19/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office May 19, 2011 CX-006403: Categorical Exclusion Determination Enhanced Low Activity Waste Disposal Premix Silo Area Modifications CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 05/19/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office May 19, 2011 CX-006402: Categorical Exclusion Determination 704-N Wireless Access CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 05/19/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office May 19, 2011

288

CX-007643: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

43: Categorical Exclusion Determination 43: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-007643: Categorical Exclusion Determination Construction of 37 Parking Spaces South of 251-4F CX(s) Applied: B1.15 Date: 01/17/2012 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office Mixed Oxide Services proposes the construction of approximately 37 parking spaces immediately south of the existing 251-4F electrical substation. The existing asphalt will be resurfaced with approximately one inch of asphalt. The existing unenergized power pole, sign for the 251-4F substation, and bollards will be removed by cutting them flush with the existing asphalt surface prior to resurfacing. CX-007643.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-007631: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-007642: Categorical Exclusion Determination

289

CX-006668: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

6668: Categorical Exclusion Determination 6668: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-006668: Categorical Exclusion Determination Restoration of T-6-3 CX(s) Applied: B1.3, B1.22, B1.28, B5.2, B5.4, B6.1 Date: 11/16/2009 Location(s): Casper, Wyoming Office(s): RMOTC We will be removing the treater and building. Taking the building to 25X14. Taking the treater to the scrap yard to cut up for scrap. Will remove the manifold building and take that to 25X14 also. The piping that goes along with this will be flushed and capped. Then we will blade and level location, till and seed with native species of plants and grasses. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-006668.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-006675: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-006693: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-006647

290

 

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

B2.5 Safety and environmental improvements of a facility, replacement/upgrade of facility components B2.5 Safety and environmental improvements of a facility, replacement/upgrade of facility components The proposed action would involve the purchase and installation of a 125kw generator to replace the existing 190kw generator as the primary electricity generating source. The 190kw generator would be retained as a backup source. It is estimated that the new generator will save approximately 62 gallons of fuel per day ($530/day). In addition to the purchase/installation of the new generator, a total system flush for the freeze protection system would be performed and new glycol would be added to improve system efficiency prior to startup. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants Village of Venetie Energy Distribution Project Interior Regional Housing Association for the Village of Venetie

291

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: B2.5 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

9, 2011 9, 2011 CX-005228: Categorical Exclusion Determination Alaska-Tribe-Healy Lake Traditional Council CX(s) Applied: B2.5, B5.1 Date: 02/09/2011 Location(s): Healy Lake, Alaska Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy February 3, 2011 CX-005514: Categorical Exclusion Determination 2F Evaporator Feed Pump Flush Water Piping Pipe Support CX(s) Applied: B2.5 Date: 02/03/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office January 25, 2011 CX-005073: Categorical Exclusion Determination Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Subgrant: Lums Pond State Park Natural Gas Conversion CX(s) Applied: B2.5 Date: 01/25/2011 Location(s): Delaware Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

292

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Savannah River Operations Office |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

October 3, 2011 October 3, 2011 CX-006944: Categorical Exclusion Determination Remove Insulation from High Point Flush Pump Drain Valve CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 10/03/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, National Energy Technology Laboratory September 29, 2011 CX-006946: Categorical Exclusion Determination Operation of Accredited Industrial Hygiene (IH) Laboratory in Building 772-F, Revision 1 CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/29/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, National Energy Technology Laboratory September 28, 2011 CX-006955: Categorical Exclusion Determination Repair Radiological Fixative Coatings in F Tank Farm CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 09/28/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, Sandia Site Office

293

Slide 1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EM21-GDT EM21-GDT G. Donald Thaxton Washington Savannah River Company May 19, 2009 Tanks 5 and 6 Chemical Cleaning DOE Office of Waste Processing Technical Exchange Tanks 5 & 6 Chemical Cleaning 2 Introduction Closure Process Overview Process Flowsheet Configuration Technical Issues & Resolution Cleaning Status and Results Tanks 5 & 6 Chemical Cleaning 3 Tank Closure Driver In the Federal Facilities Agreement with the State of South Carolina and the Environmental Protection Agency, SRS has agreed to close non compliant waste tanks by specific dates. Two of the first tanks selected for closure are Tanks 5 and 6 in F-Tank Farm. Tanks 5 & 6 Chemical Cleaning 4 Tank Closure Process Mechanical Sludge Removal Chemical Sludge Removal/Cooling Coil Flushing

294

EA-1406-FONSI-2003  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for for Ground Water Compliance at the New Rifle, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site AGENCY: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ACTION: FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT (FONSI) SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plans to implement a ground water cleanup compliance strategy for the New Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) former processing site. The proposed compliance strategy at the New Rifle site is passive remediation by natural flushing with institutional controls and monitoring. The purpose of the strategy is to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground lvater standards defined in Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 192. Subpart B, and in so doing, protect human health and the environment. Ground water at the New Rifle site is contaminated with residual radioactive materials

295

Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage. A cost-effective, 4.degree. C. storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. The improved in vivo survival and the preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels, along with reduction in hemolysis and membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4.degree. C. for prolonged periods of time, is achieved by reducing the oxygen level therein at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing the cells with an inert gas, and storing them in an aqueous solution which includes adenine, dextrose, mannitol, citrate ion, and dihydrogen phosphate ion, but no sodium chloride, in an oxygen-permeable container which is located in an oxygen-free environment containing oxygen-scavenging materials.

Bitensky, Mark W. (Boston, MA); Yoshida, Tatsuro (Newton, MA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage. A cost-effective, 4 C storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. The improved in vivo survival and the preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels, along with reduction in hemolysis and membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4 C for prolonged periods of time, is achieved by reducing the oxygen level therein at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing the cells with an inert gas, and storing them in an aqueous solution which includes adenine, dextrose, mannitol, citrate ion, and dihydrogen phosphate ion, but no sodium chloride, in an oxygen-permeable container which is located in an oxygen-free environment containing oxygen-scavenging materials. 8 figs.

Bitensky, M.W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

297

Lake Granbury and Lake Whitney Assessment Initiative Final Scientific/Technical Report Summary  

SciTech Connect

A team of Texas AgriLife Research, Baylor University and University of Texas at Arlington researchers studied the biology and ecology of Prymnesium parvum (golden algae) in Texas lakes using a three-fold approach that involved system-wide monitoring, experimentation at the microcosm and mesocosm scales, and mathematical modeling. The following are conclusions, to date, regarding this organism??s ecology and potential strategies for mitigation of blooms by this organism. In-lake monitoring revealed that golden algae are present throughout the year, even in lakes where blooms do not occur. Compilation of our field monitoring data with data collected by Texas Parks and Wildlife and Brazos River Authority (a period spanning a decade) revealed that inflow and salinity variables affect bloom formations. Thresholds for algae populations vary per lake, likely due to adaptations to local conditions, and also to variations in lake-basin morphometry, especially the presence of coves that may serve as hydraulic storage zones for P. parvum populations. More specifically, our in-lake monitoring showed that the highly toxic bloom that occurred in Lake Granbury in the winter of 2006/2007 was eliminated by increased river inflow events. The bloom was flushed from the system. The lower salinities that resulted contributed to golden algae not blooming in the following years. However, flushing is not an absolute requirement for bloom termination. Laboratory experiments have shown that growth of golden algae can occur at salinities ~1-2 psu but only when temperatures are also low. This helps to explain why blooms are possible during winter months in Texas lakes. Our in-lake experiments in Lake Whitney and Lake Waco, as well as our laboratory experiments, revealed that cyanobacteria, or some other bacteria capable of producing algicides, were able to prevent golden algae from blooming. Identification of this organism is a high priority as it may be a key to managing golden algae blooms. Our numerical modeling results support the idea that cyanobacteria, through allelopathy, control the timing of golden algae blooms in Lake Granbury. The in-lake experiments in Lake Whitney and Lake Waco also revealed that as golden algae blooms develop, there are natural enemies (a species of rotifer, and a virus) that help slow the population growth. Again, better characterization of these organisms is a high priority as it may be key to managing golden algae blooms. Our laboratory and in-lake experiments and field monitoring have shown that nutrient additions will remove toxicity and prevent golden algae from blooming. In fact, other algae displace the golden algae after nutrient additions. Additions of ammonia are particularly effective, even at low doses (much lower than what is employed in fish hatchery ponds). Application of ammonia in limited areas of lakes, such as in coves, should be explored as a management option. The laboratory experiments and field monitoring also show that the potency of toxins produced by P. parvum is greatly reduced when water pH is lower, closer to neutral levels. Application of mild acid to limited areas of lakes (but not to a level where acidic conditions are created), such as in coves, should be explored as a management option. Finally, our field monitoring and mathematical modeling revealed that flushing/dilution at high enough levels could prevent P. parvum from forming blooms and/or terminate existing blooms. This technique could work using deeper waters within a lake to flush the surface waters of limited areas of the same lakes, such as in coves and should be explored as a management option. In this way, water releases from upstream reservoirs would not be necessary and there would be no addition of nutrients in the lake.

Harris, B.L.; Roelke, Daniel; Brooks, Bryan; Grover, James

2010-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

298

Combustion pinhole camera system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pinhole camera system is described utilizing a sealed optical-purge assembly which provides optical access into a coal combustor or other energy conversion reactors. The camera system basically consists of a focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly, a conventional TV vidicon receiver, an external, variable density light filter which is coupled electronically to the vidicon automatic gain control (agc). The key component of this system is the focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly which utilizes a purging inert gas to keep debris from entering the port and a lens arrangement which transfers the pinhole to the outside of the port assembly. One additional feature of the port assembly is that it is not flush with the interior of the combustor. 2 figs.

Witte, A.B.

1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

299

T-load microchannel array and fabrication method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A three-dimensional (3-D) T-load for planar microchannel arrays for electrophoresis, for example, which enables sample injection directly onto a plane perpendicular to the microchannels' axis, at their ends. This is accomplished by forming input wells that extend beyond the ends of the microchannel thereby eliminating the right angle connection from the input well into the end of the microchannel. In addition, the T-load input well eases the placement of electrode in or adjacent the well and thus enables very efficient reproducible electrokinetic (ek) injection. The T-load input well eliminates the prior input well/microchannel alignment concerns, since the input well can be drilled after the top and bottom microchannel plates are bonded together. The T-load input well may extend partially or entirely through the bottom microchannel plate which enables more efficient gel and solution flushing, and also enables placement of multiple electrodes to assist in the ek sample injection.

Swierkowski, Stefan P. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Kelley Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center conceptual design  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The proposed core activity in the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center is a nominal 1200 sow swine raising complex. The swine raising is to be a totally confined operation for producing premium pork in controlled environment facilities that utilize geothermal energy. The complex will include a feedmill for producing the various feed formulae required for the animals from breeding through gestation, farrowing, nursery, growing and finishing. The market animals are shipped live by truck to slaughter in Modesto, California. A complete waste management facility will include manure collection from all raising areas, transport via a water flush sysem to methane (biogas) generators, manure separation, settling ponds and disposition of the surplus agricultural quality water. The design is based upon the best commercial practices in confined swine raising in the US today. The most unique feature of the facility is the utilization of geothermal hot water for space heating and process energy throughout the complex.

Longyear, A.B. (ed.)

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flush toilet bathtub" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Apparatus and method for removing particulate deposits from high temperature filters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combustion of a fuel-air mixture is used to provide a high-temperature and high-pressure pulse of gaseous combustion products for the back-flush cleaning of ceramic filter elements contained in a barrier filter system and utilized to separate particulates from particulate-laden process gases at high temperature and high pressure. The volume of gaseous combustion products provided by the combustion of the fuel-air mixture is preferably divided into a plurality of streams each passing through a sonic orifice and conveyed to the open end of each filter element as a high pressure pulse which passes through the filter elements and dislodges dust cake supported on a surface of the filter element.

Nakaishi, Curtis V. (Morgantown, WV); Holcombe, Norman T. (McMurray, PA); Micheli, Paul L. (Morgantown, WV)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Program management plan for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The primary mission of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Project is to effectively implement the risk-reduction strategies and technical plans to stabilize and prevent further migration of uranium within the MSRE facility, remove the uranium and fuel salts from the system, and dispose of the fuel and flush salts by storage in appropriate depositories to bring the facility to a surveillance and maintenance condition before decontamination and decommissioning. This Project Management Plan (PMP) for the MSRE Remediation Project details project purpose; technical objectives, milestones, and cost objectives; work plan; work breakdown structure (WBS); schedule; management organization and responsibilities; project management performance measurement planning, and control; conduct of operations; configuration management; environmental, safety, and health compliance; quality assurance; operational readiness reviews; and training.

NONE

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Using electrical impedance tomography to map subsurface hydraulic conductivity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The use of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) to map subsurface hydraulic conductivity. EIT can be used to map hydraulic conductivity in the subsurface where measurements of both amplitude and phase are made. Hydraulic conductivity depends on at least two parameters: porosity and a length scale parameter. Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) measures and maps electrical conductivity (which can be related to porosity) in three dimensions. By introducing phase measurements along with amplitude, the desired additional measurement of a pertinent length scale can be achieved. Hydraulic conductivity controls the ability to flush unwanted fluid contaminants from the surface. Thus inexpensive maps of hydraulic conductivity would improve planning strategies for subsequent remediation efforts. Fluid permeability is also of importance for oil field exploitation and thus detailed knowledge of fluid permeability distribution in three-dimension (3-D) would be a great boon to petroleum reservoir analysts.

Berryman, James G. (Danville, CA); Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA); Ramirez, Abelardo L. (Pleasanton, CA); Roberts, Jeffery J. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Results of the Quarterly Tritium Survey of Fourmile Branch and Its Seeplines in the F and H Areas of SRS: May 1995  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Environmental Sciences Section of the Savannah River Technology Center established a quarterly monitoring program of the Fourmile Branch stream and its associated seepline located down gradient from the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins. The primary focus of this program was to survey and track changes in tritium levels; however, specific conductivity, and pH were also surveyed and tracked. The measurement from the eleventh survey (May 1995) exhibited similar tritium levels, conductivity measurements, and pH values to data from previous sampling events. The overall results of the tritium survey and stream monitoring data (Looney et al., 1993) indicate that the tritium plume resulting from the past operation of the seepage basins continues to flush from the Fourmile Branch wetland system.

Koch, J.W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Dixon, K.L.

1995-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

305

Tritium Facilities Modernization and Consolidation Project Process Waste Assessment (Project S-7726)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under the Tritium Facility Modernization {ampersand} Consolidation (TFM{ampersand}C) Project (S-7726) at the Savannah River Site (SS), all tritium processing operations in Building 232-H, with the exception of extraction and obsolete/abandoned systems, will be reestablished in Building 233-H. These operations include hydrogen isotopic separation, loading and unloading of tritium shipping and storage containers, tritium recovery from zeolite beds, and stripping of nitrogen flush gas to remove tritium prior to stack discharge. The scope of the TFM{ampersand}C Project also provides for a new replacement R&D tritium test manifold in 233-H, upgrading of the 233- H Purge Stripper and 233-H/234-H building HVAC, a new 234-H motor control center equipment building and relocating 232-H Materials Test Facility metallurgical laboratories (met labs), flow tester and life storage program environment chambers to 234-H.

Hsu, R.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Oji, L.N.

1997-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

306

City of Scottsdale Courts Building solar space-conditioning project. Final technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Maricopa County Courts Building is an existing 6800 square foot, single story structure housing offices and courtroom space. The solar system is sized to provide 65% of the annual cooling load and 100% of the heating load. An adjacent city swimming pool is connected to the system as a heat sink to provide thermal overload protection. A 25-ton absorption chiller is piped in series with the existing 25-ton air-cooled packaged chiller. Heating will be by standard hot water duct coils mounted upstream of the existing electric heaters. Freeze control is by recirculation under normal conditions, and by flush through in the event of power failure. The control sequence is given and the acceptance tests are described. Problems and solutions in constructing the system and lessons learned are discussed. Appended are the solar system schematic and as-built drawings, as well as photographs of the completed project. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Method of monitoring CO concentrations in hydrogen feed to a PEM fuel cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The CO concentration in the H.sub.2 feed stream to a PEM fuel cell stack is monitored by measuring current and/or voltage behavior patterns from a PEM-probe communicating with the reformate feed stream. Pattern recognition software may be used to compare the current and voltage patterns from the PEM-probe to current and voltage telltale outputs determined from a reference cell similar to the PEM-probe and operated under controlled conditions over a wide range of CO concentrations in the H.sub.2 fuel stream. The PEM-probe is intermittently purged of any CO build-up on the anode catalyst (e.g., by (1) flushing the anode with air, (2) short circuiting the PEM-probe, or (3) reverse biasing the PEM-probe) to keep the PEM-probe at peak performance levels.

Grot, Stephen Andreas (Rochester, NY); Meltser, Mark Alexander (Pittsford, NY); Gutowski, Stanley (Pittsford, NY); Neutzler, Jay Kevin (Rochester, NY); Borup, Rodney Lynn (East Rochester, NY); Weisbrod, Kirk (Los Alamos, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Method of extruding and packaging a thin sample of reactive material, including forming the extrusion die  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention teaches a method of cutting a narrow slot in an extrusion die with an electrical discharge machine by first drilling spaced holes at the ends of where the slot will be, whereby the oil can flow through the holes and slot to flush the material eroded away as the slot is being cut. The invention further teaches a method of extruding a very thin ribbon of solid highly reactive material such as lithium or sodium through the die in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, argon, or the like as in a glovebox. The invention further teaches a method of stamping out sample discs from the ribbon and of packaging each disc by sandwiching it between two aluminum sheets and cold welding the sheets together along an annular seam beyond the outer periphery of the disc. This provides a sample of high purity reactive material that can have a long shelf life.

Lewandowski, E.F.; Peterson, L.L.

1981-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

309

Welding shield for coupling heaters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Systems for coupling end portions of two elongated heater portions and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include a holding system configured to hold end portions of the two elongated heater portions so that the end portions are abutted together or located near each other; a shield for enclosing the end portions, and one or more inert gas inlets configured to provide at least one inert gas to flush the system with inert gas during welding of the end portions. The shield may be configured to inhibit oxidation during welding that joins the end portions together. The shield may include a hinged door that, when closed, is configured to at least partially isolate the interior of the shield from the atmosphere. The hinged door, when open, is configured to allow access to the interior of the shield.

Menotti, James Louis (Dickinson, TX)

2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

310

Membrane Extraction for Detoxification of Biomass Hydrolysates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Membrane extraction was used for the removal of sulfuric acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and furfural from corn stover hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid. Microporous polypropylene hollow fiber membranes were used. The organic extractant consisted of 15% Alamine 336 in: octanol, a 50:50 mixture of oleyl alcohol:octanol or oleyl alcohol. Rapid removal of sulfuric acid, 5-hydroxymethyl and furfural was observed. The rate of acetic acid removal decreased as the pH of the hydrolysate increased. Regeneration of the organic extractant was achieved by back extraction into an aqueous phase containing NaOH and ethanol. A cleaning protocol consisting of flushing the hydrolysate compartment with NaOH and the organic phase compartment with pure organic phase enabled regeneration and reuse of the module. Ethanol yields from hydrolysates detoxified by membrane extraction using 15% Alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol were about 10% higher than those from hydrolysates detoxified using ammonium hydroxide treatment.

Grzenia, D. L.; Schell, D. J.; Wickramasinghe, S. R.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Method of extruding and packaging a thin sample of reactive material including forming the extrusion die  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention teaches a method of cutting a narrow slot in an extrusion die with an electrical discharge machine by first drilling spaced holes at the ends of where the slot will be, whereby the oil can flow through the holes and slot to flush the material eroded away as the slot is being cut. The invention further teaches a method of extruding a very thin ribbon of solid highly reactive material such as lithium or sodium through the die in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, argon or the like as in a glovebox. The invention further teaches a method of stamping out sample discs from the ribbon and of packaging each disc by sandwiching it between two aluminum sheets and cold welding the sheets together along an annular seam beyond the outer periphery of the disc. This provides a sample of high purity reactive material that can have a long shelf life.

Lewandowski, Edward F. (Westmont, IL); Peterson, Leroy L. (Joliet, IL)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

A methodology for estimating the residual contamination contribution to the source term in a spent-fuel transport cask  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the ranges of the residual contamination that may build up in spent-fuel transport casks. These contamination ranges are calculated based on data taken from published reports and from previously unpublished data supplied by cask transporters. The data involve dose rate measurements, interior smear surveys, and analyses of water flushed out of cask cavities during decontamination operations. A methodology has been developed to estimate the effect of residual contamination on spent-fuel cask containment requirements. Factors in estimating the maximum permissible leak rates include the form of the residual contamination; possible release modes; internal gas-borne depletion; and the temperature, pressure, and vibration characteristics of the cask during transport under normal and accident conditions. 12 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

Sanders, T.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Jordan, H. (EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Plant); Pasupathi, V. (Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)); Mings, W.J. (USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Reardon, P.C. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Combustion pinhole camera system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pinhole camera system utilizing a sealed optical-purge assembly which provides optical access into a coal combustor or other energy conversion reactors. The camera system basically consists of a focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly, a conventional TV vidicon receiver, an external, variable density light filter which is coupled electronically to the vidicon automatic gain control (agc). The key component of this system is the focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly which utilizes a purging inert gas to keep debris from entering the port and a lens arrangement which transfers the pinhole to the outside of the port assembly. One additional feature of the port assembly is that it is not flush with the interior of the combustor.

Witte, Arvel B. (Rolling Hills, CA)

1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

314

Utilization of natural gas in large-scale separation processes. Final report, September 1987-August 1988  

SciTech Connect

Several industrial separation processes were identified which could be operated in a cost-effective manner utilizing pipeline natural gas as a processing fluid. In one such process, natural gas stripping, hazardous materials are transferred from hazardous water to the natural gas phase. When the natural gas phase is later burned as fuel, the heating value is realized and hazardous materials are destroyed. The combination of extraction, natural gas stripping, and incineration may be used to remove and destroy hazardous material contained in soil. It is possible for this system to be portable so that it could be used for the treatment of contaminated soils at remote sites. Natural gas may also be used to flush hazardous materials from adsorbents and thus regenerate adsorption beds used to remove hazardous materials from water or gas streams. The regenerant gas stream, containing natural gas and hazardous materials, would be used as boiler fuel where the hazardous material would be destroyed.

Humphrey, J.L.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Waste compatibility assessments to support project W-320  

SciTech Connect

The intent of this internal memo is to provide a recommendation for the transfer of tank 241-C-106 waste, Attachment 2, to tank 241-AY-102. This internal memo also identifies additional requirements which have been deemed necessary for safely receiving and storing the waste documented in Attachment 2 from tank 241-C-106 in tank 241-AY-102. This waste transfer is planned in support of tank 241-C-106 solids sluicing activities. Approximately 200,000 gallons of waste and flush water are expected to be pumped from tank 241-C-106 into tank 241-AY-102. Several transfers will be necessary to complete the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 solids. To assure ourselves that this waste transfer will not create any compatibility concerns, a waste compatibility assessment adhering to current waste compatibility requirements has been performed.

BLAAK, T.M.

1999-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

316

Combustion pinhole-camera system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pinhole camera system is described utilizing a sealed optical-purge assembly which provides optical access into a coal combustor or other energy conversion reactors. The camera system basically consists of a focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly, a conventional TV vidicon receiver, an external, variable density light filter which is coupled electronically to the vidicon automatic gain control (agc). The key component of this system is the focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly which utilizes a purging inert gas to keep debris from entering the port and a lens arrangement which transfers the pinhole to the outside of the port assembly. One additional feature of the port assembly is that it is not flush with the interior of the combustor.

Witte, A.B.

1982-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

317

The political economy of motor-fuel taxation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the political and economic underpinnings of gasoline tax policy. The theoretical model extends the earlier work of Hettich and Winer (1988) to flush out the effect of a change in the pre-tax price of a taxable activity on the politically optimal tax rate. Using a large cross-sectional sample of US states over 1960--94, the empirical model tests the predictions of the theoretical model within the context of the state tax policy on gasoline. While simultaneously controlling for other politico-economic influences, the authors find that the influence of changes in gas prices on tax rates is negative. To their knowledge, this is the first study to include a fully developed theoretical model and its empirical application to the gasoline market for a test of the vote-maximizing model of tax policy.

Goel, R.K.; Nelson, M.A. (Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States). Dept. of Economics)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Simulant Development for Hanford Tank Farms Double Valve Isolation (DVI) Valves Testing  

SciTech Connect

Leakage testing of a representative sample of the safety-significant isolation valves for Double Valve Isolation (DVI) in an environment that simulates the abrasive characteristics of the Hanford Tank Farms Waste Transfer System during waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is to be conducted. The testing will consist of periodic leak performed on the DVI valves after prescribed numbers of valve cycles (open and close) in a simulated environment representative of the abrasive properties of the waste and the Waste Transfer System. The valve operations include exposure to cycling conditions that include gravity drain and flush operation following slurry transfer. The simulant test will establish the performance characteristics and verify compliance with the Documented Safety Analysis. Proper simulant development is essential to ensure that the critical process streams characteristics are represented, National Research Council report Advice on the Department of Energy's Cleanup Technology Roadmap: Gaps and Bridges

Wells, Beric E.

2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

319

Apparatus and method for removing particulate deposits from high temperature filters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The combustion of a fuel-air mixture is used to provide a high-temperature and high-pressure pulse of gaseous combustion products for the back-flush cleaning of ceramic filter elements contained in a barrier filter system and utilized to separate particulates from particulate-laden process gases at high temperature and high pressure. The volume of gaseous combustion products provided by the combustion of the fuel-air mixture is preferably divided into a plurality of streams each passing through a sonic orifice and conveyed to the open end of each filter element as a high pressure pulse which passes through the filter elements and dislodges dust cake supported on a surface of the filter element.

Nakaishi, C.V.; Holcombe, N.T.; Micheli, P.L.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

320

Inductive power coupling for an electric highway system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A Dual Mode Electric Transporation (DMET) system is under development in which energy is electromagnetically transferred from a powered roadway to moving vehicles. Energy from the roadway can be used for high-speed, long-range travel and for replenishing energy stored in the vehicle in batteries or flywheels. The stored energy is then available for short-range travel off the powered highway network. The power coupling between roadway and vehicle is functionally similar to a transformer. A source is embedded in the roadway flush with the surface. When the vehicle's pickup is suspended over the source, energy is magnetically coupled through the clearance air gap between pickup and roadway source. The electromagnetic coupling mechanism was extensively studied through computer models, circuit analyses, and by tests of a full-size physical prototype. The results of these tests are described.

Bolger, J.G.; Kirsten, F.A.; Ng, L.S.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flush toilet bathtub" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Field tests of probes for detecting internal corrosion of natural gas transmission pipelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of electrochemical corrosion rate (ECR) probes for detecting corrosion in environments similar to those found in natural gas transmission pipelines. Results and interpretation will be reported from four different field tests. Flange and flush-mount probes were used in four different environments at a gas-gathering site and one environment but two different orientations at a natural gas plant. These sites were selected to represent normal and upset conditions in a gas transmission pipeline. The environments consisted of 2 different levels of humidified natural gas/organic/water mixtures removed from natural gas, and the environments at the 6 and 12 o'clock positions of a natural gas pipeline carrying 2-phase gas/liquid flow. Data are also presented comparing the ECR probe data to that for coupons used to determine corrosion rate and to detect the presence of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC).

Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Cayard, Michael S. (Intercorr International Inc.); Kane, Russell D. (Intercorr International Inc.); Meidinger, Brian (RMOTC-DOE)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Separator Design for Use in High GVF Multiphase Flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The requirement of bringing an outside coolant source to run through the seals of a multiphase pump has always been a costly endeavor. Using a separator to extract liquid from the exhaust of the pump to use as a coolant is often more expensive than providing an outside source of coolant. This research proposes a cost effective separator design which efficiently separates the liquid from gas, while maintaining a high enough residence time to remove any gas entrainment, and separates only the seal flush requirement by letting any excess liquids carryover with the gas. Conventional multiphase separators operate by substantially decreasing the velocity of the mixture, which reduces the drag force put forth by the gasses and allows gravity to force the liquids downward. Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclones (GLCCs) operate by increasing the velocity of the mixture, using radial force to separate liquids and gasses. This technique requires a smaller diameter vessel to achieve separation. The separator in this research uses gravity as the separation force while maintaining a pipe diameter similar to the GLCC. This way, only standard pipe and pipe fittings are used. The effectiveness of this design is measured two ways. First, efficiency is studied at varying gas volume fractions (GVFs), velocities, pressures, and pipe diameters. Second, the length of air entrainment (LAE) is measured at the same varying conditions. The efficiency and air entrainment studies provide design recommendations to accommodate seal flush requirements and size limitations. The following investigation also offers further areas of research to improve the understanding and modeling of using standard pipe and pipe fittings to create more effective design equations.

Cihak, Daniel

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Tank 26F-2F Evaporator Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tank 26F supernate sample was sent by Savannah River Remediation to Savannah River National Laboratory for evaporation test to help understand the underlying cause of the recent gravity drain line (GDL) pluggage during operation of the 2F Evaporator system. The supernate sample was characterized prior to the evaporation test. The evaporation test involved boiling the supernate in an open beaker until the density of the concentrate (evaporation product) was between 1.4 to 1.5 g/mL. It was followed by filtering and washing of the precipitated solids with deionized water. The concentrate supernate (or concentrate filtrate), the damp unwashed precipitated solids, and the wash filtrates were characterized. All the precipitated solids dissolved during water washing. A semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis on the unwashed precipitated solids revealed their composition. All the compounds with the exception of silica (silicon oxide) are known to be readily soluble in water. Hence, their dissolution during water washing is not unexpected. Even though silica is a sparingly water-soluble compound, its dissolution is also not surprising. This stems from its small fraction in the solids as a whole and also its relative freshness. Assuming similar supernate characteristics, flushing the GDL with water (preferably warm) should facilitate dissolution and removal of future pluggage events as long as build up/aging of the sparingly soluble constituent (silica) is limited. On the other hand, since the amount of silica formed is relatively small, it is quite possible dissolution of the more soluble larger fraction will cause disintegration or fragmentation of the sparingly soluble smaller fraction (that may be embedded in the larger soluble solid mass) and allow its removal via suspension in the flushing water.

Adu-Wusu, K.

2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

324

Modeling non-steady state radioisotope transport in the vadose zone--A case study using uranium isotopes at Pena Blanca, Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Current models using U- and Th-series disequilibria to study radioisotope transport in groundwater systems mostly consider a steady-state situation. These models have limited applicability to the vadose zone (UZ) where the concentration and migratory behavior of radioisotopes in fluid are often transitory. We present here, as a first attempt of its kind, a model simulating the non-steady state, intermittent fluid transport in vadose layers. It provides quantitative constraints on in-situ migration of dissolved and colloidal radioisotopes in terms of retardation factor and rock-water interaction (or water transit) time. For uranium, the simulation predicts that intermittent flushing in the UZ leads to a linear relationship between reciprocal U concentration and {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratio in percolating waters, with the intercept and slope bearing information on the rates of dissolution and {alpha}-recoil of U isotopes, respectively. The general validity of the model appears to be borne out by the measurement of uranium isotopes in UZ waters collected at various times over a period during 1995-2006 from a site in the Pena Blanca mining district, Mexico, where the Nopal I uranium deposit is located. Enhanced {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratios in vadose-zone waters resulting from lengthened non-flushing time as prescribed by the model provide an interpretative basis for using {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U in cave calcites to reconstruct the regional changes in hydrology and climate. We also provide a theoretical account of the model's potential applications using radium isotopes.

Ku, T. L.; Luo, S.; Goldstein, S. J.; Murrell, M. T.; Chu, W. L.; Dobson, P. F.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 2: Engineering design files  

SciTech Connect

Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: Tank farm heel flushing/pH adjustment; Grouting experiments for immobilization of tank farm heel; Savannah River high level waste tank 20 closure; Tank farm closure information; Clean closure of tank farm; Remediation issues; Remote demolition techniques; Decision concerning EIS for debris treatment facility; CERCLA/RCRA issues; Area of contamination determination; Containment building of debris treatment facility; Double containment issues; Characterization costs; Packaging and disposal options for the waste resulting from the total removal of the tank farm; Take-off calculations for the total removal of soils and structures at the tank farm; Vessel off-gas systems; Jet-grouted polymer and subsurface walls; Exposure calculations for total removal of tank farm; Recommended instrumentation during retrieval operations; High level waste tank concrete encasement evaluation; Recommended heavy equipment and sizing equipment for total removal activities; Tank buoyancy constraints; Grout and concrete formulas for tank heel solidification; Tank heel pH requirements; Tank cooling water; Evaluation of conservatism of vehicle loading on vaults; Typical vault dimensions and approximately tank and vault void volumes; Radiological concerns for temporary vessel off-gas system; Flushing calculations for tank heels; Grout lift depth analysis; Decontamination solution for waste transfer piping; Grout lift determination for filling tank and vault voids; sprung structure vendor data; Grout flow properties through a 2--4 inch pipe; Tank farm load limitations; NRC low level waste grout; Project data sheet calculations; Dose rates for tank farm closure tasks; Exposure and shielding calculations for grout lines; TFF radionuclide release rates; Documentation of the clean closure of a system with listed waste discharge; and Documentation of the ORNL method of radionuclide concentrations in tanks.

NONE

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 500: Test Cell A Septic System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0, DOE/NV--528 UPDATED WITH TECHNICAL CHANGE No.1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) addresses one of three leachfield systems associated with Test Cell A, which is located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (see Leachfield Work Plan Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 500 is comprised of the Test Cell A Septic System (CAS 25-04-05) and the associated leachfield system presented in Figure 1-1 (FFACO, 1996). The leachfield is located 60 meters (m) (200 feet [ft]) southeast of the Building 3124 gate, and approximately 45 m (150 ft) southwest of Building 3116 at Test Cell A. Test Cell A operated during the 1960s to support nuclear rocket reactor testing as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) (SNPO, 1970). Various operations within Buildings 3113B (Mechanical Equipment Room), 3115 (Helium Compressor Station), 3116 (Pump House), a water tank drain and overflow, a ''yard and equipment drain system'' outside of Building 3116, and a trailer have resulted in potentially hazardous effluent releases to the leachfield system (DOE, 1988a). The leachfield system components include discharge lines, manways, a septic tank, an outfall line, a diversion chamber, and a 15 by 30 m (50 by 100 ft) leachfield (see Leachfield Work Plan Figure 3-1 for explanation of terminology). In addition, engineering drawings show an outfall system that may or may not be connected to the CAU 500 leachfield. In general, effluent contributed to the leachfield was sanitary wastewater associated with floor drains, toilet and lavatory facilities in Building 3113B and floor drains in the remaining source buildings. The surface and subsurface soils in the vicinity of the collection system, outfall, and leachfield may have been impacted by effluent containing contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) generated by support activities associated with Test Cell A reactor testing operations.

ITLV

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Chemical and mineralogical concerns for the use of man-made materials in the post-emplacement environment  

SciTech Connect

In a radioactive waste repository, materials will be introduced for a variety of reasons. Some materials such as metals, bonding agents, and concrete will serve as active parts of the designed engineered barrier system (EBS). Other materials will be introduced to serve a number of purposes that include any or all of the following: surveillance (thermocouples, gauges), construction and operation (drilling rigs, roadbeds, exhaust fumes, chemical toilets, concrete, grout, rebar), lubrication (petroleum-based products, rope dressing) and other functions. Water chemistry will directly affect the corrosion of containers, the dissolution of spent fuel and waste glass and the concentration of dissolved or suspended radionuclides in water that exits breached containers. To predict the water quality requires a knowledge of the dissolution kinetics of the phases present in man-made materials, and the precipitation kinetics of product phases. The chemical evolution of man-made materials of interest to the Yucca Mountain project are by and large not presently known. Prediction of the long-term behavior (10,000 years) required of the modeling efforts is an additional layer of complexity that is not addressed by current models of water chemistry. Man-made modifications to the environment may significantly alter the thermal, chemical and radionuclide transportation attributes of the natural environment that are presently being considered in order to determine a waste package design. The specific chemical concerns addressed here are: solubility and stability of solid phases; liquid and gas phase stability; long term effects; radiolysis effects; colloids; and interactions between man-made material, rock, and J-13 or concentrated J-13 water. The report concludes with recommendations.

Meike, A.

1993-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

328

Expensive Moisture/Insulation System Problems at Several Central Florida and South Texas Nursing Homes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

These nursing homes were designed and built in the 80's and 90's. They experienced similar design and construction deficiencies and expensive repairs. Some of the issues to be discussed in this paper are the interactions of architectural and HVAC shortcomings that result in a synergistic increase in mold, mildew, corrosion and rot. ASHRAE 62 requires 24 hour per day toilet exhaust and fresh air. What do you do to control humidity when the A/C duty cycles when the thermostat is satisfied? There needs to be humidity control designed into the HVAC system. Architects and contractors frequently take a "head in the sand" approach to wall and attic vapor barriers. This needs to be looked at realistically. We have seen several nursing homes whose moisture/sheet rock damage was severe due to design defects that allowed free interchange of hot humid air between the attic and the space inside interior partitions. Allowing air interchange between the attic and outdoors: can cause overheating of water in pipes in attics where temperaturs reach 150 F. increases condensation due to inadequate details in mechanical insulation on ducts and pipes Vinyl wall covering is well known to be a disaster in this climate but interior decorators continue to specify it on various walls. HVAC balance needs to be considered. Frequently the kitchen exhaust design is not coordinated with the HVAC engineer. There needs to be a reasonable balance between air in and air out of the building. When air is allowed to flow through the insulation system R value is reduced to near 0. In order to prevent mold and mildew and expensive failures, along with even more expensive lawsuits, the HVAC system design and the insulation system design must be integrated.

Lotz, W. A.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

FORSCOM installation characterization and ranking for water efficiency improvement  

SciTech Connect

On March 11, 1994, President Clinton signed Executive Order 12902-Energy Efficiency and Water Conservation at Federal Facilities. Section 302 of the Executive Order calls for energy and water prioritization surveys of federal facilities to be conducted. The surveys will be used to establish priorities for conducting comprehensive facility audits. In response to the requirements of the Executive Order, the U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to initiate a broad study of the water savings potential at each of its major installations. This report provides an assessment of the water, sewer, energy (for hot water production and pumping), and associated cost savings potential at ten of the major FORSCOM installations. This assessment is meant to be a {open_quotes}first pass{close_quotes} estimate of the water savings potential, to assist FORSCOM in prioritizing installations for detailed water audits and potential water efficient retrofits. In addition, the end uses (toilets, sinks, showerheads, irrigation, etc.) with the greatest water savings potential are identified at each installation. This report is organized in the following manner. Following this Introduction, Section 2 provides important background information pertaining to the water analysis. Section 3 describes the methodology employed in the analysis, and Section 4 summarizes the study results. Section 5 prioritizes the installations based on both water/sewer savings and cost associated with water, sewer, and energy savings. Section 6 provides recommendations on where to start detailed water audits, as well as other recommendations. References are listed in Section 7. The appendices provide specific information on the analysis results and methodology, along with a discussion of special issues.

Fitzpatrick, Q.K.; McMordie, K.L.; Di Massa, F.V. [and others

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHTM) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOIYM Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, comments from the DOE on the Topical Report "Economic Analysis - LPMEOHTM Process as an Add-on to IGCC for Coproduction" were received. A recommendation to continue with design verification testing for the coproduction of dimethyl ether (DIME) and methanol was made. DME design verification testing studies show the liquid phase DME (LPDME) process will have a significant economic advantage for the coproduction of DME for local markets. An LPDME catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stability is being developed. A recommendation document summarizing catalyst targets, experimental results, and the corresponding economics for a commercially successful LPDME catalyst was issued on 30 June 1997. The off-site, product-use test plan was updated in June of 1997. During this quarter, Acurex Environmental Corporation and Air Products screened proposals for this task by the likelihood of the projects to proceed and the timing for the initial methanol requirement. Eight sites from the list have met these criteria. The formal submission of the eight projects for review and concurrence by the DOE will be made during the next reporting period. The site paving and final painting were completed in May of 1997. Start-up activities were completed during the reporting period, and the initial methanol production from the demonstration unit occurred on 02 April 1997. The first extended stable operation at the nameplate capacity of 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons per day) took place on 06 April 1997. Pressure drop and resistance coefficient across the gas sparger at the bottom of the reactor increased over this initial operating period. The demonstration unit was shut down from 08 May -17 June 1997 as part of a scheduled complex outage for the Kingsport site. During this outage, the gas sparger was removed, cleaned, and reinstalled. After completion of other maintenance activities, the demonstration unit was restarted, and maintained stable operation through the remainder of the reporting period. Again, the gas sparger showed an increase in pressure drop and resistance since the restart, although not as rapidly as during the April-May operation. Fresh oil was introduced online for the first time to a new flush connection on the gas inlet line to the reactov the flush lowered the pressure drop by 1 psi. However, the effects were temporary, and the sparger resistance coefficient continued to increase. Additional flushing with both fresh oil and entrained slurry recovered in the cyclone and secondary oil knock-out drum will be attempted in order to stabilize the sparger resistance coefficient.

None

1997-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

331

Data summary report of commercial building experiments in Salt Lake City,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Data summary report of commercial building experiments in Salt Lake City, Data summary report of commercial building experiments in Salt Lake City, UT from May 17 to June 10, 2002 Title Data summary report of commercial building experiments in Salt Lake City, UT from May 17 to June 10, 2002 Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2003 Authors Black, Douglas R., Tracy L. Thatcher, William W. Delp, Elisabeth A. Derby, Sheng-Chieh Chang, and Richard G. Sextro Abstract Under some circumstances, it may be desirable to provide all or part of a building with collective- protection against harmful chemical or biological (CB) agents. Collective-protection, as opposed to individual protection, uses the building -- its architecture, ventilation system, and control components -- to safeguard the health of the building occupants in the event of an indoor or outdoor release of toxic agents. In this study, we investigate the movement of tracer gases within a six-story building. The building was retrofitted to provide collective-protection on the upper two floors. To achieve this protection, the upper floors were over-pressurized using outside air that had passed through military specification carbon canisters and high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The four lower floors were outside the collective-protection area and had a ventilation system that was retrofitted to provide response modes in the event of a CB release. These response modes (e.g. building flush and shelter in place) were designed to reduce the exposure of occupants on the lower floors without compromising the collective-protection zones. Over the course of four weeks, 16 tracer gas experiments were conducted to evaluate the collective- protection system (CPS) of the building's upper two floors and the ventilation response modes of the lower floors. Tracer gas concentrations were measured at a rate of 50 Hz in up to 30 locations in each experiment, which provided data with very high spatial and temporal resolution. Differential pressure and temperature measurements were also made throughout the building. Experiments showed that the CPS maintained a positive pressure differential between the upper two floors and the lower floors with various meteorological conditions and within specified settings of the HVAC fans serving the lower floors. However, the tracer experiments did show that a CB agent could enter the first zone of the decontamination areas on each CPS floor. Tracer gas analysis also showed that the shelter in place HVAC mode provided protection of lower floor occupants from an outdoor release by significantly lowering the air exchange rates on those floors. It was also determined that the efficacy of a flush mode triggered by an agent sensor depends greatly on the location of the sensor

332

Nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics in tropical soils of Mali, West Africa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low soil fertility is one of the major biophysical constraints affecting African agriculture. Phosphorus and nitrogen are the two most common limiting nutrients. Before fertility amendment recommendations are made a soil's natural nutrient availability should be assessed. In 1998, soil samples were collected at Cinzana, Mali, West Africa for the purpose of documenting the seasonal dynamics of soil nitrogen and phosphorus in two soils after nine years under five crop management systems. The cropping systems are: continuous grain (sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) or millet (Pennisetum glaucum)), continuous grain with stalk residue returned to the field every second year, grain in rotation with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), grain in rotation with a sesbania (Sesbania rostrata) green manure crop, and grain in rotation with a dolichos (Dolichos lablab) green manure crop. Nitrogen availability graphs showed an inorganic nitrogen flush early in the rainy season in both soils. Extractable N concentration in a loamy sand soil peaked around 10-15 mg N kg? soil or 15-22 kg N in the upper 10 cm of soil ha?. The inorganic N concentration declined four weeks after the onset of the rainy season. Extractable N concentration in the clay soil reached a maximum of 22-34 mg N kg? soil or 33-51 kg N in the upper 10 cm of soil ha?. In the clay soil the high N concentrations associated with the early season flush lasted eight weeks after the onset of the rain. Further improvement of cereal grain yield may not be possible by rotation with sesbania and dolichos green manure or cowpea without additional nutrient input. Nitrogen and P return through rotation crops and crop residue is low. Phosphorous Bray-1 measurements fluctuated by 1.43 mg P kg? in the clay soil in 1998. Soil P availability in the clay soil was not influenced by the crop management systems. Bray-1 P measurements in loamy sand soil five months after Tilemsi phosphate rock application were surprisingly significantly lower than before application. Findings from this study can be used to make future crop management recommendations in the Cinzana, Mali, region.

Blanton-Knewtson, Sharon Joy

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Modeling plankton dynamics during a Prymnesium parvum bloom: The importance of inflows and allelopathic relationships on bloom dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Harmful algal blooms' global amplification has driven research on growth characteristics and instigating mechanisms. These blooms prosper under diverse environmental conditions, creating challenges identifying bloom initiation. The haptophyte, Prymnesium parvum, plagues the southwestern United States with massive system disruptions and huge fish kills caused by its toxin. Despite many abiotic factors' association with P. parvum blooms, low nutrient levels stress the alga increasing toxin production, eliminating nutrient competition, and alleviating grazing pressures. This model examines the relationship between nutrient availability and P. parvum toxin production against another phytoplankton and a single grazing zooplankton, using a Monod function relating population growth rate with limiting nutrient concentrations. Sensitivity analyses emphasize plankton biological parameters most influential in accumulating biomass. The impact of toxin production on zooplankton grazing rates underscores P. parvum's need for top-down control suppression. The toxin production equation increases production when P. parvum experiences low specific growth rates from nutrient availability and low biomass. This equation is analyzed against previously published allelopathic relationships, comparing plankton reactions and bloom endurance. The model's toxin production equation proves more ecologically feasible, incorporating competing phytoplankton species' mortality and variables easily verified through laboratory experiments. Though not intended for management strategy development, the model explores and supports the proposed strategy of incorporating hydraulic flushing, pulsed and continuous inflows, to eliminate biomass accumulation. Inflows relieve stressful nutrient-limiting conditions, introducing resources affecting bloom stability and plankton community dynamics. The faster-growing competing phytoplankton gains survival advantages when inflow rates fall lower than its maximum specific growth rate, but greater than P. Parvum's, emphasizing the accurate measuring of competitors' maximum specific growth rates and identifying a dilution rate range where P. parvum loses at nutrient intake. Inflows with various nutrient levels representing different source waters from freshwater lakes were tested for impacts on plankton dynamics. Adding any hydrological effect reduced P. parvum biomass. Disruptions create disturbance, removing P. parvum's system-dominating position, allowing the phytoplankton to exceed P. parvum's density. The model highlights the importance of P. parvum's toxin's presence to maintain dominance and emphasizes flushing agitation as potential and feasible management schemes to deter bloom continuation and increase species diversity.

Hewitt, Natalie Case

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Development and evaluation of operational strategies for providing an integrated diamond interchange ramp-metering control system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diamond interchanges and their associated ramps are where the surface street arterial system and the freeway system interface. Historically, these two elements of the system have been operated with little or no coordination between the two. Therefore, there is a lack of both analysis tools and operational strategies for considering them as an integrated system. One drawback of operating the ramp-metering system and the diamond interchange system in isolation is that traffic from the ramp, particularly if it is metered, can spill back into the diamond interchange, causing both congestion and safety concerns at the diamond interchange. While flushing the ramp queues by temporarily suspending ramp metering has been the primary strategy for preventing queue spillback, it can result in freeway system breakdown, which would affect the entire system's efficiency. The aim of this research was to develop operational strategies for managing an integrated diamond interchange ramp-metering system (IDIRMS). Enhanced modeling methodologies were developed for an IDIRMS. A computer model named DRIVE (Diamond Interchange and Ramp Metering Integration Via Evaluation) was developed, which was characterized as a mesoscopic simulation and analysis model. DRIVE incorporated the enhanced modeling methodologies developed in this study and could be used to perform system analysis for an IDIRMS given a set of system input parameters and variables. DRIVE was validated against a VISSIM microscopic simulation model, and general agreement was found between the two models. System operational characteristics were investigated using DRIVE to gain a better understanding of the system features. Integrated control strategies (ICS) were developed based on the two commonly used diamond interchange phasing schemes, basic three-phase and TTI four-phase. The ICS were evaluated using VISSIM microscopic simulation under three general traffic demand scenarios: low, medium, and high, as characterized by the volume-to-capacity ratios at the metered ramps. The results of the evaluation indicate that the integrated operations through an adaptive signal control system were most effective under the medium traffic demand scenario by preventing or delaying the onset of ramp-metering queue flush, thereby minimizing freeway breakdown and system delays.

Tian, Zongzhong

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

 

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Install bypass on makeup well water supply to cooling tower 285-11H per M-MT-H-07595. The location of the work is outdoors in the vicinity of, and Install bypass on makeup well water supply to cooling tower 285-11H per M-MT-H-07595. The location of the work is outdoors in the vicinity of, and adjacent to the 285-H basin and the 285-11H tower. This modification will not change the chemical or physical parameters of the water entering the 285-11H basin, nor will it change the ultimate destination of flush water or basin overflow. The only consequential change will be the chemical characteristics of the 285-H overflow. Due to the new bypass entering the western end of 285-11H, the makeup water will be mixed better than before, resulting in a pH near 7 by the time it overflows the south end of 285-H. The result will be greater pH stability of this water as it overflows to the H-12 Outfall.

336

 

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Install bypass on makeup well water supply to cooling tower 285-11H per M-MT-H-07595. The location of the work is outdoors in the vicinity of, and Install bypass on makeup well water supply to cooling tower 285-11H per M-MT-H-07595. The location of the work is outdoors in the vicinity of, and adjacent to the 285-H basin and the 285-11H tower. This modification will not change the chemical or physical parameters of the water entering the 285-11H basin, nor will it change the ultimate destination of flush water or basin overflow. The only consequential change will be the chemical characteristics of the 285-H overflow. Due to the new bypass entering the western end of 285-11H, the makeup water will be mixed better than before, resulting in a pH near 7 by the time it overflows the south end of 285-H. The result will be greater pH stability of this water as it overflows to the H-12 Outfall.

337

NEPA COMPLIANCE SURVEY  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NEPA COMPLIANCE SURVEY NEPA COMPLIANCE SURVEY # 350 8 Revised 8/2/10 mjt Attachment 1 Written by Dan Smallwood Production Enhancement Project-5 T-2-34 to T-1-33 MIT all wells in this area to determine which are producing wells. There are 15 wells shut in this area because of no tank or shipping line. According to the old test sheet these wells make 24bbls oil and 120bbls of water. Two of these wells have leaks in the flow lines that will be fixed. One is 33-S-34 which could be run to 34-AX-34, about 400' .6 bbl/pd and the other is 35 shx 34 which could be run to 35-AX-34 which is about 200'.5bbl/pd. 42-AX-34 could be ran to 32-AX-34 and then to 33-SX-34 to 34-AX-34. There are two manifolds at T-2-34, one with 10 wells and the other with 12. None of the flow lines have valves or checks in the lines. I propose we flush, disconnect, and plug all wells that

338

Rotary shaft sealing assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

Dietle, Lannie L. (Houston, TX); Schroeder, John E. (Richmond, TX); Kalsi, Manmohan S. (Houston, TX); Alvarez, Patricio D. (Richmond, TX)

2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

339

Rotary shaft sealing assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

Dietle, Lannie L; Schroeder, John E; Kalsi, Manmohan S; Alvarez, Patricio D

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

340

Possible options for reducing occupational dose from the TMI-2 basement  

SciTech Connect

The major sources of exposure in the basement include the enclosed stairwell/elevator shaft structure, water and sludge in the elevator shaft, cast concrete walls, concrete floor slab, water and sludge on the floor, and activity in the paint and loose surface contamination. The sources were identified using data obtained by the utility from water processing, water and solid samples, remote video inspections and radiation monitoring with a robot, and strings of thermoluminescent dosimeters lowered from upper elevations. The area dose rates in the basement range from approximately 4 R/hr (in the NE quadrant) to over 1100 R/hr (near the enclosed stairwell/elevator shaft structure). It is estimated that the basement contains between 11,000 and 21,000 curies of /sup 137/Cs. Specific decontamination and cleanup techniques are discussed. These techniques include flushing with water, high-pressure water blasting, leaching, scabbling and chemical cleaning. The applicability of these techniques to the major sources of radiation are discussed, and possible approaches and work sequences for basement cleanup are given.

Munson, L. F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Harty, R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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341

Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

West Virginia University (WVU) and the US DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) entered into a Cooperative Agreement on August 29, 1992 entitled ``Decontamination Systems Information and Research Programs.`` Stipulated within the Agreement is the requirement that WVU submit to METC a series of Technical Progress Reports on a quarterly basis. This report comprises the first Quarterly Technical Progress Report for Year 2 of the Agreement. This report reflects the progress and/or efforts performed on the sixteen (16) technical projects encompassed by the Year 2 Agreement for the period of January 1 through March 31, 1994. In situ bioremediation of chlorinated organic solvents; Microbial enrichment for enhancing in-situ biodegradation of hazardous organic wastes; Treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using biofilters; Drain-enhanced soil flushing (DESF) for organic contaminants removal; Chemical destruction of chlorinated organic compounds; Remediation of hazardous sites with steam reforming; Soil decontamination with a packed flotation column; Use of granular activated carbon columns for the simultaneous removal of organics, heavy metals, and radionuclides; Monolayer and multilayer self-assembled polyion films for gas-phase chemical sensors; Compact mercuric iodide detector technology development; Evaluation of IR and mass spectrometric techniques for on-site monitoring of volatile organic compounds; A systematic database of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; Dust control methods for insitu nuclear and hazardous waste handling; Winfield Lock and Dam remediation; and Socio-economic assessment of alternative environmental restoration technologies.

Not Available

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

A systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

West Virginia University (WVU) and the US DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) entered into a Cooperative Agreement on August 29, 1992 entitled ``Decontamination Systems Information and Research Programs.`` Stipulated within the Agreement is the requirement that WVU submit to METC a series of Technical Progress Report for Year 1 of the Agreement. This report reflects the progress and/or efforts performed on the following nine technical projects encompassed by the Year 1 Agreement for the period of April 1 through June 30, 1993: Systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; site remediation technologies -- drain-enhanced soil flushing (DESF) for organic contaminants removal; site remediation technologies -- in situ bioremediation of organic contaminants; excavation systems for hazardous waste sites; chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls; development of organic sensors -- monolayer and multilayer self-assembled films for chemical sensors; Winfield lock and dam remediation; Assessments of Technologies for hazardous waste site remediation -- non-treatment technologies and pilot scale test facility implementation; and remediation of hazardous sites with stream reforming.

Berg, M.T.; Reed, B.E.; Gabr, M.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Operation Redwing-Project 6. 4. Airborne antennas and phototubes for determination of nuclear-weapon yield. Report for May-July 1956  

SciTech Connect

Airborne equipment was designed for determining the location and yield of a nuclear detonation. This equipment determines yield from a measurement of the interval between the time of the burst and the time of the second peak in the thermal-radiation intensity curve. Flush-mounted ferrite-core magnetic loop antennas for use in detecting the electromagnetic signal and thus fixing the time of the burst, performed successfully during Operation Redwing. Two kinds of photocubes for detecting the second thermal peak were tested and were found about equally satisfactory. The method selected for yield determination gave results accurate + or - 16% for five shots. Detailed study of the data showed that the electromagnetic signal, consisting of a direct pulse followed by a series of ionosphere-reflected sky waves, could be used in many waves to give information concerning the detonation and the ionsphere. From the time intervals between the ground wave and sky waves, it was foun possible to compute both the distance between and receiver and the height of the reflecting ionosphere layer.

Waters, A.J.; Clapp, R.E.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Experimental measurement of the persistence of permeability reduction in porous media treated with xanthan/Cr(III) gel systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a series of long-term experiments that was conducted to determine the persistence of flow resistance in unconsolidated sandpacks treated with xanthum/Cr(III) gels. Gels were prepared with 2,000 ppm xanthum and Cr(III) concentrations from 25 to 200 ppm. These systems exhibit various degrees of swelling or syneresis. The experiments were conducted by first allowing a gel to set up in a sandpack and then continuously flushing the sandpack with brine for up to 4 months at a constant pressure drop of 13.3 psi/ft. Flow rate was monitored to calculate permeability changes with time. Flow experiments indicated that the measurement of swelling and syneresis in bulk-gel tests is not a good predictor of gel response in unconsolidated sandpacks. Excellent permeability reduction was obtained in sandpacks when gels that exhibited 35% to 60% reduction in volume in bulk tests owing to syneresis were used. Gels were most effective at retaining flow resistance in the range of 35 to 75 ppm Cr(III), where the sandpacks regained {lt} 0.1% of their original 4,000 md permeability during the experiments. These observations were supported by experiments in which the pH of the injected brine was varied between 3.0 and 6.5. The swelling tests on the bulk gel indicated that permeability would decrease as pH increased and would increase as pH decreased.

Eggert, R.W. Jr.; Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W. (Univ. of Kansas (US))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Evaluation of approaches to estimating aboveground biomass in southern pine forests using SIR-C data  

SciTech Connect

Estimation of forest biomass on a global basis is a key issue in studies of ecology and biogeochemical cycling. Forests are a terrestrial sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide and play a central role in regulating the exchange of this important greenhouse gas between the atmosphere and the biosphere. A study was performed to evaluate various techniques for estimating aboveground, woody plant biomass in pine stands found in the southeastern United States, using C- and L- band multiple polarization radar imagery collected by the Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) system. The biomass levels present in the test stands ranged between 0.0 and 44.5 kg m{sup {minus}2}. Two SIR-C data sets were used one collected in April, 1994, when the soil conditions were very wet and the canopy was slightly wet from dew and a second collected in October, 1994, when the soils and canopy were dry. During the October mission, pine needles were completely flushed and the foliar biomass was twice as great in the forest stands as in April. Four methods were evaluated to estimate total biomass: one including a straight multiple linear correlation between total biomass and the various SIR-C channels, another including a ratio of the L-band HV/C-band HV channels; and two others requiring multiple steps, where linear regression equations for different stand components were used as the basis for estimating total biomass.

Harrell, P.A.; Haney, E.M.; Christensen, N.L. Jr. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). School of the Environment; Kasischke, E.S.; Bourgeau-Chavez, L.L. [Environmental Research of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Center for Earth Sciences

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

U.S. Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion Determination Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Widen F-Area Inner Loop Road Widen F-Area Inner Loop Road Savannah River Site Aiken/Aiken/South Carolina The F-Area Inner Loop Road will be widened to accommodate increased MOX traffic through F-Area (see drawing MOX ILR SKC-IST-12-023 and skc-ist-2013-001.pdf). These files show the area to be paved and details concerning modifying a PIV valve that is part of the domestic water system. This activity will change the valve so it is flush with the paved surface and remove two bollards that protect the current PIV. Also, a ditch that is part of the stormwater system in F-Area will be moved to accommodate the widened road surface. B1.32 - Traffic flow adjustments Andrew R. Grainger Digitally signed by Andrew R. Grainger DN: cn=Andrew R. Grainger, o=DOE-SR, ou=EQMD, email=drew.grainger@srs.gov, c=US

347

The Dogwoods  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dogwoods Dogwoods Nature Bulletin No. 490 April 20, 1957 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Daniel Ryan, President Roberts Mann, Conservation Editor David H. Thompson, Senior Naturalist THE DOGWOODS According to Christian legends the Flowering Dogwood was used to make Jesus' cross because, at that time, it grew as large and sturdy as an oak. During the crucifixion, sensing the dogwood's sadness at being put to such a cruel use, He promised that henceforth, it shall be slender, bent and twisted; never again to be used for a cross. Easter and spring both stand for the coming of new life. Our floral parade begins early with the bizarre fleshy bloom of the skunk cabbage and reaches a peak in early May. However, the flowering dogwood is lacking. It is native throughout most of the eastern half of the United States, but Chicago people must take week-end trips to downstate Illinois or Indiana to see it in bloom. There, on slopes and in woodlands, beneath the still leafless taller trees, its blossoms will flush the landscape like an untimely May snowstorm. A single one of its showy blooms is a dense head of tiny greenish flowers set in a white flower-like cup. What appear to be four broad petals with puckered notches at their tips are not true petals at all but the greatly expanded scales of the winter flower buds. In some of the eastern and southern states these may be pink or rose-colored.

348

ARM Airborne Continuous carbon dioxide measurements  

SciTech Connect

The heart of the AOS CO2 Airborne Rack Mounted Analyzer System is the AOS Manifold. The AOS Manifold is a nickel coated aluminum analyzer and gas processor designed around two identical nickel-plated gas cells, one for reference gas and one for sample gas. The sample and reference cells are uniquely designed to provide optimal flushing efficiency. These cells are situated between a black-body radiation source and a photo-diode detection system. The AOS manifold also houses flow meters, pressure sensors and control valves. The exhaust from the analyzer flows into a buffer volume which allows for precise pressure control of the analyzer. The final piece of the analyzer is the demodulator board which is used to convert the DC signal generated by the analyzer into an AC response. The resulting output from the demodulator board is an averaged count of CO2 over a specified hertz cycle reported in volts and a corresponding temperature reading. The system computer is responsible for the input of commands and therefore works to control the unit functions such as flow rate, pressure, and valve control.The remainder of the system consists of compressors, reference gases, air drier, electrical cables, and the necessary connecting plumbing to provide a dry sample air stream and reference air streams to the AOS manifold.

Sebastien Biraud

2013-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

349

New Waste Calcining Facility Non-radioactive Process Decontamination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the results of a test of the New Calcining Facility (NWCF) process decontamination system. The decontamination system test occurred in December 1981, during non-radioactive testing of the NWCF. The purpose of the decontamination system test was to identify equipment whose design prevented effective calcine removal and decontamination. Effective equipment decontamination was essential to reduce radiation fields for in-cell work after radioactive processing began. The decontamination system test began with a pre-decontamination inspection of the equipment. The pre-decontamination inspection documented the initial condition and cleanliness of the equipment. It provided a basis for judging the effectiveness of the decontamination. The decontamination consisted of a series of equipment flushes using nitric acid and water. A post-decontamination equipment inspection determined the effectiveness of the decontamination. The pre-decontamination and post-decontamination equipment inspections were documented with hotographs. The decontamination system was effective in removing calcine from most of the NWCF equipment as evidenced by little visible calcine residue in the equipment after decontamination. The decontamination test identified four areas where the decontamination system required improvement. These included the Calciner off-gas line, Cyclone off-gas line, fluidizing air line, and the Calciner baffle plates. Physical modifications to enhance decontamination were made to those areas, resulting in an effective NWCF decontamination system.

Swenson, Michael Clair

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

New Waste Calcining Facility Non-Radioactive Process Decontamination  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of a test of the New Calcining Facility (NWCF) process decontamination system. The decontamination system test occurred in December 1981, during non-radioactive testing of the NWCF. The purpose of the decontamination system test was to identify equipment whose design prevented effective calcine removal and decontamination. Effective equipment decontamination was essential to reduce radiation fields for in-cell work after radioactive processing began. The decontamination system test began with a pre-decontamination inspection of the equipment. The pre- decontamination inspection documented the initial condition and cleanliness of the equipment. It provided a basis for judging the effectiveness of the decontamination. The decontamination consisted of a series of equipment flushes using nitric acid and water. A post-decontamination equipment inspection determined the effectiveness of the decontamination. The pre-decontamination and post-decontamination equipment inspections were documented with photographs. The decontamination system was effective in removing calcine from most of the NWCF equipment as evidenced by little visible calcine residue in the equipment after decontamination. The decontamination test identified four areas where the decontamination system required improvement. These included the Calciner off-gas line, Cyclone off-gas line, fluidizing air line, and the Calciner baffle plates. Physical modifications to enhance decontamination were made to those areas, resulting in an effective NWCF decontamination system.

Swenson, Michael C.

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

351

The U-tube sampling methodology and real-time analysis of geofluids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U-tube geochemical sampling methodology, an extension of the porous cup technique proposed by Wood [1973], provides minimally contaminated aliquots of multiphase fluids from deep reservoirs and allows for accurate determination of dissolved gas composition. The initial deployment of the U-tube during the Frio Brine Pilot CO{sub 2} storage experiment, Liberty County, Texas, obtained representative samples of brine and supercritical CO{sub 2} from a depth of 1.5 km. A quadrupole mass spectrometer provided real-time analysis of dissolved gas composition. Since the initial demonstration, the U-tube has been deployed for (1) sampling of fluids down gradient of the proposed Yucca Mountain High-Level Waste Repository, Armagosa Valley, Nevada (2) acquiring fluid samples beneath permafrost in Nunuvut Territory, Canada, and (3) at a CO{sub 2} storage demonstration project within a depleted gas reservoir, Otway Basin, Victoria, Australia. The addition of in-line high-pressure pH and EC sensors allows for continuous monitoring of fluid during sample collection. Difficulties have arisen during U-tube sampling, such as blockage of sample lines from naturally occurring waxes or from freezing conditions; however, workarounds such as solvent flushing or heating have been used to address these problems. The U-tube methodology has proven to be robust, and with careful consideration of the constraints and limitations, can provide high quality geochemical samples.

Freifeld, Barry; Perkins, Ernie; Underschultz, James; Boreham, Chris

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

System for producing a uniform rubble bed for in-situ processes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and a cutter are disclosed for producing a large cavity filled with a uniform bed of rubblized oil shale or other material, for in-situ processing. A raise drill head has a hollow body with a generally circular base and sloping upper surface. A hollow shaft extends from the hollow body. Cutter teeth are mounted on the upper surface of the body and relatively small holes are formed in the body between the cutter teeth. Relatively large peripheral flutes around the body allow material to drop below the drill head. A pilot hole is drilled into the oil shale deposit. The pilot hole is reamed into a large diameter hole by means of a large diameter raise drill head or cutter to produce a cavity filled with rubble. A flushing fluid, such as air, is circulated through the pilot hole during the reaming operation to remove fines through the raise drill, thereby removing sufficient material to create sufficient void space, and allowing the larger particles to fill the cavity and provide a uniform bed of rubblized oil shale.

Galloway, T.R.

1981-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

353

Intra-Arterial Calcium Gluconate Treatment After Hydrofluoric Acid Burn of the Hand  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is a colorless corrosive acid used in different industrial branches. Exposure to HF typically results from spills, and most often the hand or fingers are involved. Tissue damage through cutaneous HF exposure occurs through corrosive burns due to the free hydrogen ions and through skin penetration of the fluoride ions, causing a depletion of calcium in the deep tissue layers, ultimately leading to cell death and tissue necrosis. Treatment of HF burns consists of thoroughly flushing the exposed area with water and applying calcium gluconate gel to the skin. If topical treatment does not suffice, subcutaneous injections, as well as intravascular-both intravenous and intra-arterial-calcium gluconate therapy, have been advocated. We report for the first time a case of HF burn of the hand and digits associated with vasospasm. Pain and vasospasm were successfully treated by repeated intra-arterial calcium gluconate injection. We conclude that intra-arterial calcium gluconate injection is a successful and well-tolerated therapy for HF burn associated with Raynaud's syndrome. Intra-arterial injection allows for well-controlled delivery of therapy as well as assessment of the vascular status.

Thomas, D., E-mail: daniel.thomas@ukb.uni-bonn.de; Jaeger, U. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Sagoschen, I. [Klinikum der Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Poison Control Center, Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik II (Germany); Lamberti, C. [Universitaet Bonn, Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik I (Germany); Wilhelm, K. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Universitaet Bonn (Germany)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

Liquid abrasive grit blasting literature search and decontamination scoping tests report  

SciTech Connect

Past decontamination and solvent recovery activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) have resulted in the accumulation of 1.5 million gallons of radioactively contaminated sodium-bearing liquid waste. Future decontamination activities at the ICPP could result in the production of 5 million gallons or more of sodium-bearing waste using the current decontamination techniques of chemical/water flushes and steam jet cleaning. With the curtailment of reprocessing at the ICPP, the focus of decontamination is shifting from maintenance for continued operation of the facilities to decommissioning. As decommissioning plans are developed, new decontamination methods must be used which result in higher decontamination factors and generate lower amounts of sodium-bearing secondary waste. The primary initiative of the WINCO Decontamination Development Program is the development of methods to eliminate/minimize the use of sodium-bearing decontamination chemicals. One method that was chosen for cold scoping studies during FY-93 was abrasive grit blasting. Abrasive grit blasting has been used in many industries and a vast amount of research and development has already been conducted. However, new grits, process improvements and ICPP applicability was investigated. This evaluation report is a summary of the research efforts and scoping tests using the liquid abrasive grit blasting decontamination technique. The purpose of these scoping tests was to determine the effectiveness of three different abrasive grits: plastic beads, glass beads and alumina oxide.

Ferguson, R.L.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Decontamination systems information and research program. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

Progress reports are given on the following projects: (A) Subsurface contaminants, containment and remediation: 1.1 Characteristic evaluation of grout barriers in grout testing chamber; 1.2 Development of standard test protocols and barrier design models for desiccation barriers; 1.3 Development of standard test protocols and barrier design models for in-situ formed barriers -- technical support; 1.4 Laboratory studies and field testing at the DOE/RMI Extrusion Plant (Ashtabula, Ohio); 1.5 Use of drained enhanced soil flushing for contaminants removal; (B) Mixed waste characterization, treatment and disposal: Analysis of the Vortec cyclone melting system for remediation of PCB contaminated soils using computational fluid dynamics; (C) Decontamination and decommissioning: 3.1 Production and evaluation of biosorbents and cleaning solutions for use in D and D; 3.2 Use of Spintek centrifugal membrane technology and sorbents/cleaning solutions in the D and D of DOE facilities; (D) Cross-cutting innovative technologies: 4.1 Use of centrifugal membrane technology with novel membranes to treat hazardous/radioactive wastes; 4.2 Environmental pollution control devices based on novel forms of carbon; 4.3 Design of rotating membrane filtration system for remediation technologies; and (E) Outreach: Small business technical based support.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

356

Automatic CO/sub 2/ removal system and operation thereof  

SciTech Connect

A system is described for removing CO/sub 2/ from the manufactured process gas in an SNG manufacturing plant, the system operating the hot carbonate process wherein hot potassium carbonate solution absorbs CO/sub 2/ from the process gas under pressure in an absorber column and is regenerated by pressure reduction and steam stripping in a regenerator column and a reboiler before being returned to the absorber by a circulating pump. The system is completely automated and is controlled by a computer so that start-up, running and shut-down of the system is carried out automatically upon initiation by an operator, whereby the system is particularly suited for use in peak load SNG plants. For this purpose the system includes a solution make up tank, a solution storage tank, and a flushing water collection tank, preferably has all of its surfaces contacted by potassium carbonate solution made of stainless steel, and has sensors (F, L, T, P, AN, SG, and PH) and valve switches for transmitting information to the computer relating to the state of the system. The computer is programmed to operate the sequences of operation necessary to achieve the start-up, running and shut down of the system, operate loop controls on the solution levels in the absorber and regenerator columns, and on the rates of flow of solution to the absorber and of steam to the reboiler, and also to monitor the system parameters and to display data and signal alarm conditions.

Adams, K. J. G.; Bolt, N. T.; Siddique, Q. M.; Williams, T. P.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

COMPARISON OF OXALIC ACID CLEANING RESULTS AT SRS AND HANFORD AND THE IMPACT ON ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING DEPLOYMENT  

SciTech Connect

Waste tanks must be rendered clean enough to satisfy very rigorous tank closure requirements. During bulk waste removal, most of the radioactive sludge and salt waste is removed from the waste tank. The waste residue on the tank walls and interior components and the waste heel at the bottom of the tank must be removed prior to tank closure to render the tank clean enough to meet the regulatory requirement for tank closure. Oxalic acid has been used within the DOE complex to clean residual materials from carbon steel tanks with varying degrees of success. Oxalic acid cleaning will be implemented at both the Savannah River Site and Hanford to clean tanks and serves as the core cleaning technology in the process known as Enhanced Chemical Cleaning. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning also employs a process that decomposes the spent oxalic acid solutions. The oxalic acid cleaning campaigns that have been performed at the two sites dating back to the 1980's are compared. The differences in the waste characteristics, oxalic acid concentrations, flushing, available infrastructure and execution of the campaigns are discussed along with the impact on the effectiveness of the process. The lessons learned from these campaigns that are being incorporated into the project for Enhanced Chemical Cleaning are also explored.

Spires, R.; Ketusky, E.

2010-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

358

A NOVEL METHOD FOR CUTTINGS REMOVAL FROM HOLES DURING PERCUSSIVE DRILLING ON MARS ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Acquiring samples from the subsurface of Mars poses many challenges. The scientific return increases with the depth from which the samples are obtained, but so does the risk. Thus, it is important to develop a fully autonomous drilling platform that will be capable of accessing the required depth and retrieving cores for scientific analysis. The method of drilling most likely to succeed will be a conventional mechanical core drill, either rotary or percussive, with a mechanical system for removing the cuttings and rock core from the hole. Instead of fluid flushing systems for removing cuttings, which would be very difficult to provide and in addition may contaminate the sample, an auger system is the best solution for rotary drilling. However, no such solution has been identified for the percussive drilling method. To solve this problem, a novel means of conveying cuttings out of the hole during percussive drilling has been developed and is presented in this paper. It relies on the reciprocating action between a pair of surfaces covered with bristles. Experimental results show that there is an optimum ratio of particle diameter to bristle length that gives the highest speed of particle conveyance. This new method also stabilizes the hole so that the drill string may be removed to recover a rock core sample. 1

Kris Zacny; Michael Quayle; Mara Mcfadden; Adam Neugebauer; Kenji Huang; George Cooper (faculty Advisor

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Geological model for oil gravity variations in Oriente Basin, Ecuador  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Oriente basin is one of the major productive Subandean basins. Most of the fields produce 29/sup 0/-33/sup 0/ API paraffinic oils, but oils have been discovered with gravities ranging from 10/sup 0/to 35/sup 0/ API. All the oils have been recovered from multiple middle to Late Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs (Hollin and Napo Formations). Wells display a variety of oil gravities by reservoir. The origin of the Oriente oils is problematical and controversial, but structural, geochemical, and well evidence suggest a vast oil kitchen west of the present Andean foothills that was mature for oil generation by at least early Tertiary. Oil analyses indicate a single family of oils is present. Oil gravity variations can be explained systematically in terms of the various alteration processes suffered by the oil in each reservoir. Intermittent early Andean uplift (latest Cretaceous to Mid-Eocene) resulted in biodegradation and water-washing of oils, particularly in the uppermost Napo reservoirs. The main Andean orogeny (Pliocene) uplifted the Hollin reservoir to outcrop in the west, and tilted the basin down to the south. This movement resulted in water washing or flushing of the Hollin aquifer and a phase of northward remigration of oil. Late Andean structures postdated primary oil migration. Almost all structures displaying growth during the Late Cretaceous to early Eocene have been oil bearing, but some, particularly those located on the present-day basin flanks, were later severely biodegraded or breached.

Dashwood, M.F.; Abbotts, I.L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL COLONIZATION OF LARREA TRIDENTATA AND AMBROSIA DUMOSA ROOTS VARIES WITH PRECIPITATION AND SEASON IN THE MOJAVE DESERT  

SciTech Connect

The percentage of fine roots colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi varied with season and with species in the co-dominant shrubs Lurreu tridentutu and Ambrosia dumosu at a site adjacent to the Nevada Desert FACE (Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment) Facility (NDFF) in the Mojave Desert. We excavated downward and outward from the shrub bases in both species to collect and examine fine roots (< 1.0 mm diameter) at monthly intervals throughout 2001 and from October 2002 to September 2003. Fungal structures became visible in cleared roots stained with trypan blue. We quantified the percent colonization of roots by AM fungi via the line intercept method. In both years and for both species, colonization was highest in fall, relatively low in spring when root growth began, increased in late spring, and decreased during summer drought periods. Increases in colonization during summer and fall reflect corresponding increases in precipitation. Spring mycorrhizal colonization is low despite peaks in soil water availability and precipitation, indicating that precipitation is not the only factor influencing mycorrhizal colonization. Because the spring decrease in mycorrhizal colonization occurs when these shrubs initiate a major flush of fine root growth, other phenological events such as competing demands for carbon by fine root initiation, early season shoot growth, and flowering may reduce carbon availability to the fungus, and hence decrease colonization. Another possibility is that root growth exceeds the rate of mycorrhizal colonization.

M. E. APPLE; C. I. THEE; V. L. SMITH-LONGOZO; C. R. COGAR; C. E. WELLS; R. S. NOWAK

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flush toilet bathtub" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Investigation of the feasibility of a dual mode electric transportation system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study is reported which explores the feasibility of a highway transportation system that electromagnetically transfers energy to vehicles from powered roadways for high-speed or long-range travel, and uses energy stored in the vehicles for other travel. The energy coupling between roadway and vehicle is functionally similar to a transformer. The roadway energy source is imbedded flush with the roadway surface. When vehicle's energy pickups are suspended over the source, energy is magnetically coupled through the clearance gap between source and pickup. Analyses and modeling indicated that adequate power can be efficiently coupled by the system. The economics of the system appear to be favorable, and no implementational problems were identified that would make the system impractical. In addition to the engineering development of the power system, including performance verification with prototype hardware, continuing efforts should further address the effects of stray magnetic fields, the compatibility of the system with existing automobiles, electrical safety, and the process of transition from the use of existing automobiles.

Bolger, J.G.; Kirsten, F.A.

1977-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Reversible zwitterionic liquids, the reaction of alkanol guanidines, alkanol amidines, and diamines with CO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide chemistry is increasingly relevant to real-world issues, thanks to global warming. Key chemistry issues currently being studied are the capture, storage, and utilization of CO2. While the relevance of capture and storage are obvious, the relevance of CO2 utilization is less clear. Although CO2 utilization is unlikely to consume significant quantities of CO2, it can be an significant strategy for the development of sustainable processes. As part of our research efforts towards CO2 utilization, some of us invented switchable solvents, meaning solvents that can switch reversibly from one version to another.1Our original version was a mixture of an amidine and an alcohol (equation 1, where B is a liquid amidine), but since then we and others have developed others such as guanidine/alcohol mixtures (equation 1, where B is a liquid guanidine),2 amidine/primary amine mixtures,3 and secondary amines (equation 2).4Switchable solvents of these types all convert from a low-polarity to a high-polarity ionic liquid form upon exposure to an atmosphere of CO2 and revert back to the low polarity form when the CO2 is removed by heat or flushing with inert gas. We also demonstrated that these switchable solvents can be used as reversible CO2-binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs) for CO2 capture, and are more energy-efficient in that role than aqueous solutions of ethanolamine.

Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Ang, Trisha; Liang, Chen; Rainbolt, James E.; Yonker, Clement R.; Jessop, Philip G.

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

A COMPLETE HISTORY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE PLANT AT THE WEST VALLEY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) vitrification melter was shut down in September 2002 after being used to vitrify High Level Waste (HLW) and process system residuals for six years. Processing of the HLW occurred from June 1996 through November 2001, followed by a program to flush the remaining HLW through to the melter. Glass removal and shutdown followed. The facility and process equipment is currently in a standby mode awaiting deactivation. During HLW processing operations, nearly 24 million curies of radioactive material were vitrified into 275 canisters of HLW glass. At least 99.7% of the curies in the HLW tanks at the WVDP were vitrified using the melter. Each canister of HLW holds approximately 2000 kilograms of glass with an average contact dose rate of over 2600 rem per hour. After vitrification processing ended, two more cans were filled using the Evacuated Canister Process to empty the melter at shutdown. This history briefly summarizes the initial stages of process development and earlier WVDP experience in the design and operation of the vitrification systems, followed by a more detailed discussion of equipment availability and failure rates during six years of operation. Lessons learned operating a system that continued to function beyond design expectations also are highlighted.

Petkus, Lawrence L.; Paul, James; Valenti, Paul J.; Houston, Helene; May, Joseph

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

364

System for producing a uniform rubble bed for in situ processes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and a cutter for producing a large cavity filled with a uniform bed of rubblized oil shale or other material, for in situ processing. A raise drill head (72) has a hollow body (76) with a generally circular base and sloping upper surface. A hollow shaft (74) extends from the hollow body (76). Cutter teeth (78) are mounted on the upper surface of the body (76) and relatively small holes (77) are formed in the body (76) between the cutter teeth (78). Relatively large peripheral flutes (80) around the body (76) allow material to drop below the drill head (72). A pilot hole is drilled into the oil shale deposit. The pilot hole is reamed into a large diameter hole by means of a large diameter raise drill head or cutter to produce a cavity filled with rubble. A flushing fluid, such as air, is circulated through the pilot hole during the reaming operation to remove fines through the raise drill, thereby removing sufficient material to create sufficient void space, and allowing the larger particles to fill the cavity and provide a uniform bed of rubblized oil shale.

Galloway, Terry R. (Berkeley, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

System for producing a uniform rubble bed for in situ processes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and a cutter are disclosed for producing a large cavity filled with a uniform bed of rubblized oil shale or other material, for in situ processing. A raise drill head has a hollow body with a generally circular base and sloping upper surface. A hollow shaft extends from the hollow body. Cutter teeth are mounted on the upper surface of the body and relatively small holes are formed in the body between the cutter teeth. Relatively large peripheral flutes around the body allow material to drop below the drill head. A pilot hole is drilled into the oil shale deposit. The pilot hole is reamed into a large diameter hole by means of a large diameter raise drill head or cutter to produce a cavity filled with rubble. A flushing fluid, such as air, is circulated through the pilot hole during the reaming operation to remove fines through the raise drill, thereby removing sufficient material to create sufficient void space, and allowing the larger particles to fill the cavity and provide a uniform bed of rubblized oil shale. 4 figs.

Galloway, T.R.

1983-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

366

Origin of fluid inclusion water in bedded salt deposits, Palo Duro Basin, Texas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Salt horizons in the Palo Duro Basin being considered for repository sites contain fluid inclusions which may represent connate water retained in the salt from the time of original salt deposition and/or external waters which have somehow penetrated the salt. The exact origin of this water is important to the question of whether or not internal portions of the salt deposit have been, and are likely to be, isolated from the hydrosphere for long periods of time. The /sup 18/O//sup 16/O and D/H ratios measured for water extracted from solid salt samples show the inclusions to be dissimilar in isotopic composition to meteoric waters and to formation waters above and below the salt. The fluid inclusions cannot be purely external waters which have migrated into the salt. The isotope data are readily explained in terms of mixed meteoric-marine connate evaporite waters which date back to the time of deposition and early diagenesis of the salt (>250 million years). Any later penetration of the salt by meteoric waters has been insufficient to flush out the connate brines.

Knauth, L.P.; Beeunas, M.A.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR THE DETECTION OF LEAKS IN PIPE LINES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for detecting leaks in pipe lines carrying fluid. The steps include the following: injecting a radioactive solution into a fluid flowing in the line; flushing the line clear of the radioactive solution; introducing a detector-recorder unit, comprising a radioactivity radiation detector and a recorder which records the detector signal over a time period at a substantially constant speed, into the line in association with a go-devil capable of propelling the detector-recorder unit through the line in the direction of the fluid flow at a substantia1ly constant velocity; placing a series of sources of radioactivity at predetermined distances along the downstream part of the line to make a characteristic signal on the recorder record at intervals corresponding to the location of said sources; recovering the detector-recorder unit at a downstream point along the line; transcribing the recorder record of any radioactivity detected during the travel of the detector- recorder unit in terms of distance along the line. (AEC)

Jefferson, S.; Cameron, J.F.

1961-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

368

Packer weighted and pressure differential method and apparatus for big hole drilling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A packer and pressure differential drilling tool and method of controlled pressure balanced drilling in Big Hole well bores and shafts, characterized by a large diameter packer slideably engaged with the well bore over a drill bit and through which a dual drill pipe operates and isolates drilling fluid from a hydrostatic head of fluid standing in the well bore surrounding the dual drill pipe, the packer functioning as a non-rotatable ram slideable down the well bore and supporting said hydrostatic head and applying the weight thereof to the drill bit through anti-friction bearings, cuttings being flushed through the dual drill pipe by means of aerated drilling fluid or by an upwardly disposed jet pump, or both, so as to establish a reduced and/or underbalanced condition at the bit-to-bore bottom interface and operating the drill bit at an increased rate of penetration while maintaining a higher pressure condition in the well bore above the packer, the packer being weight set or hydraulic set, and the jet pump being centered in the dual drill pipe or disposed in the annulus of the dual drill pipe.

Hooper, D. W.

1985-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

369

Backsurging perforations can increase production rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Subjecting formations to a large pressure differential or underbalance is a common means of surging perforations to remove damage and increase flow from oil and gas wells. Underbalanced perforating, a standard industry completion technique, is normally used to obtain the pressure differentials intended to dislodge debris from perforations and flush the surrounding compacted zone. Gradually applied pressure underbalance can be achieved by swabbing or jetting to reduce hydrostatic head. Suddenly applied underbalance is achieved by evacuating the tubing in conjunction with a rupture disc, tubing-conveyed perforating systems or by using a new wireline-set, through-tubing backsurge tool. These techniques, except for the through-tubing method, are often utilized only during later workovers due to the expense and difficulty of achieving an adequate underbalance. Many operators prefer to perforate in balanced or overbalanced pressures conditions. This typically leaves perforations completely or partially plugged with gun debris, mud solids and shattered formation material that has been recompacted. Production logging shows that wells often produce from only 10 to 20% of the total interval apparently because of ineffective, plugged perforations.

Brieger, E.F.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Double Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Valving Subsystem Specification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Valving Subsystem that supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery. This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Valving Subsystem that supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery (WFD). The DST Transfer Valving Subsystem routes waste and other media (e.g., diluent, flush water, filtered raw water) among DSTs and from the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) feed staging tanks to the River Protection Project (RPP) Privatization Contractor facility, where it will be processed into an immobilized waste form. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations (W-521, etc.). This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program.

GRAVES, C.E.

2000-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

371

A novel instrumented heat transfer tube for fluidization research. Topical report, January 1991--June 1992  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel heat transfer probe capable of measuring simultaneously the time varying heat transfer coefficient around the surface of a heat transfer tube and the time varying static pressure fluctuations in the vicinity of the tube surface was built and tested. The probe consisted of a 2`` OD -- 1 inch ID stainless steel tube with a surface mounted thermocouple and pressure taps above and below the thermocouple flush with the surface of the tube. Simultaneous surface temperature data and local static pressure fluctuations were measured at different fluidizing conditions in beds of fine, 250 micron, sand. Time varying heat transfer coefficients were obtained by solving the unsteady conduction equation in the wall of the tube using the surface temperature measurements as the time varying boundary condition. Heat transfer coefficients obtained by this technique were of similar magnitude to those measured in similar beds at similar conditions. The time varying static pressure fluctuations obtained from the two pressure taps mounted in the tube wall contained considerable noise which made comparison, using Fourier Transform Techniques, of the temperature and pressure data impossible. However, visual observations of the two sets of data suggest that a correlation may exist but would require the filtering or elimination of noise from the pressure transducer.

Turton, R.; Clark, N.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Pipe weld crown removal device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a device that provides for grinding down the crown of a pipe weld joining aligned pipe sections so that the weld is substantially flush with the pipe sections joined by the weld. The device includes a cage assembly comprising a pair of spaced cage rings adapted to be mounted for rotation on the respective pipe sections on opposite sides of the weld, a plurality of grinding wheels, supported by the cage assembly for grinding down the crown of the weld, and a plurality of support shafts, each extending longitudinally along the joined pipe sections, parallel thereto, for individually mounting respective grinding wheels. Each end of the support shafts is mounted for rotation in a bearing assembly housed within a radially directed opening in a corresponding one of the cage rings so as to provide radial movement of the associated shaft, and thus of the associated grinding wheel, towards and away from the weld. A first drive sprocket provides rotation of the cage assembly around the pipe sections while a second drive unit, driven by a common motor, provides rotation of the grinding wheels.

Sword, C.K.; Sette, P.J.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

373

Decontamination systems information and research program. Quarterly report, April--June 1996  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains separate reports on the following subtasks: analysis of the Vortec cyclone melting system for remediation of PCB contaminated soils using CFD; drain enhanced soil flushing using prefabricated vertical drains; performance and characteristics evaluation of acrylates as grout barriers; development of standard test protocol barrier design models for desiccation barriers, and for in-situ formed barriers; in-situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvents at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant; development of a decision support system and a prototype database for management of the EM50 technology development program; GIS-based infrastructure for site characterization and remediation; treatment of mixed wastes via fluidized bed steam reforming; use of centrifugal membrane technology to treat hazardous/radioactive waste; environmental pollution control devices based on novel forms of carbon; development of instrumental methods for analysis of nuclear wastes and environmental materials; production and testing of biosorbents and cleaning solutions for D and D; use of SpinTek centrifugal membrane and sorbents/cleaning solutions for D and D; West Virginia High Tech Consortium Foundation--Environmental support program; small business interaction opportunities; and approach for assessing potential voluntary environmental protection.

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Quarterly report, October--December 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is a summary of the work conducted for the period of October--December 1993 by the West Virginia University for the US DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Research under the program focuses on pertinent technology for hazardous waste clean-up. This report reflects the progress performed on sixteen technical projects encompassed by this program: Systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; Site remediation technologies: (a) Drain-enhanced soil flushing and (b) In situ bio-remediation of organic contaminants; Excavation systems for hazardous waste sites: Dust control methods for in-situ nuclear waste handling; Chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls; Development of organic sensors: Monolayer and multilayer self-assembled films for chemical sensors; Winfield lock and dam remediation; Assessment of technologies for hazardous waste site remediation: Non-treatment technologies and pilot scale test facility implementation; Remediation of hazardous sites with steam reforming; Microbial enrichment for enhancing biodegradation of hazardous organic wastes in soil; Soil decontamination with a packed flotation column; Treatment of volatile organic compounds using biofilters; Use of granular activated carbon columns for the simultaneous removal of organic, heavy metals, and radionuclides; Compact mercuric iodide detector technology development; Evaluation of IR and mass spectrometric techniques for on-site monitoring of volatile organic compounds; and Improved socio-economic assessment of alternative environmental restoration techniques.

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Water Usage for In-Situ Oil Shale Retorting A Systems Dynamics Model  

SciTech Connect

A system dynamic model was construction to evaluate the water balance for in-situ oil shale conversion. The model is based on a systems dynamics approach and uses the Powersim Studio 9 software package. Three phases of an insitu retort were consider; a construction phase primarily accounts for water needed for drilling and water produced during dewatering, an operation phase includes the production of water from the retorting process, and a remediation phase water to remove heat and solutes from the subsurface as well as return the ground surface to its natural state. Throughout these three phases, the water is consumed and produced. Consumption is account for through the drill process, dust control, returning the ground water to its initial level and make up water losses during the remedial flushing of the retort zone. Production of water is through the dewatering of the retort zone, and during chemical pyrolysis reaction of the kerogen conversion. The major water consumption was during the remediation of the insitu retorting zone.

Earl D. Mattson; Larry Hull; Kara Cafferty

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Documentation of INLs In Situ Oil Shale Retorting Water Usage System Dynamics Model  

SciTech Connect

A system dynamic model was construction to evaluate the water balance for in-situ oil shale conversion. The model is based on a systems dynamics approach and uses the Powersim Studio 9 software package. Three phases of an in situ retort were consider; a construction phase primarily accounts for water needed for drilling and water produced during dewatering, an operation phase includes the production of water from the retorting process, and a remediation phase water to remove heat and solutes from the subsurface as well as return the ground surface to its natural state. Throughout these three phases, the water is consumed and produced. Consumption is account for through the drill process, dust control, returning the ground water to its initial level and make up water losses during the remedial flushing of the retort zone. Production of water is through the dewatering of the retort zone, and during chemical pyrolysis reaction of the kerogen conversion. The document discusses each of the three phases used in the model.

Earl D Mattson; Larry Hull

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

ARM Airborne Continuous carbon dioxide measurements  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The heart of the AOS CO2 Airborne Rack Mounted Analyzer System is the AOS Manifold. The AOS Manifold is a nickel coated aluminum analyzer and gas processor designed around two identical nickel-plated gas cells, one for reference gas and one for sample gas. The sample and reference cells are uniquely designed to provide optimal flushing efficiency. These cells are situated between a black-body radiation source and a photo-diode detection system. The AOS manifold also houses flow meters, pressure sensors and control valves. The exhaust from the analyzer flows into a buffer volume which allows for precise pressure control of the analyzer. The final piece of the analyzer is the demodulator board which is used to convert the DC signal generated by the analyzer into an AC response. The resulting output from the demodulator board is an averaged count of CO2 over a specified hertz cycle reported in volts and a corresponding temperature reading. The system computer is responsible for the input of commands and therefore works to control the unit functions such as flow rate, pressure, and valve control.The remainder of the system consists of compressors, reference gases, air drier, electrical cables, and the necessary connecting plumbing to provide a dry sample air stream and reference air streams to the AOS manifold.

Sebastien Biraud

378

Research on high-efficiency, single-junction, monolithic, thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells: Phase II annual subcontract report, 1 January 1985--31 January 1986  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents results of the second phase of research on high-efficiency, single-junction, monolithic, thin-film a-Si solar cells. Five glow-discharge deposition systems, including a new in-line, multichamber system, were used to grow both doped and undoped a-Si:H. A large number of silane and disilane gas cylinders were analyzed with a gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy system. Strong correlations were found between the breakdown voltage, the deposition rate, the diffusion length, and the conversion efficiency for varying cathode-anode separations in a DC glow-discharge deposition mode. Tin oxide films were grown by chemical vapor deposition with either tetramethyl tin (TMT) or tin tetrachloride (TTC). The best were grown with TMT, but TTC films had a more controlled texture for light trapping and provided a better contact to the p-layer. The best results were obtained with 7059 glass substrates. Efficiencies as high as 10.86% were obtained in p-i-n cells with superlattice p-layers and as high as 10.74% in cells with both superlattice p- and n-layers. Measurements showed that the boron-doping level in the p-layer can strongly affect transport in the i-layer, which can be minimized by reactive flushing before i-layer deposition. Stability of a-Si:H cells is improved by light doping. 51 refs., 64 figs., 21 tabs.

Carlson, D.E.; Ayra, R.R.; Bennett, M.S.; Catalano, A.; D'Aiello, R.V.; Dickson, C.R.; McVeigh, J.; Newton, J.; O'Dowd, J.; Oswald, R.S.; Rajan, K.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Post-earthquake analysis and data correlation for the 1/4-scale containment model of the Lotung experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of post-prediction earthquake response data analyses performed to identify the test system parameters for the 1/4-scale containment model of the Large-Scale Seismic Test (LSST) in Lotung, Taiwan and the results of post- prediction analytical earthquake parametric studies conducted to evaluate the applicabilities of four soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis methods which have frequently been applied in the US nuclear industry. These four methods evaluated were: (1) the soil-spring method; (2) the CLASSI continuum halfspace substructuring method; (3) the SASSI finite element substructuring method; and (4) the FLUSH finite element direct method. Earthquake response data recorded on the containment and internal structure (steam generator and piping) for four earthquake events (LSST06, LSST07, LSST12, and LSST16) having peak ground accelerations ranging from 0.04 g to 0.21 g have been analyzed. The containment SSI system and the internal structure system frequencies and associated modal damping ratios consistent with ground shaking intensity of each event were identified. These results along with the site soil parameters identified from separate free-field soil response data analyses were used as the basis for refining the blind-prediction SSI analysis models for each of the four analysis methods evaluated. 12 refs., 5 figs.

Tseng, W.S.; Lihanand, K.; Ostadan, F.; Tuann, S.Y. (Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States))

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Persistence and decontamination of surrogate radioisotopes in a model drinking water distribution system  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of a model drinking water system with surrogate radioisotopes was examined with respect to persistence on and decontamination of infrastructure surfaces. Cesium and cobalt chloride salts were used as surrogates for cesium-137 and cobalt-60. Studies were conducted in biofilm annular reactors containing heavily corroded iron surfaces formed under shear and constantly submerged in drinking water. Cesium was not detected on the corroded iron surface after equilibration with 10 and 100 mg L{sup -1} solutions of cesium chloride, but cobalt was detected on corroded iron coupons at both initial concentrations. The amount of adhered cobalt decreased over the next six weeks, but was still present when monitoring stopped. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) showed that adhered cobalt was in the III oxidation state. The adsorbed cobalt was strongly resistant to decontamination by various physicochemical methods. Simulated flushing, use of free chlorine and dilute ammonia were found to be ineffective whereas use of aggressive methods like 14.5 M ammonia and 0.36 M sulfuric acid removed 37 and 92% of the sorbed cobalt, respectively.

Szabo, Jeffrey G.; Impellitteri, Christopher A.; Govindaswamy, Shekar; Hall, John S.; (EPA); (Lakeshore)

2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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381

Feasibility study of tank leakage mitigation using subsurface barriers. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This document reflects the evaluations and analyses performed in response to Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-45-07A - {open_quotes}Complete Evaluation of Subsurface Barrier Feasibility{close_quotes} (September 1994). In addition, this feasibility study was revised reflecting ongoing work supporting a pending decision by the DOE Richland Operations Office, the Washington State Department of Ecology, and the US Environmental Protection Agency regarding further development of subsurface barrier options for SSTs and whether to proceed with demonstration plans at the Hanford Site (Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-45-07B). Analyses of 14 integrated SST tank farm remediation alternatives were conducted in response to the three stated objectives of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-45-07A. The alternatives include eight with subsurface barriers and six without. Technologies used in the alternatives include three types of tank waste retrieval, seven types of subsurface barriers, a method of stabilizing the void space of emptied tanks, two types of in situ soil flushing, one type of surface barrier, and a clean-closure method. A no-action alternative and a surface-barrier-only alternative were included as nonviable alternatives for comparison. All other alternatives were designed to result in closure of SST tank farms as landfills or in clean-closure. Revision 1 incorporates additional analyses of worker safety, large leak scenarios, and sensitivity to the leach rates of risk controlling constituents. The additional analyses were conducted to support TPA Milestone M-45-07B.

Treat, R.L.; Peters, B.B.; Cameron, R.J. [Enserch Environmental, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Evaluation of asphalt-rubber interlayers. (Revised). Final research report, September 1986-September 1992  

SciTech Connect

The report presents the field performance results of three asphalt-rubber interlayer test roads in terms of the effectiveness of the interlayer at reducing the rate of reflection cracking. Several variables were included in the field experiments: concentration of rubber, binder application rate, type or source of rubber, and digestion (or mixing) time of asphalt and rubber. Control sections were made up of no interlayer and interlayer binders of polymer-modified asphalt and conventional asphalt cement. Results of the statistical analyses of the data indicated that, in general, asphalt-rubber interlayers are more effective at reducing reflection cracking than no interlayer at all. Asphalt-rubber also peerformed better than control sections composed of asphalt cement interlayers and polymer-modified interlayers except in one case where the interlyaer was composed of a double application of asphalt cement/aggregate. The data also indicated that higher binder application rates lead to imnproved cracking resistance; however, on many test sections, excessively high binder application rates caused flushing at the pavement surface.

Estakhri, C.K.; Pendleton, O.; Lytton, R.L.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Electrochemical corrosion rate sensors for detecting internal corrosion of natural gas transmission pipelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper is a report on the evaluation of the use of electrochemical corrosion rate probes to detect internal corrosion in natural gas transmission pipeline environments. Flange and flush-mount probes were used in four different environments at three different sites that were selected to represent normal and upset conditions in a gas transmission pipeline. The environments consisted of humidified natural gas, organic/water mixtures removed from natural gas, and the environments at the 6 and 12 o'clock positions of a natural gas pipeline carrying multiphase gas/liquid flow. This paper will summarize and extend results presented previously and add additional data. A re-analysis of previously-reported data will be presented along with the results of physical examinations on the probes. New data on the measurement of corrosion in multiphase gas/liquid environments and for coupons used to determine corrosion rate and to detect the presence of microbiologically-influenced corrosion (MIC) will also be presented.

Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Kane, R.D. (Intercorr International Inc.); Eden, D.C. (Intercorr International Inc.)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Detecting internal corrosion of natural gas transmission pipelines: field tests of probes and systems for real-time corrosion measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of automated, multi-technique electrochemical corrosion-rate monitoring devices and probes for detecting corrosion in environments similar to those found in natural gas transmission pipelines. It involved measurement of real-time corrosion signals from operating pipelines. Results and interpretation were reported from four different field test locations. Standard flush-mount and custom flange probes were used in four different environments at a gas-gathering site and one environment but two different probe orientations at a natural gas site. These sites were selected to represent normal and upset conditions common in gas transmission pipelines. The environments consisted of two different levels of humidified natural gas, liquid hydrocarbon, and water from natural gas. Probe locations included the 6 and 12 o?clock positions of a natural gas pipeline carrying 2-phase gas/liquid flow. The probe data was monitored using completely remote solar powered systems that provided real-time data transmission via wireless back to a pipeline control station. Data are also presented comparing the ECR probe data to that for coupons used to determine corrosion rate and to detect the presence of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC).

Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Kane, R.D. (InterCorr International); Meidinger, B. (Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Remediation of DNAPLs in Low Permeability Soils. Innovative Technology Summary Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dense, non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) compounds like trichloroethene (TCE) and perchloroethene (PCE) are prevalent at U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), other government, and industrial sites. Their widespread presence in low permeability media (LPM) poses severe challenges for assessment of their behavior and implementation of effective remediation technologies. Most remedial methods that involve fluid flow perform poorly in LPM. Hydraulic fracturing can improve the performance of remediation methods such as vapor extraction, free-product recovery, soil flushing, steam stripping, bioremediation, bioventing, and air sparging in LPM by enhancing formation permeability through the creation of fractures filled with high-permeability materials, such as sand. Hydraulic fracturing can improve the performance of other remediation methods such as oxidation, reductive dechlorination, and bioaugmentation by enhancing delivery of reactive agents to the subsurface. Hydraulic fractures are typically created using a 2-in. steel casing and a drive point pushed into the subsurface by a pneumatic hammer. Hydraulic fracturing has been widely used for more than 50 years to stimulate the yield of wells recovering oil from rock at great depth and has recently been shown to stimulate the yield of wells recovering contaminated liquids and vapors from LPM at shallow depths. Hydraulic fracturing is an enabling technology for improving the performance of some remedial methods and is a key element in the implementation of other methods. This document contains information on the above-mentioned technology, including description, applicability, cost, and performance data.

None

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Processing of Oak Ridge B&C pond sludge surrogate in the transportable vitrification system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) developed at the Savannah River Site is designed to process low-level and mixed radioactive wastes into a stable glass product. The TVS consists of a feed preparation and delivery system, a joule-heated melter, and an offgas treatment system. Surrogate Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) B&C pond sludge was treated in a demonstration of the TVS system at Clemson University and at ORR. After initial tests with soda-lime-silica (SLS) feed, three melter volumes of glass were produced from the surrogate feed. A forthcoming report will describe glass characterization; and melter feeding, operation, and glass pouring. Melter operations described will include slurry characterization and feeding, factors affecting feed melt rates, glass pouring and pour rate constraints, and melter operating temperatures. Residence time modeling of the melter will also be discussed. Characterization of glass; including composition, predicted liquidity and viscosity, Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and devitrification will be covered. Devitrification was a concern in glass container tests and was found to be mostly dependent on the cooling rate. Crucible tests indicated that melter shutdown with glass containing Fe and Li was also a devitrification concern, so the melter was flushed with SLS glass before cooldown.

Zamecnik, J.R.; Young, S.R.; Peeler, D.K.; Smith, M.E.

1997-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

387

Digestion time  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Digestion time Digestion time Name: Don Mancosh Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I have always given the rule of thumb in class that material we eat is with us for about 24 hours before exiting the body. The question arises about the time value of liquids. Getting a big coke prior to a 3 hour drive generally means that there will be a stop along the way. Is there a generalization made about liquids in the body similar to the one for solid food? Replies: A physician would give a better answer, but I hazard this: the only liquids which people consume (deliberately) in significant quantities are water, ethyl alcohol and various oils. Water and alcohol are absorbed on a time scale of seconds to minutes through the mouth, stomach and digestive tract. The oils are huge molecules, so I'd guess like any other greasy food they get absorbed in the upper digestive tract. Some of them, perhaps the longest and most nonpolar, are not absorbed at all --- cf. the old-time remedy of mineral oil for constipation --- so there should be some average time-before-what's-left-is-excreted such as you're looking for, and my (wild) guess is that it would not differ substantially from that for food. You can define an average lifetime in the body for alcohol, since the natural level is zero. Rough guidelines are widespread in the context of drunk driving laws. But this is not really possible for water. One's body is normally full up to the brim with water, and there's no way for the body to distinguish between water molecules recently absorbed and molecules that've been moping around since the Beatles split up. Thus the water entering the toilet bowl after the pit stop is not in general the same water as was in the big coke. If you were to consider for water just the average time between drinking and peeing, it would seem to depend strongly on how well hydrated the body was before the drink, and how much was drunk. During sustained heavy exertion in the sun and dry air one can easily drink a pint of water an hour without peeing at all. On the other hand, if one is willing to drink enough water fast enough, so as to establish a high excess of body water one can pee 8 ounces 15 minutes or less after drinking 8 ounces.

388

Analysis of International Commodity Shipping Data and the Shipment of NORM to the United States  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Spreader Bar Radiation Detector project, PNNL analyzed US import data shipped through US ports collected over the 12 months of 2006 (over 4.5 million containers). Using these data, we extracted a variety of distributions that are of interest to modelers and developers of active and passive detection systems used to 'scan' IMCCs for potential contraband. This report expands on some of the analysis presented in an earlier report from LLNL, by investigation the foreign port distribution of commodities shipped to the US. The majority of containers shipped to the United States are 40 ft containers ({approx}70%); about 25% are 20 ft; and about 3.6% are 45 ft containers. A small fraction (<1%) of containers are of other more specialized sizes, and very few ports actually ship these unique size containers (a full distribution for all foreign ports is shown in Appendix A below). The primary foreign ports that ship the largest fraction of each container are shown in the table below. Given that 45 ft containers comprise 1 of out every 27 containers shipped to the US, and given the foreign ports from which they are shipped, they should not be ignored in screening; further testing and analysis of radiation measurements for national security with this size container is warranted. While a large amount of NORM is shipped in IMCCs, only a few specific commodities are shipped with enough frequency to present potential issues in screening IMCCs at ports. The majority of containers with NORM will contain fertilizers (5,700 containers), granite (59,000 containers), or ceramic (225,000 containers) materials. Fertilizers were generally shipping in either 20- or 40 ft containers with equal frequency. While granite is mostly shipped in 20 ft containers, ceramic materials can be shipped in either 20- or 40 ft containers. The size of container depended on the specific use of the ceramic or porcelain material. General construction ceramics (such as floor and roofing tiles) tend to be shipped in 20 ft containers. Consumer products made from ceramic materials (e.g., tableware, sinks, and toilets) are generally shipped in 40 ft containers. This distinct discrepancy is due in large part to the packaging of the commodity. Consumer products are generally shipped packed in a box loaded with Styrofoam or other packing material to protect the product from breakage. Construction ceramic materials are generally shipped in less packing material, many times consisting of only a cardboard or wooden box. Granite is almost always shipped in a 20 ft container, given its very high density.

Baciak, James E.; Ely, James H.; Schweppe, John E.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Robinson, Sean M.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Dilution During Active Regeneration of Aftertreatment Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experiments were conducted with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) to compare lube oil dilution levels and lubricant properties for systems using late in-cylinder fuel injection for aftertreatment regeneration. Lube oil dilution was measured by gas chromatography (GC) following ASTM method D3524 to measure diesel content, by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry following a modified ASTM method D7371 to measure biodiesel content, and by a newly developed back-flush GC method that simultaneously measures both diesel and biodiesel. Heavy-duty (HD) engine testing was conducted on a 2008 6.7L Cummins ISB equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particle filter (DPF). Stage one of engine testing consisted of 10 consecutive repeats of a forced DPF regeneration event. This continuous operation with late in-cylinder fuel injection served as a method to accelerate lube-oil dilution. Stage two consisted of 16 hours of normal engine operation over a transient test cycle, which created an opportunity for any accumulated fuel in the oil sump to evaporate. Light duty (LD) vehicle testing was conducted on a 2010 VW Jetta equipped with DOC, DPF and a NOx storage catalyst (NSC). Vehicle testing comprised approximately 4,000 miles of operation on a mileage-accumulation dynamometer (MAD) using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Highway Fuel Economy Cycle because of the relatively low engine oil and exhaust temperatures, and high DPF regeneration frequency of this cycle relative to other cycles examined. Comparison of the lube oil dilution analysis methods suggests that D3524 does not measure dilution by biodiesel. The new back-flush GC method provided analysis for both diesel and biodiesel, in a shorter time and with lower detection limit. Thus all lube oil dilution results in this paper are based on this method. Analysis of the HD lube-oil samples showed only 1.5% to 1.6% fuel dilution for both fuels during continuous operation under DPF regeneration events. During the second stage of HD testing, the ULSD lube-oil dilution levels fell from 1.5% to 0.8%, while for B20, lube-oil dilution levels fell from 1.6% to 1.0%, but the fuel in the oil was 36% biodiesel. For the LD vehicle tests, the frequency of DPF regeneration events was observed to be the same for both ULSD and B20. No significant difference between the two fuels' estimated soot loading was detected by the engine control unit (ECU), although a 23% slower rate of increase in differential pressure across DPF was observed with B20. It appears that the ECU estimated soot loading is based on the engine map, not taking advantage of the lower engine-out particulate matter from the use of biodiesel. After 4,000 miles of LD vehicle operation with ULSD, fuel dilution in the lube-oil samples showed total dilution levels of 4.1% diesel. After 4,000 miles of operation with B20, total fuel in oil dilution levels were 6.7% consisting of 3.6% diesel fuel and 3.1% biodiesel. Extrapolation to the 10,000-mile oil drain interval with B20 suggests that the total fuel content in the oil could reach 12%, compared to 5% for operation on ULSD. Analysis of the oil samples also included measurement of total acid number, total base number, viscosity, soot, metals and wear scar; however, little difference in these parameters was noted.

He, X.; Williams, A.; Christensen, E.; Burton, J.; McCormick, R.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Preparation and Characterization of Chemical Plugs Based on Selected Hanford Waste Simulants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of preparation and characterization of chemical plugs based on selected Hanford Site waste simulants. Included are the results of chemical plug bench testing conducted in support of the M1/M6 Flow Loop Chemical Plugging/Unplugging Test (TP-RPP-WTP-495 Rev A). These results support the proposed plug simulants for the chemical plugging/ unplugging tests. Based on the available simulant data, a set of simulants was identified that would likely result in chemical plugs. The three types of chemical plugs that were generated and tested in this task consisted of: 1. Aluminum hydroxide (NAH), 2. Sodium aluminosilicate (NAS), and 3. Sodium aluminum phosphate (NAP). While both solvents, namely 2 molar (2 M) nitric acid (HNO3) and 2 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at 60C, used in these tests were effective in dissolving the chemical plugs, the 2 M nitric acid was significantly more effective in dissolving the NAH and NAS plugs. The caustic was only slightly more effecting at dissolving the NAP plug. In the bench-scale dissolution tests, hot (60C) 2 M nitric acid was the most effective solvent in that it completely dissolved both NAH and NAS chemical plugs much faster (1.5 2 x) than 2 M sodium hydroxide. So unless there are operational benefits for the use of caustic verses nitric acid, 2 M nitric acid heated to 60C C should be the solvent of choice for dissolving these chemical plugs. Flow-loop testing was planned to identify a combination of parameters such as pressure, flush solution, composition, and temperature that would effectively dissolve and flush each type of chemical plug from preformed chemical plugs in 3-inch-diameter and 4-feet-long pipe sections. However, based on a review of the results of the bench-top tests and technical discussions, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) Research and Technology (R&T), Engineering and Mechanical Systems (EMS), and Operations concluded that flow-loop testing of the chemically plugged pipe sections would not provide any additional information or useful data. The decision was communicated through a Sub Contract Change Notice (SCN-070) that included a revised scope as follows: Photographing the chemical plugs in the pipes before extrusion to compare the morphology of aged gels with that of fresh gels. Setting up an extrusion apparatus and extruding the chemical plugs. Documenting the qualitative observations on the efforts to remove the chemical plug materials from the pipe sections. Performing X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of extruded gel samples to detect any crystallization of gel during storage. Disposing of the extruded gel as a waste. Documenting the analytical results in a test report. There were no significant morphological differences between the fresh and aged plugs except for an overgrowth of small transparent crystals on the surface of the aged NAS gel plug. An initial pressure of 15 KPa for the NAS plug and from ~2 to 6 KPa for the NAH plug. Following extrusion, the NAP plug sections were thixotropic. The bulk of all the aged gel plugs consisted of amorphous material with nitratine constituting the crystalline phase. A separate question about the whether the current in-tank waste conditions will bound the future multi-tank blended feed conditions for the Waste Treatment Plant is outside the scope of this study.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Gunderson, Katie M.; Baum, Steven R.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Poloski, Adam P.

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

391

An Evaluation of a Dual Coriolis Meter System for In-Line Monitoring of Suspended Solids Concentrations in Radioactive Slurries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes stored in underground tanks at several of its sites, such as Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge. In order to comply with various regulations and to circumvent potential problems associated with tank integrity, these wastes must be retrieved from the underground tanks, transferred to treatment facilities (or other storage location), and processed to a stable waste form. Each sludge waste will typically be mobilized by some mechanical means (e.g., mixer pump, submerged jet) and mixed with the supernatant to create a slurry that can be transferred by pipeline to the desired destination. Depending on the DOE site, such slurries may be transferred up to six miles. Since these wastes are radioactive, it is critically important that the transfers be conducted safely and successfully. The transport properties of a given slurry must be within the appropriate design limits to prevent the formation of a pipeline plug. The consequences of a plugged pipeline with radioactive material are unacceptable from the perspectives of safety, cost, and schedule. If a pipeline plug occurs and conventional methods (e.g., water flushing) are not successful, either the entire pipeline must be replaced (and the plugged pipeline remediated at a later date) or the plugged sections must be located, excised, and replaced. Either option would expose workers to radiation fields, and the cost of the project could escalate and result in a severe delay of the project schedule. Even if a pipeline plug were successfully removed by conventional methods, the project would experience some delay and additional costs. For example, flushing a plugged pipeline would require a shutdown of operations until the situation could be resolved; and such action would lead to the generation of additional liquid waste, which would also require treatment. To reduce the risk of plugging a pipeline, the relevant properties of the slurry (e.g., density, suspended solids concentration, viscosity, and particle size distribution) should be determined to be within acceptable limits prior to transfer. These properties should also be continuously monitored and controlled within specified limits while the slurry transfer is in progress. The baseline method for determining the transport properties of slurries involves sampling and analysis. This method is time-consuming and costly, and it does not provide real-time information. In addition, the personnel who collect and analyze the samples are exposed to radiation. It is also questionable as to whether a laboratory analyst can obtain representative aliquots from the solid-liquid mixtures in the sample jar. The alternative method for determining the transport properties is in-line analysis. An inline instrument is one that is connected to the process, analyzes the slurry as it flows through or by the instrument, and provides the results within seconds. This instrument can provide immediate feedback to operators so that, when necessary, the operators can respond quickly to counteract conditions that could lead to pipeline plugging (e.g., backflushing the pipeline with water).

Hylton, T.D.

2000-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

392

PJM Controller Testing with Prototypic PJM Nozzle Configuration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protections Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being designed and built to pre-treat and then vitrify a large portion of the wastes in Hanfords 177 underground waste storage tanks. The WTP consists of three primary facilitiespretreatment, low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification, and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification. The pretreatment facility will receive waste piped from the Hanford tank farms and separate it into a high-volume, low-activity liquid stream stripped of most solids and radionuclides and a much smaller volume of HLW slurry containing most of the solids and most of the radioactivity. Many of the vessels in the pretreatment facility will contain pulse jet mixers (PJM) that will provide some or all of the mixing in the vessels. Pulse jet mixer technology was selected for use in black cell regions of the WTP, where maintenance cannot be performed once hot testing and operations commence. The PJMs have no moving mechanical parts that require maintenance. The vessels with the most concentrated slurries will also be mixed with air spargers and/or steady jets in addition to the mixing provided by the PJMs. Pulse jet mixers are susceptible to overblows that can generate large hydrodynamic forces, forces that can damage mixing vessels or their internal parts. The probability of an overblow increases if a PJM does not fill completely. The purpose of the testing performed for this report was to determine how reliable and repeatable the primary and safety (or backup) PJM control systems are at detecting drive overblows (DOB) and charge vessel full (CVF) conditions. Testing was performed on the ABB 800xA and Triconex control systems. The controllers operated an array of four PJMs installed in an approximately 13 ft diameter 15 ft tall tank located in the high bay of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) 336 Building test facility. The PJMs were fitted with 4 inch diameter discharge nozzles representative of the nozzles to be used in the WTP. This work supplemented earlier controller tests done on PJMs with 2 inch nozzles (Bontha et al. 2007). Those earlier tests enabled the selection of appropriate pressure transmitters with associated piping and resulted in an alternate overblow detection algorithm that uses data from pressure transmitters mounted in a water flush line on the PJM airlines. Much of that earlier work was only qualitative, however, due to a data logger equipment failure that occurred during the 2007 testing. The objectives of the current work focused on providing quantitative determinations of the ability of the BNI controllers to detect DOB and CVF conditions. On both control systems, a DOB or CVF is indicated when the values of particular internal functions, called confidence values, cross predetermined thresholds. There are two types of confidence values; one based on a transformation of jet pump pair (JPP) drive and suction pressures, the other based on the pressure in the flush line. In the present testing, we collected confidence levels output from the ABB and Triconex controllers. These data were analyzed in terms of the true and noise confidence peaks generated during multiple cycles of DOB and CVF events. The distributions of peak and noise amplitudes were compared to see if thresholds could be set that would enable the detection of DOB and CVF events at high probabilities, while keeping false detections to low probabilities. Supporting data were also collected on PJM operation, including data on PJM pressures and levels, to provide direct experimental evidence of when PJMs were filling, full, driving, or overblowing.

Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Nigl, Franz; Weier, Dennis R.; Leigh, Richard J.; Johnson, Eric D.; Wilcox, Wayne A.; Pfund, David M.; Baumann, Aaron W.; Wang, Yeefoo

2009-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

393

Engineering Evaluation of Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiement for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This evaluation was performed by Pro2Serve in accordance with the Technical Specification for an Engineering Evaluation of the Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (BJC 2009b). The evaluators reviewed the Engineering Evaluation Work Plan for Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Residual Salt Removal, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2008). The Work Plan (DOE 2008) involves installing a salt transfer probe and new drain line into the Fuel Drain Tanks and Fuel Flush Tank and connecting them to the new salt transfer line at the drain tank cell shield. The probe is to be inserted through the tank ball valve and the molten salt to the bottom of the tank. The tank would then be pressurized through the Reactive Gas Removal System to force the salt into the salt canisters. The Evaluation Team reviewed the work plan, interviewed site personnel, reviewed numerous documents on the Molten Salt Reactor (Sects. 7 and 8), and inspected the probes planned to be used for the transfer. Based on several concerns identified during this review, the team recommends not proceeding with the salt transfer via the proposed alternate salt transfer method. The major concerns identified during this evaluation are: (1) Structural integrity of the tanks - The main concern is with the corrosion that occurred during the fluorination phase of the uranium removal process. This may also apply to the salt transfer line for the Fuel Flush Tank. Corrosion Associated with Fluorination in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fluoride Volatility Process (Litman 1961) shows that this problem is significant. (2) Continued generation of Fluorine - Although the generation of Fluorine will be at a lower rate than experienced before the uranium removal, it will continue to be generated. This needs to be taken into consideration regardless of what actions are taken with the salt. (3) More than one phase of material - There are likely multiple phases of material in the salt (metal or compound), either suspended through the salt matrix, layered in the bottom of the tank, or both. These phases may contribute to plugging during any planned transfer. There is not enough data to know for sure. (4) Probe heat trace - The alternate transfer method does not include heat tracing of the bottom of the probe. There is a concern that this may cool the salt and other phases of materials present enough to block the flow of salt. (5) Stress-corrosion cracking - Additionally, there is a concern regarding moisture that may have been introduced into the tanks. Due to time constraints, this concern was not validated. However, if moisture was introduced into the tanks and not removed during heating the tanks before HF and F2 sparging, there would be an additional concern regarding the potential for stress-corrosion cracking of the tank walls.

Carlberg, Jon A.; Roberts, Kenneth T.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Little, Leslie E.; Brady, Sherman D.

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

394

Sorption of organic gases in residential bedrooms and bathrooms  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sorption of organic gases in residential bedrooms and bathrooms Sorption of organic gases in residential bedrooms and bathrooms Title Sorption of organic gases in residential bedrooms and bathrooms Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBNL-56787 Year of Publication 2005 Authors Singer, Brett C., Alfred T. Hodgson, Toshifumi Hotchi, Katherine Y. Ming, Richard G. Sextro, Emily E. Wood, and Nancy J. Brown Conference Name Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate - Indoor Air 2005 Volume 2(9) Publisher Tsinghua University Press Conference Location Beijing, China Abstract Experiments were conducted to characterize organic gas sorption in residential bedrooms (n=4), bathrooms (n=2), and a furnished test chamber. Rooms were studied "as-is" with material surfaces and furnishings unaltered. Surface materials were characterized and areas quantified. Experiments included rapid volatilization of a volatile organic compound (VOC) mixture with the room closed and sealed for a 5-h Adsorb phase, followed by 30-min Flush and 2-h closed-room Desorb phases. The mixture included n-alkanes, aromatics, glycol ethers, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, dichlorobenzene, and organophosphorus compounds. Measured gas-phase concentrations were fit to three variations of a mathematical model that considers sorption occurring at one surface sink and one potential embedded sink. The 2-parameter sink model tracked measurements for most compounds, but improved fits were obtained for some VOCs with a 3-parameter sink-diffusion or a 4-parameter two-sink model. Sorptive partitioning and initial adsorption rates increased with decreasing vapour pressure within each chemical class.

395

Al-Ckpt: Leveraging Memory Access Patterns for Adaptive Asynchronous  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Al-Ckpt: Leveraging Memory Access Patterns for Adaptive Asynchronous Al-Ckpt: Leveraging Memory Access Patterns for Adaptive Asynchronous Incremental Checkpointing Title Al-Ckpt: Leveraging Memory Access Patterns for Adaptive Asynchronous Incremental Checkpointing Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2013 Authors Nicolae, B, Cappello, F Conference Name HPDC'13 Conference Location New York City Abstract With increasing scale and complexity of supercomputing and cloud computing architectures, faults are becoming a frequent occurrence, which makes reliability a difficult challenge. Although for some applications it is enough to restart failed tasks, there is a large class of applications where tasks run for a long time or are tightly coupled, thus making a restart from scratch unfeasible. Checkpoint-Restart (CR), the main method to survive failures for such applications faces additional challenges in this context: not only does it need to minimize the performance overhead on the application due to checkpointing, but it also needs to operate with scarce resources. Given the iterative nature of the targeted applications, we launch the assumption that first-time writes to memory during asynchronous checkpointing generate the same kind of interference as they did in past iterations. Based on this assumption, we propose novel asynchronous checkpointing approach that leverages both current and past access pattern trends in order to optimize the order in which memory pages are flushed to stable storage. Large scale experiments show up to 60% improvement when compared to state-of-art checkpointing approaches, all this achievable with an extra memory requirement of less than 5% of the total application memory.

396

UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Grand Junction, Colorado  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface remedial action will be completed at the Grand Junction processing site during the summer of 1994. Results of 1993 water sampling indicate that ground water flow conditions and ground water quality at the processing site have remained relatively constant with time. Uranium concentrations in ground water continue to exceed the maximum concentration limits, providing the best indication of the extent of contaminated ground water. Evaluation of surface water quality of the Colorado River indicate no impact from uranium processing activities. No compliance monitoring at the Cheney disposal site has been proposed because ground water in the Dakota Sandstone (uppermost aquifer) is classified as limited-use (Class 111) and because the disposal cell is hydrogeologically isolated from the uppermost aquifer. The following water sampling and water level monitoring activities are planned for calendar year 1994: (i) Semiannual (early summer and late fall) sampling of six existing monitor wells at the former Grand Junction processing site. Analytical results from this sampling will be used to continue characterizing hydrogeochemical trends in background ground water quality and in the contaminated ground water area resulting from source term (tailings) removal. (ii) Water level monitoring of approximately three proposed monitor wells projected to be installed in the alluvium at the processing site in September 1994. Data loggers will be installed in these wells, and water levels will be electronically monitored six times a day. These long-term, continuous ground water level data will be collected to better understand the relationship between surface and ground water at the site. Water level and water quality data eventually will be used in future ground water modeling to establish boundary conditions in the vicinity of the Grand Junction processing site. Modeling results will be used to help demonstrate and document the potential remedial alternative of natural flushing.

Not Available

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Surface water processes in the Indonesian Throughflow as documented by a high-resolution coral (Delta)14C record  

SciTech Connect

To explore the seasonal to decadal variability in surface water masses that contribute to the Indonesian Throughflow we have generated a 115-year bi-monthly coral-based radiocarbon time-series from a coral in the Makassar Straits. In the pre-bomb (pre-1955) era from 1890 to 1954, the radiocarbon time series occasionally displays a small seasonal signal (10-15{per_thousand}). After 1954 the radiocarbon record increases rapidly, in response to the increased atmospheric {sup 14}C content caused by nuclear weapons testing. From 1957 to 1986 the record displays clear seasonal variability from 15 to 60{per_thousand} and the post-bomb peak (163 per mil) occurred in 1974. The seasonal cycle of radiocarbon can be attributed to variations of surface waters passing through South Makassar Strait. Southern Makassar is under the influence of the Northwest Monsoon, which is responsible for the high Austral summer radiocarbon (North Pacific waters) and the Southeast Monsoon that flushes back a mixture of low (South Pacific and upwelling altered) radiocarbon water from the Banda Sea. The coral record also shows a significant {sup 14}C peak in 1955 due to bomb {sup 14}C water advected into this region in the form of CaCO{sub 3} particles (this implies that the particles were advected intact and then become entrapped in the coral skeleton--is this what we really mean? Wouldn't even fine particles settle out over the inferred transit time from Bikini to MAK?) or water particles with dissolved labeled CO{sub 2} produced during fallout from the Castle tests in 1954.

Fallon, S J; Guilderson, T P

2008-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

398

Diagenesis and porosity development associated with major sea level fluctuations, Upper Permian, Jameson land, east Greenland  

SciTech Connect

The Upper Permian of Jameson Land includes two major carbonate sequences, represented by the Karstryggen and Wegener Halvoe formations. The initial Karstryggen transgression led to the development of a shallow marine platform with structurally controlled evaporite basins (salinas) separated by stromatolitic, peloidal, or micritic carbonate depositional areas. The Wegener Havloe sequence reflects more rapid and extensive transgression with the deposition of three subcycles of fully marine, platform, or biohermal carbonates containing minor evaporites near the basin margins. Bioherms (bryozoan-brachiopod-marine cement mounds) show > 100 m of relief, indicating that large relative sea level changes were involved. Both the Karstryggen and Wgener Havloe cycles were terminated by major regressions, which led to karstic and/or fluvial incision of the underlying sequences. Not surprisingly, carbonate and evaporite diagenesis was greatly affected by these regional or eustatic sea level fluctuations. Evaporites dissolved or were replaced by calcite and celestite under the influence of meteoric waters. Limestones show collapse brecciation, grain leaching, soil development, and characteristic vadose and phreatic cements. Most significantly meteoric flushing led to massive dissolution of botryoidal marine cements (aragonite and probable high-Mg calcite) within biohermal facies on the Wegener Peninsula. This early porosity resurrection led to the preservation of porous bioherm core zones until hydrocarbon migration. Only late (posthydrocarbon), probably hydrothermal fluid flow led to cementation of the bioherm cores while expelling most of the reservoired hydrocarbons. If the sea level changes affecting the Greenlandic Permian are eustatic, then this study may provide significant clues to porosity development throughout the largely unexplored northern Zechstein basin.

Scholle, P.A.; Ulmer, D.S. (Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (USA)); Stemmerik, L. (Greenland Geological Survey, Copenhagen (Denmark))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Sorption of organic gases in residential rooms  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

residential rooms residential rooms Title Sorption of organic gases in residential rooms Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-59303 Year of Publication 2007 Authors Singer, Brett C., Alfred T. Hodgson, Toshifumi Hotchi, Katherine Y. Ming, Richard G. Sextro, Emily E. Wood, and Nancy J. Brown Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 41 Start Page Chapter Pagination 3251-3265 Keywords adsorption, hazardous air pollutants, nerve agents, sink effect, volatile organic compounds Abstract Experiments were conducted to characterize organic gas sorption in residential rooms studied ''as-is'' with furnishings and material surfaces unaltered and in a furnished chamber designed to simulate a residential room. Results are presented for 10 rooms (five bedrooms, two bathrooms, a home office, and two multi-function spaces) and the chamber. Exposed materials were characterized and areas quantified. A mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was rapidly volatilized within each room as it was closed and sealed for a 5-h Adsorb phase; this was followed by 30-min Flush and 2-h closed-room Desorb phases. Included were alkane, aromatic, and oxygenated VOCs representing a range of ambient and indoor air pollutants. Three organophosphorus compounds served as surrogates for Sarin-like nerve agents. Measured gas-phase concentrations were fit to three variations of a mathematical model that considers sorption occurring at a surface sink and potentially a second, embedded sink. The 3-parameter sink-diffusion model provided acceptable fits for most compounds and the 4-parameter two-sink model provided acceptable fits for the others. Initial adsorption rates and sorptive partitioning increased with decreasing vapor pressure for the alkanes, aromatics and oxygenated VOCs. Best-fit sorption parameters obtained from experimental data from the chamber produced best-fit sorption parameters similar to those obtained from the residential rooms

400

CHARACTERIZATION OF H CANYON CONDUCTIVITY METER INDICATIONS WITH ELEVATED URANIUM IN NITRIC ACID  

SciTech Connect

Solution conductivity data from the 1CU conductivity meter in H-Canyon shows that uranium concentration in the 0 to 30 gram per liter (g/L) range has no statistically significant effect on the calibration of free nitric acid measurement. Based on these results, no additional actions are needed on the 1CU Conductivity Meter prior to or during the processing of uranium solutions in the 0 to 30 g/L range. A model based only on free nitric acid concentration is shown to be appropriate for explaining the data. Data uncertainties for the free acid measurement of uranium-bearing solutions are 8.5% or less at 95% confidence. The analytical uncertainty for calibrating solutions is an order of magnitude smaller only when uranium is not present, allowing use of a more accurate analytical procedure. Literature work shows that at a free nitric acid level of 0.33 M, uranium concentration of 30 g/L and 25 C, solution conductivity is 96.4% of that of a uranium-free solution. The level of uncertainties in the literature data and its fitting equation do not justify calibration changes based on this small depression in solution conductivity. This work supports preparation of H-Canyon processing of Super Kukla fuel; however, the results will be applicable to the processing of any similar concentration uranium and nitric acid solution. Super Kukla fuel processing will increase the uranium concentration above the nominal zero to 10 g/L level, though not above 30 g/L. This work examined free nitric acid levels ranging from 0.18 to 0.52 molar. Temperature ranged from 27.9 to 28.3 C during conductivity testing. The data indicates that sequential order of measurement is not a significant factor. The conductivity meter was thus flushed effectively between measurements as desired.

Nash, C

2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

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401

Simulation of annual biogeochemical cycles of nutrient balance, phytoplankton bloom(s), and DO in Puget Sound using an unstructured grid model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nutrient pollution from rivers, nonpoint source runoff, and nearly 100 wastewater discharges is a potential threat to the ecological health of Puget Sound with evidence of hypoxia in some basins. However, the relative contributions of loads entering Puget Sound from natural and anthropogenic sources, and the effects of exchange flow from the Pacific Ocean are not well understood. Development of a quantitative model of Puget Sound is thus presented to help improve our understanding of the annual biogeochemical cycles in this system using the unstructured grid Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) framework and the Integrated Compartment Model (CE QUAL-ICM) water quality kinetics. Results based on 2006 data show that phytoplankton growth and die-off, succession between two species of algae, nutrient dynamics, and dissolved oxygen in Puget Sound are strongly tied to seasonal variation of temperature, solar radiation, and the annual exchange and flushing induced by upwelled Pacific Ocean waters. Concentrations in the mixed outflow surface layer occupying approximately 5?20 m of the upper water column show strong effects of eutrophication from natural and anthropogenic sources, spring and summer algae blooms, accompanied by depleted nutrients but high dissolved oxygen levels. The bottom layer reflects dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations of upwelled Pacific Ocean water modulated by mixing with biologically active surface outflow in the Strait of Juan De Fuca prior to entering Puget Sound over the Admiralty Inlet. The effect of reflux mixing at the Admiralty Inlet sill resulting in lower nutrient and higher dissolved oxygen levels in bottom waters of Puget Sound than the incoming upwelled Pacific Ocean water is reproduced. By late winter, with the reduction in algal activity, water column constituents of interest, were renewed and the system appeared to reset with cooler temperature, higher nutrient, and higher dissolved oxygen waters from the Pacific Ocean.

Khangaonkar, Tarang; Sackmann, Brandon S.; Long, Wen; Mohamedali, Teizeen; Roberts, Mindy

2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

402

Maximizing the Hydrogen Photoproduction Yields in Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Cultures: The Effect of the H2 Partial Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Photoproduction of H{sub 2} gas has been examined in sulfur/phosphorus-deprived Chalmydomonas reinhardtii cultures, placed in photobioreactors (PhBRs) with different gas phase to liquid phase ratios (V{sub g.p.}/V{sub l.p.}). The results demonstrate that an increase in the ratio stimulates H{sub 2} photoproduction activity in both algal suspension cultures and in algae entrapped in thin alginate films. In suspension cultures, a 4x increase (from {approx}0.5 to {approx}2) in V{sub g.p.}/V{sub l.p} results in a 2x increase (from 10.8 to 23.1 mmol l{sup -1} or 264-565 ml l{sup -1}) in the total yield of H{sub 2} gas. Remarkably, 565 ml of H{sub 2} gas per liter of the suspension culture is the highest yield ever reported for a wild-type strain in a time period of less than 190 h. In immobilized algae, where diffusion of H{sub 2} from the medium to the PhBR gas phase is not affected by mixing, the maximum rate and yield of H{sub 2} photoproduction occur in PhBRs with V{sub g.p.}/V{sub l.p} above 7 or in a PhBR with smaller headspace, if the H{sub 2} is effectively removed from the medium by continuous flushing of the headspace with argon. These experiments in combination with studies of the direct inhibitory effect of high H{sub 2} concentrations in the PhBR headspace on H{sub 2} photoproduction activity in algal cultures clearly show that H{sub 2} photoproduction in algae depends significantly on the partial pressure of H{sub 2} (not O{sub 2} as previously thought) in the PhBR gas phase.

Kosourov, S. N.; Batyrova, K. A.; Petushkova, E. P.; Tsygankov, A. A.; Ghirardi, M. L.; Seibert, M.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Field-Scale Evaluation of Biostimulation for Remediation of Uranium-Contaminated Groundwater at a Proposed NABIR Field Research Center in Oak Ridge, TN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A hydrologic, geochemical and microbial characterization of the Area 3 field site has been completed. The formation is fairly impermeable, but there is a region of adequate flow approximately 50 feet bgs. The experiment will be undertaken within that depth interval. Groundwater from that depth is highly acidic (pH 3.2), and has high levels of nitrate, aluminum, uranium, and other heavy metals, as well as volatile chlorinated solvents (VOCs). Accordingly, an aboveground treatment train has been designed to remove these contaminants. The train consists of a vacuum stripper to remove VOCs, two chemical precipitation steps to adjust pH and remove metals, and a fluidized bed bioreactor to remove nitrate. The aboveground system will be coupled to a belowground recirculation system. The belowground system will contain an outer recirculation cell and a nested inner recirculation cell: the outer cells will be continuously flushed with nitrate-free treated groundwater. The inner cell will receive periodic inputs of uranium, tracer, and electron donor. Removal of uranium will be determined by comparing loss rates of conservative tracer and uranium within the inner recirculation cell. Over the past year, a detailed workplan was developed and submitted for regulatory approval. The workplan was presented to the Field Research Advisory Panel (FRAP), and after some extensive revision, the FRAP authorized implementation. Detailed design drawings and numerical simulations of proposed experiments have been prepared. System components are being prefabricated as skid-mounted units in Michigan and will be shipped to Oak Ridge for assembly. One manuscript has been submitted to a peer reviewed journal. This paper describes a novel technique for inferring subsurface hydraulic conductivity values. Two posters on this project were presented at the March 2002 NABIR PI meeting. One poster was presented at the Annual conference of the American Society for Microbiology in Salt Lake City, UT in May 2002.

Criddle, Craig S.

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

NTRCI Legacy Engine Research and Development Project Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

The Legacy engine is a completely new design, transitional diesel engine, replacing the reciprocating engine with a rotary engine. The Legacy engine offers significant advances over conventional internal combustion engines in 1) power to weight ratio; 2) multiple fuel acceptance; 3) fuel economy; and 4) environmental compliance. These advances are achieved through a combination of innovative design geometry, rotary motion, aspiration simplicity, and manufacturing/part simplicity. The key technical challenge to the Legacy engine??s commercialization, and the focus of this project, was the development of a viable roton tip seal. The PST concept for the roton tip seal was developed into a manufacturable design. The design was evaluated using a custom designed and fabricated seal test fixture and further refined. This design was incorporated into the GEN2.5A prototype and tested for achievable compression pressure. The Decision Point at the end of Phase 1 of the project (described below) was to further optimize the existing tip seal design. Enhancements to the tip seal design were incorporated into the GEN2.5B prototype and tested and evaluated using the iterative research strategy described below. Compression pressures adequate for compression ignition of diesel fuel were achieved, although not consistently in all combustion volumes. The variation in compression pressures was characterized versus design features. As the roton tip seal performance was improved, results pointed toward inadequate performance of the housing side seals. Enhancement of the housing side seal system was accomplished using a custom designed side seal test fixture. The design enhancements developed with the test fixture were also incorporated into the GEN2.5B prototype and tested and evaluated using the iterative research strategy described below. Finally, to simplify the requirements for the roton tip seals and to enhance the introduction and combustion of fuel, a flush-mount fuel injector was designed, manufactured and demonstrated in the GEN2.5B prototype.

Connie Smith-Holbert; Joseph Petrolino; Bart Watkins; David Irick

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

405

Four-Button BPM Coefficients in Cylindrical and Elliptic Beam Chambers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Beam position monitor (BPM) coefficients are calculated from induced charges on four-button BPMs in circular and elliptic beam chambers for ?>> 1. Since the beam chamber cross-section for the APS storage ring is different from an exact elliptic geometry, numerical values of the BPM coefficients and their inversions are computed from two-dimensional electrostatic field distributions inside an exact geometry of the beam chamber. Utilizing Greens reciprocation theorem, a potential value is applied to the buttons rather than changing the beam position, and potential distributions corresponding to the beam positions are then computed. 1. Cylindrical Chamber A charged particle beam of short bunches induces charges on the beam chamber wall. Due to the Lorentz contraction, for ?>> 1, where ? is the relativistic factor, these charges have the same longitudinal intensity modulation as the beam. The electromagnetic fields associated with the beam are obtained by the Lorentz transformation from the fixed lab frame F to a moving reference frame F', where the charged beam is at rest [1, 2]. The field distribution inside the beam chamber becomes an electrostatic problem in the moving reference frame. Here we assume that the buttons are installed flush with the inner surface of the beam chamber, with the chamber having constant crosssection and the chamber wall at a uniform potential. For the charge density of a filament beam located at (xo,yo) in the transverse plane of the Cartesian coordinates and moving with a wave number k in the longitudinal direction z in the lab frame F, ? = ? ( x, y) cos k( z ? vt); (1) k

S. H. Kim

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

CO{sub 2} pellet blasting literature search and decontamination scoping tests report  

SciTech Connect

Past decontamination and solvent recovery activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) have resulted in the accumulation of 1.5 million gallons of radioactively contaminated sodium-bearing liquid waste. Future decontamination activities at the ICPP could result in the production of 5 million gallons or more of sodium-bearing waste using current decontamination techniques. Chemical decontamination flushes have provided a satisfactory level of decontamination. However, this method generates large amounts of sodium-bearing secondary waste. Steam jet cleaning has also been used with a great deal of success but cannot be used on concrete or soft materials. With the curtailment of reprocessing at the ICPP, the focus of decontamination is shifting from maintenance for continued operation of the facilities to decommissioning. Treatment of sodium-bearing waste is a particularly difficult problem due to the high content of alkali metals in the sodium-bearing liquid waste. It requires a very large volume of cold chemical additive for calcination. In addition, the sodium content of the sodium-bearing waste exceeds the limit that can be incorporated into vitrified waste without the addition of glass-forming compounds (primarily silicon) to produce an acceptable immobilized waste form. The primary initiatives of the Decontamination Development Program is the development of methods to eliminate/minimize the use of sodium-bearing decontamination chemicals and to minimize all liquid decontamination wastes. One method chosen for cold scoping studies during FY-93 was CO{sub 2} pellet blasting. CO{sub 2} pellet blasting has been used extensively by commercial industries for general cleaning. However, using this method for decontamination of nuclear materials is a fairly new concept. The following report discusses the research and scoping tests completed on CO{sub 2} pellet blasting.

Archibald, K.E.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Modeling cooling water discharges from the Burrard Generating Station  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract-A three-dimensional numerical model was applied to examine the impact of the Burrard Generating Station cooling water on the circulation patterns and thermal regime in the receiving water of Port Moody Arm. A key aspect of this study involved properly incorporating the submerged cooling water buoyant jet into the 3D model. To overcome the scale and interface barriers between the near-field and far-field zones of the buoyant jet, a sub-grid scheme was applied, and the coupled system of equations of motion, heat conservation and state are solved with a single modeling procedure over the complete field. Special care was taken with the diffusion and jet entrainment by using a second order turbulence closure model for vertical diffusion and the Smagorinsky formula for horizontal diffusion as well as jet entrainment. The model was calibrated and validated in terms of buoyant jet trajectory, centerline dilution, and temperature and velocity profiles. Extensive modeling experiments without and with the Burrard Generating Station in operation were then carried out to investigate the receiving water circulations and thermal processes under the influence of the cooling water discharge. The model results reveal that under the influence of the cooling water discharge, peak ebb currents are stronger than peak flood currents in the near-surface layer, and the reverse is true in the near-bottom layer. Meanwhile, the model revealed a well-developed eddy at the southeast side of the buoyant jet in the near-surface layer. It is also found that the warmer water released from the cooling water discharge is mainly confined to the upper layer of the Arm, which is largely flushed out of the Arm through tidal mixing processes, and a corresponding inflow of colder water into the Arm occurs within the lower layer. I.

J. Jiang; D. B. Fissel; D. D. Lemon

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Using Niched Co-Evolution Strategies to Address Non-Uniqueness in Characterizing Sources of Contamination in a Water Distribution System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Threat management of water distribution systems is essential for protecting consumers. In a contamination event, different strategies may be implemented to protect public health, including flushing the system through opening hydrants or isolating the contaminant by manipulating valves. To select the most effective options for responding to a contamination threat, the location and loading profile of the source of the contaminant should be considered. These characteristics can be identified by utilizing water quality data from sensors that have been strategically placed in a water distribution system. A simulation-optimization approach is described here to solve the inverse problem of source characterization, by coupling an evolutionary computation-based search with a water distribution system model. The solution of this problem may reveal, however, that a set of non-unique sources exists, where sources with significantly different locations and loading patterns produce similar concentration profiles at sensors. The problem of non-uniqueness should be addressed to prevent the misidentification of a contaminant source and improve response planning. This paper aims to address the problem of non-uniqueness through the use of Niched Co-Evolution Strategies (NCES). NCES is an evolutionary algorithm designed to identify a specified number of alternative solutions that are maximally different in their decision vectors, which are source characteristics for the water distribution problem. NCES is applied to determine the extent of non-uniqueness in source characterization for a virtual city, Mesopolis, with a population of approximately 150,000 residents. Results indicate that NCES successfully identifies non-uniqueness in source characterization and provides alternative sources of contamination. The solutions found by NCES assist in making decisions about response actions. Once alternative sources are identified, each source can be modeled to determine where the vulnerable areas of the system are, indicating the areas where response actions should be implemented.

Drake, Kristen Leigh

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

SDG and E/ERDA geothermal loop experimental facility. Bi-monthly report, January--February 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress is reported in research on the Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility (GLEF), which operated for 758 hours during January and February 1977 with geothermal brine from both Magmamax No. 1 and Woolsey No. 1 wells. The facility was shut down for two weeks for the first major cleaning of the plant. The cleaning was accomplished by hand-scraping the large vessels, hydroblasting (high pressure water jets) portions of the reinjection line, and acid soaking, followed in most instances by hydroblasting, of the facility brine drain lines. The deepening of Woolsey No. 1 well to approximately 3490 feet was completed. Flow tests of Woolsey were attempted, with resumption of facility operation utilizing Magmamax No. 3 as the reinjection well. Insufficient geothermal fluid pressure at the Woolsey No. 1 wellhead resulted in several intermittent operations. Remedial measures undertaken included high pressure injection (hydrofracture) using a separate pump on Magmamax No. 2 and back flushing using a nitrogen purge on Magmamax No. 3. After these remedial measures were taken, the injection-well back pressure remained high, thus limiting the reinjection operation. Downhole data under these low flow conditions were gathered in order to determine further remedial actions. Typical reinjection conditions during this time were 400 gpm, 450 psig and 200/sup 0/F at the plant boundary. Final Woolsey No. 1 wellhead conditions were approximately 200 psig and 400/sup 0/F, indicating that an adequate supply of geothermal brine to the GLEF is very probable. No change in the GLEF brine and steam chemistry occurred during this reporting period. Scaling occurred throughout the system with the greatest deposition in the injection pump and lines. Scale composition varied from an iron, lead, silica mixture in the initial plant stages to a predominantly silica scale in the last stage and injection line. Installation of the electronic data logging system was completed. (JGB)

Bishop, H.K.; Bricarello, J.R.; Enos, F.L.; Hodgdon, N.C.; Jacobson, W.O.; Li, K.K.; Mulliner, D.K.; Swanson, C.R.

1977-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Confined-unconfined changes above longwall coal mining due to increases in fracture porosity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Subsidence and strata movement above longwall (total extraction) coal mines produce complex hydrologic responses that can occur independently of drainage to the mine. One response is dewatering from confined to unconfined conditions in bedrock aquifers as a result of loss of water into new void space created by fracture and bedding separations. This dewatering process has been little studied but accounts for several hydraulic and geochemical effects of longwall mining. This article presents a conceptual model of the process and reviews evidence from case studies. Confined bedrock aquifers in subsiding zones exhibit dramatically steep head drops because of the low value of confined storage coefficients relative to the volume of water drained into the new fracture void space. The aquifer changes rapidly to an unconfined condition. Tight units to which air entry is restricted may even develop negative water pressures. In the unconfined state, sulfide minerals present in the strata readily oxidize to soluble hydrated sulfates. When the aquifer re-saturates, these salts are rapidly mobilized and produce a flush of increased sulfate and total dissolved solids (TDS) levels. Observations made in our previous studies in Illinois are consistent with the confined-unconfined model and include rapid head drops, changes to unconfined conditions, and increases in sulfate and TDS during re-saturation of a sandstone aquifer. Studies reported from the Appalachian coalfield show aspects consistent with the model, but in this high-relief fractured setting it is often difficult to distinguish aquifers from aquitards, confined from unconfined states, and the fracture-porosity cause of head drops from several others that occur during mine subsidence.

Booth, C.J. [North Illinois University, De Kalb, IL (USA). Dept. of Geology & Environmental Geoscience

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

411

Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1976--1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements (As, B, F, Mo, Se) by shale oil production and use. Some of the particularly significant results are: The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. This implies that the number of analytical determinations required of processed shales is not large. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, And Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements ae not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Upon oxidation a drastic lowering in pH is observed. Preliminary data indicates that this oxidation is catalyzed by bacteria. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. These amounts depend upon the process and various site specific characteristics. In general, the amounts taken up decrease with increasing soil cover. On the other hand, we have not observed significant uptake of As, Se, and F into plants. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. In particular, most of the Cd, Se, and Cr in shale oil is associated with the organic fraction containing most of the nitrogen-containing compounds.

Chappell, W.R.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Fluid mechanics experiments in oscillatory flow. Volume 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results of a fluid mechanics measurement program is oscillating flow within a circular duct are present. The program began with a survey of transition behavior over a range of oscillation frequency and magnitude and continued with a detailed study at a single operating point. Such measurements were made in support of Stirling engine development. Values of three dimensionless parameters, Re{sub max}, Re{sub W}, and A{sub R}, embody the velocity amplitude, frequency of oscillation and mean fluid displacement of the cycle, respectively. Measurements were first made over a range of these parameters which included operating points of all Stirling engines. Next, a case was studied with values of these parameters that are representative of the heat exchanger tubes in the heater section of NASA`s Stirling cycle Space Power Research Engine (SPRE). Measurements were taken of the axial and radical components of ensemble-averaged velocity and rms-velocity fluctuation and the dominant Reynolds shear stress, at various radial positions for each of four axial stations. In each run, transition from laminar to turbulent flow, and in reverse, were identified and sufficient data was gathered to propose the transition mechanism. Models of laminar and turbulent boundary layers were used to process the data into wall coordinates and to evaluate skin friction coefficients. Such data aids in validating computational models and is useful in comparing oscillatory flow characteristics to those of fully-developed steady flow. Data were taken with a contoured entry to each end of the test section and with flush square inlets so that the effects of test section inlet geometry on transition and turbulence are documented. The following is presented in two-volumes. Volume I contains the text of the report including figures and supporting appendices. Volume II contains data reduction program listings and tabulated data (including its graphical presentation).

Seume, J.; Friedman, G.; Simon, T.W. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES OF THE SINGLE CELL TEST SYSTEM FOR SO2 DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER DEVELOPMENT  

SciTech Connect

The single cell test system development for the SRNL sulfur dioxide-depolarized electrolyzer has been completed. Operating experience and improved operating procedures were developed during test operations in FY06 and the first quarter of FY07. Eight different cell configurations, using various MEA designs, have been tested. The single cell test electrolyzer has been modified to overcome difficulties experienced during testing, including modifications to the inlet connection to eliminate minute acid leaks that caused short circuits. The test facility was modified by adding a water bath for cell heating, thus permitting operation over a wider range of flowrates and cell temperatures. Modifications were also identified to permit continuous water flushing of the cathode to remove sulfur, thus extending operating time between required shutdowns. This is also expected to permit a means of independently measuring the rate of sulfur formation, and the corresponding SO{sub 2} flux through the membrane. This report contains a discussion of the design issues being addressed by the single cell test program, a test matrix being conducted to address these issues, and a summary of the performance objectives for the single cell test system. The current primary objective of single cell test system is to characterize and qualify electrolyzer configurations for the following 100-hour longevity tests. Although the single cell test system development is considered complete, SRNL will continue to utilize the test facility and the single cell electrolyzer to measure the operability and performance of various cell design configurations, including new MEA's produced by the component development tasks.

Steimke, J

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

414

Fluid turbine  

SciTech Connect

A fluid turbine designed for increased power output includes an annular housing provided with a semi-spherical dome for directing incoming fluid flow to impinge on a plurality of rotor blades within the housing fixed to a vertical output shaft. An angle on the order of between 5 to 85/sup 0/, in the direction of rotation of the shaft, exists between the upper (Leading) and lower (Trailing) edges of each blade. The blades are manufactured from a plurality of aerodynamically-shaped, radially spaced ribs covered with a skin. The leading edge of each rib is curved, while the trailing edge is straight. The straight edge of the ribs in each blade approach a vertical plane through the vertical axis of the housing output shaft as the ribs progress radially inwardly towards the output shaft. The housing has fluid exit passages in its base so that deenergized fluid can be quickly flushed from the housing by the downwardly directed flow in combination with the novel blade configuration, which acts as a screw or force multiplier, to expel deenergized fluid. The airfoil shaped ribs also provide the blades with a contour for increasing the fluid velocity on the underside of the blades adjacent the fluid exit passage to aid in expelling the deenergized air while providing the turbine with both impulse and axial-flow, fluid impingement on the blades, resulting in a force vector of increased magnitude. A downwardly directed, substantially semi-cylindrical deflector frame connected to the housing blocks the path of flow of ambient fluid to create a low pressure area beneath the base to aid in continuously drawing fluid into the housing at high velocity to impinge on the rotor blades. The increased flow velocity and force on the blades along with the enhanced removal of deenergized fluid results in increased power output of the turbine.

Lebost, B.A.

1980-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

415

Methods of reducing liquid effluent from the OSU TRIGA MKII Reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 1991, the OSU Radiation Center implemented a program to minimize the liquid effluent generated by the reactor facility. The goal of program is to become a 'zero' release facility with regards to routine liquid discharges. Only two liquid waste streams exist for the OSU reactor facility: discharges resulting from changing resin in the deminerializer and decontamination of equipment, primarily sample loading tubes. This paper describes a system which allows remote resin exchange to performed with the collection of all flush water. This water is then recycled for use as makeup for the primary water system. The service life of the resin is maximized by using a steam distillation unit as the source of makeup water to the deminerializer system instead of water coming directly from the City of Corvallis water supply. The second source of liquid waste water comes from the decontamination of the plastic loading tubes used to encapsulate samples. This process originally involved placing the tubes in a dishwasher and sending the discharge to a hold up tank. If the radionuclide concentrations in the tank were below the maximum permissible concentrations of 10CFR20 then it was released to the sanitary sewerage. This process was replaced in 1991 with a system which involved manual washing and rinsing of the tubes with the liquids being absorbed for disposal as solid waste. This paper will also describe the system which is being built to replace this process. It will use the dishwasher unit again but the liquid discharge will collected for absorption and disposal as solid waste. (author)

Higginbotham, J.F.; Dodd, B.; Pratt, D.S.; Smith, S.; Anderson, T.V. [OSU Radiation Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-5903 (United States)

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Decommissioning of Experimental Breeder Reactor - II Complex, Post Sodium Draining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Experimental Breeder Reactor - II (EBR-II) was shutdown in September 1994 as mandated by the United States Department of Energy. This sodium-cooled reactor had been in service since 1964. The bulk sodium was drained from the primary and secondary systems and processed. Residual sodium remaining in the systems after draining was converted into sodium bicarbonate using humid carbon dioxide. This technique was tested at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois under controlled conditions, then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary cooling system, followed by the primary tank. This process, terminated in 2002, was used to place a layer of sodium bicarbonate over all exposed surfaces of sodium. Treatment of the remaining EBR-II sodium is governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality issued a RCRA Operating Permit in 2002, mandating that all hazardous materials be removed from EBR-II within a 10 year period, with the ability to extend the permit and treatment period for another 10 years. A preliminary plan has been formulated to remove the remaining sodium and NaK from the primary and secondary systems using moist carbon dioxide, steam and nitrogen, and a water flush. The moist carbon dioxide treatment was resumed in May 2004. As of August 2005, approximately 60% of the residual sodium within the EBR-II primary tank had been treated. This process will continue through the end of 2005, when it is forecast that the process will become increasingly ineffective. At that time, subsequent treatment processes will be planned and initiated. It should be noted that the processes and anticipated costs associated with these processes are preliminary. Detailed engineering has not been performed, and approval for these methods has not been obtained from the regulator or the sponsors.

J. A. (Bart) Michelbacher; S. Paul Henslee; Collin J. Knight; Steven R. sherman

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Status report for inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks at Hanford Site 200 Areas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this status report is to summarize updated data and information from the FY 1994 strategy plan that is associated with inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUSTs). Assumptions and processes to assess potential risks and operational concerns are documented in this report. Safety issue priorities are ranked based on a number of considerations. Sixty-three IMUSTs have been Identified and placed on the official IMUST list. All the tanks are associated with past Hanford Site operations. Of the 63 tanks., 19 are catch tanks, 20 are vault tanks, 3 are neutralization tanks, 8 are settling tanks, 2 are solvent makeup tanks used to store hexone, 2 are flush tanks, 3 are decontamination tanks, 1 is a diverter station, 1 is a receiver tank, 1 is an experimental tank, and 3 are waste handling tanks. It is important to proactively deal with the risks Imposed by these 63 tanks, and at the same time not jeopardize the existing commitments and schedules for mitigating and resolving identified safety issues related to the 177 SSTs and DSTS. Access controls and signs have been placed on all but the three official IMUSTs added most recently. An accelerated effort to identify authorization documents and perform unreviewed safety question (USQ) screening has been completed. According to a set of criteria consistent with the safety screening data quality objective (DQO) process, 6 IMUSTs are ranked high related to the hydrogen generation potential safety Issue, 1 is ranked high related to the ferrocyanide potential safety issue, 6 are ranked high related to the flammability potential safety issue, and 25 are ranked high related to the vapor emissions potential safety issue.

Powers, T.B.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: Evaluation and assessment of containment technology  

SciTech Connect

Containment technology refers to a broad range of methods that are used to contain waste or contaminated groundwater and to keep uncontaminated water from entering a waste site. The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Technology Development has instituted the In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISRIP) to advance the state-of-the-art of innovative technologies that contain or treat, in situ, contaminated media such as soil and groundwater, to the point of demonstration and to broaden the applicability of these technologies to the widely varying site remediation requirements throughout the DOE complex. The information provided here is an overview of the state-of-the-art of containment technology and includes a discussion of ongoing development projects; identifies the technical gaps; discusses the priorities for resolution of the technical gaps; and identifies the site parameters affecting the application of a specific containment method. The containment technology described in this document cover surface caps; vertical barriers such as slurry walls, grout curtains, sheet pilings, frozen soil barriers, and vitrified barriers; horizontal barriers; sorbent barriers; and gravel layers/curtains. Within DOE, containment technology could be used to prevent water infiltration into buried waste; to provide for long-term containment of pits, trenches, and buried waste sites; for the interim containment of leaking underground storage tanks and piping; for the removal of contaminants from groundwater to prevent contamination from migrating off-site; and as an interim measure to prevent the further migration of contamination during the application of an in situ treatment technology such as soil flushing. The ultimate goal is the implementation of containment technology at DOE sites as a cost-effective, efficient, and safe choice for environmental remediation and restoration activities.

Gerber, M.A.; Fayer, M.J.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Geochemical assessment of gaseous hydrocarbons: mixing of bacterial and thermogenic methane in the deep subsurface petroleum system, Gulf of Mexico continental slope  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mixtures of bacterial and thermogenic methane are found both at vents at the seafloor and in reservoirs in the deep subsurface of the Gulf of Mexico continental slope. The C1-C5 gas that most recently charged reservoirs of Jolliet (GC 184), Genesis (GC 160/161) and Petronius (VK 786) fields is estimated to include 17%-28%, 31%-51%, 31%-49% bacterial methane, respectively. Geochemical assessment of the reservoir gas in the fields show that the gas may be the product of thermal cracking of Upper Jurassic crude oil before final migration to the reservoirs. The gas from three different fields is of similar thermal maturity levels. In contrast to oil in reservoirs in the fields, which shows biodegradation effects, the C1-C5 reservoir gas is unaltered by biodegradation. Late gas migration may have occurred at or near present burial depth and flushed the reservoir system of previously biodegraded hydrocarbon gas to include any previous bacterial methane. Molecular and isotopic properties of reservoir gas and oil suggest that bacterial methane mixed with thermogenic hydrocarbon gas before entering the reservoirs. Thus the source of the bacterial methane is logically deeper than the present depth (>~4 km) and temperatures of the reservoirs. High sedimentation rate and low geothermal gradient may offer conditions favorable for generation and preservation of bacterial methane in deep subsurface petroleum system of the Gulf slope. Bacterial methane dispersed across the large drainage areas of the deep subsurface petroleum system may have been swept by migrating fluids at >4 km, and then charged both vents (GC 185, GC 233 and GC 286) at the seafloor and reservoirs in the deep subsurface. The volume of bacterial methane from geologically significant depth in rapidly subsiding basins may be underestimated.

Ozgul, Ercin

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Initial Assessment of Sulfur-Iodine Process Safety Issues and How They May Affect Pilot Plant Design and Operation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The sulfur-iodine process to make hydrogen by the thermochemical splitting of water is under active development as part of a U.S. Department of Energy program. An integrated lab scale system is currently being designed and built. The next planned stage of development is a pilot plant with a thermal input of about 500 kW, equivalent to about 30,000 standard liters per hour of hydrogen production. The sulfur-iodine process contains a variety of hazards, including temperatures up to 850 C and hazardous chemical species including SO2, H2SO4, HI, I2, and of course H2. The siting and design of a pilot plant must consider these and other hazards. This report presents an initial analysis of the hazards that might affect pilot plant design and should be considered in the initial planning. The general hazards that have been identified include reactivity, flammability, toxicity, pressure, electrical hazards, and industrial hazards such as lifting and rotating equipment. Personnel exposure to these hazards could occur during normal operations, which includes not only running the process at the design conditions but also initial inventory loading, heatup, startup, shutdown, and system flushing before equipment maintenance. Because of the complexity and severity of the process, these ancillary operations are expected to be performed frequently. In addition, personnel could be exposed to the hazards during various abnormal situations which could include unplanned phase changes of liquids or solids, leaks of process fluids or cooling water into other process streams, unintentional introducion of foreign species into the process, and unexpected side reactions. Design of a pilot plant will also be affected by various codes and regulations such as the International Building Code, the International Fire Code, various National Fire Protection Association Codes, and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act.

Robert S. Cherry

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flush toilet bathtub" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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421

No-migration variance petition. Appendices K--O, Response to notice of deficiencies: Volume 6, Revision 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document reports data collected as part of the Ecological Monitoring Program (EMP) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico, for Calendar Year 1987. Also included are data from the last quarter (October through December) of 1986. This report divides data collection activities into two parts. Part A covers general environmental monitoring which includes meteorology, aerial photography, air quality monitoring, water quality monitoring, and wildlife population surveillance. Part B focuses on the special studies being performed to evaluate the impacts of salt dispersal from the site on the surrounding ecosystem. The fourth year of salt impact monitoring was completed in 1987. These studies involve the monitoring of soil chemistry, soil microbiota, and vegetation in permanent study plots. None of the findings indicate that the WIPP project is adversely impacting environmental quality at the site. As in 1986, breeding bird censuses completed this year indicate changes in the local bird fauna associated with the WIPP site. The decline in small mammal populations noted in the 1986 census is still evident in the 1987 data; however, populations are showing signs of recovery. There is no indication that this decline is related to WIPP activities. Rather, the evidence indicates that natural population fluctuations may be common in this ecosystem. The salt impact studies continue to reveal some short-range transport of salt dust from the saltpiles. This material accumulates at or near the soil surface during the dry seasons in areas near the saltpiles, but is flushed deeper into the soil during the rainy season. Microbial activity does not appear to be affected by this salt importation. Vegetation coverage and density data from 1987 also do not show any detrimental effect associated with aerial dispersal of salt.

Fischer, N.T. [ed.] [International Technology Corp., Torrance, CA (United States)

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

PH Sensitive Polymers for Improving Reservoir Sweep and Conformance Control in Chemical Flooring  

SciTech Connect

There is an increasing opportunity to recover bypassed oil from depleted, mature oilfields in the US. The recovery factor in many reservoirs is low due to inefficient displacement of the oil by injected fluids (typically water). The use of chemical flooding methods to increase recovery efficiencies is severely constrained by the inability of the injected chemicals to contact the bypassed oil. Low sweep efficiencies are the primary cause of low oil recoveries observed in the field in chemical flooding operations even when lab studies indicate high oil recovery efficiency. Any technology that increases the ability of chemical flooding agents to better contact the remaining oil and reduce the amount of water produced in conjunction with the produced oil will have a significant impact on the cost of producing oil domestically in the US. This translates directly into additional economically recoverable reserves, which extends the economic lives of marginal and mature wells. The objective of this research project was to develop a low-cost, pH-triggered polymer for use in IOR processes to improve reservoir sweep efficiency and reservoir conformance in chemical flooding. Rheological measurements made on the polymer solution, clearly show that it has a low viscosity at low pH and exhibits a sudden increase in viscosity (by 2 orders of magnitude or more) at a pH of 3.5 to 4. This implies that the polymer would preferentially flow into zones containing water since the effective permeability to water is highest in these zones. As the pH of the zone increases due to the buffering capacity of the reservoir rock, the polymer solution undergoes a liquid to gel transition causing a sharp increase in the viscosity of the polymer solution in these zones. This allows operationally robust, in-depth conformance treatment of such water bearing zones and better mobility control. The rheological properties of HPAM solutions were measured. These include: steady-shear viscosity and viscoelastic behavior as functions of pH; shear rate; polymer concentration; salinity, including divalent ion effects; polymer molecular weight; and degree of hydrolysis. A comprehensive rheological model was developed for HPAM solution rheology in terms of: shear rate; pH; polymer concentration; and salinity, so that the spatial and temporal changes in viscosity during the polymer flow in the reservoir can be accurately modeled. A series of acid coreflood experiments were conducted to understand the geochemical reactions relevant for both the near-wellbore injection profile control and for conformance control applications. These experiments showed that the use hydrochloric acid as a pre-flush is not viable because of the high reaction rate with the rock. The use of citric acid as a pre-flush was found to be quite effective. This weak acid has a slow rate of reaction with the rock and can buffer the pH to below 3.5 for extended periods of time. With the citric acid pre-flush the polymer could be efficiently propagated through the core in a low pH environment i.e. at a low viscosity. The transport of various HPAM solutions was studied in sandstones, in terms of permeability reduction, mobility reduction, adsorption and inaccessible pore volume with different process variables: injection pH, polymer concentration, polymer molecular weight, salinity, degree of hydrolysis, and flow rate. Measurements of polymer effluent profiles and tracer tests show that the polymer retention increases at the lower pH. A new simulation capability to model the deep-penetrating mobility control or conformance control using pH-sensitive polymer was developed. The core flood acid injection experiments were history matched to estimate geochemical reaction rates. Preliminary scale-up simulations employing linear and radial geometry floods in 2-layer reservoir models were conducted. It is clearly shown that the injection rate of pH-sensitive polymer solutions can be significantly increased by injecting it at a pH below 3.5 (at a fixed bottom-hole pressure). This improvement in injectivity by a fa

Mukul Sharma; Steven Bryant; Chun Huh

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

423

Idling - cruising the fuel inefficiency highway.  

SciTech Connect

What is the purpose of idling? The scale of idling can be small, as when parents idle their vehicles while waiting for their children outside of school, or it can be large, as when ocean liners are in port. In many cases, the primary purpose for idling is to control the temperature of a passenger or freight compartment. Large line-haul trucks idle overnight to keep fuel and the engine warm, for the resting driver's comfort, to mask out noises and smells, and for safety. In addition, all classes of trucks idle during the workday at ports and terminals, busy delivery sites, border crossings, and other work sites. They may be idling to enable slow movement in a queue (creep idling) or to provide other services. Bus drivers also idle their vehicles while they wait for passengers and to warm up in the morning. Even locomotive engines are idled so they start, for hotel load, to keep the battery charged, to keep the toilet water from freezing, and for air brakes, or because the operator idles out of habit. Although this document focuses on long-haul trucks, much of the information applies to other vehicles as well. The impacts of idling are substantial, with as much as 6 billion gallons of fuel burned unnecessarily each year in the United States at a cost of over $20 billion. The extra hours of engine operation also cost the owners money for more frequent maintenance and overhauls. In addition, idling vehicles emit particulates (PM{sub 10}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). These emissions, along with noise from idling vehicles, have led to many local and state restrictions on idling. Two main factors have combined to create a surge of interest in idling reduction (IR): (1) Increasing restrictions on idling for heavy vehicles and (2) The price of diesel fuel. Because stakeholders focus their efforts on improving different factors (air quality, fuel economy, noise level), they do not necessarily agree on the most advantageous technological alternatives to implement. In addition, although many equipment manufacturers have tried to educate customers and government agencies, they often provide conflicting claims about the comparative merits of different devices. This makes it difficult for truck owners to choose the right equipment for their needs. In this study, we present the first comparison of IR technologies with each other and with idling on the basis of both costs and full fuel-cycle emissions, for different locations, fuel prices, and idling patterns. The preferences described are for the technologies that reduce total emissions the most and cost truck owners the least. We also discuss how regulatory issues and legislation affect IR, what financial incentives help to promote IR, and how outreach and education approaches can be adopted to reduce the need to idle. Finally, we offer a prediction of how future research and development (R&D), regulations, and citizen involvement can help to improve fuel economy and clean the air.

Gaines, L.; Levinson, T. (Energy Systems); (DOE)

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

424

DECONTAMINATION SYSTEMS AND INFORMATION RESEARCH PROGRAM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the five plus years this Cooperative Agreement existed, more than 45 different projects were funded. Most projects were funded for a one year period but there were some, deemed of such quality and importance, funded for multiple years. Approximately 22 external agencies, businesses, and other entities have cooperated with or been funded through the WVU Cooperative Agreement over the five plus years. These external entities received 33% of the funding by this Agreement. The scope of this Agreement encompassed all forms of hazardous waste remediation including radioactive, organic, and inorganic contaminants. All matrices were of interest; generally soil, water, and contaminated structures. Economic, health, and regulatory aspects of technologies were also within the scope of the agreement. The highest priority was given to small businesses funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and Department of Energy (DOE) involved in research and development of innovative remediation processes. These projects were to assist in the removal of barriers to development and commercialization of these new technologies. Studies of existing, underdeveloped technologies, were preferred to fundamental research into remediation technologies. Sound development of completely new technologies was preferred to minor improvements in existing methods. Solid technological improvements in existing technologies or significant cost reduction through innovative redesign were the preferred projects. Development, evaluation, and bench scale testing projects were preferred for the WVU research component. In the effort to fill gaps in current remediation technologies, the worth of the WVU Cooperative Agreement was proven. Two great technologies came out of the program. The Prefabricated Vertical Drain Technology for enhancing soil flushing was developed over the 6-year period and is presently being demonstrated on a 0.10 acre Trichloroethylene contaminated site in Ohio. The SpinTek Centrifugal Membrane System was a unique separation process introduced through the Agreement that is now being used at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Based on the cost to the USDOE for both technologies and considering their usefulness in cleaning up contaminated sites, no other technologies developed through USDOE provide or have the propensity to provide as great a return on investment and impact on environmental remediation. These technologies alone make the $10.3 million USDOE investment in the WVU Cooperative Agreement a tremendous investment.

Echol E. Cook, Ph.D., PE.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

PRELIMINARY DATA REPORT: HUMATE INJECTION AS AN ENHANCED ATTENUATION METHOD AT THE F-AREA SEEPAGE BASINS, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

SciTech Connect

A field test of a humate technology for uranium and I-129 remediation was conducted at the F-Area Field Research Site as part of the Attenuation-Based Remedies for the Subsurface Applied Field Research Initiative (ABRS AFRI) funded by the DOE Office of Soil and Groundwater Remediation. Previous studies have shown that humic acid sorbed to sediments strongly binds uranium at mildly acidic pH and potentially binds iodine-129 (I-129). Use of humate could be applicable for contaminant stabilization at a wide variety of DOE sites however pilot field-scale tests and optimization of this technology are required to move this technical approach from basic science to actual field deployment and regulatory acceptance. The groundwater plume at the F-Area Field Research Site contains a large number of contaminants, the most important from a risk perspective being strontium-90 (Sr-90), uranium isotopes, I-129, tritium, and nitrate. Groundwater remains acidic, with pH as low as 3.2 near the basins and increasing to the background pH of approximately 5at the plume fringes. The field test was conducted in monitoring well FOB 16D, which historically has shown low pH and elevated concentrations of Sr-90, uranium, I-129 and tritium. The field test included three months of baseline monitoring followed by injection of a potassium humate solution and approximately four and half months of post monitoring. Samples were collected and analyzed for numerous constituents but the focus was on attenuation of uranium, Sr-90, and I-129. This report provides background information, methodology, and preliminary field results for a humate field test. Results from the field monitoring show that most of the excess humate (i.e., humate that did not sorb to the sediments) has flushed through the surrounding formation. Furthermore, the data indicate that the test was successful in loading a band of sediment surrounding the injection point to a point where pH could return to near normal during the study timeframe. Future work will involve a final report, which will include data trends, correlations and interpretations of laboratory data.

Millings, M.

2013-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

426

ASSESSMENT OF THE SUBSURFACE FATE OF MONOETHANOLAMINE  

SciTech Connect

Burial of amine reclaimer unit sludges and system filters has resulted in contamination of soil at the CanOxy Okotoks decommissioned sour gas-processing plant with amines, amine byproducts, and salts. A three-phase research program was devised to investigate the natural attenuation process that controls the subsurface transport and fate of these contaminants and to apply the results toward the development of a strategy for the remediation of this type of contamination in soils. Phase I experimental activities examined interactions between monoethanolamine (MEA) and sediment, the biodegradability of MEA in soils at various concentrations and temperatures, and the biodegradability of MEA sludge contamination in a soil slurry bioreactor. The transport and fate of MEA in the subsurface was found to be highly dependant on the nature of the release, particularly MEA concentration and conditions of the subsurface environment, i.e., pH, temperature, and oxygen availability. Pure compound biodegradation experiments in soil demonstrated rapid biodegradation of MEA under aerobic conditions and moderate temperatures (>6 C). Phase II landfarming activities confirmed that these contaminants are readily biodegradable in soil under ideal laboratory conditions, yet considerable toxicity was observed in the remaining material. Examination of water extracts from the treated soil suggested that the toxicity is water-soluble. Phase II activities led to the conclusion that landfarming is not the most desirable bioremediation technique; however, an engineered biopile with a leachate collection system could remove the remaining toxic fraction from the soil. Phase III was initiated to conduct field-based experimental activities to examine the optimized remediation technology. A pilot-scale engineered biopile was constructed at a decommissioned gas-sweetening facility in Okotoks, Alberta, Canada. On the basis of a review of the analytical and performance data generated from soil and leachate samples, the biopile operation has successfully removed all identified amines and removed significant amounts of organic nitrogen and organic carbon. Salts initially present in the soil and salts generated during the biodegradation of contaminants remain to be flushed from the soil. Laboratory data show that these salts are readily removable with a simple soil leach.

James A. Sorensen; John R. Gallagher; Lori G. Kays

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Improved Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) Performance with Solvent as Steam Additive  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) is used widely as a thermal recovery technique in Canada to produce a very viscous bitumen formation. The main research objectives of this simulation and experimental study are to investigate oil recovery mechanisms under SAGD process with different injection fluids, including steam, solvent or steam with solvent. 2D simulation studies based on typical Athabasca reservoir properties have been performed. Results show that a successful solvent co-injection design can utilize the advantages of solvent and steam. There is an optimal solvent type and concentration ratio range for a particular reservoir and operating condition. Long, continuous shale barriers located vertically above or near the wellbore delay production performance significantly. Co-injecting a multi-component solvent can flush out the oil in different areas with different drainage mechanisms from vaporized and liquid components. Placing an additional injector at the top of the reservoir results only in marginal improvement. The pure high-temperature diluent injection appears feasible, although further technical and economic evaluation of the process is required. A 2D scaled physical model was fabricated that represented in cross-section a half symmetry element of a typical SAGD drainage volume in Athabasca. The experimental results show co-injecting a solvent mixture of C7 and xylene with steam gives better production performance than the injection of pure steam or steam with C7 at the study condition. Compared to pure steam injection runs ( Run 0 and 1), coinjecting C7 (Run 2) with steam increases the ultimate recovery factor of oil inside the cell from 25 percent to 29 percent and decreases the ultimate CSOR from 2.2 to 1.9 and the ultimate CEOR from 4892 J/cm 3 to 4326 J/cm 3 ; coinjecting C7 and Xylene (Run 3) increases the ultimate recovery factor of oil from 25 percent to 34 percent, and decreases the ultimate CSOR 2.2 to 1.6 and the ultimate CEOR from 4892 J/cm 3 to 3629 J/cm 3 . Analyses of the experimental results indicate that partial pressure and the near wellbore flow play important roles in production performance. In conclusion, a successful solvent injection design can effectively improve the production performance of SAGD. Further research on evaluating the performance of various hydrocarbon types as steam additives is desirable and recommended.

Li, Weiqiang

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 34: Area 3 Contaminated Waste Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0, March 2001)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 34 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 34 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs). The CAU is located within the Area 3 Compound at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in the vicinity of the Mud Plant Facility in Yucca Valley. Historically, CAS 03-09-07, Mud Pit, was used for disposal of excess mud from washing drilling equipment from 1968 to 1974, at which time it began to be used for excess mud disposal (currently inactive); CAS 03-44-01, Chromium Contamination Spill, was used to store additives used in the formulation of drilling mud from the early 1960s to the mid-1990s; CAS 03-47-02, Area 3 Mud Plant Pond, was used as a freshwater storage reservoir for the mud plant as well as supplied water for a number of activities including the mixing of mud, the rinsing and cleaning of tanks, and various washdowns from the 1960s through 1990s; and CAS 03-09-06, Mud Disposal Crater, was created in 1962 by an underground nuclear detonation (i.e., Chinchilla test) and was used to mix and store mud, dispose of receiving waste from the mud plant floor drains and excess drilling mud, and clean/flush mix tanks through the mid-1990s. Based on site history, the scope of this plan is to identify potentially contaminated ground soil at each of the four CASs and determine the quantity, nature, and extent of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs). The investigation will include systematic and biased surface and subsurface soil and mud sampling using hand-auguring and direct-push techniques; visual, video, and/or electromagnetic surveys of pipes; field screening for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and alpha/beta-emitting radionuclides; and laboratory analysis to characterize any investigation-derived waste for disposal both on site at NTS and at off-site locations. Historical information provided by former NTS employees indicates that COPCs include VOCs, semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, gamma-emitting radionuclides, isotopic plutonium, and strontium-90. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office

2001-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

429

DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION  

SciTech Connect

DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point that the test apparatus had to be disassembled to dislodge the plugs created in the system.

Adamson, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

2008-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

430

Use of compost filter bermsfor sediment trapping: primary focus on water quality and structural stability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Runoff from road construction and maintenance sites is responsible for erosion and deposition of sediments in the receiving water bodies. In addition to soil particles from erosion, runoff also transports other pollutants such as rubber, toxic metals, automobile fluids, car exhausts (which settle with the rain), pesticides, fertilizers, and other debris. Compost has been used effectively as a valuable soil amendment to aid plant growth. Berms (mounds) of compost placed at the top or bottom of steep slopes can be used to slow the velocity of water and provide additional protection for receiving waters. However, a downside of the application of composted organic material is the potential degradation of runoff water quality. Overloading with nitrogen and phosphorus causes eutrophication, which reduces the suitability of waterways for beneficial uses. A field testing of the berms coupled with a laboratory analysis of the testing water will provide a basis for the impact of the compost berms on the runoff water quality. The study of the impact of compost on the runoff water quality was investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of berms made from various materials such as dairy manure compost, yard waste compost and composted bio-solids mixed with wood chips in a ratio of 50:50 on the runoff water quality, as well as, the sediment removal efficiencies. Field tests were performed on the berms to simulate conventional rainfall runoff and the tested water was collected as time-weighted samples and analyzed in the laboratory. Several variables were investigated during this study. Results of this investigation demonstrated that the effectiveness of this application was hampered by the structural instability of the berm. A 100% failure rate was observed in the berms tested. Optimum performance was observed in yard waste compost berms, which introduced the least amount of contaminants into the water. However, some masking effect could be present due to berm failures. In fact, the actual sediment removal by the berms could not be determined. The study of compost filter berms showed some evidence of the existence of first flush effect.

Raut Desai, Aditya Babu

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Sweeping Gas Membrane Desalination Using Commercial Hydrophobic Hollow Fiber Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water shortages affect 88 developing countries that are home to half of the world's population. In these places, 80-90% of all diseases and 30% of all deaths result from poor water quality. Furthermore, over the next 25 years, the number of people affected by severe water shortages is expected to increase fourfold. Low cost methods of purifying freshwater, and desalting seawater are required to contend with this destabilizing trend. Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for separations that are traditionally accomplished via conventional distillation or reverse osmosis. As applied to desalination, MD involves the transport of water vapor from a saline solution through the pores of a hydrophobic membrane. In sweeping gas MD, a flowing gas stream is used to flush the water vapor from the permeate side of the membrane, thereby maintaining the vapor pressure gradient necessary for mass transfer. Since liquid does not penetrate the hydrophobic membrane, dissolved ions are completely rejected by the membrane. MD has a number of potential advantages over conventional desalination including low temperature and pressure operation, reduced membrane strength requirements, compact size, and 100% rejection of non-volatiles. The present work evaluated the suitability of commercially available technology for sweeping gas membrane desalination. Evaluations were conducted with Celgard Liqui-Cel{reg_sign} Extra-Flow 2.5X8 membrane contactors with X-30 and X-40 hydrophobic hollow fiber membranes. Our results show that sweeping gas membrane desalination systems are capable of producing low total dissolved solids (TDS) water, typically 10 ppm or less, from seawater, using low grade heat. However, there are several barriers that currently prevent sweeping gas MD from being a viable desalination technology. The primary problem is that large air flows are required to achieve significant water yields, and the costs associated with transporting this air are prohibitive. To overcome this barrier, at least two improvements are required. First, new and different contactor geometries are necessary to achieve efficient contact with an extremely low pressure drop. Second, the temperature limits of the membranes must be increased. In the absence of these improvements, sweeping gas MD will not be economically competitive. However, the membranes may still find use in hybrid desalination systems.

EVANS, LINDSEY; MILLER, JAMES E.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

BACKPRESSURE TESTING OF ROTARY MICROFILTER DISKS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), under the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM), is modifying and testing the SpinTek{trademark} rotary microfilter (RMF) for radioactive filtration service in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The RMF has been shown to improve filtration throughput when compared to other conventional methods such as cross-flow filtration. A concern with the RMF was that backpressure, or reverse flow through the disk, would damage the filter membranes. Reverse flow might happen as a result of an inadvertent valve alignment during flushing. Testing was completed in the Engineering Development Laboratory (EDL) located in SRNL to study the physical effects of backpressure as well as to determine the maximum allowable back-pressure for RMF disks. The RMF disks tested at the EDL were manufactured by SpinTek{trademark} Filtration and used a Pall Corporation PMM050 filter membrane (0.5 micron nominal pore size) made from 316L stainless steel. Early versions of the RMF disks were made from synthetic materials that were incompatible with caustic solutions and radioactive service as well as being susceptible to delaminating when subjected to backpressure. Figure 1-1 shows the essential components of the RMF; 3 rotating disks and 3 stationary turbulence promoters (or shear elements) are shown. Figure 1-2 show the assembly view of a 25 disk RMF proposed for use at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the Hanford Facility. The purpose of the testing discussed in this report was to determine the allowable backpressure for RMF disks as well as study the physical effects of backpressure on RMF disks made with the Pall PMM050 membrane. This was accomplished by pressurizing the disks in the reverse flow direction (backpressure) until the test limit was reached or until membrane failure occurred. Backpressure was applied to the disks with air while submerged in deionized (DI) water. This method provided a visual representation of membrane integrity via bubble flow patterns. Membrane failure was defined as the inability to filter effectively at the nominal filter pore size. Effective filtration was determined by turbidity measurements of filtrate that was produced by applying forward-pressure to the disks while submerged in a representative simulant. The r