National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for fluorine iodine phos

  1. Method for fluorinating coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huston, John L.; Scott, Robert G.; Studier, Martin H.

    1978-01-01

    Coal is fluorinated by contact with fluorine gas at low pressure. After pial fluorination, when the reaction rate has slowed, the pressure is slowly increased until fluorination is complete, forming a solid fluorinated coal of approximate composition CF.sub.1.55 H.sub.0.15. The fluorinated coal and a solid distillate resulting from vacuum pyrolysis of the fluorinated coal are useful as an internal standard for mass spectrometric unit mass assignments from about 100 to over 1500.

  2. Partially fluorinated ionic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Han, legal representative, Amy Qi; Yang, Zhen-Yu

    2008-11-25

    Partially fluorinated ionic compounds are prepared. They are useful in the preparation of partially fluorinated dienes, in which the repeat units are cycloaliphatic.

  3. FLUORINATION PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McMillan, T.S.

    1957-10-29

    A process for the fluorination of uranium metal is described. It is known that uranium will react with liquid chlorine trifluoride but the reaction proceeds at a slow rate. However, a mixture of a halogen trifluoride together with hydrogen fluoride reacts with uranium at a significantly faster rate than does a halogen trifluoride alone. Bromine trifluoride is suitable for use in the process, but chlorine trifluoride is preferred. Particularly suitable is a mixture of ClF/sub 3/ and HF having a mole ratio (moles

  4. Fluorination process using catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hochel, Robert C.; Saturday, Kathy A.

    1985-01-01

    A process for converting an actinide compound selected from the group consisting of uranium oxides, plutonium oxides, uranium tetrafluorides, plutonium tetrafluorides and mixtures of said oxides and tetrafluorides, to the corresponding volatile actinide hexafluoride by fluorination with a stoichiometric excess of fluorine gas. The improvement involves conducting the fluorination of the plutonium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF.sub.3, AgF.sub.2 and NiF.sub.2, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced. The improvement also involves conducting the fluorination of one of the uranium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF.sub.3 and AgF.sub.2, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced.

  5. Fluorination process using catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hochel, R.C.; Saturday, K.A.

    1983-08-25

    A process is given for converting an actinide compound selected from the group consisting of uranium oxides, plutonium oxides, uranium tetrafluorides, plutonium tetrafluorides and mixtures of said oxides and tetrafluorides, to the corresponding volatile actinide hexafluoride by fluorination with a stoichiometric excess of fluorine gas. The improvement involves conducting the fluorination of the plutonium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF/sub 3/, AgF/sub 2/ and NiF/sub 2/, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced. The improvement also involves conducting the fluorination of one of the uranium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF/sub 3/ and AgF/sub 2/, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced.

  6. Fluorine separation and generation device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.; Stefan, Constantin I.

    2010-03-02

    A process and apparatus for the electrolytic separation of fluorine from a mixture of gases is disclosed. Also described is the process and apparatus for the generation of fluorine from fluorine/fluoride containing solids, liquids or gases.

  7. Fluorine separation and generation device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    The Regents of the University of California

    2008-12-23

    A process and apparatus for the electrolytic separation of fluorine from a mixture of gases is disclosed. Also described is the process and apparatus for the generation of fluorine from fluorine/fluoride containing solids, liquids or gases.

  8. Fluorine separation and generation device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Stefan, Constantin I.

    2006-08-15

    A process and apparatus for the electrolytic separation of fluorine from a mixture of gases is disclosed. Also described is the process and apparatus for the generation of fluorine from fluorine/fluoride containing solids, liquids or gases.

  9. Fluorinated elastomeric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, Richard J.; Dumitru, Earl T.

    1986-11-04

    This invention relates to a method of making perfluorinated elastomeric materials, and to materials made by such methods. In the full synthetic scheme, a partially fluorinated polymeric compound, with moieties to prevent crystallization, is created. It is then crosslinked to a desired degree, then perfluorinated. Various intermediate materials, such as partially fluorinated crosslinked polymers, have useful properties, and are or may become commercially available. One embodiment of this invention therefore relates to perfluorination of a selected partially fluorinated, crosslinked material, which is one step of the full synthetic scheme.

  10. Fluorinated elastomeric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, Richard J.; Dumitru, Earl T.

    1990-02-13

    This invention relates to a method of making perfluorinated elastomeric materials, and to materials made by such methods. In the full synthetic scheme, a partially fluorinated polymeric compound, with moieties to prevent crystallization, is created. It is then crosslinked to a desired degree, then perfluorinated. Various intermediate materials, such as partially fluorinated crosslinked polymers, have useful properties, and are or may become commercially available. One embodiment of this invention therefore relates to perfluorination of a selected partially fluorinated, crosslinked material, which is one step of the full synthetic scheme.

  11. DRY FLUORINE SEPARATION METHOD

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seaborg, G.T.; Gofman, J.W.; Stoughton, R.W.

    1959-05-19

    Preparation and separation of U/sup 233/ by irradiation of ThF/sub 4/ is described. During the neutron irradiation to produce Pa/sup 233/ a fluorinating agent such as HF, F/sub 2/, or HF + F/sub 2/ is passed through the ThF/sub 4/ powder to produce PaF/sub 5/. The PaF/sub 5/, being more volatile, is removed as a gas and allowed to decay radioactively to U/sup 233/ fluoride. A batch procedure in which ThO/sub 2/ or Th metal is irradiated and fluorinated is suggested. Some Pa and U fluoride volatilizes away. Then the remainder is fluorinated with F/sub 2/ to produce very volatile UF/sub 6/ which is recovered. (T.R.H.)

  12. Fluorinated silica microchannel surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirby, Brian J.; Shepodd, Timothy Jon

    2005-03-15

    A method for surface modification of microchannels and capillaries. The method produces a chemically inert surface having a lowered surface free energy and improved frictional properties by attaching a fluorinated alkane group to the surface. The coating is produced by hydrolysis of a silane agent that is functionalized with either alkoxy or chloro ligands and an uncharged C.sub.3 -C.sub.10 fluorinated alkane chain. It has been found that the extent of surface coverage can be controlled by controlling the contact time from a minimum of about 2 minutes to a maximum of 120 minutes for complete surface coverage.

  13. Scalable superhydrophobic coatings based on fluorinated diatomaceous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on fluorinated diatomaceous earth Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Scalable superhydrophobic coatings based on fluorinated diatomaceous earth Authors: Polyzos, Georgios ...

  14. Process for preparing fluorine-18

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winchell, Harry S.; Wells, Dale K.; Lamb, James F.; Beaudry, Samuel B.

    1976-09-21

    An improved process for preparation of fluorine-18 by a neon (deuteron, alpha particle) fluorine-18 nuclear reaction in a non-reactive enclosed reaction zone wherein a ultrapure product is recovered by heating the reaction zone to a high temperature and removing the product with an inert gas.

  15. PRODUCTION OF FLUORINE-CONTAINING HYDROCARBON

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarsfield, N.F.

    1949-08-01

    This patent relates to improvements in the production of fluorine- containing hydrocarbon derivatives. The process for increasing the degree of fluorination of a fluorochlorohydrocarbon comprises subjecting a highly fluorinated fluorochlorohydrocarbon to the action of a dehydrochlorinating agent, and treating the resulting unsaturated body with fluorine, cobalt trifluoride, or silver difluoride. A number of reagents are known as dehydrochlorinaling agents, including, for example, the caustic alkalies, either in an anhydrous condition or dissolved in water or a lower aliphatic alcohol.

  16. Method of preparing pure fluorine gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Asprey, Larned B.

    1976-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive system for purifying and storing pure fluorine is described. The method utilizes alkali metal-nickel fluorides to absorb tank fluorine by forming nickel complex salts and leaving the gaseous impurities which are pumped away. The complex nickel fluoride is then heated to evolve back pure gaseous fluorine.

  17. Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated (or Partially Fluorinated) Anions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated (or Partially Fluorinated) Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes Linking ...

  18. Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated (or Partially Fluorinated) Anions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated (or Partially Fluorinated) Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes ...

  19. Copolymers of fluorinated polydienes and sulfonated polystyrene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mays, Jimmy W.; Gido, Samuel P.; Huang, Tianzi; Hong, Kunlun

    2009-11-17

    Copolymers of fluorinated polydienes and sulfonated polystyrene and their use in fuel cell membranes, batteries, breathable chemical-biological protective materials, and templates for sol-gel polymerization.

  20. Partially fluorinated cyclic ionic polymers and membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Zhen-Yu

    2013-04-09

    Ionic polymers are made from selected partially fluorinated dienes, in which the repeat units are cycloaliphatic. The polymers are formed into membranes.

  1. Energetics of Defects on Graphene through Fluorination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Jie; Meduri, Praveen; Chen, Honghao; Wang, Zhiguo; Gao, Fei; Hu, Jian Z.; Feng, Ju; Hu, Mary Y.; Dai, Sheng; Brown, Suree; Adcock, Jamie L.; Deng, Zhiqun; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L.; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, we used FGS[5] as the substrate and implemented low temperature (<=150 oC) direct fluorination on graphene sheets. The fluorine content has been modulated to investigate the formation mechanism of different functional groups such as C-F, CF2, O-CF2 and (C=O)F during the fluorination process. The detailed structure and chemical bonds were simulated theoretically and quantified experimentally by using density function theory (DFT) calculations and NMR techniques, respectively. The adjustable power/energy ratio from fluorinated graphene as cathode for primary lithium batteries is also discussed. From a combination of NMR spectroscopy and theoretical calculation, we conclude that the topological defects without oxygen containing groups provide most of the reactive sites to react with F. FGS also contain a small number of COOH groups which contribute for the fluorination reaction. Hydroxyl or epoxy groups contribute to another fraction of the reaction products.

  2. Super-hydrophobic fluorine containing aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R.; Poco, John F.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.

    2007-05-01

    An aerogel material with surfaces containing fluorine atoms which exhibits exceptional hydrophobicity, or the ability to repel liquid water. Hydrophobic aerogels are efficient absorbers of solvents from water. Solvents miscible with water are separated from it because the solvents are more volatile than water and they enter the porous aerogel as a vapor across the liquid water/solid interface. Solvents that are immisicble with water are separated from it by selectively wetting the aerogel. The hydrophobic property is achieved by formulating the aerogel using fluorine containing molecules either directly by addition in the sol-gel process, or by treating a standard dried aerogel using the vapor of fluorine containing molecules.

  3. Tunable Electrochemical Properties of Fluorinated Graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meduri, Praveen; Chen, Honghao; Xiao, Jie; Martinez, Jayson J.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Zhang, Jiguang; Deng, Zhiqun

    2013-06-18

    The structural and electrochemical properties of fluorinated graphene have been investigated by using a series of graphene fluorides (CFx, x=0.47, 0.66, 0.89). Fluorinated graphene exhibited high capacity retentions of 75-81% of theoretical capacity at moderate rates as cathode materials for primary lithium batteries. Specifically, CF0.47 maintained a capacity of 356 mAhg-1 at a 5C rate, superior to that of traditional fluorinated graphite. The discharged graphene fluorides also provide an electrochemical tool to probe the chemical bonding on the parent graphene substrate.

  4. Fluorination utilizing thermodynamically unstable fluorides and fluoride salts thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartlett, Neil; Whalen, J. Marc; Chacon, Lisa

    2000-12-12

    A method for fluorinating a carbon compound or cationic carbon compound utilizes a fluorination agent selected from thermodynamically unstable nickel fluorides and salts thereof in liquid anhydrous hydrogen fluoride. The desired carbon compound or cationic organic compound to undergo fluorination is selected and reacted with the fluorination agent by contacting the selected organic or cationic organic compound and the chosen fluorination agent in a reaction vessel for a desired reaction time period at room temperature or less.

  5. RECOVERY OF Pu VALUES BY FLUORINATION AND FRACTIONATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, H.S.; Webster, D.S.

    1959-01-20

    A method is presented for the concentration and recovery of plutonium by fluorination and fractionation. A metallic mass containing uranium and plutonium is heated to 250 C and contacted with a stream of elemental fluorine. After fluorination of the metallic mass, the rcaction products are withdrawn and subjected to a distillation treatment to separate the fluorination products of uranium and to obtain a residue containing the fluorination products of plutonium.

  6. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Walter E.; Thompson, Clarence T.

    1977-04-12

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3-20 wt. % iodine as Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention was made in the course of, or under a contract with the Energy Research and Development Administration. It relates in general to reactor waste solidification and more specifically to the immobilization of fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel for underground storage.

  7. Chemical vapor deposition of fluorinated polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, J.A.; Lang, C.I.; Lu, T.M.; You, L.

    1993-12-31

    An overview of the authors` work directed toward the deposition of fluorinated polymers by condensation of thermally or photochemically generated intermediates directly from the vapor state will be presented. Previously known materials such as Teflon AF{reg_sign} and Parylene AF{sub 4} have been successfully deposited and are being evaluated for microelectronic application as on-chip dielectrics. A novel, one-step route to Parylene AF{sub 4} will be described which obviates the necessity of multistep organic synthesis to prepare precursors. A new, partially fluorinated parylene obtained from tetrafluoro-p-xylene will be described. It has also been observed that ultraviolet irradiation of the vapor of dimethyl tetrafluorobenzocyclobutene causes the deposition of an insoluble film which contains fluorine.

  8. Method for fluorination of uranium oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petit, George S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1987-01-01

    Highly pure uranium hexafluoride is made from uranium oxide and fluorine. The uranium oxide, which includes UO.sub.3, UO.sub.2, U.sub.3 O.sub.8 and mixtures thereof, is introduced together with a small amount of a fluorine-reactive substance, selected from alkali chlorides, silicon dioxide, silicic acid, ferric oxide, and bromine, into a constant volume reaction zone. Sufficient fluorine is charged into the zone at a temperature below approximately 0.degree. C. to provide an initial pressure of at least approximately 600 lbs/sq. in. at the ambient atmospheric temperature. The temperature is then allowed to rise in the reaction zone until reaction occurs.

  9. Inhibiting voltage suppression in lithium/fluorinated carbon batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shia, G.A.; Nalewajek, D.; Pyszczek, M.F.

    1988-12-13

    This patent describes a lithium/fluorinated carbon battery having a reduced initial voltage suppression which comprises the incorporation in the battery cathode of fluorinated carbon which has been reacted with a compound selected from the group consisting of a Group IA metal-alkyl compound and a Group IA metal-aryl compound, which Group IA metal-aryl compound has at least 10 carbon atoms, until surface fluorine on the fluorinated carbon has been stripped and alkyl or aryl groups from the Group IA metal-alkyl compound or Group IA metal-aryl compound are substituted for surface fluorine atoms.

  10. Lithium/fluorinated carbon battery with no voltage delay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tung, H.S.; Friedland, D.J.; Sukornick, B.; Mc Curry, L.E.; Eibeck, R.E.; Lockyer, G.D.

    1987-07-21

    A method is described for producing an improved fluorinated carbon, for use as a cathode active material in a lithium fluorinated carbon battery, which inhibits initial voltage delay upon discharge, which comprises: (a) introducing a comminuted carbon into a static bed reactor; (b) foring a bed of the carbon to a depth of at least 0.5 cm; and (c) subjecting the carbon bed to a fluorination reaction under controlled reaction time with fluorine to produce an inhomogeneous fluorinated carbon product and until the carbon attains a weight gain of at least 10 percent.

  11. Fluorinated diamond bonded in fluorocarbon resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Gene W.

    1982-01-01

    By fluorinating diamond grit, the grit may be readily bonded into a fluorocarbon resin matrix. The matrix is formed by simple hot pressing techniques. Diamond grinding wheels may advantageously be manufactured using such a matrix. Teflon fluorocarbon resins are particularly well suited for using in forming the matrix.

  12. Fluorine compounds for doping conductive oxide thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gessert, Tim; Li, Xiaonan; Barnes, Teresa M; Torres, Jr., Robert; Wyse, Carrie L

    2013-04-23

    Methods of forming a conductive fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on a substrate by chemical vapor deposition are described. The methods may include heating the substrate in a processing chamber, and introducing a metal-containing precursor and a fluorine-containing precursor to the processing chamber. The methods may also include adding an oxygen-containing precursor to the processing chamber. The precursors are reacted to deposit the fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on the substrate. Methods may also include forming the conductive fluorine-doped metal oxide layer by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. These methods may include providing the substrate in a processing chamber, and introducing a metal-containing precursor, and a fluorine-containing precursor to the processing chamber. A plasma may be formed that includes species from the metal-containing precursor and the fluorine-containing precursor. The species may react to deposit the fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on the substrate.

  13. Electrolytes including fluorinated solvents for use in electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan

    2015-07-07

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. The electrolytes include ion-supplying salts and fluorinated solvents capable of maintaining single phase solutions with the salts at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C. The fluorinated solvents, such as fluorinated carbonates, fluorinated esters, and fluorinated esters, are less flammable than their non-fluorinated counterparts and increase safety characteristics of cells containing these solvents. The amount of fluorinated solvents in electrolytes may be between about 30% and 80% by weight not accounting weight of the salts. Fluorinated salts, such as fluoroalkyl-substituted LiPF.sub.6, fluoroalkyl-substituted LiBF.sub.4 salts, linear and cyclic imide salts as well as methide salts including fluorinated alkyl groups, may be used due to their solubility in the fluorinated solvents. In some embodiments, the electrolyte may also include a flame retardant, such as a phosphazene or, more specifically, a cyclic phosphazene and/or one or more ionic liquids.

  14. Chalcogenide aerogels as sorbents for radioactive iodine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subrahmanyam, Kota S.; Sarma, Debajit; Malliakas, Christos; Polychronopoulou, Kyriaki; Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Chun, Jaehun; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2015-04-14

    Iodine (129I) is one of the radionuclides released in nuclear fuel reprocessing and poses risk to public safety due to its involvement in human metabolic processes. In order to prevent the leaching of hazardous radioactive iodine into the environment, its effective capture and sequestration is pivotal. In the context of finding a suitable matrix for capturing radioactive iodine the chalcogels, NiMoS4, CoMoS4, Sb4Sn4S12, Zn2Sn2S6, and CoSx (x = 4-5) were explored as iodine sorbents. All the chalcogels showed high uptake, reaching up to 225 mass% (2.25 g/g) of the final mass owing to strong chemical and physical iodine-chalcogen interactions. Analysis of the iodine-loaded specimens revealed that the iodine chemically reacted with Sb4Sn4S12, Zn2Sn2S6, and CoSx to form metal complexes SbI3, SnI4, and, KI respectively. The NiMoS4 and CoMoS4 chalcogels did not appear to undergo a chemical reaction with iodine since iodide complexes were not observed with these samples. Once heated, the iodine-loaded chalcogels released iodine in the temperature range of 75 °C to 220 °C, depending on the nature of iodine speciation. In the case of Sb4Sn4S12 and Zn2Sn2S6 iodine release was observed around 150 °C in the form of SnI4 and SbI3, respectively. The NiMoS4, CoMoS4, and CoSx released iodine at ~75 °C, which is consistent with physisorbed iodine. Preliminary investigations on consolidation of iodine-loaded Zn2Sn2S6 with Sb2S3 as a glass forming additive showed the content of iodine in consolidated glass ingots at around 25 mass%.

  15. Iodine Sorbent Performance in FY 2012 Deep Bed Tests (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Iodine Sorbent Performance in FY 2012 Deep Bed Tests Citation Details In-Document Search ... for lower iodine concentrations. * The depth of the mass transfer zone was determined ...

  16. Efforts to Consolidate Chalcogels with Adsorbed Iodine (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Efforts to Consolidate Chalcogels with Adsorbed Iodine Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Efforts to Consolidate Chalcogels with Adsorbed Iodine This ...

  17. Chalcogenide aerogels as sorbents for radioactive iodine (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and poses risk to public safety due to its involvement in human metabolic processes. ... Analysis of the iodine-loaded specimens revealed that the iodine chemically reacted with ...

  18. Comparison of topotactic fluorination methods for complex oxide films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, E. J. Choquette, A. K.; Huon, A.; Kulesa, S. Z.; May, S. J.; Barbash, D.

    2015-06-01

    We have investigated the synthesis of SrFeO{sub 3??}F{sub ?} (? and ? ? 1) perovskite films using topotactic fluorination reactions utilizing poly(vinylidene fluoride) as a fluorine source. Two different fluorination methods, a spin-coating and a vapor transport approach, were performed on as-grown SrFeO{sub 2.5} films. We highlight differences in the structural, compositional, and optical properties of the oxyfluoride films obtained via the two methods, providing insight into how fluorination reactions can be used to modify electronic and optical behavior in complex oxide heterostructures.

  19. The Effect of Hydrogen and Fluorine Coadsorption on the Piezoelectric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Properties of Graphene Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Effect of Hydrogen and Fluorine Coadsorption on the Piezoelectric Properties of Graphene You are ...

  20. The Effect of Hydrogen and Fluorine Coadsorption on the Piezoelectric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Properties of Graphene Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Effect of Hydrogen and Fluorine Coadsorption on the Piezoelectric Properties of Graphene Authors: Ong, M T ...

  1. Fluorine-Modified Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons for Organic Electronics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to flexible OLED displays and organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Description The laboratory of Dr. Steven Strauss has been a pioneer in the field of fluorination and...

  2. Iodine transport analysis in the ESBWR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalinich, Donald A.; Gauntt, Randall O.; Young, Michael Francis; Longmire, Pamela

    2009-03-01

    A simplified ESBWR MELCOR model was developed to track the transport of iodine released from damaged reactor fuel in a hypothesized core damage accident. To account for the effects of iodine pool chemistry, radiolysis of air and cable insulation, and surface coatings (i.e., paint) the iodine pool model in MELCOR was activated. Modifications were made to MELCOR to add sodium pentaborate as a buffer in the iodine pool chemistry model. An issue of specific interest was whether iodine vapor removed from the drywell vapor space by the PCCS heat exchangers would be sequestered in water pools or if it would be rereleased as vapor back into the drywell. As iodine vapor is not included in the deposition models for diffusiophoresis or thermophoresis in current version of MELCOR, a parametric study was conducted to evaluate the impact of a range of iodine removal coefficients in the PCCS heat exchangers. The study found that higher removal coefficients resulted in a lower mass of iodine vapor in the drywell vapor space.

  3. Fluoroalkyl containing salts combined with fluorinated solvents for electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan; Erickson, Michael Jason

    2015-04-21

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. An electrolyte may include a fluoroalkyl-substituted LiPF.sub.6 salt or a fluoroalkyl-substituted LiBF.sub.4 salt. In some embodiments, at least one fluorinated alkyl of the salt has a chain length of from 1 to 8 or, more specifically, between about 2 and 8. These fluorinated alkyl groups, in particular, relatively large fluorinated alkyl groups improve solubility of these salts in fluorinated solvents that are less flammable than, for example, conventional carbonate solvents. At the same time, the size of fluoroalkyl-substituted salts should be limited to ensure adequate concentration of the salt in an electrolyte and low viscosity of the electrolyte. In some embodiments, the concentration of a fluoroalkyl-substituted salt is at least about 0.5M. Examples of fluorinated solvents include various fluorinated esters, fluorinated ethers, and fluorinated carbonates, such a 1-methoxyheptafluoropropane, methyl nonafluorobutyl ether, ethyl nonafluorobutyl ether, 1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,5-decafluoro-3-methoxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)-pentane, 3-ethoxy-1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-dodecafluoro-2-trifluoromethyl-hexane, and 1,1,1,2,3,3-hexafluoro-4-(1,1,2,3,3,3-hexafluoropropoxy)-pentane.

  4. Chemical vapor deposition of fluorine-doped zinc oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Roy G.; Kramer, Keith; Liang, Haifan

    2000-06-06

    Fims of fluorine-doped zinc oxide are deposited from vaporized precursor compounds comprising a chelate of a dialkylzinc, such as an amine chelate, an oxygen source, and a fluorine source. The coatings are highly electrically conductive, transparent to visible light, reflective to infrared radiation, absorbing to ultraviolet light, and free of carbon impurity.

  5. Method for producing fluorinated diamond-like carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hakovirta, Marko J.; Nastasi, Michael A.; Lee, Deok-Hyung; He, Xiao-Ming

    2003-06-03

    Fluorinated, diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) films are produced by a pulsed, glow-discharge plasma immersion ion processing procedure. The pulsed, glow-discharge plasma was generated at a pressure of 1 Pa from an acetylene (C.sub.2 H.sub.2) and hexafluoroethane (C.sub.2 F.sub.6) gas mixture, and the fluorinated, diamond-like carbon films were deposited on silicon <100>substrates. The film hardness and wear resistance were found to be strongly dependent on the fluorine content incorporated into the coatings. The hardness of the F-DLC films was found to decrease considerably when the fluorine content in the coatings reached about 20%. The contact angle of water on the F-DLC coatings was found to increase with increasing film fluorine content and to saturate at a level characteristic of polytetrafluoroethylene.

  6. Method and apparatus for removing iodine from a nuclear reactor coolant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, Martin H.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing iodine-131 and iodine-125 from a liquid sodium reactor coolant. Non-radioactive iodine is dissolved in hot liquid sodium to increase the total iodine concentration. Subsequent precipitation of the iodine in a cold trap removes both the radioactive iodine isotopes as well as the non-radioactive iodine.

  7. Method for immobilizing radioactive iodine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babad, Harry; Strachan, Denis M.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive iodine, present as alkali metal iodides or iodates in an aqueous solution, is incorporated into an inert solid material for long-term storage by adding to the solution a stoichiometric amount with respect to the formation of a sodalite (3M.sub.2 O.3Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. 6SiO.sub.2.2MX, where M=alkali metal; X=I.sup.- or IO.sub.3.sup.-) of an alkali metal, alumina and silica, stirring the solution to form a homogeneous mixture, drying the mixture to form a powder, compacting and sintering the compacted powder at 1073 to 1373 K (800.degree. to 1100.degree. C.) for a time sufficient to form sodalite.

  8. Method for directly recovering fluorine from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orlett, Michael J.; Saraceno, Anthony J.

    1981-01-01

    This invention is a process for the direct recovery of gaseous fluorine from waste-gas streams or the like. The process comprises passing the gas stream through a bed of anhydrous K.sub.3 NiF.sub.6 pellets to fluorinate the same to K.sub.3 NiF.sub.7 and subsequently desorbing the fluorine by heating the K.sub.3 NiF.sub.7 pellets to a temperature re-converting them to K.sub.3 NiF.sub.6. The efficiency of the fluorine-absorption step is maximized by operating in a selected and conveniently low temperature. The desorbed fluorine is highly pure and is at a pressure of several atmospheres. Preferably, the K.sub.3 NiF.sub.6 pellets are prepared by a method including the steps of forming agglomerates of hydrated K.sub.3 NiF.sub.5, sintering the agglomerates to form K.sub.3 NiF.sub.5 pellets of enhanced reactivity with respect to fluorine, and fluorinating the sintered pellets to K.sub.3 NiF.sub.6.

  9. Method for selectively removing fluorine and fluorine-containing contaminants from gaseous UF.sub.6

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Robert L.; Otey, Milton G.; Perkins, Roy W.

    1982-01-01

    This invention is a method for effecting preferential removal and immobilization of certain gaseous contaminants from gaseous UF.sub.6. The contaminants include fluorine and fluorides which are more reactive with CaCO.sub.3 than is UF.sub.6. The method comprises contacting the contaminant-carrying UF.sub.6 with particulate CaCO.sub.3 at a temperature effecting reaction of the contaminant and the CaCO.sub.3.

  10. Fluorination of amorphous thin-film materials with xenon fluoride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weil, Raoul B. (Haifa, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A method is disclosed for producing fluorine-containing amorphous semiconductor material, preferably comprising amorphous silicon. The method includes depositing amorphous thin-film material onto a substrate while introducing xenon fluoride during the film deposition process.

  11. Fluorination of amorphous thin-film materials with xenon fluoride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weil, R.B.

    1987-05-01

    A method is disclosed for producing fluorine-containing amorphous semiconductor material, preferably comprising amorphous silicon. The method includes depositing amorphous thin-film material onto a substrate while introducing xenon fluoride during the film deposition process.

  12. Mixed-layered bismuth--oxygen--iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2015-01-06

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  13. Mixed-layered bismuth-oxygen-iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2013-02-26

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  14. Measurement of the iodine partition coefficient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furrer, M.; Cripps, R.C.; Gubler, R.

    1985-08-01

    The hydrolysis of iodine is complicated because it involves a number of species that differ considerably in their individual volatilities. Large uncertainties exist in the thermodynamic data of some of the iodine species, especially at temperatures above 25C. Because of this, an experiment was undertaken to measure the partition coefficient under varying physical and chemical conditions. Measurements of P were made for a temperature range of 21 to 113C under well-defined conditions (liquid molar concentration, pH, and redox potential) for inorganic iodine. The experimental results are interpreted with the aid of an analytical model and published thermodynamic data. A good agreement between calculated and measured values was found. The experimental setup allows the determination of very high partition coefficients up to a value of 2.0 X 10W. This is demonstrated by adding cesium-iodide to the fuel pool water of a boiling water reactor.

  15. Efforts to Consolidate Chalcogels with Adsorbed Iodine (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Efforts to Consolidate Chalcogels with Adsorbed Iodine Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Efforts to Consolidate Chalcogels with Adsorbed Iodine This document discusses ongoing work with non-oxide aerogels, called chalcogels, that are under development at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as sorbents for gaseous iodine. Work was conducted in fiscal year 2012 to demonstrate the feasibility of converting Sn2S3 chalcogel without iodine into a glass. This current

  16. Dry method for recycling iodine-loaded silver zeolite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, Thomas R.; Staples, Bruce A.; Murphy, Llewellyn P.

    1978-05-09

    Fission product iodine is removed from a waste gas stream and stored by passing the gas stream through a bed of silver-exchanged zeolite until the zeolite is loaded with iodine, passing dry hydrogen gas through the bed to remove the iodine and regenerate the bed, and passing the hydrogen stream containing the hydrogen iodide thus formed through a lead-exchanged zeolite which adsorbs the radioactive iodine from the gas stream and permanently storing the lead-exchanged zeolite loaded with radioactive iodine.

  17. Iodine retention during evaporative volume reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Godbee, H.W.; Cathers, G.I.; Blanco, R.E.

    1975-11-18

    An improved method for retaining radioactive iodine in aqueous waste solutions during volume reduction is disclosed. The method applies to evaporative volume reduction processes whereby the decontaminated (evaporated) water can be returned safely to the environment. The method generally comprises isotopically diluting the waste solution with a nonradioactive iodide and maintaining the solution at a high pH during evaporation.

  18. METHOD OF REMOVING RADIOACTIVE IODINE FROM GASES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silverman, L.

    1962-01-23

    A method of removing radioactive iodine from a gaseous medium is given in which the gaseous medium is adjusted to a temperature not exceeding 400 deg C and then passed over a copper fibrous pad having a coating of cupric sulfide deposited thereon. An ionic exchange on the pad results in the formation of cupric iodide and the release of sulfur. (AEC)

  19. Compilation of Requirements for Safe Handling of Fluorine and Fluorine-Containing Products of Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrada, J.J.

    2000-04-03

    Public Law (PL) 105-204 requires the U.S. Department of Energy to develop a plan for inclusion in the fiscal year 2000 budget for conversion of the Department's stockpile of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) to a more stable form over an extended period. The conversion process into a more stable form will produce fluorine compounds (e.g., elemental fluorine or hydrofluoric acid) that need to be handled safely. This document compiles the requirements necessary to handle these materials within health and safety standards, which may apply in order to ensure protection of the environment and the safety and health of workers and the public. Fluorine is a pale-yellow gas with a pungent, irritating odor. It is the most reactive nonmetal and will react vigorously with most oxidizable substances at room temperature, frequently with ignition. Fluorine is a severe irritant of the eyes, mucous membranes, skin, and lungs. In humans, the inhalation of high concentrations causes laryngeal spasm and broncospasms, followed by the delayed onset of pulmonary edema. At sublethal levels, severe local irritation and laryngeal spasm will preclude voluntary exposure to high concentrations, unless the individual is trapped or incapacitated. A blast of fluorine gas on the shaved skin of a rabbit causes a second degree burn. Lower concentrations cause severe burns of insidious onset, resulting in ulceration, similar to the effects produced by hydrogen fluoride. Hydrofluoric acid is a colorless, fuming liquid or gas with a pungent odor. It is soluble in water with release of heat. Ingestion of an estimated 1.5 grams produced sudden death without gross pathological damage. Repeated ingestion of small amounts resulted in moderately advanced hardening of the bones. Contact of skin with anhydrous liquid produces severe burns. Inhalation of AHA or aqueous hydrofluoric acid mist or vapors can cause severe respiratory tract irritation that may be fatal. Based on the extreme chemical

  20. RECOVERY OF Pu FROM CERIUM TRIFLUORIDE BY FLUORINATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, H.S.; Bohlmann, E.G.

    1959-02-10

    An improved process is prcsented for selectively recovering plutonium from a solution containing fission products comprising precipitating cerium trifluoride in the solution for effccting carrier precipitation of plutonium. The resulting carrier precipitate is dried and subjected to fluorination at about 600 C. The plutonium forms a volatile fiuoridc and is so separated from the nonvolatile cerium fluoride.

  1. Models of iodine behavior in reactor containments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Models are developed for many phenomena of interest concerning iodine behavior in reactor containments during severe accidents. Processes include speciation in both gas and liquid phases, reactions with surfaces, airborne aerosols, and other materials, and gas-liquid interface behavior. Although some models are largely empirical formulations, every effort has been made to construct mechanistic and rigorous descriptions of relevant chemical processes. All are based on actual experimental data generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) or elsewhere, and, hence, considerable data evaluation and parameter estimation are contained in this study. No application or encoding is attempted, but each model is stated in terms of rate processes, with the intention of allowing mechanistic simulation. Taken together, this collection of models represents a best estimate iodine behavior and transport in reactor accidents.

  2. Therapeutic implications of iodine-125 cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomer, W.D.; McLaughlin, W.H.; Adelstein, S.J.

    1982-11-01

    The biological consequences of differential subcellular radionuclide accumulation within nuclear stuctures have important implications for the design and development of new therapeutic agents for cancer management. A growing body of experimental data demonstrates that localization of /sup 125/I within the genome results in marked cytotoxicity. Investigations of iodine-125 labeled iododeoxyuridine, DNA intercalators and tamoxifen are reviewed as representative of this new group of potential radiotherapeutic agents.

  3. Iodine Sorbent Performance in FY 2012 Deep Bed Tests (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Deep-bed iodine sorption tests for both silver-functionalized Aerogel and silver zeolite sorbents were performed during Fiscal Year 2012. These tests showed that: * Decontamination ...

  4. Fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Gene W.; Roybal, Herman E.

    1985-01-01

    A method of producing fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix. Simple hot pressing techniques permit the formation of such matrices from which diamond impregnated grinding tools and other articles of manufacture can be produced. Teflon fluorocarbon resins filled with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 yield grinding tools with substantially improved work-to-wear ratios over grinding wheels known in the art.

  5. Fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, G.W.; Roybal, H.E.

    1983-11-14

    A method of producing fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix. Simple hot pressing techniques permit the formation of such matrices from which diamond impregnated grinding tools and other articles of manufacture can be produced. Teflon fluorocarbon resins filled with Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ yield grinding tools with substantially improved work-to-wear ratios over grinding wheels known in the art.

  6. Fluorinated precursors of superconducting ceramics, and methods of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiesmann, Harold; Solovyov, Vyacheslav

    2014-02-18

    This invention provides a method of making a fluorinated precursor of a superconducting ceramic. The method comprises providing a solution comprising a rare earth salt, an alkaline earth metal salt and a copper salt; spraying the solution onto a substrate to provide a film-covered substrate; and heating the film-covered substrate in an atmosphere containing fluorinated gas to provide the fluorinated precursor.

  7. Fluorinated precursors of superconducting ceramics, and methods of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiesmann, Harold; Solovyov, Vyacheslav

    2012-07-10

    This invention provides a method of making a fluorinated precursor of a superconducting ceramic. The method comprises providing a solution comprising a rare earth salt, an alkaline earth metal salt and a copper salt; spraying the solution onto a substrate to provide a film-covered substrate; and heating the film-covered substrate in an atmosphere containing fluorinated gas to provide the fluorinated precursor.

  8. Fluorinated precursors of superconducting ceramics, and methods of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiesmann, Harold; Solovyov, Vyacheslav

    2008-04-22

    This invention provides a method of making a fluorinated precursor of a superconducting ceramic. The method comprises providing a solution comprising a rare earth salt, an alkaline earth metal salt and a copper salt; spraying the solution onto a substrate to provide a film-covered substrate; and heating the film-covered substrate in an atmosphere containing fluorinated gas to provide the fluorinated precursor.

  9. Fluorine contamination in yttrium-doped barium zirconate film deposited by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    An Jihwan; Beom Kim, Young; Sun Park, Joong; Hyung Shim, Joon; Guer, Turgut M.; Prinz, Fritz B.

    2012-01-15

    The authors have investigated the change of chemical composition, crystallinity, and ionic conductivity in fluorine contaminated yttrium-doped barium zirconate (BYZ) fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD). It has been identified that fluorine contamination can significantly affect the conductivity of the ALD BYZ. The authors have also successfully established the relationship between process temperature and contamination and the source of fluorine contamination, which was the perfluoroelastomer O-ring used for vacuum sealing. The total removal of fluorine contamination was achieved by using all-metal sealed chamber instead of O-ring seals.

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion Chemistry

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about fluorinated...

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion Chemistry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about fluorinated...

  12. Combinations of fluorinated solvents with imide salts or methide salts for electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan; Lei, Norman; Guerrero-Zavala, Guillermo; Kwong, Kristie W

    2015-11-10

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. The electrolytes include imide salts and/or methide salts as well as fluorinated solvents capable of maintaining single phase solutions at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C. The fluorinated solvents, such as fluorinated carbonates, fluorinated esters, and fluorinated esters, are less flammable than their non-fluorinated counterparts and improve safety characteristics of cells containing these solvents. The amount of fluorinated solvents in electrolytes may be between about 30% and 80% by weight not accounting weight of the salts. Linear and cyclic imide salts, such as LiN(SO.sub.2CF.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.2, and LiN(SO.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.2, as well as methide salts, such as LiC(SO.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.3 and LiC(SO.sub.2CF.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.3, may be used in these electrolytes. Fluorinated alkyl groups enhance solubility of these salts in the fluorinated solvents. In some embodiments, the electrolyte may also include a flame retardant, such as a phosphazene, and/or one or more ionic liquids.

  13. Generation of highly N-type, defect passivated transition metal oxides using plasma fluorine insertion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, L. Robert; Seo, Hyungtak; Hervier, Antoine; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2016-04-12

    A new composition of matter is disclosed wherein oxygen vacancies in a semiconducting transition metal oxide such as titanium dioxide are filled with a halogen such as Fluorine, whereby the conductivity of the composition is greatly enhanced, while at the same time the chemical stability of the composition is greatly improved. Stoichiometric titanium dioxide having less than 3 % oxygen vacancies is subject to fluorine insertion such that oxygen vacancies are filled, limited amounts of fluorine replace additional oxygen atoms and fluorine interstitially inserts into the body of the TiO.sub.2 composition.

  14. Aging and iodine loading of silver-functionalized aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruffey, S.H.; Jubin, R.T.; Anderson, K.K.; Walker, J.F.

    2013-07-01

    Engineered silver-functionalized silica aerogels are being investigated for their potential application in off-gas treatment at a used nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. Reprocessing will release several key volatile radionuclides, including iodine-129. To achieve regulatory compliance, iodine-129 must be removed from any off-gas stream prior to environmental discharge. Ag{sup 0}-functionalized aerogels have been demonstrated to have high iodine-capture capacity, high porosity, and potential for conversion into a waste form. Capture materials used in off-gas treatment may be exposed to a heated, high-humidity, acidic gas stream for months. Extended exposure to this stream could affect sorbent performance. It was the aim of this study to evaluate what impacts might be observed when Ag{sup 0}-functionalized aerogels prepared at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were contacted with a dry air stream for up to 6 months and then used to adsorb iodine from a synthetic off-gas stream. Results demonstrate that there is some loss of iodine-capture capacity caused by aging, but that this loss is not as marked as for aging of more traditional iodine sorbents, such as silver-impregnated mordenite. Specifically, aging silver-functionalized aerogel under a dry air stream for up to 6 months can decrease its iodine capacity from 41 wt% to 32 wt%. (authors)

  15. AGING AND IODINE LOADING OF SILVER-FUNCTIONALIZED AEROGELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruffey, Stephanie H [ORNL; Jubin, Robert Thomas [ORNL; Anderson, Kaara K [ORNL; Walker Jr, Joseph Franklin [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Engineered silver-functionalized silica aerogels are being investigated for their application in off-gas treatment at a used nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. Reprocessing will release several key volatile radionuclides, including iodine-129. To achieve regulatory compliance, iodine-129 must be removed from any off-gas stream prior to environmental discharge. Silver-functionalized aerogels have been demonstrated to have high iodine capture capacity, high porosity and potential for conversion into a waste form. Capture materials used in off-gas treatment may be exposed to a heated, high humidity, acidic gas stream for months. Extended exposure to this stream could affect sorbent performance. It was the aim of this study to evaluate what impacts might be observed when Ag0-functionalized aerogels prepared at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were contacted with a dry air stream for up to 6 months and then used to adsorb iodine from a synthetic off-gas stream. Results demonstrate that there is some loss of iodine capture capacity caused by aging, but that this loss is not as marked as for aging of more traditional iodine sorbents, such as silver-impregnated mordenite. Specifically, aging silver-functionalized aerogel under a dry air stream for up to 6 months can decrease its iodine capacity from 41wt% to 32wt%.

  16. Method of extracting iodine from liquid mixtures of iodine, water and hydrogen iodide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mysels, Karol J.

    1979-01-01

    The components of a liquid mixture consisting essentially of HI, water and at least about 50 w/o iodine are separated in a countercurrent extraction zone by treating with phosphoric acid containing at least about 90 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. The bottom stream from the extraction zone is substantially completely molten iodine, and the overhead stream contains water, HI, H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 and a small fraction of the amount of original iodine. When the water and HI are present in near-azeotropic proportions, there is particular advantage in feeding the overhead stream to an extractive distillation zone wherein it is treated with additional concentrated phosphoric acid to create an anhydrous HI vapor stream and bottoms which contain at least about 85 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. Concentration of these bottoms provides phosphoric acid infeed for both the countercurrent extraction zone and for the extractive distillation zone.

  17. Electrochemical fluorination for processing of used nuclear fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.; Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Olson, Luke C.

    2016-07-05

    A galvanic cell and methods of using the galvanic cell is described for the recovery of uranium from used nuclear fuel according to an electrofluorination process. The galvanic cell requires no input energy and can utilize relatively benign gaseous fluorinating agents. Uranium can be recovered from used nuclear fuel in the form of gaseous uranium compound such as uranium hexafluoride, which can then be converted to metallic uranium or UO.sub.2 and processed according to known methodology to form a useful product, e.g., fuel pellets for use in a commercial energy production system.

  18. Cathodic deposition of amorphous alloys of silicon, carbon, and fluorine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.H.; Kroger, F.A.

    1982-05-01

    Amorphous silicon containing fluorine and carbon, pure and doped with boron or phosphorus, was deposited cathodically from solutions of K/sub 2/SiF/sub 6/ in acetone with HF. The conditions for optimum deposition were determined, and the deposits were characterized by electron microprobe x-ray emission, electrical conductivity, and infrared absorption. Doping with phosphorus causes a change from p- to n-type semiconductor behavior, with a maximum of resistivity >10/sup 13/ /OMEGA/ cm at the compensation point. 48 refs.

  19. Volatilization of iodine from nitric acid using peroxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cathers, G.I.; Shipman, C.J.

    1975-10-21

    A method for removing radioactive iodine from nitric acid solution by adding hydrogen peroxide to the solution while concurrently holding the solution at the boiling point and distilling hydrogen iodide from the solution is reported.

  20. Separation of iodine from mercury containing scrubbing solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burger, Leland L.; Scheele, Randall D.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive iodines can be recovered from a nitric acid scrub solution containing mercuric nitrate by passing a current through the scrub solution to react the iodine with the mercuric nitrate to form mercuric iodate which precipitates out. The mercuric iodate can then be reacted to recover the radioiodine for further processing into a form suitable for long-term storage and to recover the mercury for recycling.

  1. Origin of electronic transport of lithium phthalocyanine iodine crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koike, Noritake; Oda, Masato; Shinozuka, Yuzo [Department of Materials Science and Chemistry, Wakayama University, 930 Sakaedani, Wakayama (Japan)

    2013-12-04

    The electronic structures of Lithium Phthalocyanine Iodine are investigated using density functional theory. Comparing the band structures of several model crystals, the metallic conductivity of highly doped LiPcI{sub x} can be explained by the band of doped iodine. These results reveal that there is a new mechanism for electronic transport of doped organic semiconductors that the dopant band plays the main role.

  2. Kinetics of iodine hydrolysis in unbuffered solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, D.A.; Lyons, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    The kinetics of hydrolysis or disproportionation of hypoiodite were studied spectrophotometrically in basic solution at an ionic strength of 0.2 M as a function of pH, iodide and total iodine concentration, and temperature. The existence of three independent pathways for this second-order process was confirmed. The pH-stat method was used to monitor the corresponding reaction of hypoiodous acid in weakly alkaline solution. The generalized rate law for the disproportionation is: /minus/d((HOI) + (OI/sup /minus//))dt = k /sub a/(HOI)/sup 2/ + k/sub b/(HOI) (OI/sup /minus//) + k/sub c/(OI/sup /minus//)/sup 2/ + k/sub d/(I/sub 2/OH/sup /minus//) (OI/sup /minus//). The values of k/sub a/ and k/sub b/ are substantially smaller than previously reported. However, an unexplained contribution to the rate law resulting from the pH-stat measurements was also obtained. The rapid recombination of iodide and iodate in HClO/sub 4/ solutions was followed by stopped-flow spectrophotometry at three ionic strengths, and over a range of iodide and hydrogen ion concentrations, and at eight temperatures. Fifth-order kinetics were observed with no detectable induction period. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Method of forming fluorine-bearing diamond layer on substrates, including tool substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, R. P. H.; Grannen, Kevin J.

    2002-01-01

    A method of forming a fluorine-bearing diamond layer on non-diamond substrates, especially on tool substrates comprising a metal matrix and hard particles, such as tungsten carbide particles, in the metal matrix. The substrate and a fluorine-bearing plasma or other gas are then contacted under temperature and pressure conditions effective to nucleate fluorine-bearing diamond on the substrate. A tool insert substrate is treated prior to the diamond nucleation and growth operation by etching both the metal matrix and the hard particles using suitable etchants.

  4. Method of inhibiting voltage suppression lithium/fluorinated carbon batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shia, G.A.; Friedland, D.J.

    1987-08-11

    An improved lithium/fluorinated carbon battery is described wherein the cathode comprises a blend of at least two different CF/sub x/ compositions which are derived from petroleum-based coke products which have been prepared by heat treatment at a temperature between about 800/sup 0/C and 2,0006/sup 0/C: (a) a bulk CF/sub x/ and (b) an additive CF/sub x/ and wherein from about 0.5 percent to about 50 percent of (b) is characterized as having a closed circuit voltage of at least 150 mV above the plateau voltage of the bulk CF/sub x/ and a specific capacity above 600 mAH/g. A method is also described for the elimination of suppression of the closed circuit voltage of a Li/CF/sub x/ battery during the initial part of its discharge.

  5. Uranium mineralization in fluorine-enriched volcanic rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burt, D.M.; Sheridan, M.F.; Bikun, J.; Christiansen, E.; Correa, B.; Murphy, B.; Self, S.

    1980-09-01

    Several uranium and other lithophile element deposits are located within or adjacent to small middle to late Cenozoic, fluorine-rich rhyolitic dome complexes. Examples studied include Spor Mountain, Utah (Be-U-F), the Honeycomb Hills, Utah (Be-U), the Wah Wah Mountains, Utah (U-F), and the Black Range-Sierra Cuchillo, New Mexico (Sn-Be-W-F). The formation of these and similar deposits begins with the emplacement of a rhyolitic magma, enriched in lithophile metals and complexing fluorine, that rises to a shallow crustal level, where its roof zone may become further enriched in volatiles and the ore elements. During initial explosive volcanic activity, aprons of lithicrich tuffs are erupted around the vents. These early pyroclastic deposits commonly host the mineralization, due to their initial enrichment in the lithophile elements, their permeability, and the reactivity of their foreign lithic inclusions (particularly carbonate rocks). The pyroclastics are capped and preserved by thick topaz rhyolite domes and flows that can serve as a source of heat and of additional quantities of ore elements. Devitrification, vapor-phase crystallization, or fumarolic alteration may free the ore elements from the glassy matrix and place them in a form readily leached by percolating meteoric waters. Heat from the rhyolitic sheets drives such waters through the system, generally into and up the vents and out through the early tuffs. Secondary alteration zones (K-feldspar, sericite, silica, clays, fluorite, carbonate, and zeolites) and economic mineral concentrations may form in response to this low temperature (less than 200 C) circulation. After cooling, meteoric water continues to migrate through the system, modifying the distribution and concentration of the ore elements (especially uranium).

  6. Transition of Iodine Analysis to Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watrous, Matthew George; Adamic, Mary Louise; Olson, John Eric; Baeck, D. L.; Fox, R. V.; Hahn, P. A.; Jenson, D. D.; Lister, T. E.

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the project, New Paradigms for Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry: Raising the Scientific Profile and Improved Performance for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS), is to ensure that the ongoing isotope ratio determination capability within the U.S. Department of Energy complex is the world’s best for application to nonproliferation. This report spells out the progress of Task 4, Transition of TIMS to AMS for Iodine Analysis, of the larger project. The subtasks under Task 4 and the accomplishments throughout the three year project life cycle are presented in this report. Progress was made in optimization of chemical extraction, determination of a detection limit for 127Iodine, production of standard materials for AMS analysis quality assurance, facilitation of knowledge exchange with respect to analyzing iodine on an AMS, cross comparison with a world leading AMS laboratory, supercritical fluid extraction of iodine for AMS analysis and electrodeposition of seawater as a direct method of preparation for iodine analysis by AMS. All with the goal of minimizing the time required to stand up an AMS capability for iodine analysis of exposed air filters at INL. An effective extraction method has been developed and demonstrated for iodine analysis of exposed air filters. Innovative techniques to accomplish the cathode preparation for AMS analysis were developed and demonstrated and published. The known gap of a lack of available materials for reference standards in the analysis of iodine by AMS was filled by the preparation of homogenous materials that were calibrated against NIST materials. A minimum limit on the amount of abundant isotope in a sample was determined for AMS analysis. The knowledge exchange occurred with fantastic success. Scientists engaged the international AMS community at conferences, as well as in their laboratories for collaborative work. The supercritical fluid extraction work has positive

  7. Low sintering temperature glass waste forms for sequestering radioactive iodine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Krumhansl, James L.; Garino, Terry J.; Ockwig, Nathan W.

    2012-09-11

    Materials and methods of making low-sintering-temperature glass waste forms that sequester radioactive iodine in a strong and durable structure. First, the iodine is captured by an adsorbant, which forms an iodine-loaded material, e.g., AgI, AgI-zeolite, AgI-mordenite, Ag-silica aerogel, ZnI.sub.2, CuI, or Bi.sub.5O.sub.7I. Next, particles of the iodine-loaded material are mixed with powdered frits of low-sintering-temperature glasses (comprising various oxides of Si, B, Bi, Pb, and Zn), and then sintered at a relatively low temperature, ranging from 425.degree. C. to 550.degree. C. The sintering converts the mixed powders into a solid block of a glassy waste form, having low iodine leaching rates. The vitrified glassy waste form can contain as much as 60 wt % AgI. A preferred glass, having a sintering temperature of 500.degree. C. (below the silver iodide sublimation temperature of 500.degree. C.) was identified that contains oxides of boron, bismuth, and zinc, while containing essentially no lead or silicon.

  8. Summary of FY 2010 Iodine Capture Studies at the INL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daryl R. Haefner; Tony L. Watson; Michael G. Jones

    2010-08-01

    Three breakthrough runs using silver mordenite sorbents were conducted and a dynamic sorption capacity estimated based on MeI analysis from a 2" bed. However, it is now believed the data for the first 2 runs is incomplete because the contributions from elemental iodine were not included. Although the only source of iodine was MeI, elemental iodine was generated within the sorbent bed, presumably from a recombination reaction likely catalyzed by silver mordenite. On-line effluent analysis with a GC was only capable of analyzing MeI, not I2. Scrub samples drawn during Run #3, which are specific for I2, show significant levels of I2 being emitted from a partially spent Ag-mordenite bed. By combining MeI and I2 analyses, a well defined total iodine breakthrough curve can be generated for Run #3. At the conclusion of Run #3 (IONEX Ag-900 was the sorbent) the effluent level from Bed 2 was approaching 70% of the feed concentration. The leading bed (Bed 1) had an estimated average loading of 66 mg I/g sorbent, Bed 2's was 52 mg I/g. The corresponding silver utilizations (assuming formation of AgI) were about 59% and 46%, respectively. The spent sorbents are being sent to Sandia National Laboratories for confirmatory analysis of iodine and silver utilization as well as source material for waste form development.

  9. Spontaneous aggregation of lithium ion coordination polymers in fluorinated electrolytes for high-voltage batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Malliakas, Christos D.; Leung, Kevin; Pupek, Krzysztof Z.; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Abraham, Daniel P.

    2016-03-31

    Fluorinated carbonate solvents are pursued as liquid electrolytes for high-voltage Li-ion batteries. We report aggregation of [Li+(FEC)3]n polymer species from fluoroethylene carbonate containing electrolytes and scrutinized the causes for this behavior.

  10. Light-Induced Passivation of Si by Iodine Ethanol Solution: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sopori, B.; Rupnowski, P.; Appel, J.; Guhaabiswas, D.; Anderson-Jackson, L.

    2009-02-01

    We report on our observations of light-activated passivation of silicon surfaces by iodine-ethanol solution.

  11. The retention of iodine in stainless steel sample lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, G.J.; Deir, C.; Ball, J.M.

    1995-02-01

    Following an accident in a multi-unit CANDU nuclear generating station, decontamination of air vented from containment would play a critical role in minimizing the release of iodine to the environment. The concentration of gas phase iodine in containment air would be measured using the post accident radiation monitoring system, requiring that air samples be passed through a considerable length of tubing to a remote location where the desired measurements could safely be made. A significant loss of iodine, due to adsorption on the sample line surfaces, could greatly distort the measurement. In this study, the retention of I{sub 2}(g) on stainless steel was evaluated in bench scale experiments in order to evaluate, and if possible minimise, the extent of any such line losses. Experiments at the University of Toronto were performed using 6 inch lengths of 1/4 inch stainless steel tubing. Air, containing I-131 labelled I{sub 2}(g), ranging in concentration from 10{sup {minus}10} to 10{sup {minus}6} mol/dm{sup 3} and relative humidity (:RH) from 20 to 90 %, was passed through tubing samples maintained at temperatures ranging from 25 to 90{degrees}C. Adsorption at low gas phase iodine concentrations differed substantially from that at higher concentrations. The rate of deposition was proportional to the gas phase concentration, giving support to the concept of a first order deposition velocity. The surface loading increased with increasing relative humidity, particularly at low RH values, while the deposition rate decreased with increasing temperature. Surface water on the steel may play an important role in the deposition process. The chemisorbed iodine was located primarily in areas of corrosion. Furthermore, water used to wash the steel contained Fe, Mn and iodine in the form of iodide, suggesting that I{sub 2} reacted to form metal iodides. The deposition of I{sub 2} was also found to depend on the initial surface condition.

  12. Control of radio-iodine at the German reprocessing plant WAK during operation and after shutdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmann, F.J.; Herrmann, B.; Kuhn, K.D.

    1997-08-01

    During 20 years of operation 207 metric tons of oxide fuel from nuclear power reactors with 19 kg of iodine-129 had been reprocessed in the WAK plant near Karlsruhe. In January 1991 the WAK Plant was shut down. During operation iodine releases of the plant as well as the iodine distribution over the liquid and gaseous process streams had been determined. Most of the iodine is evolved into the dissolver off-gas in volatile form. The remainder is dispersed over many aqueous, organic and especially gaseous process and waste streams. After shut down of the plant in January 1991, iodine measurements in the off-gas streams have been continued up to now. Whereas the iodine-129 concentration in the dissolver off-gas dropped during six months after shutdown by three orders of magnitude, the iodine concentrations in the vessel ventilation system of the PUREX process and the cell vent system decreased only by a factor of 10 during the same period. Iodine-129 releases of the liquid high active waste storage tanks did not decrease distinctly. The removal efficiencies of the silver impregnated iodine filters in the different off-gas streams of the WAK plant depend on the iodine concentration in the off-gas. The reason of the observed dependence of the DF on the iodine-129 concentration might be due to the presence of organic iodine compounds which are difficult to remove. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Efforts to Consolidate Chalcogels with Adsorbed Iodine (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Sn2S3 and Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels were selected for study. The first step in the process for these experiments was to load them with iodine (I2). The I2 uptake was 68 mass% ...

  14. Labeling of indocyanine green with carrier-free iodine-123

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ansari, Azizullah N.; Lambrecht, Richard M.; Redvanly, Carol S.; Wolf, Alfred P.

    1976-01-01

    The method of labeling indocyanine green (ICG) with carrier-free iodine-123 comprising the steps of condensing xenon-123 on crystals of ICG followed by permitting decay of the .sup.123 Xe a sufficient length of time to produce .sup.123 I-electronically excited ions and atoms which subsequently label ICG.

  15. Evaporation of iodine-containing off-gas scrubber solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Partridge, J.A.; Bosuego, G.P.

    1980-07-14

    Mercuric nitrate-nitric acid scrub solutions containing radioiodine may be reduced in volume without excessive loss of volatile iodine. The use of concentrated nitric acid during an evaporation process oxidizes the mercury-iodide complex to a less volatile mercuric iodate precipitate.

  16. Discovery of palladium, antimony, tellurium, iodine, and xenon isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kathawa, J.; Fry, C.; Thoennessen, M., E-mail: thoennessen@nscl.msu.edu

    2013-01-15

    Currently, thirty-eight palladium, thirty-eight antimony, thirty-nine tellurium, thirty-eight iodine, and forty xenon isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is described here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  17. Behavior of iodine in the dissolution of spent nuclear fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakurai, Tsutomu; Komatsu, Kazunori; Takahashi, A.

    1997-08-01

    The results of laboratory-scale experiments concerning the behavior of iodine in the dissolution of spent nuclear fuels, which were carried out at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, are summarized. Based on previous and new experimental results, the difference in quantity of residual iodine in the fuel solution between laboratory-scale experiments and reprocessing plants is discussed, Iodine in spent fuels is converted to the following four states: (1) oxidation into I{sub 2} by nitric acid, (2) oxidation into I{sub 2} by nitrous acid generated in the dissolution, (3) formation of a colloid of insoluble iodides such as AgI and PdI{sub 2}, and (4) deposition on insoluble residue. Nitrous acid controls the amount of colloid formed. As a result, up to 10% of iodine in spent fuels is retained in the fuel solution, up to 3% is deposited on insoluble residue, and the balance volatilizes to the off-gas, Contrary to earlier belief, when the dissolution is carried out in 3 to 4 M HNO{sub 3} at 100{degrees}C, the main iodine species in a fuel solution is a colloid, not iodate, Immediately after its formation, the colloid is unstable and decomposes partially in the hot nitric acid solution through the following reaction: AgI(s) + 2HNO{sub 3}(aq) = {1/2}I{sub 2}(aq) + AgNO{sub 3}(aq) + NO{sub 2}(g) + H{sub 2}O(1). For high concentrations of gaseous iodine, I{sub 2}(g), and NO{sub 2}, this reaction is reversed towards formation of the colloid (AgI). Since these concentrations are high near the liquid surface of a plant-scale dissolver, there is a possibility that the colloid is formed there through this reversal, Simulations performed in laboratory-scale experiments demonstrated this reversal, This phenomenon can be one reason the quantity of residual iodine in spent fuels is higher in reprocessing plants than in laboratory-scale experiments. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Aging of Iodine-Loaded Silver Mordenite in NO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruffey, Stephanie H.; Jubin, Robert Thomas; Patton, Kaara K.; Walker Jr, Joseph Franklin

    2014-04-01

    Used nuclear fuel facilities need to control and minimize radioactive emissions. Off-gas systems are designed to remove radioactive contaminants, such as 85Kr, 14C, 3H, and 129I. In an off-gas system, any capture material will be exposed to a gas stream for months at a time. This gas stream may be at elevated temperature and could contain water, NOx gas, or a variety of other constituents comprising the dissolver off-gas stream in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. For this reason, it is important to evaluate the effects of long-term exposure, or aging, on proposed capture materials. One material under consideration is reduced silver mordenite (Ag0Z), which is recognized for its efficient iodine capture properties. Iodine is immobilized on Ag0Z as AgI, a solid with low volatility (m.p. ≥ 500°C). The aim of this study was to determine whether extended aging at elevated temperature in a nominally 2% NO2 environment would result in a loss of immobilized iodine from this material due to either physical or chemical changes that might occur during aging. Charges of iodine-loaded reduced silver mordenite (I2-Ag0Z) were exposed to a 2% NO2 environment for 1, 2, 3, and 4 months at 150°C, then analyzed for iodine losses The aging study was completed successfully. The material did not visibly change color or form. The results demonstrate that no significant iodine loss was observed over the course of 4 months of 2% NO2 aging of I2-Ag0Z at elevated temperature within the margin of error and the variability (~10%) in the loading along the beds. This provides assurance that iodine will remain immobilized on Ag0Z during extended online use in an off-gas capture treatment system. Future tests should expose I2-Ag0Z to progressively more complex feed gases in an effort to accurately replicate the conditions expected in a reprocessing facility.

  19. Effects of molybdenum and silver on iodine transport in primary circuit on severe nuclear accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalilainen, J.; Rantanen, P.; Karkela, T.; Lipponen, M.; Auvinen, A.; Jokiniemi, J.

    2012-07-01

    This experimental study was a continuation of the study conducted at VTT to investigate the effects of reactions on primary circuit surfaces to transport of gaseous and aerosol phase iodine during the hypothetical severe nuclear accident. Cesium iodide was used as a precursor in every experiment. In the experiments it was observed that the hydrogen in the atmosphere decreased the fraction of released gaseous iodine. As the temperature was lowered, less iodine was released, but the fraction of gaseous iodine from the overall released iodine was increased. As molybdenum trioxide was introduced to the precursor, the fraction of gaseous iodine from the overall released iodine was increased significantly. Also, Mo decreased the transport of Cs and caused significant depositions to the reaction furnace. Addition of silver to the CsI precursor at 650 deg. C decreased the release of iodine as well as the fraction of gaseous iodine. At 400 deg. C, Ag + CsI as well as Ag + MoO{sub 3} + CsI precursor significantly increased the release of gaseous iodine, where almost no aerosol particles were released. With B{sub 2}O{sub 3} + CsI precursor it was observed that in the atmosphere without H{sub 2}O, the released iodine was mostly in gaseous form. (authors)

  20. Iodine Standard Materials: Preparation and Inter-Laboratory Comparisons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D D Jenson; M L Adamic; J E Olson; M G Watrous; C Vockenhuber

    2014-08-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory is preparing to enter the community of AMS practioners who analyze for 129Iodine. We expect to take delivery of a 0.5 MV compact accelerator mass spectrometry system, built by NEC, in the early summer of 2014. The primary mission for this instrument is iodine; it is designed to analyze iodine in the +3 charge state. As part of the acceptance testing for this instrument, both at NEC and on-site in our laboratory, some sort of standard or reference material is needed to verify performance. Appropriate standard materials are not readily available in the commercial marketplace. Small quantities can sometimes be acquired from other laboratories already engaged in iodine analyses. In the longer-term, meaningful quantities of standard materials are needed for routine use in analyses, and for quality control functions1. We have prepared some standard materials, starting with elemental Woodward iodine and NIST SRM 3231 [Iodine-129 Isotopic Standard (high level)] 10-6 solution. The goal was to make mixtures at the 5x10-10, 5x10-11, 5x10-12 ratio levels, along with some unmodified Woodward, in the chemical form of silver iodide. Approximately twenty grams of each of these mixtures were prepared. The elemental Woodward iodine was dissolved in chloroform, then reduced to iodide using sodium bisulfite in water. At this point the NIST spike material was added, in the form of sodium iodide. The mixed iodides were oxidized back to iodine in chloroform using hydrogen peroxide. This oxidation step was essential for isotopic equilibration of the 127 and 129 atoms. The iodine was reduced to iodide using sodium bisulfite as before. Excess sulfites and sulfates were precipitated with barium nitrate. After decanting, silver nitrate was used to precipitate the desired silver iodide. Once the silver iodide was produced, the material was kept in darkness as much as possible to minimize photo-oxidation. The various mixtures were synthesized independently of each

  1. Consolidation of tin sulfide chalcogels and xerogels with and without adsorbed iodine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Lepry, William C.; Kroll, Jared O.; Chun, Jaehun; Subrahmanyam, Kota S.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Alblouwy, Fares K.; Bulbule, Aneeruddha; Sabolsky, Edward

    2015-11-18

    Tin sulfide (Sn2S3) chalcogels are one of the most effective non-oxide aerogels evaluated to date for iodine gas capture. This is attributed to the fact that the Sn within the gel network has a strong affinity for chemisorption of iodine to form SnI4. This study demonstrates an approach for consolidating the raw and iodine-sorbed Sn2S3 chalcogels into a chalcogenide glass using GeS2 as a glass forming additive. The system with both iodine-sorbed and iodine-free Sn2S3 chalcogels provides better glass-forming characteristics than Sn-S or Sn-S-I alone, and the quantity of iodine measured in the bulk glass of the consolidated iodine-sorbed Sn2S3 chalcogel was at ~45 mass%. Additional experiments were also conducted using microwave sintering and hot isostatic pressing with Sn2S3 xerogels.

  2. Iodine-129 and Iodine-127 speciation in groundwater at the Hanford Site, U.S.: iodate incorporation into calcite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Saijin; Xu, Chen; Creeley, Danielle; Ho, Yi-Fang; Li, Hsiu-Ping; Grandbois, Russell; Schwehr, Kathy; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Yeager, Chris; Wellman, Dawn M.; Santschi, Peter H.

    2013-09-03

    The Hanford Site, the most contaminated nuclear site in the United States, has large radioactive waste plumes containing high 129I levels. The geochemical transport and fate of radioiodine depends largely on its chemical speciation that is greatly affected by environmental factors. This study reports, for the first time, the speciation of stable and radioactive iodine in the groundwater from the Hanford Site. Iodate was the dominant species and accounts for up to 84%, followed by organo-iodine and minimal levels of iodide. The relatively high pH and oxidizing environment may have prevented iodate reduction. Our results identified that calcite precipitation caused by degassing of CO2 during deep groundwater sampling incorporated between 7 to 40% of dissolved iodine (including 127I and 129I) that was originally in the groundwater, transforming dissolved to particulate iodate during sampling. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying iodine incorporation by calcite, laboratory experiments were carried out to replicate this iodine sequestering processes. Two methods were utilized in this study, 1) addition of sodium carbonate; 2) addition of calcium chloride followed by sodium carbonate where the pH was well controlled at ~8.2, which is close to the average pH of Hanford Site groundwater. It was demonstrated that iodate was the main species incorporated into calcite and this incorporation process could be impeded by elevated pH and decreasing ionic strength in groundwater. This study provides critical information for predicting the long-term fate and transport of 129I at the Hanford Site and reveals a potential means for improved remediation strategies of 129I.

  3. FLUORINE IN THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD: IS IT ALL PRODUCED IN ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jnsson, H.; Ryde, N. [Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Box 43, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Harper, G. M. [School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Richter, M. J. [Physics Department, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Hinkle, K. H., E-mail: henrikj@astro.lu.se [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    The origin of ''cosmic'' fluorine is uncertain, but there are three proposed production sites/mechanisms for the origin: asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, ? nucleosynthesis in Type II supernovae, and/or the winds of Wolf-Rayet stars. The relative importance of these production sites has not been established even for the solar neighborhood, leading to uncertainties in stellar evolution models of these stars as well as uncertainties in the chemical evolution models of stellar populations. We determine the fluorine and oxygen abundances in seven bright, nearby giants with well determined stellar parameters. We use the 2.3 ?m vibrational-rotational HF line and explore a pure rotational HF line at 12.2 ?m. The latter has never been used before for an abundance analysis. To be able to do this, we have calculated a line list for pure rotational HF lines. We find that the abundances derived from the two diagnostics agree. Our derived abundances are well reproduced by chemical evolution models including only fluorine production in AGB stars and, therefore, we draw the conclusion that this might be the main production site of fluorine in the solar neighborhood. Furthermore, we highlight the advantages of using the 12 ?m HF lines to determine the possible contribution of the ? process to the fluorine budget at low metallicities where the difference between models including and excluding this process is dramatic.

  4. Numerical study of He/CF{sub 3}I pulsed discharge used to produce iodine atom in chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Jiao; Wang Yanhui; Wang Dezhen [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Duo Liping; Li Guofu [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-04-15

    The pulsed discharge for producing iodine atoms from the alkyl and perfluoroalky iodides (CH{sub 3}I, CF{sub 3}I, etc.) is the most efficient method for achieving the pulse operating mode of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser. In this paper, a one-dimensional fluid model is developed to study the characteristics of pulsed discharge in CF{sub 3}I-He mixture. By solving continuity equation, momentum equation, Poisson equation, Boltzmann equation, and an electric circuit equation, the temporal evolution of discharge current density and various discharge products, especially the atomic iodine, are investigated. The dependence of iodine atom density on discharge parameters is also studied. The results show that iodine atom density increases with the pulsed width and pulsed voltage amplitude. The mixture ratio of CF{sub 3}I and helium plays a more significant role in iodine atom production. For a constant voltage amplitude, there exists an optimal mixture ratio under which the maximum iodine atom concentration is achieved. The bigger the applied voltage amplitude is, the higher partial pressure of CF{sub 3}I is needed to obtain the maximum iodine atom concentration.

  5. Electronic Structures, Bonding Configurations, and Band-Gap-Opening Properties of Graphene Binding with Low-Concentration Fluorine

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Duan, Yuhua; Stinespring, Charter D.; Chorpening, Benjamin

    2015-06-18

    To better understand the effects of low-level fluorine in graphene-based sensors, first-principles density functional theory (DFT) with van der Waals dispersion interactions has been employed to investigate the structure and impact of fluorine defects on the electrical properties of single-layer graphene films. The results show that both graphite-2H and graphene have zero band gaps. When fluorine bonds to a carbon atom, the carbon atom is pulled slightly above the graphene plane, creating what is referred to as a CF defect. The lowest-binding energy state is found to correspond to two CF defects on nearest neighbor sites, with one fluorine abovemore » the carbon plane and the other below the plane. Overall this has the effect of buckling the graphene. The results further show that the addition of fluorine to graphene leads to the formation of an energy band (BF) near the Fermi level, contributed mainly from the 2p orbitals of fluorine with a small contribution from the porbitals of the carbon. Among the 11 binding configurations studied, our results show that only in two cases does the BF serve as a conduction band and open a band gap of 0.37 eV and 0.24 eV respectively. The binding energy decreases with decreasing fluorine concentration due to the interaction between neighboring fluorine atoms. The obtained results are useful for sensor development and nanoelectronics.« less

  6. Electronic Structures, Bonding Configurations, and Band-Gap-Opening Properties of Graphene Binding with Low-Concentration Fluorine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Yuhua; Stinespring, Charter D.; Chorpening, Benjamin

    2015-06-18

    To better understand the effects of low-level fluorine in graphene-based sensors, first-principles density functional theory (DFT) with van der Waals dispersion interactions has been employed to investigate the structure and impact of fluorine defects on the electrical properties of single-layer graphene films. The results show that both graphite-2H and graphene have zero band gaps. When fluorine bonds to a carbon atom, the carbon atom is pulled slightly above the graphene plane, creating what is referred to as a CF defect. The lowest-binding energy state is found to correspond to two CF defects on nearest neighbor sites, with one fluorine above the carbon plane and the other below the plane. Overall this has the effect of buckling the graphene. The results further show that the addition of fluorine to graphene leads to the formation of an energy band (BF) near the Fermi level, contributed mainly from the 2p orbitals of fluorine with a small contribution from the porbitals of the carbon. Among the 11 binding configurations studied, our results show that only in two cases does the BF serve as a conduction band and open a band gap of 0.37 eV and 0.24 eV respectively. The binding energy decreases with decreasing fluorine concentration due to the interaction between neighboring fluorine atoms. The obtained results are useful for sensor development and nanoelectronics.

  7. Iodine-131 releases from the Hanford Site, 1944--1947

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeb, C.M.

    1993-03-01

    Detailed results of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction project (HEDR) iodine-131 release reconstruction are presented in this volume. Included are daily data on B, D, and F Plant, reactor operations from the P-Department Daily Reports (General Electric Company 1947). Tables of B and T Plant material processed from the three principal sources on separations plant operations: The Jaech report (Jaech undated), the 200 Area Report (Acken and Bird 1945; Bird and Donihee 1945), and the Metal History Reports (General Electric Company 1946). A transcription of the Jaech report is also provided because it is computer-generated and is not readily readable in its original format. The iodine-131 release data are from the STRM model. Cut-by-cut release estimates are provided, along with daily, monthly, and yearly summations. These summations are based on the hourly release estimates. The hourly data are contained in a 28 megabyte electronic file. Interested individuals may request a copy.

  8. Iodine-131 releases from the Hanford Site, 1944--1947

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeb, C.M.

    1993-03-01

    Releases of fission product iodine-131 are calculated for the 1944 through 1947 period from the Hanford Reservation. Releases to the atmosphere were from the ventilation stacks of T and B separation plants. A reconstruction of daily separation plant operations forms the basis of the releases. The reconstruction traces the iodine-131 content of each fuel discharge from the B, D, and F Reactors to the dissolving step in the separation plants. Statistical computer modeling techniques are used to estimate hourly release histories based on sampling mathematical distribution functions that express the uncertainties in the source data and timing. The reported daily, monthly, and yearly estimates are averages and uncertainty ranges are based on 100 independent Monte Carlo realizations'' of the hourly release histories.

  9. Iodine-131 releases from the Hanford Site, 1944--1947

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeb, C.M.

    1992-10-01

    Releases of fission product iodine-131 from separation plants at the Hanford reservation are calculated for the 1944 through 1947 period. Releases to the atmosphere were from the ventilation stacks of T and B separation plants. A reconstruction of daily separation plant operations forms the basis of the releases. The reconstruction traces the iodine-131 content of each fuel discharge from the B, D, and F Reactors to the dissolving step in the separation plants. Statistical computer modeling techniques are used to estimate hourly release histories based on sampling mathematical distribution functions that express the uncertainties in the source data and timing. The reported daily, monthly, and yearly estimates are averages and uncertainty ranges are based on 100 independent Monte Carlo realizations'' of the hourly release histories.

  10. Iodine Loading of NO Aged Silver Exchanged Mordenite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patton, K. K.; Bruffey, S. H.; Jubin, J. T.; Walker, Jr., J. F.

    2014-09-30

    In an off-gas treatment system for used nuclear fuel processing, a solid sorbent will typically be exposed to a gas stream for months at a time. This gas stream may be at elevated temperature and could contain water vapor, gaseous nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), nitric acid vapors, and a variety of other constituents. For this reason, it is important to evaluate the effects of long-term exposure, or aging, on proposed sorbents. Silver exchanged mordenite (AgZ) is being studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to determine its iodine sorption capacity after long term exposure to increasingly more complex chemical environments. Studies previously conducted at ORNL investigated the effects of aging reduced silver exchanged mordenite (Ag{sup 0}Z) in dry air, moist air, and NO2. This study investigated the effects of extended exposure to nitric oxide (NO) gas on the iodine capture performance of Ag{sup 0}Z. A deep bed of Ag{sup 0}Z was aged in a 1% nitric oxide (NO) air stream, and portions of the bed were removed at pre-determined intervals. After being removed from the NO stream, each sample was loaded with iodine in a thin bed configuration. These samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA) to quantify the iodine content in the sample. Samples were removed at one week and one month. A 78% decrease in sample capacity was seen after one week of exposure, with no further decrease observed after 1 month of aging. The observed loss in capacity is larger in magnitude than previous studies exposing Ag{sup 0}Z to dry air, moist air, or NO2 gas. The aging study was terminated after one month and repeated; this successfully demonstrated the reproducibility of the results.

  11. METHOD OF REMOVING IODINE FROM GASES AND FILTER MEDIUM THEREFOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silverman, L.

    1961-08-01

    A method for the removal of iodine from large gas volumes is described. The gaseous medium is heated to a temperature not exceeding 400 deg C. Water vapor is then added to the medium in approximate amounts of 1 lb/cu ft of the medium. The medium is then passed through a porous copper fibrous pad having deposited thereon a coating of silver, the silver coating being treated with hydrogen sulfide forming a layer of silver sulfide. (AEC)

  12. Excited states in the active media of oxygen - iodine lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azyazov, V N

    2009-11-30

    A review of investigations of kinetic processes in active media oxygen - iodine lasers (OILs) performed in the last decade is presented. The mechanisms of pumping and quenching of electronically and vibrationally excited O{sub 2} and I{sub 2} molecules are considered, and dissociation mechanisms of I{sub 2} in the active medium of the OIL are analysed. The values of kinetic constants of processes proceeding in the active media of OILs are recommended. (review)

  13. Lanthanum-hexaboride carbon composition for use in corrosive hydrogen-fluorine environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Kovach, Louis; Taylor, Albert J.

    1981-01-01

    The present invention relates to a structural composition useful in corrosive hydrogen-fluorine environments at temperatures in excess of 1400.degree. K. The composition is formed of a isostatically pressed and sintered or a hot-pressed mixture of lanthanum hexaboride particles and about 10-30 vol. % carbon. The lanthanum-hexaboride reacts with the high-temperature fluorine-containing bases to form an adherent layer of corrosion-inhibiting lanthanum trifluoride on exposed surfaces of the composition. The carbon in the composite significantly strengthens the composite, enhances thermal shock resistance, and significantly facilitates the machining of the composition.

  14. Lanthanum-hexaboride carbon composition for use in corrosive hydrogen-fluorine environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Kovach, L.; Taylor, A.J.

    1980-01-22

    The present invention relates to a structural composition useful in corrosive hydrogen-fluorine environments at temperatures in excess of 1400/sup 0/K. The composition is formed of a isostatically pressed and sintered or a hot-pressed mixture of lanthanum hexaboride particles and about 10 to 30 vol% carbon. The lanthanum-hexaboride reacts with the high-temperature fluorine-containing gases to form an adherent layer of corrosion-inhibiting lanthanum trifluoride on exposed surfaces of the composition. The carbon in the composite significantly strengthens the composite, enhances thermal shock resistance, and significantly facilitates the machining of the composition.

  15. High rate chemical vapor deposition of carbon films using fluorinated gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stafford, Byron L.; Tracy, C. Edwin; Benson, David K.; Nelson, Arthur J.

    1993-01-01

    A high rate, low-temperature deposition of amorphous carbon films is produced by PE-CVD in the presence of a fluorinated or other halide gas. The deposition can be performed at less than 100.degree. C., including ambient room temperature, with a radio frequency plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition process. With less than 6.5 atomic percent fluorine incorporated into the amorphous carbon film, the characteristics of the carbon film, including index of refraction, mass density, optical clarity, and chemical resistance are within fifteen percent (15%) of those characteristics for pure amorphous carbon films, but the deposition rates are high.

  16. Radioactive Iodine and Krypton Control for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. R. Soelberg; J. D. Law; T. G. Garn; M. Greenhalgh; R. T. Jubin; P. Thallapally; D. M. Strachan

    2013-08-01

    The removal of volatile radionuclides generated during used nuclear fuel reprocessing in the US is almost certain to be necessary for the licensing of a reprocessing facility in the US. Various control technologies have been developed, tested, or used over the past 50 years for control of volatile radionuclide emissions from used fuel reprocessing plants. The US DOE has sponsored, since 2009, an Off-gas Sigma Team to perform research and development focused on the most pressing volatile radionuclide control and immobilization problems. In this paper, we focus on the control requirements and methodologies for 85Kr and 129I. Numerous candidate technologies have been studied and developed at laboratory and pilot-plant scales in an effort to meet the need for high iodine control efficiency and to advance alternatives to cryogenic separations for krypton control. Several of these show promising results. Iodine decontamination factors as high as 105, iodine loading capacities, and other adsorption parameters including adsorption rates have been demonstrated under some conditions for both silver zeolite (AgZ) and Ag-functionalized aerogel. Sorbents, including an engineered form of AgZ and selected metal organic framework materials (MOFs), have been successfully demonstrated to capture Kr and Xe without the need for separations at cryogenic temperatures.

  17. Activation of water soluble amines by halogens for trapping methyl radioactive iodine from air streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deitz, Victor R.; Blachly, Charles H.

    1977-01-01

    Gas adsorbent charcoals impregnated with an aqueous solution of the reaction product of a tertiary amine and elemental iodine or bromine are better than 99 per cent efficient in trapping methyl iodine.sup.131. The chemical addition of iodine or bromine to the tertiary amine molecule increases the efficiency of the impregnated charcoal as a trapping agent, and in conjunction with the high flash point of the tertiary amine raises the ignition temperature of the impregnated charcoal.

  18. Method for selectively removing fluorine and fluorine-containing contaminants from gaseous UF/sub 6/. [ClF/sub 3/

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, R.L.; Otey, M.G.; Perkins, R.W.

    1980-11-24

    This invention is a method for effecting preferential removal and immobilization of certain gaseous contaminants from gaseous UF/sub 6/. The contaminants include fluorine and fluorides which are more reactive with CaCO/sub 3/ than is UF/sub 6/. The method comprises contacting the contaminant-carrying UF/sub 6/ with particulate CaCO/sub 3/ at a temperature effecting reaction of the contaminant and the CaCO/sub 3/.

  19. Transition of Iodine Analysis to Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. L. Adamic; J. E. Olson; D. D. Jenson; J. G. Eisenmenger; M. G. Watrous

    2012-09-01

    This NA 22 funded research project investigated the transition of iodine isotopic analyses from thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) to an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system. Previous work (Fiscal Year 2010) had demonstrated comparable data from TIMS and AMS. With AMS providing comparable data with improved background levels and vastly superior sample throughput, improvement in the sample extraction from environmental sample matrices was needed to bring sample preparation throughput closer to the operation level of the instrument. Previous research used an extraction chemistry that was not optimized for yield or refined for reduced labor to prove the principle. This research was done to find an extraction with better yield using less labor per sample to produce a sample ready for the AMS instrument. An extraction method using tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) was developed for removal of iodine species from high volume air filters. The TMAH with gentle heating was superior to the following three extraction methods: ammonium hydroxide aided by sonication, acidic and basic extraction aided by microwave, and ethanol mixed with sodium hydroxide. Taking the iodine from the extraction solvent to being ready for AMS analysis was accomplished by a direct precipitation, as well as, using silver wool to harvest the iodine from the TMAH. Portions of the same filters processed in FY 2010 were processed again with the improved extraction scheme followed by successful analysis by AMS at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. The data favorably matched the data obtained in 2010. The time required for analysis has been reduced over the aqueous extraction/AMS approach developed in FY 2010. For a hypothetical batch of 30 samples, the AMS methodology is about 10 times faster than the traditional gas phase chemistry and TIMS analysis. As an additional benefit, background levels for the AMS method are about 1000 times lower than TIMS. This results from the

  20. Assessment of Methods to Consolidate Iodine-Loaded Silver-Functionaliz...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Assessment of Methods to Consolidate Iodine-Loaded Silver-Functionalized Silica Aerogel The U.S. Department of Energy is currently investigating alternative sorbents ...

  1. X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopic Study of Sodium Iodide and Iodine...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Supercapacitor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopic Study of Sodium Iodide and Iodine Mediators in a Solid-State Supercapacitor ...

  2. Complete Initial Scoping Tests on the Incorporation of Novel Loaded Iodine Getters into GCM.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Garino, Terry J.; Croes, Kenneth James

    2015-08-18

    This study encompasses initial scoping tests on the incorporation of a novel iodine loaded getter material into the Sandia developed low temperature sintering glass ceramic material (GCM) waste form. In particular, we studied the PNNL Ag-I-Aerogel. Optical microscopy indicates inhomogenous samples based on particle sizes and variations in color (AgI vs Ag/AgO on silica). TGA/MS data when heated in air indicates loss of iodine and organics (CO2) between 250-450°C a total of ~15wt% loss, with additional / small iodine loss when during 550°C hold for 1 hr. TGA/MS data when heated in N2 indicates less organic and slightly less iodine loss below 550°C, with no loss of iodine in 550°C 1 hour hold. Furthermore, a substantial mass loss of sulfur containing compounds is observed (m/e of 34 and 36) between 150 – 550°C in both air and N2 sintering atmospheres. In an effort to capture iodine lost to volatilization during heating (at temps below glass sintering temperature of 550°C), we added 5 wt% Ag flake to the AgIaerogel. Resulting data indicates the iodine is retained with the addition of the Ag flake, resulting in only a small iodine loss (< 1wt%) at ~350°C. No method of curtailing loss of sulfur containing compounds due to heating was successful in this scoping study.

  3. Iodine-131 in irradiated fuel at time of processing from December 1944 through December 1947

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeb, C.M.; Morgan, L.G.

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a record of the iodine-131 releases that were used as source terms in calculating the Phase 1 air pathway doses. The following table provides estimates of monthly iodine-131 releases to the atmosphere from the irradiated fuel processing plants for the time period December 1944 (the first month of dissolution of irradiated fuel from the Hanford Site) through December 1947. The estimated values of iodine-131 contained in the irradiated fuel at the time of processing were calculated using the best available information. Details of the calculations, including the assumptions required to obtain the values and the inherent uncertainties in the values, will be addressed in a Phase 2 HEDR report. The quantity of iodine-131 is released to the atmosphere is obtained by multiplying the calculated iodine-131 content of the fuel being dissolved by a release fraction. The actual release fraction value is uncertain. The release fractions assumed for iodine-131 were based on values that are expected to bound the actual release of iodine-131. The Phase 1 dose estimates from iodine-131 were based on a most probable release factor of 75% with an upward uncertainty bound of 85% and a lower uncertainty bound of 50%. The values shown in the table were input to the Phase 1 Modular Dose Calculation Model, which provided the air pathway doses. 1 tab.

  4. Soil Iodine Determination in Deccan Syneclise, India: Implications for Near Surface Geochemical Hydrocarbon Prospecting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mani, Devleena; Kumar, T. Satish; Rasheed, M. A.; Patil, D. J.; Dayal, A. M.; Rao, T. Gnaneshwar; Balaram, V.

    2011-03-15

    The association of iodine with organic matter in sedimentary basins is well documented. High iodine concentration in soils overlying oil and gas fields and areas with hydrocarbon microseepage has been observed and used as a geochemical exploratory tool for hydrocarbons in a few studies. In this study, we measure iodine concentration in soil samples collected from parts of Deccan Syneclise in the west central India to investigate its potential application as a geochemical indicator for hydrocarbons. The Deccan Syneclise consists of rifted depositional sites with Gondwana-Mesozoic sediments up to 3.5 km concealed under the Deccan Traps and is considered prospective for hydrocarbons. The concentration of iodine in soil samples is determined using ICP-MS and the values range between 1.1 and 19.3 ppm. High iodine values are characteristic of the northern part of the sampled region. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the soil samples range between 0.1 and 1.3%. The TOC correlates poorly with the soil iodine (r{sup 2} < 1), indicating a lack of association of iodine with the surficial organic matter and the possibility of interaction between the seeping hydrocarbons and soil iodine. Further, the distribution pattern of iodine compares well with two surface geochemical indicators: the adsorbed light gaseous hydrocarbons (methane through butane) and the propane-oxidizing bacterial populations in the soil. The integration of geochemical observations show the occurrence of elevated values in the northern part of the study area, which is also coincident with the presence of exposed dyke swarms that probably serve as conduits for hydrocarbon microseepage. The corroboration of iodine with existing geological, geophysical, and geochemical data suggests its efficacy as one of the potential tool in surface geochemical exploration of hydrocarbons. Our study supports Deccan Syneclise to be promising in terms of its hydrocarbon prospects.

  5. Characterization of the Kinetics of NF3-Fluorination of NpO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casella, Andrew M.; Scheele, Randall D.; McNamara, Bruce K.

    2015-12-23

    The exploitation of selected actinide and fission product fluoride volatilities has long been considered as a potentially attractive compact method for recycling used nuclear fuels to avoid generating the large volumes of radioactive waste arising from aqueous reprocessing [1-7]. The most developed process uses the aggressive and hazardous fluorinating agents hydrogen fluoride (HF) and/or molecular fluorine (F2) at high temperatures to volatilize the greatest fraction of the used nuclear fuel into a single gas stream. The volatilized fluorides are subsequently separated using a series of fractionation and condensation columns to recover the valuable fuel constituents and fission products. In pursuit of a safer and less complicated approach, we investigated an alternative fluoride volatility-based process using the less hazardous fluorinating agent nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) and leveraging its less aggressive nature to selectively evolve fission product and actinide fluorides from the solid phase based on their reaction temperatures into a single recycle stream [8-15]. In this approach, successive isothermal treatments using NF3 will first evolve the more thermally susceptible used nuclear fuel constituents leaving the other constituents in the residual solids until subsequent isothermal temperature treatments cause these others to volatilize. During investigation of this process, individual neat used fuel components were treated with isothermal NF3 in an attempt to characterize the kinetics of each fluorination reaction to provide input into the design of a new volatile fluoride separations approach. In these directed investigations, complex behavior was observed between NF3 and certain solid reactants such as the actinide oxides of uranium, plutonium, and neptunium. Given the similar thermal reaction susceptibilities of neptunium oxide (NpO2) and uranium dioxide (UO2) and the importance of Np and U, we initially focused our efforts on determining the reaction

  6. Low-Temperature Fluorination of Soft-Templated Mesoporous Carbons for a High-Power Lithium/Carbon Fluoride Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fulvio, Pasquale F; Dai, Sheng; Guo, Bingkun; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Mayes, Richard T; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Veith, Gabriel M; Brown, Suree; Adcock, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    Soft-templated mesoporous carbons and activated mesoporous carbons were fluorinated using elemental fluorine between room temperature and 235 C. The mesoporous carbons were prepared via self-assembly synthesis of phloroglucinol formaldehyde as a carbon precursor in the presence of triblock ethylene oxide propylene oxide ethylene oxide copolymer BASF Pluronic F127 as the template. The F/C ratios ranged from 0.15 to 0.75 according to gravimetric, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Materials have mesopore diameters up to 11 nm and specific surface areas as high as 850 m2 g 1 after fluorination as calculated from nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 196 C. Furthermore, the materials exhibit higher discharge potentials and energy and power densities as well as faster reaction kinetics under high current densities than commercial carbon fluorides with similar fluorine contents when tested as cathodes for Li/CFx batteries.

  7. Specific Fluorine Labeling of the HyHEL10 Antibody Affects Antigen Binding and Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acchione, Mauro; Lee, Yi-Chien; DeSantis, Morgan E.; Lipschultz, Claudia A.; Wlodawer, Alexander; Li, Mi; Shanmuganathan, Aranganathan; Walter, Richard L.; Smith-Gill, Sandra; Barchi, Jr., Joseph J.

    2012-10-16

    To more fully understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for variations in binding affinity with antibody maturation, we explored the use of site specific fluorine labeling and {sup 19}F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Several single-chain (scFv) antibodies, derived from an affinity-matured series of anti-hen egg white lysozyme (HEL) mouse IgG1, were constructed with either complete or individual replacement of tryptophan residues with 5-fluorotryptophan ({sup 5F}W). An array of biophysical techniques was used to gain insight into the impact of fluorine substitution on the overall protein structure and antigen binding. SPR measurements indicated that {sup 5F}W incorporation lowered binding affinity for the HEL antigen. The degree of analogue impact was residue-dependent, and the greatest decrease in affinity was observed when {sup 5F}W was substituted for residues near the binding interface. In contrast, corresponding crystal structures in complex with HEL were essentially indistinguishable from the unsubstituted antibody. {sup 19}F NMR analysis showed severe overlap of signals in the free fluorinated protein that was resolved upon binding to antigen, suggesting very distinct chemical environments for each {sup 5F}W in the complex. Preliminary relaxation analysis suggested the presence of chemical exchange in the antibody-antigen complex that could not be observed by X-ray crystallography. These data demonstrate that fluorine NMR can be an extremely useful tool for discerning structural changes in scFv antibody-antigen complexes with altered function that may not be discernible by other biophysical techniques.

  8. Adsorption of iodine on hydrogen-reduced silver-exchanged mordenite: Experiments and modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nan, Yue; Tavlarides, Lawrence L.; DePaoli, David W.

    2016-08-03

    The adsorption process of iodine, a major volatile radionuclide in the off-gas streams of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, on hydrogen-reduced silver-exchanged mordenite (Ag0Z) was studied at the micro-scale. The gas-solid mass transfer and reaction involved in the adsorption process were investigated and evaluated with appropriate models. Optimal conditions for reducing the silver-exchanged mordenite (AgZ) in a hydrogen stream were determined. Kinetic and equilibrium data of iodine adsorption on Ag0Z were obtained by performing single-layer adsorption experiments with experimental systems of high precision at 373–473 K over various iodine concentrations. Results indicate approximately 91% to 97% of the iodine adsorption wasmore » through the silver-iodine reaction. The effect of temperature on the iodine loading capacity of Ag0Z was discussed. In conclusion, the Shrinking Core model describes the data well, and the primary rate controlling mechanisms were macro-pore diffusion and silver-iodine reaction. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2016« less

  9. A study on the expulsion of iodine from spent-fuel solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakurai, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Akira; Ishikawa, Niroh

    1995-02-01

    During dissolution of spent nuclear fuels, some radioiodine remains in spent-fuel solutions. Its expulsion to dissolver off-gas is important to minimize iodine escape to the environment. In our current work, the iodine remaining in spent-fuel solutions varied from 0 to 10% after dissolution of spent PWR-fuel specimens (approximately 3 g each). The amount remaining probably was dependent upon the dissolution time required. The cause is ascribable to the increased nitrous acid concentration that results from NOx generated during dissolution. The presence of nitrous acid was confirmed spectrophotometrically in an NO-HNO{sub 3} system at 100{degrees}C. Experiments examining NOx concentration versus the quantity of iodine in a simulated spent-fuel solution indicate that iodine (I{minus}) in spent fuels is subjected to the following three reactions: (1) oxidation into I{sub 2} by nitric acid, (2) oxidation into I{sub 2} by nitrous acid arising from NOx, and (3) formation of colloidal iodine (AgI, PdI{sub 2}), the major iodine species in a spent-fuel solution. Reaction (2) competes with reaction (3) to control the quantity of iodine remaining in solution. The following two-step expulsion process to remove iodine from a spent-fuel solution was derived from these experiments: Step One - Heat spent-fuel solutions without NOx sparging. When aged colloidal iodine is present, an excess amount of iodate should be added to the solution. Step Two - Sparge the fuel solution with NOx while heating. Effect of this new method was confirmed by use of a spent PWR-fuel solution.

  10. Evaluation of Iodine and Water Co-adsorption on Silver-Functionalized Aerogel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, B. B.; Bruffey, S. H.; Walker, J. F.

    2015-04-30

    The co-adsorption of iodine and water on silver-functionalized silica aerogel was evaluated using research quantities of the aerogel prepared at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. A macro thermogravimetric analyzer was used to measure weight changes in a thin bed of the aerogel as air streams containing moisture and/or iodine flowed through the bed. The total gas flow in all tests was adjusted to achieve a velocity of 10 m/min through the bed. Initial heating of the aerogel sample to 150C in dry air (dew point < -60C) resulted in weight loss on the order of 1 wt %. Because subsequent phases of the tests indicated that the aerogel did not sorb water, the weight loss was speculated to be caused by volatilization of material that may have been used in the manufacture of the aerogel. Follow-on tests are recommended to ascertain if the aerogel sorbs water at low temperatures, such as 25Cthis would help to determine if a manufacturing reagent is volatilized when raising the sample to iodine sorption temperatures (i.e., 150C). Alternatively, the off-gas released upon heating could be condensed and analyzed. In tests using humidified air streams with dew points between -60C and +10C, the aerogel did not adsorb water at test temperatures of either 75C or 150C. Because water alone was not adsorbed, tests were performed to ascertain if iodine sorption varied between cases when nearly no water was present in the gas stream and when water was present. In one experiment, the gas stream consisted of dry air (dew point < -60C) with an iodine concentration of 50 ppmv. In the other experiment, the gas stream consisted of air with a water dew point of 0C and an iodine concentration of 50 ppmv. The ultimate weight gain was nearly the same in both experiments and was presumed to be due entirely to adsorption of iodine. However, a reduced rate of iodine uptake is indicated when water vapor is present. The reason for this is unclear. In both cases, purging the sample with

  11. Iodine adsorption on ion-exchange resins and activated carbons: batch testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Kent E.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2014-09-30

    Iodine sorption onto seven resins and six carbon materials was evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36 on the Hanford Site. These materials were tested using a range of solution-to-solid ratios. The test results are as follows. The efficacy of the resin and granular activated carbon materials was less than predicted based on manufacturers’ performance data. It is hypothesized that this is due to the differences in speciation previously determined for Hanford groundwater. The sorption of iodine is affected by the iodine species in the source water. Iodine loading on resins using source water ranged from 1.47 to 1.70 µg/g with the corresponding Kd values from 189.9 to 227.0 mL/g. The sorption values when the iodine is converted to iodide ranged from 2.75 to 5.90 µg/g with the corresponding Kd values from 536.3 to 2979.6 mL/g. It is recommended that methods to convert iodine to iodide be investigated in fiscal year (FY) 2015. The chemicals used to convert iodine to iodate adversely affected the sorption of iodine onto the carbon materials. Using as-received source water, loading and Kd values ranged from 1.47 to 1.70 µg/g and 189.8 to 226.3 mL/g respectively. After treatment, loading and Kd values could not be calculated because there was little change between the initial and final iodine concentration. It is recommended the cause of the decrease in iodine sorption be investigated in FY15. In direct support of CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has evaluated samples from within the 200W pump and treat bioreactors. As part of this analysis, pictures taken within the bioreactor reveal a precipitate that, based on physical properties and known aqueous chemistry, is hypothesized to be iron pyrite or chalcopyrite, which could affect iodine adsorption. It is recommended these materials be tested at different solution-to-solid ratios in FY15 to determine their effect on iodine

  12. Sulfur-Iodine Integrated Lab Scale Experiment Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russ, Ben

    2011-05-27

    The sulfur-iodine (SI) cycle was deermined to be the best cycle for coupling to a high temperature reactor (HTR) because of its high efficiency and potential for further improvement. The Japanese Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has also selected the SI process for further development and has successfully completed bench-scale demonstrations of the SI process at atmospheric pressure. JEA also plans to proceed with pilot-scale demonstrations of the SI process and eventually plans to couple an SI demonstration plant to its High Temperature Test Reactor (HHTR). As part of an international NERI project, GA, SNL, and the Frech Commissariat L'Energie Atomique performed laboratory-scale demonstrations of the SI process at prototypical temperatures and pressures. This demonstration was performed at GA in San Diego, CA and concluded in April 2009.

  13. Reduced yield stress for zirconium exposed to iodine: Reactive force field simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossi, Matthew L.; Taylor, Christopher D.; van Duin, Adri C. T.

    2014-11-04

    Iodine-induced stress-corrosion cracking (ISCC), a known failure mode for nuclear fuel cladding, occurs when iodine generated during the irradiation of a nuclear fuel pellet escapes the pellet through diffusion or thermal cracking and chemically interacts with the inner surface of the clad material, inducing a subsequent effect on the cladding’s resistance to mechanical stress. To complement experimental investigations of ISCC, a reactive force field (ReaxFF) compatible with the Zr-I chemical and materials systems has been developed and applied to simulate the impact of iodine exposure on the mechanical strength of the material. The study shows that the material’s resistance to stress (as captured by the yield stress of a high-energy grain boundary) is related to the surface coverage of iodine, with the implication that ISCC is the result of adsorption-enhanced decohesion.

  14. Reduced yield stress for zirconium exposed to iodine: Reactive force field simulation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rossi, Matthew L.; Taylor, Christopher D.; van Duin, Adri C. T.

    2014-11-04

    Iodine-induced stress-corrosion cracking (ISCC), a known failure mode for nuclear fuel cladding, occurs when iodine generated during the irradiation of a nuclear fuel pellet escapes the pellet through diffusion or thermal cracking and chemically interacts with the inner surface of the clad material, inducing a subsequent effect on the cladding’s resistance to mechanical stress. To complement experimental investigations of ISCC, a reactive force field (ReaxFF) compatible with the Zr-I chemical and materials systems has been developed and applied to simulate the impact of iodine exposure on the mechanical strength of the material. The study shows that the material’s resistance tomore » stress (as captured by the yield stress of a high-energy grain boundary) is related to the surface coverage of iodine, with the implication that ISCC is the result of adsorption-enhanced decohesion.« less

  15. Development of Efficient Flowsheet and Transient Modeling for Nuclear Heat Coupled Sulfur Iodine Cyclefor Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shripad T. Revankar; Nicholas R. Brown; Cheikhou Kane; Seungmin Oh

    2010-05-01

    The realization of the hydrogen as an energy carrier for future power sources relies on a practical method of producing hydrogen in large scale with no emission of green house gases. Hydrogen is an energy carrier which can be produced by a thermochemical water splitting process. The Sulfur-Iodine (SI) process is an example of a water splitting method using iodine and sulfur as recycling agents.

  16. Salts of the iodine oxyacids in the impregnation of adsorbent charcoal for trapping radioactive methyliodide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deitz, Victor R.; Blachly, Charles H.

    1977-04-05

    Radioactive iodine and radioactive methyliodide can be more than 99.7 per cent removed from the air stream of a nuclear reactor by passing the air stream through a 2-inch thick filter which is made up of impregnated charcoal prepared by contacting the charcoal with a solution containing KOH, iodine or an iodide, and an oxyacid, followed by contacting with a solution containing a tertiary amine.

  17. Assessment of Methods to Consolidate Iodine-Loaded Silver-Functionalized

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Silica Aerogel (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Assessment of Methods to Consolidate Iodine-Loaded Silver-Functionalized Silica Aerogel Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Assessment of Methods to Consolidate Iodine-Loaded Silver-Functionalized Silica Aerogel The U.S. Department of Energy is currently investigating alternative sorbents for the removal and immobilization of radioiodine from the gas streams in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. One of these new

  18. NO2 Aging and Iodine Loading of Silver-Functionalized Aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patton, K K [ORNL; Bruffey, S H [ORNL; Walker, J F [ORNL; Jubin, R T [ORNL

    2014-07-31

    Off-gas treatment systems in used fuel reprocessing which use fixed-bed adsorbers are typically designed to operate for an extended period of time before replacement or regeneration of the adsorbent. During this time, the sorbent material will be exposed to the off-gas stream. Exposure could last for months, depending on the replacement cycle time. The gas stream will be at elevated temperature and will possibly contain a mixture of water vapor, NOx, nitric acid vapors, and a variety of other constituents in addition to the radionuclides of capture interest. A series of studies were undertaken to evaluate the effects of long-term exposure, or aging, on proposed iodine sorbent materials under increasingly harsh off-gas conditions. Previous studies have evaluated the effects of up to 6 months of aging under dry air and under humid air conditions on the iodine loading behavior of Ag0-functionalized aerogels. This study examines the effects of extended exposure (up to 6 months) to NO2 on the iodine loading capacity of Ag0- functionalized aerogels. Material aged for 1 and 2 months appeared to have a similar total loading capacity to fresh material. Over an aging period of 4 months, a loss of approximately 15% of the total iodine capacity was seen. The iodine capacity loss on silver-functionalized aerogels due to NO2 was smaller than the iodine capacity loss due to humid or dry air aging.

  19. Fluorinated bottlebrush polymers based on poly(trifluoroethyl methacrylate): Synthesis and characterizations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Yuewen; Wang, Weiyu; Wang, Yangyang; Zhu, Jiahua; Uhrig, David; Lu, Xinyi; Keum, Jong Kahk; Mays, Jimmy W.; Hong, Kunlun

    2015-11-25

    Bottlebrush polymers are densely grafted polymers with long side-chains attached to a linear polymeric backbone. Their unusual structures endow them with a number of unique and potentially useful properties in solution, in thin films, and in bulk. Despite the many studies of bottlebrushes that have been reported, the structure–property relationships for this class of materials are still poorly understood. In this contribution, we report the synthesis and characterization of fluorinated bottlebrush polymers based on poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate). The synthesis was achieved by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) using an α-bromoisobutyryl bromide functionalized norbornene initiator, followed by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) using a third generation Grubbs’ catalyst (G3). Rheological characterization revealed that the bottlebrush polymer backbones remained unentangled as indicated by the lack of a rubbery plateau in the modulus. By tuning the size of the backbone of the bottlebrush polymers, near-spherical and elongated particles representing single brush molecular morphologies were observed in a good solvent as evidenced by TEM imaging, suggesting a semi-flexible nature of their backbones in dilute solutions. Thin films of bottlebrush polymers exhibited noticeably higher static water contact angles as compared to that of the macromonomer reaching the hydrophobic regime, where little differences were observed between each bottlebrush polymer. Further investigation by AFM revealed that the surface of the macromonomer film was relatively smooth; in contrast, the surface of bottlebrush polymers displayed certain degrees of nano-scale roughness (Rq = 0.8–2.4 nm). The enhanced hydrophobicity of these bottlebrushes likely results from the preferential enrichment of the fluorine containing end groups at the periphery of the molecules and the film surface due to the side chain crowding effect. Furthermore, our results

  20. Fluorinated bottlebrush polymers based on poly(trifluoroethyl methacrylate): Synthesis and characterizations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Yuewen; Wang, Weiyu; Wang, Yangyang; Zhu, Jiahua; Uhrig, David; Lu, Xinyi; Keum, Jong Kahk; Mays, Jimmy W.; Hong, Kunlun

    2015-11-25

    Bottlebrush polymers are densely grafted polymers with long side-chains attached to a linear polymeric backbone. Their unusual structures endow them with a number of unique and potentially useful properties in solution, in thin films, and in bulk. Despite the many studies of bottlebrushes that have been reported, the structure–property relationships for this class of materials are still poorly understood. In this contribution, we report the synthesis and characterization of fluorinated bottlebrush polymers based on poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate). The synthesis was achieved by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) using an α-bromoisobutyryl bromide functionalized norbornene initiator, followed by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) usingmore » a third generation Grubbs’ catalyst (G3). Rheological characterization revealed that the bottlebrush polymer backbones remained unentangled as indicated by the lack of a rubbery plateau in the modulus. By tuning the size of the backbone of the bottlebrush polymers, near-spherical and elongated particles representing single brush molecular morphologies were observed in a good solvent as evidenced by TEM imaging, suggesting a semi-flexible nature of their backbones in dilute solutions. Thin films of bottlebrush polymers exhibited noticeably higher static water contact angles as compared to that of the macromonomer reaching the hydrophobic regime, where little differences were observed between each bottlebrush polymer. Further investigation by AFM revealed that the surface of the macromonomer film was relatively smooth; in contrast, the surface of bottlebrush polymers displayed certain degrees of nano-scale roughness (Rq = 0.8–2.4 nm). The enhanced hydrophobicity of these bottlebrushes likely results from the preferential enrichment of the fluorine containing end groups at the periphery of the molecules and the film surface due to the side chain crowding effect. Furthermore, our results provide

  1. Fluorinated Calixpyrroles: Anion-Binding Extractants that Reduce the Hofmeister Bias

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Marquez, Manuel; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Shriver, James A.; Vercouter, Thomas; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2003-04-30

    b-Fluorinated calix[4]pyrrole 1 and calix[5]pyrrole 2, strong, neutral anion-binding agents, were found to transport small anions effectively while overcoming the classical solvation-based Hofmeister anion bias selectivity. These two receptors showed an ability to extract smaller anions (bromide and chloride for 1 and nitrate and fluoride for 2) as effectively as iodide anion into nitrobenzene (NB). The present results also represent a rare example of liquid-liquid extraction of inorganic salts effected using an anion receptor in the absence of a cation co-extractant.

  2. Poor fluorinated graphene sheets carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mou, Chengbo E-mail: a.rozhin@aston.ac.uk; Turitsyn, Sergei; Rozhin, Aleksey E-mail: a.rozhin@aston.ac.uk; Arif, Raz; Lobach, Anatoly S.; Spitsina, Nataliya G.; Khudyakov, Dmitry V.; Kazakov, Valery A.

    2015-02-09

    We report poor fluorinated graphene sheets produced by thermal exfoliation embedding in carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite (GCMC) as an efficient mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser. Two GCMC mode lockers with different concentration have been fabricated. The GCMC based mode locked fiber laser shows stable soliton output pulse shaping with repetition rate of 28.5 MHz and output power of 5.5 mW was achieved with the high concentration GCMC, while a slightly higher output power of 6.9 mW was obtained using the low concentration GCMC mode locker.

  3. A Stable Fluorinated and Alkylated Lithium Malonatoborate Salt for Lithium Ion Battery Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Sheng; Sun, Xiao-Guang

    2015-01-01

    A new fluorinated and alkylated lithium malonatoborate salt, lithium bis(2-methyl-2-fluoromalonato)borate (LiBMFMB), has been synthesized for lithium ion battery application. A 0.8 M LiBMFMB solution is obtained in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1:2 by wt.). The new LiBMFMB based electrolyte exhibits good cycling stability and rate capability in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and graphite based half-cells.

  4. Materials for high-temperature hydrogen fluorine environments. Final report, June 1976-December 1978

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Kovach, L.

    1981-03-01

    A determination has been made of the stability of 35 materials under high-temperature, fluorine rich, hydrogen fluoride torch testing. Refractory materials tested included 4 borides, 3 carbides, 3 nitrides, 12 oxides, 1 oxynitride, 1 sulfide, 10 metals, and carbon (10 types). Three materials distinctly performed better than nickel: lanthanum hexaboride, calcium hexaboride, and lanthanum silicon oxynitride. Of these, lanthanum hexaboride is the best candidate tested since it has an estimated upper use temperature > 1726 K, which is above the melting point and more than 300 K above the upper use temperature of nickel.

  5. A Stable Fluorinated and Alkylated Lithium Malonatoborate Salt for Lithium Ion Battery Application

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wan, Shun; Jiang, Xueguang; Guo, Bingkun; Dai, Sheng; Goodenough, John B.; Sun, Xiao-Guang

    2015-04-27

    A new fluorinated and alkylated lithium malonatoborate salt, lithium bis(2-methyl-2-fluoromalonato)borate (LiBMFMB), has been synthesized for lithium ion battery application. A 0.8 M LiBMFMB solution is obtained in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1:2 by wt.). The new LiBMFMB based electrolyte exhibits good cycling stability and rate capability in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and graphite based half-cells.

  6. Composition for use in high-temperature hydrogen-fluorine environments and method for making the composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kovach, L.; Holcombe, C.E.

    1980-08-22

    The present invention relates to a composition particularly suitable for use as structural components subject to high-temperature environments containing gaseous hydrogen and fluorine. The composition of the present invention consists essentially of lanthanum hexaboride-molybdenum diboride with dispersed silicon. The composition is formed by hot pressing a powder mixture of lanthanum hexaboride as the major constituent and molybdenum disilicide. This composition exhibits substantial resistance to thermal shock and corrosion in environments containing hydrogen and fluorine gases at material surface temperatures up to about 1850/sup 0/K. Upon exposure of the hot-pressed composition to high-temperature environments containing fluorine gases, a highly protective layer of lanthanum trifluoride containing dispersed molybdenum is formed on exposed surfaces of the composition.

  7. Composition for use in high-temperature hydrogen-fluorine environments and method for making the composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kovach, Louis; Holcombe, Cressie E.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition particularly suitable for as structural components subject to high-temperature environments containing gaseous hydrogen and fluorine. The composition of the present invention consists essentially of lanthanum hexaboride-molybdenum diboride with dispersed silicon. The composition is formed by hot pressing a powder mixture of lanthanum hexaboride as the major constituent and molybdenum disilicide. This composition exhibits substantial resistance to thermal shock and corrosion in environments containing hydrogen and fluorine gases at material surface temperatures up to about 1850.degree. K. Upon exposure of the hot-pressed composition to high-temperature environments containing fluorine gases, a highly protective layer of lanthanum trifluoride containing dispersed molybdenum is formed on exposed surfaces of the composition.

  8. Membranes for the Sulfur-Iodine Integrated Laboratory Scale Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick F. Stewart

    2007-08-01

    INL has developed polymeric membrane-based chemical separations to enable the thermochemical production of hydrogen. Major activities included studies of sulfuric acid concentration membranes, hydriodic acid concentration membranes, SO2/O2 separation membranes, potential applications of a catalyst reactor system for the decomposition of HI, and evaluation of the chemical separation needs for alternate thermochemical cycles. Membranes for the concentration of sulfuric acid were studied using pervaporation. The goal of this task was to offer the sulfur-iodine (S-I) and the hybrid sulfur (HyS) cycles a method to concentrate the sulfuric acid containing effluent from the decomposer without boiling. In this work, sulfuric acid decomposer effluent needs to be concentrated from ~50 % acid to 80 %. This task continued FY 2006 efforts to characterize water selective membranes for use in sulfuric acid concentration. In FY 2007, experiments were conducted to provide specific information, including transmembrane fluxes, separation factors, and membrane durability, necessary for proper decision making on the potential inclusion of this process into the S-I or HyS Integrated Laboratory Scale demonstration.

  9. Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative, Results of the Phase II Testing of Sulfur-Iodine Integrated Lab Scale Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin Russ; G. Naranjo; R. Moore; W. Sweet; M. Hele; N. Pons

    2009-10-30

    International collaborative effort to construct a laboratory-scale Sulfur-Iodine process capable of producing 100-200 L/hr of hydrogen.

  10. Fluorination behavior of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} in the presence of F{sub 2} and O{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuda, Minoru; Sato, Nobuaki; Kirishima, Akira; Tochiyama, Osamu

    2007-07-01

    To apply the fluoride volatility process to the spent nuclear fuel, fluorination of UO{sub 2} by fluorine has been studied. In this reaction, it is possible that the U-O-F compounds, such as UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}, are produced. Therefore, study of such compounds is useful in order to know the fluorination behavior of UO{sub 2}. This paper presents the fluorination behavior of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} in the presence of F{sub 2} and O{sub 2}, analyzed by thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) method using anti-corrosion type differential thermo-balance. In fluorine gas, exothermic peaks appeared and volatilization of UF{sub 6}. In oxygen gas, only slowly pace decomposition was measured from UO{sub 22} to UF{sub 6} and UO{sub 3}. (authors)

  11. Method for fluorination of actinide fluorides and oxyfluorides thereof using O.sub.2 F.sub.2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eller, Phillip G. (Los Alamos, NM); Malm, John G. (Naperville, IL); Penneman, Robert A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01

    Method for fluorination of actinides and fluorides and oxyfluorides thereof using O.sub.2 F.sub.2 which generates actinide hexafluorides, and for removal of actinides and compounds thereof from surfaces upon which they appear as unwanted deposits. The fluorinating agent, O.sub.2 F.sub.2, has been observed to readily perform the above-described tasks at sufficiently low temperatures that there is virtually no damage to the containment vessels. Moreover, the resulting actinide hexafluorides are thereby not destroyed by high temperature reactions with the walls of the reaction vessel. Dioxygen difluoride is easily prepared, stored and transferred to the desired place of reaction.

  12. Method for fluorination of actinide fluorides and oxyfluorides using O/sub 2/F/sub 2/

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eller, P.G.; Malm, J.G.; Penneman, R.A.

    1984-08-01

    The present invention relates generally to methods of fluorination and more particularly to the use of O/sub 2/F/sub 2/ for the preparation of actinide hexafluorides, and for the extraction of deposited actinides and fluorides and oxyfluorides thereof from reaction vessels. The experiments set forth hereinabove demonstrate that the room temperature or below use of O/sub 2/F/sub 2/ will be highly beneficial for the preparation of pure actinide hexafluorides from their respective tetrafluorides without traces of HF being present as occurs using other fluorinating agents: and decontamination of equipment previously exposed to actinides: e.g., walls, feed lines, etc.

  13. Method for fluorination of actinide fluorides and oxyfluorides thereof using O[sub 2]F[sub 2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eller, P.G.; Malm, J.G.; Penneman, R.A.

    1988-11-08

    Method is described for fluorination of actinides and fluorides and oxyfluorides thereof using O[sub 2]F[sub 2] which generates actinide hexafluorides, and for removal of actinides and compounds thereof from surfaces upon which they appear as unwanted deposits. The fluorinating agent, O[sub 2]F[sub 2], has been observed to readily perform the above-described tasks at sufficiently low temperatures that there is virtually no damage to the containment vessels. Moreover, the resulting actinide hexafluorides are thereby not destroyed by high temperature reactions with the walls of the reaction vessel. Dioxygen difluoride is easily prepared, stored and transferred to the desired place of reaction.

  14. Investigation of fluorine-doped tin oxide based optically transparent E-shaped patch antenna for terahertz communications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, S. E-mail: darak.mayur@gmail.com Darak, Mayur Sudesh E-mail: darak.mayur@gmail.com Kumar, D. Sriram E-mail: darak.mayur@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, a fluorine-doped tin oxide based optically transparent E-shaped patch antenna is designed and its radiation performance is analyzed in the 705 – 804 GHz band. As optically transparent antennas can be mounted on optical display, they facilitate the reduction of overall system size. The proposed antenna design is simulated using electromagnetic solver - Ansys HFSS and its characteristics such as impedance bandwidth, directivity, radiation efficiency and gain are observed. Results show that the fluorine-doped tin oxide based optically transparent patch antenna overcomes the conventional patch antenna limitations and thus the same can be used for solar cell antenna used in satellite systems.

  15. FUNCTIONALIZED SILICA AEROGELS: ADVANCED MATERIALS TO CAPTURE AND IMMOBILIZE RADIOACTIVE IODINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matyas, Josef; Fryxell, Glen E.; Busche, Brad J.; Wallace, Krys; Fifield, Leonard S.

    2011-11-16

    To support the future expansion of nuclear energy, an effective method is needed to capture and safely store radiological iodine-129 released during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Various materials have been investigated to capture and immobilize iodine. In most cases, however, the materials that are effective for capturing iodine cannot subsequently be sintered/densified to create a stable composite that could be a viable waste form. We have developed chemically modified, highly porous, silica aerogels that show sorption capacities higher than 440 mg of I2 per gram at 150 C. An iodine uptake test in dry air containing 4.2 ppm of iodine demonstrated no breakthrough after 3.5 h and indicated a decontamination factor in excess of 310. Preliminary densification tests showed that the I2-loaded aerogels retained more than 92 wt% of I2 after thermal sintering with pressure assistance at 1200 C for 30 min. These high capture and retention efficiencies for I2 can be further improved by optimizing the functionalization process and the chemistry as well as the sintering conditions.

  16. A Study on Removal of Iodine, Iodide Ion, and Iodate Ion from Radioactive Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yim, S.P.; Kim, K.R.; Lee, M.S.; Chung, H.; Shim, M.H.; Lee, C.K.

    2006-07-01

    For the two methods to remove iodine, the iodide ion and the iodate ion from radioactive waste water, we proposed previously, the main reactions were experimentally investigated to examine the feasibility of them. One is the reaction of the iodide ion and the iodate ion. In this reaction, it was confirmed that the reaction rate is faster with a pH of less than 2 and, to undergo the reaction faster under the condition of pH 2, an addition of excess iodide ions and iodate ions is necessary. Another is the reduction of the iodate ion and the iodine by pyrite. In the experiment, it was found that when the iodate ion in the solution is in contact with pyrite, it is reduced to iodine on the surface of the pyrite and the produced iodine is consecutively reduced to the iodide ion. The reaction occurred at room temperature under a wide range of pHs. Based on the results of this preliminary study, it is expected that a more substantial method could be prepared for the effective removal of an iodine mixture from radioactive wastewater. (authors)

  17. Low-Temperature Fluorination of Soft-Templated Mesoporous Carbons for a High-Power Lithium/Carbon Fluoride Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fulvio, Pasquale F.; Brown, Suree S.; Adcock, Jamie; Mayes, Richard T.; Guo, Bingkun; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Mahurin, Shannon M.; Veith, Gabriel M.; Dai, Sheng

    2011-09-29

    Soft-templated mesoporous carbons and activated mesoporous carbons were fluorinated using elemental fluorine between room temperature and 235 °C. The mesoporous carbons were prepared via self-assembly synthesis of phloroglucinol–formaldehyde as a carbon precursor in the presence of triblock ethylene oxide–propylene oxide–ethylene oxide copolymer BASF Pluronic F127 as the template. The F/C ratios ranged from ~0.15 to 0.75 according to gravimetric, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Materials have mesopore diameters up to 11 nm and specific surface areas as high as 850 m² g⁻¹ after fluorination as calculated from nitrogen adsorption isotherms at -196 °C. Furthermore, the materials exhibit higher discharge potentials and energy and power densities as well as faster reaction kinetics under high current densities than commercial carbon fluorides with similar fluorine contents when tested as cathodes for Li/CFx batteries.

  18. Synthesis, structural and magnetic characterisation of the fully fluorinated compound 6H-BaFeO{sub 2}F

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clemens, Oliver; Wright, Adrian J.; Berry, Frank J.; Smith, Ronald I.; Slater, Peter R.

    2013-02-15

    The compound 6H-BaFeO{sub 2}F (P6{sub 3}/mmc) was synthesised by the low temperature fluorination of 6H-BaFeO{sub 3-d} using polyvinylidenedifluoride (PVDF) as a fluorination agent. Structural characterisation by XRD and NPD suggests that the local positions of the oxygen and fluorine atoms vary with no evidence for ordering on the anion sites. This compound shows antiferromagnetic ordering at room temperature with antiparallel alignment of the magnetic moments along the c-axis. The use of PVDF also allows the possibility of tuning the fluorine content in materials of composition 6H-BaFeO{sub 3-d}F{sub y} to any value of 0fluorination using PVDF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A structural investigation of the compounds BaFeO{sub 2}F is presented in detail. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This analysis suggests differences for the local coordination of O{sup 2-} and F{sup -} anions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H-BaFeO{sub 2}F shows antiferromagnetic ordering at 300 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic moments align parallel to the a-axis.

  19. Nontypical iodine-halogen bonds in the crystal structure of (3 E

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    )-8-chloro-3-iodomethylidene-2,3-dihydro-1,4-oxazino[2,3,4- ij ]quinolin-4-ium triiodide (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Nontypical iodine-halogen bonds in the crystal structure of (3 E )-8-chloro-3-iodomethylidene-2,3-dihydro-1,4-oxazino[2,3,4- ij ]quinolin-4-ium triiodide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nontypical iodine-halogen bonds in the crystal structure of (3 E )-8-chloro-3-iodomethylidene-2,3-dihydro-1,4-oxazino[2,3,4- ij ]quinolin-4-ium triiodide Two kinds of

  20. EVOLUTION OF FLUORINE IN THE GALAXY WITH THE {nu}-PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Chiaki; Karakas, Amanda I.; Yong, David; Izutani, Natsuko; Yoshida, Takashi; Umeda, Hideyuki

    2011-10-01

    We calculate the evolution of fluorine in the solar neighborhood with the {nu}-process of core-collapse supernovae, the results of which are in good agreement with the observations of field stars. The {nu}-process operating in supernovae causes the [F/O] ratio to plateau at [O/H] {approx}< - 1.2, followed by a rapid increase toward [O/H] {approx} - 0.5 from the contribution of asymptotic giant branch stars. The plateau value of [F/O] depends on the neutrino luminosity released by core-collapse supernovae and may be constrained by using future observations of field stars at low metallicities. For globular clusters, the handful of [F/O] measurements suggest that the relative contribution from low-mass supernovae is smaller in these systems than in the field.

  1. Technetium and Iodine Getters to Improve Cast Stone Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.; Snyder, Michelle MV

    2015-02-19

    To determine the effectiveness of the various getter materials prior to their solidification in Cast Stone, a series of batch sorption experiments was performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. To quantify the effectiveness of the removal of Tc(VII) and I(I) from solution by getters, the distribution coefficient, Kd (mL/g), was calculated. Testing involved placing getter material in contact with spiked waste solutions at a 1:100 solid-to-solution ratio for periods up to 45 days with periodic solution sampling. One Tc getter was also tested at a 1:10 solid-to-solution ratio. Two different solution media, 18.2 MΩ deionized water (DI H2O) and a 7.8 M Na LAW simulant, were used in the batch sorption tests. Each test was conducted at room temperature in an anoxic chamber containing N2 with a small amount of H2 (0.7%) to maintain anoxic conditions. Each getter-solution combination was run in duplicate. Three Tc- and I-doping concentrations were used separately in aliquots of both the 18.2 MΩ DI H2O and a 7.8 M Na LAW waste simulant. The 1× concentration was developed based on Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model runs to support the River Protection Project System Plan Revision 6. The other two concentrations were 5× and 10× of the HTWOS values. The Tc and I tests were run separately (i.e., the solutions did not contain both solutes). Sampling of the solid-solution mixtures occurred nominally after 0.2, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 days and ~35 to 45 days. Seven getter materials were tested for Tc and five materials were tested for I. The seven Tc getters were blast furnace slag 1 (BFS1) (northwest source), BFS2 (southeast source), Sn(II)-treated apatite, Sn(II) chloride, nano tin phosphate, KMS (a potassium-metal-sulfide), and tin hydroxapatite. The five iodine getters were layered bismuth hydroxide (LBH), argentite mineral, synthetic argentite, silver-treated carbon, and silver-treated zeolite. The Tc Kd values measured from experiments conducted

  2. Technetium and Iodine Getters to Improve Cast Stone Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.; Snyder, Michelle MV

    2014-07-01

    To determine the effectiveness of the various getter materials prior to their solidification in Cast Stone, a series of batch sorption experiments was performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. To quantify the effectiveness of the removal of Tc(VII) and I(I) from solution by getters, the distribution coefficient, Kd (mL/g), was calculated. Testing involved placing getter material in contact with spiked waste solutions at a 1:100 solid-to-solution ratio for periods up to 45 days with periodic solution sampling. One Tc getter was also tested at a 1:10 solid-to-solution ratio. Two different solution media, 18.2 MΩ deionized water (DI H2O) and a 7.8 M Na LAW simulant, were used in the batch sorption tests. Each test was conducted at room temperature in an anoxic chamber containing N2 with a small amount of H2 (0.7%) to maintain anoxic conditions. Each getter-solution combination was run in duplicate. Three Tc- and I-doping concentrations were used separately in aliquots of both the 18.2 MΩ DI H2O and a 7.8 M Na LAW waste simulant. The 1× concentration was developed based on Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model runs to support the River Protection Project System Plan Revision 6. The other two concentrations were 5× and 10× of the HTWOS values. The Tc and I tests were run separately (i.e., the solutions did not contain both solutes). Sampling of the solid-solution mixtures occurred nominally after 0.2, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 days and ~35 to 45 days. Seven getter materials were tested for Tc and five materials were tested for I. The seven Tc getters were blast furnace slag 1 (BFS1) (northwest source), BFS2 (southeast source), Sn(II)-treated apatite, Sn(II) chloride, nano tin phosphate, KMS (a potassium-metal-sulfide), and tin hydroxapatite. The five iodine getters were layered bismuth hydroxide (LBH), argentite mineral, synthetic argentite, silver-treated carbon, and silver-treated zeolite. The Tc Kd values measured from experiments conducted

  3. Critical role of iodination for T cell recognition of thyroglobulin in experimental murine thyroid autoimmunity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Champion, B.R.; Rayner, D.C.; Byfield, P.G.H.; Page, K.R.; Chan, C.T.J.; Roitt, I.M.

    1987-12-01

    The authors have used two clonotypically distinct thyroglobulin (Tg)-specific, I-A/sup k/-restricted monoclonal T cell populations to investigate the role of thyroid peroxidase-catalyzed iodination in Tg recognition by autorreactive T cells. The results showed that these T cells could recognize Tg only it was sufficiently iodinated. Unlike normal mouse Tg, noniodinated mouse Tg was unable to induce significant thyroid lesions but could trigger the production of Tg autoantibodies. In these experiments, the importance of T cell recognition of iodination-related epitopes was emphasized by the inability of serum antibodies to distinguish Tg on the basis of iodine content, whether they were induced with normal or noniodinated Tg. Therefore, thyroid peroxidase-dependent modification of Tg would appear to be central to its recognition by autoreactive T cells and hence its capacity to induce autoimmune thyroid lesions. Proliferative responses of the Tg-specific T cell clone was assessed by the incorporation of (/sup 125/I) deoxyuridine. Anti-Tg antibody activity was determined by radioimmunoassay.

  4. CAST STONE TECHNOLOGY FOR TREATMENT & DISPOSAL OF IODINE RICH CAUSTIC WASTE DEMONSTRATION FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LOCKREM, L.L.

    2005-07-14

    CH2M HILL is working to develop, design, and construct low-activity waste (LAW) treatment and imcholization systems to supplement the LAW capacity provided by the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. CH2M HILL is investigating use of cast stone technology for treatment and immobilization of caustic solutions containing high concentrations of radioactive Iodine-129.

  5. Investigation of iodine dopant amount effects on dye-sensitized hierarchically structured ZnO solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Yan-Zhen; Ding, Haiyang; Tao, Xia; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • The effect of I amount on the photovoltaic performance was investigated. • The enhancement in η of ZnO:I DSSCs was from 38% to 77% compared with ZnO DSSCs. • Appropriate I doping enhanced light harness and inhibited charge recombination. - Abstract: We prepare a series of iodine doped zinc oxide monodisperse aggregates (ZnO:I) with various iodine concentrations as the photoanodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to study iodine dopant amount-dependent photovoltaic performance. The iodine-doped DSSCs achieve overall conversion efficiency (η) of 3.6–4.6%. The enhancement in η of ZnO:I DSSCs is from 38% to 77% as compared to undoped ZnO DSSCs. The significantly enhanced η of DSSCs is found to be correlated with iodine dopant amount. The optimum iodine dopant amount is determined to be 2.3 wt% by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Furthermore, the incident photon to current conversion efficiency and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data reveal a systematic correlation between photovoltaic properties and the iodine dopant amount. The enhancement of open-circuit potential of ZnO:I cells is arising from negative shift of their flat-band potential, as demonstrated by Mott–Schottky measurement.

  6. Expedited Synthesis of Fluorine-18 Labeled Phenols. A Missing Link in PET Radiochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katzenellenbogen, John A.; Zhou, Dong

    2015-03-26

    Fluorine-18 (F-18) is arguably the most valuable radionuclide for positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging. However, while there are many methods for labeling small molecules with F-18 at aliphatic positions and on electron-deficient aromatic rings, there are essentially no reliable and practical methods to label electron-rich aromatic rings such as phenols, with F-18 at high specific activity. This is disappointing because fluorine-labeled phenols are found in many drugs; there are also many interesting plant metabolites and hormones that contain either phenols or other electron-rich aromatic systems such as indoles whose metabolism, transport, and distribution would be interesting to study if they could readily be labeled with F-18. Most approaches to label phenols with F-18 involve the labeling of electron-poor precursor arenes by nucleophilic aromatic substitution, followed by subsequent conversion to phenols by oxidation or other multi-step sequences that are often inefficient and time consuming. Thus, the lack of good methods for labeling phenols and other electron-rich aromatics with F-18 at high specific activity represents a significant methodological gap in F-18 radiochemistry that can be considered a “Missing Link in PET Radiochemistry”. The objective of this research project was to develop and optimize a series of unusual synthetic transformations that will enable phenols (and other electron-rich aromatic systems) to be labeled with F-18 at high specific activity, rapidly, reliably, and conveniently, thereby bridging this gap. Through the studies conducted with support of this project, we have substantially advanced synthetic methodology for the preparation of fluorophenols. Our progress is presented in detail in the sections below, and much has been published or presented publication; other components are being prepared for publication. In essence, we have developed a completely new method to prepare o-fluorophenols from non-aromatic precursors

  7. Role of precursor chemistry in the direct fluorination to form titanium based conversion anodes for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Adcock, Jamie; Dai, Sheng; Veith, Gabriel M.; Bridges, Craig A.; Powell, Jonathan M.

    2015-10-13

    In this study, a new synthetic route for the formation of titanium oxydifluoride (TiOF2) through the process of direct fluorination via a fluidized bed reactor system and the associated electrochemical properties of the powders formed from this approach are reported. The flexibility of this synthetic route was demonstrated using precursor powders of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles, as well as a reduced TiOxNy. An advantage of this synthetic method is the ability to directly control the extent of fluorination as a function of reaction temperature and time. The reversible capacity of TiOF2 anodes was found to depend greatly upon the precursormore » employed. The TiOF2 synthesized from TiO2 and TiOxNy showed reversible capacities of 300 mAh g-1 and 440 mAh g-1, respectively, over 100 cycles. The higher reversible capacity of the TiOF2 powders derived from TiOxNy likely relate to the partial reduction of the Ti in the fluorinated electrode material, highlighting a route to optimize the properties of conversion electrode materials.« less

  8. Role of precursor chemistry in the direct fluorination to form titanium based conversion anodes for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adcock, Jamie; Dai, Sheng; Veith, Gabriel M.; Bridges, Craig A.; Powell, Jonathan M.

    2015-10-13

    In this study, a new synthetic route for the formation of titanium oxydifluoride (TiOF2) through the process of direct fluorination via a fluidized bed reactor system and the associated electrochemical properties of the powders formed from this approach are reported. The flexibility of this synthetic route was demonstrated using precursor powders of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles, as well as a reduced TiOxNy. An advantage of this synthetic method is the ability to directly control the extent of fluorination as a function of reaction temperature and time. The reversible capacity of TiOF2 anodes was found to depend greatly upon the precursor employed. The TiOF2 synthesized from TiO2 and TiOxNy showed reversible capacities of 300 mAh g-1 and 440 mAh g-1, respectively, over 100 cycles. The higher reversible capacity of the TiOF2 powders derived from TiOxNy likely relate to the partial reduction of the Ti in the fluorinated electrode material, highlighting a route to optimize the properties of conversion electrode materials.

  9. FLUORINE VARIATIONS IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6656 (M22): IMPLICATIONS FOR INTERNAL ENRICHMENT TIMESCALES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Orazi, Valentina; Lucatello, Sara; Gratton, Raffaele G.; Lugaro, Maria; Angelou, George; Bragaglia, Angela; Carretta, Eugenio; Alves-Brito, Alan; Ivans, Inese I.; Masseron, Thomas; Mucciarelli, Alessio

    2013-01-20

    Observed chemical (anti)correlations in proton-capture elements among globular cluster stars are presently recognized as the signature of self-enrichment from now extinct, previous generations of stars. This defines the multiple population scenario. Since fluorine is also affected by proton captures, determining its abundance in globular clusters provides new and complementary clues regarding the nature of these previous generations and supplies strong observational constraints to the chemical enrichment timescales. In this paper, we present our results on near-infrared CRIRES spectroscopic observations of six cool giant stars in NGC 6656 (M22): the main objective is to derive the F content and its internal variation in this peculiar cluster, which exhibits significant changes in both light- and heavy-element abundances. Across our sample, we detected F variations beyond the measurement uncertainties and found that the F abundances are positively correlated with O and anticorrelated with Na, as expected according to the multiple population framework. Furthermore, our observations reveal an increase in the F content between the two different sub-groups, s-process rich and s-process poor, hosted within M22. The comparison with theoretical models suggests that asymptotic giant stars with masses between 4 and 5 M {sub Sun} are responsible for the observed chemical pattern, confirming evidence from previous works: the difference in age between the two sub-components in M22 must be not larger than a few hundred Myr.

  10. Novel Fluorine-Containing NMDA Antagonists for Brain Imaging: In Vitro Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarado, M.; Biegon, A.

    2001-01-01

    The NMDA receptor has been implicated in neuronal death following stroke, brain injury and neurodegenerative disorders (e.g. Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's disease) and in physiological functions (e.g. memory and cognition). Non-competitive antagonists, such as MK- 801 and CNS-1102, that block the action of glutamate at the NMDA receptor have been shown to be neuroprotective by blocking the influx of calcium into the cells. As a result, they are being considered as therapeutic agents for the above mentioned diseases. Several Fluorine-containing novel analogs of NMDA channel blockers have been synthesized and evaluated in search of a compound suitable for 18F labeling and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Based on in vitro binding assay studies on rat brain membranes, the novel compounds examined displayed a range of affinities. Preliminary analyses indicated that chlorine is the best halogen on the ring, and that ethyl fluoro derivatives are more potent than methyl-fluoro compounds. Further analysis based on autoradiography will be needed to examine the regional binding characteristics of the novel compounds examined in this study. Labeling with 18F will allow the use of these compounds in humans, generating new insights into mechanisms and treatment of diseases involving malfunction of the glutamatergic system in the brain.

  11. Hydrogen and fluorine co-decorated silicene: A first principles study of piezoelectric properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noor-A-Alam, Mohammad; Kim, Hye Jung; Shin, Young-Han

    2015-06-14

    A low-buckled silicene monolayer being centrosymmetric like graphene, in contrast to a piezoelectric hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), is not intrinsically piezoelectric. However, based on first principles calculations, we show that chemical co-decoration of hydrogen (H) and fluorine (F) on opposite sides of silicene (i.e., one side is decorated with H, while the other one is with F) breaks the centrosymmetry. Redistributing the charge density due to the electronegativity difference between the atoms, non-centrosymmetric co-decoration induces an out-of-plane dipolar polarization and concomitant piezoelectricity into non-piezoelectric silicene monolayer. Our piezoelectric coefficients are comparable with other known two-dimensional piezoelectric materials (e.g., hydrofluorinated graphene/h-BN) and some bulk semiconductors, such as wurtzite GaN and wurtzite BN. Moreover, because of silicene's lower elastic constants compared to graphene or h-BN, piezoelectric strain constants are found significantly larger than those of hydrofluorinated graphene/h-BN. We also predict that a wide range of band gaps with an average of 2.52 eV can be opened in a low-buckled gapless semi-metallic silicene monolayer by co-decoration of H and F atoms on the surface.

  12. Three-dimensional photonic crystal fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) electrodes : synthesis and optical and electrical properties.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Z.; Gao, S.; Li, W.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V.; Welp, U.; Kwok, W.-K.; Xu, T.

    2011-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) schemes often encounter a pair of fundamentally opposing requirements on the thickness of semiconductor layer: a thicker PV semiconductor layer provides enhanced optical density, but inevitably increases the charge transport path length. An effective approach to solve this dilemma is to enhance the interface area between the terminal electrode, i.e., transparent conducting oxide (TCO) and the semiconductor layer. As such, we report a facile, template-assisted, and solution chemistry-based synthesis of 3-dimensional inverse opal fluorinated tin oxide (IO-FTO) electrodes. Synergistically, the photonic crystal structure possessed in the IO-FTO exhibits strong light trapping capability. Furthermore, the electrical properties of the IO-FTO electrodes are studied by Hall effect and sheet resistance measurement. Using atomic layer deposition method, an ultrathin TiO{sub 2} layer is coated on all surfaces of the IO-FTO electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry study indicates that the resulting TiO{sub 2}-coated IO-FTO shows excellent potentials as electrodes for electrolyte-based photoelectrochemical solar cells.

  13. Expanded Analysis of Hot Isostatic Pressed Iodine-Loaded Silver-Exchanged Mordenite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jubin, R. T.; Bruffey, S. H.; Patton, K. K.

    2014-09-30

    Reduced silver-exchanged mordenite (Ag0Z) is being evaluated as a potential material to control the release of radioactive iodine that is released during the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel into the plant off-gas streams. The purpose of this study was to determine if hot pressing could directly convert this iodine loaded sorbent into a waste form suitable for long-term disposition. The minimal pretreatment required for production of pressed pellets makes hot pressing a technically and economically desirable process. Initial scoping studies utilized hot uniaxial pressing (HUPing) to prepare samples of non-iodine-loaded reduced silver exchanged mordenite (Ag0Z). The resulting samples were very fragile due to the low pressure (~ 28 MPa) used. It was recommended that hot isostatic pressing (HIPing), performed at higher temperatures and pressures, be investigated. HIPing was carried out in two phases, with a third and final phase currently underway. Phase I evaluated the effects of pressure and temperature conditions on the manufacture of a pressed sample. The base material was an engineered form of silver zeolite. Six samples of Ag0Z and two samples of I-Ag0Z were pressed. It was found that HIPing produced a pressed pellet of high density. Analysis of each pressed pellet by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrophotometry (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrated that under the conditions used for pressing, the majority of the material transforms into an amorphous structure. The only crystalline phase observed in the pressed Ag0Z material was SiO2. For the samples loaded with iodine (I-Ag0Z) iodine was present as AgI clusters at low temperatures, and transformed into AgIO4 at high temperatures. Surface mapping and EDS demonstrate segregation between silver iodide phases and silicon dioxide phases. Based on the results of the Phase I study, an expanded test matrix was developed to examine the effects of multiple source materials, compositional

  14. Conceptual Model of Iodine Behavior in the Subsurface at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Lee, Brady D.; Johnson, Christian D.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Last, George V.; Lee, Michelle H.; Kaplan, Daniel I.

    2015-09-01

    The fate and transport of 129I in the environment and potential remediation technologies are currently being studied as part of environmental remediation activities at the Hanford Site. A conceptual model describing the nature and extent of subsurface contamination, factors that control plume behavior, and factors relevant to potential remediation processes is needed to support environmental remedy decisions. Because 129I is an uncommon contaminant, relevant remediation experience and scientific literature are limited. Thus, the conceptual model also needs to both describe known contaminant and biogeochemical process information and to identify aspects about which additional information needed to effectively support remedy decisions. this document summarizes the conceptual model of iodine behavior relevant to iodine in the subsurface environment at the Hanford site.

  15. Aqueous Dissolution of Silver Iodide and Associated Iodine Release Under Reducing Conditions with Sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaohiro Inagaki; Toshitaka Imamura; Kazuya Idemitsu; Tatsumi Arima; Osamu Kato; Hidekazu Asano; Tsutomu Nishimura

    2007-07-01

    Aqueous dissolution tests of silver iodide (AgI) were performed in Na{sub 2}S solutions in order to evaluate, empirically, dissolution of AgI to release iodine under reducing conditions with sulfide. The results indicated that AgI dissolves to release iodine being controlled by mainly precipitation of Ag{sub 2}S. However, the dissolution of AgI can be depressed to proceed, and the thermodynamic equilibrium cannot be attained easily. Solid phase analysis for the reacted AgI suggested that a thin layer of solid silver forming at AgI surface may evolve to be protective against transportation of reactant species, which can lead to the depression in the dissolution of AgI. (authors)

  16. Proposed ground-based incoherent Doppler lidar with iodine filter discriminator for atmospheric wind profiling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Z.S.; Chen, W.B.; Hair, J.W.; She, C.Y.

    1996-12-31

    A new incoherent lidar for measuring atmospheric wind using iodine molecular filter is proposed. A unique feature of the proposed lidar lies in its capability for simultaneous measurement of aerosol mixing ratio, with which the radial wind can be determined uniquely from lidar return. A preliminary laboratory experiment using a dye laser at 589 nm and a rotating wheel has been performed demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed wind measurement.

  17. Atmospheric dispersion and deposition of iodine-131 released from the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Simonen, C.A.; Burk, K.W.; Stage, S.A.

    1994-06-01

    Approximately 2.6x10{sup 4} TBq (700,000 curies) of iodine-131 were released to the air from reactor fuel processing plants on the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington State from December 1944 through December 1949. The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project developed a suite of codes to estimate the doses that might have resulted from these releases. The Regional Atmospheric Transport Code for Hanford Emission Tracking (RATCHET) computer code is part of this suite. The RATCHET code implements a Lagrangian-trajectory, Gaussian-puff dispersion model that uses hourly meteorological and release rate data to estimate daily time-integrated air concentrations and surface contamination for use in dose estimates. In this model, iodine is treated as a mixture of three species (nominally, inorganic gases, organic gases, and particles). Model deposition parameters are functions of the mixture and meteorological conditions. A resistance model is used to calculate dry deposition velocities. Equilibrium between concentrations in the precipitation and the air near the ground is assumed in calculating wet deposition of gases, and irreversible washout of the particles is assumed. RATCHET explicitly treats the uncertainties in model parameters and meteorological conditions. Uncertainties in iodine-131 release rates and partitioning among the nominal species are treated by varying model input. The results of 100 model runs for December 1944 through December 1949 indicate that monthly average air concentrations and deposition have uncertainties ranging from a factor of two near the center of the time-integrated plume to more than an order of magnitude near the edge. These results indicate that -10% of the iodine-131 released to the atmosphere decayed during transit in the study area, -56% was deposited within the study area, and the remaining 34% was transported out of the study area while still in the air.

  18. Sulfur Iodine Process Summary for the Hydrogen Technology Down-Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin Russ

    2009-05-01

    This report summarizes the sulfur-iodine (SI) thermochemical water splitting process for the purpose of supporting the process for evaluating and recommending a hydrogen production technology to deploy with the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). This package provides the baseline process description as well as a comparison with the process as it was implemented in the Integrated Lab Scale (ILS) experiment conducted at General Atomics from 2006-2009.

  19. Real-time crystallization in fluorinated parylene probed by conductivity spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khazaka, R. Diaham, S.; Locatelli, M. L.; Tenailleau, C.

    2014-03-17

    Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy experiments were performed at high temperature on fluorinated parylene films during the occurrence of the isothermal crystalline phase transition. For this polymer, since the difference between the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and the phase transition temperature (T{sub c}) is very strong (T{sub c} ≥ 4T{sub g}), segmental and dipolar relaxation usually used to probe the crystallization are not shown in the experiment frequency window (10{sup −1} to 10{sup 6} Hz) during the crystallization. The charge diffusion becomes the only electrical marker that allows probing the phase transition. During the transition phase, a continuous decrease of about two orders of magnitude is observed in the conductivity values below an offset frequency (f{sub c}) with a tendency to stabilization after 600 min. Below the offset frequency, the decrease of the normalized conductivity to the initial value as function of time is frequency independent. The same behavior is also observed for the f{sub c} values that decrease from 160 Hz to about 20 Hz. Above the offset frequency, the electronic hopping mechanism is also affected by the phase transition and the power law exponent (n) of the AC conductivity shows a variation from 0.7 to 0.95 during the first 600 min that tend to stabilize thereafter. Accordingly, three parameters (n, f{sub c}, and AC conductivity values for frequencies below f{sub c}) extracted from the AC conductivity spectra in different frequency windows seem suitable to probe the crystalline phase transition.

  20. Advances in Acid Concentration Membrane Technology for the Sulfur-Iodine Thermochemical Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick F. Stewart; Christopher J. Orme

    2006-11-01

    One of the most promising cycles for the thermochemical generation of hydrogen is the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) process, where aqueous HI is thermochemically decomposed into H2 and I2 at approximately 350 degrees Celsius. Regeneration of HI is accomplished by the Bunsen reaction (reaction of SO2, water, and iodine to generate H2SO4 and HI). Furthermore, SO2 is regenerated from the decomposition of H2SO4 at 850 degrees Celsius yielding the SO2 as well as O2. Thus, the cycle actually consists of two concurrent oxidation-reduction loops. As HI is regenerated, co-produced H2SO4 must be separated so that each may be decomposed. Current flowsheets employ a large amount (~83 mol% of the entire mixture) of elemental I2 to cause the HI and the H2SO4 to separate into two phases. To aid in the isolation of HI, which is directly decomposed into hydrogen, water and iodine must be removed. Separation of iodine is facilitated by removal of water. Sulfuric acid concentration is also required to facilitate feed recycling to the sulfuric acid decomposer. Decomposition of the sulfuric acid is an equilibrium limited process that leaves a substantial portion of the acid requiring recycle. Distillation of water from sulfuric acid involves significant corrosion issues at the liquid-vapor interface. Thus, it is desirable to concentrate the acid without boiling. Recent efforts at the INL have concentrated on applying pervaporation through Nafion-117, Nafion-112, and sulfonated poly(etheretherketone) (S-PEEK) membranes for the removal of water from HI/water and HI/Iodine/water feedstreams. In pervaporation, a feed is circulated at low pressure across the upstream side of the membrane, while a vacuum is applied downstream. Selected permeants sorb into the membrane, transport through it, and are vaporized from the backside. Thus, a concentration gradient is established, which provides the driving force for transport. In this work, membrane separations have been performed at temperatures as high as

  1. Electrical characterization of fluorinated benzothiadiazole based conjugated copolymer – a promising material for high-performance solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toušek, J. Toušková, J.; Chomutová, R.; Remeš, Z.; Čermák, J.; Helgesen, M.; Carlé, J. E.; Krebs, F. C.

    2015-12-15

    Measurements of electrical conductivity, electron work function, carrier mobility of holes and the diffusion length of excitons were performed on samples of conjugated polymers relevant to polymer solar cells. A state of the art fluorinated benzothiadiazole based conjugated copolymer (PBDT{sub THD} − DTBTff) was studied and benchmarked against the reference polymer poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT). We employed, respectively, four electrode conductivity measurements, Kelvin probe work function measurements, carrier mobility using charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage (CELIV) measurements and diffusion length determinaton using surface photovoltage measurements.

  2. Fluorinated Phosphazene Co-solvents for Improved Thermal and Safety Performance in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry W. Rollins; Mason K. Harrup; Eric J. Dufek; David K. Jamison; Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Dayna L. Daubaras

    2014-10-01

    The safety of lithium-ion batteries is coming under increased scrutiny as they are being adopted for large format applications especially in the vehicle transportation industry and for grid-scale energy storage. The primary short-comings of lithium-ion batteries are the flammability of the liquid electrolyte and sensitivity to high voltage and elevated temperatures. We have synthesized a series of non-flammable fluorinated phosphazene liquids and blended them with conventional carbonate solvents. While the use of these phosphazenes as standalone electrolytes is highly desirable, they simply do not satisfy all of the many requirements that must be met such as high LiPF6 solubility and low viscosity, thus we have used them as additives and co-solvents in blends with typical carbonates. The physical and electrochemical properties of the electrolyte blends were characterized, and then the blends were used to build 2032-type coin cells which were evaluated at constant current cycling rates from C/10 to C/1. We have evaluated the performance of the electrolytes by determining the conductivity, viscosity, flash point, vapor pressure, thermal stability, electrochemical window, cell cycling data, and the ability to form solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) films. This paper presents our results on a series of chemically similar fluorinated cyclic phosphazene trimers, the FM series, which has exhibited numerous beneficial effects on battery performance, lifetimes, and safety aspects.

  3. Assessment of Methods to Consolidate Iodine-Loaded Silver-Functionalized Silica Aerogel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matyas, Josef; Engler, Robert K.

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is currently investigating alternative sorbents for the removal and immobilization of radioiodine from the gas streams in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. One of these new sorbents, Ag0-functionalized silica aerogels, shows great promise as a potential replacement for Ag-bearing mordenites because of its high selectivity and sorption capacity for iodine. Moreover, a feasible consolidation of iodine-loaded Ag0-functionalized silica aerogels to a durable SiO2-based waste form makes this aerogel an attractive choice for sequestering radioiodine. This report provides a preliminary assessment of the methods that can be used to consolidate iodine-loaded Ag0-functionalized silica aerogels into a final waste form. In particular, it focuses on experimental investigation of densification of as prepared Ag0-functionalized silica aerogels powders, with or without organic moiety and with or without sintering additive (colloidal silica), with three commercially available techniques: 1) hot uniaxial pressing (HUP), 2) hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and 3) spark plasma sintering (SPS). The densified products were evaluated with helium gas pycnometer for apparent density, with the Archimedes method for apparent density and open porosity, and with high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) for the extent of densification and distribution of individual elements. The preliminary investigation of HUP, HIP, and SPS showed that these sintering methods can effectively consolidate powders of Ag0-functionalized silica aerogel into products of near-theoretical density. Also, removal of organic moiety and adding 5.6 mass% of colloidal silica to Ag0-functionalized silica aerogel powders before processing provided denser products. Furthermore, the ram travel data for SPS indicated that rapid consolidation of powders can be performed at temperatures below 950°C.

  4. Minority carrier lifetime in iodine-doped molecular beam epitaxy-grown HgCdTe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madni, I.; Umana-Membreno, G. A.; Lei, W.; Gu, R.; Antoszewski, J.; Faraone, L.

    2015-11-02

    The minority carrier lifetime in molecular beam epitaxy grown layers of iodine-doped Hg{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Te (x ∼ 0.3) on CdZnTe substrates has been studied. The samples demonstrated extrinsic donor behavior for carrier concentrations in the range from 2 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} to 6 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} without any post-growth annealing. At a temperature of 77 K, the electron mobility was found to vary from 10{sup 4} cm{sup 2}/V s to 7 × 10{sup 3} cm{sup 2}/V s and minority carrier lifetime from 1.6 μs to 790 ns, respectively, as the carrier concentration was increased from 2 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} to 6 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3}. The diffusion of iodine is much lower than that of indium and hence a better alternative in heterostructures such as nBn devices. The influence of carrier concentration and temperature on the minority carrier lifetime was studied in order to characterize the carrier recombination mechanisms. Measured lifetimes were also analyzed and compared with the theoretical models of the various recombination processes occurring in these materials, indicating that Auger-1 recombination was predominant at higher doping levels. An increase in deep-level generation-recombination centers was observed with increasing doping level, which suggests that the increase in deep-level trap density is associated with the incorporation of higher concentrations of iodine into the HgCdTe.

  5. Similarity criteria in calculations of the energy characteristics of a cw oxygen - iodine laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mezhenin, A V; Azyazov, V N

    2012-12-31

    The calculated and experimental data on the energy efficiency of a cw oxygen - iodine laser (OIL) are analysed based on two similarity criteria, namely, on the ratio of the residence time of the gas mixture in the resonator to the characteristic time of extraction of the energy stored in singlet oxygen td and on the gain-to-loss ratio {Pi}. It is shown that the simplified two-level laser model satisfactorily predicts the output characteristics of OILs with a stable resonator at {tau}{sub d} {<=} 7. Efficient energy extraction from the OIL active medium is achieved in the case of {tau}{sub d} = 5 - 7, {Pi} = 4 - 8. (lasers)

  6. Quantitative characterization of a nonreacting, supersonic combustor flowfield using unified, laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, D.G.; McDaniel, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    A calibrated, nonintrusive optical technique, laser-induced iodine fluorescence (LIIF) was used to quantify the steady, compressible flowfield of a nonreacting, supersonic combustor. The combustor was configured with single and staged, transverse-air injection into a supersonic-air freestream behind a rearward-facing step. Pressure, temperature, two-velocity components, and injectant mole fraction were measured with high spatial resolution in the three-dimensional flowfields. These experimental results provide a benchmark set of data for validation of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes being developed to model supersonic combustor flowfields. 8 refs.

  7. LITERATURE SURVEY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR NITRATE IODINE-129 AND URANIUM 200-ZP-1 OPERABLE UNIT HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BYRNES ME

    2008-06-05

    This literature review presents treatment options for nitrate, iodine-129, and uranium, which are present in groundwater at the 200-ZP-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) within the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this review is to determine available methods to treat or sequester these contaminants in place (i.e., in situ) or to pump-and-treat the groundwater aboveground (i.e., ex situ). This review has been conducted with emphasis on commercially available or field-tested technologies, but theoretical studies have, in some cases, been considered when no published field data exist. The initial scope of this literature review included only nitrate and iodine-I 29, but it was later expanded to include uranium. The focus of the literature review was weighted toward researching methods for treatment of nitrate and iodine-129 over uranium because of the relatively greater impact of those compounds identified at the 200-ZP-I OU.

  8. Suppression of surface charge accumulation on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-filled epoxy resin insulator under dc voltage by direct fluorination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Boya; Zhang, Guixin Li, Chuanyang; He, Jinliang; Wang, Qiang; An, Zhenlian

    2015-12-15

    Surface charge accumulation on insulators under high dc voltage is a major factor that may lead to the reduction of insulation levels in gas insulated devices. In this paper, disc insulators made of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-filled epoxy resin were surface fluorinated using a F{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixture (12.5% F{sub 2}) at 50 °C and 0.1 MPa for different durations of 15 min, 30 min and 60 min. A dc voltage was applied to the insulator for 30 min and the charge density on its surface was measured by an electrostatic probe. The results revealed significant lower surface charge densities on the fluorinated insulators in comparison with the original one. Surface conductivity measurements indicated a higher surface conductivity by over three orders of magnitude after fluorination, which would allow the charges to transfer along the surface and thus may suppress their accumulation. Further, attenuated total reflection infrared analysis and surface morphology observations of the samples revealed that the introduction of fluoride groups altered the surface physicochemical properties. These structure changes, especially the physical defects reduced the depth of charge traps in the surface layer, which was verified by the measurement of energy distributions of the electron and hole traps based on the isothermal current theory. The results in this paper demonstrate that fluorination can be a promising and effective method to suppress surface charge accumulation on epoxy insulators in gas insulated devices.

  9. Synthesis, structural and magnetic characterisation of the fluorinated compound 15R-BaFeO{sub 2}F

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clemens, Oliver; Berry, Frank J.; Bauer, Jessica; Wright, Adrian J.; Knight, Kevin S.; Slater, Peter R.

    2013-07-15

    The compounds 15R-BaFeO{sub 2}F and 15R-BaFeO{sub 2.27}F{sub 0.5} have been synthesised by the low temperature fluorination of 15R-BaFeO{sub 3−d}F{sub 0.2} using polyvinylidenedifluoride (PVDF) as a fluorination agent. The materials have been structurally characterised by Rietveld analysis of the X-ray- and HRPD-powder neutron diffraction data. A detailed analysis of bond valence sums suggests that the oxide and fluoride ions order on the different anion sites. A reinvestigation of our recently published structure (Clemens et al., 2013) [34] of 6H-BaFeO{sub 2}F is also reported and incorporation of fluoride in h-type layers is also confirmed in this compound. The magnetic moments for 15R-BaFeO{sub 2}F and 15R-BaFeO{sub 2.25}F{sub 0.5} align in the a/b-plane with antiferromagnetic alignment of the moments between adjacent layers, and are flipped by 90° as compared to the precursor compound. 15R-BaFeO{sub 2}F exhibits very robust antiferromagnetism with a Néel temperature between 300 and 400 °C. - Graphical abstract: The crystal and magnetic structure of the perovskite phase 15R-BaFeO{sub 2}F. - Highlights: • 15R-BaFeO{sub 2}F and 15R-BaFeO{sub 2.27}F{sub 0.5}were prepared via low temperature fluorination using PVDF. • A structural investigation of the compounds BaFeO{sub 2}F is presented in detail. • This analysis suggests ordering of O{sup 2−} and F{sup −} anions between different layers. • 15R-BaFeO{sub 2}F shows antiferromagnetic ordering at 300 K with T{sub N} ∼300–400 °C. • The magnetic moments align in the a/b-plane.

  10. Fluorine-containing composition for forming anti-reflection film on resist surface and pattern formation method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nishi, Mineo; Makishima, Hideo

    1996-01-01

    A composition for forming anti-reflection film on resist surface which comprises an aqueous solution of a water soluble fluorine compound, and a pattern formation method which comprises the steps of coating a photoresist composition on a substrate; coating the above-mentioned composition for forming anti-reflection film; exposing the coated film to form a specific pattern; and developing the photoresist, are provided. Since the composition for forming anti-reflection film can be coated on the photoresist in the form of an aqueous solution, not only the anti-reflection film can be formed easily, but also, the film can be removed easily by rinsing with water or alkali development. Therefore, by the pattern formation method according to the present invention, it is possible to form a pattern easily with a high dimensional accuracy.

  11. Neutron and Charged-Particle Induced Cross Sections for Radiochemistry in the Region of Iodine and Xenon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, R D; Dietrich, F S; Bauer, R; Kelley, K; Mustafa, M

    2004-09-20

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron and proton induced nuclear reaction cross sections in the mass region of iodine and xenon (52 {<=} Z {<=} 54, 71 {<=} N {<=} 76).

  12. Characteristics of ultra low-k nanoporous and fluorinated silica based films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbasi-Firouzjah, M.; Shokri, B.; Physics Department, Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Evin, Tehran

    2013-12-07

    Low dielectric constant (low-k) silica based films were deposited on p-type silicon and polycarbonate substrates by radio frequency (RF) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method at low temperature. A mixture of tetraethoxysilane vapor, oxygen, and tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) was used for the deposition of the films in forms of two structures called as SiO{sub x}C{sub y} and SiO{sub x}C{sub y}F{sub z}. Properties of the films were controlled by amount of porosity and fluorine content in the film matrix. The influence of RF power and CF{sub 4} flow on the elemental composition, deposition rate, surface roughness, leakage current, refractive index, and dielectric constant of the films were characterized. Moreover, optical emission spectroscopy was applied to monitor the plasma process at the different parameters. Electrical characteristics of SiO{sub x}C{sub y} and SiO{sub x}C{sub y}F{sub z} films with metal-oxide-semiconductor structure were investigated using current-voltage analysis to measure the leakage current and breakdown field, as well as capacitance-voltage analysis to obtain the film's dielectric constant. The results revealed that SiO{sub x}C{sub y} films, which are deposited at lower RF power produce more leakage current, meanwhile the dielectric constant and refractive index of these films decreased mainly due to the more porosity in the film structure. By adding CF{sub 4} in the deposition process, fluorine, the most electronegative and the least polarized atom, doped into the silica film and led to decrease in the refractive index and the dielectric constant. In addition, no breakdown field was observed in the electrical characteristics of SiO{sub x}C{sub y}F{sub z} films and the leakage current of these films reduced by increment of the CF{sub 4} flow.

  13. Investigations regarding the wet decontamination of fluorescent lamp waste using iodine in potassium iodide solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tunsu, Cristian Ekberg, Christian; Foreman, Mark; Retegan, Teodora

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • A wet-based decontamination process for fluorescent lamp waste is proposed. • Mercury can be leached using iodine in potassium iodide solution. • The efficiency of the process increases with an increase in leachant concentration. • Selective leaching of mercury from rare earth elements is achieved. • Mercury is furthered recovered using ion exchange, reduction or solvent extraction. - Abstract: With the rising popularity of fluorescent lighting, simple and efficient methods for the decontamination of discarded lamps are needed. Due to their mercury content end-of-life fluorescent lamps are classified as hazardous waste, requiring special treatment for disposal. A simple wet-based decontamination process is required, especially for streams where thermal desorption, a commonly used but energy demanding method, cannot be applied. In this study the potential of a wet-based process using iodine in potassium iodide solution was studied for the recovery of mercury from fluorescent lamp waste. The influence of the leaching agent’s concentration and solid/liquid ratio on the decontamination efficiency was investigated. The leaching behaviour of mercury was studied over time, as well as its recovery from the obtained leachates by means of anion exchange, reduction, and solvent extraction. Dissolution of more than 90% of the contained mercury was achieved using 0.025/0.05 M I{sub 2}/KI solution at 21 °C for two hours. The efficiency of the process increased with an increase in leachant concentration. 97.3 ± 0.6% of the mercury contained was dissolved at 21 °C, in two hours, using a 0.25/0.5 M I{sub 2}/KI solution and a solid to liquid ratio of 10% w/v. Iodine and mercury can be efficiently removed from the leachates using Dowex 1X8 anion exchange resin or reducing agents such as sodium hydrosulphite, allowing the disposal of the obtained solution as non-hazardous industrial wastewater. The extractant CyMe{sub 4}BTBP showed good removal of mercury

  14. SU-E-QI-21: Iodinated Contrast Agent Time Course In Human Brain Metastasis: A Study For Stereotactic Synchrotron Radiotherapy Clinical Trials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obeid, L; Esteve, F; Adam, J; Tessier, A; Balosso, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Synchrotron stereotactic radiotherapy (SSRT) is an innovative treatment combining the selective accumulation of heavy elements in tumors with stereotactic irradiations using monochromatic medium energy x-rays from a synchrotron source. Phase I/II clinical trials on brain metastasis are underway using venous infusion of iodinated contrast agents. The radiation dose enhancement depends on the amount of iodine in the tumor and its time course. In the present study, the reproducibility of iodine concentrations between the CT planning scan day (Day 0) and the treatment day (Day 10) was assessed in order to predict dose errors. Methods: For each of days 0 and 10, three patients received a biphasic intravenous injection of iodinated contrast agent (40 ml, 4 ml/s, followed by 160 ml, 0.5 ml/s) in order to ensure stable intra-tumoral amounts of iodine during the treatment. Two volumetric CT scans (before and after iodine injection) and a multi-slice dynamic CT of the brain were performed using conventional radiotherapy CT (Day 0) or quantitative synchrotron radiation CT (Day 10). A 3D rigid registration was processed between images. The absolute and relative differences of absolute iodine concentrations and their corresponding dose errors were evaluated in the GTV and PTV used for treatment planning. Results: The differences in iodine concentrations remained within the standard deviation limits. The 3D absolute differences followed a normal distribution centered at zero mg/ml with a variance (∼1 mg/ml) which is related to the image noise. Conclusion: The results suggest that dose errors depend only on the image noise. This study shows that stable amounts of iodine are achievable in brain metastasis for SSRT treatment in a 10 days interval.

  15. Stable n-CuInSe/sub 2/iodide-iodine photoelectrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cahen, D.; Chen, Y.W.

    1984-09-20

    In a photoelectrochemical solar cell, stable output and solar efficiency in excess of 10% are achieved with a photoanode of n-CuInSe/sub 2/ electrode material and an iodine/iodide redox couple used in a liquid electrolyte. The photoanode is prepared by treating the electrode material by chemical etching, for example in Br/sub 2//MeOH; heating the etched electrode material in air or oxygen; depositing a surface film coating of indium on the electrode material after the initial heating; and thereafter again heating the electrode material in air or oxygen to oxidize the indium. The electrolyte is treated by the addition of Cu/sup +/ or Cu/sup 2 +/ salts and in In/sup 3 +/ salts.

  16. Stable N-CuInSe.sub.2 /iodide-iodine photoelectrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cahen, David; Chen, Yih W.

    1985-01-01

    In a photoelectrochemical solar cell, stable output and solar efficiency in excess of 10% are achieved with a photoanode of n-CuInSe.sub.2 electrode material and an iodine/iodide redox couple used in a liquid electrolyte. The photoanode is prepared by treating the electrode material by chemical etching, for example in Br.sub.2 /MeOH; heating the etched electrode material in air or oxygen; depositing a surface film coating of indium on the electrode material after the initial heating; and thereafter again heating the electrode material in air or oxygen to oxidize the indium. The electrolyte is treated by the addition of Cu.sup.+ or Cu.sup.2+ salts and In.sup.3+ salts.

  17. Mechanism of singlet oxygen deactivation in an electric discharge oxygen – iodine laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azyazov, V N; Mikheyev, P A; Torbin, A P; Pershin, A A; Heaven, M C

    2014-12-31

    We have determined the influence of the reaction of molecular singlet oxygen with a vibrationally excited ozone molecule O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}Δ) + O{sub 3}(ν) → 2O{sub 2} + O on the removal rate of O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}Δ) in an electric-discharge-driven oxygen – iodine laser. This reaction has been shown to be a major channel of O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}Δ) loss at the output of an electric-discharge singlet oxygen generator. In addition, it can also contribute significantly to the loss of O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}Δ) in the discharge region of the generator. (lasers)

  18. Frequency and patterns of abnormality detected by iodine-123 amine emission CT after cerebral infarction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brott, T.G.; Gelfand, M.J.; Williams, C.C.; Spilker, J.A.; Hertzberg, V.S.

    1986-03-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed in 31 patients with cerebral infarction and 13 who had had transient ischemic attacks, using iodine-123-labeled N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2-hydroxyl-3-methyl-5-iodobenzyl)-1,3-propanediamin e (I-123-HIPDM) as the radiopharmaceutical. SPECT scans were compared with computed tomographic (CT) scans. SPECT was as sensitive as CT in detecting cerebral infarction (94% vs. 84%). The abnormalities were larger on the SPECT scans than on the CT scans in 19 cases, equal in seven, and smaller in five (SPECT abnormalities greater than or equal to CT abnormalities in 86% of cases). Fifteen of 30 patients with hemispheric infarction had decreased perfusion (decreased uptake of I-123-HIPDM) to the cerebellar hemisphere contralateral to the cerebral hemisphere involved by the infarction (crossed cerebellar diaschisis). Nine of these 15 patients had major motor deficits, while only one of the 15 without crossed cerebellar diaschisis had a major motor deficit.

  19. Fluorine-doped LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} for 5 V cathode materials of lithium-ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du Guodong; NuLi, Yanna; Yang Jun Wang Jiulin

    2008-12-01

    Fluorine-doped 5 V cathode materials LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4-x}F{sub x} (0.05 {<=} x {<=} 0.2) have been prepared by sol-gel and post-annealing treatment method. The results from X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicate that the spinel structure changes little after fluorine doping, but the particle size varies with fluorine doping and the preparation conditions. The electrochemical measurements show that stable cycling performance can be obtained when the fluorine amount x is higher than 0.1, but the specific capacity is decreased and 4 V plateau capacity resulting from a conversion of Mn{sup 4+}/Mn{sup 3+} remains. Moreover, influence of the particle size on the reversible capacity of the electrode, especially on the kinetic property, has been examined.

  20. Influences of impurities on iodine removal efficiency of silver alumina adsorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukasawa, Tetsuo; Funabashi, Kiyomi; Kondo, Yoshikazu

    1997-08-01

    Silver impregnated alumina adsorbent (AgA), which was developed for iodine removal from off-gas of nuclear power and reprocessing plants has been tested laying emphasis on investigation of the influences gaseous impurities have on adsorbent chemical stability and iodine removal efficiency. The influences of the major impurities such as nitrogen oxides and water vapor were checked on the chemical state of impregnated silver compound (AgNO{sub 3}) and decontamination factor (DF) value. At 150{degrees}C, a forced air flow with 1.5% nitrogen oxide (NO/NO{sub 2}=1/1) reduced silver nitrate to metallic silver, whereas pure air and air with 1.5% NO{sub 2} had no effect on the chemical state of silver. Metallic silver showed a lower DF value for methyl iodide in pure air (without impurities) than silver nitrate and the lower DF of metallic silver was improved when impurities were added. At 40{degrees}C, a forced air flow with 1.5% nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) increased the AgA weight by about 20%, which was caused by the adsorption of nitric acid solution on the AgA surface. AgA with l0wt% silver showed higher weight increase than that with 24wt% silver which had lower porosity. Adsorption of acid solution lowered the DF value, which would be due to the hindrance of contact between methyl iodide and silver. The influences of other gaseous impurities were also investigated and AgA showed superior characteristics at high temperatures. 14 refs., 11 figs.

  1. A Literature Survey to Identify Potentially Volatile Iodine-Bearing Species Present in Off-Gas Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruffey, S. H.; Spencer, B. B.; Strachan, D. M.; Jubin, R. T.; Soelberg, N. R.; Riley, B. J.

    2015-06-30

    Four radionuclides have been identified as being sufficiently volatile in the reprocessing of nuclear fuel that their gaseous release needs to be controlled to meet regulatory requirements (Jubin et al. 2011, 2012). These radionuclides are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I. Of these, 129I has the longest half-life and potentially high biological impact. Accordingly, control of the release of 129I is most critical with respect to the regulations for the release of radioactive material in stack emissions. It is estimated that current EPA regulations (EPA 2010) would require any reprocessing plant in the United States to limit 129I release to less than 0.05 Ci/MTIHM for a typical fuel burnup of 55 gigawatt days per metric tonne (GWd/t) (Jubin 2011). The study of inorganic iodide in off-gas systems has been almost exclusively limited to I2 and the focus of organic iodide studies has been CH3I. In this document, we provide the results of an examination of publically available literature that is relevant to the presence and sources of both inorganic and organic iodine-bearing species in reprocessing plants. We especially focus on those that have the potential to be poorly sequestered with traditional capture methodologies. Based on the results of the literature survey and some limited thermodynamic modeling, the inorganic iodine species hypoiodous acid (HOI) and iodine monochloride (ICl) were identified as potentially low-sorbing iodine species that could present in off-gas systems. Organic species of interest included both short chain alkyl iodides such as methyl iodide (CH3I) and longer alkyl iodides up to iodododecane (C10H21I). It was found that fuel dissolution may provide conditions conducive to HOI formation and has been shown to result in volatile long-chain alkyl iodides, though these may not volatilize until later in the reprocessing sequence. Solvent extraction processes were found to be significant sources of various organic iodine-bearing species; formation of these

  2. Iodine-131 releases from the Hanford Site, 1944--1947. Volume 2, Data: Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeb, C.M.

    1993-03-01

    Detailed results of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction project (HEDR) iodine-131 release reconstruction are presented in this volume. Included are daily data on B, D, and F Plant, reactor operations from the P-Department Daily Reports (General Electric Company 1947). Tables of B and T Plant material processed from the three principal sources on separations plant operations: The Jaech report (Jaech undated), the 200 Area Report (Acken and Bird 1945; Bird and Donihee 1945), and the Metal History Reports (General Electric Company 1946). A transcription of the Jaech report is also provided because it is computer-generated and is not readily readable in its original format. The iodine-131 release data are from the STRM model. Cut-by-cut release estimates are provided, along with daily, monthly, and yearly summations. These summations are based on the hourly release estimates. The hourly data are contained in a 28 megabyte electronic file. Interested individuals may request a copy.

  3. Iodine-131 releases from the Hanford Site, 1944--1947. Volume 1, Text: Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeb, C.M.

    1992-10-01

    Releases of fission product iodine-131 from separation plants at the Hanford reservation are calculated for the 1944 through 1947 period. Releases to the atmosphere were from the ventilation stacks of T and B separation plants. A reconstruction of daily separation plant operations forms the basis of the releases. The reconstruction traces the iodine-131 content of each fuel discharge from the B, D, and F Reactors to the dissolving step in the separation plants. Statistical computer modeling techniques are used to estimate hourly release histories based on sampling mathematical distribution functions that express the uncertainties in the source data and timing. The reported daily, monthly, and yearly estimates are averages and uncertainty ranges are based on 100 independent Monte Carlo ``realizations`` of the hourly release histories.

  4. Conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of Iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation, 1945--1947: Draft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mart, E.I.; Denham, D.H.; Thiede, M.E.

    1993-05-01

    This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project whose goal is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from emissions since 1944 at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The report describes in detail the reconstructed conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation which was collected from the beginning of October 1945 through the end of December 1947.

  5. Initial Effects of NOx on Idodine and Methyl Iodine Loading of AgZ and Aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruffey, Stephanie H.; Jubin, Robert Thomas

    2015-03-31

    This initial evaluation provides insight into the effect of NO on the adsorption of both I2 and CH3I onto reduced silver-exchanged mordenite (Ag0Z). It was determined that adsorption of CH3I onto Ag0Z occurs at approximately 50% of the rate of I2 adsorption onto Ag0Z, although total iodine capacities are comparable. Addition of 1% NO to the simulated off-gas stream results in very similar loading behaviors and iodine capacities for both iodine species. This is most likely an effect of CH3I oxidation to I2 by NO prior to contact with the sorbent bed. Completion of tests including NO2 in the simulated off-gas stream was delayed due to vendor NO2 production schedules. A statistically designed test matrix is partially completed, and upon conclusion of the suggested experiments, the effects of temperature, NO, NO2, and water vapor on the sorption of CH3I and I2 onto Ag0Z will be able to be statistically resolved. This work represents progress towards that aim.

  6. Khazar Iodine Production Plant Site Remediation in Turkmenistan. NORM Contaminated Waste Repository Establishment - 12398

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gelbutovskiy, Alexander B.; Cheremisin, Peter I.; Troshev, Alexander V.; Egorov, Alexander J.; Boriskin, Mikhail M.; Bogod, Mikhail A.

    2012-07-01

    Radiation safety provisions for NORM contaminated areas are in use in a number of the former Soviet republics. Some of these areas were formed by absorbed radionuclides at the iodine and bromine extraction sites. As a rule, there are not any plant radiation monitoring systems nor appropriate services to ensure personnel, population and environmental radiation safety. The most hazardous sites are those which are situated in the Caspian Sea coastal zone. The bulk of the accumulated waste is represented by a loose mixture of sand and charcoal, which was basically used as the iodine extraction sorbent. The amounts of these wastes were estimated to be approximately 20,000 metric tons. The waste contamination is mainly composed of Ra-226 (U-238 decay series) and Ra-224, Ra-228 (Th-232 decay series). In 2009, the 'ECOMET-S', a Closed Joint-Stock Company from St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, was authorized by the Turkmenistan government to launch the rehabilitation project. The project includes D and D activities, contaminated areas remediation, collected wastes safe transportation to the repository and its disposal following repository closure. The work at the Khazar chemical plant started in September, 2010. Comprehensive radiological surveys to estimate the waste quantities were carried out in advance. In course of the rehabilitation work at the site of the Khazar chemical plant additional waste quantities (5,000 MT, 10,000 m{sup 3}) were discovered after the sludge was dumped and drained. Disposal volumes for this waste was not provided initially. The additional volume of the construction wastes was required in order to accommodate all the waste to be disposed. For the larger disposal volume the project design enterprise VNIPIET, offered to erect a second wall outside the existing one and this solution was adopted. As of May, 2011, 40,575 m{sup 3} of contaminated waste were collected and disposed safely. This volume represents 96.6% of the initial repository volume

  7. Simultaneous recovery of all actinides from spent nuclear fuel by carbamoyl-methylphosphine oxide in fluorinated diluents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozawa, M.; Iwai, T.; Babain, V.; Shadrin, A.

    2008-07-01

    Bifunctional organophosphorus extractants dissolved in polar fluorinated diluents were studied, aiming at directly recovering all f-elements from the dissolver solution of spent nuclear fuel. Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoyl-methylphosphine oxide (0{phi}D[iB] CMPO, 0.2-0.8 M) with 30% TBP dissolved in meta-nitrobenzotrifluoride (Fluoropole-732) dramatically expanded its extraction region without splitting out a heterogeneous third phase. Distribution ratios of U, Np, and Pu were sufficiently high for 0.4-0.8 M CMPO in this solvent system. Combination of salt-free, methylamine carbonate (MAC), citric acid, and hydrazine reagents were evaluated to obtain fractional stripping of f-elements such as TRU group and U. Static multistage extraction using artificial FBR dissolver solution supported the process feasibility. When all f-elements are extracted simultaneously, and TRU and U recovered separately with a single extraction cycle, the new extraction process, named ORGA-process, can be expected to be highly proliferation-resistant and systematically and economically advantageous. (authors)

  8. Growth mechanism and optical properties of Ti thin films deposited onto fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einollahzadeh-Samadi, Motahareh; Dariani, Reza S.

    2015-03-15

    In this work, a detailed study of the influence of the thickness on the morphological and optical properties of titanium (Ti) thin films deposited onto rough fluorine-doped tin oxide glass by d.c. magnetron sputtering is carried out. The films were characterized by several methods for composition, crystallinity, morphology, and optical properties. Regardless of the deposition time, all the studied Ti films of 400, 1500, 2000, and 2500?nm in thickness were single crystalline in the ?-Ti phase and also very similar to each other with respect to composition. Using the atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique, the authors analyzed the roughness evolution of the Ti films characteristics as a function of the film thickness. By applying the dynamic scaling theory to the AFM images, a steady growth roughness exponent ??=?0.72??0.02 and a dynamic growth roughness exponent ??=?0.22??0.02 were determined. The value of ? and ? are consistent with nonlinear growth model incorporating random deposition with surface diffusion. Finally, measuring the reflection spectra of the samples by a spectrophotometer in the spectral range of 3001100?nm allowed us to investigate the optical properties. The authors observed the increments of the reflection of Ti films with thickness, which by employing the effective medium approximation theory showed an increase in thickness followed by an increase in the volume fraction of metal.

  9. Insights into the Temperature-Dependent “Breathing” of a Flexible Fluorinated Metal-Organic Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, Carlos A.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2012-10-08

    The framework expansion and contraction upon carbon dioxide uptake was studied in a partially fluorinated metal-organic framework, FMOF-2. The results show framework expansion and contraction (breathing) as a function of pressure and temperature. Even at temperatures as low as -30 ºC, two phase transitions seem to take place with a pressure step (corresponding to the second transition) that is greatly dependent on temperature. This behavior is described by the model proposed by Coudert and co-workers showing that the material seems to undergo two phase transitions that are temperature dependent. The isosteric heats of adsorption at high pressures show a minimum that is concurrent with the region of CO2 loadings where the second pressure step occurs. It was deduced that these lower enthalpy values are a consequence of the energy cost related to the expansion or reopening of the framework. Lastly, the large and reversible breathing behavior may be a product of the combination of the high elasticity of zinc (II) coordination and the apparent high flexibility of the V-shaped organic building block.

  10. Distributions of selenium, iodine, lead, thorium and uranium in Japanese river waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.

    2007-07-01

    Long-lived radionuclides released from nuclear facilities, such as deep underground disposal facilities, could reach humans through several transfer paths in the environment. Uses of ground water and river water for agricultural field irrigation and for drinking water are important paths. In order to understand behavior of long-lived radionuclides in the terrestrial water environment, we carried out a natural analogue study, that is, measurement of selenium (Se), iodine (I), lead (Pb), thorium (Th) and uranium (U) concentrations in 45 Japanese rivers at 10 sampling points from the upper stream to the river mouth for each river. Geometric mean concentrations for Se, I, Pb, Th and U were 0.057, 1.4, 0.039, 0.0055, 0.0109 ng/mL, respectively. Distribution patterns from upper stream to river mouth were different by elements, for instance, the concentrations of I, Th and U increased when the sampling points were nearer the river mouth, while that of Se were almost constant. For Pb, the highest value was observed in the middle part of each river in many cases. (authors)

  11. Design of Tellurium-123 Target for Producing Iodine-123 Radioisotope Using Computer Simulation Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakavand, T.; Ghassemi, R.; Kamali Moghaddam, K.; Sadeghi, M.

    2006-07-01

    Iodine-123 is one of the most famous radioisotopes for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) use, so, for {sup 123}I production, the {sup 123}Te has been chosen as a target through {sup 123}Te (p,n) {sup 123}I reaction. The various enriched targets (%99.9, %91, %85.4 and %70.1) have been used for the present calculations. In the current work, by using computer codes; ALICE and SRIM and doing a sort of calculations, we are going to demonstrate our latest effort for feasibility study of producing {sup 123}I by the above mentioned reaction. By using proton beam energy of less than 30 MeV, the mentioned codes give more accurate results. The cross section of all Tellurium reactions with proton has been calculated at 0-30 MeV proton beam energy with ALICE code. In the present work, the yield of {sup 123}I has been calculated by analytical methods. Our prediction for producing {sup 123}I yield via bombardment of {sup 123}Te (%99.9) with proton beam energy at 5-15 MeV is about 7.2 mCi/{mu}Ah. The present work shows that, the {sup 123}I yield is proportional to abundance of {sup 123}Te. Thermodynamical calculations with various current beams of up to 900 {mu}A have been done, and the proper cooling system for the above purpose has been designed. (authors)

  12. Abatement of Xenon and Iodine Emissions from Medical Isotope Production Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doll, Charles G.; Sorensen, Christina M.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Friese, Judah I.; Hayes, James C.; Hoffman, Emma L.; Kephart, Rosara F.

    2014-04-01

    The capability of the International Monitoring System (IMS) to detect xenon from underground nuclear explosions is dependent on the radioactive xenon background. Adding to the background, medical isotope production (MIP) by fission releases several important xenon isotopes including xenon-133 and iodine-133 that decays to xenon-133. The amount of xenon released from these facilities may be equivalent to or exceed that released from an underground nuclear explosion. Thus the release of gaseous fission products within days of irradiation makes it difficult to distinguish MIP emissions from a nuclear explosion. In addition, recent shortages in molybdenum-99 have created interest and investment opportunities to design and build new MIP facilities in the United States and throughout the world. Due to the potential increase in the number of MIP facilities, a discussion of abatement technologies provides insight into how the problem of emission control from MIP facilities can be tackled. A review of practices is provided to delineate methods useful for abatement of medical isotopes.

  13. Chalcogen-based aerogels as a multifunctional platform for remediation of radioactive iodine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Brian J.; Chun, Jaehun; Ryan, Joseph V.; Matyas, Josef; Li, Xiaohong S.; Matson, Dean W.; Sundaram, S. K.; Strachan, Denis M.; Vienna, John D.

    2011-12-22

    Aerogels employing chalcogen-based (i.e., S, Se, and/or Te) structural units and interlinking metals are termed chalcogels and have many emerging applications. Here, chalcogels are discussed in the context of nuclear fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste remediation. Motivated by previous work on removal of heavy metals in aqueous solution, we explored the application of germanium sulfide chalcogels as a sorbent for gas-phase I2 based on Pearson's Hard/Soft Acid-Base (HSAB) principle. This work was driven by a significant need for high-efficiency sorbents for I-129, a long-lived isotope evolved during irradiated UO2 nuclear fuel reprocessing. These chalcogel compositions are shown to possess an affinity for iodine gas, I2(g), at various concentrations in air and the affinity is attributed to a strong chemical attraction between the chalcogen and I2(g), according to the HSAB principle. The high sorption efficiency is facilitated by the high porosity as well as the exceptionally large surface area of the chalcogels.

  14. Recovery of Technetium and Iodine from Spent ATW TRISO Type Fuels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, N. C.; Attrep, Moses

    2001-01-01

    The Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) program is being developed to determine the feasibility of separating and transmutating the transactinides (Pu-Cm) and long-lived fission product (99Tc and 129I) from spent LWR fuel. Several types of ATW fuels have been suggested to transmutate the Pu-Cm fraction including TRISO type fuels. An ATW TRISO fuel would consist of a Pu-Cm oxide kernel surrounded by several layers of pyrolytic carbon, a layer of SiC, and an outer layer of pyrolytic carbon. Processing of the spent ATW fuel would involve the crush, burn, and leach approach used on normal TRISO fuels. This report describes experiments that determine the potential behavior of the two long-lived fission products, 99Tc and 129I, in this processing. Iodine can be removed and trapped during the burning of the carbon from the fuel. Some technetium may volatilize in the latter stages of the burn but the bulk of it will have to be recovered after dissolution of the oxide residue.

  15. Determination of the Relative Amount of Fluorine in Uranium Oxyfluoride Particles using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and Optical Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kips, R; Kristo, M J; Hutcheon, I D; Amonette, J; Wang, Z; Johnson, T; Gerlach, D; Olsen, K B

    2009-05-29

    Both nuclear forensics and environmental sampling depend upon laboratory analysis of nuclear material that has often been exposed to the environment after it has been produced. It is therefore important to understand how those environmental conditions might have changed the chemical composition of the material over time, particularly for chemically sensitive compounds. In the specific case of uranium enrichment facilities, uranium-bearing particles stem from small releases of uranium hexafluoride, a highly reactive gas that hydrolyzes upon contact with moisture from the air to form uranium oxyfluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) particles. The uranium isotopic composition of those particles is used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to verify whether a facility is compliant with its declarations. The present study, however, aims to demonstrate how knowledge of time-dependent changes in chemical composition, particle morphology and molecular structure can contribute to an even more reliable interpretation of the analytical results. We prepared a set of uranium oxyfluoride particles at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM, European Commission, Belgium) and followed changes in their composition, morphology and structure with time to see if we could use these properties to place boundaries on the particle exposure time in the environment. Because the rate of change is affected by exposure to UV-light, humidity levels and elevated temperatures, the samples were subjected to varying conditions of those three parameters. The NanoSIMS at LLNL was found to be the optimal tool to measure the relative amount of fluorine in individual uranium oxyfluoride particles. At PNNL, cryogenic laser-induced time-resolved U(VI) fluorescence microspectroscopy (CLIFS) was used to monitor changes in the molecular structure.

  16. LABORATORY REPORT ON IODINE ({sup 129}I AND {sup 127}I) SPECIATION, TRANSFORMATION AND MOBILITY IN HANFORD GROUNDWATER, SUSPENDED PARTICLES AND SEDIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, D.; Santschi, P.; Xu, C.; Zhang, S.; Ho, Y.; Li, H.; Schwehr, K.

    2012-09-30

    The Hanford Site in eastern Washington produced plutonium for several decades and in the process generated billions of gallons of radioactive waste. Included in this complex mixture of waste was 50 Ci of iodine-129 ({sup 129}I). Iodine-129’s high abundance, due to its high fission yield, and extreme toxicity result in iodine-129 becoming a key risk driver at many Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The mobility of radioiodine in arid environments, such as the Hanford Site, depends largely on its chemical speciation and is also greatly affected by many other environmental factors, especially natural sediment organic matter (SOM). Groundwater radioiodine speciation has not been measured in arid regions with major plumes or large disposed {sup 129}I inventories, including the Hanford Site, Idaho National Laboratory, and Nevada Test Site. In this study, stable iodine-127 and radioiodine-129 speciation, pH, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of groundwater samples collected from seven wells located in the 200-West Area of the Hanford site were investigated. The most striking finding was that iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup -}) was the most abundant species. Unexpectedly, iodide (I{sup -}), which was likely the form of iodine in the source materials and the expected dominant groundwater species based on thermodynamic considerations, only accounted for 1-2% of the total iodine concentration. It is likely that the relatively high pH and the low abundance of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) that is present at the site slowed down or even inhibited the reduction of iodate, as SOM abiotically reduce iodate into iodide. Moreover, a study on the kinetics of iodide and iodate uptake and aqueous speciation transformation by three representative subsurface Hanford sediments was performed over a period of about one month. This study was carried out by using iodide-125 or iodate-125 at the ambient iodine-127concentration found at the site. Iodate K{sub d} values were on average 89% greater

  17. Separation, Concentration, and Immobilization of Technetium and Iodine from Alkaline Supernate Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Harvey; Michael Gula

    1998-12-07

    Development of remediation technologies for the characterization, retrieval, treatment, concentration, and final disposal of radioactive and chemical tank waste stored within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex represents an enormous scientific and technological challenge. A combined total of over 90 million gallons of high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) are stored in 335 underground storage tanks at four different DOE sites. Roughly 98% of this waste is highly alkaline in nature and contains high concentrations of nitrate and nitrite salts along with lesser concentrations of other salts. The primary waste forms are sludge, saltcake, and liquid supernatant with the bulk of the radioactivity contained in the sludge, making it the largest source of HLW. The saltcake (liquid waste with most of the water removed) and liquid supernatant consist mainly of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide salts. The main radioactive constituent in the alkaline supernatant is cesium-137, but strontium-90, technetium-99, and transuranic nuclides are also present in varying concentrations. Reduction of the radioactivity below Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) limits would allow the bulk of the waste to be disposed of as LLW. Because of the long half-life of technetium-99 (2.1 x 10 5 y) and the mobility of the pertechnetate ion (TcO 4 - ) in the environment, it is expected that technetium will have to be removed from the Hanford wastes prior to disposal as LLW. Also, for some of the wastes, some level of technetium removal will be required to meet LLW criteria for radioactive content. Therefore, DOE has identified a need to develop technologies for the separation and concentration of technetium-99 from LLW streams. Eichrom has responded to this DOE-identified need by demonstrating a complete flowsheet for the separation, concentration, and immobilization of technetium (and iodine) from alkaline supernatant waste.

  18. Resonance laser-plasma excitation of coherent terahertz phonons in the bulk of fluorine-bearing crystals under high-intensity femtosecond laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potemkin, F V; Mareev, E I; Khodakovskii, N G; Mikheev, P M

    2013-08-31

    The dynamics of coherent phonons in fluorine-containing crystals was investigated by pump-probe technique in the plasma production regime. Several phonon modes, whose frequencies are overtones of the 0.38-THz fundamental frequency, were simultaneously observed in a lithium fluoride crystal. Phonons with frequencies of 1 and 0.1 THz were discovered in a calcium fluoride crystal and coherent phonons with frequencies of 1 THz and 67 GHz were observed in a barium fluoride crystal. Furthermore, in the latter case the amplitudes of phonon mode oscillations were found to significantly increase 15 ps after laser irradiation. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  19. Conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation, 1945--1947. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mart, E.I.; Denham, D.H.; Thiede, M.E.

    1993-12-01

    This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project whose goal is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from emissions since 1944 at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The HEDR Project is conducted by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW). One of the radionuclides emitted that would affect the radiation dose was iodine-131. This report describes in detail the reconstructed conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation which was collected from the beginning of October 1945 through the end of December 1947.

  20. Arylene fluorinated sulfonimide compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teasley, Mark F.

    2010-11-23

    Described herein are aromatic sulfonimide compositions that can be used to prepare polymers useful as membranes in electrochemical cells.

  1. FLUORINE CELL ANODE ASSEMBLY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cable, R.E.; Goode, W.B. Jr.; Henderson, W.K.; Montillon, G.H.

    1962-06-26

    An improved anode assembly is deslgned for use in electrolytlc cells ln the productlon of hydrogen and fluorlne from a moIten electrolyte. The anode assembly comprises a copper post, a copper hanger supported by the post, a plurality of carbon anode members, and bolt means for clamplng half of the anode members to one slde of the hanger and for clamplng the other half of the anode members to the other slde of the hanger. The heads of the clamplng bolts are recessed withln the anode members and carbon plugs are inserted ln the recesses above the bolt heads to protect the boIts agalnst corroslon. A copper washer is provided under the head of each clamplng boIt such that the anode members can be tightly clamped to the hanger with a resultant low anode jolnt resistance. (AEC)

  2. Novel fluorinated laser dyes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammond, Peter R.; Feeman, James F.

    1990-01-01

    A novel class of dye is disclosed which is particularly efficient and stable for dye layer applications, lasing between 540 and 570 nm.

  3. Fluorinated laser dyes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammond, Peter R.; Feeman, James F.

    1992-01-01

    A novel class of dye is disclosed which is particularly efficient and stable for dye laser applications, lasing between 540 and 570 nm.

  4. Novel fluorinated laser dyes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammond, Peter R.; Feeman, James F.

    1991-01-01

    A novel class of dye is disclosed which is particularly efficient and stable for dye laser applications, lasing between 540 and 570 nm.

  5. Reactive amendment saltstone (RAS). A novel approach for improved sorption/retention of radionuclides such as technetium and iodine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, K. L.; Knox, A. S.; Cozzi, A. D.; Flach, G. P.; Hill, K. A.

    2015-09-30

    This study examined the use of reactive amendments (hydroxyapatite, activated carbon, and two types of organoclays) that prior research suggests may improve retention of 99Tc and 129I. Tests were conducted using surrogates for 99Tc (NaReO4) and 129I (NaI). Results showed that adding up to 10% of organoclay improved the retention of Re without adversely impacting hydraulic properties. To a lesser extent, iodine retention was also improved by adding up to 10% organoclay. Numerical modeling showed that using organoclay as a reactive barrier may significantly retard 99Tc release from saltstone disposal units.

  6. Evaluation of the Cell Voltage of Electrolytic HI Concentration for Thermochemical Water-Splitting Iodine-Sulfur Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Mitsunori; Okuda, Hiroyuki; Sato, Hiroyuki; Kubo, Shinji; Onuki, Kaoru

    2007-07-01

    Breakdown of the cell voltage in the electro-dialysis process for concentrating HIx solution (HI-H{sub 2}O-I{sub 2} mixture) was preliminarily examined in an effort to clarify the optimal operation condition as well as to optimize the cell design for the application to the thermochemical water-splitting IS process for large-scale hydrogen production. Basic data such as electric resistance of HIx solution, overvoltage of the iodine-iodide ion redox reaction at graphite electrode, and the membrane voltage drop, were measured using HIx solution with composition of interest. Also, a methodology for estimating the cell voltage was discussed. The calculated cell voltage agreed well with the experimental one indicating the validity of the procedure adopted. (authors)

  7. Radio-guided occult lesion localisation using iodine 125 Seeds “ROLLIS” to guide surgical removal of an impalpable posterior chest wall melanoma metastasis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dissanayake, Shashini; Dissanayake, Deepthi; Taylor, Donna B

    2015-09-15

    Cancer screening and surveillance programmes and the use of sophisticated imaging tools such as positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) have increased the detection of impalpable lesions requiring imaging guidance for excision. A new technique involves intra-lesional insertion of a low-activity iodine-125 ({sup 125}I) seed and detection of the radioactive signal in theatre using a hand-held gamma probe to guide surgery. Whilst several studies describe using this method to guide the removal of impalpable breast lesions, only a handful of publications report its use to guide excision of lesions outside the breast. We describe a case in which radio-guided occult lesion localisation using an iodine 125 seed was used to guide excision of an impalpable posterior chest wall metastasis detected on PET-CT.

  8. Conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of Iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation, 1945--1947: Draft. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mart, E.I.; Denham, D.H.; Thiede, M.E.

    1993-05-01

    This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project whose goal is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from emissions since 1944 at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The report describes in detail the reconstructed conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation which was collected from the beginning of October 1945 through the end of December 1947.

  9. Electrochemical overcharge protection of rechargeable lithium batteries: I. Kinetics of iodide/tri-iodide/iodine redox reactions on platinum in LiAsF/sub 6//tetrahydrofuran solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behl, W.K.; Chin, D.T.

    1988-01-01

    Recently, lithium iodide has been suggested as an additive for secondary lithium batteries to prevent the oxidation of organic electrolytes during charging operations. In this study, the charge and discharge reactions of lithium iodide in 1.5M LiAsF/sub 6//tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution on platinum are investigated with the cyclic voltammetric and rotating disk electrode techniques. At the anodic potentials, lithium iodide is found to undergo a two-step process of oxidation of iodide ion to tri-iodide ion and further oxidation of tri-iodide ion to iodine. The diffusion coefficients of iodide and tri-iodide ions in the electrolyte and the kinetic parameters of the redox reactions on platinum are evaluated from the rotating disk data. It is found that iodine initiates the polymerization of THF in the presence of lithium hexafluoroarsenate. To provide overcharge protection of the lithium batteries using LiAsF/sub 6//THF electrolytes, the large excess of lithium iodide must be present in the cell to form stable lithium tri-iodide with the iodine generated during the charging of lithium batteries.

  10. Effect of Intravascular Iodinated Contrast Media on Natural Course of End-Stage Renal Disease Progression in Hemodialysis Patients: A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janousek, Radim; Krajina, Antonin; Peregrin, Jan H.; Dusilova-Sulkova, Sylvie; Renc, Ondrej; Hajek, Jan; Dvorak, Kamil; Fixa, Petr; Cermakova, Eva

    2010-02-15

    We evaluated the impact of intravascular iodinated contrast medium on residual diuresis in hemodialyzed patients. Two groups of clinically stable hemodialyzed patients with residual diuresis minimally 500 ml of urine per day were studied. The patients from the first group were given iso-osmolal contrast agent iodixanol (Visipaque, GE Healthcare, United Kingdom) in concentration of iodine 320 mg/ml with osmolality 290 mOsm/kg of water during the endovascular procedure. The second control group was followed without contrast medium administered. Residual diuresis and residual renal excretory capacity expressed as 24-h calculated creatinine clearance were evaluated in the both groups after 6 months. The evaluated group included 42 patients who were given 99.3 ml of iodixanol in average (range, 60-180 ml). The control group included 45 patients. There was no statistically significant difference found between both groups in daily volume of urine (P = 0.855) and calculated clearance of creatinine (P = 0.573). We can conclude that residual diuresis is not significantly influenced by intravascular administration of iso-osmolal iodinated contrast agent (iodixanol) in range of volume from 60 to 180 ml in comparison to natural course of urinary output and residual renal function during end-stage renal disease. This result can help the nephrologist to decide which imaging method/contrast medium to use in dialyzed patients in current practice.

  11. Picosecond dynamics of reactions in the liquid phase: studies of iodine photodissociation and development of new laser techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, M.A.

    1985-09-01

    Iodine photodissociation and recombination was studied as a model for processes common to chemical reaction in the liquid phase. Picosecond transient absorption measurements from 1000 to 295 nm were used to monitor the dynamics in a variety of solvents. Most of the atoms which undergo geminate recombination were found to do so in less than or equal to 15 ps, in agreement with the results of existing molecular dynamics simulations. Vibrational relaxation times vary from approx.15 ps near the middle of the ground state well to approx.150 ps for complete relaxation to v = 0. The prediction of strong resonant vibrational energy transfer to chlorinated methane solvents was not supported, but some evidence for this mechanism was found for alkane solvents. Current theory is unable to explain the large variation (65 to 2700 ps) of the excited A'-state lifetime in various solvents. The 10-Hz amplified, synchronously-pumped dye laser which was used in these studies is described and characterized. SERS (Stimulated Electronic Raman Scattering) and difference frequency mixing were used in the generation of the infrared and far-infrared, respectively. 54 refs., 38 figs., 3 tabs. (WRF)

  12. High performance dye-sensitized solar cells using graphene modified fluorine-doped tin oxide glass by Langmuir–Blodgett technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roh, Ki-Min; Jo, Eun-Hee; Chang, Hankwon; Han, Tae Hee; Jang, Hee Dong

    2015-04-15

    Since the introduction of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with low fabrication cost and high power conversion efficiency, extensive studies have been carried out to improve the charge transfer rate and performance of DSSCs. In this paper, we present DSSCs that use surface modified fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates with reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) sheets prepared using the Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) technique to decrease the charge recombination at the TiO{sub 2}/FTO interface. R-GO sheets were excellently attached on FTO surface without physical deformations such as wrinkles; effects of the surface coverage of r-GO on the DSSC performance were also investigated. By using graphene modified FTO substrates, the resistance at the interface of TiO{sub 2}/FTO was reduced and the power conversion efficiency was increased to 8.44%. - Graphical abstract: DSSCs with graphene modified FTO glass were fabricated with the Langmuir Blodgett technique. GO sheets were transferred to FTO at various surface pressures in order to change the surface density of graphene and the highest power conversion efficiency of the DSSC was 8.44%. - Highlights: • By LB technique, r-GO sheets were coated on FTO without physical deformation. • DSSCs were fabricated with, r-GO modified FTO substrates. • With surface modification by r-GO, the interface resistance of DSSC decreased. • Maximum PCE of the DSSC was increased up to 8.44%.

  13. Demonstrate Scale-up Procedure for Glass Composite Material (GCM) for Incorporation of Iodine Loaded AgZ.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Garino, Terry J.; Croes, Kenneth James; Rodriguez, Mark A.

    2015-07-01

    Two large size Glass Composite Material (GCM) waste forms containing AgI-MOR were fabricated. One contained methyl iodide-loaded AgI-MOR that was received from Idaho National Laboratory (INL, Test 5, Beds 1 – 3) and the other contained iodine vapor loaded AgIMOR that was received from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL, SHB 2/9/15 ). The composition for each GCM was 20 wt% AgI-MOR and 80 wt% Ferro EG2922 low sintering temperature glass along with enough added silver flake to prevent any I2 loss during the firing process. The silver flake amounts were 1.2 wt% for the GCM with the INL AgI-MOR and 3 wt% for the GCM contained the ORNL AgI-MOR. The GCMs, nominally 100 g, were first uniaxially pressed to 6.35 cm (2.5 inch) diameter disks then cold isostatically pressed, before firing in air to 550°C for 1hr. They were cooled slowly (1°C/min) from the firing temperature to avoid any cracking due to temperature gradients. The final GCMs were ~5 cm in diameter (~2 inches) and non-porous with densities of ~4.2 g/cm³. X-ray diffraction indicated that they consisted of the amorphous glass phase with small amounts of mordenite and AgI. Furthermore, the presence of the AgI was confirmed by X-ray fluorescence. Methodology for the scaled up production of GCMs to 6 inch diameter or larger is also presented.

  14. Dosimetric and Late Radiation Toxicity Comparison Between Iodine-125 Brachytherapy and Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for Juxtapapillary Choroidal Melanoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krema, Hatem

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To compare the dose distributions and late radiation toxicities for {sup 125}I brachytherapy (IBT) and stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) in the treatment of juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma. Methods: Ninety-four consecutive patients with juxtapapillary melanoma were reviewed: 30 have been treated with IBT and 64 with SRT. Iodine-125 brachytherapy cases were modeled with plaque simulator software for dosimetric analysis. The SRT dosimetric data were obtained from the Radionics XKnife RT3 software. Mean doses at predetermined intraocular points were calculated. Kaplan-Meier estimates determined the actuarial rates of late toxicities, and the logrank test compared the estimates. Results: The median follow-up was 46 months in both cohorts. The 2 cohorts were balanced with respect to pretreatment clinical and tumor characteristics. Comparisons of radiation toxicity rates between the IBT and SRT cohorts yielded actuarial rates at 50 months for cataracts of 62% and 75% (P=.1), for neovascular glaucoma 8% and 47% (P=.002), for radiation retinopathy 59% and 89% (P=.0001), and for radiation papillopathy 39% and 74% (P=.003), respectively. Dosimetric comparisons between the IBT and SRT cohorts yielded mean doses of 12.8 and 14.1 Gy (P=.56) for the lens center, 17.6 and 19.7 Gy (P=.44) for the lens posterior pole, 13.9 and 10.8 Gy (P=.30) for the ciliary body, 61.9 and 69.7 Gy (P=.03) for optic disc center, and 48.9 and 60.1 Gy (P<.0001) for retina at 5-mm distance from tumor margin, respectively. Conclusions: Late radiation-induced toxicities were greater with SRT, which is secondary to the high-dose exposure inherent to the technique as compared with IBT. When technically feasible, IBT is preferred to treat juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma.

  15. Measuring the Noble Metal and Iodine Composition of Extracted Noble Metal Phase from Spent Nuclear Fuel Using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palomares, R. I.; Dayman, Kenneth J.; Landsberger, Sheldon; Biegalski, Steven R.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Casella, Amanda J.; Brady Raap, Michaele C.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2015-04-01

    Mass quantities of noble metal and iodine nuclides in the metallic noble metal phase extracted from spent fuel are measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA). Nuclide presence is predicted using fission yield analysis, and mass quantification is derived from standard gamma spectroscopy and radionuclide decay analysis. The nuclide compositions of noble metal phase derived from two dissolution methods, UO2 fuel dissolved in nitric acid and UO2 fuel dissolved in ammonium-carbonate and hydrogen-peroxide solution, are compared. Lastly, the implications of the rapid analytic speed of instrumental NAA are discussed in relation to potential nuclear forensics applications.

  16. SU-E-I-49: Simulation Study for Removing Scatter Radiation in Cesium-Iodine Based Flat Panel Detector System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Y; Park, M; Kim, H; Kim, K; Kim, J; Morishita, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study aims to identify the feasibility of a novel cesium-iodine (CsI)-based flat-panel detector (FPD) for removing scatter radiation in diagnostic radiology. Methods: The indirect FPD comprises three layers: a substrate, scintillation, and thin-film-transistor (TFT) layer. The TFT layer has a matrix structure with pixels. There are ineffective dimensions on the TFT layer, such as the voltage and data lines; therefore, we devised a new FPD system having net-like lead in the substrate layer, matching the ineffective area, to block the scatter radiation so that only primary X-rays could reach the effective dimension.To evaluate the performance of this new FPD system, we conducted a Monte Carlo simulation using MCNPX 2.6.0 software. Scatter fractions (SFs) were acquired using no grid, a parallel grid (8:1 grid ratio), and the new system, and the performances were compared.Two systems having different thicknesses of lead in the substrate layer—10 and 20μm—were simulated. Additionally, we examined the effects of different pixel sizes (153×153 and 163×163μm) on the image quality, while keeping the effective area of pixels constant (143×143μm). Results: In case of 10μm lead, the SFs of the new system (∼11%) were lower than those of the other system (∼27% with no grid, ∼16% with parallel grid) at 40kV. However, as the tube voltage increased, the SF of new system (∼19%) was higher than that of parallel grid (∼18%) at 120kV. In the case of 20μm lead, the SFs of the new system were lower than those of the other systems at all ranges of the tube voltage (40–120kV). Conclusion: The novel CsI-based FPD system for removing scatter radiation is feasible for improving the image contrast but must be optimized with respect to the lead thickness, considering the system’s purposes and the ranges of the tube voltage in diagnostic radiology. This study was supported by a grant(K1422651) from Institute of Health Science, Korea University.

  17. Iodine 125 Brachytherapy With Vitrectomy and Silicone Oil in the Treatment of Uveal Melanoma: 1-to-1 Matched Case-Control Series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCannel, Tara A. McCannel, Colin A.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We initially reported the radiation-attenuating effect of silicone oil 1000 centistokes for iodine 125. The purpose of this report was to compare the clinical outcomes in case patients who had iodine 125 brachytherapy with vitrectomy and silicone oil 1000 centistokes with the outcomes in matched control patients who underwent brachytherapy alone. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients with uveal melanoma who were treated with iodine 125 plaque brachytherapy and vitrectomy with silicone oil with minimum 1-year follow-up were included. Control patients who underwent brachytherapy alone were matched for tumor size, location, and sex. Baseline patient and tumor characteristics and tumor response to radiation, final visual acuity, macular status, central macular thickness by ocular coherence tomography (OCT), cataract progression, and metastasis at last follow-up visit were compared. Surgical complications were also determined. Results: Twenty case patients met the inclusion criteria. The average follow-up time was 22.1 months in case patients and 19.4 months in control patients. The final logMAR vision was 0.81 in case patients and 1.1 in control patients (P=.071); 8 case patients and 16 control patients had abnormal macular findings (P=.011); and the average central macular thickness by OCT was 293.2 μm in case patients and 408.5 μm in control patients (P=.016). Eleven case patients (55%) and 1 control patient (5%) had required cataract surgery at last follow-up (P=.002). Four patients in the case group and 1 patient in the control group experienced metastasis (P=.18). Among the cases, intraoperative retinal tear occurred in 3 patients; total serous retinal detachment and macular hole developed in 1 case patient each. There was no case of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, treatment failure, or local tumor dissemination in case patients or control patients. Conclusions: With up to 3 years of clinical follow-up, silicone oil during brachytherapy

  18. Nucleophilic fluorination of aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R

    2014-03-18

    Iodylbenzene derivatives substituted with electron donating as well as electron withdrawing groups on the aromatic ring are used as precursors in aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. The iodyl group (IO.sub.2) is regiospecifically substituted by nucleophilic fluoride to provide the corresponding fluoroaryl derivatives. No-carrier-added [F-18]fluoride ion derived from anhydrous [F-18](F/Kryptofix, [F-18]CsF or a quaternary ammonium fluoride (e.g., Me.sub.4NF, Et.sub.4NF, n-Bu.sub.4NF, (PhCH.sub.2).sub.4NF) exclusively substitutes the iodyl moiety in these derivatives and provides high specific activity F-18 labeled fluoroaryl analogs. Iodyl derivatives of a benzothiazole analog and 6-iodyl-L-dopa derivatives have been synthesized as precursors and have been used in the preparation of no-carrier-added [F-18]fluorobenzothiazole as well as 6-[F-18]fluoro-L-dopa.

  19. Fission gas and iodine release measured in IFA-430 up to 15 GWd/t UO/sub 2/ burnup. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appelhans, A.D.; Turnbull, J.A.; White, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The release of fission products from fuel pellets to the fuel-cladding gap is dependent on the fuel temperature, the power (fission rate) and the burnup (fuel structure). As part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Fuel Behavior Program, EG and G Idaho, Inc., is conducting fission product release studies in the Heavy Boiling Water Reactor in Halden, Norway. This paper presents a summary of the results up to December, 1982. The data cover fuel centerline temperatures ranging from 700 to 1500/sup 0/C for average linear heat ratings of 16 to 35 kW/m. The measurements have been performed for the period between 4.2 and 14.8 GWd/t UO/sub 2/ of burnup of the Instrumented Fuel Assembly 430 (IFA-430). The measurement program has been directed toward quantifying the release of the short-lived radioactive noble gases and iodines.

  20. Electrochemical overcharge protection of rechargeable lithium batteries: II. Effect of lithium iodide-iodine additives on the behavior of lithium electrode in LiAsF/sub 6/-tetrahydrofuran solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behl, W.K.; Chin, D.T.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of lithium iodide-iodine additives on the anodic and cathodic behavior of lithium in 1.5M LiAsF/sub 6//tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution has been investigated with the rotating disk and potentiostatic transient techniques. The formation of a passive film on the lithium surface at anodic potentials were found to allow a dissolution-precipitation mechanism. The addition of LiI-I/sub 2/ to the electrolyte decreased the stability of the passive film and increased the rate of lithium dissolution at the passive potentials. At the active anodic dissolution potentials as well as in the cathodic polarization regime, the current-potential relation of the lithium electrode was not affected by the presence of iodide-iodine additives in the electrolyte.

  1. The development and deployment of a ground-based, laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the in situ detection of iodine monoxide radicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thurlow, M. E. Hannun, R. A.; Lapson, L. B.; Anderson, J. G.; Co, D. T.; Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research Center and Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113 ; O'Brien, A. S.; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 ; Hanisco, T. F.; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 614, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771

    2014-04-15

    High abundances of iodine monoxide (IO) are known to exist and to participate in local photochemistry of the marine boundary layer. Of particular interest are the roles IO plays in the formation of new particles in coastal marine environments and in depletion episodes of ozone and mercury in the Arctic polar spring. This paper describes a ground-based instrument that measures IO at mixing ratios less than one part in 10{sup 12}. The IO radical is measured by detecting laser-induced fluorescence at wavelengths longer that 500 nm. Tunable visible light is used to pump the A{sup 2}Π{sub 3/2} (v{sup ′} = 2) ← X{sup 2}Π{sub 3/2} (v{sup ″} = 0) transition of IO near 445 nm. The laser light is produced by a solid-state, Nd:YAG-pumped Ti:Sapphire laser at 5 kHz repetition rate. The laser-induced fluorescence instrument performs reliably with very high signal-to-noise ratios (>10) achieved in short integration times (<1 min). The observations from a validation deployment to the Shoals Marine Lab on Appledore Island, ME are presented and are broadly consistent with in situ observations from European Coastal Sites. Mixing ratios ranged from the instrumental detection limit (<1 pptv) to 10 pptv. These data represent the first in situ point measurements of IO in North America.

  2. Superhydrophobicity on transparent fluorinated ethylene propylene films with nano-protrusion morphology by Ar + O{sub 2} plasma etching: Study of the degradation in hydrophobicity after exposure to the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Nitant; Kavya, M. V.; Singh, Yogesh R. G.; Jyothi, J.; Barshilia, Harish C.

    2013-10-28

    Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) films were made superhydrophobic by Ar + O{sub 2} plasma etching process. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy studies of the plasma-treated FEP samples detected the presence of uniformly distributed nano-protrusions exhibiting a low surface roughness necessary for maintaining the transparency of the samples. In fact, optical transmittance measurements showed an improvement in the transparency of FEP samples after plasma treatment. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis showed the presence of –CF{sub x}–O–CF{sub x}– (x = 1, 2, or 3) linkages in both untreated and plasma-treated samples which explains the hydrophilic nature (contact angle below 90{sup ∘}) of the untreated sample. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed no changes in the bulk properties of the plasma-treated samples. Moreover, exposure to the environment caused the surfaces to lose their superhydrophobic property in an indefinite amount of time. This has been further studied through a water immersion experiment and explained through the wetting state transition from Cassie state to Wenzel state.

  3. Correlation of radioactive-waste-treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: conversion of yellow cake to uranium hexafluoride. Part II. The solvent extraction-fluorination process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sears, M.B.; Etnier, E.L.; Hill, G.S.; Patton, B.D.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Yen, S.N.

    1983-03-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials and chemicals from a model uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) production plant using the solvent extraction-fluorination process, and to evaluate the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the release materials on the environment. The model plant processes 10,000 metric tons of uranium per year. Base-case waste treatment is the minimum necessary to operate the process. Effluents meet the radiological requirements listed in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 20 (10 CFR 20), Appendix B, Table II, but may not be acceptable chemically at all sites. Additional radwaste treatment techniques are applied to the base-case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose committment are correlated with the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. Much of the technology used in the advanced cases will require development and demonstration, or else is proprietary and unavailable for immediate use. The methodology and assumptions for the radiological doses are found in ORNL-4992.

  4. Enhanced electron collection in TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle-based dye-sensitized solar cells by an array of metal micropillars on a planar fluorinated tin oxide anode.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Z.; Xu, T.; Gao, S.; Welp, U.; Kwok, W.-K.; Materials Science Division; Northern Illinois Univ.

    2010-01-01

    Charge collection efficiency exhibits a strong influence on the overall efficiency of nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells. It highly depends on the quality of the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticulate layer in the photoanode, and hence most efforts have been directed on the improvement and deliberate optimization of the quality the TiO{sub 2} nanocrystalline layer. In this work, we aim to reduce the electron collection distance between the place of origin in the TiO{sub 2} layer to the electron-collecting TCO anode as an alternative way to enhance the charge collection efficiency. We use an array of metal micropillars on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) as the collecting anode. Under the same conditions, the Ni micropillar-on-FTO-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) exhibit a remarkably enhanced current density, which is approximately 1.8 times greater compared with the bare FTO-based DSSCs. Electron transport was investigated using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. Our results reveal that the electron collection time in Ni micropillar-on-FTO-based DSSCs is much shorter than that of bare FTO-based DSSCs, indicating faster electron collection due to the Ni micropillars buried in TiO{sub 2} nanoparticulate layer that serve as electron transport shortcuts. As a result, the charge collection efficiency was enhanced by 15?20% with respect to that of the bare FTO-based DSSCs. Consequently, the overall energy conversion efficiency was found to increase from 2.6% in bare FTO-based DSSCs to 4.8% in Ni micropillar-on-FTO-based DSSCs for a 6 {micro}m-thick TiO{sub 2} NP film.

  5. Fluorinated precursors of superconducting ceramics, and methods...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The method comprises providing a solution comprising a rare earth salt, an alkaline earth metal salt and a copper salt; spraying the solution onto a substrate to provide a ...

  6. Fluorinated Precursors of Superconducting Ceramics - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a rare earth, an alkaline earth, and copper in solution, spraying the solution onto a ... salt, an alkaline earth metal salt and a copper salt; spraying the solution onto a ...

  7. FLUORINE PROCESS FOR SEPARATION OF MATERIALS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seaborg, G.T.; Brown, H.S.

    1958-05-01

    A process is described for separating plutoniunn from neutron-irradiated uranium, which consists of reacting the irradiated uranium mass with HF to form the tetrafluorides of U, Pu, and Np, and then reacting this mixture of tetrafluorides with fiuorine at temperature between 140 and 315 d C. This causes volatile hexafluorides of U and Np to form while at the temperature employed the Pu tetrafluoride is unaffected and remains as a residue.

  8. Fluorinated Precursors of Superconducting Ceramics - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    precursors are obtained by combining salts of a rare earth, an alkaline earth, and copper in solution, spraying the solution onto a substrate, and heating the covered substrate...

  9. CONVERSION; FLUORINE COMPOUNDS; SYNTHESIS; FUEL CELLS; ELECTROLYTES...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OXYGEN; REDUCTION; SOLUBILITY; SULFONIC ACIDS; ADDITIVES; CHEMICAL REACTION KINETICS; ELECTRIC CONDUCTIVITY; OPTIMIZATION; PROGRESS REPORT; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; DIRECT ENERGY...

  10. Method of preparing novel fluorinated laser dyes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammond, Peter R.; Freeman, James F.

    1991-01-01

    A novel class of dye is disclosed which is particularly efficient and stable for dye laser applications, lasing between 540 and 570 nm.