National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for fluorescent tube lamps

  1. Fluorescent Tube Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP temporarily suspended its energy efficiency requirements for fluorescent tube lamps as it evaluates the market impact of the pending 2012 minimum efficiency standards for fluorescent lamps. The program will issue updated energy efficiency requirements when the market distribution of this product category stabilizes and when doing so has the potential to result in significant Federal energy savings.

  2. Magnetic fluorescent lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, S.M.; Richardson R.W.

    1983-12-29

    The radiant emission of a mercury-argon discharge in a fluorescent lamp assembly is enhanced by providing means for establishing a magnetic field with lines of force along the path of electron flow through the bulb of the lamp assembly, to provide Zeeman splitting of the ultraviolet spectral line. Optimum results are obtained when the magnetic field strength causes a Zeeman splitting of approximately 1.7 times the thermal line width.

  3. Capacitive sensing with a fluorescent lamp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooley, John Jacob

    2007-01-01

    This work presents a modified fluorescent lamp that can be used as a capacitive sensing system. The lamp sensor measures changes in the electric fields emitted from the fluorescent bulbs in order to deduce the presence and ...

  4. LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps Webcast

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this June 20, 2011 webcast on LED products marketed as replacements for linear fluorescent lamps, Jason Tuenge of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) discussed current Lighting...

  5. Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescent Lamp Ballasts Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts The

  6. Text-Alternative Version: LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text-alternative version of the "LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps" webcast, held June 20, 2011.

  7. Fluorescent lamp unit with magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1989-08-08

    A fluorescent lamp unit having a magnetic field generating means for improving the performance of the fluorescent lamp is disclosed. In a preferred embodiment the fluorescent lamp comprises four longitudinally extending leg portions disposed in substantially quadrangular columnar array and joined by three generally U-shaped portions disposed in different planes. In another embodiment of the invention the magnetic field generating means comprises a plurality of permanent magnets secured together to form a single columnar structure disposed within a centrally located region defined by the shape of lamp envelope. 4 figs.

  8. Heat transfer assembly for a fluorescent lamp and fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, M.J.; Rubenstein, F.M.; Whitman, R.E.

    1992-12-29

    In a lighting fixture including a lamp and a housing, a heat transfer structure is disclosed for reducing the minimum lamp wall temperature of a fluorescent light bulb. The heat transfer structure, constructed of thermally conductive material, extends from inside the housing to outside the housing, transferring heat energy generated from a fluorescent light bulb to outside the housing where the heat energy is dissipated to the ambient air outside the housing. Also disclosed is a method for reducing minimum lamp wall temperatures. Further disclosed is an improved lighting fixture including a lamp, a housing and the aforementioned heat transfer structure. 11 figs.

  9. Heat transfer assembly for a fluorescent lamp and fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, Michael J. (Richmond, CA); Rubenstein, Francis M. (Berkeley, CA); Whitman, Richard E. (Richmond, CA)

    1992-01-01

    In a lighting fixture including a lamp and a housing, a heat transfer structure is disclosed for reducing the minimum lamp wall temperature of a fluorescent light bulb. The heat transfer structure, constructed of thermally conductive material, extends from inside the housing to outside the housing, transferring heat energy generated from a fluorescent light bulb to outside the housing where the heat energy is dissipated to the ambient air outside the housing. Also disclosed is a method for reducing minimum lamp wall temperatures. Further disclosed is an improved lighting fixture including a lamp, a housing and the aforementioned heat transfer structure.

  10. Max Tech and Beyond: Fluorescent Lamps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scholand, Michael

    2012-01-01

    T5 HE ES High Efficiency Energy Saver”; and General Electricfilled with argon gas. Energy-saver lamps incorporate argon

  11. Convection venting lensed reflector-type compact fluorescent lamp system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pelton, B.A.; Siminovitch, M.

    1997-07-29

    Disclosed herein is a fluorescent lamp housing assembly capable of providing convection cooling to the lamp and the ballast. The lens of the present invention includes two distinct portions, a central portion and an apertured portion. The housing assembly further includes apertures so that air mass is able to freely move up through the assembly and out ventilation apertures. 12 figs.

  12. Fluorescent lamp with static magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moskowitz, Philip E. (Peabody, MA); Maya, Jakob (Brookline, MA)

    1987-01-01

    A fluorescent lamp wherein magnetic field generating means (e.g., permanent magnets) are utilized to generate a static magnetic field across the respective electrode structures of the lamp such that maximum field strength is located at the electrode's filament. An increase in efficacy during operation has been observed.

  13. Fluorescent lamp with static magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moskowitz, P.E.; Maya, J.

    1987-09-08

    A fluorescent lamp wherein magnetic field generating means (e.g., permanent magnets) are utilized to generate a static magnetic field across the respective electrode structures of the lamp such that maximum field strength is located at the electrode's filament. An increase in efficacy during operation has been observed. 2 figs.

  14. Integrated starting and running amalgam assembly for an electrodeless fluorescent lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borowiec, Joseph Christopher (Schenectady, NY); Cocoma, John Paul (Clifton Park, NY); Roberts, Victor David (Burnt Hills, NY)

    1998-01-01

    An integrated starting and running amalgam assembly for an electrodeless SEF fluorescent lamp includes a wire mesh amalgam support constructed to jointly optimize positions of a starting amalgam and a running amalgam in the lamp, thereby optimizing mercury vapor pressure in the lamp during both starting and steady-state operation in order to rapidly achieve and maintain high light output. The wire mesh amalgam support is constructed to support the starting amalgam toward one end thereof and the running amalgam toward the other end thereof, and the wire mesh is rolled for friction-fitting within the exhaust tube of the lamp. The positions of the starting and running amalgams on the wire mesh are jointly optimized such that high light output is achieved quickly and maintained, while avoiding any significant reduction in light output between starting and running operation.

  15. Red phosphors for use in high CRI fluorescent lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Alok; Comanzo, Holly; Manivannan, Vankatesan; Setlur, Anant Achyut

    2005-11-15

    Novel red emitting phosphors for use in fluorescent lamps resulting in superior color rendering index values compared to conventional red phosphors. Also disclosed is a fluorescent lamp including a phosphor layer comprising blends of one or more of a blue phosphor, a blue-green phosphor, a green phosphor and a red a phosphor selected from the group consisting of SrY.sub.2 O.sub.4 :Eu.sup.3+, (Y,Gd)Al.sub.3 B.sub.4 O.sub.12 :Eu.sup.3+, and [(Y.sub.1-x-y-m La.sub.y)Gd.sub.x ]BO.sub.3 :Eu.sub.m wherein y<0.50 and m=0.001-0.3. The phosphor layer can optionally include an additional deep red phosphor and a yellow emitting phosphor. The resulting lamp will exhibit a white light having a color rendering index of 90 or higher with a correlated color temperature of from 2500 to 10000 Kelvin. The use of the disclosed red phosphors in phosphor blends of lamps results in high CRI light sources with increased stability and acceptable lumen maintenance over the course of the lamp life.

  16. Compact fluorescent lamp using horizontal and vertical insulating septums and convective venting geometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, M.

    1998-02-10

    A novel design is described for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment. 9 figs.

  17. ISSUANCE 2014-12-29: Energy Conservation Program: Clarification for Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Clarification for Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

  18. EA-1881: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to amend energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment, including fluorescent lamp ballasts.

  19. A light diet for a giant appetite: An assessment of China's proposed fluorescent lamp standard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jiang

    2002-04-11

    Lighting has been one of the fastest growing electric end-uses in China over the last twenty years, with an average annual growth rate of 14%. Fluorescent lighting provides a significant portion of China's lighting need. In 1998, China produced 680 million fluorescent lamps, of which 420 million were linear fluorescent lamps of various diameters (T8 to T12). There are substantial variations both in energy efficiency and lighting performance among locally produced fluorescent lamps. Such variations present a perfect opportunity for policy intervention through efficiency standards to promote the adoption of more efficient fluorescent lamps in China. This paper analyzes China's proposed minimum efficiency standard for fluorescent lamps and presents an assessment of its likely impacts on China's lighting energy consumption and GHG emissions.

  20. Conservation potential of compact fluorescent lamps in India and Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gadgil, A.; Martino Jannuzzi, G. de (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia)

    1989-07-01

    We evaluate the conservation potential of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) for managing the rapidly increasing electrical energy and peak demand in India and Brazil. Using very conservative assumptions, we find that the cost of conserved energy using 16 W CFLs is 4 and 6 times less than the long range marginal cost of electricity for the two countries. The cost of avoided peak installed capacity is 6 and 9.5 times less than the cost of new installed capacity for India and Brazil. The analysis is undertaken from the three separate perspectives of the national economies, the consumers, and the utilities. We find that because residential electricity is subsidized, the consumers have little or no incentive to purchase and install the CFLs, unless they too are subsidized. However, the benefits of CFL installation to the utility are so large that subsidizing them is a paying proposition for the utility are so large that subsidizing them is a paying proposition for the utility in almost all cases. As an illustration of a gradual introduction strategy for CFLs, we calculate a scenario where national savings of the order of US $1.2 million per day for India and US $2.5 million per day for Brazil are reached in 10 years by a small and gradual transfer of subsidy from residential electricity to CFLs. We then explore the barriers to immediate large scale introduction of these lamps in the two countries. Specific technical and marketing problems are identified and discussed, which would require solution before such an introduction can be attempted. Lastly, we discuss the range of policy instruments, in addition to a subsidy scheme, that can be used for promoting the diffusion of these lamps in the domestic and commercial sector. 47 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. HF Multiresonant Electronic Ballast for Fluorescent Lamps with Constant Filament Preheat Voltage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HF Multiresonant Electronic Ballast for Fluorescent Lamps with Constant Filament Preheat Voltage resonance arrangement that acts as a current source. During warm up the filaments are driven by a secondary the filament and shorts out the voltage across the lamp. Simulation and experimental results suggest

  2. Performance of T12 and T8 Fluorescent Lamps and Troffers and LED Linear Replacement Lamps CALiPER Benchmark Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myer, Michael; Paget, Maria L.; Lingard, Robert D.

    2009-01-16

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Commercially Available LED Product Evaluation and Reporting (CALiPER) Program was established in 2006 to investigate the performance of light-emitting diode (LED) based luminaires and replacement lamps. To help users better compare LED products with conventional lighting technologies, CALiPER has also performed benchmark research and testing of traditional (i.e., non-LED) lamps and fixtures. This benchmark report addresses standard 4-foot fluorescent lamps (i.e., T12 and T8) and the 2-foot by 4-foot recessed troffers in which they are commonly used. This report also examines available LED replacements for T12 and T8 fluorescent lamps, and their application in fluorescent troffers. The construction and operation of linear fluorescent lamps and troffers are discussed, as well as fluorescent lamp and fixture performance, based on manufacturer data and CALiPER benchmark testing. In addition, the report describes LED replacements for linear fluorescent lamps, and compares their bare lamp and in situ performance with fluorescent benchmarks on a range of standard lighting measures, including power usage, light output and distribution, efficacy, correlated color temperature, and the color rendering index. Potential performance and application issues indicated by CALiPER testing results are also examined.

  3. 2014-04-11 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for General Service Fluorescent Lamps and Incandescent Reflector Lamps; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding energy conservation standards for general service fluorescent lamps and incandescent reflectors lamps, as issued by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy on April 11, 2014.

  4. ISSUANCE 2015-06-17: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts, Notice of Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts, Notice of Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document

  5. ISSUANCE 2015-08-14: Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts, Reopening of the Comment Period

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts, Reopening of the Comment Period

  6. 2015-01-28 Issuance: Test Procedure for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts; Final Rule Correction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule correction regarding test procedures for fluorescent lamp ballasts, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on January 28, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  7. Centrifugal LabTube platform for fully automated DNA purification and LAMP amplification based on an integrated, low-cost heating system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoehl, Melanie M.

    This paper introduces a disposable battery-driven heating system for loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP) inside a centrifugally-driven DNA purification platform (LabTube). We demonstrate LabTube-based fully ...

  8. Max Tech and Beyond: Fluorescent Lamps (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(JournalspectroscopyReport) | SciTech Connect Mathematical andFluorescent Lamps

  9. Analysis and design of an electronic ballast for fluorescent tube 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuchimanchi, Krishna V.

    1992-01-01

    Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Enjeti Prasad In this thesis, the analysis, design and implementation of an electronic ballast circuit with power factor correction to replace the conventional ballast for fluorescent lighting systems is presented... layout for the PCB Voltage across the tube Current through the tube 44 45 25 Gate voltages across the mosfets 27 Conventional diode rectifier Rectifier with inductor 47 48 28 Series resonant filter 49 29 Parallel resonant power factor...

  10. Potential Environmental Impacts from the Metals in Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL), and Light-Emitting Diode (LED)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    Potential Environmental Impacts from the Metals in Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL, previous studies have investigated various environmental impacts from incandescent, CFL, and LED bulbs. There is uncertainty about the potential environmental impacts of these components and whether special provisions must

  11. Thermal element for maintaining minimum lamp wall temperature in fluorescent fixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, M.J.

    1992-11-10

    In a lighting fixture including a lamp and a housing, an improvement is disclosed for maintaining a lamp envelope area at a cooler, reduced temperature relative to the enclosed housing ambient. The improvement comprises a thermal element in thermal communication with the housing extending to and springably urging thermal communication with a predetermined area of the lamp envelope surface. 12 figs.

  12. Thermal element for maintaining minimum lamp wall temperature in fluorescent fixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, Michael J. (Richmond, CA)

    1992-01-01

    In a lighting fixture including a lamp and a housing, an improvement is disclosed for maintaining a lamp envelope area at a cooler, reduced temperature relative to the enclosed housing ambient. The improvement comprises a thermal element in thermal communication with the housing extending to and springably urging thermal communication with a predetermined area of the lamp envelope surface.

  13. Max Tech and Beyond: Fluorescent Lamps (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(JournalspectroscopyReport) | SciTech Connect Mathematical andFluorescent

  14. Solid-state lamp with integral occupancy sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooley, John J.

    Previous work demonstrated a retrofit proximity detector for fluorescent lamps using the lamp's own stray electric fields. This paper extends the retrofit sensor system to a solid-state (LED) lamp. The design and implementation ...

  15. Laboratory Evaluation of LED T8 Replacement Lamp Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richman, Eric E.; Kinzey, Bruce R.; Miller, Naomi J.

    2011-05-23

    A report on a lab setting analysis involving LED lamps intended to directly replace T8 fluorescent lamps (4') showing light output, power, and economic comparisons with other fluorescent options.

  16. Recovery of yttrium from fluorescent powder of cathode ray tube, CRT: Zn removal by sulphide precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Innocenzi, Valentina, E-mail: valentina.innocenzi1@univaq.it [Department of Industrial Engineering and Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi n.18, Nucleo Ind.le di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco [Department of Industrial Engineering and Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi n.18, Nucleo Ind.le di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Beolchini, Francesca [Department of Marine Sciences, Polytechnic Institute of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Kopacek, Bernd [SAT, Austrian Society for Systems Engineering and Automation, Gurkasse 43/2, A-1140 Vienna (Austria); Vegliò, Francesco [Department of Industrial Engineering and Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi n.18, Nucleo Ind.le di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Treatment of fluorescent powder of CRT waste. • Factorial experimental designs to study acid leaching of fluorescent powder and the purification of leach liquors. • Recover of yttrium by precipitation using oxalic acid. • Suitable flowsheet to recover yttrium from fluorescent powder. - Abstract: This work is focused on the recovery of yttrium and zinc from fluorescent powder of cathode ray tube (CRT). Metals are extracted by sulphuric acid in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Leaching tests are carried out according to a 2{sup 2} full factorial plan and the highest extraction yields for yttrium and zinc equal to 100% are observed under the following conditions: 3 M of sulphuric acid, 10% v/v of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrated solution at 30% v/v, 10% w/w pulp density, 70 °C and 3 h of reaction. Two series of precipitation tests for zinc are carried out: a 2{sup 2} full factorial design and a completely randomized factorial design. In these series the factors investigated are pH of solution during the precipitation and the amount of sodium sulphide added to precipitate zinc sulphide. The data of these tests are used to describe two empirical mathematical models for zinc and yttrium precipitation yields by regression analysis. The highest precipitation yields for zinc are obtained under the following conditions: pH equal to 2–2.5% and 10–12% v/v of Na{sub 2}S concentrated solution at 10% w/v. In these conditions the coprecipitation of yttrium is of 15–20%. Finally further yttrium precipitation experiments by oxalic acid on the residual solutions, after removing of zinc, show that yttrium could be recovered and calcined to obtain the final product as yttrium oxide. The achieved results allow to propose a CRT recycling process based on leaching of fluorescent powder from cathode ray tube and recovery of yttrium oxide after removing of zinc by precipitation. The final recovery of yttrium is 75–80%.

  17. DuraLamp USA: Proposed Penalty (2010-CE-0912)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that DuraLamp USA, Inc. failed to certify a variety of general service fluorescent lamps as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  18. High lumen compact fluorescents boost light output in new fixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-12-31

    Some compact fluorescent lamps aren`t so compact. General Electric (GE), OSRAM, and Philips have been expanding offerings in longer, more powerful, hard wired CFLs that generate enough light to serve applications once limited to conventional fluorescents and metal halide systems. All three of these manufacturers have for some time offered 18- to 40-watt high-output CFLs, which use a fluorescent tube doubled back on itself to produce a lot of light in a compact source. Now GE has introduced an even larger, more powerful 50-watt unit, and OSRAM is soon to follow suit with a 55-watt lamp. These new entries to the field of turbocharged CFLs can provide general lighting at ceiling heights of 12 feet or more as well as indirect lighting, floodlighting, and wall washing. They are such a concentrated source of light that they can provide the desired illumination using fewer lamps and fixtures than would be needed with competing sources.

  19. Portable lamp with dynamically controlled lighting distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, Michael J. (Pinole, CA); Page, Erik R. (Berkeley, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A double lamp table or floor lamp lighting system has a pair of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) arranged vertically with a reflective septum in between. By selectively turning on one or both of the CFLs, down lighting, up lighting, or both up and down lighting is produced. The control system can also vary the light intensity from each CFL. The reflective septum insures that almost all the light produced by each lamp will be directed into the desired light distribution pattern which is selected and easily changed by the user. Planar compact fluorescent lamps, e.g. circular CFLs, particularly oriented horizontally, are preferable. CFLs provide energy efficiency. The lighting system may be designed for the home, hospitality, office or other environments.

  20. Aperture lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD)

    2003-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes means for containing a light emitting fill, the fill being capable of absorbing light at one wavelength and re-emitting the light at a different wavelength, the light emitted from the fill having a first spectral power distribution in the absence of reflection of light back into the fill; means for exciting the fill to cause the fill to emit light; and means for reflecting some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit, the exiting light having a second spectral power distribution with proportionately more light in the visible region as compared to the first spectral power distribution, wherein the light re-emitted by the fill is shifted in wavelength with respect to the absorbed light and the magnitude of the shift is in relation to an effective optical path length. Another discharge lamp includes an envelope; a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope; a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light; and a reflective ceramic structure disposed around the envelope and defining an light emitting opening, wherein the structure comprises a sintered body built up directly on the envelope and made from a combination of alumina and silica.

  1. LED lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galvez, Miguel; Grossman, Kenneth; Betts, David

    2013-11-12

    There is herein described a lamp for providing white light comprising a plurality of light sources positioned on a substrate. Each of said light sources comprises a blue light emitting diode (LED) and a dome that substantially covers said LED. A first portion of said blue light from said LEDs is transmitted through said domes and a second portion of said blue light is converted into a red light by a first phosphor contained in said domes. A cover is disposed over all of said light sources that transmits at least a portion of said red and blue light emitted by said light sources. The cover contains a second phosphor that emits a yellow light in response to said blue light. The red, blue and yellow light combining to form the white light and the white light having a color rendering index (CRI) of at least about 80.

  2. Fluorescent Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    - by far the most common form of fluorescent lighting but rarely found in residential buildings -- are much more energy efficient than incandescent lamps and are ideally suited...

  3. Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; Poplawski, Michael E.; Brown, Charles C.

    2014-12-14

    To date, all three reports in the retail lamps series have focused on basic performance parameters, such as lumen output, efficacy, and color quality. This report goes a step further, examining the photoelectric characteristics (i.e., dimming and flicker) of a subset of lamps from CALiPER Retails Lamps Study 3. Specifically, this report focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of 14 LED A lamps, as controlled by four different retail-available dimmers. The results demonstrate notable variation across the various lamps, but little variation between the four dimmers. Overall, the LED lamps: ~tended to have higher relative light output compared to the incandescent and halogen benchmark at the same dimmer output signal (RMS voltage). The lamps’ dimming curves (i.e., the relationship between control signal and relative light output) ranged from linear to very similar to the square-law curve typical of an incandescent lamp. ~generally exhibited symmetrical behavior—the same dimming curve—when measured proceeding from maximum to minimum or minimum to maximum control signal. ~mostly dimmed below 10% of full light output, with some exceptions for specific lamp and dimmer combinations ~exhibited a range of flicker characteristics, with many comparing favorably to the level typical of a magnetically-ballasted fluorescent lamp through at least a majority of the dimming range. ~ always exceeded the relative (normalized) efficacy over the dimming range of the benchmark lamps, which rapidly decline in efficacy when they are dimmed. This report generally does not attempt to rank the performance of one product compared to another, but instead focuses on the collective performance of the group versus conventional incandescent or halogen lamps, the performance of which is likely to be the baseline for a majority of consumers. Undoubtedly, some LED lamps perform better—or more similar to conventional lamps—than others. Some perform desirably for one characteristic, but not others. Consumers (and specifiers) may have a hard time distinguishing better-performing lamps from one another; at this time, physical experimentation is likely the best evaluation tool.

  4. Laboratory-based micro-X-ray fluorescence setup using a von Hamos crystal spectrometer and a focused beam X-ray tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kayser, Y.; B?achucki, W.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hoszowska, J.; Neff, M.; Romano, V.

    2014-04-15

    The high-resolution von Hamos bent crystal spectrometer of the University of Fribourg was upgraded with a focused X-ray beam source with the aim of performing micro-sized X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements in the laboratory. The focused X-ray beam source integrates a collimating optics mounted on a low-power micro-spot X-ray tube and a focusing polycapillary half-lens placed in front of the sample. The performances of the setup were probed in terms of spatial and energy resolution. In particular, the fluorescence intensity and energy resolution of the von Hamos spectrometer equipped with the novel micro-focused X-ray source and a standard high-power water-cooled X-ray tube were compared. The XRF analysis capability of the new setup was assessed by measuring the dopant distribution within the core of Er-doped SiO{sub 2} optical fibers.

  5. Jacketed lamp bulb envelope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Gitsevich, Aleksandr (Gaithersburg, MD); Bass, Gary K. (Mt. Airy, MD); Dolan, James T. (Frederick, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD); Kirkpatrick, Douglas A. (Great Falls, VA); Leng, Yongzhang (Damascus, MD); Levin, Izrail (Silver Spring, MD); Roy, Robert J. (Frederick, MD); Shanks, Bruce (Gaithersburg, MD); Smith, Malcolm (Alexandria, VA); Trimble, William C. (Columbia, MD); Tsai, Peter (Olney, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a partially closed end, the partially closed end defining an aperture, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material at least partially covering a portion of the bulb not abutting the aperture. The reflective ceramic material may substantially fill an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. The ceramic cup may include a structural feature for aiding in alignment of the jacketed lamp bulb envelope in a lamp. The ceramic cup may include an external flange about a periphery thereof. One example of a jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a closed end, a ceramic washer covering the open end of the ceramic cup, the washer defining an aperture therethrough, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material filling an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. A method of packing a jacketed lamp bulb envelope of the type comprising a ceramic cup with a lamp bulb disposed therein includes the steps of filling the ceramic cup with a flowable slurry of reflective material, and applying centrifugal force to the cup to pack the reflective material therein.

  6. Turning on LAMP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostedt, Christoph

    2014-06-30

    Christoph Bostedt, a senior staff scientist at SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray laser, provides a sneak peek of a powerful new instrument, called LAMP, that is now available for experiments that probe the atomic and molecular realm. LAMP replaces and updates the first instrument at LCLS, dubbed CAMP, which will be installed at an X-ray laser in Germany.

  7. Turning on LAMP

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Bostedt, Christoph

    2014-07-16

    Christoph Bostedt, a senior staff scientist at SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray laser, provides a sneak peek of a powerful new instrument, called LAMP, that is now available for experiments that probe the atomic and molecular realm. LAMP replaces and updates the first instrument at LCLS, dubbed CAMP, which will be installed at an X-ray laser in Germany.

  8. Rapid flash lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gavenonis, Thomas L. (544 Sand Hill Rd., R.D. #3, Montoursville, Lycoming County, PA 17754); Hewitt, William H. (24 G Acres Dr., Essex County, Bradford, MA 01830)

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for providing low peak time and pulse width actinic energy from a lamp by varying the input energy of a capacitive ignition circuit having relatively high voltage to the lamp. The lamp comprises a pair of electrodes disposed within a light transparent envelope in which a combustible and an oxidizing gas reaction combination is located. The combustible is preferably shredded zirconium which is in contact with and provides an electrical discharge path between the electrodes. The gas is preferably pressurized oxygen.

  9. LED Directional Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-11-01

    Solid-state lighting program technology fact sheet that provides an overview of the current performance of LED PAR-, BR-, R-, and AR-shaped lamps, which were all investigated by CALiPER in 2012.

  10. Very high efficacy electrodeless high intensity discharge lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Peter D. (Schenectady, NY)

    1987-01-01

    An electrodeless arc lamp comprises an outer jacket hermetically sealing and thermally protecting an arc tube inside which has an upwardly convex bottom center section. The absence of chemically reactive electrode material makes it possible to use metal halides other than iodides. The tube contains chlorides, bromides or a mixture thereof of scandium and sodium in a nearly equimolar relationship in addition to mercury and an inert gas. Good color balance can be obtained at reduced reservoir temperature and with less power loss. Reduction in wall temperature makes it possible to attain longer lamp life.

  11. Very high efficacy electrodeless high intensity discharge lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, P.D.

    1985-10-03

    An electrodeless arc lamp comprises an outer jacket hermetically sealing and thermally protecting an arc tube inside which has an upwardly convex bottom center section. The absence of chemically reactive electrode material makes it possible to use metal halides other than iodides. The tube contains chlorides, bromides or a mixture thereof of scandium and sodium in a nearly equimolar relationship in addition to mercury and an inert gas. Good color balance can be obtained at reduced reservoir temperature and with less power loss. Reduction in wall temperature makes it possible to attain longer lamp life.

  12. Low-cost evacuated-tube solar collector appendices. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beecher, D.T.

    1980-05-31

    A low cost solar heat energy collector module and array has been designed using the evacuated tube, selective absorber, air cooled concept. Glass tubing as used in fluorescent lamps with automatic sealing methods is a key feature of the evacuated tube design. A molded fiber glass concentrating reflector panel and sheet metal header assembly are proposed. Major design problems involved included the cost of materials and labor, thermal expansion and distortion problems, high stagnation and operating temperatures, isolation, thermal efficiency, sealing, joining, air pressure drop, and weight of the preassembled module. A cost of less than $5 per active square foot of collecting surface has been estimated for materials and labor of the module and its mounting frame.

  13. Inductive tuners for microwave driven discharge lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, James E. (Gaithersburg, MD)

    1999-01-01

    An RF powered electrodeless lamp utilizing an inductive tuner in the waveguide which couples the RF power to the lamp cavity, for reducing reflected RF power and causing the lamp to operate efficiently.

  14. Table lamp with dynamically controlled lighting distribution and uniformly illuminated luminous shade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, Michael J. (Pinole, CA); Page, Erik R. (Berkeley, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A double lamp table or floor lamp lighting system has a pair of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) or other lamps arranged vertically, i.e. one lamp above the other, with a reflective septum in between. By selectively turning on one or both of the CFLs, down lighting, up lighting, or both up and down lighting is produced. The control system can also vary the light intensity from each CFL. The reflective septum ensures that almost all the light produced by each lamp will be directed into the desired light distribution pattern which is selected and easily changed by the user. In a particular configuration, the reflective septum is bowl shaped, with the upper CFL sitting in the bowl, and a luminous shade hanging down from the bowl. The lower CFL provides both task lighting and uniform shade luminance. Planar compact fluorescent lamps, e.g. circular CFLs, particularly oriented horizontally, are preferable. CFLs provide energy efficiency. However, other types of lamps, including incandescent, halogen, and LEDs can also be used in the fixture. The lighting system may be designed for the home, hospitality, office or other environments.

  15. High brightness microwave lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Dolan, James T.; MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Simpson, James E.

    2003-09-09

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes a source of microwave energy, a microwave cavity, a structure configured to transmit the microwave energy from the source to the microwave cavity, a bulb disposed within the microwave cavity, the bulb including a discharge forming fill which emits light when excited by the microwave energy, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity, wherein the reflector defines a reflective cavity which encompasses the bulb within its volume and has an inside surface area which is sufficiently less than an inside surface area of the microwave cavity. A portion of the reflector may define a light emitting aperture which extends from a position closely spaced to the bulb to a light transmissive end of the microwave cavity. Preferably, at least a portion of the reflector is spaced from a wall of the microwave cavity. The lamp may be substantially sealed from environmental contamination. The cavity may include a dielectric material is a sufficient amount to require a reduction in the size of the cavity to support the desired resonant mode.

  16. CENTRIFUGAL LABTUBE FOR FULLY AUTOMATED DNA EXTRACTION & LAMP AMPLIFICATION BASED ON AN INTEGRATED, LOW-COST HEATING SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoehl, Melanie Margarete

    In this paper, we introduce a disposable battery-driven heating system for loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP) inside a centrifugally-driven DNA-extraction platform (LabTube). We demonstrate fully automated, ...

  17. Electronic screw-in ballast and improved circline lamp phase I. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohler, T.P.

    1980-09-01

    A solid state ballast has been designed for the efficient operation of a 10 in circline fluorescent lamp. The circuit can be manufactured using power hybrid technology. Eight discrete component versions of the ballasts have been delivered to LBL for testing. The results show the solid state fluorescent ballast system is more efficient than the core-coil ballasted systems on the market.

  18. CALiPER Report 21.3. Cost Effectiveness of Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-05-01

    Meeting performance expectations is important for driving adoption of linear LED lamps, but cost-effectiveness may be an overriding factor in many cases. Linear LED lamps cost more initially than fluorescent lamps, but energy and maintenance savings may mean that the life-cycle cost is lower. This report details a series of life-cycle cost simulations that compared a two-lamp troffer using LED lamps (38 W total power draw) or fluorescent lamps (51 W total power draw) over a 10-year study period. Variables included LED system cost ($40, $80, or $120), annual operating hours (2,000 hours or 4,000 hours), LED installation time (15 minutes or 30 minutes), and melded electricity rate ($0.06/kWh, $0.12/kWh, $0.18/kWh, or $0.24/kWh). A full factorial of simulations allows users to interpolate between these values to aid in making rough estimates of economic feasibility for their own projects. In general, while their initial cost premium remains high, linear LED lamps are more likely to be cost-effective when electric utility rates are higher than average and hours of operation are long, and if their installation time is shorter.

  19. CALiPER Report 21.3: Cost-Effectiveness of Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Perrin, Tess E.; Royer, Michael P.

    2014-05-27

    Meeting performance expectations is important for driving adoption of linear LED lamps, but cost-effectiveness may be an overriding factor in many cases. Linear LED lamps cost more initially than fluorescent lamps, but energy and maintenance savings may mean that the life-cycle cost is lower. This report details a series of life-cycle cost simulations that compared a two-lamp troffer using LED lamps (38 W total power draw) or fluorescent lamps (51 W total power draw) over a 10-year study period. Variables included LED system cost ($40, $80, or $120), annual operating hours (2,000 hours or 4,000 hours), LED installation time (15 minutes or 30 minutes), and melded electricity rate ($0.06/kWh, $0.12/kWh, $0.18/kWh, or $0.24/kWh). A full factorial of simulations allows users to interpolate between these values to aid in making rough estimates of economic feasibility for their own projects. In general, while their initial cost premium remains high, linear LED lamps are more likely to be cost-effective when electric utility rates are higher than average and hours of operation are long, and if their installation time is shorter.

  20. Comparison lamps automation CTIO 60 inches CHIRON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokovinin, Andrei A.

    Comparison lamps automation CTIO 60 inches CHIRON CHI60HF5.2 La Serena, March 16, 2011 #12;Table)...............................................................................12 CTIO 60 inches Chiron / Comparison lamps automation, CHI60HF5.2 2 #12;Introduction The present document is just a brief summary of the work done automating the 60 inches chiron comparison lamps

  1. Comparison lamps automation CTIO 60 inches Echelle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokovinin, Andrei A.

    Comparison lamps automation CTIO 60 inches Echelle ECH60S5.1 La Serena, December 09, 2009 #12)...............................................................................12 CTIO 60 inches Echelle / Comparison lamps automation, ECH60S5.1 2 #12;Introduction The present document is just a brief summary of the work done automating the 60 inches echelle comparison lamps

  2. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  3. Ionization tube simmer current circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinkraus, R.F. Jr.

    1994-12-13

    A highly efficient flash lamp simmer current circuit utilizes a fifty percent duty cycle square wave pulse generator to pass a current over a current limiting inductor to a full wave rectifier. The DC output of the rectifier is then passed over a voltage smoothing capacitor through a reverse current blocking diode to a flash lamp tube to sustain ionization in the tube between discharges via a small simmer current. An alternate embodiment of the circuit combines the pulse generator and inductor in the form of an FET off line square wave generator with an impedance limited step up output transformer which is then applied to the full wave rectifier as before to yield a similar simmer current. 6 figures.

  4. Ionization tube simmer current circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinkraus, Jr., Robert F. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A highly efficient flash lamp simmer current circuit utilizes a fifty percent duty cycle square wave pulse generator to pass a current over a current limiting inductor to a full wave rectifier. The DC output of the rectifier is then passed over a voltage smoothing capacitor through a reverse current blocking diode to a flash lamp tube to sustain ionization in the tube between discharges via a small simmer current. An alternate embodiment of the circuit combines the pulse generator and inductor in the form of an FET off line square wave generator with an impedance limited step up output transformer which is then applied to the full wave rectifier as before to yield a similar simmer current.

  5. LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The CALiPER program performed a series of investigations on linear LED lamps. Each report in the series covers the performance of up to 31 linear LED lamps, which were purchased in late 2012 or 2013. The first report focuses on bare lamp performance of LED T8 replacement lamps and subsequent reports examine performance in various troffers, as well as cost-effectiveness. There is also a concise guidance document that describes the findings of the Series 21 studies and provides practical advice to manufacturers, specifiers, and consumers (Report 21.4: Summary of Linear (T8) LED Lamp Testing , 5 pages, June 2014).

  6. Blue-green phosphor for fluorescent lighting applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Alok; Comanzo, Holly; Manivannan, Venkatesan; Setlur, Anant Achyut

    2005-03-15

    A fluorescent lamp including a phosphor layer including Sr.sub.4 Al.sub.14 O.sub.25 :Eu.sup.2+ (SAE) and at least one of each of a red, green and blue emitting phosphor. The phosphor layer can optionally include an additional, deep red phosphor and a yellow emitting phosphor. The resulting lamp will exhibit a white light having a color rendering index of 90 or higher with a correlated color temperature of from 2500 to 10000 Kelvin. The use of SAE in phosphor blends of lamps results in high CRI light sources with increased stability and acceptable lumen maintenance over, the course of the lamp life.

  7. A SPICE Compatible Model of High Intensity Discharge Lamps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    from the arc's * Corresponding author behavior of HID lamps. This model are derived from the arc-linear resistance of the lamp, is the global specific conductance of the plasma, V is the volume of the plasma, L is the length of plasma and S is the cross section. ~ Vin G1 Lamp Model Ballast v(lamp) i(lamp) Analytical

  8. Lamp with a truncated reflector cup

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ming; Allen, Steven C.; Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel

    2013-10-15

    A lamp assembly, and method for making same. The lamp assembly includes first and second truncated reflector cups. The lamp assembly also includes at least one base plate disposed between the first and second truncated reflector cups, and a light engine disposed on a top surface of the at least one base plate. The light engine is configured to emit light to be reflected by one of the first and second truncated reflector cups.

  9. Lamp bulb with integral reflector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levin, Izrail (Silver Spring, MD); Shanks, Bruce (Gaithersburg, MD); Sumner, Thomas L. (Wheaton, MD)

    2001-01-01

    An improved electrodeless discharge lamp bulb includes an integral ceramic reflector as a portion of the bulb envelope. The bulb envelope further includes two pieces, a reflector portion or segment is cast quartz ceramic and a light transmissive portion is a clear fused silica. In one embodiment, the cast quartz ceramic segment includes heat sink fins or stubs providing an increased outside surface area to dissipate internal heat. In another embodiment, the quartz ceramic segment includes an outside surface fused to eliminate gas permeation by polishing.

  10. DuraLamp USA: Order (2010-CE-0912)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered DuraLamp USA, Inc. to pay a $2,500 civil penalty after finding DuraLamp USA had failed to certify that model PAR 30, an incandescent reflector lamp, complies with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  11. Backcoupling of acoustic streaming on the temperature field inside high-intensity discharge lamps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwieger, Joerg; Wolff, Marcus; Manders, Freddy; Suijker, Jos

    2015-01-01

    Operating high-intensity discharge lamps in the high frequency range (20-300 kHz) provides energy-saving and cost reduction potentials. However, commercially available lamp drivers do not make use of this operating strategy because light intensity fluctuations and even lamp destruction are possible. The reason for the fluctuating discharge arc are acoustic resonances in this frequency range that are excited in the arc tube. The acoustic resonances in turn generate a fluid flow that is caused by the acoustic streaming effect. Here, we present a 3D multiphysics model to determine the influence of acoustic streaming on the temperature field in the vicinity of an acoustic eigenfrequency. In that case a transition from stable to instable behavior occurs. The model is able to predict when light flicker can be expected. The results are in very good accordance with accompanying experiments.

  12. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  13. Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scholand, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Pressure Sodium Light Emitting Diode Lamp Lumen Depreciationit is expected that light emitting diode (LED) lamps willLED Technology Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are an emerging

  14. Phosphor blends for high-CRI fluorescent lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Setlur, Anant Achyut (Niskayuna, NY); Srivastava, Alok Mani (Niskayuna, NY); Comanzo, Holly Ann (Niskayuna, NY); Manivannan, Venkatesan (Clifton Park, NY); Beers, William Winder (Chesterland, OH); Toth, Katalin (Pomaz, HU); Balazs, Laszlo D. (Budapest, HU)

    2008-06-24

    A phosphor blend comprises at least two phosphors each selected from one of the groups of phosphors that absorb UV electromagnetic radiation and emit in a region of visible light. The phosphor blend can be applied to a discharge gas radiation source to produce light sources having high color rendering index. A phosphor blend is advantageously includes the phosphor (Tb,Y,LuLa,Gd).sub.x(Al,Ga).sub.yO.sub.12:Ce.sup.3+, wherein x is in the range from about 2.8 to and including 3 and y is in the range from about 4 to and including 5.

  15. Zero energy-storage ballast for compact fluorescent lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, W.N.; Thomas, R.J.

    1999-08-31

    A CFL ballast includes complementary-type switching devices connected in series with their gates connected together at a control node. The switching devices supply a resonant tank circuit which is tuned to a frequency near, but slightly lower than, the resonant frequency of a resonant control circuit. As a result, the tank circuit restarts oscillations immediately following each zero crossing of the bus voltage. Such rapid restarts avoid undesirable flickering while maintaining the operational advantages and high efficacy of the CFL ballast. 4 figs.

  16. Conservation Potential of Compact Fluorescent Lamps in India and Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gadgil, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    coal-fired) thermal power stations in its expansion ofcapacity. Its thermal power stations now contribute aboutlead time for thermal power stations, and less legal and

  17. Conservation Potential of Compact Fluorescent Lamps in India and Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gadgil, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    1988. The private sector in Brazil owned (in 1986) 40% ofElectricity Conservation in Brazil: Potential and Pro-electricity consumption in Brazil's residential sector was

  18. Conservation Potential of Compact Fluorescent Lamps in India and Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gadgil, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Ministry of Energy, Government of India, Annual Report 1087-of the Solar Energy Society of India, SESI-J, Vol. 1,without decreasing energy services in India and Brazil. The

  19. Conservation Potential of Compact Fluorescent Lamps in India and Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gadgil, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    1.7% of in- stalled hydroelectric capacity. Op. cit. ref [in Ig86) based on hydroelectric generation, and most of thethe still abundant hydroelectric potential of the country.

  20. Conservation Potential of Compact Fluorescent Lamps in India and Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gadgil, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Residential Energy Demand in Brazil and Income Classes:in Brazil: Potential and Pro- gress", ENERGY, vol. 13, no.decreasing energy services in India and Brazil. The initial

  1. Purchasing Energy-Efficient General Service Fluorescent Lamps | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo. 195 - Oct. 7, 2011 |1 DOE Hydrogen and FuelAwardee: City ofof

  2. Energy Cost Calculator for Compact Fluorescent Lamps | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n cEnergy (AZ,LocalEfficiency |< Back Eligibility<tool calculates

  3. Medium Base Compact Fluorescent Lamps | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOE Safetyof Energy ThisSitesStoragePlanningEnergy UseMedium Base

  4. Lamp system for uniform semiconductor wafer heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A lamp system with a very soft high-intensity output is provided over a large area by water cooling a long-arc lamp inside a diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) white pigment. The water is kept clean and pure by a one micron particulate filter and an activated charcoal/ultraviolet irradiation system that circulates and de-ionizes and biologically sterilizes the coolant water at all times, even when the long-arc lamp is off.

  5. DOE CALiPER Program, Report 21.2: Linear (T8) LED Lamp Performance in Five Types of Recessed Troffers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Perrin, Tess E.; Royer, Michael P.; Wilkerson, Andrea M.; Beeson, Tracy A.

    2014-05-20

    Although lensed troffers are numerous, there are many other types of optical systems as well. This report looked at the performance of three linear (T8) LED lamps chosen primarily based on their luminous intensity distributions (narrow, medium, and wide beam angles) as well as a benchmark fluorescent lamp in five different troffer types. Also included are the results of a subjective evaluation. Results show that linear (T8) LED lamps can improve luminaire efficiency in K12-lensed and parabolic-louvered troffers, effect little change in volumetric and high-performance diffuse-lensed type luminaires, but reduce efficiency in recessed indirect troffers. These changes can be accompanied by visual appearance and visual comfort consequences, especially when LED lamps with clear lenses and narrow distributions are installed. Linear (T8) LED lamps with diffuse apertures exhibited wider beam angles, performed more similarly to fluorescent lamps, and received better ratings from observers. Guidance is provided on which luminaires are the best candidates for retrofitting with linear (T8) LED lamps.

  6. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; Beeson, Tracy A.

    2014-02-01

    The CALiPER program first began investigating LED lamps sold at retail stores in 2010, purchasing 33 products from eight retailers and covering six product categories. The findings revealed a fragmented marketplace, with large disparities in performance of different products, accuracy of manufacturer claims, and offerings from different retail outlets. Although there were some good products, looking back many would not be considered viable competitors to other available options, with too little lumen output, not high enough efficacy, or poor color quality. CALiPER took another look in late 2011purchasing 38 products of five different types from nine retailers and the improvement was marked. Performance was up; retailer claims were more accurate; and the price per lumen and price per unit efficacy were down, although the price per product had not changed much. Nonetheless, there was still plenty of room for improvement, with the performance of LED lamps not yet reaching that of well-established classes of conventional lamps (e.g., 75 W incandescent A19 lamps). Since the second retail lamp study was published in early 2012, there has been substantial progress in all aspects of LED lamps available from retailers. To document this progress, CALiPER again purchased a sample of lamps from retail stores 46 products in total, focusing on A19, PAR30, and MR16 lamps but instead of a random sample, sought to select products to answer specific hypotheses about performance. These hypotheses focused on expanding ranges of LED equivalency, the accuracy of lifetime claims, efficacy and price trends, as well as changes to product designs. Among other results, key findings include: There are now very good LED options to compete with 60 W, 75 W, and 100 W incandescent A19 lamps, and 75 W halogen PAR30 lamps. MR16 lamps have shown less progress, but there are now acceptable alternatives to 35 W, 12 V halogen MR16 lamps and 50 W, 120 V halogen MR16 lamps for some applications. Other uses, such as in enclosed luminaires, may require more development. At the same price point, lamps purchased in 2013 tended to have higher output and slightly higher efficacy than in 2011 or 2010. Over 30% of the products purchased in 2013 exceeded the maximum efficacy measured in 2011 (71 lm/W), with the most efficacious product measured at 105 lm/W. There appears to be increasing consistency in color quality, with a vast majority of products having a CCT of 2700 K or 3000 K and a CRI between 80 and 85. There were also fewer poor performing products tested and more high-performing products available in 2013 than in previous years. The accuracy of equivalency and performance claims was better than in 2011, but remains a concern, with 43% of tested products failing to completely meet their equivalency claim and 20% of products failing to match the manufacturer’s performance data. Although progress has been substantial, on average LED lamps remain more expensive than other energy efficiency lighting technologies -- although some aspects can be superior. Although not universal to all product lines or all product types, the issue of insufficient lumen output from LED lamps is waning. Thus, manufacturers can focus on other issues, such as reducing cost, improving electrical/dimmer compatibility, eliminating flicker, or improving color quality. While these issues are not inherent to all products, they remain a concern for the broader market.

  7. Energy-efficient incandescent lamp: Final report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verderber, R.

    2010-01-01

    have doubled luminous efficacy, corresponding to 50% energyluminous than the clear lamp. The value of visible wattage 1n the energyluminous efficacy without l i f e reduction. Such efficacy Increase corresponds to an energy

  8. LED lamp power management system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A. M.

    2013-03-19

    An LED lamp power management system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 reduces power loss in one of the channel switch 62 and the shunt switch 68 when LED lamp electronics power loss (P.sub.loss) exceeds an LED lamp electronics power loss limit (P.sub.lim); and each of the channel switches 62 receives a channel switch control signal 63 from the LED controller 58 and each of the shunt switches 68 receives a shunt switch control signal 69 from the LED controller 58.

  9. High frequency inductive lamp and power oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Dolan, James T. (Frederick, MD); Kirkpatrick, Douglas A. (Great Falls, VA); Leng, Yongzhang (Damascus, MD)

    2000-01-01

    A high frequency inductively coupled electrodeless lamp includes an excitation coil with an effective electrical length which is less than one half wavelength of a driving frequency applied thereto, preferably much less. The driving frequency may be greater than 100 MHz and is preferably as high as 915 MHz. Preferably, the excitation coil is configured as a non-helical, semi-cylindrical conductive surface having less than one turn, in the general shape of a wedding ring. At high frequencies, the current in the coil forms two loops which are spaced apart and parallel to each other. Configured appropriately, the coil approximates a Helmholtz configuration. The lamp preferably utilizes an bulb encased in a reflective ceramic cup with a pre-formed aperture defined therethrough. The ceramic cup may include structural features to aid in alignment and/or a flanged face to aid in thermal management. The lamp head is preferably an integrated lamp head comprising a metal matrix composite surrounding an insulating ceramic with the excitation integrally formed on the ceramic. A novel solid-state oscillator preferably provides RF power to the lamp. The oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to match the driving frequency of the oscillator to a plurality of tuning states of the lamp.

  10. High frequency inductive lamp and power oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Dymond, Jr., Lauren E. (North Potomac, MD); Gitsevich, Aleksandr (Montgomery Village, MD); Grimm, William G. (Silver Spring, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD); Kirkpatrick, Douglas A. (Great Falls, VA); Ola, Samuel A. (Silver Spring, MD); Simpson, James E. (Gaithersburg, MD); Trimble, William C. (Columbia, MD); Tsai, Peter (Olney, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A high frequency inductively coupled electrodeless lamp includes an excitation coil with an effective electrical length which is less than one half wavelength of a driving frequency applied thereto, preferably much less. The driving frequency may be greater than 100 MHz and is preferably as high as 915 MHz. Preferably, the excitation coil is configured as a non-helical, semi-cylindrical conductive surface having less than one turn, in the general shape of a wedding ring. At high frequencies, the current in the coil forms two loops which are spaced apart and parallel to each other. Configured appropriately, the coil approximates a Helmholtz configuration. The lamp preferably utilizes an bulb encased in a reflective ceramic cup with a pre-formed aperture defined therethrough. The ceramic cup may include structural features to aid in alignment and I or a flanged face to aid in thermal management. The lamp head is preferably an integrated lamp head comprising a metal matrix composite surrounding an insulating ceramic with the excitation integrally formed on the ceramic. A novel solid-state oscillator preferably provides RF power to the lamp. The oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to adjust the driving frequency of the oscillator.

  11. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures to Save on Energy Bills and Reduce Carbon Pollution New Energy Efficiency Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures to Save on Energy Bills and Reduce...

  12. Demonstration of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Retrofit Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N.

    2011-09-01

    GATEWAY program report on a demonstration of LED retrofit lamps at the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of art in Eugene, OR

  13. Stress Testing of the Philips 60W Replacement Lamp L Prize Entry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poplawski, Michael E.; Ledbetter, Marc R.; Smith, Mark

    2012-04-24

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy, worked with Intertek to develop a procedure for stress testing medium screw-base light sources. This procedure, composed of alternating stress cycles and performance evaluation, was used to qualitatively compare and contrast the durability and reliability of the Philips 60W replacement lamp L Prize entry with market-proven compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) with comparable light output and functionality. The stress cycles applied simultaneous combinations of electrical, thermal, vibration, and humidity stresses of increasing magnitude. Performance evaluations measured relative illuminance, x chromaticity and y chromaticity shifts after each stress cycle. The Philips L Prize entry lamps appear to be appreciably more durable than the incumbent energy-efficient technology, as represented by the evaluated CFLs, and with respect to the applied stresses. Through the course of testing, all 15 CFL samples permanently ceased to function as a result of the applied stresses, while only 1 Philips L Prize entry lamp exhibited a failure, the nature of which was minor, non-destructive, and a consequence of a known (and resolved) subcontractor issue. Given that current CFL technology appears to be moderately mature and no Philips L Prize entry failures could be produced within the stress envelope causing 100 percent failure of the benchmark CFLs, it seems that, in this particular implementation, light-emitting diode (LED) technology would be much more durable in the field than current CFL technology. However, the Philips L Prize entry lamps used for testing were carefully designed and built for the competition, while the benchmark CFLs were mass produced for retail sale—a distinction that should be taken into consideration. Further reliability testing on final production samples would be necessary to judge the extent to which the results of this analysis apply to production versions of the Philips L Prize entry.

  14. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-12-31

    This CALiPER report examines the characteristics of a subset of lamps from CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3 in more detail. Specifically, it focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of 14 LED A lamps, as controlled by four different retail-available dimmers.

  15. Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

    1988-01-01

    The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled.

  16. Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1988-05-24

    The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled. 2 figs.

  17. Multiple tube premixing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin; Stevenson, Christian; Felling, David

    2012-12-11

    The present application provides a premixer for a combustor. The premixer may include a fuel plenum with a number of fuel tubes and a burner tube with a number of air tubes. The fuel tubes extend about the air tubes.

  18. Multiple tube premixing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Naidu, Balachandar; Ziminksy, Willy Steve; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin; Stevenson, Christian; Felling, David

    2013-08-13

    The present application provides a premixer for a combustor. The premixer may include a fuel plenum with a number of fuel tubes and a burner tube with a number of air tubes. The fuel tubes extend about the air tubes.

  19. LED lamp color control system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A.M.

    2013-02-05

    An LED lamp color control system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; and a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 determines whether the LED source 80 is in a feedback controllable range, stores measured optical flux for the LED source 80 when the LED source 80 is in the feedback controllable range, and bypasses storing the measured optical flux when the LED source 80 is not in the feedback controllable range.

  20. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Butler, PA); Turner, Brian (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)

    1999-01-01

    A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture.

  1. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, D.A.; Turner, B.; Kipling, K.

    1999-05-11

    A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible is disclosed. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture. 20 figs.

  2. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    This is a special CALiPER report on LED lamps available through the retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. It follows similar reports published in 2011 and 2012 (products purchased in 2010 and 2011), and is intended as a continuation that identifies long-term trends. For this report, products were selected to investigate specific hypotheses, rather than represent a sample of the increasingly large retail LED market.

  3. High output lamp with high brightness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A. (Great Falls, VA); Bass, Gary K. (Mt. Airy, MD); Copsey, Jesse F. (Germantown, MD); Garber, Jr., William E. (Poolesville, MD); Kwong, Vincent H. (Vancouver, CA); Levin, Izrail (Silver Spring, MD); MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Roy, Robert J. (Frederick, MD); Steiner, Paul E. (Olney, MD); Tsai, Peter (Olney, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD)

    2002-01-01

    An ultra bright, low wattage inductively coupled electrodeless aperture lamp is powered by a solid state RF source in the range of several tens to several hundreds of watts at various frequencies in the range of 400 to 900 MHz. Numerous novel lamp circuits and components are disclosed including a wedding ring shaped coil having one axial and one radial lead, a high accuracy capacitor stack, a high thermal conductivity aperture cup and various other aperture bulb configurations, a coaxial capacitor arrangement, and an integrated coil and capacitor assembly. Numerous novel RF circuits are also disclosed including a high power oscillator circuit with reduced complexity resonant pole configuration, parallel RF power FET transistors with soft gate switching, a continuously variable frequency tuning circuit, a six port directional coupler, an impedance switching RF source, and an RF source with controlled frequency-load characteristics. Numerous novel RF control methods are disclosed including controlled adjustment of the operating frequency to find a resonant frequency and reduce reflected RF power, controlled switching of an impedance switched lamp system, active power control and active gate bias control.

  4. DOE Publishes CALiPER Report on Linear (T8) LED Lamps in a 2x4...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    overcome broader differences in lamp efficacy, however. Thus, in choosing a lamp for energy savings, lamp efficacy should be the primary consideration. Luminous intensity...

  5. Electron tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suyama, Motohiro (Hamamatsu, JP); Fukasawa, Atsuhito (Hamamatsu, JP); Arisaka, Katsushi (Los Angeles, CA); Wang, Hanguo (North Hills, CA)

    2011-12-20

    An electron tube of the present invention includes: a vacuum vessel including a face plate portion made of synthetic silica and having a surface on which a photoelectric surface is provided, a stem portion arranged facing the photoelectric surface and made of synthetic silica, and a side tube portion having one end connected to the face plate portion and the other end connected to the stem portion and made of synthetic silica; a projection portion arranged in the vacuum vessel, extending from the stem portion toward the photoelectric surface, and made of synthetic silica; and an electron detector arranged on the projection portion, for detecting electrons from the photoelectric surface, and made of silicon.

  6. Neutron tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Lou, Tak Pui (Berkeley, CA); Reijonen, Jani (Oakland, CA)

    2008-03-11

    A neutron tube or generator is based on a RF driven plasma ion source having a quartz or other chamber surrounded by an external RF antenna. A deuterium or mixed deuterium/tritium (or even just a tritium) plasma is generated in the chamber and D or D/T (or T) ions are extracted from the plasma. A neutron generating target is positioned so that the ion beam is incident thereon and loads the target. Incident ions cause D-D or D-T (or T-T) reactions which generate neutrons. Various embodiments differ primarily in size of the chamber and position and shape of the neutron generating target. Some neutron generators are small enough for implantation in the body. The target may be at the end of a catheter-like drift tube. The target may have a tapered or conical surface to increase target surface area.

  7. iLamp: A Sensor-Enhanced Lamp with Surface-Tracking Capability Based on Light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tseng, Yu-Chee

    , a ZigBee module, a light sensor, and a user-friendly interface. The ZigBee module will periodically interface. This lamp is composed of a ZigBee module, a microprocessor, and a robot arm holding four sets. The microprocessor can communicate with the bookmark via its ZigBee module, track the bookmark's current location

  8. Compact microwave lamp having a tuning block and a dielectric located in a lamp cavity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, James E. (Gaithersburg, MD)

    2000-01-01

    A microwave lamp having a compact structure utilizing a coupling slot which has a dielectric member extending therethrough and a tuning block adjoining the coupling slot. A non-conventional waveguide is used which has about the width of a WR-284 waveguide and about the length of a WR-340 waveguide.

  9. RF driven sulfur lamp having driving electrodes arranged to cool the lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gabor, George (820 Skywood Rd., Lafayette, CA 94549); Orr, Thomas Robert (2285 Vestal, Castro Valley, CA 94546); Greene, Charles Maurice (6450 Regent St., Oakland, CA 94618); Crawford, Douglas Gordon (33 Longridge Rd., Orinda, CA 94563); Berman, Samuel Maurice (2832 Union St., San Francisco, CA 94123)

    1998-01-01

    A high intensity discharge lamp without mercury is disclosed radiating a selected spectrum of which can be almost entirely in the visible range from an envelope that contains a sulfur containing substance. The lamp utilizes a signal source that generates an excitation signal that is externally coupled to the exterior surface of the envelope to excite the enclosed sulfur containing substance. Various embodiments of the lamp use electrodes adjacent the envelope to couple the excitation signal thereto with the face of the electrodes shaped to complement the shape of the exterior surface of the envelope. Two shapes discussed are spherical and cylindrical. To minimize filamentary discharges each envelope may include an elongated stem affixed to the exterior thereof whereby a rotational subsystem spins the envelope. In yet another embodiment the envelope has a Dewar configuration with two electrodes, one positioned near the external curved side surface of the body, and a second to the inner surface of the hole through the envelope. Further, the envelope may contain a backfill of a selected inert gas to assist in the excitation of lamp with that backfill at a pressure of less than 1 atmosphere, wherein the backfill pressure is directly related to the increase or decrease of peak output and inversely related to the increase and decrease of the emitted spectrum from the envelope. The emitting fill can be less than 6 mg/cc, or at least 2 mg/cc of the envelope of a sulfur containing substance.

  10. RF driven sulfur lamp having driving electrodes arranged to cool the lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gabor, G.; Orr, T.R.; Greene, C.M.; Crawford, D.G.; Berman, S.M.

    1998-10-20

    A high intensity discharge lamp without mercury is disclosed radiating a selected spectrum of which can be almost entirely in the visible range from an envelope that contains a sulfur containing substance. The lamp utilizes a signal source that generates an excitation signal that is externally coupled to the exterior surface of the envelope to excite the enclosed sulfur containing substance. Various embodiments of the lamp use electrodes adjacent the envelope to couple the excitation signal thereto with the face of the electrodes shaped to complement the shape of the exterior surface of the envelope. Two shapes discussed are spherical and cylindrical. To minimize filamentary discharges each envelope may include an elongated stem affixed to the exterior thereof whereby a rotational subsystem spins the envelope. In yet another embodiment the envelope has a Dewar configuration with two electrodes, one positioned near the external curved side surface of the body, and a second to the inner surface of the hole through the envelope. Further, the envelope may contain a backfill of a selected inert gas to assist in the excitation of lamp with that backfill at a pressure of less than 1 atmosphere, wherein the backfill pressure is directly related to the increase or decrease of peak output and inversely related to the increase and decrease of the emitted spectrum from the envelope. The emitting fill can be less than 6 mg/cc, or at least 2 mg/cc of the envelope of a sulfur containing substance. 17 figs.

  11. Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A...

  12. Tube furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foster, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA); Frohwein, Eugene J. (San Ramon, CA); Taylor, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Bowen, David W. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  13. Laser desorption lamp ionization source for ion trap mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Laser desorption lamp ionization source for ion trap mass spectrometry Qinghao Wu and Richard N. Zare* A two-step laser desorption lamp ionization source coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer (LDLI-ITMS) has been constructed and characterized. The pulsed infrared (IR) output of an Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm

  14. CALiPER Benchmark Report: Performance of Incandescent A Type and Decorative Lamps and LED Replacements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2008-11-01

    This benchmark report addresses common omnidirectional incandescent lamps - A-type and small decorative, candelabra-type lamps - and their commercially available light-emitting diode (LED) replacements.

  15. Tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashcroft, John (Scotia, NY); Campbell, Brian (Scotia, NY); DePoy, David (Clifton Park, NY)

    1998-01-01

    A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell.

  16. Tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashcroft, J.; Campbell, B.; DePoy, D.

    1998-06-30

    A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell. 8 figs.

  17. Application Summary Report 22: LED MR16 Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.

    2014-07-23

    This report analyzes the independently tested photometric performance of 27 LED MR16 lamps. It describes initial performance based on light output, efficacy, distribution, color quality, electrical characteristics, and form factor, with comparisons to a selection of benchmark halogen MR16s and ENERGY STAR qualification thresholds. Three types of products were targeted. First, CALiPER sought 3000 K lamps with the highest rated lumen output (i.e., at least 500 lm) or a claim of equivalency to a 50 W halogen MR16 or higher. The test results indicate that while the initial performance of LED MR16s has improved across the board, market-available products still do not produce the lumen output and center beam intensity of typical 50 W halogen MR16 lamps. In fact, most of the 18 lamps in this category had lower lumen output and center beam intensity than a typical 35 W halogen MR16 lamp. Second, CALiPER sought lamps with a CRI of 90 or greater. Only four manufacturers were identified with a product in this category. CALiPER testing confirmed the performance of these lamps, which are a good option for applications where high color fidelity is needed. A vast majority of the LED MR16 lamps have a CRI in the low 80s; this is generally acceptable for ambient lighting, but may not always be acceptable for focal lighting. For typical LED packages, there is a fundamental tradeoff between CRI and efficacy, but the lamps in the high-CRI group in this report still offer comparable performance to the rest of the Series 22 products in other performance areas. Finally, CALiPER sought lamps with a narrow distribution, denoted as a beam angle less than 15°. Five such lamps were purchased. Notably, no lamp was identified as having high lumen output (500 lumens or greater), high CRI (90 or greater), a narrow distribution (15° or less), and an efficacy greater than 60 lm/W. This would be an important achievement for LED MR16s especially if output could reach approximately 700 800 lumens, or the approximate equivalent of a 50 W halogen MR16 lamp. Many factors beyond photometric performance should be considered during specification. For example, performance over time, transformer and dimmer compatibility, and total system performance are all critical to a successful installation. Subsequent CALiPER reports will investigate more complex issues.

  18. Sustainable LED Fluorescent Light Replacement Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-06-30

    Ilumisys and the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) partnered on a three-year project awarded by the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE), to quantify the impacts of LED lamps, incandescent lamps and fluorescent benchmark lamps over a product lifecycle – i.e. to develop a sustainable design and manufacturing strategy that addresses product manufacturing, use, recycling and disposal scenarios for LED-based lighting. Based on the knowledge gained from extensive product tear-down studies of fluorescent and screw-in lighting products, lifecycle assessment tools, and accelerated lifecycle testing protocols, an interactive Sustainable LED Design Guide has been developed to aid architectural and lighting designers and engineers in making design decisions that consider three important environmental impacts (greenhouse gas emissions, energy use and mercury emission) across all phases of the life of an LED lighting product. Critical information developed for the lifecycle analysis and product feature comparisons is the useful life of the lighting product as well as its performance. The Design Guide is available at www.ncms.org, and was developed based on operational and durability testing of a variety of lighting products including power consumption, light output, and useful life of a lamp in order to allow a more realistic comparison of lamp designs. This report describes the main project tasks, results and innovative features of the lifecycle assessment (LCA)-based design tools, and the key considerations driving the sustainable design of LED lighting systems. The Design Guide incorporates the following three novel features for efficiently evaluating LED lighting features in value-chains: • Bill-of-Materials (BOM) Builder – Designers may import process data for each component and supply functional data for the product, including power, consumption, lumen output and expected useful life. • Environmental Impact Review – Designs are comparable across lifecycle phases, subsystems, and environmental impact category, and can be normalized to a userdefined functional unit. • Drill-down Review – These provide an indepth look at individual lamp designs with the ability to review across subsystem or lifecycle phase.

  19. Studies on Temperature Dependence of Rubidium Lamp for Atomic Frequency Standard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosal, Bikash; Banik, Alak; Vats, Vaibhav; Pal, Sukamal; Bahl, R. K [Space Applications Centre, ISRO, Ahmedabad-380015 (India)

    2011-10-20

    Rb lamp is a very critical component of the Rb atomic clock's Physics Package. The Rb lamp's performance is very sensitive to temperature and its stability. In this paper we discuss the behaviors of Rb Lamp with temperature. The Rb lamp exciter power and temperature of Rb bulb are very important parameters in controlling the performance of the Rb Lamp. It is observed that at temperatures beyond 110 deg. C, the lamp mode changes from the ring to red mode resulting in abnormal broadening of emission lines and self reversal. The results of our studies on spectral analysis of Rb lamp under various operating conditions are reported in the paper.

  20. One piece microwave container screens for electrodeless lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Brian (Myersville, MD); Ury, Michael (Bethesda, MD)

    1998-01-01

    A microwave powered electrodeless lamp includes an improved screen unit having mesh and solid sections with an internal reflector to reflect light into a light-transmitting chamber defined in the lamp microwave cavity by the reflector and the mesh section. A discharge envelope of a bulb is disposed in the light-transmitting chamber. Light emitted from the envelope is prevented by the reflector from entering the cavity portion bounded by the solid section of the screen. Replacing mesh material by solid metal material as part of the screen unit significantly reduces leakage of microwave energy from the lamp. The solid section has multiple compliant fingers defined therein for engaging the periphery of a flange on the waveguide unit so that a hose clamp can easily secure the screen to the assembly. Screen units of this type having different mesh section configurations can be interchanged in the lamp assembly to produce different respective illumination patterns.

  1. 1995-2011 | LS-LAMP IMPACT REPORT Louis stokes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kulp, Mark

    1 1995-2011 | LS-LAMP IMPACT REPORT Louis stokes Louisiana aLLiance for Minority ParticiPation IMPACT REPORT 1 9 9 5 - 2 0 1 1 ouis stokes ouisiana alliance for MiNoritY PArtiCiPAtioN Awarded 1995 L Orleans Xavier University of Louisiana #12;2 LS-LAMP IMPACT REPORT | 1995-2011 Louis stokes ALLi

  2. Fluorescent refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epstein, Richard I. (Santa Fe, NM); Edwards, Bradley C. (Los Alamos, NM); Buchwald, Melvin I. (Santa Fe, NM); Gosnell, Timothy R. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1995-01-01

    Fluorescent refrigeration is based on selective radiative pumping, using substantially monochromatic radiation, of quantum excitations which are then endothermically redistributed to higher energies. Ultimately, the populated energy levels radiatively deexcite emitting, on the average, more radiant energy than was initially absorbed. The material utilized to accomplish the cooling must have dimensions such that the exciting radiation is strongly absorbed, but the fluorescence may exit the material through a significantly smaller optical pathlength. Optical fibers and mirrored glasses and crystals provide this requirement.

  3. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD)

    2001-01-01

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes an envelope with a discharge forming fill disposed therein which emits light, the fill being capable of absorbing light at one wavelength and re-emitting the absorbed light at a different wavelength, the light emitted from the fill having a first spectral power distribution in the absence of reflection of light back into the fill, a source of microwave energy coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity and configured to reflect at least some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit, the exiting light having a second spectral power distribution with proportionately more light in the visible region as compared to the first spectral power distribution, wherein the light re-emitted by the fill is shifted in wavelength with respect to the absorbed light and the magnitude of the shift is in relation to an effective optical path length.

  4. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-12-31

    This CALiPER report examines lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps in steady-state conditions (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen). The goal of this investigation was to examine the long-term performance of complete LED lamps relative to benchmark halogen and CFL lamps—in this case, A lamps emitting approximately 800 lumens operated continuously at a relatively high ambient temperature of 45°C.

  5. Fluorescent refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epstein, R.I.; Edwards, B.C.; Buchwald, M.I.; Gosnell, T.R.

    1995-09-05

    Fluorescent refrigeration is based on selective radiative pumping, using substantially monochromatic radiation, of quantum excitations which are then endothermically redistributed to higher energies. Ultimately, the populated energy levels radiatively deexcite emitting, on the average, more radiant energy than was initially absorbed. The material utilized to accomplish the cooling must have dimensions such that the exciting radiation is strongly absorbed, but the fluorescence may exit the material through a significantly smaller optical pathlength. Optical fibers and mirrored glasses and crystals provide this requirement. 6 figs.

  6. Microhole Tubing Bending Report

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Oglesby, Ken

    2012-01-01

    A downhole tubing bending study was made and is reported herein. IT contains a report and 2 excel spreadsheets to calculate tubing bending and to estimate contact points of the tubing to the drilled hole wall (creating a new support point).

  7. Microhole Tubing Bending Report

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Oglesby, Ken

    A downhole tubing bending study was made and is reported herein. IT contains a report and 2 excel spreadsheets to calculate tubing bending and to estimate contact points of the tubing to the drilled hole wall (creating a new support point).

  8. Caliper Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    & Publications Report 22.1: Photoelectric Performance of LED MR16 Lamps Report 20.3: Stress Testing of LED PAR38 Lamps DOE Booth Presentations from LIGHTFAIR International 2015...

  9. LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR®

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This May 19, 2009 webcast summarized CALiPER's recent benchmark testing of common omnidirectional incandescent lamps (e.g., A-lamps), and provided an update on ENERGY STAR criteria for LED integral...

  10. Study of high frequency & low frequency electronic ballasts for HID lamps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Hua

    1997-01-01

    known to avoid acoustic resonances. This thesis focuses on real-time detection of acoustic resonance occurrence by measuring lamp electrical parameters. Theoretical analysis and experiment results pronounce that the variation of the lamp impedance ([]R...

  11. CALiPER Benchmark Report: Performance of Halogen Incandescent MR16 Lamps and LED Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2008-11-01

    This benchmark report addresses the halogen MR16 lamp and its commercially available light-emitting diode (LED) replacements.

  12. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Smithsonian Art Museum, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N. J.; Rosenfeld, S. M.

    2012-06-01

    GATEWAY program report on a demonstration of LED retrofit lamps at the Smithsonian American Art Museum in Washington, DC.

  13. Low Frequency Architecture for Multi-Lamp CCFL Systemswith Capacitive Ignition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low Frequency Architecture for Multi-Lamp CCFL Systemswith Capacitive Ignition Monm Doshi (I-0425 regan.zane@colorado.edu Absfruci-This paper presents a low frequency architecture for driving parallel lamp ignition, and individual lamp current reguration in such designs. In this paper, we present a low

  14. Compact Fluorescent Plug-In Ballast-in-a-Socket

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebecca Voelker

    2001-12-21

    The primary goal of this program was to develop a ballast system for plug-in CFLs (compact fluorescent lamps) that will directly replace standard metal shell, medium base incandescent lampholders (such as Levition No. 6098) for use with portable lamp fixtures, such as floor, table and desk lamps. A secondary goal was to identify a plug-in CFL that is optimized for use with this ballast. This Plug-in CFL Ballastin-a-Socket system will allow fixture manufacturers to easily manufacture CFL-based high-efficacy portable fixtures that provide residential and commercial consumers with attractive, cost-effective, and energy-efficient fixtures for use wherever portable incandescent fixtures are used today. The advantages of this proposed system over existing CFL solutions are that the fixtures can only be used with high-efficacy CFLs, and they will be more attractive and will have lower life-cycle costs than screw-in or adapter-based CFL retrofit solutions. These features should greatly increase the penetration of CFL's into the North American market. Our work has shown that using integrated circuits it is quite feasible to produce a lamp-fixture ballast of a size comparable to the current Edison-screw 3-way incandescent fixtures. As for price points for BIAS-based fixtures, end-users polled by the Lighting Research Institute at RPI indicated that they would pay as much as an additional $10 for a lamp containing such a ballast. The ballast has been optimized to run with a 26 W amalgam triple biax lamp in the base-down position, yet can accept non-amalgam versions of the lamp. With a few part alterations, the ballast can be produced to support 32 W lamps as well. The ballast uses GE's existing L-Comp[1] power topology in the circuit so that the integrated circuit design would be a design that could possibly be used by other CFL and EFL products with minor modifications. This gives added value by reducing cost and size of not only the BIAS, but also possibly other integral CFL and future dimmable integral and plug-in versions of the EFL products.

  15. CALiPER Special Summary Report: Retail Replacement Lamp Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-04-01

    CALiPER testing has evaluated many products for commercial lighting markets and found some excellent performers. However, many of these are not available on the retail market. This special testing was undertaken to identify and test solid-state lighting (SSL) replacement lamp products that are available to the general public through retail stores and websites.

  16. The Potential of RFID for Moveable Asset Management Matthias Lampe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Potential of RFID for Moveable Asset Management Matthias Lampe Institute for Pervasive +41 71 228 24 68 martin.strassner@unisg.ch ABSTRACT Moveable asset management is still data directly with the physical assets. Assets become able to manage themselves, which eliminates many

  17. NEWS & VIEWS synchrotron or helium-lamp studies. But

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    NEWS & VIEWS synchrotron or helium-lamp studies. But the low energy of the laser photons raises, which should be stronger the lower the kinetic energy of the outgoing electron? Further studies is equivalent to a `pole singularity' in the Green's function. Phil Anderson argues that in the strange metal

  18. CALiPER Exploratory Study Retail Replacement Lamps – 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-04-02

    In 2010, CALiPER conducted a study on LED replacement lamps found in retail stores. The results were less than satisfactory, and many products were classified as being unlikely to meet consumer expectations. In November 2011, CALiPER purchased a new sample of products for a follow-up study, with the intent of characterizing the progress of this essential market segment.

  19. Conduction cooled tube supports

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Becht, IV, Charles (Morristown, NJ)

    1984-01-01

    In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

  20. Coiled Tubing Safety Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crow, W.

    1999-04-06

    This document addresses safety concerns regarding the use of coiled tubing as it pertains to the preservation of personnel, environment and the wellbore.

  1. Wound tube heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

    1983-01-01

    What is disclosed is a wound tube heat exchanger in which a plurality of tubes having flattened areas are held contiguous adjacent flattened areas of tubes by a plurality of windings to give a double walled heat exchanger. The plurality of windings serve as a plurality of effective force vectors holding the conduits contiguous heat conducting walls of another conduit and result in highly efficient heat transfer. The resulting heat exchange bundle is economical and can be coiled into the desired shape. Also disclosed are specific embodiments such as the one in which the tubes are expanded against their windings after being coiled to insure highly efficient heat transfer.

  2. Sapphire tube pressure vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Outwater, John O. (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-01-01

    A pressure vessel is provided for observing corrosive fluids at high temperatures and pressures. A transparent Teflon bag contains the corrosive fluid and provides an inert barrier. The Teflon bag is placed within a sapphire tube, which forms a pressure boundary. The tube is received within a pipe including a viewing window. The combination of the Teflon bag, sapphire tube and pipe provides a strong and inert pressure vessel. In an alternative embodiment, tie rods connect together compression fittings at opposite ends of the sapphire tube.

  3. Nikon AZ-100 1. Press' On' `Prior Power' Supply for Fluorescence lamp. OR `Nikon Fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Robert D.

    GREEN light on. 3. Turn on microscope control (to the right of the computer) 4. Turn on computer. Log down 3. Turn off microscope (to the right of the computer) 4. Turn OFF camera, switch on top of camera.2 iconàthe Element Windows opens. Turn Off: 1. Log off software 2. Turn off computer though instrument shut

  4. Side-by-Side Testing of Commercial Office Lighting Systems: Two-lamp Fluorescent Fixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, D. S.; Schrum, L.; Sonne, J. K.; Stedman, T. C.

    1996-01-01

    Lighting systems in commercial office buildings are primary determinants of building energy use. In warmer climates, lighting energy use has important implications for building cooling loads as well as those directly associated with illumination...

  5. A Behavioral SPICE Compatible Model of an Electrodeless Fluorescent Lamp Sam Ben-Yaakov*1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The model was tested under various experimental conditions: at steady state for different power levels vessel coated inside with light emitting phosphor. Inside the vessel is a combination of inert gas on an earlier methodology, which relies on experimental observations as well as some physics based reasoning

  6. 2014-10-14 Issuance: Test Procedures Correction for Fluorescent Lamp

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y A s s iof1 of 8 2 of 8 3 of 8Air

  7. ISSUANCE 2015-12-02: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps, Final Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps, Final Determination

  8. Engineering novel fluorescent proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaner, Nathan Christopher

    2006-01-01

    to Choosing Fluorescent Proteins. Nat. Methods. 2 (12): 905-Dynamics of Z-band based proteins in developing skeletaland yellow fluorescent proteins derived from Discosoma sp.

  9. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study RRL3.2 Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Tucker, Joseph C.

    2014-12-01

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen) was monitored in the automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA) for more than 7,500 hours. Ten samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at an ambient temperature of 45°C (-1°C). Importantly, the steady-state test conditions were not optimized for inducing catastrophic failure for any of the lamp technologies—to which thermal cycling is a strong contributor— and are not typical of normal use patterns—which usually include off periods where the lamp cools down. Further, the test conditions differ from those used in standardized long-term test methods (i.e., IES LM-80, IES LM-84), so the results should not be directly compared. On the other hand, the test conditions are similar to those used by ENERGY STAR (when elevated temperature testing is called for). Likewise, the conditions and assumptions used by manufacturers to generated lifetime claims may vary; the CALiPER long-term data is informative, but cannot necessarily be used to discredit manufacturer claims. The test method used for this investigation should be interpreted as one more focused on the long-term effects of elevated temperature operation, at an ambient temperature that is not uncommon in luminaires. On average, the lumen maintenance of the LED lamps monitored in the ALTA was better than benchmark lamps, but there was considerable variation from lamp model to lamp model. While three lamp models had average lumen maintenance above 99% at the end of the study period, two products had average lumen maintenance below 65%, constituting a parametric failure. These two products, along with a third, also exhibited substantial color shift, another form of parametric failure. While none of the LED lamps exhibited catastrophic failure—and all of the benchmarks did—the early degradation of performance is concerning, especially with a new technology trying to build a reputation with consumers. Beyond the observed parametric failures nearly half of the products failed to meet early-life thresholds for lumen maintenance, which were borrowed from ENERGY STAR specifications. That is, the lumen maintenance was sufficiently low at 6,000 hours that seven of the products are unlikely to have lumen maintenance above 70% at their rated lifetime (which was usually 25,000 hours). Given the methods used for this investigation—most notably continuous operation—the results should not be interpreted as indicative of a lamp’s performance in a typical environment. Likewise, these results are not directly relatable to manufacturer lifetime claims. This report is best used to understand the variation in LED product performance, compare the robustness of LED lamps and benchmark conventional lamps, and understand the characteristics of lumen and chromaticity change. A key takeaway is that the long-term performance of LED lamps can vary greatly from model to model (i.e., the technology is not homogenous), although the lamp-to-lamp consistency within a given model is relatively good. Further, operation of LED lamps in an enclosed luminaire (or otherwise in high ambient temperatures), can induce parametric failure of LEDs much earlier than their rated lifetime; manufacturer warnings about such conditions should be followed if performance degradation is unacceptable.

  10. Helically coiled tube heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, A.M.

    1981-08-18

    In a heat exchanger such as a steam generator for a nuclear reactor, two or more bundles of helically coiled tubes are arranged in series with the tubes in each bundle integrally continuing through the tube bundles arranged in series therewith. Pitch values for the tubing in any pair of tube bundles, taken transverse to the path of the reactor coolant flow about the tubes, are selected as a ratio of two unequal integers to permit efficient operation of each tube bundle while maintaining the various tube bundles of the heat exchanger within a compact envelope. Preferably, the helix angle and tube pitch parallel to the path of coolant flow are constant for all tubes in a single bundle so that the tubes are of approximately the same length within each bundle.

  11. Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.

    2014-12-01

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 38 different lamps (32 LED, 2 CFL, 1 ceramic metal halide [CMH], 3 halogen) were monitored in a specially developed automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA2) for nearly 14,000 hours. Five samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at a target ambient temperature between 44°C and 45°C.

  12. Low pressure arc discharge lamp apparatus with magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Maya, J.

    1987-10-06

    A low-pressure arc discharge apparatus having a magnetic field generating means for increasing the output of a discharge lamp is disclosed. The magnetic field generating means, which in one embodiment includes a plurality of permanent magnets, is disposed along the lamp for applying a constant transverse magnetic field over at least a portion of the positive discharge column produced in the arc discharge lamp operating at an ambient temperature greater than about 25 C. 3 figs.

  13. Coiled tubing apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baugh, B.F.

    1981-05-05

    Disclosed are coiled tubing apparatus for operating on wells. A tubing injector head is supported on a mast and is moveable to selected elevations along the mast. The mast includes a lower section maintained in upright orientation, and an upper section which is pivotally joined to the lower section. The injector head may be lowered below the pivot point and the mast folded for transportation purposes. A chain drive maneuvers the injector head in one horizontal direction, and a fluid pressure cylinder maneuvers the injector head in a second horizontal direction generally orthogonal to the first. The chain drive is fitted with a worm gear coupling to positively lock the injector head in position. A height-adjustable level wind tubing guide directs the tubing onto or off of a reel. The base of the apparatus is fitted with a track along which a blowout preventer may be moved for subsequent positioning over a well.

  14. LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting: CALiPER Report Series 21

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Beeson, Tracy; Miller, Naomi

    2014-06-23

    Video about CALiPER Report Series 21 on LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting, featuring interviews with Tracy Beeson and Naomi Miller of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  15. The Electrodeless Discharge Lamps Coated with the Titania Thin Film for Photocatalysis in a Microwave Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirkva, Vladimir

    The Electrodeless Discharge Lamps Coated with the Titania Thin Film for Photocatalysis assisted photocatalysis using TiO2 thin films has been examined. Several factors influencing

  16. LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting: CALiPER Report Series 21

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beeson, Tracy; Miller, Naomi

    2014-06-17

    Video about CALiPER Report Series 21 on LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting, featuring interviews with Tracy Beeson and Naomi Miller of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  17. Text-Alternative Version: LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR®

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Below is the text-alternative version of the LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR® webcast.

  18. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Rosenfeld, Scott M.

    2012-06-22

    This report documents observations and results obtained from a lighting demonstration project conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Technology Demonstration Program at the Smithsonain American Art Museum in Washington, DC. LED Lamp samples were tested in the museum workshop, temporarily installed in a gallery for feedback, and ultimately replaced all traditional incandescent lamps in one gallery of modernist art at the American Art Museum and partially replacing lamps in two galleries at the Musesum's Renwick Gallery. This report describes the selection and testing process, technology challenges, perceptions, economics, energy use, and mixed results of usign LED replacement lamps in art galleries housing national treasures.

  19. Text-Alternative Version: CALiPER Series 21 on LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Following is a text version of a video about CALiPER Application Report Series 21 on LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting.

  20. Coiled tubing operations and services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaworsky, A.S. II )

    1991-11-01

    Coiled tubing offers many advantages over conventional jointed tubing used for drilling in oil fields, including time savings, pumping flexibility, fluid placement, reduced formation damage and safety. The article gives an overview of coiled tubing history and development. Operating concepts are explained, along with descriptions of the major equipment and components associated with coiled tubing use in the oil field today.

  1. Coiled tubing working life prediction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, J.

    1995-12-31

    Failure of coiled tubing, due to the repeated bending and plastic deformation of coiled tubing on and off the reel and gooseneck, is of great concern in coiled tubing operations. This paper discusses the coiled tubing working life based on one of the coiled tubing life models published in the literature, and compares the results with other models. Certain agreements are found among these models. A group of curves is presented to illustrate the coiled tubing working life affected by coiled tubing size and wall thickness, internal pressure, yield strength, reel diameter, gooseneck radius, operation condition (corrosion) and butt-welded connection (stress concentration). The results show that coiled tubing life can be greatly increased by increasing CT wall thickness and CT strength, while the coiled tubing working life decreases under high internal pressure, corrosion, and butt-weld conditions. These curves can be easily used in estimating coiled tubing life for the field use.

  2. Microwave lamp with multi-purpose rotary motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ury, M.G.; Turner, B.; Wooten, R.D.

    1999-02-02

    In a microwave powered electrodeless lamp, a single rotary motor is used to (a) rotate the bulb and (b) provide rotary motion to a blower or pump means for providing cooling fluid to the magnetron and/or to a forced gas cooler for providing cooling gas to the bulb. The blower may consist of only of an impeller without the usual blower housing. The motor, bulb stem and bulb, or motor, bulb stem, bulb and blower may be formed as an integral unit so as to facilitate replacement. 8 figs.

  3. Microwave lamp with multi-purpose rotary motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ury, Michael G. (Bethesda, MD); Turner, Brian (Myersville, MD); Wooten, Robert D. (Rockville, MD)

    1999-01-01

    In a microwave powered electrodeless lamp, a single rotary motor is used to a) rotate the bulb and b) provide rotary motion to a blower or pump means for providing cooling fluid to the magnetron and/or to a forced gas cooling for providing cooler gas to the bulb. The blower may consist of only of an impeller without the usual blower housing. The motor, bulb stem and bulb, or motor, bulb stem, bulb and blower may be formed as an integral unit so as to facilitate replacement.

  4. High Efficiency LED Lamp for Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Ibbetson

    2006-12-31

    This report contains a summary of technical achievements during a three-year project to demonstrate high efficiency, solid-state lamps based on gallium nitride/silicon carbide light-emitting diodes. Novel chip designs and fabrication processes are described for a new type of nitride light-emitting diode with the potential for very high efficiency. This work resulted in the demonstration of blue light-emitting diodes in the one watt class that achieved up to 495 mW of light output at 350 mA drive current, corresponding to quantum and wall plug efficiencies of 51% and 45%, respectively. When combined with a phosphor in Cree's 7090 XLamp package, these advanced blue-emitting devices resulted in white light-emitting diodes whose efficacy exceeded 85 lumens per watt. In addition, up to 1040 lumens at greater than 85 lumens per watt was achieved by combining multiple devices to make a compact white lamp module with high optical efficiency.

  5. The evolving price of household LED lamps: Recent trends and historical comparisons for the US market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerke, Brian F.; Ngo, Allison T.; Alstone, Andrea L.; Fisseha, Kibret S.

    2014-10-14

    In recent years, household LED light bulbs (LED A lamps) have undergone a dramatic price decline. Since late 2011, we have been collecting data, on a weekly basis, for retail offerings of LED A lamps on the Internet. The resulting data set allows us to track the recent price decline in detail. LED A lamp prices declined roughly exponentially with time in 2011-2014, with decline rates of 28percent to 44percent per year depending on lumen output, and with higher-lumen lamps exhibiting more rapid price declines. By combining the Internet price data with publicly available lamp shipments indices for the US market, it is also possible to correlate LED A lamp prices against cumulative production, yielding an experience curve for LED A lamps. In 2012-2013, LED A lamp prices declined by 20-25percent for each doubling in cumulative shipments. Similar analysis of historical data for other lighting technologies reveals that LED prices have fallen significantly more rapidly with cumulative production than did their technological predecessors, which exhibited a historical decline of 14-15percent per doubling of production.

  6. Spectral irradiance model for tungsten halogen lamps in 340-850 nm wavelength range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojanen, Maija; Kaerhae, Petri; Ikonen, Erkki

    2010-02-10

    We have developed a physical model for the spectral irradiance of 1 kW tungsten halogen incandescent lamps for the wavelength range 340-850 nm. The model consists of the Planck's radiation law, published values for the emissivity of tungsten, and a residual spectral correction function taking into account unknown factors of the lamp. The correction function was determined by measuring the spectra of a 1000 W, quartz-halogen, tungsten coiled filament (FEL) lamp at different temperatures. The new model was tested with lamps of types FEL and 1000 W, 120 V quartz halogen (DXW). Comparisons with measurements of two national standards laboratories indicate that the model can account for the spectral irradiance values of lamps with an agreement better than 1% throughout the spectral region studied. We further demonstrate that the spectral irradiance of a lamp can be predicted with an expanded uncertainty of 2.6% if the color temperature and illuminance values for the lamp are known with expanded uncertainties of 20 K and 2%, respectively. In addition, it is suggested that the spectral irradiance may be derived from resistance measurements of the filament with lamp on and off.

  7. CALiPER Report 20.3: Robustness of LED PAR38 Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poplawski, Michael E.; Royer, Michael P.; Brown, Charles C.

    2014-12-31

    Three samples of 40 of the Series 20 PAR38 lamps underwent multi-stress testing, whereby samples were subjected to increasing levels of simultaneous thermal, humidity, electrical, and vibrational stress. The results do not explicitly predict expected lifetime or reliability, but they can be compared with one another, as well as with benchmark conventional products, to assess the relative robustness of the product designs. On average, the 32 LED lamp models tested were substantially more robust than the conventional benchmark lamps. As with other performance attributes, however, there was great variability in the robustness and design maturity of the LED lamps. Several LED lamp samples failed within the first one or two levels of the ten-level stress plan, while all three samples of some lamp models completed all ten levels. One potential area of improvement is design maturity, given that more than 25% of the lamp models demonstrated a difference in failure level for the three samples that was greater than or equal to the maximum for the benchmarks. At the same time, the fact that nearly 75% of the lamp models exhibited better design maturity than the benchmarks is noteworthy, given the relative stage of development for the technology.

  8. Fluorescent optical position sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2005-11-15

    A fluorescent optical position sensor and method of operation. A small excitation source side-pumps a localized region of fluorescence at an unknown position along a fluorescent waveguide. As the fluorescent light travels down the waveguide, the intensity of fluorescent light decreases due to absorption. By measuring with one (or two) photodetectors the attenuated intensity of fluorescent light emitted from one (or both) ends of the waveguide, the position of the excitation source relative to the waveguide can be determined by comparing the measured light intensity to a calibrated response curve or mathematical model. Alternatively, excitation light can be pumped into an end of the waveguide, which generates an exponentially-decaying continuous source of fluorescent light along the length of the waveguide. The position of a photodetector oriented to view the side of the waveguide can be uniquely determined by measuring the intensity of the fluorescent light emitted radially at that location.

  9. Energy Conservation Program: Data Collection and Comparison with Forecasted Unit Sales for Five Lamp Types, Notice of Data Availability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Data Collection and Comparison with Forecasted Unit Sales for Five Lamp Types, Notice of Data Availability

  10. LED Performance Specification Series: T8 Replacement Lamps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the better fixture efficiency measured with LED T8s compared to fluorescent. Note that luminous efficacy for the LED T8 is not specified. This is because LED T8 watt- age...

  11. Safe biodegradable fluorescent particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Sue I. (Berkeley, CA); Fergenson, David P. (Alamo, CA); Srivastava, Abneesh (Santa Clara, CA); Bogan, Michael J. (Dublin, CA); Riot, Vincent J. (Oakland, CA); Frank, Matthias (Oakland, CA)

    2010-08-24

    A human-safe fluorescence particle that can be used for fluorescence detection instruments or act as a safe simulant for mimicking the fluorescence properties of microorganisms. The particle comprises a non-biological carrier and natural fluorophores encapsulated in the non-biological carrier. By doping biodegradable-polymer drug delivery microspheres with natural or synthetic fluorophores, the desired fluorescence can be attained or biological organisms can be simulated without the associated risks and logistical difficulties of live microorganisms.

  12. Downhole pulse tube refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D.

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes a preliminary design study to explore the plausibility of using pulse tube refrigeration to cool instruments in a hot down-hole environment. The original motivation was to maintain Dave Reagor`s high-temperature superconducting electronics at 75 K, but the study has evolved to include three target design criteria: cooling at 30 C in a 300 C environment, cooling at 75 K in a 50 C environment, cooling at both 75 K and 30 C in a 250 C environment. These specific temperatures were chosen arbitrarily, as representative of what is possible. The primary goals are low cost, reliability, and small package diameter. Pulse-tube refrigeration is a rapidly growing sub-field of cryogenic refrigeration. The pulse tube refrigerator has recently become the simplest, cheapest, most rugged and reliable low-power cryocooler. The authors expect this technology will be applicable downhole because of the ratio of hot to cold temperatures (in absolute units, such as Kelvin) of interest in deep drilling is comparable to the ratios routinely achieved with cryogenic pulse-tube refrigerators.

  13. LOT-G3: Plasma Lamp, Ozonator and CW transmitter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gobato, Ricardo; Gobato, Alekssander

    2015-01-01

    The LOT-G3 is designed to be a versatile equipment that perform several simple experiments for use in helping the physics classes for high school. Easy construction, low cost, using easily accessible materials. Its construction involves simple practices and knowledge of electromagnetism. It has the function of a plasma globe to demonstrate the ionization of a low pressure gas, as well as the formation of magnetic field. Can be used as sanitizer closed environments such as automotive vehicles in ozonator function, demonstrating the ionization of oxygen in the atmosphere, producing ozone, essential to life on earth. And as a sparks transmitter, low power, low frequency modulated continuous wave in (CW), for signals in Morse code. Therefore the equipment here called LOT-G3, has three functions: a plasma lamp, ozonator and CW transmitter.

  14. Collapse pressure of coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y.S.

    1996-09-01

    The collapse pressure is a measure of an external force required to collapse a tube in the absence of internal pressure. It is defined as the minimum pressure required to yield the tube in the absence of internal pressure. Coiled tubing is sometimes used in high-pressure wells. If the external pressure becomes too high, the coiled tubing will collapse. This could not only lead to serious well-control problems, but may result in extensive fishing operations. A reliable safety criterion of collapse pressure for the coiled tubing is needed by the coiled tubing operators. Theoretical models of collapse pressure are well developed for perfectly round coiled tubing but not for oval coiled tubing. Coiled tubing is initially manufactured with nearly perfect roundness, sometimes having a small ovality (typically {le} 0.5%). Perfectly round CT becomes oval owing to the plastic mechanical deformation of the coiled tubing as it spooled on and off the reel and over the gooseneck. As the cycling continues, the ovality usually increases. This ovality significantly decreases the collapse failure pressure as compared to perfectly round tubing. In this paper, an analytical model of collapse pressure for oval tubing under axial tension or compression is developed based on elastic instability theory and the von Mises criterion. The theoretical model shows satisfactory agreement with experimental data.

  15. Joined concentric tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeJonghe, Lutgard; Jacobson, Craig; Tucker, Michael; Visco, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Tubular objects having two or more concentric layers that have different properties are joined to one another during their manufacture primarily by compressive and friction forces generated by shrinkage during sintering and possibly mechanical interlocking. It is not necessary for the concentric tubes to display adhesive-, chemical- or sinter-bonding to each other in order to achieve a strong bond. This facilitates joining of dissimilar materials, such as ceramics and metals.

  16. Lamp system with conditioned water coolant and diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene(PTFE)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A lamp system with a very soft high-intensity output is provided over a large area by water cooling a long-arc lamp inside a diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) white pigment. The water is kept clean and pure by a one micron particulate filter and an activated charcoal/ultraviolet irradiation system that circulates and de-ionizes and biologically sterilizes the coolant water at all times, even when the long-arc lamp is off.

  17. Note: Hollow cathode lamp with integral, high optical efficiency isolation valve: A modular vacuum ultraviolet source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sloan Roberts, F.; Anderson, Scott L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 S. 1400 E., Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 S. 1400 E., Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    The design and operating conditions of a hollow cathode discharge lamp for the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation, suitable for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application, are described in detail. The design is easily constructed, and modular, allowing it to be adapted to different experimental requirements. A thin isolation valve is built into one of the differential pumping stages, isolating the discharge section from the UHV section, both for vacuum safety and to allow lamp maintenance without venting the UHV chamber. The lamp has been used both for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces and as a “soft” photoionization source for gas-phase mass spectrometry.

  18. Concentric tube support assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rubio, Mark F.; Glessner, John C.

    2012-09-04

    An assembly (45) includes a plurality of separate pie-shaped segments (72) forming a disk (70) around a central region (48) for retaining a plurality of tubes (46) in a concentrically spaced apart configuration. Each segment includes a support member (94) radially extending along an upstream face (96) of the segment and a plurality of annularly curved support arms (98) transversely attached to the support member and radially spaced apart from one another away from the central region for receiving respective upstream end portions of the tubes in arc-shaped spaces (100) between the arms. Each segment also includes a radial passageway (102) formed in the support member for receiving a fluid segment portion (106) and a plurality of annular passageways (104) formed in the support arms for receiving respective arm portions (108) of the fluid segment portion from the radial passageway and for conducting the respective arm portions into corresponding annular spaces (47) formed between the tubes retained by the disk.

  19. Text-Alternative Version: CALiPER Report Series 20 on LED PAR38 Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Michael Royer, Lighting Engineer, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: The CALiPER program looks at typical LED lamp performance attributes. As we've gone through the progression of reports, we...

  20. LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting: CALiPER Report Series 21

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    View the video about CALiPER Report Series 21 on LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting, featuring interviews with Tracy Beeson and Naomi Miller of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  1. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.

    2011-09-01

    The Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art in Eugene, Oregon, houses a remarkable permanent collection of Asian art and antiquities, modern art, and sculpture, and also hosts traveling exhibitions. In the winter and spring of 2011, a series of digital photographs by artist Chris Jordan, titled "Running the Numbers," was exhibited in the Coeta and Donald Barker Special Exhibitions Gallery. These works graphically illustrate waste (energy, money, health, consumer objects, etc.) in contemporary culture. The Bonneville Power Administration and the Eugene Water and Electricity Board provided a set of Cree 12W light-emitting diode (LED) PAR38 replacement lamps (Cree LRP38) for the museum to test for accent lighting in lieu of their standard Sylvania 90W PAR38 130V Narrow Flood lamps (which draw 78.9W at 120V). At the same time, the museum tested LED replacement lamps from three other manufacturers, and chose the Cree lamp as the most versatile and most appropriate color product for this exhibit. The lamps were installed for the opening of the show in January 2011. This report describes the process for the demonstration, the energy and economic results, and results of a survey of the museum staff and gallery visitors on four similar clusters of art lighted separately by four PAR38 lamps.

  2. Coiled tubing; Operations and services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welch, J.L.; Stephens, R.K. )

    1992-09-01

    This paper reports on coiled tubing units which are used for many types of remedial well operations, including sand plugbacks, cement squeezes, fill cleanouts, underreaming, acid stimulations, and fishing. Fishing operations include removal of inflatable bridge plugs, lock mandrels stuck in profile nipples, coiled tubing, coiled tubing bottomhole assemblies (BHAs) and wireline. Recommended guidelines for selecting candidates, proper tool string configuration and operational techniques are presented here to assist coiled tubing supervisors and company representatives in the planning and implementation of efficient and effective fishing operations. Treatment of these areas are not intended to be exhaustive, but rather generally representative of common applications. Each fishing operation requires individualized analysis and planning.

  3. Coiled tubing. operations and services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hightower, C.M. )

    1992-11-01

    Coiled tubing is being used with increasing frequency in conventional or traditional production operations. Demand for coiled pipe in these types of applications is expected to experience rapid growth as standard 2 (3/8) and 2 (7/8)-in. OD tubing sizes and units equipped to run larger pipe become more readily available. This paper reports on a recent market survey which indicated that coiled tubing used for velocity strings and standard production tubing installations are two areas with the most potential for immediate and near-term expansion. Other applications include: well casing and liners, gravel packing, artificial lift, flowlines and pipelines.

  4. Reduced-vibration tube array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruck, Gerald J.; Bartolomeo, Daniel R.

    2004-07-20

    A reduced-vibration tube array is disclosed. The array includes a plurality of tubes in a fixed arrangement and a plurality of damping members positioned within the tubes. The damping members include contoured interface regions characterized by bracing points that selectively contact the inner surface of an associated tube. Each interface region is sized and shaped in accordance with the associated tube, so that the damping member bracing points are spaced apart a vibration-reducing distance from the associated tube inner surfaces at equilibrium. During operation, mechanical interaction between the bracing points and the tube inner surfaces reduces vibration by a damage-reducing degree. In one embodiment, the interface regions are serpentine shaped. In another embodiment, the interface regions are helical in shape. The interface regions may be simultaneously helical and serpentine in shape. The damping members may be fixed within the associated tubes, and damping member may be customized several interference regions having attributes chosen in accordance with desired flow characteristics and associated tube properties.

  5. Equations determine coiled tubing collapse pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avakov, V.; Taliaferro, W.

    1995-07-24

    A set of equations has been developed for calculating pipe collapse pressure for oval tubing such as coiled tubing. When coiled tubing is placed onto a reel, the tubing is forced into an oval shape and never again returns to perfect roundness because the coiling process exceeds the plasticity limits of the tubing. Straightening the tubing for the trip into the well does not restore roundness. The consequence of this physical property is that all coiled tubing collapse pressure calculations should be made considering oval tubing, not round tubing. Tubing collapse can occur when formation pressure against the coiled tubing exceeds the collapse resistance inherent in the coiled tubing. As coiled tubing becomes more oval in shape, it becomes more oval in shape, it becomes more susceptible to collapse from outside pressure.

  6. Coiled tubing - Operations and services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gronseth, J.M. )

    1993-04-01

    Drilling with a continuous (rather than jointed) drill string is an old concept that is gaining new attention as a result of recent advances made in coiled tubing and drilling technology. The development of larger diameter, reliable, high-strength coiled tubing and smaller diameter, positive displacement motors, orienting tools, surveying systems and fixed cutting drill bits have given drilling with a continuous drill string a capability that was previously unattainable. Like its many other uses, (e.g., squeeze cementing, wellbore cleanouts, flow initiation, logging) the continuity of coiled tubing gives it several advantages over conventional drill strings. These include: drilling underbalanced safely, significantly reduced trip time, continuous circulation, smaller surface requirements. Coiled tubing drilling operations have smaller surface lease requirements than most conventional rigs due to the smaller footprint of the coiled tubing unit and associated equipment. Current coiled tubing drilling operations have the following limitations: conventional rig assistance is required for well preparation; conventional rigs must assist in running long protective and production casing strings or liners; hole sizes are smaller; working depth capabilities are shallower, coiled tubing life is less. This paper goes on to discuss the history of continuous drill strings and includes information on tubing units, circulating systems, drilling fluids, well control systems, downhole tools, orientation tools, and bottomhole assemblies. It then gives a cost comparison and an application of this type of drilling.

  7. The Future of YouTube: Critical Reflections on YouTube Users’ Discussion over Its Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Gooyong

    2009-01-01

    10). Re: “We” Tube: The future of YouTube. Retrieved March10). Re: “We” Tube: The future of YouTube. Retrieved March13). Re: “We”Tube: The future of YouTube. Retrieved March

  8. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradbury, Andrew M. (Santa Fe, NM); Waldo, Geoffrey S. (Santa Fe, NM); Kiss, Csaba (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-03-22

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  9. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradbury, Andrew M. (Santa Fe, NM); Waldo, Geoffrey S. (Santa Fe, NM); Kiss, Csaba (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-11-29

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  10. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradbury, Andrew M. (Santa Fe, NM); Waldo, Geoffrey S. (Santa Fe, NM); Kiss, Csaba (Los Alamos, NM)

    2012-05-01

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  11. Tubing pressurized firing apparatus for a tubing conveyed perforating gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davies, D. L.

    1985-11-26

    A tubing pressurized firing apparatus is shown for use with a tubing conveyed perforating gun of the type used to perforate a cased well bore. The firing apparatus has a tubular body with an upper end for connection in the well tubing string and with a lower end for connection to a well perforating gun. An inner mandrel is slidably mounted within the tubular body and has a ball seat formed in the interior bore thereof for receiving a ball dropped through the well tubing string. The ball and ball seat together form a pressure tight seal whereby tubing pressure in the well tubing string acts on the inner mandrel to slide the mandrel downwardly within the tubular body. A cocking mechanism located below the inner mandrel within the body includes a lockout member which is initially positioned between a detonating pin and a percussion detonator. The cocking mechanism is actuated by downward sliding movement of the inner mandrel to move the lockout member from between the detonating pin and percussion detonator whereby a subsequent release of tubing pressure and upward sliding movement of the inner mandrel exposes the detonating pin to the percussion detonator to actuate the detonator and fire the perforating gun.

  12. Fluorescent filtered electrophosphorescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R. (Princeton, NJ); Sun, Yiru (Princeton, NJ); Giebink, Noel (Princeton, NJ); Thompson, Mark E. (Anaheim Hills, CA)

    2009-01-06

    The present invention relates to organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), and more specifically to OLEDS that emit light using a combination of fluorescent emitters and phosphorescent emitters for the efficient utilization of all of the electrically generated excitons.

  13. Fluorescent filtered electrophosphorescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen (Ann Arbor, MI); Sun, Yiru (Princeton, NJ); Giebink, Noel (Ann Arbor, MI); Thompson, Mark E. (Anaheim Hills, CA)

    2010-08-03

    The present invention relates to organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), and more specifically to OLEDS that emit light using a combination of fluorescent emitters and phosphorescent emitters for the efficient utilization of all of the electrically generated excitons.

  14. Energy-Efficient, High-Color-Rendering LED Lamps Using Oxyfluoride and Fluoride Phosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setlur, A.; Radkov, E; Henderson, C; Her, J; Srivastava, A; Karkada, N; Kishore, M; Kumar, N; Aesram, D; et al.

    2010-01-01

    LED lamps using phosphor downconversion can be designed to replace incandescent or halogen sources with a 'warm-white' correlated color temperature (CCT) of 2700-3200 K and a color rendering index (CRI) greater than 90. However, these lamps have efficacies of {approx}70% of standard 'cool-white' LED packages (CCT = 4500-6000 K; CRI = 75-80). In this report, we describe structural and luminescence properties of fluoride and oxyfluoride phosphors, specifically a (Sr,Ca){sub 3}(Al,Si)O{sub 4}(F,O):Ce{sup 3+} yellow-green phosphor and a K{sub 2}TiF{sub 6}:Mn{sup 4+} red phosphor, that can reduce this gap and therefore meet the spectral and efficiency requirements for high-efficacy LED lighting. LED lamps with a warm-white color temperature (3088 K), high CRI (90), and an efficacy of {approx}82 lm/W are demonstrated using these phosphors. This efficacy is {approx}85% of comparable cool-white lamps using typical Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce{sup 3+}-based phosphors, significantly reducing the efficacy gap between warm-white and cool-white LED lamps that use phosphor downconversion.

  15. Hydrogen Tube Trailers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tube Trailers Hydrogen Tube Trailers Trucks that haul gaseous hydrogen are called tube trailers. Gaseous hydrogen is compressed to pressures of 180 bar (2,600 psig) or higher into...

  16. Method of making straight fuel cell tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borglum, Brian P. (Edgewood, PA)

    2001-01-01

    A method and an apparatus for making straight fuel cell tubes are disclosed. Extruded tubes comprising powders of fuel cell material and a solvent are dried by rotating the extruded tubes. The rotation process provides uniform circumferential drying which results in uniform linear shrinkage of the tubes. The resultant dried tubes are very straight, thereby eliminating subsequent straightening steps required with conventional processes. The method is particularly useful for forming inner air electrode tubes of solid oxide fuel cells.

  17. Titanium vs. traditional coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    The development of composite and titanium pipe has the potential to eliminate many of the issues facing coiled-tubing (CT) work on platforms with restricted lift capability in the North Sea, such as the time to mobilize and set up the CT reel, additional personnel requirements, and weather dependence. A number of methods are available to overcome reel-weight limitations when conventional steel Ct is used. These include Ct welding, split reels, boat spooling, and tube/tube connectors. These factors are discussed then the paper discusses results from 3 field tests on gas and oil wells.

  18. Electric lamp, base for use therewith and method of assembling same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hough, Harold L. (Beverly, MA); English, George J. (Reading, MA); Chakrabarti, Kirti B. (Danvers, MA)

    1989-02-14

    An electric lamp including a reflector, at least one conductive ferrule located within a surface of the reflector and a lead-in conductor electrically connected to the ferrule and extending within the reflector. The lamp includes a base having an insulative (e.g., ceramic) cap located substantially about the ferrule, barrier means (e.g., ceramic fiber) located within the cap to define an open chamber substantially about the ferrule, an electrical conductor (e.g., wire) extending within the cap and electrically connected (e.g., silver soldered) to the ferrule, and sealing means (e.g., high temperature cement) located within the cap to provide a seal therefore. The barrier means serves to separate the sealing means from the open chamber about the ferrule such that the heat generated by the ferrule can be vented through spaced apertures located within the cap's side wall. A method of assembling a base on an electric lamp is also provided.

  19. Magical Mystery Devices or Not: How do LED Lamps and Luminaires Really Measure-Up?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paget, Maria L.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Steward, Heidi E.

    2008-08-15

    Solid-state lighting products for general lighting applications are now gaining a market presence, and more and more people are asking, “Which of these are ‘good’ products? Do they perform as claimed? How do they compare? Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) differ from other light sources enough to require new procedures for measuring their performance and comparing to other lighting options, so both manufacturers and buyers are facing a learning curve. The energy-efficiency community has traditionally compared light sources based on system efficacy: rated lamp lumens divided by power into the system. This doesn’t work for LEDs because there are no standard LED “lamp” packages and no lamp ratings, and because LED performance depends heavily on thermal, electrical, and optical design of complete lighting unit or ‘luminaire’. Luminaire efficacy is the preferred metric for LEDs because it measures the net light output from the luminaire divided by power into the system.

  20. Steam generator tube rupture study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Free, Scott Thomas

    1986-01-01

    This report describes our investigation of steam generator behavior during a postulated tube rupture accident. Our study was performed using the steam generator, thermal-hydraulic analysis code THERMIT-UTSG. The purpose ...

  1. Tube-wave seismic imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korneev, Valeri A. (Lafayette, CA); Bakulin, Andrey (Houston, TX)

    2009-10-13

    The detailed analysis of cross well seismic data for a gas reservoir in Texas revealed two newly detected seismic wave effects, recorded approximately 2000 feet above the reservoir. A tube-wave (150) is initiated in a source well (110) by a source (111), travels in the source well (110), is coupled to a geological feature (140), propagates (151) through the geological feature (140), is coupled back to a tube-wave (152) at a receiver well (120), and is and received by receiver(s) (121) in either the same (110) or a different receiving well (120). The tube-wave has been shown to be extremely sensitive to changes in reservoir characteristics. Tube-waves appear to couple most effectively to reservoirs where the well casing is perforated, allowing direct fluid contact from the interior of a well case to the reservoir.

  2. Tube-wave seismic imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korneev, Valeri A [LaFayette, CA

    2009-05-05

    The detailed analysis of cross well seismic data for a gas reservoir in Texas revealed two newly detected seismic wave effects, recorded approximately 2000 feet above the reservoir. A tube-wave (150) is initiated in a source well (110) by a source (111), travels in the source well (110), is coupled to a geological feature (140), propagates (151) through the geological feature (140), is coupled back to a tube-wave (152) at a receiver well (120), and is and received by receiver(s) (121) in either the same (110) or a different receiving well (120). The tube-wave has been shown to be extremely sensitive to changes in reservoir characteristics. Tube-waves appear to couple most effectively to reservoirs where the well casing is perforated, allowing direct fluid contact from the interior of a well case to the reservoir.

  3. Fluorescent image tracking velocimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaffer, Franklin D. (Library, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A multiple-exposure fluorescent image tracking velocimeter (FITV) detects and measures the motion (trajectory, direction and velocity) of small particles close to light scattering surfaces. The small particles may follow the motion of a carrier medium such as a liquid, gas or multi-phase mixture, allowing the motion of the carrier medium to be observed, measured and recorded. The main components of the FITV include: (1) fluorescent particles; (2) a pulsed fluorescent excitation laser source; (3) an imaging camera; and (4) an image analyzer. FITV uses fluorescing particles excited by visible laser light to enhance particle image detectability near light scattering surfaces. The excitation laser light is filtered out before reaching the imaging camera allowing the fluoresced wavelengths emitted by the particles to be detected and recorded by the camera. FITV employs multiple exposures of a single camera image by pulsing the excitation laser light for producing a series of images of each particle along its trajectory. The time-lapsed image may be used to determine trajectory and velocity and the exposures may be coded to derive directional information.

  4. Coiled tubing; Operations and services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welch, J.L. ); Whitlow, R.R. )

    1992-07-01

    This paper reports that pulling tubing to clean out a production liner at Prudhoe Bay Unit Western Operating Area (PBU WOA) averages $600,000 to $800,000. Coiled tubing underreaming was developed to accomplish this objective at lower costs. Beginning in 1988, these operations have been improved through several generations of procedures and tool designs. Using current technology, the underreamer, in conjunction with coiled tubing, can reduce the cost of drilling out to a liner to about $50,000 or $100,000, depending on the amount and type of material to be removed. PBU WOA, operated by BP Exploration, produces about 600,000 bopd from 395 wells. Another 61 wells are used to inject produced water, seawater and miscible fluids. Most of the remedial well servicing operations are conducted using coiled tubing (CT). Three contract coiled tubing units (CTUs) work daily, performing wellbore cleanouts, stimulations, inflatable bridge plug installations and cement squeeze operations. About 42 underreaming jobs were performed from 1990 to 1991 at PBU WOA for an average cost of between $75,000 and $100,000, a cost savings of $500,000 power well compared to pulling tubing and cleaning out the wells conventionally.

  5. Initial Score: # of workers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, Keith

    My lab has replaced incandescent lamps with Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) or Light Emitting Diodes

  6. ISSUANCE 2015-06-25: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Integrated Light-Emitting Diode Lamps, Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Integrated Light-Emitting Diode Lamps, Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  7. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Retrofit Lamps at an Exhibit of 19th Century Photography at the Getty Museum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N. J.; Druzik, J. R.

    2012-03-01

    GATEWAY program report on a demonstration of LED retrofit lamps at the J. Paul Getty Museum in Malibu, CA.

  8. Replacing Fluorescent Lightbulbs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fluorescent Lightbulbs Replacing Fluorescent Lightbulbs July 29, 2012 - 6:37pm Addthis Although fluorescent lightbulbs are generally energy efficient, you can replace them with...

  9. The Model 5000-16C 1000 WATT FEL Lamp Standard pro-vides absolute calibration of spectral irradiance from 250 nm to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Model 5000-16C 1000 WATT FEL Lamp Standard pro- vides absolute calibration of spectral irradiance from 250 nm to 2.5 microns.This Tungsten-Halogen Lamp Standard bears the ANSI designation of FEL might be discernible at the crossover point of the two referenced NIST Scales. 5000 FEL 1000Watt Lamp

  10. CALiPER Report 20.3: Robustness of LED PAR38 Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-12-30

    A small sample of each of the CALiPER Application Summary Report 20 PAR38 lamp types underwent stress testing that included substantial temperature and humidity changes, electrical variation, and vibration. The results do not directly address expected lifetime, but can be compared with one another, as well as with benchmark conventional products, to assess the relative robustness of the product designs.

  11. Method and apparatus for powering an electrodeless lamp with reduced radio frequency interference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, James E. (Gaithersburg, MD)

    1999-01-01

    An electrodeless lamp waveguide structure includes tuned absorbers for spurious RF signals. A lamp waveguide with an integral frequency selective attenuation includes resonant absorbers positioned within the waveguide to absorb spurious out-of-band RF energy. The absorbers have a negligible effect on energy at the selected frequency used to excite plasma in the lamp. In a first embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are affixed to the sidewalls of the waveguide at approximately one quarter wavelength of the spurious signal from an end wall of the waveguide. The positioning of the lossy material optimizes absorption of power from the spurious signal. In a second embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are used in conjunction with band rejection waveguide filter elements. In a third embodiment, one or more microstrip filter elements are tuned to the frequency of the spurious signal and positioned within the waveguide to couple and absorb the spurious signal's energy. All three embodiments absorb negligible energy at the selected frequency and so do not significantly diminish the energy efficiency of the lamp.

  12. RF driven sulfur lamp having driving electrodes which face each other

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gabor, George (Lafayette, CA); Orr, Thomas Robert (Castro Valley, CA); Greene, Charles Maurice (Oakland, CA); Crawford, Douglas Gordon (Orinda, CA); Berman, Samuel Maurice (San Francisco, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A high intensity discharge lamp without mercury is disclosed radiating a selected spectrum of which can be almost entirely in the visible range from an envelope that contains a sulfur containing substance. The lamp utilizes a signal source that generates an excitation signal that is externally coupled to the exterior surface of the envelope to excite the enclosed sulfur containing substance. Various embodiments of the lamp use electrodes adjacent the envelope to couple the excitation signal thereto with the face of the electrodes shaped to complement the shape of the exterior surface of the envelope. Two shapes discussed are spherical and cylindrical. To minimize filamentary discharges each envelope may include an elongated stem affixed to the exterior thereof whereby a rotational subsystem spins the envelope. In yet another embodiment the envelope has a Dewar configuration with two electrodes, one positioned near the external curved side surface of the body, and a second to the inner surface of the hole through the envelope. Further, the envelope may contain a backfill of a selected inert gas to assist in the excitation of lamp with that backfill at a pressure of less than 1 atmosphere, wherein the backfill pressure is directly related to the increase or decrease of peak output and inversely related to the increase and decrease of the emitted spectrum from the envelope. The emitting fill can be less than 6 mg/cc, or at least 2 mg/cc of the envelope of a sulfur containing substance.

  13. Method and apparatus for powering an electrodeless lamp with reduced radio frequency interference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, J.E.

    1999-06-08

    An electrodeless lamp waveguide structure includes tuned absorbers for spurious RF signals. A lamp waveguide with an integral frequency selective attenuation includes resonant absorbers positioned within the waveguide to absorb spurious out-of-band RF energy. The absorbers have a negligible effect on energy at the selected frequency used to excite plasma in the lamp. In a first embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are affixed to the sidewalls of the waveguide at approximately one quarter wavelength of the spurious signal from an end wall of the waveguide. The positioning of the lossy material optimizes absorption of power from the spurious signal. In a second embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are used in conjunction with band rejection waveguide filter elements. In a third embodiment, one or more microstrip filter elements are tuned to the frequency of the spurious signal and positioned within the waveguide to couple and absorb the spurious signal's energy. All three embodiments absorb negligible energy at the selected frequency and so do not significantly diminish the energy efficiency of the lamp. 18 figs.

  14. THIN NANOPOROUS TITANIA FILMS ON THE ELECTRODELESS DISCHARGE LAMPS FOR PHOTOCATALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirkva, Vladimir

    THIN NANOPOROUS TITANIA FILMS ON THE ELECTRODELESS DISCHARGE LAMPS FOR PHOTOCATALYSIS Vladimír: cirkva@icpf.cas.cz, http://home.icpf.cas.cz/cirkva Keywords: Microwave assisted photocatalysis. Introduction Photocatalysis is an efficient, attractive and clean technology for pollution abatement in water

  15. Turning Down the LAMP: Software Specialisation for the Cloud Anil Madhavapeddy1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAuley, Derek

    within the cloud is not well supported by tra- ditional software stacks, e.g., LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP). These are very "thick," containing ex- tensive support for legacy systems and code built up over securely. Some of these concerns are being tackled via prepack- aged binary images, bolt-on "accelerators

  16. RF driven sulfur lamp having driving electrodes which face each other

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gabor, G.; Orr, T.R.; Greene, C.M.; Crawford, D.G.; Berman, S.M.

    1999-06-22

    A high intensity discharge lamp without mercury is disclosed radiating a selected spectrum of which can be almost entirely in the visible range from an envelope that contains a sulfur containing substance. The lamp utilizes a signal source that generates an excitation signal that is externally coupled to the exterior surface of the envelope to excite the enclosed sulfur containing substance. Various embodiments of the lamp use electrodes adjacent the envelope to couple the excitation signal thereto with the face of the electrodes shaped to complement the shape of the exterior surface of the envelope. Two shapes discussed are spherical and cylindrical. To minimize filamentary discharges each envelope may include an elongated stem affixed to the exterior thereof whereby a rotational subsystem spins the envelope. In yet another embodiment the envelope has a Dewar configuration with two electrodes, one positioned near the external curved side surface of the body, and a second to the inner surface of the hole through the envelope. Further, the envelope may contain a backfill of a selected inert gas to assist in the excitation of lamp with that backfill at a pressure of less than 1 atmosphere, wherein the backfill pressure is directly related to the increase or decrease of peak output and inversely related to the increase and decrease of the emitted spectrum from the envelope. The emitting fill can be less than 6 mg/cc, or at least 2 mg/cc of the envelope of a sulfur containing substance. 17 figs.

  17. Design of Resonant Inverters for Optimal Efficiency over Lamp Life in Electronic Ballast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for zero voltage switching (ZVS) with fixed frequency and power control [8,9]. II. STEADYSTATE ANALYSISDesign of Resonant Inverters for Optimal Efficiency over Lamp Life in Electronic Ballast with Phase, Spain azcondof@unican.es,branasc@unican.es Absrracr - The paper presents the design guidelinesof phase

  18. High-Heat Flux Testing of Irradiated Tungsten based Materials for Fusion Applications using Infrared Plasma Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Ohriner, Evan Keith; Kiggans Jr, James O; Schaich, Charles Ross; Ueda, Yoshio; Harper, David C; Katoh, Yutai; Snead, Lance Lewis; Byun, Thak Sang

    2014-01-01

    Testing of advanced materials and component mock-ups under prototypical fusion high-heat flux conditions, while historically a mainstay of fusion research has proved challenging, especially for irradiated materials. A new high-heat flux testing facility based on water-wall Plasma Arc Lamps (PALs) is now being used for materials and small component testing. Two PAL systems, utilizing a 12,000 C plasma arc contained in a quartz tube cooled by a spiral water flow over the inside tube surface, are currently in use. The first PAL system provides a maximum incident heat flux of 4.2 MW/m2 over an area of 9x12 cm2. The second PAL available at ORNL provides a maximum incident heat flux of 27 MW/m2 over an area of 1x10 cm2. The absorbed heat fluxes into a tungsten target for the two PALs are approximately 1.97 and 12.7 MW/m2, respectively. This paper will present the overall design of the new PAL facilities as well as the design and implementation of the Irradiated Material Target Station (IMTS). The IMTS is primarily designed for testing the effects of heat flux or thermal cycling on material coupons of interested, such as those for plasma facing components. Moreover, IMTS designs are underway to extend the testing of small mock-ups for assessing the combined heating and thermomechanical effects of cooled, irradiated components. For the testing of material coupons , the specimens are placed in a shallow recess within the molybdenum holder that is attached to a water-cooled copper alloy rod. As the measurement of the specimen temperature for PAL is historically challenging since traditional approaches of temperature measurement cannot be employed due to the infrared heating and proximity of the PAL reflector to the specimen that does not allow a direct line of site, experiments for temperature calibration are presented. Finally, results for the high-heat flux testing of tungsten-based materials using the PAL are presented. As a demonstration of the system, results will be shown of thermal fatigue and high-heat flux testing of tungsten coupon specimens that were neutron irradiated in the HFIR reactor to neutron dose consistent to ITER lifetime.

  19. Inspecting coiled tubing for well operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gard, M.F.; Pasternack, E.S.; Smith, L.J.

    1992-02-18

    This patent describes improvement in a coiled tubing system for insertion of a substantially continuous bendable length of metal tubing into and withdrawal from a wellbore, the system including a tubing injection unit disposed for injecting the length of tubing into the well bore and storage means for dispensing the length of tubing and receiving the length of tubing from the injection unit. The improvement includes: tubing inspection apparatus for substantially continuously inspecting the wall section of the tubing to detect cracks and structural defects which may lead to tubing failure, the apparatus comprising: a source of electromagnetic radiation mounted in proximity to the tubing between the injection unit and a wellhead into which the tubing is injected; a radiation detector unit for receiving signals from the source which have been projected through the wall of the tubing; means for receiving signals form the detector unit for monitoring the structural integrity o the wall of the tubing during one of injecting and withdrawing the tubing with respect to the wellhead; and housing means supported for rotation about a longitudinal axis of the tubing.

  20. Coiled tubing - Operations and services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich, D.A.; Blue, T.H. )

    1993-03-01

    Sand production can severely impact well performance and profitability by damaging production equipment or plugging wellbores. Sand control in existing wells may be required because of inadequate initial completion design, recompletion to new intervals or changes in reservoir production characteristics. The most durable and reliable sand control is by conventional gravel packing, but in some cases, conventional packs may not be economic or feasible. Improvements in coiled tubing technology and reliability have resulted in better application and increased acceptance of through-tubing sand control. Concentric gravel packing and sand consolidation are being used more because of advances in equipment, services, downhole tools and fluids. Candidates for these techniques include conventional completions that begin producing sand and wells with gravel pack failures. Economical jobs have been performed successfully in several different wellbore configurations. Some initially non-gravel packed wells are now being designed for possible through-tubing gravel packing, anticipating sand production later in the completion's producing life. This paper reviews the general procedures for installing a through-tubing, washdown mechanical gravel pack using coiled tubing conveyance and placement techniques.

  1. Structurally Integrated Coatings for Wear and Corrosion (SICWC): Arc Lamp, InfraRed (IR) Thermal Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Sebright, J.

    2007-12-15

    The primary goal of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) betwe1311 UT-Battelle (Contractor) and Caterpillar Inc. (Participant) was to develop the plasma arc lamp (PAL), infrared (IR) thermal processing technology 1.) to enhance surface coating performance by improving the interfacial bond strength between selected coatings and substrates; and 2.) to extend this technology base for transitioning of the arc lamp processing to the industrial Participant. Completion of the following three key technical tasks (described below) was necessary in order to accomplish this goal. First, thermophysical property data sets were successfully determined for composite coatings applied to 1010 steel substrates, with a more limited data set successfully measured for free-standing coatings. These data are necessary for the computer modeling simulations and parametric studies to; A.) simulate PAL IR processing, facilitating the development of the initial processing parameters; and B.) help develop a better understanding of the basic PAL IR fusing process fundamentals, including predicting the influence of melt pool stirring and heat tnmsfar characteristics introduced during plasma arc lamp infrared (IR) processing; Second, a methodology and a set of procedures were successfully developed and the plasma arc lamp (PAL) power profiles were successfully mapped as a function of PAL power level for the ORNL PAL. The latter data also are necessary input for the computer model to accurately simulate PAL processing during process modeling simulations, and to facilitate a better understand of the fusing process fundamentals. Third, several computer modeling codes have been evaluated as to their capabilities and accuracy in being able to capture and simulate convective mixing that may occur during PAL thermal processing. The results from these evaluation efforts are summarized in this report. The intention of this project was to extend the technology base and provide for transitioning of the arc lamp processing to the industrial Participant.

  2. Fluorescent Protein Applications in Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Straight, Aaron

    . The Identification of Green Fluorescent Protein III. Formation of the GFP Chromophore IV. The Structure of GFP V environment. II. The Identification of Green Fluorescent Protein The isolation of green fluorescent protein of Aequorea, Shimomura et al. noted that the lumines- cence from aequorin was blue rather than the green

  3. Coiled tubing -- Operations and services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sas-Jaworsky, A. II ); Blount, C.G. ); Tailby, R.J. )

    1993-06-01

    This paper reviews three industry authority's views on developments that will impact coiled tubing equipment and techniques for conventional land locations, Arctic and harsh offshore environments. Examples which are provided include the development of high-strength steels, composite pipe, integral lift devices, abrasive jet drilling, and extended reach drilling. It discusses the application of coiled tubing to well completion and maintenance, including the applications to plugged pipelines. The use of new steels and alloys help increase the corrosion resistance of the drilling stem along with greater load-bearing capacity. The economic advantages of coiled drilling versus jointed tubing drilling is somewhat more questionable as the cost for downhole motors and directional tools remain prohibitively high and borehole diameters remain small.

  4. Coiled tubing; Operations and services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, P.T.; Wimberly, R.D.

    1992-10-01

    Oil and gas wells that flow on initial completion eventually reach a condition of liquid loading that kills the wells. This results form declining reservoir pressure, decreased gas volume (velocity), increased water production and other factors that cause liquids to accumulate at the bottom of the well and exert back pressure on the formation. This restricts or in some cases prevents fluid entry into the wellbore form the formation. Flowing production can be restored or increased by reducing surface backpressure, well bore stimulation, pressure maintenance or by installing a string of smaller diameter tubing. This paper reports on installation (hanging off) of a concentric string of coiled tubing inside existing production tubing which is an economically viable, safe, convenient and effective alterative for returning some of these liquid loaded )logged-up) wells to flowing status.

  5. Final Scientific/Technical Report "Arc Tube Coating System for Color Consistency"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buelow, Roger; Jenson, Chris; Kazenski, Keith

    2013-03-21

    DOE has enabled the use of coating materials using low cost application methods on light sources to positively affect the output of those sources. The coatings and light source combinations have shown increased lumen output of LED fixtures (1.5%-2.0%), LED arrays (1.4%) and LED powered remote phosphor systems â?? Philips L-Prize lamp (0.9%). We have also demonstrated lifetime enhancements (3000 hrs vs 8000 hrs) and shifting to higher CRI (51 to 65) in metal halide high intensity discharge lamps with metal oxide coatings. The coatings on LEDs and LED products are significant as the market is moving increasingly more towards LED technology. Enhancements in LED performance are demonstrated in this work through the use of available materials and low cost application processes. EFOI used low refractive index fluoropolymers and low cost dipping processes for application of the material to surfaces related to light transmission of LEDs and LED products. Materials included Teflon AF, an amorphous fluorinated polymer and fluorinated acrylic monomers. The DOE SSL Roadmap sets goals for LED performance moving into the future. EFOIâ??s coating technology is a means to shift the performance curve for LEDs. This is not limited to one type of LED, but is relevant across LED technologies. The metal halide work included the use of sol-gel solutions resulting in silicon dioxide and titanium dioxide coatings on the quartz substrates of the metal halide arc tubes. The coatings were applied using low cost dipping processes.

  6. Coiled tubing; Operations and services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sas-Jaworsky, A. II )

    1991-12-01

    This article outlines the minimum safety requirements that should be considered for onshore and offshore oil well service operations with coiled tubing equipment. These guidelines comply with Minerals Management Service (MMS) regulations issued on May 31, 1988, for offshore work. Where specific MMS regulations are sited, the regulation reference, Incident of Non-Compliance (INC), number is provided. These guidelines can be used by operators and contractors, and although U.S. offshore operations are emphasized, they are applicable wherever coiled tubing services are used.

  7. Coiled tubing; Operations and services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sas-Jaworsky, A. II )

    1992-03-01

    Operations involving sand or solids washing are the most common of today's coiled tubing workover services. Wellbore cleanouts require pumping fluid that will entrain solids and return them to the surface. In most cases, wash fluids and solids are captured in surface tanks of sufficient volume to allow solids to settle out. Where practical, fluids are recirculated to reduce cost. An important concern when designing sand wash programs is correct fluid system selection. Wash fluids should closely balance BHP and provide piston like displacement for solids removal. This paper is an overview of compressible and incompressible fluids commonly used for coiled tubing services.

  8. Opposed slant tube diabatic sorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, Donald C.

    2004-01-20

    A sorber comprised of at least three concentric coils of tubing contained in a shell with a flow path for liquid sorbent in one direction, a flow path for heat transfer fluid which is in counter-current heat exchange relationship with sorbent flow, a sorbate vapor port in communication with at least one of sorbent inlet or exit ports, wherein each coil is coiled in opposite direction to those coils adjoining it, whereby the opposed slant tube configuration is achieved, with structure for flow modification in the core space inside the innermost coil.

  9. Energy Savings and NOx Emissions Reduction Potential from the 2012 Federal Legislation to Phase Out Incandescent Lamps in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Zi; Baltazar, Juan Carlos; Haberl, Jeff; Soman, Rohit

    2010-01-01

    Lamps in Texas Description Value Reference Total Housing Units in Texas in 2013: 10,204,056 Real Estate Center, Texas A&M University3, U.S. Census Bureau4 5 Average Lighting Electricity Usage per House: 1,946 kWh/yr NREL Building America Program6... % of Lamps That can be Retrofitted with a CFL: 70% NREL Building America Program6 and ESL Assumption % of Savings From Replacing Incandescent to CFL Lamps: 75% ESL Assumption CFL Lighting Electricity Savings per House: 1,022 kWh/yr Total Annual CFL...

  10. The Air-Fluorescence Yield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Arqueros; F. Blanco; D. Garcia-Pinto; M. Ortiz; J. Rosado

    2008-07-30

    Detection of the air-fluorescence radiation induced by the charged particles of extensive air showers is a well-established technique for the study of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. Fluorescence telescopes provide a nearly calorimetric measure of the primary energy. Presently the main source of systematic uncertainties comes from our limited accuracy in the fluorescence yield, that is, the number of fluorescence photons emitted per unit of energy deposited in the atmosphere by the shower particles. In this paper the current status of our knowledge on the fluorescence yield both experimental an theoretical will be discussed.

  11. Coiled tubing 1994: Enhanced value through innovation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teel, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the growth in use of coiled tubing in well completion and development processes. Larger tubing is now available and operations expand into more demanding and critical areas as a result of research and development, innovation, and better understanding of materials and tube development. This article highlights significant coiled tubing operations, services, practices, and applications since 1990. It describes the types of materials used in coiled tubing and the strength associated with each type. Various case studies are described which use this tubing in both horizontal and directional drilling. It also is discussed as it relates to various types of enhanced recovery techniques for oil and gas wells.

  12. Coiled-tubing logging system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, E.P.; Smith, L.J.; Blount, C.G.

    1988-03-01

    Techniques have been developed to use coiled tubing containing a seven-conductor wireline to facilitate logging operations. Equipment has been designed to permit the connection of conventional logging tools to the tubing and the recording of logs. Operating techniques have been developed and applied under various wellbore conditions. The system allows traditional log measurements in a well while wellbore conditions are controlled. Advantages of the system include reduced wellbore pressure during peroration to maximize perforation performance; lubrication during pulling or pushing a logging tool through a borehole so that a more uniform velocity can be maintained with a logging sonde; continued circulation and thus borehole stability during logging; temperature reduction for improved reliability of logging sonde electronics in hot holes; and more stable positioning of perforation equipment. The ability of coiled tubing to push tools down highly deviated or horizontal wellbores makes logging or perforating feasible in these wells. Expenses can often be reduced with coiled-tubing logging because a rig is unnecessary during many operations.

  13. Coiled-tubing logging system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, E.P.; Smith, L.J.; Blount, C.G.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques have been developed which use coiled tubing containing a seven-conductor wireline to facilitate logging operations. Equipment has been designed which permits the connection of conventional logging tools to the tubing and the recording of logs. Also, operating techniques have been developed and applied under various wellbore conditions. The system allows traditional log measurements in a well while controlling wellbore conditions. Advantages of the system include: reduced wellbore pressure during perforation to minimize formation damage: lubrication while pulling or pushing a logging tool through a borehole so that a more uniform velocity can be maintained with a logging sonde; continued circulation and thus borehole stability while logging; temperature reduction for improved reliability of logging sonde electronics in hot holes; and more stable positioning of perforation equipment. The ability of coiled tubing to push tools down highly deviated, or even horizontal wellbores, makes logging or perforating feasible in these wells. Expenses can often be reduced with coiled-tubing logging, since a rig is unnecessary during many operations.

  14. 2014 Tube -1 STANDING WAVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    2014 Tube - 1 STANDING WAVES IN AN AIR COLUMN The objective of the experiment is: · To study the harmonic structure of standing waves in an air column. APPARATUS: Computer, FFTScope software, PC speaker will produce nothing noteworthy. But, if the phase relationship is correct, standing waves can be formed

  15. Apparatus for connecting aligned abutted tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, R.E.

    1984-11-29

    An apparatus for connecting abutted tubes and for maintaining their rotary alignment during connection. The apparatus comprises first and second tubes, a rotation prevention element, a collar and a retainer. Each tube has inside and outside walls, and first and second ends, each end having an inside and outside edge. The first tube has portions defining a first plurality of cavities located at the outside edge of its first end. An external threaded portion is on the outside wall of the first tube and next to the first plurality of cavities. The second tube has portions defining a second plurality of cavities located at the outside edge of its first end. The first plurality has a different number than the second plurality. The first ends of the first and second tubes have substantially the same outside diameter and are abutted during connection so that an orifice is formed whenever first and second tube cavities substantially overlap. A rotation prevension element is placed in the orifice to prevent rotation of the first and second tubes. A collar with an internal threaded portion is slidably disposed about the second tube. The internal threaded portion engages the external threaded portion of the first tube to connect the tubes. A lip connected to the collar prevents separation of the collar from the second tube.

  16. Study of the electrodeless discharge lamps for photochemical applications and temperature dependence of photostationary state in cis-trans photoisomerization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirkva, Vladimir

    (EDL) placed into the reactor vessel of a commercial microwave oven. The UV light in the lamp-897. [2] Home page: http://home.icpf.cas.cz/cirkva [3] P. Klán, M. Hájek, V. Církva, J. Photochem

  17. CALiPER Report 20.1: Quality of Beam, Shadow, and Color in LED PAR38 Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    View the video about CALiPER Report 20.1 which focuses on human-evaluated characteristics, including beam quality, shadow quality, and color quality in LED PAR38 lamps.

  18. Sampling Artifacts from Conductive Silicone Tubing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timko, Michael T.

    2009-01-01

    the soot from the filter with water and collecting it in aof water placed on the “heated silicone tubing” filter (water drop placed on the “unheated stainless steel tubing” filter

  19. Fracture compliance estimation using borehole tube waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakku, Sudhish Kumar

    We tested two models, one for tube-wave generation and the other for tube-wave attenuation at a fracture intersecting a borehole that can be used to estimate fracture compliance, fracture aperture, and lateral extent. In ...

  20. LED lamp or bulb with remote phosphor and diffuser configuration with enhanced scattering properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tong, Tao; Le Toquin, Ronan; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric; Youmans, Mark; Lowes, Theodore; Medendorp, Jr., Nicholas W; Van De Ven, Antony; Negley, Gerald

    2014-11-11

    An LED lamp or bulb is disclosed that comprises a light source, a heat sink structure and an optical cavity. The optical cavity comprises a phosphor carrier having a conversions material and arranged over an opening to the cavity. The phosphor carrier comprises a thermally conductive transparent material and is thermally coupled to the heat sink structure. An LED based light source is mounted in the optical cavity remote to the phosphor carrier with light from the light source passing through the phosphor carrier. A diffuser dome is included that is mounted over the optical cavity, with light from the optical cavity passing through the diffuser dome. The properties of the diffuser, such as geometry, scattering properties of the scattering layer, surface roughness or smoothness, and spatial distribution of the scattering layer properties may be used to control various lamp properties such as color uniformity and light intensity distribution as a function of viewing angle.

  1. Coiled tubing solves multiple downhole problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedford, S. ); Smith, I. )

    1994-11-01

    Declining reservoir pressure and water breakthrough in the UK North Sea Magnus field has coincided with general advances in application of coiled tubing and a continuous drive to reduce operating costs, particularly in a climate of weak oil prices. These factors have led to a dramatic increase in diversity and volume of coiled tubing interventions. In the following article, coiled tubing interventions, and results of those interventions, are discussed. An assessment of future coiled tubing activity on Magnus field is provided.

  2. Spatiotemporal study of the local thermodynamic equilibrium deviations in high-intensity discharge lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helali, H.; Bchir, T.; Araoud, Z.; Charrada, K.

    2013-04-15

    The aim of this work is to study the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) deviations in arc discharges plasma generated in high-intensity discharge lamps operating under an ac (50 Hz) power supply. To achieve this goal, we elaborate a two-temperature, two-dimensional, and time-depending model. We have found numerical results almost reproducing the experimental data, which allows us to validate this model. After validation, we have discussed different energy term effects on the LTE deviations.

  3. Manual tube-to-tubesheet welding torch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kiefer, Joseph H. (Tampa, FL); Smith, Danny J. (Tampa, FL)

    1982-01-01

    A welding torch made of a high temperature plastic which fits over a tube intermediate the ends thereof for welding the juncture between the tube and the back side of a tube plate and has a ballooned end in which an electrode, filler wire guide, fiber optic bundle, and blanketing gas duct are disposed.

  4. Diffusion Tubes for Ambient NO2 Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    2 Monitoring: Practical Guidance AEA Energy & Environment iii Foreword Palmes-type diffusion tubesDiffusion Tubes for Ambient NO2 Monitoring: Practical Guidance for Laboratories and Users Report Monitoring: Practical Guidance AEA/ENV/R/2504 ­ Issue 1a Title Diffusion Tubes for Ambient NO2 Monitoring

  5. Spring/dimple instrument tube restraint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeMario, E.E.; Lawson, C.N.

    1993-11-23

    A nuclear fuel assembly for a pressurized water nuclear reactor has a spring and dimple structure formed in a non-radioactive insert tube placed in the top of a sensor receiving instrumentation tube thimble disposed in the fuel assembly and attached at a top nozzle, a bottom nozzle, and intermediate grids. The instrumentation tube thimble is open at the top, where the sensor or its connection extends through the cooling water for coupling to a sensor signal processor. The spring and dimple insert tube is mounted within the instrumentation tube thimble and extends downwardly adjacent the top. The springs and dimples restrain the sensor and its connections against lateral displacement causing impact with the instrumentation tube thimble due to the strong axial flow of cooling water. The instrumentation tube has a stainless steel outer sleeve and a zirconium alloy inner sleeve below the insert tube adjacent the top. The insert tube is relatively non-radioactivated inconel alloy. The opposed springs and dimples are formed on diametrically opposite inner walls of the insert tube, the springs being formed as spaced axial cuts in the insert tube, with a web of the insert tube between the cuts bowed radially inwardly for forming the spring, and the dimples being formed as radially inward protrusions opposed to the springs. 7 figures.

  6. Fluorescence analyzer for lignin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berthold, John W. (Salem, OH); Malito, Michael L. (Hubbard, OH); Jeffers, Larry (Alliance, OH)

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring lignin concentration in a sample of wood pulp or black liquor comprises a light emitting arrangement for emitting an excitation light through optical fiber bundles into a probe which has an undiluted sensing end facing the sample. The excitation light causes the lignin concentration to produce fluorescent emission light which is then conveyed through the probe to analyzing equipment which measures the intensity of the emission light. Measures a This invention was made with Government support under Contract Number DOE: DE-FC05-90CE40905 awarded by the Department of Energy (DOE). The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  7. Fluorescent temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Gary A [Los Alamos, NM; Baker, Sheila N [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-03-03

    The present invention is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  8. Coiled tubing - Operations and services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blount, C.G. )

    1993-05-01

    Perhaps the most exciting area of coil tubing technology in the oil and gas industry is the development and testing of specialized tools for improving existing operations or meeting the requirements of new applications and techniques. A new generation of surface equipment and downhole tools will greatly expand through-tubing well servicing utility. This paper provides descriptions of current peripheral devices for concentric well work. It also includes a look at what's needed to meet future challenges and advance this technology. It specifically discusses various forms of fishing tools, power tongs used for bring drill stem, orienting tools for drilling, downhole adjustment tools, steering tools, well casing materials, perforation tools, and various other support equipment.

  9. Coiled tubing helps gas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matheny, S.L. Jr.

    1980-08-11

    To boost production from its gas fields in Lake Erie, Consumers' Gas Co., Toronto, used a giant reel holding a 33,000-ft coil of 1-in. polypropylene-coated steel tubing to lay about 44 miles of control lines that now service 20 wells 17 miles offshore. As the forward motion of the boat unwound the tubing, the reel rig's hydraulic motor served as a brake to maintain the proper tension. This innovative method of laying the lines eliminated more than 80% of the pipe joints, correspondingly reduced the installation labor time, and improved the system's reliability. The two hydraulic-control lines that were laid actuate the gas-gathering line valves, while a hydrate-control line injects each well with methyl alcohol to inhibit hydrate formation.

  10. Coiled tubing; Operations and services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sas-Jaworsky, A. )

    1993-01-01

    Coiled tubing can be used to wash or spot acid across completion intervals in vertical and high-angle wells. This technique allows easy wellbore cleanout, fluid placement flexibility and convenient flowback, and reduces damage from tubular deposits. Better zone coverage and rapid load recovery can improve well productivity. Oil and gas completions are intended to provide for efficient fluid transfer from permeable zones. When fluid inflow is less than optimum, the blockage or restriction is called 'formation damage,' and production or injection can be significantly affected. Damage mitigation treatments range form simple acid soaks to massive hydraulic fracturing, depending on damage type and severity. This article covers planning, designing and implementing treatments using coiled tubing.

  11. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, Gordon E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging.

  12. Turbine nozzle stage having thermocouple guide tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schotsch, Margaret Jones (Greer, SC); Kirkpatrick, Francis Lawrence (late of Galway, NY); Lapine, Eric Michael (Northwood, NH)

    2002-01-01

    A guide tube is fixed adjacent opposite ends in outer and inner covers of a nozzle stage segment. The guide tube is serpentine in shape between the outer and inner covers and extends through a nozzle vane. An insert is disposed in the nozzle vane and has apertures to accommodate serpentine portions of the guide tube. Cooling steam is also supplied through chambers of the insert on opposite sides of a central insert chamber containing the guide tube. The opposite ends of the guide tube are fixed to sleeves, in turn fixed to the outer and inner covers.

  13. Coiled tubing 1995 update: Production applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sas-Jaworsky II; Teel, M.E.

    1995-06-01

    This article reviews the use of coiled tubing in oil and gas well development and servicing. It reviews the new technology in tool development, concentric services, installation, and performance associated with coiled tubing. It provides numerous case studies of various offshore applications of coiled tubing for servicing of live wells without loosing production. Surface equipment and tool modifications allow tool segments to be connected, deployed, and retrieved in one trip. It also reviews the performance of the tubing for sand cleanouts, operation under high pressure environments, and for screen repairs. Finally, the article reviews the use of coiled tubing to enhance artificial lift technology.

  14. Underbalanced coiled tubing sidetrack successful

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam, J.; Berry, M.

    1995-12-18

    The technique of drilling through a completion string, underbalanced, with coiled tubing eliminated some of the problems encountered with overbalanced drilling in a group of offset wells. This project confirmed that performing drilling operations in live wells can be carried out safely and effectively. Dalen is a sour gas field in the eastern part of The Netherlands and produces from vertical fractures in the Zechstein carbonate reservoir. The proposal for Dalen 2 was to abandon the lower section of the original hole and subsequently sidetrack conventionally to the top of the reservoir, run and cement a 5-in. liner, complete the well with a 5-in. monobore completion, and install the christmas tree. This part of the operation would be performed with a workover hoist. Thereafter, a 3 3/4-in. hole would be drilled through the completion and into the reservoir, underbalanced with coiled tubing. The drilling proposal had to address a number of key issues: creating underbalanced conditions; handling sour gas production at surface; handling and treating drilling fluids at surface; removing drilled solids from the returned fluid system; and deploying a long coiled tubing drilling bottom hole assembly (BHA) into a live well. The paper discusses planning, legislative issues, well preparation, the drilling program, and lessons learned.

  15. Minimum wear tube support hole design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glatthorn, Raymond H. (St. Petersburg, FL)

    1986-01-01

    A minimum-wear through-bore (16) is defined within a heat exchanger tube support plate (14) so as to have an hourglass configuration as determined by means of a constant radiused surface curvature (18) as defined by means of an external radius (R3), wherein the surface (18) extends between the upper surface (20) and lower surface (22) of the tube support plate (14). When a heat exchange tube (12) is disposed within the tube support plate (14) so as to pass through the through-bore (16), the heat exchange tube (12) is always in contact with a smoothly curved or radiused portion of the through-bore surface (16) whereby unacceptably excessive wear upon the heat exchange tube (12), as normally developed by means of sharp edges, lands, ridges, or the like conventionally part of the tube support plates, is eliminated or substantially reduced.

  16. Multi-tube arrangement for combustor and method of making the multi-tube arrangement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziminsky, Willy Steve (Simpsonville, SC)

    2012-07-31

    A fuel injector tube includes a one piece, unitary, polygonal tube having an inlet end and an outlet end. The fuel injector tube further includes a fuel passage extending from the inlet end to the outlet end along a longitudinal axis of the polygonal tube, a plurality of air passages extending from the inlet end to the outlet end and surrounding the fuel passage, and a plurality of fuel holes. Each fuel hole connects an air passage with the fuel passage. The inlet end of the polygonal tube is formed into a fuel tube. A fuel injector includes a plurality of fuel injector tubes and a plate. The plurality of fuel tubes are connected to the plate adjacent the inlet ends of the plurality of fuel injector tubes.

  17. Laser-Stimulated Fluorescence in Paleontology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaye, Thomas G.; Falk, Amanda Renee; Pittman, Michael; Sereno, Paul C.; Martin, Larry D.; Burnham, David A.; Gong, Enpu; Xu, Xing; Wang, Yinan

    2015-05-27

    Fluorescence using ultraviolet (UV) light has seen increased use as a tool in paleontology over the last decade. Laser-stimulated fluorescence (LSF) is a next generation technique that is emerging as a way to fluoresce paleontological specimens...

  18. Design strategies for fluorescent biodegradable polymeric biomaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Jian

    Design strategies for fluorescent biodegradable polymeric biomaterials Yi Zhangab and Jian Yang biomaterials: biodegradable fluorescent polymers. Researchers have made significant efforts in developing versatile fluorescent biomaterials due to their promising applications in biological/biomedical labeling

  19. Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg[sup 196] enrichment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.

    1993-02-16

    The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg[sup 196] isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

  20. Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg.sup.196 enrichment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg.sup.196 isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

  1. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-04-14

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition are disclosed. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 14 figs.

  2. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-03-10

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, are disclosed with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 15 figs.

  3. Particle seeding flow system for horizontal shock tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Nicolas J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Adam A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Orlicz, Gregory C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prestridge, Katherine P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-01

    The Extreme Fluids Team in P-23, Physics Division, studies fluid dynamics at high speeds using high resolution diagnostics. The unsteady forces on a particle driven by a shock wave are not well understood, and they are difficult to model. A horizontal shock tube (HST) is being modified to collect data about the behavior of particles accelerated by shocks. The HST has been used previously for studies of Richtmyer-Meshkov instability using Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) as well as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), diagnostics that measure density and velocity. The purpose of our project is to design a flow system that will introduce particles into the HST. The requirements for this particle flow system (PFS) are that it be non-intrusive, be able to introduce either solid or liquid particles, have an exhaust capability, not interfere with existing diagnostics, and couple with the existing HST components. In addition, the particles must flow through the tube in a uniform way. We met these design criteria by first drawing the existing shock tube and diagnostics and doing an initial design of the ducts for the PFS. We then estimated the losses through the particle flow system from friction and researched possible fans that could be used to drive the particles. Finally, the most challenging component of the design was the coupling to the HST. If we used large inlets, the shock would lose strength as it passed by the inlet, so we designed a novel coupling inlet and outlet that minimize the losses to the shock wave. Our design was reviewed by the Extreme Fluids Team, and it is now being manufactured and built based upon our technical drawings.

  4. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Materials Assay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quiter, Brian

    2010-01-01

    clandestine material with nuclear resonance fluorescence”.E. Norman, UC Berkeley Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, privatepp. 349. G. Warren et al. “Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence of

  5. Large Diameter Lasing Tube Cooling Arrangement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Jerome P.; Alger, Terry W.; Anderson, Andrew T.; Arnold, Philip A.

    2004-05-18

    A cooling structure (16) for use inside a ceramic cylindrical tube (11) of a metal vapor laser (10) to cool the plasma in the tube (11), the cooling structure (16) comprising a plurality of circular metal members (17,31) and mounting members (18, 34) that position the metal members (17,31) coaxially in the tube (11) to form an annular lasing volume, with the metal members (17, 31) being axially spaced from each other along the length of the tube (11) to prevent the metal members from shorting out the current flow through the plasma in the tube (11) and to provide spaces through which the heat from localized hot spots in the plasma may radiate to the other side of the tube (11).

  6. Various factors affect coiled tubing limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y.S.

    1996-01-15

    Safety and reliability remain the primary concerns in coiled tubing operations. Factors affecting safety and reliability include corrosion, flexural bending, internal (or external) pressure and tension (or compression), and mechanical damage due to improper use. Such limits as coiled tubing fatigue, collapse, and buckling need to be understood to avoid disaster. With increased use of coiled tubing, operators will gain more experience. But at the same time, with further research and development of coiled tubing, the manufacturing quality will be improved and fatigue, collapse, and buckling models will become more mature, and eventually standard specifications will be available. This paper reviews the uses of coiled tubing and current research on mechanical behavior of said tubing. It also discusses several models used to help predict fatigue and failure levels.

  7. Tube support grid and spacer therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ringsmuth, Richard J. (Solano Beach, CA); Kaufman, Jay S. (Del Mar, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A tube support grid and spacers therefor provide radially inward preloading of heat exchange tubes to minimize stress upon base welds due to differential thermal expansion. The grid comprises a concentric series of rings and spacers with opposing concave sides for conforming to the tubes and V-shaped ends to provide resilient flexibility. The flexibility aids in assembly and in transmitting seismic vibrations from the tubes to a shroud. The tube support grid may be assembled in place to achieve the desired inwardly radial preloading of the heat exchange tubes. Tab and slot assembly further minimizes stresses in the system. The radii of the grid rings may be preselected to effect the desired radially inward preloading.

  8. Super-radiance in the sodium resonance lines from sodium iodide arc lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karabourniotis, D.; Drakakis, E.

    2010-08-09

    Super-radiance observed within the centers of the sodium resonance D lines emitted by arc lamps containing sodium iodide as additive in a high-pressure mercury plasma environment was studied by high-resolution emission spectroscopy. The spectral radiance of these self-reversed lines including super-radiance was simulated by considering a local enhancement of the source function due to the presence of an additional source of radiation near the arc wall. Causes of this hitherto unrecognized source of radiation are given.

  9. Preparation of nitrogen-doped carbon tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chung, Hoon Taek; Zelenay, Piotr

    2015-12-22

    A method for synthesizing nitrogen-doped carbon tubes involves preparing a solution of cyanamide and a suitable transition metal-containing salt in a solvent, evaporating the solvent to form a solid, and pyrolyzing the solid under an inert atmosphere under conditions suitable for the production of nitrogen-doped carbon tubes from the solid. Pyrolyzing for a shorter period of time followed by rapid cooling resulted in a tubes with a narrower average diameter.

  10. Eddy current measurement of tube element spacing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Latham, Wayne Meredith (Forest, VA); Hancock, Jimmy Wade (Lynchburg, VA); Grut, Jayne Marie (Madison Heights, VA)

    1998-01-01

    A method of electromagnetically measuring the distance between adjacent tube elements in a heat exchanger. A cylindrical, high magnetic permeability ferrite slug is placed in the tube adjacent the spacing to be measured. A bobbin or annular coil type probe operated in the absolute mode is inserted into a second tube adjacent the spacing to be measured. From prior calibrations on the response of the eddy current coil, the signals from the coil, when sensing the presence of the ferrite slug, are used to determine the spacing between the tubes.

  11. Lamp Divisions

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and MyersHr. Anthony V. Andolina:I 1 '\ LI g.3LTSI9

  12. CALiPER Report 20.4: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-12-30

    This CALiPER report focuses on lumen maintenance, chromaticity maintenance, and catastrophic failure in 32 of the Series 20 LED PAR38 lamps and 8 benchmark lamps, which were monitored for nearly 14,000 hours at ambient temperatures between 44°C and 45°C.

  13. IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, PESC-97, 39-45, St. Louis, 1997. A MHz Electronic Ballast for Automotive-Type HID Lamps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ballast for Automotive-Type HID Lamps Michael Gulko and Sam Ben-Yaakov* Power Electronics Laboratory lamps designated for automotive headlight applications was investigated theoretically, by simulation and experimentally. The study reveals that a based ballast (CS-PPRI) complies with the automotive requirement of very

  14. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Nuclear Materials Assay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quiter, Brian Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Potential of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence . . . . . . . .2.9.1 Nuclear ThomsonSections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nuclear Resonance

  15. A Review of the Reflector Compact Fluorescent Lights Technology Procurement Program: Conclusions and Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandahl, Linda J.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Ledbetter, Marc R.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.

    2008-05-19

    This report describes a project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and implemented by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), from 2000 to 2007 to improve the performance of reflector type (R-lamp) compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and increase their availability throughout the United States by means of a technology development and procurement strategy. In 2000, at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Emerging Technologies Program and its predecessors, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory undertook a technology procurement seeking R-CFLs that were specifically designed for use in ICAT recessed can fixtures and that met other minimum performance criteria including minimum light output and size restrictions (to ensure they fit in standard residential recessed cans). The technology procurement included two phases. In Phase I, requests for proposals (RFPs) were issued in October 2002 and five manufacturers responded with 12 lamp models. Eight of these models met the minimum requirements and passed the 6-hour short-term test in a simulated ICAT environment. These eight models were subjected to long-term tests of 6,000 or more hours in a simulated ICAT environment. Three of these models passed the short- and long-term tests and were promoted through the program website (www.pnl.gov/rlamps), press releases, and fliers. To increase the number of qualifying models, a second RFP was issued in June 2005. In April 2007, DOE announced that 16 reflector CFL (R-CFL) models by four manufacturers had met all the minimum requirements of Phase 2 of the R-CFL Technology Innovation Competition. PNNL developed both the criteria and the test apparatus design for Elevated Temperature Life Testing (ETLT), which has been included by DOE in its draft ENERGY STAR specifications for the reflector category of CFLs. PNNL promoted the winning lamps through a program website, press releases, and fliers as well as through program partners. PNNL also helped engage distributors including Costco, the Home Depot, Bonneville Power Administration, and utility organizations.

  16. ON THE WELDED TUBE MAP BENJAMIN AUDOUX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Audoux, Benjamin

    ON THE WELDED TUBE MAP BENJAMIN AUDOUX Abstract. This paper investigates the so-called Tube map which connects welded knots, that is a quotient of the virtual knot theory, to ribbon torus-knots with a given filling are in one-to-one correspondence with welded knots before quo- tient under classical

  17. Innovative applications stimulate coiled tubing development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sas-Jaworsky, A. II; Bell, S.

    1996-06-01

    Coiled tubing (CT) is increasingly becoming a viable option to many conventional well operations worldwide. Advanced technology, new equipment and recent field applications have shown CT to be a lower-cost, reliable and effective tool for drilling and recompleting certain wells. Seven example applications from two recent coiled tubing technical conferences are described.

  18. How loads affect coiled tubing life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, E.J. Inc., AK )

    1992-01-01

    Fatigue testing was performed on 1-3/4-in OD, 0.125 in. wall thickness (WT) coiled tubing using a standard coiled tubing unit (CTU) as shown in this paper. Testing was conducted under Prudhoe Bay, Alaska oil well, conditions to determine the effects of axial load, internal pressure and bending stress on the longevity, or usable running footage, that can be expected with larger diameter tubing. The CTU was rigged up in a standard configuration with injector head 50 ft off the ground, the worst case for bending on most currently available North Slope units. Internal pressure was supplied by a small triplex pump and the end of tubing was closed off with a fishing neck and bull plug. Weight, for the first four tests, was suspended from the coiled tubing by a special clamp. The tubing was cycled up and over the guide arch until a loss of internal coiled tubing pressure (CTP) occurred, or until the tubing became stuck in the stripper brass.

  19. Winning the fight against boiler tube failure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, J.; Dooley, B.

    1986-12-01

    Eliminating boiler tube failures could be worth $5 billion a year to the electric power industry. The causes and cures for the great majority of these ubiquitous failures are now known, with implications for change ranging from senior management to the maintenance crew. Methods for preventing boiler tube failure are discussed.

  20. Evolution of coiled tubing drilling technology accelerates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, J.; Adam, B.

    1993-09-01

    This paper reviews the status of coiled tubing technology in oil and gas drilling operations. The paper starts with a description of current coiled tubing technology and provides a cost comparison between conventional and coiled tubing drilling. The results show that offshore operations are already competitive while onshore operations will still lag behind conventional drilling methods. A list of known coiled tubing drilling operations is provided which gives the current borehole diameters and depths associated with this technology. The paper then goes on to provide the advantages and disadvantages of the technology. The advantages include improved well control, a continuous drillstring, reduced mobilization costs, simplified logging and measurement-while drilling measurements, and less tripping required. The disadvantages include high friction with the borehole wall, downhole motors required, limited drillhole size, and fatigued or damaged sections of the tubing cannot be removed. Finally, a review of the reliability of this technology is provided.

  1. Coiled tubing flowline cuts wetlands disturbance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coats, E.A.; Marinello, S.A.

    1993-12-01

    Operators in environmentally sensitive wetland areas of South Louisiana have used jointed, or stickpipe flowlines to transmit oil and gas to and from wellsites and production facilities. Recently, a new method featuring coiled tubing was introduced, using it as a recyclable gas flowline. The coiled tubing method eliminates potential environmental damage that could occur when stickpipe is used and it allows the tubing to be easily recovered and reused when the well is taken out of service. This article describes economic advantages of using coiled tubing and how its use simplified environmental constraints encountered in swamps. It is an expanded version of the authors` presentation to World Oil`s Coiled Tubing Conference, Houston, March, 1993.

  2. Automatic Tube Cleaning Systems for Condensers & Heat Exchangers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Someah, K.

    1993-01-01

    Condenser tube fouling contributes up to 50% of the total condenser tube heat transfer resistance. This fouling results in reduced heat exchanger performance, reduced production, increased operational cost, increased back pressure, increased tube...

  3. Catalog of DC Appliances and Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbesi, Karina

    2012-01-01

    mainly fluorescent and LED lighting and DC ceiling fans. TheFluorescent, CFL Lighting systems: LED Fluorescent and CFLlamps CFL lamps LED lamp CFL floodlight Lighting systems:

  4. Multi-tube fuel nozzle with mixing features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hughes, Michael John

    2014-04-22

    A system includes a multi-tube fuel nozzle having an inlet plate and a plurality of tubes adjacent the inlet plate. The inlet plate includes a plurality of apertures, and each aperture includes an inlet feature. Each tube of the plurality of tubes is coupled to an aperture of the plurality of apertures. The multi-tube fuel nozzle includes a differential configuration of inlet features among the plurality of tubes.

  5. Visible Light Digital Camera --Up to 2.3MP resolution with LED lamps provides sharp images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    · Visible Light Digital Camera -- Up to 2.3MP resolution with LED lamps provides sharp images regardless of lighting conditions · Fusion Picture in Picture (PIP) -- Displays thermal image super case FLIR i40 Additional Features · 0.6MP Visible Light Camera resolution · Picture in Picture (PIP

  6. 190 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 30, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2002 Gap Closure in a Cold Metal Halide Lamp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushner, Mark

    190 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 30, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2002 Gap Closure in a Cold Metal lamp has been investigated using a two-dimensional, plasma transport model. Im- ages are presented are found to be important during gap closure. Index Terms--Arc discharges, avalanche breakdown, glow dis

  7. Squeeze cement method using coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Underdown, D.R.; Ashford, J.D.; Harrison, T.W.; Eastlack, J.K.; Blount, C.G.; Herring, G.D.

    1986-12-09

    A method is described of squeeze cementing a well wherein the well has a casing throughout the wellbore, casing cement between the casing and the wellbore of the well, perforations through the casing and the casing cement to establish fluid communication between the interior of the casing and a formation adjacent the perforations, channels in the casing cement in fluid communication with at least some of the perforations, a well tubing string in the casing extending from the surface to the proximity of the perforations, and a packer means for sealing between the tubing and the casing above the perforations. The method consists of: isolating the casing adjacent the perforations; lowering a coiled tubing down the well tubing string to a point adjacent the perforations; flowing uncontaminated squeeze cement through the coiled tubing and through the perforations into the channels; flowing a cement contaminating liquid down the coiled tubing to mix with the squeeze cement remaining in the casing; allowing the uncontaminated squeeze cement in the channels to harden; and removing the contaminated squeeze cement from the casing through the coiled tubing.

  8. Gastrostomy Tube Placement Without Nasogastric Tube: A Retrospective Evaluation in 85 Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heberlein, Wolf E., E-mail: weheberlein@uams.edu; Goodwin, Whitney J.; Wood, Clint E.; Yousaf, Muhammad; Culp, William C. [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Our study evaluated techniques for percutaneous gastrostomy (G)-tube placement without the use of a nasogastric (NG) tube. Instead, direct puncture of a physiologic air bubble or effervescent-enhanced gastric bubble distention was performed in patients with upper digestive tract obstruction (UDTO) or psychological objections to NG tubes. Materials and Methods: A total of 886 patients underwent G-tube placement in our department during a period of 7 years. We present our series of 85 (9.6%) consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous G-tube placement without use of an NG tube. Results: Of these 85 patients, fluoroscopic guided access was attempted by direct puncture of a physiologically present gastric air bubble in 24 (28%) cases. Puncture of an effervescent-induced large gastric air bubble was performed in 61 (72%) patients. Altogether, 82 (97%) of 85 G tubes were successfully placed in this fashion. The three failures comprised refusal of effervescent, vomiting of effervescent, and one initial tube misplacement when a deviation from our standard technique occurred. Conclusion: The described techniques compare favorably with published large series on G-tube placement with an NG tube in place. The techniques are especially suited for patients with UDTO due to head, neck, or esophageal malignancies, but they should be considered as an alternative in all patients. Direct puncture of effervescent-enhanced gastric bubble distention is a safe, patient-friendly and effective technique.

  9. Temporal Variability of Lunar Exospheric Helium During January 2012 from LRO/LAMP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feldman, Paul D; Retherford, Kurt D; Gladstone, G Randall; Stern, S Alan; Pryor, Wayne; Parker, Joel Wm; Kaufmann, David E; Davis, Michael W; Versteeg, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    We report observations of the lunar helium exosphere made between December 29, 2011, and January 26, 2012, with the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) ultraviolet spectrograph on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission (LRO). The observations were made of resonantly scattered He I 584 from illuminated atmosphere against the dark lunar surface on the dawn side of the terminator. We find no or little variation of the derived surface He density with latitude but day-to-day variations that likely reflect variations in the solar wind alpha flux. The 5-day passage of the Moon through the Earth's magnetotail results in a factor of two decrease in surface density, which is well explained by model simulations.

  10. THERMAL ANNEALING OF ZNO FILMS USING HIGH-DENSITY PLASMA ARC LAMPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Xu, Jun; Angelini, Joseph Attilio; Harper, David C

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructured materials are rarely synthesized with appropriate phase and/or morphology. In this study, critical additional of as-synthesized nanostructured materials, such as annealing and/or activation of dopants, are addressed using infrared plasma arc lamps (PAL) over areas as large as 1,000 cm2. The broad spectral range of the PAL and the spectral variation of light absorption in nanostructured materials make the selection of processing parameters extremely difficult, posing a major technological barrier. In this study, the measurement of the surface temperature using various techniques for ZnO films on crystalline silicon wafers is discussed. An energy transport model for the simulation of rapid thermal processing using PAL is presented. The experimental and computational results show that the surface temperature cannot be measured directly and that computer simulation results are an effective tool for obtaining accurate data on processing temperatures.

  11. A Radiative Transport Model for Heating Paints using High Density Plasma Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Duty, Chad E; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Nichols, Mark; Blue, Craig A; Ott, Ronald D

    2009-01-01

    The energy distribution and ensuing temperature evolution within paint-like systems under the influence of infrared radiation was studied. Thermal radiation effects as well as those due to heat conduction were considered. A complete set of material properties was derived and discussed. Infrared measurements were conducted to obtain experimental data for the temperature in the paint film. The heat flux of the incident radiation from the plasma arc lamp was measured using a heat flux sensor with a very short response time. The comparison between the computed and experimental results for temperature show that the models that are based on spectral four-flux RTE and accurate optical properties yield accurate results for the black paint systems.

  12. On the history of photomultiplier tube invention

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. K. Lubsandorzhiev

    2006-01-20

    In this very short note we review some historical aspects of photomultiplier tube invention. It is our tribute to the memory of great Soviet-Russian physicist and engineer Leonid Aleksandrovitch Kubetsky whose life and scientific achievements are described briefly. Particular efforts are made to shed light on a controversial issue of who invented the first photomultiplier tube. It is asserted that if to recognize L.A.Kubetsky's priority on the photomultiplier tube invention the last Beaune Conference would be held on the eve of the 75th Anniversary of that great event.

  13. Scintillation probe with photomultiplier tube saturation indicator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruch, Jeffrey F. (Bethel Park, PA); Urban, David J. (Glassport, PA)

    1996-01-01

    A photomultiplier tube saturation indicator is formed by supplying a supplemental light source, typically an light emitting diode (LED), adjacent to the photomultiplier tube. A switch allows the light source to be activated. The light is forwarded to the photomultiplier tube by an optical fiber. If the probe is properly light tight, then a meter attached to the indicator will register the light from the LED. If the probe is no longer light tight, and the saturation indicator is saturated, no signal will be registered when the LED is activated.

  14. Corrosion degradation mechanisms in coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, R.D.; Cayard, M.S.

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews the historical aspects related to the development of coiled tubing for oilfield drilling, logging, workover and production operations. It focuses on the metallurgical and process variables of coiled tubing and their interrelationship with aspects of the downhole service environment and the resultant corrosion performance. Special emphasis is placed on (1) operating conditions that can lead to excessive corrosion and/or cracking damage and corrosion fatigue and (2) metallurgical and processing parameters which can be controlled to maximize coiled tubing resistance to corrosion degradation.

  15. Coiled tubing facilitates deep underbalanced workover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, L.S.; Overstreet, C.C.

    1997-03-31

    A recent workover shows the technical capability and cost effectiveness of coiled tubing for cleaning out scale in a 22,611-ft, low pressure, high-temperature gas well. The well, operated by Chevron USA Production Co., is in the Fort Stockton Gas Unit 5-1 Gomez (Ellenburger) field, in West Texas. The development of reliable 100,000-psi minimal yield strength coiled tubing was a major factor that allowed this work to succeed. The methods demonstrated by this workover are becoming a standard for deep well cleanouts in the Gomez (Ellenburger) field. The paper describes coiled tubing advantages, well history, and implementation.

  16. Collapse tests expand coiled tubing uses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, E.J.; Mason, C.M. )

    1990-03-05

    Tests on coiled tubing have allowed the authors' company to decrease well work costs for some operations, especially squeeze cementing. They conducted collapse tests of 1.5 in. (0.095 in. and 0.109-in. wall thickness) and 1.75-in. (0.109-in. wall thickness) OD coiled tubing while under imposed axial load and differential pressure. These tests were performed to define accurate field operating limits for this size of coiled tubing. Findings from these tests are reported and discussed.

  17. Concentration dependence of fluorescence signal in a microfluidic fluorescence detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klotzkin, David

    ] demonstrated a compact device using an OLED as light source and an integrated p-i-n photodiode as detector Available online 6 February 2010 Keywords: Lab-on-a-chip On-chip fluorescence Cross-polarization OLED OPD et al. [3] have recently demonstrated the use of a polyfluorene based pLED (polymer LED) as light

  18. Vortex Tubes of Turbulent Solar Convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitiashvili, I N; Mansour, N N; Lele, S K; Wray, A A

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of turbulent properties of solar convection is extremely important for understanding of the multi-scale dynamics observed on the solar surface. In particular, recent high-resolution observations revealed ubiquitous vortical structures, and numerical simulations demonstrated links between the vortex tube dynamics and magnetic field organization, and also importance of vortex tube interactions in the mechanism of acoustic wave excitation on the Sun. In this paper we investigate mechanisms of formation of vortex tubes in highly-turbulent convective flows near the solar surface by using realistic radiative hydrodynamic LES simulations. Analysis of data, obtained by the simulations, indicates two basic processes of the vortex tube formation: 1) development of small-scale convective instability inside convective granules, and 2) a Kelvin-Helmholtz type instability of shearing flows in intergranular lanes. Our analysis shows that vortex stretching during these processes is a primary source of generatio...

  19. Performance of a tapered pulse tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.; Allen, M.; Woolan, J.J.

    1998-02-01

    In a well instrumented pulse tube refrigerator having 1,500 W of cooling power at 125 K, the authors have measured the figure of merit of a tapered pulse tube at several operating points. At operating points near the operating point for which the taper was designed, the figure of merit is 0.96. This is close to the theoretical optimum figure of merit 0.97 calculated for this pulse tube considering only two loss mechanisms: heat conduction in the metal pulse tube wall and ordinary thermoacoustic heat transport in the gas within a few thermal penetration depths of the wall. At operating points farther from the design operating point, the measured figure of merit is much lower, as streaming driven convection adds a third loss mechanism.

  20. Staged multi-tube premixing injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuo, Baifang; Khan, Abdul Rafey; York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve

    2012-10-02

    A fuel injection nozzle includes a body member having an upstream wall opposing a downstream wall, and an internal wall disposed between the upstream wall and the downstream wall, a first chamber partially defined by the an inner surface of the upstream wall and a surface of the internal wall, a second chamber partially defined by an inner surface of the downstream wall and a surface of the internal wall a first gas inlet communicative with the first chamber operative to emit a first gas into the first chamber, a second gas inlet communicative with the second chamber operative to emit a second gas into the second chamber, and a plurality of mixing tubes, each of the mixing tubes having a tube inner surface, a tube outer surface, a first inlet communicative with an aperture in the upstream wall operative to receive a third gas.

  1. Electric and Gas Fired Radiant Tubes 'ERT' 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nilsen, E. K.

    1981-01-01

    The paper covers a unique development by the Surface Division of Midland Ross of a radiant tube heating element which will heat an industrial furnace with either gas or electric without any down time or physical conversion ...

  2. Sidetracking technology for coiled-tubing drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leising, L.J.; Doremus, D.M.; Hearn, D.D.; Rike, E.A.; Paslay, P.R.

    1996-05-01

    Coiled-tubing (CT) drilling is a rapidly growing new technology that has been used for shallow new wells and re-entry applications. Through-tubing drilling has evolved as a major application for CT drilling. The remaining key enabling technology for viable through-tubing drilling is the ability to sidetrack in casing below the tubing tail. This paper describes the three technologies developed for sidetracking and presents a mathematical model of forces, penetration rates, and torques for window milling with the cement-sidetracking (CS) technique. Window milling has been a seat of the pants operation in the past. To the authors` knowledge, this is the first published work on the mechanics of window milling. The results from several yard tests and one field test are presented and show some of the problems associated with sidetracking.

  3. Sample inlet tube for ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prior, David [Hermiston, OR; Price, John [Richland, WA; Bruce, Jim [Oceanside, CA

    2002-09-24

    An improved inlet tube is positioned within an aperture through the device to allow the passage of ions from the ion source, through the improved inlet tube, and into the interior of the device. The inlet tube is designed with a larger end and a smaller end wherein the larger end has a larger interior diameter than the interior diameter of the smaller end. The inlet tube is positioned within the aperture such that the larger end is pointed towards the ion source, to receive ions therefrom, and the smaller end is directed towards the interior of the device, to deliver the ions thereto. Preferably, the ion source utilized in the operation of the present invention is a standard electrospray ionization source. Similarly, the present invention finds particular utility in conjunction with analytical devices such as mass spectrometers.

  4. Forced-convection condensation inside tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traviss, Donald P.

    1971-01-01

    High vapor velocity condensation inside a tube was studied analytically. The von Karman universal velocity distribution was applied to the condensate flow, pressure drops were calculated using the Lockhart- Martinelli ...

  5. Coiled tubing cuts horizontal screen repair cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crow, W.; Hill, P.; Johnston, R.

    1996-01-01

    This article presents a case history of the successful workover performed by a coiled tubing unit (CTU) on Mississippi Canyon (MC) Block 109 Well A-24 in the US Gulf of Mexico to clean out sand and install new concentric screen for sand control. Workover design and operational details discussed are: Workover design -- hole-cleaning hydraulics, CT and screen predictions and comparison considerations; Workover operations -- cleanout, running packer and screens, coiled tubing (CT) weights, acid treatment and nitrogen lift and flow back.

  6. A Study of the Fluorescence Response of Tetraphenyl-butadiene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jerry, R; Bugel, L; Conrad, J M

    2010-01-01

    Tetraphenyl-butadiene (TPB) is a widely used fluorescent wavelength-shifter. A common application is in liquid-argon-based particle detectors, where scintillation light is produced in the UV at 128 nm. In liquid argon experiments, TPB is often employed to shift the scintillation light to the visible range in order to allow detection via standard photomultiplier tubes. This paper presents studies on the stability of TPB with time under exposure to light. We also examine batch-to-batch variations. We compare scintillation-grade TPB to 99% pure TPB response. In the 99% pure samples, we report a yellowing effect, and full degradation of the TPB emission-peak, upon extended exposure to light.

  7. Electric Flux Tube in Magnetic Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jinfeng Liao; Edward Shuryak

    2007-12-06

    In this paper we study a methodical problem related to the magnetic scenario recently suggested and initiated by the authors \\cite{Liao_ES_mono} to understand the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (sQGP): the electric flux tube in monopole plasma. A macroscopic approach, interpolating between Bose condensed (dual superconductor) and classical gas medium is developed first. Then we work out a microscopic approach based on detailed quantum mechanical calculation of the monopole scattering on electric flux tube, evaluating induced currents for all partial waves. As expected, the flux tube looses its stability when particles can penetrate it: we make this condition precise by calculating the critical value for the product of the flux tube size times the particle momentum, above which the flux tube dissolves. Lattice static potentials indicate that flux tubes seem to dissolve at $T>T_{dissolution} \\approx 1.3 T_c$. Using our criterion one gets an estimate of the magnetic density $n\\approx 4.4 \\sim 6.6 fm^{-3}$ at this temperature.

  8. Coiled tubing as initial production tubing: An overview of case histories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nirider, H.L.; Snider, P.M.; Walsh, K.D.; Cordera, J.R.; Williams, J.

    1994-12-31

    From January, 1993 through July, 1994 Marathon Oil, Company completed ten newly drilled gas wells using coiled tubing as the initial production string. This paper reviews the operational aspects of each job and summarizes the areas where improvements in equipment and technique were implemented. The use of coiled tubing allows the tubing size to be closely matched to the performance of these relatively low rate wells, minimizing the tubular costs and improving the well`s ability to stay unloaded. The main areas of improvement from one job to the next involved the use of a pressurized, hydraulically operated access window, ensuring that all frac sand was cleaned out prior to landing the coiled tubing and employing a ``hot cut off`` system to make the final cut on the coil tubing. Lessons learned include keeping the coiled tubing size large enough to run smaller coiled tubing through it for clean out and slickline work, care in closing the BOP rams to avoid damaging the pipe and the use of wellhead equipment specifically designed for coiled tubing. This technique is especially suited to low pressure and water sensitive reservoirs where loss of fluid is of concern. An additional benefit is the cost savings from reducing the hole and casing sizes to match the reservoir potential. This completion technique is often quicker than using a conventional completion rig and jointed tubing.

  9. Covered Product Category: Fluorescent Luminaires

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including fluorescent luminaires. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  10. Covered Product Category: Fluorescent Ballasts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including fluorescent ballasts, which is a FEMP designated product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  11. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF RESONANT OSCILLATIONS IN A TUBE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Kun

    been published on thermoacoustic effects in a resonant tube with applications to thermoacoustic machine

  12. Active Harmonic Filtering Using Current Controlled Grid-Connected DG Units with Closed-Loop Power Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    of nonlinear loads, such as variable speed drives, light-emitting diode (LED) lamps, compact fluorescent lamps

  13. Chemistry & Biology Conversion of Red Fluorescent Protein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

    resonance energy transfer applications. INTRODUCTION Green fluorescent protein (GFP) from Aequoria victoria for multicolor and lifetime imaging, as well as the outstanding donor for green fluorescent proteins in Fo¨ rster green fluorescent probes, such as TagGFP or EGFP (Shaner et al., 2005). The improvement

  14. Effect of tube spacing on the vortex shedding characteristics of laminar flow past an inline tube array: A numerical study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Xiaoyu

    Effect of tube spacing on the vortex shedding characteristics of laminar flow past an inline tube the tubes. Complex flow dynamic phenomena such as reattachment of shear layers, in- duced separation, vortex Accepted 27 October 2008 Available online 14 November 2008 a b s t r a c t The effect of tube spacing

  15. CALiPER Report 20.1: Subjective Evaluation of Beam Quality, Shadow Quality, and Color Quality for LED PAR38 Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This December 3, 2013 webinar explored the findings of CALiPER 20.1: Subjective Evaluation of Beam Quality, Shadow Quality, and Color Quality for LED PAR38 Lamps and discussed what attributes to...

  16. Results from the Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP) and availability of the data on the Earth System Grid (ESG)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    and Extensible Earth System Model for Climate Change Scienceincluded in the new Earth System Models (ESMs) participatingof the C-LAMP model output via the Earth System Grid (ESG).

  17. Method and apparatus for mounting a dichroic mirror in a microwave powered lamp assembly using deformable tabs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ury, M.; Sowers, F.; Harper, C.; Love, W.

    1998-11-24

    A microwave powered electrodeless lamp includes an improved screen unit having mesh and solid sections with an internal reflector secured at the juncture of the two sections to reflect light into a light-transmitting chamber defined in the lamp microwave cavity by the reflector and the mesh section. A discharge envelope of a bulb is disposed in the light-transmitting chamber. Light emitted from the envelope is prevented by the reflector from entering the cavity portion bounded by the solid section of the screen. The reflector is mounted in the cavity by tabs formed in the screen unit and bendable into the cavity to define support planes abutting respective surfaces of the reflector. The mesh section and tabs are preferably formed by etching a thin metal sheet. 7 figs.

  18. Method and apparatus for mounting a dichroic mirror in a microwave powered lamp assembly using deformable tabs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ury, Michael (Bethesda, MD); Sowers, Frank (Frederick, MD); Harper, Curt (Wheaton, MD); Love, Wayne (Olney, MD)

    1998-01-01

    A microwave powered electrodeless lamp includes an improved screen unit having mesh and solid sections with an internal reflector secured at the juncture of the two sections to reflect light into a light-transmitting chamber defined in the lamp microwave cavity by the reflector and the mesh section. A discharge envelope of a bulb is disposed in the light-transmitting chamber. Light emitted from the envelope is prevented by the reflector from entering the cavity portion bounded by the solid section of the screen. The reflector is mounted in the cavity by tabs formed in the screen unit and bendable into the cavity to define support planes abutting respective surfaces of the reflector. The mesh section and tabs are preferably formed by etching a thin metal sheet.

  19. Optical emission spectroscopy of metal-halide lamps: Radially resolved atomic state distribution functions of Dy and Hg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimalasuriya, T.; Flikweert, A.J.; Stoffels, W.W.; Haverlag, M.; Mullen, J.J.A.M. van der; Pupat, N.B.M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France)

    2006-03-01

    Absolute line intensity measurements are performed on a metal-halide lamp. Several transitions of atomic and ionic Dy and atomic Hg are measured at different radial positions from which we obtain absolute atomic and ionic Dy intensity profiles. From these profiles we construct the radially resolved atomic state distribution function (ASDF) of the atomic and ionic Dy and the atomic Hg. From these ASDFs several quantities are determined as functions of radial position, such as the (excitation) temperature, the ion ratio Hg{sup +}/Dy{sup +}, the electron density, the ground state, and the total density of Dy atoms and ions. Moreover, these ASDFs give us insight about the departure from equilibrium. The measurements show a hollow density profile for the atoms and the ionization of atoms in the center. In the outer parts of the lamp molecules dominate.

  20. Electrical and chemical properties of XeCl*(308 nm) exciplex lamp created by a dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baadj, S.; Harrache, Z., E-mail: zharrache@yahoo.com; Belasri, A. [Université des Sciences et de la Technologie d’Oran, USTO-MB, Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Matériaux Conducteurs et leurs Application (LPPMCA) (Algeria)

    2013-12-15

    The aim of this work is to highlight, through numerical modeling, the chemical and the electrical characteristics of xenon chloride mixture in XeCl* (308 nm) excimer lamp created by a dielectric barrier discharge. A temporal model, based on the Xe/Cl{sub 2} mixture chemistry, the circuit and the Boltzmann equations, is constructed. The effects of operating voltage, Cl{sub 2} percentage in the Xe/Cl{sub 2} gas mixture, dielectric capacitance, as well as gas pressure on the 308-nm photon generation, under typical experimental operating conditions, have been investigated and discussed. The importance of charged and excited species, including the major electronic and ionic processes, is also demonstrated. The present calculations show clearly that the model predicts the optimal operating conditions and describes the electrical and chemical properties of the XeCl* exciplex lamp.

  1. Pumpdown assistance extends coiled tubing reach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tailby, R.J. )

    1992-07-01

    One of the most challenging coiled tubing applications to emerge in the last few years is horizontal well maintenance. When wireline cannot be used, techniques that offer some of the same flexibility, availability and relatively low cost must be used. During this same period, however, drilling technology has also made huge strides in horizontal and extended-reach areas. Wells are now being drilled with horizontal lengths in excess of 6,000 ft and measured depths of more than 22,000 ft. This paper reports that although horizontal wells are definitely here to stay, many operators have had to reevaluate their positions after being confronted with the problem of recompleting these wells to eliminate excessive water or gas production. A full workover with workstring using either a drilling rig or snubbing unit can be expensive and may lead to lost production because of limited rig availability. Coiled tubing has successfully been used in most cases thus far, but it has length and horizontal reach limitations that drilling technology will soon overtake. Within the constraints of current technology and tube capabilities, coiled tubing does not have the buckling resistance or reel capacity to service today's longest horizontal and extended reach wells or those planned and foreseen in the future. Even if coiled tubing can reach TD, operations requiring downward force are severely restricted.

  2. MEE 452: Example 3-2 ShellShell--andand--Tube Heat Exchanger Analysis:Tube Heat Exchanger Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    MEE 452: Example 3-2 ShellShell--andand--Tube Heat Exchanger Analysis:Tube Heat Exchanger Analysis-butyl alcohol @150oF. Two-tube-pass for illustration only COUNTER FLOW T PARALLEL FLOW T Heat Exchanger/c,out or 16/Re otherwise Tube-side Pressure drop ... MathCAD S&T HX analysis 7 of 7 Tube-side Pressure drop

  3. Fluorescence based chemical sensors for corrosion detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, R.E.; Agarwala, V.S.

    1997-12-01

    Several fluorescent materials have been identified as possible corrosion sensing coatings. These are either redox or metal ion complex materials. The redox materials are nonfluorescent in the reduced state and become fluorescent upon oxidation. Incorporated into paint coatings, they provide an early warning of corrosive conditions at the metal or alloy surface. The metal ion complex materials only fluoresce when the organic compound complexes with metal ions such as those generated in corrosion reactions. Fluorescent materials have been incorporated into paint coatings and on metal surfaces for the detection of corrosion. Oxine reacts with aluminum oxide on corroded aluminum to give a fluorescence that can be photographed in UV light. Several other materials were found to have good fluorescence but cannot be reversibly oxidized or reduced at the present time. More work will be done with these compounds as well as with Schiff bases to develop new fluorescent chemical sensing materials for smart coating on alloy surfaces.

  4. Circumferential cracking of steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karwoski, K.J.

    1997-04-01

    On April 28, 1995, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued Generic Letter (GL) 95-03, {open_quote}Circumferential Cracking of Steam Generator Tubes.{close_quote} GL 95-03 was issued to obtain information needed to verify licensee compliance with existing regulatory requirements regarding the integrity of steam generator tubes in domestic pressurized-water reactors (PWRs). This report briefly describes the design and function of domestic steam generators and summarizes the staff`s assessment of the responses to GL 95-03. The report concludes with several observations related to steam generator operating experience. This report is intended to be representative of significant operating experience pertaining to circumferential cracking of steam generator tubes from April 1995 through December 1996. Operating experience prior to April 1995 is discussed throughout the report, as necessary, for completeness.

  5. Coiled tubing velocity strings keep wells unloaded

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesson, H.R.; Shursen, J.L.

    1989-07-01

    Liquid loading is a problem in many older and even some newer gas wells, particularly in pressure depletion type reservoirs. This liquid loading results in decreased production and may even kill the well. The use of coiled tubing as a velocity string (or siphon string) has proved to be an economically viable alternative to allow continued and thus, increased cumulative production for wells experiencing liquid loading problems. Coiled tubing run inside the existing production string reduces the flow area, whether the well is produced up the tubing or up the annulus. This reduction in flow area results in an increase in flow velocity and thus, an increase in the well's ability to unload fluids.

  6. Cooperative wrapping of nanoparticles by membrane tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Raatz; Reinhard Lipowsky; Thomas R. Weikl

    2014-01-08

    The bioactivity of nanoparticles crucially depends on their ability to cross biomembranes. Recent simulations indicate the cooperative wrapping and internalization of spherical nanoparticles in tubular membrane structures. In this article, we systematically investigate the energy gain of this cooperative wrapping by minimizing the energies of the rotationally symmetric shapes of the membrane tubes and of membrane segments wrapping single particles. We find that the energy gain for the cooperative wrapping of nanoparticles in membrane tubes relative to their individual wrapping as single particles strongly depends on the ratio of the particle radius and the range of the particle-membrane adhesion potential. For a potential range of the order of one nanometer, the cooperative wrapping in tubes is highly favorable for particles with a radius of tens of nanometers and intermediate adhesion energies, but not for particles that are significantly larger.

  7. Tube curvature measuring probe and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sokol, George J. (Scotia, NY)

    1990-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a probe and method for measuring the radius of curvature of a bend in a section of tubing. The probe includes a member with a pair of guide means, one located at each end of the member. A strain gauge is operatively connected to the member for detecting bending stress exrted on the member as the probe is drawn through and in engagement with the inner surface of a section of tubing having a bend. The method of the present invention includes steps utilizing a probe, like the aforementioned probe, which can be made to detect bends only in a single plane when having a fixed orientation relative the section of tubing to determine the maximum radius of curvature of the bend.

  8. Alternate Materials for Recovery Boiler Superheater Tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, James R [ORNL; Kish, Joseph [McMaster University; Singbeil, Douglas [FPInnovations

    2009-01-01

    The ever escalating demands for increased efficiency of all types of boilers would most sensibly be realized by an increase in the steam parameters of temperature and pressure. However, materials and corrosion limitations in the steam generating components, particularly the superheater tubes, present major obstacles to boiler designers in achieving systems that can operate under the more severe conditions. This paper will address the issues associated with superheater tube selection for many types of boilers; particularly chemical recovery boilers, but also addressing the similarities in issues for biomass and coal fired boilers. It will also review our recent study of materials for recovery boiler superheaters. Additional, more extensive studies, both laboratory and field, are needed to gain a better understanding of the variables that affect superheater tube corrosion and to better determine the best means to control this corrosion to ultimately permit operation of recovery boilers at higher temperatures and pressures.

  9. Measurements of atomic state distribution functions of the Philips QL-lamp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonkers, J.; Bakker, M.; Mullen, J.A.M. van der [Eindhoven Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Dept. of Applied Physics

    1996-12-31

    In 1992 Philips Lighting introduced the QL-lamp, an inductively coupled low pressure RF discharge containing a mixture of argon and mercury. Its main advantage is the absence of electrodes, which benefits the life-time. In order to improve the knowledge of this kind of plasmas a model has been developed and measurements have been performed. In every plasma the free electrons are an important species: they control the energy transfer from the electromagnetic field to the heavy particles. Therefore, it is important to know the spatial distribution of the electron temperature and of the electron density. These parameters can be obtained from the Atomic State Distribution Function (ASDF), since the levels close the ionization limit are in partial Local Saha Equilibrium (pLSE). The densities of the excited states are obtained from absolute line intensity measurements. However, it appears that the highly excited, measurable, states are not in pLSE, indicating that the QL plasma is far from Saha equilibrium. In order to obtain the electron densities and temperatures the ASDF has to be combined with either measurements of continuum radiation or a Collisional Radiative Model (CRM). The results of both methods will be presented and compared with a third technique to obtain the electron density and temperature: Thomson scattering.

  10. Color stable phosphors for LED lamps and methods for preparing them

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, James Edward; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Camardello, Samuel Joseph

    2013-11-26

    An LED lamp includes a light source configured to emit radiation with a peak intensity at a wavelength between about 250 nm and about 550 nm; and a phosphor composition configured to be radiationally coupled to the light source. The phosphor composition includes particles of a phosphor of formula I, said particles having a coating composition disposed on surfaces thereof; ((Sr.sub.1-zM.sub.z).sub.1-(x+w)A.sub.wCe.sub.x).sub.3(Al.sub.1-ySi.sub.y-)O.sub.4+y+3(x-w)F.sub.1-y-3(x-w) I wherein the coating composition comprises a material selected from aluminum oxide, magnesium oxide, calcium oxide, barium oxide, strontium oxide, zinc oxide, aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, barium hydroxide, strontium hydroxide, zinc hydroxide, aluminum phosphate, magnesium phosphate, calcium phosphate, barium phosphate, strontium phosphate, and combinations thereof; and A is Li, NA, K, or Rb, or a combination thereof; M is Ca, Ba, Mg, Zn, or a combination thereof; and 0

  11. Sidetracking technology for coiled tubing drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leising, L.J.; Hearn, D.D.; Rike, E.A.

    1995-12-31

    Coiled tubing (CT) drilling is a rapidly growing new technology that has been used for shallow new wells and reentry applications. A new market has evolved as being a major application for CT drilling. This market is through-tubing drilling. The lower cost of mobilization of a coiled tubing unit (CTU) to an offshore platform or Arctic wellsite vs. a rotary rig provides additional economic incentive. In addition, the ease of drilling 4-3/4-in. and smaller boreholes with CT is an advantage in a region which does not have an established practice of slimhole drilling. The remaining key enabling technology for viable through-tubing drilling is the ability to sidetrack in casing below the tubing tail. The three technologies (cement sidetracking, whipstock in cement, and through-tubing whipstock) that have been developed for sidetracking are described in this paper. A mathematical model of forces, penetration rates, and torques for window milling with the cement sidetracking technique is presented. Window milling has been a {open_quotes}seat of the pants{close_quotes} operation in the past, to the authors` knowledge, this is the first published work on the mechanics of window milling. The analysis has shed much light on the interaction between motor bending stiffness, motor bend angle, and allowable advance rates for {open_quotes}time drilling.{close_quotes} The results from several yard tests are presented, and indicate some of the problems associated with sidetracking. The photographs of the sectioned hole/window illustrate the ledges caused downhole from {open_quotes}minor{close_quotes} bottomhole assembly (BHA) changes. The cement sidetrack technique has been successfully applied many times in the field, and the results of one of these field applications is presented.

  12. Microfluidics for blood component separation, medium exchange, response latency measurements, and single molecule fluorescence microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VanDelinder, Virginia Alison

    2009-01-01

    of #30 AWG Thin Wall PTFE tubing (Cole Parmer Instrumenteppendorf tubes and the narrow PTFE tubing (inner diameterof #30 AWG Thin Wall PTFE tubing (Cole Parmer Instrument

  13. A thermionic tube power change indicator 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, James Marvin

    1952-01-01

    , the a - c component of which Is: =~, P wa~e +82 e+aP z 3 4 (1) Relating Eq. 1 to Fig. 1, the e Is a function of eg and eb, the Instantaneous total anode voltage. The coefficients are various combinations of the tube impedance, its derivat- ives... is equal to e3. Therefore, '= Za, e +&a e d' (12a) But, Sn3 ~f (13) where h is the per cent of E sin wt that is actually applied across the plate and cathode of each tube. There is a small amount of voltage 'rop in the transformer and also...

  14. Segmented instrumentation tube including a locking sleeve for interlocking the segments of the instrumentation tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Obermeyer, F.D.

    1993-11-16

    Segmented instrumentation tube including a locking sleeve for interlocking the segments of the instrumentation tube, so that the threaded ends of the instrumentation tube do not unthread when subjected to vibration, such an instrumentation tube being suitable for use in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The instrumentation tube has a first member having a threaded end portion that has a plurality of first holes circumferentially around the outside surface thereof. The instrumentation tube also has a second member having a threaded end portion that has a plurality of second holes circumferentially around the outside surface thereof. The threads of the second member are caused to threadably engage the threads of the first member for defining a threaded joint there between. A sleeve having an inside surface surrounds the end portion of the first member and the end portion of the second member and thus surrounds the threaded joint. The sleeve includes a plurality of first projections and second projections that outwardly extend from the inside surface to engage the first holes and the second holes, respectively. The outside surface of the sleeve is crimped or swaged at the locations of the first projections and second projections such that the first projections and the second projections engage their respective holes. In this manner, independent rotation of the first member with respect to the second member is prevented, so that the instrumentation tube will not unthread at its threaded joint. 10 figures.

  15. Coiled tubing buckling implication in drilling and completing horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, J.; Juvkam-Wold, H.C.

    1995-03-01

    This paper discusses coiled tubing buckling and load transmission when drilling and completing horizontal wells. Comprehensive analyses and new equations are presented to predict buckling of coiled tubing, slack-off weight transmission, actual bit weight or packer load, and maximum horizontal length. Coiled tubing lock-up and yield due to buckling are also discussed. These equations can also be used for other coiled tubing operations, such as coiled tubing workover, coiled tubing well stimulation, and even for conventional joint-connected drill strings. Calculations based on the equations presented are also compared with the previous literature.

  16. Three-dimensional fluorescence lifetime tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godavarty, Anuradha; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Eppstein, Margaret J. [327 Votey Building, Department of Computer Science, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405 (United States); 1011 Richardson Building, Photon Migration Laboratories, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); 327 Votey Building, Department of Computer Science, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405 (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence tomography using molecularly targeted lifetime-sensitive, fluorescent contrast agents have applications for early-stage cancer diagnostics. Yet, although the measurement of fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is extensively used in microscopy and spectroscopy applications, demonstration of fluorescence lifetime tomography for medical imaging is limited to two-dimensional studies. Herein, the feasibility of three-dimensional fluorescence-lifetime tomography on clinically relevant phantom volumes is established, using (i) a gain-modulated intensified charge coupled device (CCD) and modulated laser diode imaging system, (ii) two fluorescent contrast agents, e.g., Indocyanine green and 3-3'-Diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide differing in their fluorescence lifetime by 0.62 ns, and (iii) a two stage approximate extended Kalman filter reconstruction algorithm. Fluorescence measurements of phase and amplitude were acquired on the phantom surface under different target to background fluorescence absorption (70:1, 100:1) and fluorescence lifetime (1:1, 2.1:1) contrasts at target depths of 1.4-2 cm. The Bayesian tomography algorithm was employed to obtain three-dimensional images of lifetime and absorption owing to the fluorophores.

  17. Stress-Assisted Corrosion in Boiler Tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preet M Singh; Steven J Pawel

    2006-05-27

    A number of industrial boilers, including in the pulp and paper industry, needed to replace their lower furnace tubes or decommission many recovery boilers due to stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) on the waterside of boiler tubes. More than half of the power and recovery boilers that have been inspected reveal SAC damage, which portends significant energy and economic impacts. The goal of this project was to clarify the mechanism of stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) of boiler tubes for the purpose of determining key parameters in its mitigation and control. To accomplish this in-situ strain measurements on boiler tubes were made. Boiler water environment was simulated in the laboratory and effects of water chemistry on SAC initiation and growth were evaluated in terms of industrial operations. Results from this project have shown that the dissolved oxygen is single most important factor in SAC initiation on carbon steel samples. Control of dissolved oxygen can be used to mitigate SAC in industrial boilers. Results have also shown that sharp corrosion fatigue and bulbous SAC cracks have similar mechanism but the morphology is different due to availability of oxygen during boiler shutdown conditions. Results are described in the final technical report.

  18. Wave guides: vacuum w/ tube of conductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    Wave guides: vacuum w/ tube of conductor boundary conditions for conductor Properties: non-transverse waves except TEM mode in coaxial cable speed normal modes (from Liouville problem) TE or TM TEM for coaxial cable cuto frequency otherwise evanescent waves separation into and components with 1 #12;B

  19. Flux tubes in the SU(3) vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario S. Cardaci; Paolo Cea; Leonardo Cosmai; Rossella Falcone; Alessandro Papa

    2011-09-30

    We analyze the distribution of the chromoelectric field generated by a static quark-antiquark pair in the SU(3) vacuum. We find that the transverse profile of the flux tube resembles the dual version of the Abrikosov vortex field distribution and give an estimate of the London penetration length in the confined vacuum.

  20. SHORT-TUBE SUBCRITICAL FLOW Enerag Division

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    due to the wide variation of the upstream and downstream conditions. In a previous paper [7 that at the same short tube upstream and downstream pressure differentials, the higher the level of upstream liquid and downstream pressure differentials as well as the level of upstream liquid subcooling. C = -0.019337 NF + 0

  1. Instrumented tube burns: theoretical and experimental observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarrington, Cole Davis; Obrey, Stephen J; Foley, Timothy J; Son, Steven F

    2009-01-01

    The advent of widely available nanoscale energetic composites has resulted in a flurry of novel applications. One of these applications is the use of nanomaterials in energetic compositions. In compositions that exhibit high sensitivity to stimulus, these materials are often termed metastable intermolecular composites (MIC). More generally, these compositions are simply called nanoenergetics. Researchers have used many different experimental techniques to analyze the various properties of nanoenergetic systems. Among these various techniques, the confined tube burn is a simple experiment that is capable of obtaining much data related to the combustion of these materials. The purpose of this report is to review the current state of the confined tube burn experiment, including the drawbacks of the technique and possible remedies. As this report is intended to focus on the specific experimental technique, data from many different energetic materials, and experimental configurations will be presented. The qualitative and quantitative data that can be gathered using confined tube burn experiments include burning rates, total impulse, pressure rise rate, and burning rate differences between different detector types. All of these measurements lend insight into the combustion properties and mechanisms of specific nanoenergetics. Finally, certain data indicates a more complicated flow scenario which may need to be considered when developing burn tube models.

  2. Equation determines pressure drop in coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y.S.

    1995-12-04

    A single equation can determine the pressure drop in wells with laminar, transitional, and turbulent incompressible fluid flow in coiled tubing or other steel tubulars. The single equation is useful, especially in computer-aided design and operations. The equation is derived and illustrated by an example.

  3. Further advances in coiled-tubing drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eide, E.; Brinkhorst, J.; Voelker, H.; Burge, P.; Ewen, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    The use of coiled tubing to drill horizontal re-entry wells has received considerable interest in the industry over the last two years. The benefit of being able to drill at balance, safely and in a controlled manner, using nitrogen to reduce down hole pressure while drilling highly depleted reservoirs, provides an advantage over conventional techniques, particularly in reducing impairment to the formation. The paper describes such a horizontal re-entry drilled in the shallow depleted water flooded reservoir Barenburg in Northern Germany. The entire program was executed with no intervention from a conventional rig or workover hoist. A special structure to be positioned over the well to support the coiled tubing injector head and to provide a work platform had to be constructed for this type of operation. A dedicated mast for lifting of pipe and down hole tools was placed on the substructure. The development of a surface controlled orienting tool and an adjustable motor provided excellent directional capabilities on a 2 3/8 in. coiled tubing. This program represents a significant extension of the capabilities of drilling with coiled tubing.

  4. Energies of Quantum QED Flux Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H Weigel

    2006-01-26

    In this talk I present recent studies on vacuum polarization energies and energy densities induced by QED flux tubes. I focus on comparing three and four dimensional scenarios and the discussion of various approximation schemes in view of the exact treatment.

  5. Numerical Simulation of Pulse-Tube Refrigerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tijsseling, A.S.

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 3.3.1 A model problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 3.3.2 Two-grid LUGR with fixed refinement area . . . . . . . . 53 3.3.3 Two-grid LUGR with moving refinement area . . . . . . . 55 4 in fully developed pipe flow . . . . 76 5 Flow and heat transfer computations for the pulse tube 81 5.1 One

  6. Digital radiographic systems detect boiler tube cracks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, S. [EPRI, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2008-06-15

    Boiler water wall leaks have been a major cause of steam plant forced outages. But conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques have a poor track record of detecting corrosion fatigue cracking on the inside surface of the cold side of waterwall tubing. EPRI is performing field trials of a prototype direct-digital radiographic system that promises to be a game changer. 8 figs.

  7. "Fine grain Nb tube for SRF cavities"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert E. Barber

    2012-07-08

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities used in charged particle linear accelerators, are currently fabricated by deep drawing niobium sheets and welding the drawn dishes together. The Nb sheet has a non-uniform microstructure, which leads to unpredictable cavity shape and surface roughness, and inconsistent "spring-back" during forming. In addition, weld zones cause hot spots during cavity operation. These factors limit linear accelerator performance and increase cavity manufacturing cost. Equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) can be used to refine and homogenize the microstructure of Nb tube for subsequent hydroforming into SRF cavities. Careful selection of deformation and heat treatment conditions during the processing steps can give a uniform and consistent microstructure in the tube, leading to improved deformability and lower manufacturing costs. Favorable microstructures were achieved in short test samples of RRR Nb tube, which may be particularly suitable for hydroforming into SRF cavity strings. The approach demonstrated could be applicable to microstructure engineering of other tube materials including tantalum, titanium, and zirconium.

  8. EBR-II Superheater Duplex Tube Examination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel M. Wachs; Dennis D. Keiser; Douglas L. Porter; Naoyuki Kisohara

    2008-12-01

    After 30 years of operation, the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) Superheater 710 at Argonne National Laboratory-West (now Idaho National Laboratory) was decommissioned. As part of its post-service examination, four duplex tube sections were removed and Charpy impact testing was performed to characterize the crack arresting ability of nickel-bonded tube interfaces. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination was also performed to characterize and identify changes in bond material microstructure. From room temperature to 400 degrees C, all samples demonstrated ductility and crack-stopping ability similar to that exhibited by beginning-of-life samples. However, at low temperature (-5 degrees C), samples removed from the lower region of the superheater (near the sodium inlet) failed while those from the upper region (near the sodium outlet) did not. SEM analysis revealed that all the tube-tube interfaces showed evidence of iron diffusion into the nickel braze, which resulted in the formation of a multiphase diffusion structure. Yet, significant void formation was only observed in the bond layer of the tubes removed from the lower region. This may be due to a change in the crystal microstructure of one of the phases within the bond layer that occurs in the 350 to 450 degrees C temperature range, which results in a lower density and the formation of porosity. Apparently, only the samples from the higher temperature region were exposed to this transition temperature, and the resulting large voids that developed acted as stress concentrators that led to low-temperature embrittlement and failure of the Charpy impact specimens.

  9. Coiled tubing operations and services. Part 3; Tube technology and capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sas-Jaworsky, A.I.I. )

    1992-01-01

    This article offers an overview of developments in commercial coiled tubing for oil wells including continuous coiled pipe manufacturing and production. Pipe behavior under various stresses and forces encountered during typical workover operations is addressed.

  10. Observed Minimum Illuminance Threshold for Night Market Vendors in Kenya who use LED Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan; Radecsky, Kristen

    2009-03-21

    Creation of light for work, socializing, and general illumination is a fundamental application of technology around the world. For those who lack access to electricity, an emerging and diverse range of LED based lighting products hold promise for replacing and/or augmenting their current fuel-based lighting sources that are costly and dirty. Along with analysis of environmental factors, economic models for total cost-ofownership of LED lighting products are an important tool for studying the impacts of these products as they emerge in markets of developing countries. One important metric in those models is the minimum illuminance demanded by end-users for a given task before recharging the lamp or replacing batteries. It impacts the lighting service cost per unit time if charging is done with purchased electricity, batteries, or charging services. The concept is illustrated in figure 1: LED lighting products are generally brightest immediately after the battery is charged or replaced and the illuminance degrades as the battery is discharged. When a minimum threshold level of illuminance is reached, the operational time for the battery charge cycle is over. The cost to recharge depends on the method utilized; these include charging at a shop at a fixed price per charge, charging on personal grid connections, using solar chargers, and purchasing dry cell batteries. This Research Note reports on the observed"charge-triggering" illuminance level threshold for night market vendors who use LED lighting products to provide general and task oriented illumination. All the study participants charged with AC power, either at a fixed-price charge shop or with electricity at their home.

  11. GLASS AND GLASS-DERIVATIVE SEALS FOR USE IN ENERGY-EFFICIENT FUEL CELLS AND LAMPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Misture; Arun Varshneya; Matthew Hall; Sylvia DeCarr; Steve Bancheri

    2004-08-15

    As the project approaches the end of the first year, the materials screening components of the work are ahead of schedule, while all other tasks are on schedule. For solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), a series of 16 sealing glasses have been prepared and characterized. Traditional melting was used to prepare all of the glasses, and the sol-gel approach has been used to prepare some of the glasses as well as other compositions that might be viable because of the low processing temperatures afforded by the sol-gel method. The glass characterization included measurements of the viscosity and thermal expansion of the glasses, as well as the thermal expansion of the partly crystalline glass ceramics. In addition, the wetting and sintering behavior of all glasses has been measured, as well as the crystallization behavior. The time and temperature at which crystalline phases form from the glasses has been determined for all of the glasses. Each glass ceramic contains at least two crystalline phases, and most of the crystalline phases have been positively identified. Room temperature leak testing has been completed for all sealants, and experiments are in progress to determine the DC electrochemical degradation and degradation in wet hydrogen. The second component of the work, focused on seals for higher-temperature discharge lighting, has focused on determining the phase relations in the yttria--alumina--silica system at various silica levels. Again, traditional melting and sol-gel synthesis have been employed, and the sol-gel method was successful for preparing new phases that were discovered during the work. High temperature diffraction and annealing studies have clarified the phase relations for the samples studies, although additional work remains. Four new phases have been identified and synthesized in pure form, from which full structure solutions were obtained as well as the anisotropic thermal expansion for each phase. Functional testing of lamps are on on-going and will be analyzed during year 2 of the contract.

  12. Scanning fluorescent microthermal imaging apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barton, Daniel L. (Albuquerque, NM); Tangyunyong, Paiboon (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A scanning fluorescent microthermal imaging (FMI) apparatus and method is disclosed, useful for integrated circuit (IC) failure analysis, that uses a scanned and focused beam from a laser to excite a thin fluorescent film disposed over the surface of the IC. By collecting fluorescent radiation from the film, and performing point-by-point data collection with a single-point photodetector, a thermal map of the IC is formed to measure any localized heating associated with defects in the IC.

  13. Scanning fluorescent microthermal imaging apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barton, D.L.; Tangyunyong, P.

    1998-01-06

    A scanning fluorescent microthermal imaging (FMI) apparatus and method is disclosed, useful for integrated circuit (IC) failure analysis, that uses a scanned and focused beam from a laser to excite a thin fluorescent film disposed over the surface of the IC. By collecting fluorescent radiation from the film, and performing point-by-point data collection with a single-point photodetector, a thermal map of the IC is formed to measure any localized heating associated with defects in the IC. 1 fig.

  14. Improving Efficiency of Tube Drawing Bench | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    small-diameter stainless steel tubing, conducted an in-house system performance optimization project to improve the efficiency of its No. 6 tube drawing bench. This four-page...

  15. Oxidation Tube Furnace (Lindberg/Blue 1100C)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Oxidation Tube Furnace (Lindberg/Blue 1100C) Basic User Manual 1st Edition Jan 2013 NR #12;Logon Oxidation Tube Furnace on FOM System Sign Log Book #12;Example Program: Room temperature to 1100C

  16. Refrigerant forced-convection condensation inside horizontal tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Soonhoon

    1968-01-01

    Condensing heat transfer rates inside a horizontal tube were investigated -for large quality changes across the tube. The proposed correlation is a modification of the work of Rohsenow, Webber and Ling [29]. The result of ...

  17. Insulated laser tube structure and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dittbenner, Gerald R. (4353 Findlay Way, Livermore, CA 94550)

    1999-01-01

    An insulated high temperature ceramic laser tube having substantially uniform insulation along the length of the tube is disclosed having particulate ceramic insulation positioned between the outer wall of the ceramic laser tube and the inner surface of tubular ceramic fiber insulation which surrounds the ceramic laser tube. The particulate ceramic insulation is preferably a ceramic capable of sintering to the outer surface of the ceramic laser tube and to the inner surface of the tubular ceramic fiber insulation. The addition of the particulate ceramic insulation to fill all the voids between the ceramic laser tube and the fibrous ceramic insulation permits the laser tube to be operated at a substantially uniform temperature throughout the length of the laser tube.

  18. Portable spotter for fluorescent contaminants on surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schuresko, Daniel D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1980-01-01

    A portable fluorescence-based spotter for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon contamination on personnel and work area surfaces under ambient lighting conditions is provided. This instrument employs beam modulation and phase sensitive detection for discriminating between fluorescence from organic materials from reflected background light and inorganic fluorescent material. The device uses excitation and emission filters to provide differentiation between classes of aromatic organic compounds. Certain inorganic fluorescent materials, including heavy metal compounds, may also be distinguished from the organic compounds, despite both having similar optical properties.

  19. Modeling coiled tubing velocity strings for gas wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, J.; Martinez, A.

    1995-12-31

    Multiphase flowing pressure and velocity prediction models are necessary to coiled tubing velocity string design. A model used by most of the coiled tubing service companies or manufacturers is reviewed. Guidance is provided for selecting a coiled tubing of the proper size. The steps include: (1) Measured data matching; (2) Fluid property adjustment; (3) Pressure, velocity, and holdup selection; (4) Correlation choice; (5) Coiled tubing selection. A velocity range for the lift of liquid is given.

  20. Coiled tubing technology advances to a bright future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghiselin, R.

    1998-07-01

    This supplement contains six short articles on coiled tubing, its advantages, performance, and materials. The articles are: Coiled Tubing--On the Brink of a New Millennium; CT Advances Promise a Broad, Dynamic Future; Performance, Safety and Cost Make the Case for HPCT; Fast and Accurate, CTD Helps Drillers Hit Their Targets; Composite Tubing Rapidly Proves Advantages in the Field; and People and Performance are Key to Coiled Tubing Growth.

  1. Composite Tube Hinges J. C. H. Yee1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pellegrino, Sergio

    -walled carbon fiber reinforced plastic CFRP tube with a circular cross section. The slots divide the tube-powered, self-latching tube hinges, made by cutting three parallel slots in a thin-walled carbon fiber materials; Thin shell structures; Fiber reinforced plastics. Introduction and Background There is a growing

  2. Finned Tube With Vortex Generators For A Heat Exchanger.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohal, Manohar S. (Idaho Falls, ID); O'Brien, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-12-20

    A system for and method of manufacturing a finned tube for a heat exchanger is disclosed herein. A continuous fin strip is provided with at one pair of vortex generators. A tube is rotated and linearly displaced while the continuous fin strip with vortex generators is spirally wrapped around the tube.

  3. Finned Tube With Vortex Generators For A Heat Exchanger.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohal, Monohar S. (Idaho Falls, ID); O'Brien, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2004-09-14

    A system for and method of manufacturing a finned tube for a heat exchanger is disclosed herein. A continuous fin strip is provided with at least one pair of vortex generators. A tube is rotated and linearly displaced while the continuous fin strip with vortex generators is spirally wrapped around the tube.

  4. EXISTENCE OF KNOTTED VORTEX TUBES IN STEADY EULER FLOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enciso, Alberto

    EXISTENCE OF KNOTTED VORTEX TUBES IN STEADY EULER FLOWS ALBERTO ENCISO AND DANIEL PERALTA-SALAS Abstract. We prove the existence of knotted and linked thin vortex tubes for steady solutions of vortex tubes of a Beltrami field that tends to zero at infinity. The structure of the vortex lines

  5. Design and Test of Tube & Shell Heat Exchangers for Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of double-tube heat exchangers #12;Company Logo Experimental apparatus Metal Type Ti SUS304 Al Cu Al 15m AlDesign and Test of Tube & Shell Heat Exchangers for Potential OTEC Application Jeong-Tae Kwon1 exchanger #12;Company Logo Cross-Counter -1 heat exchanger Cross-Counter -2 heat exchanger Double tube heat

  6. 18 Maple Syrup Digest HIGH VACUUM IN GRAVITY TUBING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    where elec- tricity is not available, time needed for maintenance of a pump and extractor gravity tubing, or tubing without the use of a pump, to be a poor substitute for a modern system with a pump, extractor, and the latest tubing arrangement. Sap yields from gravity systems are often half

  7. Gaseous Detonation-Driven Fracture of Tubes Tong Wa Chao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barr, Al

    Gaseous Detonation-Driven Fracture of Tubes Thesis by Tong Wa Chao In Partial Fulfillment An experimental investigation of fracture response of aluminum 6061-T6 tubes under internal gaseous detonation of this particular traveling load and tube geometry produced fracture data not available before in the open

  8. Investigation of pressure-tube and calandria-tube deformation following a single channel blockage event in ACR-700

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerardi, Craig Douglas

    2006-01-01

    The ACR-700 is an advanced pressure-tube (PT) reactor being developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). As in conventional CANDU reactors, the PTs are horizontal. Each PT is surrounded by a calandria tube (CT), ...

  9. Investigation of Pressure-Tube and Calandria-Tube Deformation Following a Single Channel Blockage Event in ACR-700

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buongiorno, Jacopo

    The ACR-700 is an advanced pressure-tube (PT) reactor being developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). As in conventional CANDU reactors, the PTs are horizontal. Each PT is surrounded by a calandria tube (CT), ...

  10. Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(JournalspectroscopyReport) | SciTech Connect Mathematical andFluorescentSciTech

  11. Source Terms for HFIR Beam Tube Shielding Analyses, and a Complete Shielding Analysis of the HB-3 Tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bucholz, J.A.

    2000-07-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is in the midst of a massive upgrade program to enhance experimental facilities. The reactor presently has four horizontal experimental beam tubes, all of which will be replaced or redesigned. The HB-2 beam tube will be enlarged to support more guide tubes, while the HB-4 beam tube will soon include a cold neutron source.

  12. The Spectrum of the Th-Ar Hollow-Cathode Lamp Used with the 2dcoude Spectrograph

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos Allende Prieto

    2001-11-08

    We have produced an atlas of the Th-Ar hollow-cathode lamp used with the 2dcoude spectrograph at McDonald Observatory. The atlas covers from 3611.9 to 10596.4 A at a resolving power of 52,000. We have determined the wavelenghts of 1483 emission lines in the spectrum with a median precision of 0.00023 A. A web-based interface is offered for interactive visualization of segments of the atlas or spectral orders.

  13. 2014-06-18 Issuance: Test Procedure for Integrated Light-Emitting Diode Lamps; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking regarding Test Procedures for Integrated Light-Emitting Diode Lamps, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on June 18, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  14. Coiled tubing applications for underground gas storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, H.; Holcombe, D.

    1994-12-31

    Technological advances in coiled tubing (CT), CT handling equipment, and application techniques have provided new opportunities for the effective, economic use of CT for gas storage and retrieval. This paper presents a review of the CT capabilities that can be used for improving the performance of gas storage wells and discusses applications that could be performed with CT in the near future. For more than 25 years, coiled tubing has been use as an effective, economic means of performing remedial well services. In response to the demand for better horizontal drilling equipment, the strength and diameter of CT has been increased, while surface equipment and downhole tools have become more sophisticated. CT is also widely used in well servicing after initial completion, especially since declining oil prices have made it imperative that operators find more cost-effective methods of increasing production and reducing maintenance costs. The gas storage industry can effectively take advantage of the many recent advancements in CT technology.

  15. Advanced composites enhance coiled tubing capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sas-Jaworsky, A.; Williams, J.G.

    1994-04-01

    From early coiled tubing (CT) use to recent operations, most concerns have been about tube damage from past service and remaining safe working life. Composite CT (CCT) is designed and constructed to exhibit unique anisotropic characteristics relative to steel or alternative isotropic materials that expand burst, collapse, tensile and compressive load performance capabilities. In 1988, Conoco Inc. began a development effort focused on using high-performance composite materials to meet numerous challenges associated with current and future oil and gas exploration and development. At that time, Conoco initiated a project to explore composite materials use for high-pressure, long-length, non-corroding tubulars with primary application as onshore water injection lines. In 1989, Conoco awarded a contract to AMAT a/s in Sandefjord, Norway to develop spoolable composite pipe for small diameter subsea lines. Concurrent with ongoing spoolable composite subsea lines, Conoco also began to explore high-performance CCT development in 1989.

  16. Dynamic characteristics of an oscillating electron tube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hull, Lewis Madison

    1918-01-01

    detecting device, whose behavior was shroud­ ed in mystery and apparently governed by no consistent laws or principles, to a most unique position in the radio field; its immense variety of possible applications in both in laboratory measurements... assumptions have been made: RIf negligible compared with VQ. RCB n " " 1. In practice, when the tube is put in oscillation with this arrangement of inductances a number of harmonic frequencies is present. These frequencies were first detect­ ed...

  17. Recirculating wedges for metal-vapor plasma tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, J.P.; Sawvel, R.M.; Draggoo, V.G.

    1994-06-28

    A metal vapor laser is disclosed that recycles condensed metal located at the terminal ends of a plasma tube back toward the center of the tube. A pair of arcuate wedges are incorporated on the bottom of the plasma tube near the terminal ends. The wedges slope downward toward the center so that condensed metal may be transported under the force of gravity away from the terminal ends. The wedges are curved to fit the plasma tube to thereby avoid forming any gaps within the tube interior. 8 figures.

  18. Recirculating wedges for metal-vapor plasma tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Jerome P. (Livermore, CA); Sawvel, Robert M. (Modesto, CA); Draggoo, Vaughn G. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A metal vapor laser is disclosed that recycles condensed metal located at the terminal ends of a plasma tube back toward the center of the tube. A pair of arcuate wedges are incorporated on the bottom of the plasma tube near the terminal ends. The wedges slope downward toward the center so that condensed metal may be transported under the force of gravity away from the terminal ends. The wedges are curved to fit the plasma tube to thereby avoid forming any gaps within the tube interior.

  19. Existence of knotted vortex tubes in steady Euler flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alberto Enciso; Daniel Peralta-Salas

    2014-10-23

    We prove the existence of knotted and linked thin vortex tubes for steady solutions to the incompressible Euler equation in R^3. More precisely, given a finite collection of (possibly linked and knotted) disjoint thin tubes in R^3, we show that they can be transformed with a C^m-small diffeomorphism into a set of vortex tubes of a Beltrami field that tends to zero at infinity. The structure of the vortex lines in the tubes is extremely rich, presenting a positive-measure set of invariant tori and infinitely many periodic vortex lines. The problem of the existence of steady knotted vortex tubes can be traced back to Lord Kelvin.

  20. Tube cutter tool and method of use for coupon removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nachbar, H.D.; Etten, M.P. Jr.; Kurowski, P.A.

    1997-05-06

    A tube cutter tool is insertable into a tube for cutting a coupon from a damaged site on the exterior of the tube. Prior to using the tool, the damaged site is first located from the interior of the tube using a multi-coil pancake eddy current test probe. The damaged site is then marked. A fiber optic probe is used to monitor the subsequent cutting procedure which is performed using a hole saw mounted on the tube cutter tool. Prior to completion of the cutting procedure, a drill in the center of the hole saw is drilled into the coupon to hold it in place. 4 figs.

  1. Tube cutter tool and method of use for coupon removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY); Etten, Jr., Marvin P. (Ballston Lake, NY); Kurowski, Paul A. (Scotia, NY)

    1997-01-01

    A tube cutter tool is insertable into a tube for cutting a coupon from a damaged site on the exterior of the tube. Prior to using the tool, the damaged site is first located from the interior of the tube using a multi-coil pancake eddy current test probe. The damaged site is then marked. A fiber optic probe is used to monitor the subsequent cutting procedure which is performed using a hole saw mounted on the tube cutter tool. Prior to completion of the cutting procedure, a drill in the center of the hole saw is drilled into the coupon to hold it in place.

  2. Sheared bioconvection in a horizontal tube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. A. Croze; E. E. Ashraf; M. A. Bees

    2010-10-01

    The recent interest in using microorganisms for biofuels is motivation enough to study bioconvection and cell dispersion in tubes subject to imposed flow. To optimize light and nutrient uptake, many microorganisms swim in directions biased by environmental cues (e.g. phototaxis in algae and chemotaxis in bacteria). Such taxes inevitably lead to accumulations of cells, which, as many microorganisms have a density different to the fluid, can induce hydrodynamic instabilites. The large-scale fluid flow and spectacular patterns that arise are termed bioconvection. However, the extent to which bioconvection is affected or suppressed by an imposed fluid flow, and how bioconvection influences the mean flow profile and cell transport are open questions. This experimental study is the first to address these issues by quantifying the patterns due to suspensions of the gravitactic and gyrotactic green biflagellate alga Chlamydomonas in horizontal tubes subject to an imposed flow. With no flow, the dependence of the dominant pattern wavelength at pattern onset on cell concentration is established for three different tube diameters. For small imposed flows, the vertical plumes of cells are observed merely to bow in the direction of flow. For sufficiently high flow rates, the plumes progressively fragment into piecewise linear diagonal plumes, unexpectedly inclined at constant angles and translating at fixed speeds. The pattern wavelength generally grows with flow rate, with transitions at critical rates that depend on concentration. Even at high imposed flow rates, bioconvection is not wholly suppressed and perturbs the flow field.

  3. ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: EFFECTIVENESS OF THE UV LAMP TO DECOMPOSE OXALATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ketusky, E.; Huff, T.; Sudduth, C.

    2010-01-19

    Enhanced Chemical Cleaning is a new process scheduled to begin cleaning Savannah River Site High Level Waste Tanks in 2012. It is an improvement over the current chemical cleaning method, in that it minimizes downstream impacts on the High Level Waste System. It is based on a state of the art scale removal process used on the secondary side of nuclear power plants, with modifications to accommodate the unique constraints created by the tanks. Both Enhanced Chemical Cleaning and the scale removal process are founded on dissolving metal oxides/hydroxides using oxalic acid, with subsequent oxalate decomposition via hydroxylation using ozone or peroxide, and UV light as a catalyst. A divergence Enhanced Chemical Cleaning has from nuclear power scale removal is the significantly increased solids concentration during oxalate decomposition. These solids can limit the ability of the UV light to create hydroxyl radicals, either by limiting the ability of the light to penetrate through the solution, or by increasing the fouling rate on the UV light. Both will decrease the overall catalytic effectiveness, thereby decreasing the concentration of formed hydroxyl radicals. The hydroxyl radicals are the driving force behind the oxalate decomposition. To understand the impact of increased solids, testing was performed using a medium pressure UV light inside an ozone supplied Oxalate Decomposition Reactor. Using a dissolved metal sludge simulant with an initial oxalate concentration greater than 12,000 ppm, and an initial pH of about 2.0, the spent acid solution was recirculated through the reactor, while the UV light was allowed to foul. For the first few hours, the oxalate decomposition rate was about 1,300 ppm/hour. After about 3 hours, enough time for the UV lamp to foul, the oxalate decomposition rate decreased to about 500 ppm/hour. The decomposition rate then remained roughly constant for the next 16 hours. Overall, testing showed that the oxalate destruction rate decreased by about 2.8. Results from very similartests with similar chemistry suggest that the impact should be about 10. Based on the limited reaction pathwayfor the creation of hydroxyl radicals with iron, ozone, and no UV, the discrepancy suggests that initially, at 'time zero' the UV light failed to perform up to expectations. It is therefore concluded that regardless of the fouling rate, either the increased solids concentration is impacting the initial penetrability (i.e. to many solids), or the light is not adequately sized/configured to have the appropriate flux.

  4. Mutations that suppress the thermosensitivity of green fluorescent protein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haseloff, Jim

    Mutations that suppress the thermosensitivity of green fluorescent protein Kirby R. Siemering*, Ralph Golbik, Richard Sever* and Jim Haseloff* Background: The green fluorescent protein (GFP temperatures. Background The green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the bio- luminescent jellyfish Aequorea

  5. Coiled tubing velocity string hangoff method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gipson, T.C.

    1991-07-02

    This patent describes a method for hanging off a coiled tube velocity string in an active gas production well tubing run, the run having at least a master valve and a first line valve. It includes installing a hangoff assembly in the production well tubing run between the master valve and the first line valve the hangoff assembly comprising a hangoff head, a second line valve, an upper valve, and a hydraulic packoff valve, the hangoff head further comprising a threaded body member, a slip bowl and a threaded cap; inserting through the hydraulic packoff valve, the upper valve, and the hangoff head, coiled tubing for fluid communication with well gases and fluids in the production well tubing run, the coiled tubing having a first downhole end being open to immediately receive and conduct the gases and fluids; opening gas and fluid communication between the production well tubing run and the open end of the coiled tubing whereby the well gases and fluid may pass up through the coiled tubing, the hangoff head sealing the gases and fluids from passing to the hydraulic packoff valve, the upper valve and the second line valve; further inserting the coiled tubing to a desired depth in the production well tubing run; and rotating the cap of the hangoff head to expose the slip bowl.

  6. Fiber optical assembly for fluorescence spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carpenter, II, Robert W. (Pagosa Springs, CO); Rubenstein, Richard (Staten Island, NY); Piltch, Martin (Los Alamos, NM); Gray, Perry (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-12-07

    A system for analyzing a sample for the presence of an analyte in a sample. The system includes a sample holder for containing the sample; an excitation source, such as a laser, and at least one linear array radially disposed about the sample holder. Radiation from the excitation source is directed to the sample, and the radiation induces fluorescent light in the sample. Each linear array includes a plurality of fused silica optical fibers that receive the fluorescent light and transmits a fluorescent light signal from the first end to an optical end port of the linear array. An end port assembly having a photo-detector is optically coupled to the optical end port. The photo-detector detects the fluorescent light signal and converts the fluorescent light signal into an electrical signal.

  7. Coiled tubing drilling requires economic and technical analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, S.C. )

    1995-02-20

    Field experience has proven that coiled tubing drilling is a technical and economic option on some wells; however, coiled tubing drilling is not the solution to every drilling prospect or production-enhancement job. To determine if coiled tubing drilling is viable, the geographic, technical, and economic aspects of each project must be considered in detail. Generally, with some limitations, coiled tubing drilling is feasible primarily when jointed pipe cannot be used effectively. Also, coiled tubing drilling may be more appropriate because of some special well site requirements, such as environmental regulations requiring less surface disturbance. The paper discusses technical considerations which need to be considered, economic feasibility, limitations of well types (new shallow wells, conventional reentry, through-tubing reentry, and underbalanced drilling), and outlook for further growth in the coiled tubing drilling industry.

  8. Applications of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Glen A.; Detwiler, Rebecca S.; Peplowski, Patrick N.

    2010-11-11

    Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) has the potential of addressing a wide variety of applications, which require isotopic and/or elemental information about a sample. We have investigated a variety of non-proliferation applications that may be addressed by NRF. From these applications, we have selected two, measuring uranium enrichment in UF6 cylinders and material verification in dismantlement, to investigate in more detail. Analytical models have been developed to evaluate these applications, and test measurements have been conducted to validate those models. We found that it is unlikely with current technology to address the requirements for UF6 cylinder enrichment measurements. In contrast, NRF is a very promising approach for material verification for dismantlement.

  9. Status of the Silicon Photomultiplier Telescope FAMOUS for the Fluorescence Detection of UHECRs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niggemann, Tim; Brogueira, Pedro; Bueno, Antonio; Eichler, Hans Michael; Ferreira, Miguel; Hebbeker, Thomas; Lauscher, Markus; Mendes, Luís; Middendorf, Lukas; Navas, Sergio; Peters, Christine; Pimenta, Mário; Ruiz, Angel; Schumacher, Johannes; Stephan, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    An established technique for the measurement of ultra-high-energy-cosmic-rays is the detection of the fluorescence light induced in the atmosphere of the Earth, by means of telescopes equipped with photomultiplier tubes. Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) promise an increase in the photon detection efficiency which outperforms conventional photomultiplier tubes. In combination with their compact package, a moderate bias voltage of several ten volt and single photon resolution, the use of SiPMs can improve the energy and spatial resolution of air fluorescence measurements, and lead to a gain in information on the primary particle. Though, drawbacks like a high dark-noise-rate and a strong temperature dependency have to be managed. FAMOUS is a refracting telescope prototype instrumented with 64 SiPMs of which the main optical element is a Fresnel lens of 549.7 mm diameter and 502.1 mm focal length. The sensitive area of the SiPMs is increased by a special light collection system consisting of Winston cones. The t...

  10. Using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Nondestructive Isotopic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A.

    2010-01-01

    7, (1959) pp. 54. [12] B.J. Quiter, ``Nuclear ResonanceFluorescence for Nuclear Materials Assay,'' University ofclandestine material with nuclear resonance fluorescence,"

  11. Design and evaluation of a device for fast multispectral time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yankelevich, Diego R.; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, 451 Health Sciences Drive, Davis, California 95616 ; Ma, Dinglong; Liu, Jing; Sun, Yang; Sun, Yinghua; Bec, Julien; Marcu, Laura; Elson, Daniel S.

    2014-03-15

    The application of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) to in vivo tissue diagnosis requires a method for fast acquisition of fluorescence decay profiles in multiple spectral bands. This study focusses on development of a clinically compatible fiber-optic based multispectral TRFS (ms-TRFS) system together with validation of its accuracy and precision for fluorescence lifetime measurements. It also presents the expansion of this technique into an imaging spectroscopy method. A tandem array of dichroic beamsplitters and filters was used to record TRFS decay profiles at four distinct spectral bands where biological tissue typically presents fluorescence emission maxima, namely, 390, 452, 542, and 629 nm. Each emission channel was temporally separated by using transmission delays through 200 ?m diameter multimode optical fibers of 1, 10, 19, and 28 m lengths. A Laguerre-expansion deconvolution algorithm was used to compensate for modal dispersion inherent to large diameter optical fibers and the finite bandwidth of detectors and digitizers. The system was found to be highly efficient and fast requiring a few nano-Joule of laser pulse energy and <1 ms per point measurement, respectively, for the detection of tissue autofluorescent components. Organic and biological chromophores with lifetimes that spanned a 0.8–7 ns range were used for system validation, and the measured lifetimes from the organic fluorophores deviated by less than 10% from values reported in the literature. Multi-spectral lifetime images of organic dye solutions contained in glass capillary tubes were recorded by raster scanning the single fiber probe in a 2D plane to validate the system as an imaging tool. The lifetime measurement variability was measured indicating that the system provides reproducible results with a standard deviation smaller than 50 ps. The ms-TRFS is a compact apparatus that makes possible the fast, accurate, and precise multispectral time-resolved fluorescence lifetime measurements of low quantum efficiency sub-nanosecond fluorophores.

  12. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 2, Fluorescent lamp ballasts, television sets, room air conditioners, and kitchen ranges and ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document is divided into ``volumes`` B through E, dealing with individual classes of consumer products. Chapters in each present engineering analysis, base case forecasts, projected national impacts of standards, life-cycle costs and payback periods, impacts on manufacturers, impacts of standards on electric utilities, and environmental effects. Supporting appendices are included.

  13. Glucose sensing molecules having selected fluorescent properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Lane, Stephen M.; Darrow, Christopher B.; Cary, Douglas R.; Tran, Joe Anh

    2004-01-27

    An analyte sensing fluorescent molecule that employs intramolecular electron transfer is designed to exhibit selected fluorescent properties in the presence of analytes such as saccharides. The selected fluorescent properties include excitation wavelength, emission wavelength, fluorescence lifetime, quantum yield, photostability, solubility, and temperature or pH sensitivity. The compound comprises an aryl or a substituted phenyl boronic acid that acts as a substrate recognition component, a fluorescence switch component, and a fluorophore. The fluorophore and switch component are selected such that the value of the free energy for electron transfer is less than about 3.0 kcal mol.sup.-1. Fluorescent compounds are described that are excited at wavelengths greater than 400 nm and emit at wavelengths greater than 450 nm, which is advantageous for optical transmission through skin. The fluorophore is typically selected from transition metal-ligand complexes and thiazine, oxazine, oxazone, or oxazine-one as well as anthracene compounds. The fluorescent compound can be immobilized in a glucose permeable biocompatible polymer matrix that is implantable below the skin.

  14. Fuel cell tubes and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borglum, Brian P. (Edgewood, PA)

    1999-11-30

    A method of manufacturing porous ceramic tubes for fuel cells with improved properties and higher manufacturing yield is disclosed. The method involves extruding a closed end fuel cell tube, such as an air electrode of a solid oxide fuel cell, in which the closed end also functions as the sintering support. The resultant fuel cell tube has a superior porosity distribution which allows improved diffusion of oxygen at the closed end of the tube during operation of the fuel cell. Because this region has the highest current density, performance enhancement and improved reliability of the fuel cell tube result. Furthermore, the higher manufacturing yield associated with the present method decreases the overall fuel cell cost. A method of manufacturing porous ceramic tubes for fuel cells with improved properties and higher manufacturing yield is disclosed. The method involves extruding a closed end fuel cell tube, such as an air electrode of a solid oxide fuel cell, in which the closed end also functions as the sintering support. The resultant fuel cell tube has a superior porosity distribution which allows improved diffusion of oxygen at the closed end of the tube during operation of the fuel cell. Because this region has the highest current density, performance enhancement and improved reliability of the fuel cell tube result. Furthermore, the higher manufacturing yield associated with the present method decreases the overall fuel cell cost.

  15. Logging of subterranean wells using coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilla, J.

    1991-01-15

    This patent describes an apparatus for production logging of a well utilizing artificial lift in a wellbore. It comprises: coiled tubing extending into the wellbore having wireline electrical cable passing through a central bore thereof and having a remote end within the wellbore which end is connected to gas injector means. The wireline cable passing through the gas injector means to a flexible electrically conductive support spacer having an end portion remote from the gas injector means and logging means connected to the end portion of the support spacer.

  16. Developments in coiled tubing BOP ram design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, R.; Newman, K.; Reaper, A.

    1995-12-31

    Significant technical improvements have been made recently in the design of coiled tubing (CT) blowout preventer (BOP) shear and slip rams. This technology is constantly being enhanced and refined as the CT service industry continues to mature and new operational demands are placed on the CT pressure control equipment. Larger CT sizes require better BOP shearing capabilities. Advancements in the understanding of CT fatigue life have caused the life reducing affects of the slip ram markings on the pipe to be examined. This paper explores the circumstances that have precipitated these improvements, and the research and development methods involved in developing better BOP rams.

  17. Sound Coiled-Tubing Drilling Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Thomas; Deskins, Greg; Ward, Stephen L.; Hightower, Mel

    2001-09-30

    This Coiled-Tubing Drilling (CTD) Sound Practices Manual provides tools needed by CTD engineers and supervisors to plan, design and perform safe, successful CTD operations. As emphasized throughout, both careful planning and attention to detail are mandatory for success. A bibliography of many useful CTD references is presented in Chapter 6. This manual is organized according to three processes: 1) Pre-Job Planning Process, 2) Operations Execution Process, and 3) Post-Job Review Process. Each is discussed in a logical and sequential format.

  18. Power Tube Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio1975) |Texas:Pottawattamie County,River,Generating IncTechnologyTube

  19. Dynamics of Magnetized Vortex Tubes in the Solar Chromosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitiashvili, I N; Mansour, N N; Wray, A A

    2012-01-01

    We use 3D radiative MHD simulations to investigate the formation and dynamics of small-scale (less than 0.5 Mm in diameter) vortex tubes spontaneously generated by turbulent convection in quiet-Sun regions with initially weak mean magnetic fields. The results show that the vortex tubes penetrate into the chromosphere and substantially affect the structure and dynamics of the solar atmosphere. The vortex tubes are mostly concentrated in intergranular lanes and are characterized by strong (near sonic) downflows and swirling motions that capture and twist magnetic field lines, forming magnetic flux tubes that expand with height and which attain magnetic field strengths ranging from 200 G in the chromosphere to more than 1 kG in the photosphere. We investigate in detail the physical properties of these vortex tubes, including thermodynamic properties, flow dynamics, and kinetic and current helicities, and conclude that magnetized vortex tubes provide an important path for energy and momentum transfer from the con...

  20. New coiled tubing jet cleaning system reduces costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, C.C.; Zublin, C.W.

    1985-11-01

    This paper describes Chevron's water blsting system, called Hyperclean, which uses N80 tubing with a special high-pressure power swivel to supply rotation connected via jointed tubing to a replaceable jet stack. One licensee was able to develop the system into a more practical field form and has had good success in in situ liner perforation and slot cleaning. The Hyperclean system is effective, but limited to wells where the production tubing's ID is large enough to allow the collars on the system's 1 1/4-in. tubing easy and safe passage. If smaller tubing is in the well, the tubing must be removed before the Hyperclean tools are lowered into the well.

  1. Coiled tubing as initial production tubing: An overview of case histories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nirider, H.L.; Snider, P.M.; Walsh, K.D.; Williams, J.D.; Cordera, J.R.

    1995-05-01

    From Jan. 1993 through Feb. 1995 Marathon Oil Co. completed 23 newly drilled gas wells with coiled tubing as the initial production string. This paper reviews operational aspects of representative jobs, summarizes areas where improvements in equipment and technique were implemented, and addresses cost and productivity benefits of rigless completions. A summary of lessons learned is also included.

  2. dc-plasma-sprayed electronic-tube device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meek, T.T.

    1982-01-29

    An electronic tube and associated circuitry which is produced by dc plasma arc spraying techniques is described. The process is carried out in a single step automated process whereby both active and passive devices are produced at very low cost. The circuitry is extremely reliable and is capable of functioning in both high radiation and high temperature environments. The size of the electronic tubes produced are more than an order of magnitude smaller than conventional electronic tubes.

  3. Coiled tubing 1994 update: Expanding applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teel, M.E.

    1994-06-01

    The coiled tubing (CT) resurgence, which began in late 1989 shows little sign of moderating in spite of lower oil and gas prices. In fact, this so-called revolution continues to expand into major new services and applications. CT units are replacing workover rigs and snubbing units in some areas and have recently started to replace drilling rigs even outside Alaska's North Slope Prudhoe Bay field. Activity is reaching record levels in many areas. Although drilling, completions and flowlines generate a lot of interest, these are currently only a small part of total CT business. About 75% of activity is split evenly between nitrogen, acidizing and cleanouts. The other 25% includes newer services like cementing, fishing, sliding sleeves, logging, underreaming to remove scale or cement and drilling. CT is used to drill slimholes and reentry drainholes up to 6 1/8-in. CT has been used as casing and more casing applications are planned. CT ODs to 3 1/2-in. are produced and 4 1/2-in. OD CT production is scheduled later this year. Larger ODs make CT feasible for replacing conventional jointed tubing and welded flowlines.

  4. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeung, E.S.; Taylor, J.A.

    1996-03-12

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis. 14 figs.

  5. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA); Taylor, John A. (Nevada, IA)

    1996-03-12

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis.

  6. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA); Taylor, John A. (Nevada, IA)

    1994-06-28

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis.

  7. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeung, E.S.; Taylor, J.A.

    1994-06-28

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis. 14 figures.

  8. Laser excited confocal microscope fluorescence scanner and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathies, R.A.; Peck, K.

    1992-02-25

    A fluorescent scanner is designed for scanning the fluorescence from a fluorescence labeled separated sample on a sample carrier. The scanner includes a confocal microscope for illuminating a predetermined volume of the sample carrier and/or receiving and processing fluorescence emissions from the volume to provide a display of the separated sample. 8 figs.

  9. AB Electronic Tubes and Quasi-Superconductivity at Room Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2008-05-02

    Author offers and researches a new idea - filling tubes by electronic gases. He shows: If the insulating envelope (cover) of the tube is charged positively, the electrons within the tube are not attracted to covering. Tube (as a whole) remains a neutral (uncharged) body. The electron gas in the tube has very low density and very high conductivity, close to superconductivity. If we take the density (pressure) of electron gas as equal to atmospheric pressure, the thickness of insulator film may be very small and the resulting tube is very light. Author shows the offered tubes can be applied to many technical fields. For example: (1) Transfer of energy over very long distance with very small electric losses. (2) Design of cheap high altitude electric lines without masts. (3) Transfer of energy from one continent to another continent through the ionosphere. (4) Transfer of a plasma beam (which can convey thrust and energy) from Earth surface to a space ship. (5) Observation of the sky by telescope without atmospheric hindrances. (6) Dirigibles (air balloons) of the highest lift force. (7) Increasing of gun range severalfold. (8) Transfer of matter. And so on. Key words: AB tubes, electronic tubes, superconductivity, transmission energy.

  10. Simple method for elimination of theromoacoustic oscillations in cryogenic tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorbachev, S.P.; Korolev, A.V.; Sysoev, V.A.

    1986-08-01

    The authors show that thermoacoustic oscillations of gas in cryogenic tubes can be eliminated by changing their length. Geometric dimensions that do not produce oscillations are given.

  11. Bore tube assembly for steam cooling a turbine rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeStefano, Thomas Daniel (Ballston Lake, NY); Wilson, Ian David (Clifton Park, NY)

    2002-01-01

    An axial bore tube assembly for a turbine is provided to supply cooling steam to hot gas components of the turbine wheels and return the spent cooling steam. A pair of inner and outer tubes define a steam supply passage concentric about an inner return passage. The forward ends of the tubes communicate with an end cap assembly having sets of peripheral holes communicating with first and second sets of radial tubes whereby cooling steam from the concentric passage is supplied through the end cap holes to radial tubes for cooling the buckets and return steam from the buckets is provided through the second set of radial tubes through a second set of openings of the end cap into the coaxial return passage. A radial-to-axial flow transitioning device, including anti-swirling vanes is provided in the end cap. A strut ring adjacent the aft end of the bore tube assembly permits axial and radial thermal expansion of the inner tube relative to the outer tube.

  12. Working session 3: Tubing integrity Cueto-Felgueroso, C. [Tecnatom...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tecnatom, S.A., San Sebastian de los Reyes, Madrid (Spain); Strosnider, J. NRC, Washington, DC (United States) 21 NUCLEAR POWER REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS; TUBES;...

  13. Coiled tubing used for slim hole re-entry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Traonmilin, E. ); Newman, K. )

    1992-02-17

    A coiled tubing unit with slim hole tools successfully re-entered and cored an existing Elf Aquitaine vertical well in the Paris basin in France. This experiment proved that coiled tubing could be used to drill, core, and test a slim hole well. Elf Aquitaine studied the use of coiled tubing for drilling inexpensive exploration wells in the Paris basin. As a result of this study, Elf believed that coiled tubing exploration drilling could significantly reduce exploration costs. This paper reports on a number of questions raised by this study: Can coiled tubing be used effectively to drill slim open hole How would the drilling rate compare with that of a conventional drilling rig If the rate were too slow, coiled tubing might not be economical. Can a straight vertical well be drilled Coiled tubing pipe has a residual curvature from bending over the reel and gooseneck. Will this curvature make it impossible to drill straight Can the coiled tubing also be used to take cores Once the hole is drilled, can it be tested with coiled tubing

  14. Method Of Making Closed End Ceramic Fuel Cell Tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borglum, Brian P. (Edgewood, PA)

    2002-04-30

    A method of manufacturing closed end ceramic fuel cell tubes with improved properties and higher manufacturing yield is disclosed. The method involves bonding an unfired cap to a hollow unfired tube to form a compound joint. The assembly is then fired to net shape without subsequent machining. The resultant closed end tube is superior in that it provides a leak-tight seal and its porosity is substantially identical to that of the tube wall. The higher manufacturing yield associated with the present method decreases overall fuel cell cost significantly.

  15. Crushing modes of aluminium tubes under axial compression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florent Henri Marc Rémy Pled; Wenyi Yan; Cui'E Wen

    2014-08-21

    A numerical study of the crushing of circular aluminium tubes with and without aluminium foam fillers has been carried out to investigate their buckling behaviours under axial compression. A crushing mode classification chart has been established for empty tubes. The influence of boundary conditions on crushing mode has also been investigated. The effect of foam filler on the crushing mode of tubes filled with foam was then examined. The predicted results would assist the design of crashworthy tube components with the preferred crushing mode with the maximum energy absorption.

  16. Assembly and method for testing the integrity of stuffing tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrison, Edward Francis (Burnt Hills, NY)

    1997-01-01

    A stuffing tube integrity checking assembly includes first and second annular seals, with each seal adapted to be positioned about a stuffing tube penetration component. An annular inflation bladder is provided, the bladder having a slot extending longitudinally therealong and including a separator for sealing the slot. A first valve is in fluid communication with the bladder for introducing pressurized fluid to the space defined by the bladder when mounted about the tube. First and second releasible clamps are provided. Each clamp assembly is positioned about the bladder for securing the bladder to one of the seals for thereby establishing a fluid-tight chamber about the tube.

  17. Penetrameter positioner for bore-side radiography of tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, E.V.; Foster, B.E.

    1980-02-05

    A positioner is provided for placing plaque or wire penetrameters, as used in radiographic inspection, in close proximity with the inner wall of tubing at any desired location along the tubing. The positioner head carrying the penetrameter is inflatable whereby it is positioned in tte deflated condition, inflated to place the penetrameter against a weld to be inspected in the tubing wall, and then deflated during removal. If desired, the penetrameter holder may be used to center the radiographic source on the axis of the tube.

  18. Penetrameter positioner for bore-side radiography of tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Earl V. (Oak Ridge, TN); Foster, Billy E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1983-01-01

    A positioner is provided for placing plaque or wire penetrameters, as used in radiographic inspection, in close proximity with the inner wall of tubing at any desired location along the tubing. The positioner head carrying the penetrameter is inflatable whereby it is positioned in the deflated condition, inflated to place the penetrameter against a weld to be inspected in the tubing wall, and then deflated during removal. If desired, the penetrameter holder may be used to center the radiographic source on the axis of the tube.

  19. Air fluorescence relevant for cosmic-ray detection--Summary of the 5th fluorescence workshop, El Escorial 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hörandel, Jörg R.

    Air fluorescence relevant for cosmic-ray detection--Summary of the 5th fluorescence workshop, El August 2008 Keywords: Fluorescence yield Air showers a b s t r a c t High-energy cosmic rays with energies exceeding 1017 eV are frequently observed by measurements of the fluorescence light induced by air

  20. Ultratrace analysis of transuranic actinides by laser-induced fluorescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, S.M.

    1983-10-31

    Ultratrace quantities of transuranic actinides are detected indirectly by their effect on the fluorescent emissions of a preselected fluorescent species. Transuranic actinides in a sample are coprecipitated with a host lattice material containing at least one preselected fluorescent species. The actinide either quenches or enhances the laser-induced fluorescence of the preselected fluorescent species. The degree of enhancement or quenching is quantitatively related to the concentration of actinide in the sample.

  1. Flash photolysis-shock tube studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael, J.V. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Even though this project in the past has concentrated on the measurement of thermal bimolecular reactions of atomic species with stable molecules by the flash or laser photolysis-shock tube (FP- or LP-ST) method using atomic resonance absorption spectrometry (ARAS) as the diagnostic technique, during the past year the authors have concentrated on studies of the thermal decompositions of selected chlorocarbon molecules. These studies are necessary if the degradation of chlorine containing organic molecules by incineration are to be understood at the molecular level. Clearly, destruction of these molecules will not only involve abstraction reactions, when possible, but also thermal decomposition followed by secondary reactions of the initially formed atoms and radicals. Studies on the thermal decomposition of CH{sub 3}Cl are complete, and the curve-of-growth for Cl-atom atomic resonance absorption has been determined. The new thermal decomposition studies are similar to those already reported for CH{sub 3}Cl.

  2. Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McConnell, Robert D. (Lakewood, CO); Vansant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  3. Coiled tubing sidetrack: Slaughter Field case history

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hightower, C.M.; Blount, C.G.; Ward, S.L.; Martin, R.F.; Cantwell, D.L.; Ackers, M.J.

    1995-03-01

    The paper describes the successful sidetrack of an oil well in the Slaughter Field in West Texas using coiled tubing (CT). Several first-time CT operations performed during this workover include: setting a whipstock in casing on CT; cutting a window with CT; using mud pulse measurement-while-drilling (MWD) with CT in a real well; use of a fluid-operated orientation tool for in-hole toolface changes; successful use of an autodriller to maintain weight on bit while drilling. Directional control of the sidetracked hole proved to be ineffective due to a surface software problem. The resultant wellbore was not horizontal as planned, but instead closely paralleled the original well for much of its length. However, the previously non-productive well flowed 1,000 barrels of fluid per day (BFPD) from the sidetrack following the workover.

  4. Quasi-two Dimensional Hydrodynamics and Interaction of Vortex Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zakharov, Vladimir

    Quasi-two Dimensional Hydrodynamics and Interaction of Vortex Tubes Vladimir Zakharov 1 but a careful study of the dynamics of the vortex tubes or their systems in a real 3-dimentional nonstationary for description of this type of flow looks very timely. Another motivation is the vortex dynamics

  5. Nondestructive evaluation of new coiled tubing and pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanley, R.K.

    1996-09-01

    The nondestructive testing (NDT) and evaluation (NDE) of coiled tubing and pipe during manufacture has not previously been described. This paper outlines the NDE methods employed during the production of such material, along with flaw removal criteria. This paper describes coiled tubing and pipe up to 3.5 inches diameter for both downhole and line pipe use.

  6. Coiled-tubing applications for blowout-control operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, N.J.; Mack, S.K.; Fannin, V.R.; Rocchi, T.

    1996-05-01

    Coiled-tubing drilling is now being used in various operations. Its complete field of applications is not currently established. Coiled tubing used for well control while drilling is a new field where its limits are being explored. This paper provides guidelines on topics to be considered in determining the applicability of coiled tubing for well-control problems. The information provided is based on recent field experiences with several well-control problems when drilling vent and relief wells. In some cases, coiled-tubing drilling capabilities, by necessity, were significantly extended beyond levels the industry considered to be upper limits. Well control cannot always be handled by coiled tubing. It is a special-application tool that can handle many situations and is, in some cases, clearly the optimum choice for the application. This paper presents guidelines for selecting coiled tubing for each application and discusses economics. It also describes coiled-tubing operations for regaining control of blowout wells in certain situations and gives technical requirements for planning and executing these types of jobs. Case histories where coiled-tubing units (CTU`s) have been used to regain control of drilling and producing wells are provided for illustration.

  7. Produce through coiled tubing to keep marginal wells unloaded

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The use of coiled tubing as an alternate production tubing string has been attempted or considered by numerous operators in the past. However, its use has been tempered due to several problems known to be inherent with coiled tubing recompletions. Some of the problems encountered are: Killing the well to allow for tubing installation always carries the risk of formation damage; Candidate wells normally are marginal producers and may not produce sufficient revenue to justify the cost of a major workover; Procedures followed to install surface equipment may be hazardous; Previous installation designs required running the coiled tubing to the top of the tree, affecting the functional loss of all existing wellhead equipment; Often substandard modifications were required to reconnect into existing production facilities. However, a prototype spool and tubing hanger that incorporated modifications designed to solve these problems has been developed jointly by Reeled Tubing, Inc., and Well-head Control Systems. The solution is a new concept in the coiled tubing hanger. The design incorporates a floating element, which is a combination slip bowl, seal element and retaining sub. The entire assembly is installed and activated in the bore of a specially designed spool installed between the primary and secondary master valves of the existing wellhead.

  8. Downhole control -- The key to coiled tubing drilling efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    Coiled tubing drilling has experienced dramatic growth in recent years. Originally a step-child, the technique now claims built-for-purpose equipment and promises cost-effective drilling with little damage to formations. The paper describes a bottom hole assembly and an orienting tool designed to be used to control coiled tubing drilling.

  9. Tube bending with axial pull and internal pressure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agarwal, Rohit

    2004-09-30

    such as axial force and internal pressure which can be used to achieve better shape control and thickness distribution of the tube. Based on plasticity theories, an analytical model is developed to predict cross section distortion and thickness change of tubes...

  10. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liska, D.J.; Schamaun, R.G.; Clark, D.C.; Potter, R.C.; Frank, J.A.

    1980-03-11

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

  11. Aquifer Sampling Tube Results for Fiscal Year 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Peterson, Robert E.

    2003-10-27

    This report presents and discusses results of the fiscal year 2003 sampling event associated with aquifer tubes along the Columbia River in the northern Hanford Site. Aquifer tube data help define the extent of groundwater contamination near the river, determine vertical variations in contamination, monitor the performance of interim remedial actions near the river, and support impact studies.

  12. Waterside Stress Assisted Corrosion (SAC) of Boiler Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    Waterside Stress Assisted Corrosion (SAC) of Boiler Tubes School of Materials Science Boiler Areas Susceptible to SAC · Generally SAC initiates near weld joints on cold side of tubes · SAC cracks are difficult to detect inaccessibility · Failures Detected at Various Locations in Boilers

  13. Potential failure of steam generator tubes following a station blackout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, L.W.; Palmrose, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is considering changes to pressurized water reactor (PWR) requirements relating to steam generator tube plugging and repair criteria, including leakage monitoring. The proposed changes are known as the alternate tube plugging criteria (APC) and are intended to permit PWRs to operate with through-wall cracks in steam generator tubes subject to meeting a specified limit on predicted primary to secondary leakage under accident conditions. To assess the consequences of the alternate plugging criteria, analyses were performed for a station blackout sequence in which the reactor core melts while the reactor coolant system (RCS) remains at high pressure. Evaluations were conducted to investigate the potential for tube failure with and without secondary system depressurization. The excessive heat coupled with the high-pressure differentials across the steam generator tubes could result in creep rupture failure of the tubes during a severe accident, which could lead to a radiological release directly to the environment. In order to assess the safety significance of the APC, it is important to identify the level of steam generator tube leakage that can occur without challenging the previous study conclusions that steam generator creep failure will not occur prior to a surge line or hot-leg failure. To assess the effect of leakage on steam generator tube integrity during a core melt sequence with the RCS at high pressure and the secondary side of the steam generators pressurized and depressurized, an analysis was performed for a core melt event resulting from an unmitigated station blackout to identify the total steamenerator and tube leakage flow rates that could induce tube ruptures prior to other RCS boudary faliures that could depressurize the RCS.

  14. EA-1664: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Standards: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps

  15. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 17, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2002 1049 Generic Operational Characteristics of Piezoelectric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for fluorescent lamps, battery chargers for mobile phones, ac adapters for mobile computers, gate drives

  16. Numerical studies of an eccentric tube-in-tube helically coiled heat exchanger for IHEP-ADS helium purification system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jianqin

    2014-01-01

    The tube-in-tube helically coiled (TTHC) heat exchanger is preferred in the purifier of IHEP-ADS helium purification system. The position of an internal tube is usually eccentric in a TTHC heat exchanger in practice, while most TTHC heat exchangers in the literature studied are concentric. In this paper, TTHC heat exchangers with different eccentricity ratios are numerically studied for turbulent flow and heat transfer characteristics under different flow rates. The fluid considered is helium at the pressure of 20Mpa, with temperature dependent thermo-physical properties for the inner tube and the annulus. The inner Nusselt number between the concentric and eccentric TTHC heat exchangers are compared, so is the annulus Nusselt number. The results show that with the eccentricity increasing, the annulus Nusselt number increases substantially. According to the numerical data, new empirical correlations of Nusselt number as a function of Reynolds number and eccentricity for the inner tube and the annulus are pres...

  17. SINGLE CRYSTAL NIOBIUM TUBES FOR PARTICLE COLLIDERS ACCELERATOR CAVITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MURPHY, JAMES E

    2013-02-28

    The objective of this research project is to produce single crystal niobium (Nb) tubes for use as particle accelerator cavities for the Fermi laboratory’s International Linear Collider project. Single crystal Nb tubes may have superior performance compared to a polycrystalline tubes because the absence of grain boundaries may permit the use of higher accelerating voltages. In addition, Nb tubes that are subjected to the high temperature, high vacuum crystallization process are very pure and well annealed. Any impurity with a significantly higher vapor pressure than Nb should be decreased by the relatively long exposure at high temperature to the high vacuum environment. After application of the single crystal process, the surfaces of the Nb tubes are bright and shiny, and the tube resembles an electro polished Nb tube. For these reasons, there is interest in single crystal Nb tubes and in a process that will produce single crystal tubes. To convert a polycrystalline niobium tube into a single crystal, the tube is heated to within a few hundred ?C of the melting temperature of niobium, which is 2477 ?C. RF heating is used to rapidly heat the tube in a narrow zone and after reaching the operating temperature, the hot zone is slowly passed along the length of the tube. For crystallization tests with Nb tubes, the traverse rate was in the range of 1-10 cm per hour. All the crystallization tests in this study were performed in a water-cooled, stainless steel chamber under a vacuum of 5 x10-6 torr or better. In earliest tests of the single crystal growth process, the Nb tubes had an OD of 1.9 cm and a wall thickness of 0.15 mm. With these relatively small Nb tubes, the single crystal process was always successful in producing single crystal tubes. In these early tests, the operating temperature was normally maintained at 2200 ?C, and the traverse rate was 5 cm per hour. In the next test series, the Nb tube size was increased to 3.8 cm OD and the wall thickness was increased 0.18 mm and eventually to 0.21 mm. Again, with these larger tubes, single crystal tubes were usually produced by the crystallization process. The power supply was generally operated at full output during these tests, and the traverse rate was 5 cm per hour. In a few tests, the traverse rate was increased to 10 cm per hour, and at the faster traverse rate, single crystal growth was not achieved. In these tests with a faster traverse rate, it was thought that the tube was not heated to a high enough temperature to achieve single crystal growth. In the next series of tests, the tube OD was unchanged at 3.8 cm and the wall thickness was increased to 0.30 mm. The increased wall thickness made it difficult to reach an operating temperature above 2,000 ?C, and although the single crystal process caused a large increase in the crystal grains, no single crystal tubes were produced. It was assumed that the operating temperature in these tests was not high enough to achieve single crystal growth. In FY 2012, a larger power supply was purchased and installed. With the new power supply, temperatures above the melting point of Nb were easily obtained regardless of the tube thickness. A series of crystallization tests was initiated to determine if indeed the operating temperature of the previous tests was too low to achieve single crystal growth. For these tests, the Nb tube OD remained at 3.8 cm and the wall thickness was 0.30 mm. The first test had an operating temperature of 2,000 ?C. and the operating temperature was increased by 50 ?C increments for each successive test. The final test was very near the Nb melting temperature, and indeed, the Nb tube eventually melted in the center of the tube. These tests showed that higher temperatures did yield larger grain sizes if the traverse rate was held constant at 5 cm per hour, but no single crystal tubes were produced even at the highest operating temperature. In addition, slowing the traverse rate to as low as 1 cm per hour did not yield a single crystal tube regardless of operating temperature. At this time, it

  18. Ultrabright fluorescent OLEDS using triplet sinks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yifan; Forrest, Stephen R; Thompson, Mark

    2013-06-04

    A first device is provided. The first device further comprises an organic light emitting device. The organic light emitting device further comprises an anode, a cathode, and an emissive layer disposed between the anode and the cathode. The emissive layer further comprises an organic host compound, an organic emitting compound capable of fluorescent emission at room temperature, and an organic dopant compound. The triplet energy of the dopant compound is lower than the triplet energy of the host compound. The dopant compound does not strongly absorb the fluorescent emission of the emitting compound.

  19. Microhole Coiled Tubing Bottom Hole Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Macune

    2008-06-30

    The original objective of the project, to deliver an integrated 3 1/8-inch diameter Measurement While Drilling (MWD) and Logging While Drilling (LWD) system for drilling small boreholes using coiled tubing drilling, has been achieved. Two prototype systems have been assembled and tested in the lab. One of the systems has been successfully tested downhole in a conventional rotary drilling environment. Development of the 3 1/8-inch system has also lead to development and commercialization of a slightly larger 3.5-inch diameter system. We are presently filling customer orders for the 3.5-inch system while continuing with commercialization of the 3 1/8-inch system. The equipment developed by this project will be offered for sale to multiple service providers around the world, enabling the more rapid expansion of both coiled tubing drilling and conventional small diameter drilling. The project was based on the reuse of existing technology whenever possible in order to minimize development costs, time, and risks. The project was begun initially by Ultima Labs, at the time a small company ({approx}12 employees) which had successfully developed a number of products for larger oil well service companies. In September, 2006, approximately 20 months after inception of the project, Ultima Labs was acquired by Sondex plc, a worldwide manufacturer of downhole instrumentation for cased hole and drilling applications. The acquisition provided access to proven technology for mud pulse telemetry, downhole directional and natural gamma ray measurements, and surface data acquisition and processing, as well as a global sales and support network. The acquisition accelerated commercialization through existing Sondex customers. Customer demand resulted in changes to the product specification to support hotter (150 C) and deeper drilling (20,000 psi pressure) than originally proposed. The Sondex acquisition resulted in some project delays as the resistivity collar was interfaced to a different MWD system and also as the mechanical design was revised for the new pressure requirements. However, the Sondex acquisition has resulted in a more robust system, secure funding for completion of the project, and more rapid commercialization.

  20. Benchmarking gyrokinetic simulations in a toroidal flux-tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y.; Parker, S. E.; Wan, W. [University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)] [University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Bravenec, R. [Fourth-State Research, Austin, Texas 78704 (United States)] [Fourth-State Research, Austin, Texas 78704 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    A flux-tube model is implemented in the global turbulence code GEM [Y. Chen and S. E. Parker, J. Comput. Phys. 220, 839 (2007)] in order to facilitate benchmarking with Eulerian codes. The global GEM assumes the magnetic equilibrium to be completely given. The initial flux-tube implementation simply selects a radial location as the center of the flux-tube and a radial size of the flux-tube, sets all equilibrium quantities (B, ?B, etc.) to be equal to the values at the center of the flux-tube, and retains only a linear radial profile of the safety factor needed for boundary conditions. This implementation shows disagreement with Eulerian codes in linear simulations. An alternative flux-tube model based on a complete local equilibrium solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation [J. Candy, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 51, 105009 (2009)] is then implemented. This results in better agreement between Eulerian codes and the particle-in-cell (PIC) method. The PIC algorithm based on the v{sub ||}-formalism [J. Reynders, Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton University, 1992] and the gyrokinetic ion/fluid electron hybrid model with kinetic electron closure [Y. Chan and S. E. Parker, Phys. Plasmas 18, 055703 (2011)] are also implemented in the flux-tube geometry and compared with the direct method for both the ion temperature gradient driven modes and the kinetic ballooning modes.

  1. Multiaxial cyclic ratcheting in coiled tubing -- Part 1: Theoretical modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rolovic, R.; Tipton, S.M.

    2000-04-01

    Coiled tubing is a long, continuous string of steel tubing that is used in the oil well drilling and servicing industry. Bending strains imposed on coiled tubing as it is deployed and retrieved from a well are considerably into the plastic regime and can be as high as 3%. Progressive growth of tubing diameter occurs when tubing is cyclically bent-straightened under constant internal pressure, regardless of the fact that the hoop stress imposed by typical pressure levels is well below the material's yield strength. A new incremental plasticity model is proposed in this study that can predict multiaxial cyclic ratcheting in coiled tubing more accurately than the conventional plasticity models. A new hardening rule is presented based on published experimental observations. The model also implements a new plastic modulus function. The predictions based on the new theory correlate well with experimental results presented in Part 2 of this paper. Some previously unexpected trends in coiled tubing deformation behavior were observed and correctly predicted using the proposed model.

  2. In-bed tube bank for a fluidized-bed combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hemenway, Jr., Lloyd F. (Morgantown, WV)

    1990-01-01

    An in-bed tube bank (10) for a fluidized bed combustor. The tube bank (10) of the present invention comprises one or more fluid communicating boiler tubes (30) which define a plurality of selectively spaced boiler tube sections (32). The tube sections (32) are substantially parallel to one another and aligned in a common plane. The tube bank (10) further comprises support members (34) for joining adjacent tube sections (32), the support members (34) engaging and extending along a selected length of the tube sections (32) and spanning the preselected space therebetween.

  3. Detection of ultra-high energy cosmic ray showers with a single-pixel fluorescence telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fujii, T; Bertaina, M; Casolino, M; Dawson, B; Horvath, P; Hrabovsky, M; Jiang, J; Mandat, D; Matalon, A; Matthews, J N; Motloch, P; Palatka, M; Pech, M; Privitera, P; Schovanek, P; Takizawa, Y; Thomas, S B; Travnicek, P; Yamazaki, K

    2015-01-01

    We present a concept for large-area, low-cost detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with a Fluorescence detector Array of Single-pixel Tele- scopes (FAST), addressing the requirements for the next generation of UHECR experiments. In the FAST design, a large field of view is covered by a few pixels at the focal plane of a mirror or Fresnel lens. We report first results of a FAST prototype installed at the Telescope Array site, consisting of a single 200 mm photomultiplier tube at the focal plane of a 1 m2 Fresnel lens system taken from the prototype of the JEM-EUSO experiment. The FAST prototype took data for 19 nights, demonstrating remarkable operational stability. We detected laser shots at distances of several kilometres as well as 16 highly significant UHECR shower candidates.

  4. Advances in coiled-tubing operating systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sas-Jaworsky, A. II

    1997-06-01

    The expansion of coiled tubing (CT) applications into spooled flowlines, spooled completions, and CT drilling continues to grow at an accelerated rate. For many users within the oil and gas industry, the CT industry appears to be poised on the threshold of the next logical step in its evolution, the creation of a fully integrated operating system. However, for CT to evolve into such an operating system, the associated services must be robust and sufficiently reliable to support the needs of exploration, development drilling, completion, production management, and wellbore-retirement operations both technically and economically. The most critical hurdle to overcome in creating a CT-based operating system is a fundamental understanding of the operating scope and physical limitations of CT technology. The complete list of mechanisms required to advance CT into an operating system is large and complex. However, a few key issues (such as formal education, training, standardization, and increased levels of experience) can accelerate the transition. These factors are discussed.

  5. Defining coiled tubing limits -- A new approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newman, K.R.; Sathuvalli, U.B.; Stone, L.R.; Wolhart, S.

    1996-12-31

    The burst, collapse and axial load operating limits for Coiled Tubing (CT) are currently established using the Von Mises incipient yield criterion. This criterion has historically been used to calculate the limits for oil country tubular goods (OCTG). The limits according to this criterion are based on the point at which the pipe material reaches a load state in which it begins to yield. Because of the bending that occurs when the CT is spooled on and off the reel, and when it is bent over the guide arch, the CT is already far beyond the yield point before it enters a well. Thus, this criterion does not really apply to CT. This paper describes a research project currently in progress. The purpose of this project is to define a new set of CT limits based on criteria other than incipient yield. This new approach to setting CT operating limits takes into account the internal residual stresses in the CT which are a consequence of repeated bending cycles and the accompanying change in material properties.

  6. DOE CALiPER Program, Report 20.1 Subjective Evaluation of Beam Quality, Shadow Quality, and Color Quality for LED PAR38 Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; Poplawski, Michael E.; Miller, Naomi J.

    2013-10-01

    This report focuses on human-evaluated characteristics, including beam quality, shadow quality, and color quality. Using a questionnaire that included rank ordering, opinions on 27 of the Report 20 PAR38 lamps were gathered during a demonstration event for members of the local Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) chapter. This was not a rigorous scientific experiment, and the data should not be extrapolated beyond the scope of the demonstration. The results suggest that many of the LED products compared favorably to halogen PAR38 benchmarks in all attributes considered. LED lamps using a single-emitter design were generally preferred for their beam quality and shadow quality, and the IES members ranking of color quality did not always match the rank according to the color rendering index (CRI).

  7. The Flow of Newtonian Fluids in Axisymmetric Corrugated Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taha Sochi

    2010-06-08

    This article deals with the flow of Newtonian fluids through axially-symmetric corrugated tubes. An analytical method to derive the relation between volumetric flow rate and pressure drop in laminar flow regimes is presented and applied to a number of simple tube geometries of converging-diverging nature. The method is general in terms of fluid and tube shape within the previous restrictions. Moreover, it can be used as a basis for numerical integration where analytical relations cannot be obtained due to mathematical difficulties.

  8. The Flow of Newtonian Fluids in Axisymmetric Corrugated Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sochi, Taha

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the flow of Newtonian fluids through axially-symmetric corrugated tubes. An analytical method to derive the relation between volumetric flow rate and pressure drop in laminar flow regimes is presented and applied to a number of simple tube geometries of converging-diverging nature. The method is general in terms of fluid and tube shape within the previous restrictions. Moreover, it can be used as a basis for numerical integration where analytical relations cannot be obtained due to mathematical difficulties.

  9. Hole cleaning imperative in coiled tubing drilling operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rameswar, R.M.; Mudda, K.

    1995-09-01

    Annular flow modeling in coiled tubing applications is essential for optimizing mud rheology and keeping the hole clean. Cuttings transport in coiled tubing drilling must be optimized, particularly the modeling of hole cleaning capabilities. The effects of two different muds in contrasting geometries on hold cleaning efficiency are considered, with the simulation performed using Petrocalc 14. Coiled tubing is widely used to drill new vertical and horizontal wells, and in re-entry operations. Horizontal well problems are subsequently modeled, where annular eccentricities can range anywhere from concentric to highly offset, given the highly buckled or helically deflected states of many drill coils.

  10. Serviceability of coiled tubing for sour oil and gas wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cayard, M.S.; Kane, R.D.

    1996-08-01

    Coiled tubing is an extremely useful tool in many well logging and workover applications in oil and gas production operations. Several important concerns regarding its use include the need for improved guidelines for the assessment of mechanical integrity, fatigue damage, and the effects of hydrogen sulfide in sour oil and gas production environments. This paper provides information regarding the use of coiled tubing in sour environments with particular emphasis on sulfide stress cracking, hydrogen induced cracking and stress-oriented hydrogen induced cracking and how they work synergistically with cyclic cold working of the steel tubing.

  11. Deep tissue fluorescence imaging and in vivo biological applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    17(11) Crosignani et al. : Deep tissue fluorescence imaging16. D. Kobat et al. , “Deep tissue multiphoton microscopyV. Crosignani et al. , “ In vivo deep tissue fluorescence

  12. Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    LETTERS Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy Wei, that is, spontaneous emission, is generally more sensitive than absorption measurement, and is widely used undetectable fluorescence because the spontaneous emission is dominated by theirfastnon-radiative decay3

  13. Probing the denatured state ensemble with fluorescence 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alston, Roy Willis

    2004-09-30

    of these five proteins were studied and compared to the fluorescent properties of eight model compounds: N-acetyl-tryptophan-amide (NATA), N-acetyl-Ala-Trp-Ala-amide (AWA), N-acetyl-Ala-Ala-Trp-Ala-Ala-amide (AAWAA), and five pentapeptides based on the sequence...

  14. Chlorophyll Fluorescence Monitoring at Selected LTER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyce, Richard L.

    no energy can go to photosynthesis · Thermal dissipation processes are usually minimal in the dark · So most of plant stress on photosynthesis in the field Fate of Light absorbed by Chlorophyll · Energy channeled to reaction center of PSII, used for photosynthesis ­ P · Thermal dissipation ­ D · Fluorescent emission ­ F

  15. Chemistry & Biology Red Fluorescent Protein with Reversibly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

    to the photoswitchable absor- bance, rsTagRFP can be used as an acceptor for a photochromic Fo¨ rster resonance energy-OFF photoswitching of the rsTagRFP acceptor. INTRODUCTION Green fluorescent protein (GFP) from Aequorea victoriaTFP0.7 (Henderson et al., 2007), green Dronpa (Ando et al., 2004) and its derivatives (Ando et al

  16. Atomic and Molecular Fluorescence Excited by Photodissociation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    electron impact processes are compared with photodissociation. A bibliography of photo dissociation the strength a n d shape of fluorescence lines that arise from excited fragments produced in molecular photo more critical. T h e D o p p l e r width of the emission is important, however, since a larger width

  17. DNA sequencing using fluorescence background electroblotting membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caldwell, K.D.; Chu, T.J.; Pitt, W.G.

    1992-05-12

    A method for the multiplex sequencing on DNA is disclosed which comprises the electroblotting or specific base terminated DNA fragments, which have been resolved by gel electrophoresis, onto the surface of a neutral non-aromatic polymeric microporous membrane exhibiting low background fluorescence which has been surface modified to contain amino groups. Polypropylene membranes are preferably and the introduction of amino groups is accomplished by subjecting the membrane to radio or microwave frequency plasma discharge in the presence of an aminating agent, preferably ammonia. The membrane, containing physically adsorbed DNA fragments on its surface after the electroblotting, is then treated with crosslinking means such as UV radiation or a glutaraldehyde spray to chemically bind the DNA fragments to the membrane through amino groups contained on the surface. The DNA fragments chemically bound to the membrane are subjected to hybridization probing with a tagged probe specific to the sequence of the DNA fragments. The tagging may be by either fluorophores or radioisotopes. The tagged probes hybridized to the target DNA fragments are detected and read by laser induced fluorescence detection or autoradiograms. The use of aminated low fluorescent background membranes allows the use of fluorescent detection and reading even when the available amount of DNA to be sequenced is small. The DNA bound to the membranes may be reprobed numerous times. No Drawings

  18. Imaging properties of supercritical angle fluorescence optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enderlein, Jörg

    Imaging properties of supercritical angle fluorescence optics J¨org Enderlein,1,4, Ingo Gregor,1.ruckstuhl@pci.uzh.ch 4http://www.joerg-enderlein.de enderlein@physik3.gwdg.de Abstract: In recent years, new optical the detection volume within one wavelength to an interface. For conventional optical systems with high numerical

  19. Bayesian fluorescence in situ hybridisation signal classification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lerner, Boaz

    hybridisation (FISH) signals for the detection of genetic abnormalities. Based on well-discriminating features hybridisation (FISH); Gaussian mixture model; Naive Bayesian classifier; Signal classification Artificial.artmed.2003.11.005 #12;1. Introduction Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) allows selective staining

  20. Oil Classification with Fluorescence Spectroscopy Engineering Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Carl von Ossietzky Universität

    detected by these channels. The investigation used three methods to examine crude oil, heavy oil, sludge1 Oil Classification with Fluorescence Spectroscopy Engineering Physics Master of Engineering and classification of oil spills on water surfaces. It is an overview of the laser remote sensor technique

  1. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Suspended Fluorescent Luminaires

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for suspended fluorescent luminaires, a product category covered by FEMP efficiency requirements. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified or FEMP-designated products in all product categories covered by these programs and in any acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  2. Optimization and Applications of Fluorescence anisotropy assays and Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liyanage, Mangala Roshan

    2009-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a calcium signaling protein that activates over hundred of targets including PMCA. This dissertation mainly focuses on optimizing and applications of fluorescence anisotropy (FA) and FRET experiments for CaM-target interactions...

  3. Apparatus for eliminating background interference in fluorescence measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, J.C.; Jett, J.H.

    1986-03-04

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for eliminating background interference during fluorescence measurements in a multiple laser flow cytometer. A biological particle stained with fluorescent dyes is excited by a laser. A fluorescence detector detects the fluorescence. The particle scatters light and a gate signal is generated and delayed until the biological particle reaches the next laser. The delayed signal turns on this next laser, which excites a different stained component of the same biological particle. 8 figs.

  4. Facility for high heat flux testing of irradiated fusion materials and components using infrared plasma arc lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Ohriner, Evan Keith; Kiggans, Jim; Harper, David C; Snead, Lance Lewis; Schaich, Charles Ross

    2014-01-01

    A new high-heat flux testing facility using water-wall stabilized high-power high-pressure argon Plasma Arc Lamps (PALs) has been developed for fusion applications. It can handle irradiated plasma facing component materials and mock-up divertor components. Two PALs currently available at ORNL can provide maximum incident heat fluxes of 4.2 and 27 MW/m2 over a heated area of 9x12 and 1x10 cm2, respectively, which are fusion-prototypical steady state heat flux conditions. The facility will be described and the main differences between the photon-based high-heat flux testing facilities, such as PALs, and the e-beam and particle beam facilities more commonly used for fusion HHF testing are discussed. The components of the test chamber were designed to accommodate radiation safety and materials compatibility requirements posed by high-temperature exposure of low levels irradiated tungsten articles. Issues related to the operation and temperature measurements during testing are presented and discussed.

  5. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at an Exhibit of 19th Century Photography at the Getty Museum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Druzik, Jim

    2012-03-02

    This document is a report of observations and results obtained from a lighting demonstration project conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) GATEWAY Demonstration Program. The program supports demonstrations of high-performance solid-state lighting (SSL) products in order to develop empirical data and experience with in-the-field applications of this advanced lighting technology. The DOE GATEWAY Demonstration Program focuses on providing a source of independent, third-party data for use in decision-making by lighting users and professionals; this data should be considered in combination with other information relevant to the particular site and application under examination. Each GATEWAY Demonstration compares SSL products against the incumbent technologies used in that location. Depending on available information and circumstances, the SSL product may also be compared to alternate lighting technologies. Though products demonstrated in the GATEWAY program may have been prescreened for performance, DOE does not endorse any commercial product or in any way guarantee that users will achieve the same results through use of these products. This report reviews the installation and use of LED PAR38 lamps to light a collection of toned albument photographic prints at the J. Paul Getty Museum in Malibu, California. Research results provided by the Getty Conservation Institute are incorporated and discussed.

  6. Size-dependent fluorescence of bioaerosols: Mathematical model using fluorescing and absorbing molecules in bacteria

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hill, Steven C.; Williamson, Chatt C.; Doughty, David C.; Pan, Yong-Le; Santarpia, Joshua L.; Hill, Hanna H.

    2015-02-02

    This paper uses a mathematical model of fluorescent biological particles composed of bacteria and/or proteins (mostly as in Hill et al., 2013 [23]) to investigate the size-dependence of the total fluorescence emitted in all directions. The model applies to particles which have negligible reabsorption of fluorescence within the particle. The specific particles modeled here are composed of ovalbumin and of a generic Bacillus. The particles need not be spherical, and in some cases need not be homogeneous. However, the results calculated in this paper are for spherical homogeneous particles. Light absorbing and fluorescing molecules included in the model are aminomore »acids, nucleic acids, and several coenzymes. Here the excitation wavelength is 266 nm. The emission range, 300 to 370 nm, encompasses the fluorescence of tryptophan. The fluorescence cross section (CF) is calculated and compared with one set of published measured values. We investigate power law (Ady) approximations to CF, where d is diameter, and A and y are parameters adjusted to fit the data, and examine how y varies with d and composition, including the fraction as water. The particle's fluorescence efficiency (QF=CF/geometric-cross-section) can be written for homogeneous particles as QabsRF, where Qabs is the absorption efficiency, and RF, the fraction of the absorbed light emitted as fluorescence, is independent of size and shape. When QF is plotted vs. mid or mi(mr-1)d, where m=mr+imi is the complex refractive index, the plots for different fractions of water in the particle tend to overlap.« less

  7. Size-dependent fluorescence of bioaerosols: Mathematical model using fluorescing and absorbing molecules in bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, Steven C.; Williamson, Chatt C.; Doughty, David C.; Pan, Yong-Le; Santarpia, Joshua L.; Hill, Hanna H.

    2015-02-02

    This paper uses a mathematical model of fluorescent biological particles composed of bacteria and/or proteins (mostly as in Hill et al., 2013 [23]) to investigate the size-dependence of the total fluorescence emitted in all directions. The model applies to particles which have negligible reabsorption of fluorescence within the particle. The specific particles modeled here are composed of ovalbumin and of a generic Bacillus. The particles need not be spherical, and in some cases need not be homogeneous. However, the results calculated in this paper are for spherical homogeneous particles. Light absorbing and fluorescing molecules included in the model are amino acids, nucleic acids, and several coenzymes. Here the excitation wavelength is 266 nm. The emission range, 300 to 370 nm, encompasses the fluorescence of tryptophan. The fluorescence cross section (CF) is calculated and compared with one set of published measured values. We investigate power law (Ady) approximations to CF, where d is diameter, and A and y are parameters adjusted to fit the data, and examine how y varies with d and composition, including the fraction as water. The particle's fluorescence efficiency (QF=CF/geometric-cross-section) can be written for homogeneous particles as QabsRF, where Qabs is the absorption efficiency, and RF, the fraction of the absorbed light emitted as fluorescence, is independent of size and shape. When QF is plotted vs. mid or mi(mr-1)d, where m=mr+imi is the complex refractive index, the plots for different fractions of water in the particle tend to overlap.

  8. Pressure drop with surface boiling in small-diameter tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dr?mer, Thomas

    1964-01-01

    Pressure drop for water flowing in small-diameter tubes under isothermal, nonboiling, and surface-boiling conditions was investigated. Experimental results for local pressure gradient and heattransfer coefficients are ...

  9. Continuous Flow Coupling and Decarboxylation Reactions Promoted by Copper Tubing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yun

    A convenient and efficient flow method for Ullmann condensations, Sonogashira couplings, and decarboxylation reactions using a commercially available copper tube flow reactor (CTFR) is described. The heated CTFR effects ...

  10. Defect specific maintenance of SG tubes -- How safe is it?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cizelj, L.; Mavko, B.; Dvorsek, T. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1997-02-01

    The efficiency of the defect specific plugging criterion for outside diameter stress corrosion cracking at tube support plates is assessed. The efficiency is defined by three parameters: (1) number of plugged tubes, (2) probability of steam generator tube rupture and (3) predicted accidental leak rate through the defects. A probabilistic model is proposed to quantify the probability of tube rupture, while procedures available in literature were used to define the accidental leak rates. The defect specific plugging criterion was then compared to the performance of traditional (45%) plugging criterion using realistic data from Krsko nuclear power plant. Advantages of the defect specific approach over the traditional one are clearly shown. Some hints on the optimization of safe life of steam generator are also given.

  11. Modeling coiled-tubing velocity strings for gas wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, J.; Martinez, A.

    1998-02-01

    Because of its ability to prolong well life, its relatively low expense, and the relative ease with which it is installed, coiled tubing has become a preferred remedial method of tubular completion for gas wells. Of course, the difficulty in procuring wireline-test data is a drawback to verifying the accuracy of the assumptions and predictions used for coiled-tubing selection. This increases the importance of the prediction-making process, and, as a result, places great emphasis on the modeling methods that are used. This paper focuses on the processes and methods for achieving sound multiphase-flow predictions by looking at the steps necessary to arrive at coiled-tubing selection. Furthermore, this paper examines the variables that serve as indicators of the viability of each tubing size, especially liquid holdup. This means that in addition to methodology, emphasis is placed on the use of a good wellbore model. The computer model discussed is in use industry wide.

  12. Automatic Tube Cleaning Systems for Condensers and Heat Exchangers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Someah, K.

    1991-01-01

    The on-line Automatic Tube Cleaning Systems (ATCS) for condensers and heat exchangers provide a positive means for automatic cleaning on a continuous basis, while the exchanger or condenser remains "on stream" and at ...

  13. World Oils`s 1995 coiled tubing tables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    Increasingly in demand in almost every aspect of today`s E and P market because of flexibility, versatility and economy, coiled tubing is being used for a variety of drilling, completion and production operations that previously required conventional jointed pipe, workover and snubbing units, or rotary drilling rigs. For 1995 the popular coiled tubing tables have been reformatted, expanded and improved to give industry engineering and field personnel additional, more specific selection, operational and installation information. Traditional specifications and dimensions have been augmented by addition of calculated performance properties for downhole workover and well servicing applications. For the first time the authors are presenting this information as a stand-alone feature, separate from conventional jointed tubing connection design tables, which are published annually in the January issue. With almost seven times as much usable data as previous listings, the authors hope that their new coiled tubing tables are even more practical and useful to their readers.

  14. Midcontinent well operators learn advantages of coiled-tubing techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyle, D.

    1995-07-01

    From well cleanup to velocity strings to squeeze jobs, more Midcontinent operators are adding coiled-tubing methods to their oilfield techniques. The advantages of these techniques are discussed.

  15. Modeling of Refrigerant Flow Through Flexible Short Tube Orifices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohamed, Ramadan

    2000-01-01

    Single-phase flow of refrigerants R-22, R-13a, and R-41a through flexible short tube orifices with three different geometries and a range in upstream operating conditions was modeling using the finite element method, FEM. ...

  16. Specialized equipment enabled completions with large coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, R.W.; Conrad, B.

    1996-02-19

    Specialized equipment enabled successful well completions in Oman with large 3{1/2}-inch coiled tubing. Conventional drilling or completion rigs were not needed. Although the use of 3{1/2}-inch coiled tubing to complete wells is relatively new, it is gaining widespread industry application. One Middle East operating company felt that if downhole completion equipment could be successfully run using coiled tubing, greater cost efficiency, both in initial deployment and in maintenance, could be derived. The paper lists some of the technical considerations for these assumptions. The long-term advantages regarding production and well maintenance cannot yet be determined, but experience in Oman has confirmed the belief that large coiled tubing completions can be technically achieved.

  17. Sandjet- A New Alternative for Cleaning Furnace Tubes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollock, C. B.

    1981-01-01

    Energy management in modern refineries is becoming more difficult as the real cost of in-house and purchased fuel escalates and the quality of feed stocks decreases. Furnace tube maintenance has been made more complex by ...

  18. A drift-tube linac incorporating a ramped accelerating field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liska, D.J.; Dauelsberg, L.B.

    1987-01-01

    A short, high-power linac structure has been designed and is being built; it incorporates a ramped accelerating field for matching a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) to a high-gradient drift-tube linac (DTL). The tank is made of aluminum and can operate at high duty factor. The drift tubes are copper and use new neodymium-iron-boron quadrupoles. The linac is tuned using conical-sweep post couplers and is driven by multiple rf loops. Rapid acceleration of the beam occurs from low to high gradients in a short, compact, and lightweight structure. Because this linac will also be used to test open drift tubes, test results are included on vacuum measurements of high-grade epoxies and plastics that might be used in a drift-tube body.

  19. Signature of the Fragmentation of a Color Flux Tube

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2015-10-07

    The production of quark-antiquark pairs along a color flux tube precedes the fragmentation of the tube. Because of the local conservation of momentum and charge, the production of a $q$-$\\bar q$ pair will lead to correlations of adjacently produced mesons (mostly pions). Adjacently produced pions however can be signalled by the their rapidity difference $\\Delta y$ falling within the window of $|\\Delta y | more »the near side at $(\\Delta \\phi, \\Delta y) \\sim 0$, but an enhanced azimuthal correlation on the back-to-back, away side at $(\\Delta \\phi$$\\sim$$ \\pi,\\Delta y$$\\sim$0). Similarly, in a flux tube fragmentation, the local conservation of charge will forbid the production of like charge pions within $|\\Delta y | 1/(dN_\\pi/dy)$. These properties may be used as the signature for the fragmentation of a color flux tube.« less

  20. Eddy sensors for small diameter stainless steel tubes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, Jack L.; Morales, Alfredo Martin; Grant, J. Brian; Korellis, Henry James; LaFord, Marianne Elizabeth; Van Blarigan, Benjamin; Andersen, Lisa E.

    2011-08-01

    The goal of this project was to develop non-destructive, minimally disruptive eddy sensors to inspect small diameter stainless steel metal tubes. Modifications to Sandia's Emphasis/EIGER code allowed for the modeling of eddy current bobbin sensors near or around 1/8-inch outer diameter stainless steel tubing. Modeling results indicated that an eddy sensor based on a single axial coil could effectively detect changes in the inner diameter of a stainless steel tubing. Based on the modeling results, sensor coils capable of detecting small changes in the inner diameter of a stainless steel tube were designed, built and tested. The observed sensor response agreed with the results of the modeling and with eddy sensor theory. A separate limited distribution SAND report is being issued demonstrating the application of this sensor.

  1. NDE of interfaces in the tube geometry with piezofilm transducers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, D.K.; Zhang, Zhong.

    1991-01-01

    The flexible polymer piezofilms such as polyvinylidene fluoride (1) (PVDF) posses distinct advantages as ultrasonic transducers for inspecting cylindrically symmetric components, including rods, pipes, cladding, and tube interfaces. The flexibility and contour conforming nature of the film transducer ensure normal incidence and avoid mode conversion. In this work, PVDF transducers are used in the evaluation of interfaces in coaxially extruded Zirconium-Zircaloy tubes and the clamping condition of Nitinol couplers over stainless steel tubing. Detailed description will be given for the evaluation of an interface in a Zirconium-Zircaloy tube, on which the same transducer was used both as the transmitter and the receiver. The multiple echo signals were analyzed and reflection coefficient as small as 0.006 was accurately measured. Comparison will be made with the measurement results of conventional transducers. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  2. NDE of interfaces in the tube geometry with piezofilm transducers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, D.K.; Zhang, Zhong

    1991-12-31

    The flexible polymer piezofilms such as polyvinylidene fluoride [1] (PVDF) posses distinct advantages as ultrasonic transducers for inspecting cylindrically symmetric components, including rods, pipes, cladding, and tube interfaces. The flexibility and contour conforming nature of the film transducer ensure normal incidence and avoid mode conversion. In this work, PVDF transducers are used in the evaluation of interfaces in coaxially extruded Zirconium-Zircaloy tubes and the clamping condition of Nitinol couplers over stainless steel tubing. Detailed description will be given for the evaluation of an interface in a Zirconium-Zircaloy tube, on which the same transducer was used both as the transmitter and the receiver. The multiple echo signals were analyzed and reflection coefficient as small as 0.006 was accurately measured. Comparison will be made with the measurement results of conventional transducers. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Refrigerant forced-convection condensation inside horizontal tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Soonhoon

    1970-01-01

    High vapor velocity condensation inside a tube was studied theoretically. The heat transfer coefficients were calculated by the momentum and heat transfer analogy. The Von Karman universal velocity distribution was applied ...

  4. OBSERVATION OF FLUX-TUBE CROSSINGS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, L.; Li, G.; Li, X.; Yan, Y.

    2013-03-20

    Current sheets are ubiquitous in the solar wind. They are a major source of the solar wind MHD turbulence intermittency. They may result from nonlinear interactions of the solar wind MHD turbulence or are the boundaries of flux tubes that originate from the solar surface. Some current sheets appear in pairs and are the boundaries of transient structures such as magnetic holes and reconnection exhausts or the edges of pulsed Alfven waves. For an individual current sheet, discerning whether it is a flux-tube boundary or due to nonlinear interactions or the boundary of a transient structure is difficult. In this work, using data from the Wind spacecraft, we identify two three-current-sheet events. Detailed examination of these two events suggests that they are best explained by the flux-tube-crossing scenario. Our study provides convincing evidence supporting the scenario that the solar wind consists of flux tubes where distinct plasmas reside.

  5. Imaging green fluorescent protein in transgenic plants. Jim Haseloff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haseloff, Jim

    light, and an accessory green fluorescent protein (GFP), which accepts energy from aequorin and reImaging green fluorescent protein in transgenic plants. Jim Haseloff MRC Laboratory of Molecular of seedlings. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the cnidarian jellyfish Aequorea victoria shares none

  6. 10081 How snakes slither 10086 Biodegradable fluorescent polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Jian

    10081 How snakes slither 10086 Biodegradable fluorescent polymers 10097 Studying forces within, and Michael J. Shelley (see pages 10081­10085) CHEMISTRY Biodegradable fluorescent polymers Although fluorescent polymers that can be crosslinked into membranes. The polymers may serve as scaffolds in tissue

  7. Coiled tubing drilling with supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolle , Jack J. (Seattle, WA)

    2002-01-01

    A method for increasing the efficiency of drilling operations by using a drilling fluid material that exists as supercritical fluid or a dense gas at temperature and pressure conditions existing at a drill site. The material can be used to reduce mechanical drilling forces, to remove cuttings, or to jet erode a substrate. In one embodiment, carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) is used as the material for drilling within wells in the earth, where the normal temperature and pressure conditions cause CO.sub.2 to exist as a supercritical fluid. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) is preferably used with coiled tube (CT) drilling equipment. The very low viscosity SC--CO.sub.2 provides efficient cooling of the drill head, and efficient cuttings removal. Further, the diffusivity of SC--CO.sub.2 within the pores of petroleum formations is significantly higher than that of water, making jet erosion using SC--CO.sub.2 much more effective than water jet erosion. SC--CO.sub.2 jets can be used to assist mechanical drilling, for erosion drilling, or for scale removal. A choke manifold at the well head or mud cap drilling equipment can be used to control the pressure within the borehole, to ensure that the temperature and pressure conditions necessary for CO.sub.2 to exist as either a supercritical fluid or a dense gas occur at the drill site. Spent CO.sub.2 can be vented to the atmosphere, collected for reuse, or directed into the formation to aid in the recovery of petroleum.

  8. Further advances in coiled-tubing drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eide, E.; Brinkhorst, J.; Voelker, H.; Burge, P.; Ewen, R.

    1995-05-01

    The use of coiled tubing (CT) to drill horizontal re-entry wells has received considerable interest in the industry over the last two years. The benefits of being able to drill at balance, safely and in a controlled manner, with nitrogen to reduce downhole pressure while drilling highly depleted reservoirs, provides an advantage over conventional techniques, particularly in reducing formation damage. This paper describes such a horizontal re-entry drilled in the shallow depleted waterflooded reservoir Barenburg in northern Germany. The scope of work for this project included (1) cutting windows through 6 5/8- and 9 5/8-in. casing, (2) drilling a 5 7/8-in.-medium-radius curve, (3) running a 5-in. liner and a 5 1/2-in. parasitic string for nitrogen injection, (4) drilling a 4 3/8-in. horizontal with nitrogen to maintain a balanced condition, (5) running openhole logs, and (6) running 3 1/2-in. slotted liner. The entire program was executed with no intervention from a conventional rig or workover hoist. A special structure to be positioned over the well to support the CT injector head and to provide a work platform had to be constructed for this type of operation. A dedicated mast for lifting pipe and downhole tools was placed on the substructure. The development of a surface-controlled orienting tool and an adjustable motor provided excellent directional capabilities on a 2 3/8-in. CT. This program represents a significant extension of the capabilities of drilling with CT.

  9. X-ray tube with magnetic electron steering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Kim W. (Albuquerque, NM); Turman, Bobby N. (Albuquerque, NM); Kaye, Ronald J. (Albuquerque, NM); Schneider, Larry X. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    An X-ray tube uses a magnetic field to steer electrons. The magnetic field urges electrons toward the anode, increasing the proportion of electrons emitted from the cathode that reach desired portions of the anode and consequently contribute to X-ray production. The magnetic field also urges electrons reflected from the anode back to the anode, further increasing the efficiency of the tube.

  10. Porous coolant tube holder for fuel cell stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guthrie, Robin J. (East Hartford, CT)

    1981-01-01

    A coolant tube holder for a stack of fuel cells is a gas porous sheet of fibrous material adapted to be sandwiched between a cell electrode and a nonporous, gas impervious flat plate which separates adjacent cells. The porous holder has channels in one surface with coolant tubes disposed therein for carrying coolant through the stack. The gas impervious plate is preferably bonded to the opposite surface of the holder, and the channel depth is the full thickness of the holder.

  11. Why high-frequency pulse tubes can be tipped

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, Gregory W092710; Backhaus, Scott N

    2010-01-01

    The typical low-frequency pulse-tube refrigerator loses significant cooling power when it is tipped with the pulse tube's cold end above its hot end, because natural convection in the pulse tube loads the cold heat exchanger. Yet most high-frequency pulse-tube refrigerators work well in any orientation with respect to gravity. In such a refrigerator, natural convection is suppressed by sufficiently fast velocity oscil1ations, via a nonlinear hydrodynamic effect that tends to align the density gradients in the pulse tube parallel to the oscillation direction. Since gravity's tendency to cause convection is only linear in the pulse tube's end-to-end temperature difference while the oscillation's tendency to align density gradients with oscillating velocity is nonlinear, it is easiest to suppress convection when the end-to-end temperature difference is largest. Simple experiments demonstrate this temperature dependence, the strong dependence on the oscillating velocity, and little dependence on the magnitude or phase of the oscillating pressure. In some circumstances in this apparatus, the suppression of convection is a hysteretic function of oscillating velocity. In some other circumstances, a time-dependent convective state seems more difficult to suppress.

  12. Recomplete deep hot wells successfully with coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garner, T.; Fleckenstein, W.; Shelley, B.

    1995-06-01

    A squeeze reperforation procedure in the Elk Hills, California field using coiled tubing included contaminating excess cement and jetting it from the well bore to eliminate the need to drill out cement before shooting new perforations. The 324-7R well was producing 260 b/d of oil through 2 7/8-in. production tubing, with a 20,000-scf/bbl gas-oil ratio (GOR). Bottomhole static temperature was 250 F. After pumping a cement squeeze to 9,000 ft trough 1{1/2}-in. coiled tubing (CT) run inside the production tubing, oil production increased to 550 b/d of oil, and the GOR decreased to 5,000 scf/bbl when new perforations were shot. Cement was pumped 9,000 ft through the CT and circulated back through the production tubing/CT annulus. Operation cost was estimated at 20% less than for a comparable job performance with conventional tubing. Cost of the CT squeeze was recovered by 58 days incremental production.

  13. Logging with coiled tubing less effective than with drill pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Den Bosch, R. )

    1994-01-31

    Coiled tubing offered neither economic nor operational advantages over drill pipe for conveying logging tools in open hole shallow horizontal wells in Germany. In the past 2 years, Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GMbH (MEEG) participated in completing eight shallow horizontal wells. These were medium-to-short radius wells at measured depths of between 850 and 2,000 m. The average horizontal section was 350 m. The logging tools were conveyed by coiled tubing or drill pipe. MEEG attempted to log five wells with coiled tubing-conveyed tools, four with 1 1/2-in. tubing. Total depth was reached reliably in only one well, the shallowest and with the shortest horizontal section. Simulation programs were unreliable for calculating the downhole forces of the coil/tool combination or predicting possible helical lockups. In wells with drill pipe-conveyed logs, the tool combination could always be pushed to total depth, and the operations were generally faster and cost less than logging with coiled tubing. Also, drill pipe allowed longer and heavier tool strings. For reliable operations, coiled tubing needs to be more rigid, rig-up/rig-down times need to be improved, and the simulation programs must be more reliable for predicting downhole lock-up.

  14. Low temperature high frequency coaxial pulse tube for space application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charrier, Aurelia; Charles, Ivan; Rousset, Bernard; Duval, Jean-Marc [SBT, UMR-E CEA / UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, 17, rue des Martyrs, Grenoble, F-38054 (France); Daniel, Christophe [CNES, 18, avenue Edouard Belin, Toulouse, F-31401 (France)

    2014-01-29

    The 4K stage is a critical step for space missions. The Hershel mission is using a helium bath, which is consumed day by day (after depletion, the space mission is over) while the Plank mission is equipped with one He4 Joule-Thomson cooler. Cryogenic chain without helium bath is a challenge for space missions and 4.2K Pulse-Tube working at high frequency (around 30Hz) is one option to take it up. A low temperature Pulse-Tube would be suitable for the ESA space mission EChO (Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory, expected launch in 2022), which requires around 30mW cooling power at 6K; and for the ESA space mission ATHENA (Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics), to pre-cool the sub-kelvin cooler (few hundreds of mW at 15K). The test bench described in this paper combines a Gifford-McMahon with a coaxial Pulse-Tube. A thermal link is joining the intercept of the Pulse-Tube and the second stage of the Gifford-McMahon. This intercept is a separator between the hot and the cold regenerators of the Pulse-Tube. The work has been focused on the cold part of this cold finger. Coupled with an active phase shifter, this Pulse-Tube has been tested and optimized and temperatures as low as 6K have been obtained at 30Hz with an intercept temperature at 20K.

  15. Methods for batch fabrication of cold cathode vacuum switch tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Charles A. (Albuquerque, NM); Trowbridge, Frank R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-05-10

    Methods are disclosed for batch fabrication of vacuum switch tubes that reduce manufacturing costs and improve tube to tube uniformity. The disclosed methods comprise creating a stacked assembly of layers containing a plurality of adjacently spaced switch tube sub-assemblies aligned and registered through common layers. The layers include trigger electrode layer, cathode layer including a metallic support/contact with graphite cathode inserts, trigger probe sub-assembly layer, ceramic (e.g. tube body) insulator layer, and metallic anode sub-assembly layer. Braze alloy layers are incorporated into the stacked assembly of layers, and can include active metal braze alloys or direct braze alloys, to eliminate costs associated with traditional metallization of the ceramic insulator layers. The entire stacked assembly is then heated to braze/join/bond the stack-up into a cohesive body, after which individual switch tubes are singulated by methods such as sawing. The inventive methods provide for simultaneously fabricating a plurality of devices as opposed to traditional methods that rely on skilled craftsman to essentially hand build individual devices.

  16. Colour flux-tubes in static Pentaquark systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedro Bicudo; Nuno Cardoso; Marco Cardoso

    2011-11-01

    The colour fields created by the static tetraquark and pentaquark systems are computed in quenched SU(3) lattice QCD, with gauge invariant lattice operators, in a 24^3 x 48 lattice at beta=6.2 . We generate our quenched configurations with GPUs, and detail the respective benchmanrks in different SU(N) groups. While at smaller distances the coulomb potential is expected to dominate, at larger distances it is expected that fundamental flux tubes, similar to the flux-tube between a quark and an antiquark, emerge and confine the quarks. In order to minimize the potential the fundamental flux tubes should connect at 120o angles. We compute the square of the colour fields utilizing plaquettes, and locate the static sources with generalized Wilson loops and with APE smearing. The tetraquark system is well described by a double-Y-shaped flux-tube, with two Steiner points, but when quark-antiquark pairs are close enough the two junctions collapse and we have an X-shaped flux-tube, with one Steiner point. The pentaquark system is well described by a three-Y-shaped flux-tube where the three flux the junctions are Steiner points.

  17. The effect of voltage waveform and tube diameter on transporting cold plasma strings through a flexible dielectric tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sohbatzadeh, Farshad; Omran, Azadeh Valinataj

    2014-11-15

    In this work, we developed transporting atmospheric pressure cold plasma using single electrode configuration through a sub-millimetre flexible dielectric tube beyond 100?cm. It was shown that the waveform of the applied high voltage is essential for controlling upstream and downstream plasma inside the tube. In this regard, sawtooth waveform enabled the transport of plasma with less applied high voltage compared to sinusoidal and pulsed form voltages. A cold plasma string as long as 130?cm was obtained by only 4?kV peak-to-peak sawtooth high voltage waveform. Optical emission spectroscopy revealed that reactive chemical species, such as atomic oxygen and hydroxyl, are generated at the tube exit. The effect of tube diameter on the transported plasma was also examined: the smaller the diameter, the higher the applied voltage. The device is likely to be used for sterilization, decontamination, and therapeutic endoscopy as already suggested by other groups in recent past years.

  18. SU-E-I-25: Determining Tube Current, Tube Voltage and Pitch Suitable for Low- Dose Lung Screening CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, K; Matthews, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The quality of a computed tomography (CT) image and the dose delivered during its acquisition depend upon the acquisition parameters used. Tube current, tube voltage, and pitch are acquisition parameters that potentially affect image quality and dose. This study investigated physicians' abilities to characterize small, solid nodules in low-dose CT images for combinations of current, voltage and pitch, for three CT scanner models. Methods: Lung CT images was acquired of a Data Spectrum anthropomorphic torso phantom with various combinations of pitch, tube current, and tube voltage; this phantom was used because acrylic beads of various sizes could be placed within the lung compartments to simulate nodules. The phantom was imaged on two 16-slice scanners and a 64-slice scanner. The acquisition parameters spanned a range of estimated CTDI levels; the CTDI estimates from the acquisition software were verified by measurement. Several experienced radiologists viewed the phantom lung CT images and noted nodule location, size and shape, as well as the acceptability of overall image quality. Results: Image quality for assessment of nodules was deemed unsatisfactory for all scanners at 80 kV (any tube current) and at 35 mA (any tube voltage). Tube current of 50 mA or more at 120 kV resulted in similar assessments from all three scanners. Physician-measured sphere diameters were closer to actual diameters for larger spheres, higher tube current, and higher kV. Pitch influenced size measurements less for larger spheres than for smaller spheres. CTDI was typically overestimated by the scanner software compared to measurement. Conclusion: Based on this survey of acquisition parameters, a low-dose CT protocol of 120 kV, 50 mA, and pitch of 1.4 is recommended to balance patient dose and acceptable image quality. For three models of scanners, this protocol resulted in estimated CTDIs from 2.9–3.6 mGy.

  19. Radiative Heat Transfer in Enhanced Hydrogen Outgassing of Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitamura, Rei; Pilon, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    with lamp heating than with furnace heating and (2) hydrogensilica tube and heated in a furnace or by an incandescentan incandescent lamp than within furnace. Here, sample and

  20. On the Collapse of Tubes Carried by 3D Incompressible Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Euler solution is a con- stricting vortex tube. Recall that a vortex line in a uid is an arc on an integral curve of the vorticity !(x; t) for #12;xed t, and a vortex tube is a tubular neighborhood in R 3 #12; On the Collapse of Tubes Carried by 3D Incompressible Flows 2 routinely sees that vortex tubes