National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for fluid viscosity increases

  1. Quartz resonator fluid density and viscosity monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM); Wiczer, James J. (Albuquerque, NM); Cernosek, Richard W. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Gebert, Charles T. (Albuquerque, NM); Casaus, Leonard (Bernalillo, NM); Mitchell, Mary A. (Tijeras, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A pair of thickness-shear mode resonators, one smooth and one with a textured surface, allows fluid density and viscosity to be independently resolved. A textured surface, either randomly rough or regularly patterned, leads to trapping of liquid at the device surface. The synchronous motion of this trapped liquid with the oscillating device surface allows the device to weigh the liquid; this leads to an additional response that depends on liquid density. This additional response enables a pair of devices, one smooth and one textured, to independently resolve liquid density and viscosity; the difference in responses determines the density while the smooth device determines the density-viscosity product, and thus, the pair determines both density and viscosity.

  2. Viscosity correlations for binary supercritical fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilly, K.D.; Foster, N.R.; Macnaughton, S.J.; Tomasko, D.L. . School of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry)

    1994-03-01

    The viscosities and densities of supercritical mixtures of methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, isopropanol, n-pentane, n-hexane, n-heptane, and acetone in carbon dioxide, at concentrations between 1 and 5 mol %, were determined using a falling weight viscometer at pressures up to 240 bar and at temperatures between 313 and 328 K. The effects of pressure, temperature, cosolvent concentration, and the physical properties of the cosolvents on the mixture viscosity and density were examined. The viscosities and the densities of the mixtures were found to increase with the size, polarity, and concentration of the cosolvent molecule. The mixture viscosity was correlated with several empirical dense gas viscosity correlations. The best correlation was the Ely and Hanley technique modified with a density-dependent noncorrespondence factor. The Peng-Robinson equation of state was used to correlate the mixture densities.

  3. Non-invasive fluid density and viscosity measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2012-05-01

    The noninvasively measurement of the density and viscosity of static or flowing fluids in a section of pipe such that the pipe performs as the sensing apparatus, is described. Measurement of a suitable structural vibration resonance frequency of the pipe and the width of this resonance permits the density and viscosity to be determined, respectively. The viscosity may also be measured by monitoring the decay in time of a vibration resonance in the pipe.

  4. Textured-surface quartz resonator fluid density and viscosity monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM); Wiczer, James J. (Albuquerque, NM); Cernosek, Richard W. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Gebert, Charles T. (Albuquerque, NM); Casaus, Leonard (Bernalillo, NM); Mitchell, Mary A. (Tijeras, NM)

    1998-08-25

    A pair of thickness-shear mode resonators, one smooth and one with a textured surface, allows fluid density and viscosity to be independently resolved. A textured surface, either randomly rough or regularly patterned, leads to trapping of liquid at the device surface. The synchronous motion of this trapped liquid with the oscillating device surface allows the device to weigh the liquid; this leads to an additional response that depends on liquid density. This additional response enables a pair of devices, one smooth and one textured, to independently resolve liquid density and viscosity; the difference in responses determines the density while the smooth device determines the density-viscosity product, and thus, the pair determines both density and viscosity.

  5. Micromechanical transient sensor for measuring viscosity and density of a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Oden, Patrick I. (Plano, TX); Warmack, Robert J. (Knoxville, TN); Finot, Eric Laurent (Torcy, FR)

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring the viscosity and/or specific density of a fluid utilizes a microcantilever vibrated in the analyte fluid. The source of vibration is switched on and off and the transient behavior or decay in amplitude of the vibration is monitored. The method is particularly useful for the measurement of process conditions in remote locations in real time.

  6. Topical viscosity control for light hydrocarbon displacing fluids in petroleum recovery and in fracturing fluids for well stimulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heller, John P.; Dandge, Dileep K.

    1986-01-01

    Solvent-type flooding fluids comprising light hydrocarbons in the range of ethane to hexane (and mixtures thereof) are used to displace crude oil in formations having temperatures of about 20 degrees to about 150 degrees Centigrade and pressures above about 650 psi, the light hydrocarbons having dissolved therein from about 0.05% to about 3% of an organotin compound of the formula R.sub.3 SnF where each R is independently an alkyl, aryl or alkyaryl group from 3 to 12 carbon atoms. Under the pressures and temperatures described, the organotin compounds become pentacoordinated and linked through the electronegative bridges, forming polymers within the light hydrocarbon flooding media to render them highly viscous. Under ambient conditions, the viscosity control agents will not readily be produced from the formation with either crude oil or water, since they are insoluble in the former and only sparingly soluble in the latter.

  7. Three-fluid, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic solar wind model with eddy viscosity and turbulent resistivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usmanov, Arcadi V.; Matthaeus, William H.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2014-06-10

    We have developed a three-fluid, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic solar wind model that incorporates turbulence transport, eddy viscosity, turbulent resistivity, and turbulent heating. The solar wind plasma is described as a system of co-moving solar wind protons, electrons, and interstellar pickup protons, with separate energy equations for each species. Numerical steady-state solutions of Reynolds-averaged solar wind equations coupled with turbulence transport equations for turbulence energy, cross helicity, and correlation length are obtained by the time relaxation method in the corotating with the Sun frame of reference in the region from 0.3 to 100 AU (but still inside the termination shock). The model equations include the effects of electron heat conduction, Coulomb collisions, photoionization of interstellar hydrogen atoms and their charge exchange with the solar wind protons, turbulence energy generation by pickup protons, and turbulent heating of solar wind protons and electrons. The turbulence transport model is based on the Reynolds decomposition and turbulence phenomenologies that describe the conversion of fluctuation energy into heat due to a turbulent cascade. In addition to using separate energy equations for the solar wind protons and electrons, a significant improvement over our previous work is that the turbulence model now uses an eddy viscosity approximation for the Reynolds stress tensor and the mean turbulent electric field. The approximation allows the turbulence model to account for driving of turbulence by large-scale velocity gradients. Using either a dipole approximation for the solar magnetic field or synoptic solar magnetograms from the Wilcox Solar Observatory for assigning boundary conditions at the coronal base, we apply the model to study the global structure of the solar wind and its three-dimensional properties, including embedded turbulence, heating, and acceleration throughout the heliosphere. The model results are compared with plasma and magnetic field observations on WIND, Ulysses, and Voyager 2 spacecraft.

  8. Computer simulator of coiled tubing wellbore cleanouts in deviated wells recommends optimum pump rate and fluid viscosity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walton, I.C.

    1995-12-31

    Key factors in the efficient removal of sand fill from deviated wells are the proper selection of a fluid and the pump rates. The operation should be designed to (1) reduce or eliminate the formation of beds of particles in the annulus between the casing and tubing, (2) maintain the particles in suspension and (3) transport the fill to the surface. A new design tool for coiled tubing (CT) cleanouts in deviated wells has been developed. Based on a mechanistic model of particle transport in deviated wells, it predicts the conditions under which a particle bed is formed, calculates the depth of the bed and determines whether the bed slides upward, remains stationary or slides back down the well. Moreover, it calculates the minimum pump rate required to achieve complete suspension of the fill for different fluid viscosities, sand pick-up rates and deviation angles, thereby allowing a simple assessment of the optimum design parameters.

  9. Viscosity measuring using microcantilevers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oden, Patrick Ian

    2001-01-01

    A method for the measurement of the viscosity of a fluid uses a micromachined cantilever mounted on a moveable base. As the base is rastered while in contact with the fluid, the deflection of the cantilever is measured and the viscosity determined by comparison with standards.

  10. Prominin-2 expression increases protrusions, decreases caveolae and inhibits Cdc42 dependent fluid phase endocytosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Raman Deep Schroeder, Andreas S.; Scheffer, Luana; Holicky, Eileen L.; Wheatley, Christine L.; Marks, David L. Pagano, Richard E.

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Prominin-2 expression induced protrusions that co-localized with lipid raft markers. •Prominin-2 expression decreased caveolae, caveolar endocytosis and increased pCav1. •Prominin-2 expression inhibited fluid phase endocytosis by inactivation of Cdc42. •These endocytic effects can be reversed by adding exogenous cholesterol. •Caveolin1 knockdown restored fluid phase endocytosis in Prominin2 expressing cells. -- Abstract: Background: Membrane protrusions play important roles in biological processes such as cell adhesion, wound healing, migration, and sensing of the external environment. Cell protrusions are a subtype of membrane microdomains composed of cholesterol and sphingolipids, and can be disrupted by cholesterol depletion. Prominins are pentaspan membrane proteins that bind cholesterol and localize to plasma membrane (PM) protrusions. Prominin-1 is of great interest as a marker for stem and cancer cells, while Prominin-2 (Prom2) is reportedly restricted to epithelial cells. Aim: To characterize the effects of Prom-2 expression on PM microdomain organization. Methods: Prom2-fluorescent protein was transfected in human skin fibroblasts (HSF) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells for PM raft and endocytic studies. Caveolae at PM were visualized using transmission electron microscopy. Cdc42 activation was measured and caveolin-1 knockdown was performed using siRNAs. Results: Prom2 expression in HSF and CHO cells caused extensive Prom2-positive protrusions that co-localized with lipid raft markers. Prom2 expression significantly decreased caveolae at the PM, reduced caveolar endocytosis and increased caveolin-1 phosphorylation. Prom2 expression also inhibited Cdc42-dependent fluid phase endocytosis via decreased Cdc42 activation. Effects on endocytosis were reversed by addition of cholesterol. Knockdown of caveolin-1 by siRNA restored Cdc42 dependent fluid phase endocytosis in Prom2-expressing cells. Conclusions: Prom2 protrusions primarily localize to lipid rafts and recruit cholesterol into protrusions and away from caveolae, leading to increased phosphorylation of caveolin-1, which inhibits Cdc42-dependent endocytosis. This study provides a new insight for the role for prominins in the regulation of PM lipid organization.

  11. Method for measuring liquid viscosity and ultrasonic viscometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheen, Shuh-Haw (Naperville, IL); Lawrence, William P. (Downers Grove, IL); Chien, Hual-Te (Naperville, IL); Raptis, Apostolos C. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1994-01-01

    An ultrasonic viscometer and method for measuring fluid viscosity are provided. Ultrasonic shear and longitudinal waves are generated and coupled to the fluid. Reflections from the generated ultrasonic shear and longitudinal waves are detected. Phase velocity of the fluid is determined responsive to the detected ultrasonic longitudinal waves reflections. Viscosity of the fluid is determined responsive to the detected ultrasonic shear waves reflections. Unique features of the ultrasonic viscometer include the use of a two-interface fluid and air transducer wedge to measure relative signal change and to enable self calibration and the use of a ratio of reflection coefficients for two different frequencies to compensate for environmental changes, such as temperature.

  12. Apparatus and method for measuring viscosity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, R.J. Jr.

    1986-02-25

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for measuring the viscosity of a fluid. This apparatus and method is particularly useful for the measurement of the viscosity of a liquid in a harsh environment characterized by high temperature and the presence of corrosive or deleterious gases and vapors which adversely affect conventional ball or roller bearings. The apparatus and method of the present invention employ one or more flexural or torsional bearings to suspend a bob capable of limited angular motion within a rotatable sleeve suspended from a stationary frame. 7 figs.

  13. Apparatus and method for measuring viscosity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Jr., Robert J. (Bellaire, TX)

    1986-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for measuring the viscosity of a fluid. This apparatus and method is particularly useful for the measurement of the viscosity of a liquid in a harsh environment characterized by high temperature and the presence of corrosive or deleterious gases and vapors which adversely affect conventional ball or roller bearings. The apparatus and method of the present invention employ one or more flexural or torsional bearings to suspend a bob capable of limited angular motion within a rotatable sleeve suspended from a stationary frame.

  14. Viscosity of aqueous and cyanate ester suspensions containing alumina nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawler, Katherine

    2009-08-05

    The viscosities of both aqueous and cyanate ester monomer (BECy) based suspensions of alumina nanoparticle were studied. The applications for these suspensions are different: aqueous suspensions of alumina nanoparticles are used in the production of technical ceramics made by slip casting or tape casting, and the BECy based suspensions are being developed for use in an injection-type composite repair resin. In the case of aqueous suspensions, it is advantageous to achieve a high solids content with low viscosity in order to produce a high quality product. The addition of a dispersant is useful so that higher solids content suspensions can be used with lower viscosities. For BECy suspensions, the addition of nanoparticles to the BECy resin is expected to enhance the mechanical properties of the cured composite. The addition of saccharides to aqueous suspensions leads to viscosity reduction. Through DSC measurements it was found that the saccharide molecules formed a solution with water and this resulted in lowering the melting temperature of the free water according to classic freezing point depression. Saccharides also lowered the melting temperature of the bound water, but this followed a different rule. The shear thinning and melting behaviors of the suspensions were used to develop a model based on fractal-type agglomeration. It is believed that the structure of the particle flocs in these suspensions changes with the addition of saccharides which leads to the resultant viscosity decrease. The viscosity of the BECy suspensions increased with solids content, and the viscosity increase was greater than predicted by the classical Einstein equation for dilute suspensions. Instead, the Mooney equation fits the viscosity behavior well from 0-20 vol% solids. The viscosity reduction achieved at high particle loadings by the addition of benzoic acid was also investigated by NMR. It appears that the benzoic acid interacts with the surface of the alumina particle which may be the cause of the viscosity reduction. The flow behavior of alumina particles in water and BECy is markedly different. Aqueous alumina suspensions are shear thinning at all alumina loadings and capable of 50 vol% loading before losing fluidity whereas BECy/alumina suspensions show Newtonian behavior up to 5 vol%, and above 5 vol% show shear thinning at all shear rates. Highly loaded suspensions (i.e. 20vol% alumina) exhibit shear thinning at low and moderate shear rates and shear thickening at higher shear rates. The maximum particle loading for a fluid suspension, in this case, appears to be about 20 vol%. The difference in the viscosity of these suspensions must be related to the solvent-particle interactions for each system. The reason is not exactly known, but there are some notable differences between BECy and water. Water molecules are {approx}0.28 nm in length and highly hydrogen bonded with a low viscosity (1 mPa's) whereas in the cyanate ester (BECy) system, the solvent molecule is about 1.2 nm, in the largest dimension, with surfaces of varied charge distribution throughout the molecule. The viscosity of the monomer is also reasonably low for organic polymer precursor, about 7 mPa's. Nanoparticles in water tend to agglomerate and form flocs which are broken with the shear force applied during viscosity measurement. The particle-particle interaction is very important in this system. In BECy, the particles appear to be well dispersed and not as interactive. The solvent-particle interaction appears to be most important. It is not known exactly how the alumina particles interact with the monomer, but NMR suggests hydrogen bonding. These hydrogen bonds between the particle and monomer could very well affect the viscosity. A conclusion that can be reached in this work is that the presence of hydroxyl groups on the surface of the alumina particles is significant and seems to affect the interactions between other particles and the solvent. Thus, the hydrogen bonding between particles, particle/additive and/or particle/solvent dictates the behavior of nanosized alumina particle suspensions. The addition of dispersants can change the particle interactions and hence reduce the suspension viscosity. This was demonstrated with saccharides in the aqueous system and with benzoic acid in suspensions with BECy.

  15. Multipurpose Acoustic Sensor for Downhole Fluid Monitoring

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Novel sensor design based on acoustics. Determine in real-timeand in a single sensor packagemultiple parameters: temperature, pressure, fluid flow; and fluid properties, such as density, viscosity, fluid composition.

  16. Full Life Wind Turbine Gearbox Lubricating Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, Glenn A.; Jungk, Manfred; Bryant, Jonathan J.; Lauer, Rebecca S.; Chobot, Anthony; Mayer, Tyler; Palmer, Shane; Kauffman, Robert E.

    2012-02-28

    Industrial gear box lubricants typically are hydrocarbon based mineral oils with considerable amounts of additives to overcome the lack of base fluid properties like wear protection, oxidation stability, load carrying capacity, low temperature solidification and drop of viscosity at higher temperatures. For today's wind turbine gearboxes, the requirements are more severe and synthetic hydrocarbon oils are used to improve on this, but all such hydrocarbon based lubricants require significant amounts of Extreme Pressure (EP) additives to meet performance requirements. Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) fluids provide load carrying capacity as an inherent property. During the course of the project with the main tasks of 'Establish a Benchmark', 'Lubricant Evaluation', 'Full Scale Gearbox Trial' and 'Economic Evaluation', the PAO Reference oil exhibited significant changes after laboratory gear testing, in service operation in the field and full scale gearbox trial. Four hydrocarbon base oils were selected for comparison in the benchmarking exercise and showed variation with respect to meeting the requirements for the laboratory micro-pitting tests, while the PFPE fluid exceeded the requirements even with the material taken after the full scale gear box trial. This is remarkable for a lubricant without EP additives. Laboratory bearing tests performed on the PFPE fluids before and after the full scale gear box trial showed the results met requirements for the industry standard. The PFPE fluid successfully completed the full scale gear box test program which included baseline and progressive staged load testing. The evaluation of gears showed no micro-pitting or objectionable wear. By the final stage, lubricant film thickness had been reduced to just 21% of its original value, this was by design and resulted in a lambda ratio of well below 1. This test design scenario of a low lambda ratio is a very undesirable lubrication condition for real world but creates the ability to test the lubricating fluids performance under the most extreme conditions. The PAO Reference oil also passed its testing without any noticeable deterioration of the gear surface. However the PAO Reference oil was replaced midway through the progressive loading, as the lubricant was burned in an attempt to raise the sump temperature to the same levels as for the PFPE. Both materials experienced a decrease of viscosity during their respective run times. The viscosity index decreased for the PAO there while there was a slight increase for the PFPE. FZG laboratory gear tests and measurements of the drive motor's current during the full scale gear box trial were made to characterize the relative efficiency between the PFPE fluid and the PAO Reference oil. In the FZG laboratory efficiency test, the PFPE fluids show much higher churning losses due to their higher viscosity and density. The analysis seems to show that the efficiency correlates better to dynamic viscosity than any other of the measured metrics such as film thickness. In load stages where the load, speed and temperature are similar, the PFPE fluid has a greater film thickness and theoretical gear protection, but requires a larger current for the drive motor than the PAO. However in load stages where the film thickness is the same, the PFPE fluid's reduced dynamic viscosity gives it a slight efficiency advantage relative to the PAO reference oil. Ultimately, many factors such as temperature, rotational speed, and fluid viscosity combine in a complex fashion to influence the results. However, the PFPE's much lower change of viscosity with respect to temperature, allows variations in designing an optimum viscosity to balance efficiency versus gear protection. Economic analysis was done using Cost of Energy calculations. The results vary from 5.3% for a 'Likely Case' to 16.8% for a 'Best Case' scenario as potential cost improvement by using PFPE as the gearbox lubricating fluid. It is important to note the largest portion of savings comes in Levelized Replacement Cost, which is dictated by the assumption on gearb

  17. Polyfunctional dispersants for controlling viscosity of phyllosilicates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J.

    2006-07-25

    This invention provides phyllosilicates and polyfunctional dispersants which can be manipulated to selectively control the viscosity of phyllosilicate slurries. The polyfunctional dispersants used in the present invention, which include at least three functional groups, increase the dispersion and exfoliation of phyllosilicates in polymers and, when used in conjunction with phyllosilicate slurries, significantly reduce the viscosity of slurries having high concentrations of phyllosilicates. The functional groups of the polyfunctional dispersants are capable of associating with multivalent metal cations and low molecular weight organic polymers, which can be manipulated to substantially increase or decrease the viscosity of the slurry in a concentration dependent manner. The polyfunctional dispersants of the present invention can also impart desirable properties on the phyllosilicate dispersions including corrosion inhibition and enhanced exfoliation of the phyllosilicate platelets.

  18. Anomalous - viscosity current drive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stix, Thomas H. (Princeton, NJ); Ono, Masayuki (Princeton Junction, NJ)

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus and method for maintaining a steady-state current in a toroidal magnetically confined plasma. An electric current is generated in an edge region at or near the outermost good magnetic surface of the toroidal plasma. The edge current is generated in a direction parallel to the flow of current in the main plasma and such that its current density is greater than the average density of the main plasma current. The current flow in the edge region is maintained in a direction parallel to the main current for a period of one or two of its characteristic decay times. Current from the edge region will penetrate radially into the plasma and augment the main plasma current through the mechanism of anomalous viscosity. In another aspect of the invention, current flow driven between a cathode and an anode is used to establish a start-up plasma current. The plasma-current channel is magnetically detached from the electrodes, leaving a plasma magnetically insulated from contact with any material obstructions including the cathode and anode.

  19. Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a high boiling point. Viscosity and thermal capacity determine the amount of pumping energy required. A fluid with low viscosity and high specific heat is easier to pump, because...

  20. INCREASE

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-07-22

    The Interdisciplinary Consortium for Research and Educational Access in Science and Engineering (INCREASE), assists minority-serving institutions in gaining access to world-class research facilities.

  1. THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF NANOPARTICLE-ENHANCED IONIC LIQUIDS HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, E.

    2013-04-15

    An experimental investigation was completed on nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids as an alternative to conventional organic based heat transfer fluids (HTFs). These nanoparticle-based HTFs have the potential to deliver higher thermal conductivity than the base fluid without a significant increase in viscosity at elevated temperatures. The effect of nanoparticle morphology and chemistry on thermophysical properties was examined. Whisker shaped nanomaterials were found to have the largest thermal conductivity temperature dependence and were also less likely to agglomerate in the base fluid than spherical shaped nanomaterials.

  2. A Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics-Based Fluid Model With a Spatially

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dependent Viscosity | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility A Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics-Based Fluid Model With a Spatially Dependent Viscosity Authors: Martys, N.S., George, W.L., Chun, B., Lootens, D. A smoothed particle hydrodynamics approach is utilized to model a non-Newtonian fluid with a spatially varying viscosity. In the limit of constant viscosity, this approach recovers an earlier model for Newtonian fluids of Espa Publication Date: September, 2010 Name of Publication Source:

  3. Anomalous-viscosity current drive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stix, T.H.; Ono, M.

    1986-04-25

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for maintaining a steady-state current for magnetically confining the plasma in a toroidal magnetic confinement device using anomalous viscosity current drive. A second aspect of this invention relates to an apparatus and method for the start-up of a magnetically confined toroidal plasma.

  4. Viscosity stabilization of SRC residual oil. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, K.C.

    1984-05-01

    The use of SRC residual oils for No. 6 Fuel Oil substitutes has been proposed. The oils exhibit viscosity characteristics at elevated temperatures that allow this substitution with only minor modifications to the existing fuel oil infrastructure. However, loss of low-boiling materials causes an increase in the viscosity of the residual oils that is greater than expected from concentration changes. A process has been developed that minimizes the loss of volatiles and thus maintains the viscosity of these materials. The use of an additive (water, phenol, or an SRC light oil cut rich in low-boiling phenols in amounts up to 2.0 wt %) accomplishes this and hence stabilizes the pumping and atomizing characteristics for an extended period. During the course of the work, the components of the volatiles lost were identified and the viscosity change due to this loss was quantified. 3 references, 6 figures, 9 tables.

  5. Experimental study of viscosity effects on air-gun signatures (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Experimental study of viscosity effects on air-gun signatures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Experimental study of viscosity effects on air-gun signatures In computer modeling of air guns the theory is often based on the assumption of an ideal freely oscillating spherical air bubble in an ideal fluid. Theoretical and experimental air-gun signatures do not match perfectly. Synthetic signatures are underdamped compared to real signatures. Several physical

  6. Effect of viscosity on seismic response of waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Yu; Uras, R.A.; Chang, Yao-Wen

    1992-06-01

    The dynamic response of liquid-storage tanks subjected to harmonic excitations and earthquake ground motions has been studied. A rigid tank of negligible mass, rigidly supported at the base having a diameter of 50 ft. and fluid height of 20.4 ft. was used in the computer analysis. The liquid is assumed to have a density of 1.5 g/ml. Viscosity values, {mu} = 60, 200, 100, and 10,000 cP, were used in the numerical analyses to study the effects of viscosity on sloshing wave height, impulsive and convective pressure on the tank wall, base shear and base moments. Harmonic excitations as well as earthquake ground motions were used as input motions. The harmonic excitations used in the analyses covers a wide range of frequencies, including both the resonant and non-resonant frequencies. Two earthquake motions were used. One matches the Newmark-Hall median response spectrum and is anchored at 0.24 g for a rock site with a damping of 2% and a time duration of 10 s. The other is the 1978 Tabas earthquake which had a peak ZPA of 0.81 g and a time duration of 29 s. A small tank, about 1/15 the size of the typical waste storage tank, was used in the harmonic excitation study to investigate the effect of viscosity on the response of liquid-storage tanks and how the viscosity effect is affected by the size of the storage tank. The results of this study show that for the typical waste storage tank subjected to earthquake motions, the effect of viscosity on sloshing wave height and impulsive and convective pressures is very small and can be neglected. For viscosity effect to become noticeable in the response of the typical waste storage tank, the waste viscosity must be greater than 10,000 cP. This value is far greater than the estimated viscosity value of the high level wastes, which may range from 60 to 200 cP for some tanks.

  7. High Temperature, high pressure equation of state density correlations and viscosity correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tapriyal, D.; Enick, R.; McHugh, M.; Gamwo, I.; Morreale, B.

    2012-07-31

    Global increase in oil demand and depleting reserves has derived a need to find new oil resources. To find these untapped reservoirs, oil companies are exploring various remote and harsh locations such as deep waters in Gulf of Mexico, remote arctic regions, unexplored deep deserts, etc. Further, the depth of new oil/gas wells being drilled has increased considerably to tap these new resources. With the increase in the well depth, the bottomhole temperature and pressure are also increasing to extreme values (i.e. up to 500 F and 35,000 psi). The density and viscosity of natural gas and crude oil at reservoir conditions are critical fundamental properties required for accurate assessment of the amount of recoverable petroleum within a reservoir and the modeling of the flow of these fluids within the porous media. These properties are also used to design appropriate drilling and production equipment such as blow out preventers, risers, etc. With the present state of art, there is no accurate database for these fluid properties at extreme conditions. As we have begun to expand this experimental database it has become apparent that there are neither equations of state for density or transport models for viscosity that can be used to predict these fundamental properties of multi-component hydrocarbon mixtures over a wide range of temperature and pressure. Presently, oil companies are using correlations based on lower temperature and pressure databases that exhibit an unsatisfactory predictive capability at extreme conditions (e.g. as great as {+-} 50%). From the perspective of these oil companies that are committed to safely producing these resources, accurately predicting flow rates, and assuring the integrity of the flow, the absence of an extensive experimental database at extreme conditions and models capable of predicting these properties over an extremely wide range of temperature and pressure (including extreme conditions) makes their task even more daunting.

  8. Viscosity of multi-component molten nitrate salts : liquidus to 200 degrees C.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, Robert W.

    2010-03-01

    The viscosity of molten salts comprising ternary and quaternary mixtures of the nitrates of sodium, potassium, lithium and calcium was determined experimentally. Viscosity was measured over the temperature range from near the relatively low liquidus temperatures of he individual mixtures to 200C. Molten salt mixtures that do not contain calcium nitrate exhibited relatively low viscosity and an Arrhenius temperature dependence. Molten salt mixtures that contained calcium nitrate were relatively more viscous and viscosity increased as the roportion of calcium nitrate increased. The temperature dependence of viscosity of molten salts containing calcium nitrate displayed curvature, rather than linearity, when plotted in Arrhenius format. Viscosity data for these mixtures were correlated by the Vogel-Fulcher- ammann-Hesse equation.

  9. Saybolt universal viscosity converted to kinematic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anaya, C.; Bermudez, O.

    1987-09-21

    This article describes a program for personal and handheld computers, written in Basic, which has been developed for the conversion of Saybolt universal viscosity in Saybolt Universal Seconds (SSU or SUS) to kinematic viscosity in centistokes (cSt), at any selected temperature. It was developed using the mathematical relationship presented in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard D2161-82. In the standard, an equation is presented to convert kinematic viscosity to Saybolt universal viscosity, but nothing is presented to convert from Saybolt to kinematic because it is necessary to find the roots of a nonexplicit function. There are several numerical methods that can be used to determine the roots of the nonexplicit function, and therefore, convert Saybolt universal viscosity to kinematic viscosity. In the program, the first iteration of the second-order Newton-Raphson method is followed by the Wegstein method as a convergence accelerator.

  10. "Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced Industrial Heat Transfer Fluids"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ganesh Skandan; Dr. Amit Singhal; Mr. Kenneth Eberts; Mr. Damian Sobrevilla; Prof. Jerry Shan; Stephen Tse; Toby Rossmann

    2008-06-12

    ABSTRACT Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced industrial Heat Transfer Fluids” Improving the efficiency of Industrial Heat Exchangers offers a great opportunity to improve overall process efficiencies in diverse industries such as pharmaceutical, materials manufacturing and food processing. The higher efficiencies can come in part from improved heat transfer during both cooling and heating of the material being processed. Additionally, there is great interest in enhancing the performance and reducing the weight of heat exchangers used in automotives in order to increase fuel efficiency. The goal of the Phase I program was to develop nanoparticle containing heat transfer fluids (e.g., antifreeze, water, silicone and hydrocarbon-based oils) that are used in transportation and in the chemical industry for heating, cooling and recovering waste heat. Much work has been done to date at investigating the potential use of nanoparticle-enhanced thermal fluids to improve heat transfer in heat exchangers. In most cases the effect in a commercial heat transfer fluid has been marginal at best. In the Phase I work, we demonstrated that the thermal conductivity, and hence heat transfer, of a fluid containing nanoparticles can be dramatically increased when subjected to an external influence. The increase in thermal conductivity was significantly larger than what is predicted by commonly used thermal models for two-phase materials. Additionally, the surface of the nanoparticles was engineered so as to have a minimal influence on the viscosity of the fluid. As a result, a nanoparticle-laden fluid was successfully developed that can lead to enhanced heat transfer in both industrial and automotive heat exchangers

  11. Varying properties of in situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation based on assessed viscosities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

    2014-03-04

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. A viscosity of one or more zones of the hydrocarbon layer is assessed. The heating rates in the zones are varied based on the assessed viscosities. The heating rate in a first zone of the formation is greater than the heating rate in a second zone of the formation if the viscosity in the first zone is greater than the viscosity in the second zone. Fluids are produced from the formation through the production wells.

  12. Effect of Viscosity on the Microformability of Bulk Amorphous Alloy in Supercooled Liquid Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng Ming; Zhang Shihong; Wang Ruixue

    2010-06-15

    Previously published results have shown that viscosity greatly influences on the deformation behavior of the bulk amorphous alloy in supercooled liquid region during microforming process. And viscosity is proved to be a component of the evaluation index which indicating microformability. Based on the fluid flow theory and assumptions, bulk amorphous alloy can be regarded as the viscous materials with a certain viscosity. It is helpful to understand how the viscosity plays an important role in viscous materials with various viscosities by numerical simulation on the process. Analysis is carried out by linear state equation in FEM with other three materials, water, lubricant oil and polymer melt, whose viscosities are different obviously. The depths of the materials flow into the U-shaped groove during the microimprinting process are compared in this paper. The result shows that the deformation is quite different when surface tension effect is not considered in the case. With the lowest viscosity, water can reach the bottom of micro groove in a very short time. Lubricant oil and polymer melt slower than it. Moreover bulk amorphous alloys in supercooled liquid state just flow into the groove slightly. Among the alloys of different systems including Pd-, Mg- and Zr-based alloy, Pd-based alloy ranks largest in the depth. Mg-based alloy is the second. And Zr-based alloy is the third. Further more the rank order of the viscosities of the alloys is Pd-, Mg- and Zr-based. It agrees well with the results of calculation. Therefore viscosity plays an important role in the microforming of the bulk amorphous alloy in the supercooled liquid state.

  13. Elongational viscosity of photo-oxidated LDPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H. E-mail: manfred.wagner@tu-berlin.de; Wagner, Manfred H. E-mail: manfred.wagner@tu-berlin.de

    2014-05-15

    Sheets of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were photo-oxidatively treated at room temperature, and subsequently characterized rheologically in the melt state by shear and uniaxial extensional experiments. For photo-oxidation, a xenon lamp was used to irradiate the samples for times between 1 day and 6 weeks. Linear-viscoelastic characterization was performed in a temperature range of 130 to 220°C to obtain the master curve at 170°C, the reference temperature at which the elongational viscosities were measured. Linear viscoelasticity is increasingly affected by increasing photo-oxidation due to crosslinking of LDPE, as corroborated by an increasing gel fraction as determined by a solvent extraction method. The elongational measurements reveal a strong enhancement of strain hardening until a saturation level is achieved. The elongational data are analyzed in the frame work of two constitutive equations, the rubber-like liquid and the molecular stress function models. Within the experimental window, timedeformation separability is confirmed for all samples, independent of the degree of photo-oxidation.

  14. Heat Transfer in Complex Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehrdad Massoudi

    2012-01-01

    Amongst the most important constitutive relations in Mechanics, when characterizing the behavior of complex materials, one can identify the stress tensor T, the heat flux vector q (related to heat conduction) and the radiant heating (related to the radiation term in the energy equation). Of course, the expression 'complex materials' is not new. In fact, at least since the publication of the paper by Rivlin & Ericksen (1955), who discussed fluids of complexity (Truesdell & Noll, 1992), to the recently published books (Deshpande et al., 2010), the term complex fluids refers in general to fluid-like materials whose response, namely the stress tensor, is 'non-linear' in some fashion. This non-linearity can manifest itself in variety of forms such as memory effects, yield stress, creep or relaxation, normal-stress differences, etc. The emphasis in this chapter, while focusing on the constitutive modeling of complex fluids, is on granular materials (such as coal) and non-linear fluids (such as coal-slurries). One of the main areas of interest in energy related processes, such as power plants, atomization, alternative fuels, etc., is the use of slurries, specifically coal-water or coal-oil slurries, as the primary fuel. Some studies indicate that the viscosity of coal-water mixtures depends not only on the volume fraction of solids, and the mean size and the size distribution of the coal, but also on the shear rate, since the slurry behaves as shear-rate dependent fluid. There are also studies which indicate that preheating the fuel results in better performance, and as a result of such heating, the viscosity changes. Constitutive modeling of these non-linear fluids, commonly referred to as non-Newtonian fluids, has received much attention. Most of the naturally occurring and synthetic fluids are non-linear fluids, for example, polymer melts, suspensions, blood, coal-water slurries, drilling fluids, mud, etc. It should be noted that sometimes these fluids show Newtonian (linear) behavior for a given range of parameters or geometries; there are many empirical or semi-empirical constitutive equations suggested for these fluids. There have also been many non-linear constitutive relations which have been derived based on the techniques of continuum mechanics. The non-linearities oftentimes appear due to higher gradient terms or time derivatives. When thermal and or chemical effects are also important, the (coupled) momentum and energy equations can give rise to a variety of interesting problems, such as instability, for example the phenomenon of double-diffusive convection in a fluid layer. In Conclusion, we have studied the flow of a compressible (density gradient type) non-linear fluid down an inclined plane, subject to radiation boundary condition. The heat transfer is also considered where a source term, similar to the Arrhenius type reaction, is included. The non-dimensional forms of the equations are solved numerically and the competing effects of conduction, dissipation, heat generation and radiation are discussed. It is observed that the velocity increases rapidly in the region near the inclined surface and is slower in the region near the free surface. Since R{sub 7} is a measure of the heat generation due to chemical reaction, when the reaction is frozen (R{sub 7}=0.0) the temperature distributions would depend only on R{sub 1}, and R{sub 2}, representing the effects of the pressure force developed in the material due to the distribution, R{sub 3} and R{sub 4} viscous dissipation, R{sub 5} the normal stress coefficient, R{sub 6} the measure of the emissivity of the particles to the thermal conductivity, etc. When the flow is not frozen (RP{sub 7} > 0) the temperature inside the flow domain is much higher than those at the inclined and free surfaces. As a result, heat is transferred away from the flow toward both the inclined surface and the free surface with a rate that increases as R{sub 7} increases. For a given temperature, an increase in {zeta} implies that the activation energy is smaller and thus, the reaction ra

  15. Small shear viscosity in the semiquark gluon plasma (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Small shear viscosity in the semiquark gluon plasma Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Small shear viscosity in the semiquark gluon plasma At nonzero temperature in QCD, ...

  16. Thermal Storage and Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids (Fact Sheet...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    primarily around the following three areas: An NREL scientist in the new Thermal Storage Materials Laboratory uses a rheometer to measure fluid viscosity as part of his work to...

  17. Magnetoreological Fluid Template for Basic Studies of Mechanical-Chemical Effects During Polishing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miao, C.; Bristol, K. M.; Marino, A.E.; Shafrir, S.N.; DeGroote, J.E.; Jacobs, S.D.

    2008-01-07

    We developed a new magnetorheological (MR) fluid for studying the relative contributions of mechanics and chemistry in polishing hard materials. The base carrier fluid is a mixture of two non-aqueous liquids. At conventional carbonyl iron (CI) magnetic particle concentrations, removal rates with this formulation were unacceptably low for the polycrystalline optical ceramic aluminum oxynitride (ALON). We overcame this problem by creating a high magnetic solids concentration suspension consisting of blend of large and small CI particles. Our test bed for experiments was a magnetorheological finishing (MRF) spot-taking machine (STM) that can only polish spots into a non-rotating part. We demonstrated that, using this new MR fluid formation, we could substantially increase peak removal rates on ALON with small additions of nonmagnetic, nanodiamond abrasives. Material removal with this fluid was assumed to be predominately driven by mechanics. With the addition of small amounts of DI water to the base fluid containing nanodiamonds, the peak removal rate showed an additional increase, presumably due to the altered fluid rheology and possibly chemical interactions. In this paper we describe the difficult fluid viscosity issues that were addressed in creating a viable, high removal rate, non-aqueous MR fluid template that could be pumped in the STM for several days of experiments.

  18. Shear viscosity coefficient of liquid lanthanides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, H. P. Thakor, P. B. Prajapati, A. V.; Sonvane, Y. A.

    2015-05-15

    Present paper deals with the computation of shear viscosity coefficient (?) of liquid lanthanides. The effective pair potential v(r) is calculated through our newly constructed model potential. The Pair distribution function g(r) is calculated from PYHS reference system. To see the influence of local field correction function, Hartree (H), Tailor (T) and Sarkar et al (S) local field correction function are used. Present results are compared with available experimental as well as theoretical data. Lastly, we found that our newly constructed model potential successfully explains the shear viscosity coefficient (?) of liquid lanthanides.

  19. Shear Viscosity in a Gluon Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Zhe; Greiner, Carsten

    2008-05-02

    The relation of the shear viscosity coefficient to the recently introduced transport rate is derived within relativistic kinetic theory. We calculate the shear viscosity over entropy ratio {eta}/s for a gluon gas, which involves elastic gg{yields}gg perturbative QCD (PQCD) scatterings as well as inelastic gg{r_reversible}ggg PQCD bremsstrahlung. For {alpha}{sub s}=0.3 we find {eta}/s=0.13 and for {alpha}{sub s}=0.6, {eta}/s=0.076. The small {eta}/s values, which suggest strongly coupled systems, are due to the gluon bremsstrahlung incorporated.

  20. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2014-11-25

    This is a method to reactively refine hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20.degree. and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. The reaction portion of the method delivers lighter weight, more volatile hydrocarbons to an attached contacting device that operates in mixed subcritical or supercritical modes. This separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques. This method produces valuable products with fewer processing steps, lower costs, increased worker safety due to less processing and handling, allow greater opportunity for new oil field development and subsequent positive economic impact, reduce related carbon dioxide, and wastes typical with conventional refineries.

  1. Technology for Increasing Geothermal Energy Productivity. Computer Models to Characterize the Chemical Interactions of Goethermal Fluids and Injectates with Reservoir Rocks, Wells, Surface Equiptment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nancy Moller Weare

    2006-07-25

    This final report describes the results of a research program we carried out over a five-year (3/1999-9/2004) period with funding from a Department of Energy geothermal FDP grant (DE-FG07-99ID13745) and from other agencies. The goal of research projects in this program were to develop modeling technologies that can increase the understanding of geothermal reservoir chemistry and chemistry-related energy production processes. The ability of computer models to handle many chemical variables and complex interactions makes them an essential tool for building a fundamental understanding of a wide variety of complex geothermal resource and production chemistry. With careful choice of methodology and parameterization, research objectives were to show that chemical models can correctly simulate behavior for the ranges of fluid compositions, formation minerals, temperature and pressure associated with present and near future geothermal systems as well as for the very high PT chemistry of deep resources that is intractable with traditional experimental methods. Our research results successfully met these objectives. We demonstrated that advances in physical chemistry theory can be used to accurately describe the thermodynamics of solid-liquid-gas systems via their free energies for wide ranges of composition (X), temperature and pressure. Eight articles on this work were published in peer-reviewed journals and in conference proceedings. Four are in preparation. Our work has been presented at many workshops and conferences. We also considerably improved our interactive web site (geotherm.ucsd.edu), which was in preliminary form prior to the grant. This site, which includes several model codes treating different XPT conditions, is an effective means to transfer our technologies and is used by the geothermal community and other researchers worldwide. Our models have wide application to many energy related and other important problems (e.g., scaling prediction in petroleum production systems, stripping towers for mineral production processes, nuclear waste storage, CO2 sequestration strategies, global warming). Although funding decreases cut short completion of several research activities, we made significant progress on these abbreviated projects.

  2. Experimental Investigation of the Effective Foam Viscosity in Unsaturated Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Zhong, Lirong; White, Mark D.; Szecsody, James E.

    2012-11-01

    Foam has the potential to effectively carry and distribute either aqueous or gaseous amendments to the deep vadose zone for contaminant remediation. However, the transport of foam in porous media is complicated because flow characteristics such as the effective viscosity are affected not only by foam properties but also by the sediment properties and flow conditions. We determined the average effective foam viscosity via a series of laboratory experiments and found that the effective foam viscosity increased with the liquid fraction in foam, the injection rate, and sediment permeability. These impacts are quantified with an empirical expression, which is further demonstrated with data from literature. The results show that the liquid fraction in foam and sediment permeability are two primary factors affecting effective foam viscosity. These results suggest that, when foam is used in deep vadose zone remediation, foam flow will not suffer from gravitational drainage and can distribute amendments uniformly in heterogeneous sediments.

  3. Fascinating Fluids

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fascinating Fluids Fascinating Fluids From liquids to gases, we take on this most fascinating compound with hands-on activities for children and adults alike. We are made of fluids, mostly water, arguably the most interesting compound in the universe. Think About This Liquids Fluids are amazing. Fluids flow. Liquids have variable shapes but almost constant volumes. Gases Gases take the shape of their containers and can be squeezed and stretched relatively easily. Sand What is fine sand? It is a

  4. RELAP-7 Numerical Stabilization: Entropy Viscosity Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Berry; M. O. Delchini; J. Ragusa

    2014-06-01

    The RELAP-7 code is the next generation nuclear reactor system safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The code is based on the INL's modern scientific software development framework, MOOSE (Multi-Physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment). The overall design goal of RELAP-7 is to take advantage of the previous thirty years of advancements in computer architecture, software design, numerical integration methods, and physical models. The end result will be a reactor systems analysis capability that retains and improves upon RELAP5's capability and extends the analysis capability for all reactor system simulation scenarios. RELAP-7 utilizes a single phase and a novel seven-equation two-phase flow models as described in the RELAP-7 Theory Manual (INL/EXT-14-31366). The basic equation systems are hyperbolic, which generally require some type of stabilization (or artificial viscosity) to capture nonlinear discontinuities and to suppress advection-caused oscillations. This report documents one of the available options for this stabilization in RELAP-7 -- a new and novel approach known as the entropy viscosity method. Because the code is an ongoing development effort in which the physical sub models, numerics, and coding are evolving, so too must the specific details of the entropy viscosity stabilization method. Here the fundamentals of the method in their current state are presented.

  5. Geothermal fracture stimulation technology. Volume III. Geothermal fracture fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    A detailed study of all available and experimental frac fluid systems is presented. They have been examined and tested for physical properties that are important in the stimulation of hot water geothermal wells. These fluids consist of water-based systems containing high molecular weight polymers in the uncrosslinked and crosslinked state. The results of fluid testing for many systems are summarized specifically at geothermal conditions or until breakdown occurs. Some of the standard tests are ambient viscosity, static aging, high temperature viscosity, fluid-loss testing, and falling ball viscosity at elevated temperatures and pressures. Results of these tests show that unalterable breakdown of the polymer solutions begins above 300/sup 0/F. This continues at higher temperatures with time even if stabilizers or other high temperature additives are included.

  6. Supercritical fluids: Reactions, materials and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumas, W.; Jacobson, G.B.; Josephsohn, N.S.; Brown, G.H.

    1999-04-09

    A number of important processes utilizing supercritical fluids have been either implemented or are emerging for extractions, separations and a wide range of cleaning applications. Supercritical fluids can be reasonable solvents yet share many of the advantages of gases including miscibility with other gases (i.e. hydrogen and oxygen), low viscosities and high diffusivities. Carbon dioxide has the further advantages of being nontoxic, nonflammable, inexpensive and currently unregulated. The use of compressed gases, either as liquids or supercritical fluids, as reaction media offers the opportunity to replace conventional hazardous solvents and also to optimize and potentially control the effect of solvent on chemical and material processing. The last several years has seen a significant growth in advances in chemical synthesis, catalytic transformations and materials synthesis and processing. The authors report on results from an exploratory program at Los Alamos National Laboratory aimed at investigating the use of dense phase fluids, particularly carbon dioxide, as reaction media for homogeneous, heterogeneous and phase-separable catalytic reactions in an effort to develop new, environmentally-friendly methods for chemical synthesis and processing. This approach offers the possibility of opening up substantially different chemical pathways, increasing selectivity at higher reaction rates, facilitating downstream separations and mitigating the need for hazardous solvents. Developing and understanding chemical and catalytic transformations in carbon dioxide could lead to greener chemistry at three levels: (1) Solvent replacement; (2) Better chemistry (e.g. higher reactivity, selectivity, less energy consumption); and (3) New chemistry (e.g. novel separations, use of COP{sub 2} as a C-1 source).

  7. Viscosity index calculated by program in GW-basic for personal computers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anaya, C.; Bermudez, O. )

    1988-12-26

    A computer program has been developed to calculate the viscosity index of oils when viscosities at two temperatures are known.

  8. Nonlinear simulations of peeling-ballooning modes with anomalous electron viscosity and their role in edge localized mode crashes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, X. Q.; Dudson, B.; Snyder, P. B.; Umansky, M. V.; Wilson, H.

    2010-10-22

    A minimum set of equations based on the peeling-ballooning (P-B) model with nonideal physics effects (diamagnetic drift, E×B drift, resistivity, and anomalous electron viscosity) is found to simulate pedestal collapse when using the new BOUT++ simulation code, developed in part from the original fluid edge code BOUT. Nonlinear simulations of P-B modes demonstrate that the P-B modes trigger magnetic reconnection, which leads to the pedestal collapse. With the addition of a model of the anomalous electron viscosity under the assumption that the electron viscosity is comparable to the anomalous electron thermal diffusivity, it is found from simulations using a realisticmore » high-Lundquist number that the pedestal collapse is limited to the edge region and the edge localized mode (ELM) size is about 5–10% of the pedestal stored energy. Furthermore, this is consistent with many observations of large ELMs.« less

  9. Bulk viscosity of anisotropically expanding hot QCD plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandra, Vinod

    2011-11-01

    The bulk viscosity, {zeta} and its ratio with the shear viscosity, {zeta}/{eta} have been studied in an anisotropically expanding pure glue plasma in the presence of turbulent color fields. It has been shown that the anisotropy in the momentum distribution function of gluons, which has been determined from a linearized transport equation eventually leads to the bulk viscosity. For the isotropic (equilibrium) state, a recently proposed quasiparticle model of pure SU(3) lattice QCD equation of state has been employed where the interactions are encoded in the effective fugacity. It has been argued that the interactions present in the equation of state, significantly contribute to the bulk viscosity. Its ratio with the shear viscosity is significant even at 1.5T{sub c}. Thus, one needs to take in account the effects of the bulk viscosity while studying the hydrodynamic expansion of quark-gluon plasma in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider.

  10. Computation of shear viscosity of colloidal suspensions by SRD-MD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laganapan, A. M. K.; Videcoq, A. Bienia, M.; Ala-Nissila, T.; Bochicchio, D.; Ferrando, R.

    2015-04-14

    The behaviour of sheared colloidal suspensions with full hydrodynamic interactions (HIs) is numerically studied. To this end, we use the hybrid stochastic rotation dynamics-molecular dynamics (SRD-MD) method. The shear viscosity of colloidal suspensions is computed for different volume fractions, both for dilute and concentrated cases. We verify that HIs help in the collisions and the streaming of colloidal particles, thereby increasing the overall shear viscosity of the suspension. Our results show a good agreement with known experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies. This work demonstrates the ability of SRD-MD to successfully simulate transport coefficients that require correct modelling of HIs.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF HEAVY OIL VISCOSITY...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF HEAVY OIL VISCOSITY UNDER RESERVOIR CONDITIONS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION...

  12. Control of Slag Chemistry for the Reduction of Viscosity and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of slag viscosity and refractory wear in gasification systems. Application of this methodology to control slag chemistry will minimize refractory corrosion caused by carbon...

  13. Flow regimes for fluid injection into a confined porous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Zhong; Guo, Bo; Christov, Ivan C.; Celia, Michael A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2015-02-24

    We report theoretical and numerical studies of the flow behaviour when a fluid is injected into a confined porous medium saturated with another fluid of different density and viscosity. For a two-dimensional configuration with point source injection, a nonlinear convection–diffusion equation is derived to describe the time evolution of the fluid–fluid interface. In the early time period, the fluid motion is mainly driven by the buoyancy force and the governing equation is reduced to a nonlinear diffusion equation with a well-known self-similar solution. In the late time period, the fluid flow is mainly driven by the injection, and the governing equation is approximated by a nonlinear hyperbolic equation that determines the global spreading rate; a shock solution is obtained when the injected fluid is more viscous than the displaced fluid, whereas a rarefaction wave solution is found when the injected fluid is less viscous. In the late time period, we also obtain analytical solutions including the diffusive term associated with the buoyancy effects (for an injected fluid with a viscosity higher than or equal to that of the displaced fluid), which provide the structure of the moving front. Numerical simulations of the convection–diffusion equation are performed; the various analytical solutions are verified as appropriate asymptotic limits, and the transition processes between the individual limits are demonstrated.

  14. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of immiscible fluid displacement in porous media: Homogeneous versus heterogeneous pore network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Haihu; Zhang, Yonghao; Valocchi, Albert J.

    2015-05-15

    Injection of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into geological formations is a promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Predicting the amount of CO{sub 2} that can be captured and its long-term storage stability in subsurface requires a fundamental understanding of multiphase displacement phenomena at the pore scale. In this paper, the lattice Boltzmann method is employed to simulate the immiscible displacement of a wetting fluid by a non-wetting one in two microfluidic flow cells, one with a homogeneous pore network and the other with a randomly heterogeneous pore network. We have identified three different displacement patterns, namely, stable displacement, capillary fingering, and viscous fingering, all of which are strongly dependent upon the capillary number (Ca), viscosity ratio (M), and the media heterogeneity. The non-wetting fluid saturation (S{sub nw}) is found to increase nearly linearly with logCa for each constant M. Increasing M (viscosity ratio of non-wetting fluid to wetting fluid) or decreasing the media heterogeneity can enhance the stability of the displacement process, resulting in an increase in S{sub nw}. In either pore networks, the specific interfacial length is linearly proportional to S{sub nw} during drainage with equal proportionality constant for all cases excluding those revealing considerable viscous fingering. Our numerical results confirm the previous experimental finding that the steady state specific interfacial length exhibits a linear dependence on S{sub nw} for either favorable (M ? 1) or unfavorable (M < 1) displacement, and the slope is slightly higher for the unfavorable displacement.

  15. Flow regimes for fluid injection into a confined porous medium (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Flow regimes for fluid injection into a confined porous medium Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flow regimes for fluid injection into a confined porous medium We report theoretical and numerical studies of the flow behaviour when a fluid is injected into a confined porous medium saturated with another fluid of different density and viscosity. For a two-dimensional configuration with point source injection, a nonlinear convection-diffusion equation is

  16. Flow regimes for fluid injection into a confined porous medium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Zhong; Guo, Bo; Christov, Ivan C.; Celia, Michael A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2015-02-24

    We report theoretical and numerical studies of the flow behaviour when a fluid is injected into a confined porous medium saturated with another fluid of different density and viscosity. For a two-dimensional configuration with point source injection, a nonlinear convection–diffusion equation is derived to describe the time evolution of the fluid–fluid interface. In the early time period, the fluid motion is mainly driven by the buoyancy force and the governing equation is reduced to a nonlinear diffusion equation with a well-known self-similar solution. In the late time period, the fluid flow is mainly driven by the injection, and the governingmore » equation is approximated by a nonlinear hyperbolic equation that determines the global spreading rate; a shock solution is obtained when the injected fluid is more viscous than the displaced fluid, whereas a rarefaction wave solution is found when the injected fluid is less viscous. In the late time period, we also obtain analytical solutions including the diffusive term associated with the buoyancy effects (for an injected fluid with a viscosity higher than or equal to that of the displaced fluid), which provide the structure of the moving front. Numerical simulations of the convection–diffusion equation are performed; the various analytical solutions are verified as appropriate asymptotic limits, and the transition processes between the individual limits are demonstrated.« less

  17. Clay-based geothermal drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guven, N.; Carney, L.L.; Lee, L.J.; Bernhard, R.P.

    1982-11-01

    The rheological properties of fluids based on fibrous clays such as sepiolite and attapulgite have been systematically examined under conditions similar to those of geothermal wells, i.e. at elevated temperatures and pressures in environments with concentrated brines. Attapulgite- and sepiolite-based fluids have been autoclaved at temperatures in the range from 70 to 800/sup 0/F with the addition of chlorides and hydroxides of Na, K, Ca, and Mg. The rheological properties (apparent and plastic viscosity, fluid loss, gel strength, yield point, and cake thickness) of the autoclaved fluids have been studied and correlated with the chemical and physical changes that occur in the clay minerals during the autoclaving process.

  18. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2003-02-10

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions which are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. NMR well logging is finding wide use in formation evaluation. The formation parameters commonly estimated were porosity, permeability, and capillary bound water. Special cases include estimation of oil viscosity, residual oil saturation, location of oil/water contact, and interpretation on whether the hydrocarbon is oil or gas.

  19. Transport in a highly asymmetric binary fluid mixture (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Transport in a highly asymmetric binary fluid mixture Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Transport in a highly asymmetric binary fluid mixture We present molecular dynamics calculations of the thermal conductivity and viscosities of a model colloidal suspension with colloidal particles roughly one order of magnitude larger than the suspending liquid molecules. The results are compared with estimates based on the Enskog transport theory and effective medium theories

  20. Method for controlling the viscosity of siloxane oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, A. Andrew (Lenoir City, TN); Shor, Joel T. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of controlling the viscosity of siloxane oils in the presence of lead by adding a small amount of a dione such as p-benzoquinone or 2,3-butanedione.

  1. Method for controlling the viscosity of siloxane oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, A.A.; Shor, J.T.

    1984-09-12

    This invention relates to a method of controlling the viscosity of siloxane oils in the presence of lead by adding a small amount of a dione such as p-benzoquinone or 2,3-butanedione.

  2. EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF HEAVY OIL VISCOSITY UNDER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RESERVOIR CONDITIONS (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF HEAVY OIL VISCOSITY UNDER RESERVOIR CONDITIONS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF HEAVY OIL VISCOSITY UNDER RESERVOIR CONDITIONS × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as

  3. A Brief Review of Viscosity Models for Slag in Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massoudi, Mehrdad; Wang, Ping

    2011-11-01

    Many researchers have defined the phenomenon of 'slagging' as the deposition of ash in the radiative section of a boiler, while 'fouling' refers to the deposition of ash in the convective-pass region. Among the important parameters affecting ash deposition that need to be studied are ash chemistry, its transport, deposit growth, and strength development; removability of the ash deposit; heat transfer mechanisms; and the mode of operation for boilers. The heat transfer at the walls of a combustor depends on many parameters including ash deposition. This depends on the processes or parameters controlling the impact efficiency and the sticking efficiency. For a slagging combustor or furnace, however, the temperatures are so high that much of the coal particles are melted and the molten layer, in turn, captures more particles as it flows. The main problems with ash deposition are reduced heat transfer in the boiler and corrosion of the tubes. Common ways of dealing with these issues are soot blowing and wall blowing on a routine basis; however, unexpected or uncontrolled depositions can also complicate the situation, and there are always locations inaccessible to the use of such techniques. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1300 C and 1500 C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa {center_dot} s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. In such cases the slag should be regarded as a non-Newtonian suspension, consisting of liquid silicate and crystals. A better understanding of the rheological properties of the slag, such as yield stress and shear-thinning, are critical in determining the optimum operating conditions. To develop an accurate heat transfer model in any type of coal combustion or gasification process, the heat transfer and to some extent the rheological properties of ash and slag, especially in high-temperature environments need to be understood and properly modeled. The viscosity of slag and the thermal conductivity of ash deposits are among two of the most important constitutive parameters that need to be studied. The accurate formulation or representations of the (transport) properties of coal (and biomass for co-firing cases) present a special challenge of modeling efforts in computational fluid dynamics applications. In this report, we first provide a brief review of the various approaches taken by different researchers in formulating or obtaining a slag viscosity model. In general, these models are based on experiments. Since slag behaves as a non-linear fluid, we discuss the constitutive modeling of slag and the important parameters that must be studied.

  4. Exploratory Characterization of a Perfluoropolyether Oil as a Possible Viscosity Standard at Deepwater Production Conditions of 533 K and 241 MPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baled, Hseen O.; Tapriyal, Deepak; Morreale, Bryan D.; Soong, Yee; Gamwo, Isaac; Krukonis, Val; Bamgbade, Babatunde A.; Wu, Yue; McHugh, Mark A.; Burgess, Ward A.; M Enick, Robert M.

    2013-10-01

    DuPont’s perfluoropolyether oil Krytox® GPL 102 is a promising candidate for the high-temperature, high-pressure Deepwater viscosity standard (DVS). The preferred DVS is a thermally stable liquid that exhibits a viscosity of roughly 20 mPa?s at 533 K and 241 MPa; a viscosity value representative of light oils found in ultra-deep formations beneath the deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico. A windowed rolling-ball viscometer designed by our team is used to determine the Krytox® GPL 102 viscosity at pressures to 245 MPa and temperatures of 311 K, 372 K, and 533 K. At 533 K and 243 MPa, the Krytox® GPL 102 viscosity is (27.2±1.3)mPa?s . The rolling-ball viscometer viscosity results for Krytox® GPL 102 are correlated with an empirical 10-parameter surface fitting function that yields an MAPD of 3.9 %. A Couette rheometer is also used to measure the Krytox® GPL 102 viscosity, yielding a value of (26.2±1)mPa?s at 533 K and 241 MPa. The results of this exploratory study suggest that Krytox® GPL 102 is a promising candidate for the DVS, primarily because this fluoroether oil is thermally stable and exhibits a viscosity closer to the targeted value of 20 mPa ? s at 533 K and 241 MPa than any other fluid reported to date. Nonetheless, further studies must be conducted by other researcher groups using various types of viscometers and rheometers on samples of Krytox GPL® 102 from the same lot to further establish the properties of Krytox GPL® 102.

  5. Viscosity and dilepton production of a chemically equilibrating quark-gluon plasma at finite baryon density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan Nana; Li Jianwei; He Zejun; Long Jiali; Cai Xiangzhou; Ma Yugang; Shen Wenqing

    2009-07-15

    By considering the effect of shear viscosity we have investigated the evolution of a chemically equilibrating quark-gluon plasma at finite baryon density. Based on the evolution of the system we have performed a complete calculation for the dilepton production from the following processes: qq{yields}ll, qq{yields}gll, Compton-like scattering (qg{yields}qll,qg{yields}qll), gluon fusion (gg{yields}cc), annihilation (qq{yields}cc), as well as the multiple scattering of quarks. We have found that quark-antiquark annihilation, Compton-like scatterring, gluon fusion, and multiple scattering of quarks give important contributions. Moreover, we have also found that the dilepton yield is an increasing function of the initial quark chemical potential, and the increase of the quark phase lifetime because of the viscosity also obviously raises the dilepton yield.

  6. Stimuli Responsive/Rheoreversible Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids for Enhanced Geothermal Energy Production (Part II)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonneville, Alain; Jung, Hun Bok; Shao, Hongbo; Kabilan, Senthil; Um, Wooyong; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Varga, Tamas; Suresh, Niraj; Stephens, Sean A.; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2014-12-14

    We have used an environmentally friendly and recyclable hydraulic fracturing fluid - diluted aqueous solutions of polyallylamine or PAA – for reservoir stimulation in Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS). This fluid undergoes a controlled and large volume expansion with a simultaneous increase in viscosity triggered by CO2 at EGS temperatures. We are presenting here the results of laboratory-scale hydraulic fracturing experiment using the fluid on small cylindrical rock cores (1.59 cm in diameter and 5.08 cm in length) from the Coso geothermal field in California. Rock samples consisted of Mesozoic diorite metamorphosed to greenschist facies. The experiments were conducted on 5 samples for realistic ranges of pressures (up to 275 bar) and temperatures (up to 210 °C) for both the rock samples and the injected fluid. After fracturing, cores were subjected to a CO2 leakage test, injection of KI solution, and X-ray microtomography (XMT) scanning to examine the formation and distribution of fractures. The design and conduct of these experiments will be presented and discussed in details. Based on the obtained XMT images, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were then performed to visualize hydraulic fractures and compute the bulk permeability. OpenFOAM (OpenCFD Ltd., Reading, UK), was used to solve the steady state simulation. The flow predictions, based upon the laminar, 3-D, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for fluid mass and momentum, show the remarkable stimulation of the permeability in the core samples and demonstrate the efficiency of such a CO2 triggered fluid in EGS.

  7. Fluid extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  8. Shear-viscosity to entropy-density ratio from giant dipole resonances in hot nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen Dinh Dang

    2011-09-15

    The Green-Kubo relation and fluctuation-dissipation theorem are employed to calculate the shear viscosity {eta} of a finite hot nucleus directly from the width and energy of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) of this nucleus. The ratio {eta}/s of shear viscosity {eta} to entropy density s is extracted from the experimental systematics of the GDR in copper, tin, and lead isotopes at finite temperature T. These empirical results are then compared with the predictions by several independent models as well as with almost model-independent estimations. Based on these results, it is concluded that the ratio {eta}/s in medium and heavy nuclei decreases with increasing temperature T to reach (1.3--4)x({h_bar}/2{pi})/(4{pi}k{sub B}) at T=5 MeV.

  9. Use of ammonia to reduce the viscosity of bottoms streams produced in hydroconversion processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaczepinski, Sioma (Houston, TX); Billimoria, Rustom M. (Houston, TX); Tao, Frank (Baytown, TX); Lington, Christopher G. (Houston, TX); Plumlee, Karl W. (Baytown, TX)

    1984-01-01

    Coal, petroleum residuum and similar carbonaceous feed materials are subjected to hydroconversion in the presence of molecular hydrogen to produce a hydroconversion effluent which is then subjected to one or more separation steps to remove lower molecular weight liquids and produce a heavy bottoms stream containing high molecular weight liquids and unconverted carbonaceous material. The viscosity of the bottoms streams produced in the separation step or steps is prevented from increasing rapidly by treating the feed to the separation step or steps with ammonia gas prior to or during the separation step or steps. The viscosity of the heavy bottoms stream produced in the final separation step is also controlled by treating these bottoms with ammonia gas. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the effluent from the hydroconversion reactor is subjected to an atmospheric distillation followed by a vacuum distillation and the feeds to these distillations are contacted with ammonia during the distillations.

  10. Viscous quark-gluon plasma model through fluid QCD approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djun, T. P.; Soegijono, B.; Mart, T.; Handoko, L. T. E-mail: Laksana.tri.handoko@lipi.go.id

    2014-09-25

    A Lagrangian density for viscous quark-gluon plasma has been constructed within the fluid-like QCD framework. Gauge symmetry is preserved for all terms inside the Lagrangian, except for the viscous term. The transition mechanism from point particle field to fluid field, and vice versa, are discussed. The energy momentum tensor that is relevant to the gluonic plasma having the nature of fluid bulk of gluon sea is derived within the model. By imposing conservation law in the energy momentum tensor, shear viscosity appears as extractable from the equation.

  11. Rayleigh-Taylor instability at spherical interfaces between viscous fluids: Fluid/vacuum interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terrones, Guillermo; Carrara, Mark D.

    2015-05-01

    For a spherical interface of radius R separating two different homogeneous regions of incompressible viscous fluids under the action of a radially directed acceleration, we perform a linear stability analysis in terms of spherical surface harmonics Y n to derive the dispersion relation. The instability behavior is investigated by computing the growth rates and the most-unstable modes as a function of the spherical harmonic degree n. This general methodology is applicable to the entire parameter space spanned by the Atwood number, the viscosity ratio, and the dimensionless number B = (αRΡ²2/μ²²)¹/³ R (where αR, Ρ2 and μ2 are the local radial acceleration at the interface, and the density and viscosity of the denser overlying fluid, respectively). While the mathematical formulation here is general, this paper focuses on instability that arises at a spherical viscous fluid/vacuum interface as there is a great deal to be learned from the effects of one-fluid viscosity and sphericity alone. To quantify and understand the effect that curvature and radial accelerationhave on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, a comparison of the growth rates, under homologous driving conditions, between the planar and spherical interfaces is performed. The derived dispersion relation for the planar interface accounts for an underlying finite fluid region of thickness L and normal acceleration αR. Under certain conditions, the development of the most-unstable modes at a spherical interface can take place via the superposition of two adjacent spherical harmonics Yn and Yn+1. This bimodality in the evolution of disturbances in the linear regime does not have a counterpart in the planar configuration where the most-unstable modes are associated with a unique wave number.

  12. Rayleigh-Taylor instability at spherical interfaces between viscous fluids: Fluid/vacuum interface

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Terrones, Guillermo; Carrara, Mark D.

    2015-05-01

    For a spherical interface of radius R separating two different homogeneous regions of incompressible viscous fluids under the action of a radially directed acceleration, we perform a linear stability analysis in terms of spherical surface harmonics Y n to derive the dispersion relation. The instability behavior is investigated by computing the growth rates and the most-unstable modes as a function of the spherical harmonic degree n. This general methodology is applicable to the entire parameter space spanned by the Atwood number, the viscosity ratio, and the dimensionless number B = (αRΡ²2/μ²²)¹/³ R (where αR, Ρ2 and μ2 are the localmore » radial acceleration at the interface, and the density and viscosity of the denser overlying fluid, respectively). While the mathematical formulation here is general, this paper focuses on instability that arises at a spherical viscous fluid/vacuum interface as there is a great deal to be learned from the effects of one-fluid viscosity and sphericity alone. To quantify and understand the effect that curvature and radial accelerationhave on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, a comparison of the growth rates, under homologous driving conditions, between the planar and spherical interfaces is performed. The derived dispersion relation for the planar interface accounts for an underlying finite fluid region of thickness L and normal acceleration αR. Under certain conditions, the development of the most-unstable modes at a spherical interface can take place via the superposition of two adjacent spherical harmonics Yn and Yn+1. This bimodality in the evolution of disturbances in the linear regime does not have a counterpart in the planar configuration where the most-unstable modes are associated with a unique wave number.« less

  13. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2015-06-09

    A system and method for reactively refining hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20 degrees and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure, using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. A reaction portion of the system and method delivers lightweight, volatile hydrocarbons to an associated contacting unit which operates in mixed subcritical/supercritical or supercritical modes. Using thermal diffusion, multiphase contact, or a momentum generating pressure gradient, the contacting unit separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques.

  14. Fluid sampling tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Anthony R. (Espanola, NM); Johnston, Roger G. (Las Alamos, NM); Martinez, Ronald K. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A fluid-sampling tool for obtaining a fluid sample from a container. When used in combination with a rotatable drill, the tool bores a hole into a container wall, withdraws a fluid sample from the container, and seals the borehole. The tool collects fluid sample without exposing the operator or the environment to the fluid or to wall shavings from the container.

  15. Suppression of the shear viscosity in a 'semi'-quark-gluon plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Suppression of the shear viscosity in a 'semi'-quark-gluon plasma Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Suppression of the shear viscosity in a 'semi'-quark-gluon plasma We ...

  16. Large-density field theory, viscosity, and '$2k_F$' singularities...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Large-density field theory, viscosity, and '2kF' singularities from string duals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Large-density field theory, viscosity, and '2kF' ...

  17. Apparatus and method for high temperature viscosity and temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Shah, Vimal; Costley, R. Daniel; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2001-01-01

    A probe for measuring the viscosity and/or temperature of high temperature liquids, such as molten metals, glass and similar materials comprises a rod which is an acoustical waveguide through which a transducer emits an ultrasonic signal through one end of the probe, and which is reflected from (a) a notch or slit or an interface between two materials of the probe and (b) from the other end of the probe which is in contact with the hot liquid or hot melt, and is detected by the same transducer at the signal emission end. To avoid the harmful effects of introducing a thermally conductive heat sink into the melt, the probe is made of relatively thermally insulative (non-heat-conductive) refractory material. The time between signal emission and reflection, and the amplitude of reflections, are compared against calibration curves to obtain temperature and viscosity values.

  18. Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dilley, Lorie

    2013-01-01

    Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

  19. Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dilley, Lorie

    Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

  20. Process for stabilizing the viscosity characteristics of coal derived materials and the stabilized materials obtained thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bronfenbrenner, James C. (Allentown, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Allentown, PA); Tewari, Krishna (Allentown, PA)

    1985-01-01

    A process is disclosed for stabilizing the viscosity of coal derived materials such as an SRC product by adding up to 5.0% by weight of a light volatile phenolic viscosity repressor. The viscosity will remain stabilized for a period of time of up to 4 months.

  1. Direct visualization of the hydration layer on alumina nanoparticles with the fluid cell STEM in situ

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Firlar, Emre; Ç?nar, Simge; Kashyap, Sanjay; Akinc, Mufit; Prozorov, Tanya

    2015-05-21

    Rheological behavior of aqueous suspensions containing nanometer-sized powders is of relevance to many branches of industry. Unusually high viscosities observed for suspensions of nanoparticles compared to those of micron size powders cannot be explained by current viscosity models. Formation of so-called hydration layer on alumina nanoparticles in water was hypothesized, but never observed experimentally. We report here on the direct visualization of aqueous suspensions of alumina with the fluid cell in situ. We observe the hydration layer formed over the particle aggregates and show that such hydrated aggregates constitute new particle assemblies and affect the flow behavior of the suspensions.more »We discuss how these hydrated nanoclusters alter the effective solid content and the viscosity of nanostructured suspensions. Our findings elucidate the source of high viscosity observed for nanoparticle suspensions and are of direct relevance to many industrial sectors including materials, food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical among others employing colloidal slurries with nanometer-scale particles.« less

  2. Viscosity Determination of Molten Ash from Low-Grade US Coals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Jingxi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Kaneko, Tetsuya Kenneth; Mu, Haoyuan; Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Rozelle, Peter; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2012-10-01

    In entrained slagging gasifiers, the fluidity of the molten ash is a critical factor for process control since it affects slag formation, the capture of inorganic constituents, refractory wear, and slag drainage along the gasification chamber walls. The use of western coal, or mixtures of eastern and western coals as gasifier feedstock, is likely to occur as western coals become available and technological issues that hinder their use are being resolved. In the present work, the viscosity of synthetic slags with ash chemistries simulating the western U.S. coals, was experimentally measured at a Po2 = 10- 8 atm in themore » temperature range of 1773–1573 K (1500–1300 °C) using a rotating-bob viscometer. Alumina spindles and containment crucibles of both alumina and zirconia were used. Crystallization studies of this slag using a confocal scanning laser microscope found that a (Mg,Fe)Al2O4-based spinel precipitated at temperatures below 1723 K (1450 °C), and this agreed with FactSage equilibrium phase prediction. The same spinels were observed in the post-viscometry experiment slags when ZrO2 crucibles were used and assumed to be in equilibrium with the slag at the higher temperatures. Zirconia dissolution resulted in a slight increase in the solid fraction present in slags at lower temperatures, compared to spinel fraction. Crystal precipitation changed the apparent activation energy and required a longer stabilization times for viscosity measurements. The viscosity results were used in predictive equations based on Veytsman and Einstein's models, with critical nucleation temperatures and the solid fraction calculated with FactSage. In the simulated eastern/western coal feedstock blends based on ash compositions, the fractions of the solid precipitates were also calculated using the thermodynamic program FactSage for each blend composition, and the plastic viscosity of each eastern/western coal slag blend was predicted using Veytsman's model and compared to available experimental data.« less

  3. Viscosity Determination of Molten Ash from Low-Grade US Coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jingxi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Kaneko, Tetsuya Kenneth; Mu, Haoyuan; Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Rozelle, Peter; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2012-10-01

    In entrained slagging gasifiers, the fluidity of the molten ash is a critical factor for process control since it affects slag formation, the capture of inorganic constituents, refractory wear, and slag drainage along the gasification chamber walls. The use of western coal, or mixtures of eastern and western coals as gasifier feedstock, is likely to occur as western coals become available and technological issues that hinder their use are being resolved. In the present work, the viscosity of synthetic slags with ash chemistries simulating the western U.S. coals, was experimentally measured at a Po2 = 10- 8 atm in the temperature range of 1773–1573 K (1500–1300 °C) using a rotating-bob viscometer. Alumina spindles and containment crucibles of both alumina and zirconia were used. Crystallization studies of this slag using a confocal scanning laser microscope found that a (Mg,Fe)Al2O4-based spinel precipitated at temperatures below 1723 K (1450 °C), and this agreed with FactSage equilibrium phase prediction. The same spinels were observed in the post-viscometry experiment slags when ZrO2 crucibles were used and assumed to be in equilibrium with the slag at the higher temperatures. Zirconia dissolution resulted in a slight increase in the solid fraction present in slags at lower temperatures, compared to spinel fraction. Crystal precipitation changed the apparent activation energy and required a longer stabilization times for viscosity measurements. The viscosity results were used in predictive equations based on Veytsman and Einstein's models, with critical nucleation temperatures and the solid fraction calculated with FactSage. In the simulated eastern/western coal feedstock blends based on ash compositions, the fractions of the solid precipitates were also calculated using the thermodynamic program FactSage for each blend composition, and the plastic viscosity of each eastern/western coal slag blend was predicted using Veytsman's model and compared to available experimental data.

  4. Fluid transport container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeRoos, Bradley G. (41 James St., Sequim, WA 98382); Downing, Jr., John P. (260 Kala Heights Dr., Port Townsand, WA 98368); Neal, Michael P. (921 Amberly Pl., Columbus, OH 43220)

    1995-01-01

    An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitment for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container.

  5. Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scour-tracc-cfd TRACC RESEARCH Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Structural Mechanics Transportation Systems Modeling Computational Fluid Dynamics Overview of CFD: Video Clip with Audio Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) research uses mathematical and computational models of flowing fluids to describe and predict fluid response in problems of interest, such as the flow of air around a moving vehicle or the flow of water and sediment in a river. Coupled with appropriate and prototypical

  6. Measurement of surface tension and viscosity by open capillary techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rye,Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM), Yost,Frederick G. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    1998-01-01

    An open-channel capillary is provided, having preferably a v-shaped groove in a flat wettable surface. The groove has timing marks and a source marker in which the specimen to be tested is deposited. The time of passage between the timing marks is recorded, and the ratio of surface tension .gamma. to viscosity .mu. is determined from the equation given below: ##EQU1## where h.sub.0 is the groove depth, .alpha. is the groove angle, .theta. is the liquid/solid contact angle, and t is the flow time. It has been shown by the

  7. Bag breakup of low viscosity drops in the presence of a continuous air jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, V. Sojka, P. E.

    2014-07-15

    This work examines the breakup of a single drop of various low viscosity fluids as it deforms in the presence of continuous horizontal air jet. Such a fragmentation typically occurs after the bulk liquid has disintegrated upon exiting the atomizer and is in the form of an ensemble of drops which undergo further breakup. The drop deformation and its eventual disintegration is important in evaluating the efficacy of a particular industrial process, be it combustion in automobile engines or pesticide spraying in agricultural applications. The interplay between competing influences of surface tension and aerodynamic disruptive forces is represented by the Weber number, We, and Ohnesorge number, Oh, and used to describe the breakup morphology. The breakup pattern considered in our study corresponds to that of a bag attached to a toroidal ring which occurs from ?12 < We < ?16. We aim to address several issues connected with this breakup process and their dependence on We and Oh which have been hitherto unexplored. The We boundary at which breakup begins is theoretically determined and the expression obtained, We=12(1+2/3Oh{sup 2}), is found to match well with experimental data ([L.-P. Hsiang and G. M. Faeth, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21(4), 545–560 (1995)] and [R. S. Brodkey, “Formation of drops and bubbles,” in The Phenomena of Fluid Motions (Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1967)]). An exponential growth in the radial extent of the deformed drop and the streamline dimension of the bag is predicted by a theoretical model and confirmed by experimental findings. These quantities are observed to strongly depend on We. However, their dependence on Oh is weak.

  8. GEOTHERMAL FLUID PROPENE AND PROPANE: INDICATORS OF FLUID | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FLUID PROPENE AND PROPANE: INDICATORS OF FLUID Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: GEOTHERMAL FLUID PROPENE AND PROPANE:...

  9. Electric fluid pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  10. Fluid sampling tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnston, Roger G. (Los Alamos, NM); Garcia, Anthony R. E. (Espanola, NM); Martinez, Ronald K. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    2001-09-25

    The invention includes a rotatable tool for collecting fluid through the wall of a container. The tool includes a fluid collection section with a cylindrical shank having an end portion for drilling a hole in the container wall when the tool is rotated, and a threaded portion for tapping the hole in the container wall. A passageway in the shank in communication with at least one radial inlet hole in the drilling end and an opening at the end of the shank is adapted to receive fluid from the container. The tool also includes a cylindrical chamber affixed to the end of the shank opposite to the drilling portion thereof for receiving and storing fluid passing through the passageway. The tool also includes a flexible, deformable gasket that provides a fluid-tight chamber to confine kerf generated during the drilling and tapping of the hole. The invention also includes a fluid extractor section for extracting fluid samples from the fluid collecting section.

  11. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sungaila, Zenon F. (Orland Park, IL)

    1993-01-01

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  12. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-07-06

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  13. Using supercritical carbon dioxide as a fracturing fluid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    formation at pressures high enough to fracture the rock, is performed to increase permeability and thereby increase production. Currently, water is the only fracturing fluid...

  14. Proposal for Universality in the Viscosity of Metallic Liquids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Blodgett, M. E.; Egami, Takeshi; Nussinov, Z.; Kelton, K. F.

    2015-09-09

    The range of magnitude of the liquid viscosity, η, as a function of temperature is one of the most impressive of any physical property, changing by approximately 17 orders of magnitude from its extrapolated value at infinite temperature (ηo) to that at the glass transition temperature, Tg. We present experimental measurements of containerlessly processed metallic liquids that suggest that log(η/ηo) as a function of TA/T is a potentially universal scaled curve. In stark contrast to previous approaches, the scaling requires only two fitting parameters, which are on average predictable. The temperature TA corresponds to the onset of cooperative motion andmore » is strongly correlated with Tg, suggesting that the processes underlying the glass transition first appear in the high temperature liquid.« less

  15. Asymmetric tearing mode in the presence of viscosity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Militello, F.; Grasso, D.; Marchetto, C.; Ottaviani, M.

    2011-11-15

    The linear stability of the tearing mode (TM) in a plasma column is investigated in the presence of viscosity and finite equilibrium current density gradients (i.e., asymmetries). It is shown that for low {beta}, both effects are essential in order to properly describe the mode behaviour close to marginality. In particular, the theory introduces a critical threshold for the destabilization, such that the perturbation grows only if {Delta}'>{Delta}'{sub cr}. The value of {Delta}'{sub cr} depends on the equilibrium configuration and on the plasma parameters. Most importantly, {Delta}'{sub cr} can take negative values, thus allowing unstable tearing modes for {Delta}' < 0 (even in the absence of bootstrap current).

  16. Viscosity of the QGP from a virial expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattiello, S.

    2012-06-15

    In this work we calculate the shear viscosity {eta} in the quark-gluon plasma within a virial expansion approach with particular interest in the ratio of {eta} to the entropy density s, i.e. {eta}/s. We derive a realistic equation of state using a virial expansion approach which allows us to include the interactions between the partons in the deconfined phase. From the interaction we directly extract the effective coupling {alpha}{sub V} for the determination of {eta}. Our results for {eta}/s show a minimum near to T{sub c} very close with the lowest bound and, furthermore, in line with the experimental point from RHIC as well as with the lattice calculations.

  17. Thermophysical property measurements in fluid mixtures, Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olien, N.A.; Levelt Sengers, J.M.H.

    1986-09-01

    The objective of this program is the development of experimental methods for the measurement of equilibrium and transport properties of complex, multiphase fluids and fluid mixtures. The properties involved in the apparatus development are: PVT (pressure-volume-temperature), PVTx (pressure-volume-temperature-composition), phase equilibria (liquid-vapor and liquid-liquid equilibria), phase behavior at interfaces, and transport properties (viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient). The apparatus are designed, where practical, for use in highly corrosive, toxic, and flammable fluids. The design goals for temperature and pressure are 800 K and 30 MPa (in some cases 70 MPa). It is not possible to meet these goals in all cases because of material requirements and limitations; for example, the need for visual cells for phase equilibria, the use of piezoelectric crystals for viscometry, and the temperature limitations of some pressure transducers. 8 refs.

  18. Methods for fluid separations, and devices capable of separating fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E [Kennewick, WA; Stenkamp, Victoria S [Richland, WA

    2006-05-30

    Wick-Containing apparatus capable of separating fluids and methods of separating fluids using wicks are disclosed.

  19. Methods for fluid separations, and devices capable of separating fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. (Kennewick, WA); Stenkamp, Victoria S. (Richland, WA)

    2007-09-25

    Wick-Containing apparatus capable of separating fluids and methods of separating fluids using wicks are disclosed.

  20. Spinning fluids reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  1. Fluid cooled electrical assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rinehart, Lawrence E.; Romero, Guillermo L.

    2007-02-06

    A heat producing, fluid cooled assembly that includes a housing made of liquid-impermeable material, which defines a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and an opening. Also included is an electrical package having a set of semiconductor electrical devices supported on a substrate and the second major surface is a heat sink adapted to express heat generated from the electrical apparatus and wherein the second major surface defines a rim that is fit to the opening. Further, the housing is constructed so that as fluid travels from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet it is constrained to flow past the opening thereby placing the fluid in contact with the heat sink.

  2. Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, T.N.; Wittmer, D.E.

    1995-10-10

    A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

  3. Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Wittmer, Dale E. (Carbondale, IL)

    1995-01-01

    A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

  4. Measurement of solubility, viscosity, and density of R-410A refrigerant/lubricant mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavestri, R.C.; Schafer, W.R.

    2000-07-01

    Measurements of the refrigerant vapor/liquid lubricant equilibrium viscosity reduction of four polyolester lubricants, viscosity grades 32 and 68 ISO VG, with the refrigerant R-410A were taken between {minus}13 F and 257 F and up to 700 psia. A high and low miscibility grade polyolester was analyzed for each viscosity. The viscosity, density, and composition of the solubilized gas mixture in solution with the lubricant was obtained with constant gas vapor composition in the viscometer head space. This refrigerant has a very small temperature glide but is considered a zeotropic blend nonetheless. The fractionation data presented were obtained from individual isothermal measurements. The isotherm for each temperature detailed the composition of the equilibrium gas fractionation of R-32 and R-125 in the lubricant, mixed vapor pressure, concentration of the total mixed blend (percent by weight) in the lubricant, and viscosity in centipoise (cP) and centistokes (cSt).

  5. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angel, S. Michael (Livermore, CA)

    1989-01-01

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

  6. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angel, S.M.

    1987-02-27

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

  7. Computational fluid dynamics improves liner cementing operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, N.A.; Archer, G.L. ); Seymour, D.A. )

    1994-09-26

    The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), an analytical tool for studying fluid mechanics, helped plan the successful cementing of a critical liner in a North Sea extended reach well. The results from CFD analysis increased the confidence in the primary cementing of the liner. CFD modeling was used to quantify the effects of increasing the displacement rate and of rotating the liner on the mud flow distribution in the annulus around the liner.

  8. Metalworking and machining fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL); Sykora, Frank (Caledon, ON, CA); Dorbeck, Mark (Brighton, MI)

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  9. Friction-Induced Fluid Heating in Nanoscale Helium Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Zhigang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-05-21

    We investigate the mechanism of friction-induced fluid heating in nanoconfinements. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the temperature variations of liquid helium in nanoscale Poiseuille flows. It is found that the fluid heating is dominated by different sources of friction as the external driving force is changed. For small external force, the fluid heating is mainly caused by the internal viscous friction in the fluid. When the external force is large and causes fluid slip at the surfaces of channel walls, the friction at the fluid-solid interface dominates over the internal friction in the fluid and is the major contribution to fluid heating. An asymmetric temperature gradient in the fluid is developed in the case of nonidentical walls and the general temperature gradient may change sign as the dominant heating factor changes from internal to interfacial friction with increasing external force.

  10. Viscosity index improver-dispersant additive useful in oil compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, J.B.; Dick, M.N.

    1988-10-25

    A process comprising grafting in the substantial absence of solvent a hydrocarbon polymer of C/sub 2/ to C/sub 28/ olefin, the polymer having a number average molecular weight in the range of about 5,000 to 500,000 with an unsaturated material selected from the group consisting of: (A) ethylenically unsaturated C/sub 3/ to C/sub 10/ carboxylic acid having 1 to 2 carboxylic acid groups or an anhydride group, and (B) nitrogen-containing ethylenically unsaturated monomers containing 6 to 30 carbon atoms and 1 to 4 nitrogen atoms, in the presence of a free radical initiator and a chain stopping agent comprising at least one member selected from the group consisting of alphatic mercaptans having 4 to 24 carbon atoms, deithyl hydroxyl amine cumene and phenols, the grafting being conducted in a manner and under conditions sufficient to form a substantially oil soluble graft copolymer useful as a viscosity index improver-dispersant additive for lubricating oil compositions.

  11. Electrorheological fluids and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.

    2015-06-02

    Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.

  12. Low-melting point inorganic nitrate salt heat transfer fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradshaw, Robert W.; Brosseau, Douglas A.

    2009-09-15

    A low-melting point, heat transfer fluid made of a mixture of four inorganic nitrate salts: 9-18 wt % NaNO.sub.3, 40-52 wt % KNO.sub.3, 13-21 wt % LiNO.sub.3, and 20-27 wt % Ca(NO.sub.3).sub.2. These compositions can have liquidus temperatures less than 100 C; thermal stability limits greater than 500 C; and viscosity in the range of 5-6 cP at 300 C; and 2-3 cP at 400 C.

  13. Heat Transfer Fluids Containing Nanoparticles | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Transfer Fluids Containing Nanoparticles Technology available for licensing: A stable, nonreactive nanofluid that exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties with only a minimal increase in pumping power required relative to the base heat transfer fluid. A stable, non-reactive nanofluid that exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties Enables more productive and efficient cooling systems PDF icon nanoparticle_heat_transfer_fluids

  14. Effects of fluid dynamics on cleaning efficacy of supercritical fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phelps, M.R.; Willcox, W.A.; Silva, L.J.; Butner, R.S.

    1993-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Boeing Aerospace Company are developing a process to clean metal parts using a supercritical solvent. This work is part of an effort to address issues inhibiting the rapid commercialization of Supercritical Fluid Parts Cleaning (SFPC). PNL assembled a SFPC test stand to observe the relationship between the fluid dynamics of the system and the mass transfer of a contaminant from the surface of a contaminated metal coupon into the bulk fluid. The bench-scale test stand consists of a ``Berty`` autoclave modified for these tests and supporting hardware to achieve supercritical fluids parts cleaning. Three separate sets of tests were conducted using supercritical carbon dioxide. For the first two tests, a single stainless steel coupon was cleaned with organic solvents to remove surface residue, doped with a single contaminant, and then cleaned in the SFPC test stand. Contaminants studied were Dow Corning 200 fluid (dimethylpolysiloxane) and Castle/Sybron X-448 High-temperature Oil (a polybutane/mineral oil mixture). A set of 5-minute cleaning runs was conducted for each dopant at various autoclave impeller speeds. Test results from the first two sets of experiments indicate that precision cleaning for difficult-to-remove contaminants can be dramatically improved by introducing and increasing turbulence within the system. Metal coupons that had been previously doped with aircraft oil were used in a third set of tests. The coupons were placed in the SFPC test stand and subjected to different temperatures, pressures, and run times at a constant impeller speed. The cleanliness of each part was measured by Optically Stimulated Electron Emission. The third set of tests show that levels of cleanliness attained with supercritical carbon dioxide compare favorably with solvent and aqueous cleaning levels.

  15. Effects of fluid dynamics on cleaning efficacy of supercritical fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phelps, M.R.; Willcox, W.A.; Silva, L.J.; Butner, R.S.

    1993-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Boeing Aerospace Company are developing a process to clean metal parts using a supercritical solvent. This work is part of an effort to address issues inhibiting the rapid commercialization of Supercritical Fluid Parts Cleaning (SFPC). PNL assembled a SFPC test stand to observe the relationship between the fluid dynamics of the system and the mass transfer of a contaminant from the surface of a contaminated metal coupon into the bulk fluid. The bench-scale test stand consists of a Berty'' autoclave modified for these tests and supporting hardware to achieve supercritical fluids parts cleaning. Three separate sets of tests were conducted using supercritical carbon dioxide. For the first two tests, a single stainless steel coupon was cleaned with organic solvents to remove surface residue, doped with a single contaminant, and then cleaned in the SFPC test stand. Contaminants studied were Dow Corning 200 fluid (dimethylpolysiloxane) and Castle/Sybron X-448 High-temperature Oil (a polybutane/mineral oil mixture). A set of 5-minute cleaning runs was conducted for each dopant at various autoclave impeller speeds. Test results from the first two sets of experiments indicate that precision cleaning for difficult-to-remove contaminants can be dramatically improved by introducing and increasing turbulence within the system. Metal coupons that had been previously doped with aircraft oil were used in a third set of tests. The coupons were placed in the SFPC test stand and subjected to different temperatures, pressures, and run times at a constant impeller speed. The cleanliness of each part was measured by Optically Stimulated Electron Emission. The third set of tests show that levels of cleanliness attained with supercritical carbon dioxide compare favorably with solvent and aqueous cleaning levels.

  16. Fluid delivery control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoff, Brian D.; Johnson, Kris William; Algrain, Marcelo C.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2006-06-06

    A method of controlling the delivery of fluid to an engine includes receiving a fuel flow rate signal. An electric pump is arranged to deliver fluid to the engine. The speed of the electric pump is controlled based on the fuel flow rate signal.

  17. FLUID CONTROLLING MEANS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pouliot, H.N.

    1960-11-01

    A device is described for releasing fluid from a container and delivering it to an outlet conduit. An explosive squib moves a piston so as to cut a wall section from the conduit and to punch a hole in the container, whereby a fluid may pass from the container into the conduit. A deformable sleeve retains the piston in its final position.

  18. Fluid blade disablement tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jakaboski, Juan-Carlos (Albuquerque, NM); Hughs, Chance G. (Albuquerque, NM); Todd, Steven N. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2012-01-10

    A fluid blade disablement (FBD) tool that forms both a focused fluid projectile that resembles a blade, which can provide precision penetration of a barrier wall, and a broad fluid projectile that functions substantially like a hammer, which can produce general disruption of structures behind the barrier wall. Embodiments of the FBD tool comprise a container capable of holding fluid, an explosive assembly which is positioned within the container and which comprises an explosive holder and explosive, and a means for detonating. The container has a concavity on the side adjacent to the exposed surface of the explosive. The position of the concavity relative to the explosive and its construction of materials with thicknesses that facilitate inversion and/or rupture of the concavity wall enable the formation of a sharp and coherent blade of fluid advancing ahead of the detonation gases.

  19. Viscous potential flow analysis of electrified miscible finitely conducting fluid through porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obied Allah, M. H.

    2013-04-15

    In this work, a viscous potential flow analysis is used to investigate capillary surface waves between two horizontal finite fluid layers. The two layers have finite conductivities and admit mass and heat transfer. A general dispersion relation is derived. The presence of finite conductivities together with the dielectric permeabilities makes the horizontal electric field play a dual role in the stability criterion. The phenomenon of negative viscosity is observed. A new growth rate parameter, depending on the kinematical viscosity of the lower fluid layer, is found and has a stabilizing effect on the unstable modes. The growth rates and neutral stability curve are given and applied to air-water interface. The effects of various parameters are discussed for the Kelvin-Helmholtz and the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities.

  20. Fluid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Houck, E.D.

    1994-10-11

    An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to be decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank. 4 figs.

  1. Fluid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Houck, Edward D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1994-01-01

    An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank.

  2. Fluid sampling tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Anthony R. (Espanola, NM); Johnston, Roger G. (Los Alamos, NM); Martinez, Ronald K. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall.

  3. Fluid sampling tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, A.R.; Johnston, R.G.; Martinez, R.K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool is described for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall. 6 figs.

  4. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2012-06-05

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons including mobilized hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  5. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  6. Multiphase fluid characterization system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    2014-09-02

    A measurement system and method for permitting multiple independent measurements of several physical parameters of multiphase fluids flowing through pipes are described. Multiple acoustic transducers are placed in acoustic communication with or attached to the outside surface of a section of existing spool (metal pipe), typically less than 3 feet in length, for noninvasive measurements. Sound speed, sound attenuation, fluid density, fluid flow, container wall resonance characteristics, and Doppler measurements for gas volume fraction may be measured simultaneously by the system. Temperature measurements are made using a temperature sensor for oil-cut correction.

  7. Supercritical fluid extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  8. High-pressure viscosity of liquid Fe and FeS revisited by falling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: High-pressure viscosity of liquid Fe and FeS revisited by falling sphere viscometry using ultrafast X-ray imaging Authors: Kono, Yoshio ; Kenney-Benson, Curtis ; Shibazaki, ...

  9. Collapsible sheath fluid reservoirs for flow cytometers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mark, Graham A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a container in the form of a single housing for holding fluid, including a first collapsible reservoir having a first valve. The first reservoir initially contains a volume of fluid. The container also includes a second reservoir, initially empty (or substantially empty), expandable to a second volume. The second reservoir has a second valve. As the volume of said first reservoir decreases, the volume of the second reservoir proportionally increases.

  10. Frequency-dependent processing and interpretation (FDPI) of seismic data for identifying, imaging and monitoring fluid-saturated underground reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goloshubin, Gennady M. (Sugar Land, TX); Korneev, Valeri A. (Lafayette, CA)

    2005-09-06

    A method for identifying, imaging and monitoring dry or fluid-saturated underground reservoirs using seismic waves reflected from target porous or fractured layers is set forth. Seismic imaging the porous or fractured layer occurs by low pass filtering of the windowed reflections from the target porous or fractured layers leaving frequencies below low-most corner (or full width at half maximum) of a recorded frequency spectra. Additionally, the ratio of image amplitudes is shown to be approximately proportional to reservoir permeability, viscosity of fluid, and the fluid saturation of the porous or fractured layers.

  11. Frequency-dependent processing and interpretation (FDPI) of seismic data for identifying, imaging and monitoring fluid-saturated underground reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goloshubin, Gennady M.; Korneev, Valeri A.

    2006-11-14

    A method for identifying, imaging and monitoring dry or fluid-saturated underground reservoirs using seismic waves reflected from target porous or fractured layers is set forth. Seismic imaging the porous or fractured layer occurs by low pass filtering of the windowed reflections from the target porous or fractured layers leaving frequencies below low-most corner (or full width at half maximum) of a recorded frequency spectra. Additionally, the ratio of image amplitudes is shown to be approximately proportional to reservoir permeability, viscosity of fluid, and the fluid saturation of the porous or fractured layers.

  12. Fluid pumping apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2006-01-17

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  13. Two-fluid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fluid tearing instability in force-free magnetic configuration V. V. Mirnov, C. C. Hegna, and S. C. Prager Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical...

  14. Basic fluid system trainer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Semans, Joseph P. (Uniontown, PA); Johnson, Peter G. (Pittsburgh, PA); LeBoeuf, Jr., Robert F. (Clairton, PA); Kromka, Joseph A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Goron, Ronald H. (Connellsville, PA); Hay, George D. (Venetia, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A trainer, mounted and housed within a mobile console, is used to teach and reinforce fluid principles to students. The system trainer has two centrifugal pumps, each driven by a corresponding two-speed electric motor. The motors are controlled by motor controllers for operating the pumps to circulate the fluid stored within a supply tank through a closed system. The pumps may be connected in series or in parallel. A number of valves are also included within the system to effect different flow paths for the fluid. In addition, temperature and pressure sensing instruments are installed throughout the closed system for measuring the characteristics of the fluid, as it passes through the different valves and pumps. These measurements are indicated on a front panel mounted to the console, as a teaching aid, to allow the students to observe the characteristics of the system.

  15. Valve for fluid control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oborny, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Hencken, Kenneth R. (Pleasanton, CA); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A valve for controlling fluid flows. This valve, which includes both an actuation device and a valve body provides: the ability to incorporate both the actuation device and valve into a unitary structure that can be placed onto a microchip, the ability to generate higher actuation pressures and thus control higher fluid pressures than conventional microvalves, and a device that draws only microwatts of power. An electrokinetic pump that converts electric potential to hydraulic force is used to operate, or actuate, the valve.

  16. Fluid driven recipricating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, John C. (Davis, CA)

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached.

  17. Fluid driven reciprocating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, J.C.

    1997-04-01

    An apparatus is described comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached. 13 figs.

  18. Rotational viscometer for high-pressure high-temperature fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Kenneth R. (Knoxville, TN)

    1985-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotational viscometer which is well adapted for use with fluids at high temperatures and/or pressures. In one embodiment, the viscometer includes a substantially non-magnetic tube having a closed end and having an open end in communication with a fluid whose viscosity is to be determined. An annular drive magnet is mounted for rotation about the tube. The tube encompasses and supports a rotatable shaft assembly which carries a rotor, or bob, for insertion in the fluid. Affixed to the shaft are (a) a second magnet which is magnetically coupled to the drive magnet and (b) a third magnet. In a typical operation, the drive magnet is rotated to turn the shaft assembly while the shaft rotor is immersed in the fluid. The viscous drag on the rotor causes the shaft assembly to lag the rotation of the drive magnet by an amount which is a function of the amount of viscous drag. A first magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the drive magnet. A second magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the third magnet. An output is generated indicative of the phase difference between the two waveforms.

  19. Fluorescent fluid interface position sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2004-02-17

    A new fluid interface position sensor has been developed, which is capable of optically determining the location of an interface between an upper fluid and a lower fluid, the upper fluid having a larger refractive index than a lower fluid. The sensor functions by measurement, of fluorescence excited by an optical pump beam which is confined within a fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the lower fluid, but escapes from the fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the upper fluid.

  20. Hazardous fluid leak detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, Harold E. (Las Vegas, NV); McLaurin, Felder M. (Las Vegas, NV); Ortiz, Monico (Las Vegas, NV); Huth, William A. (Las Vegas, NV)

    1996-01-01

    A device or system for monitoring for the presence of leaks from a hazardous fluid is disclosed which uses two electrodes immersed in deionized water. A gas is passed through an enclosed space in which a hazardous fluid is contained. Any fumes, vapors, etc. escaping from the containment of the hazardous fluid in the enclosed space are entrained in the gas passing through the enclosed space and transported to a closed vessel containing deionized water and two electrodes partially immersed in the deionized water. The electrodes are connected in series with a power source and a signal, whereby when a sufficient number of ions enter the water from the gas being bubbled through it (indicative of a leak), the water will begin to conduct, thereby allowing current to flow through the water from one electrode to the other electrode to complete the circuit and activate the signal.

  1. Completion and workover fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Block, J.

    1985-09-17

    An aqueous completion or workover fluid for oil or gas wells having at least two solid components. One component is a hydroxy containing aluminum compound represented by the formula AlO(OH).xH/sub 2/O. The second component is a fluid loss control agent which can be either a cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol or a cross-linked hydroxyalkyl cellulose reaction product. An acid soluble weighting agent can be added for wells having higher down hole pressures. Examples of the weighting agents include iron carbonates, iron oxides, calcium carbonates, dolomite, sodium or calcium chloride, zinc bromide and calcium bromide. After use, the fluid can be displaced from the well with acid, e.g. 15% HCl, and the cake previously deposited on the bore-hole wall is dissolved by the acid so that no damaging residue remains.

  2. Universal fluid droplet ejector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, E.R.; Perl, M.L.

    1999-08-24

    A droplet generator comprises a fluid reservoir having a side wall made of glass or quartz, and an end cap made from a silicon plate. The end cap contains a micromachined aperture through which the fluid is ejected. The side wall is thermally fused to the end cap, and no adhesive is necessary. This means that the fluid only comes into contact with the side wall and the end cap, both of which are chemically inert. Amplitudes of drive pulses received by reservoir determine the horizontal displacements of droplets relative to the ejection aperture. The drive pulses are varied such that the dropper generates a two-dimensional array of vertically-falling droplets. Vertical and horizontal inter-droplet spacings may be varied in real time. Applications include droplet analysis experiments such as Millikan fractional charge searches and aerosol characterization, as well as material deposition applications. 8 figs.

  3. Universal fluid droplet ejector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Eric R.; Perl, Martin L.

    1999-08-24

    A droplet generator comprises a fluid reservoir having a side wall made of glass or quartz, and an end cap made from a silicon plate. The end cap contains a micromachined aperture through which the fluid is ejected. The side wall is thermally fused to the end cap, and no adhesive is necessary. This means that the fluid only comes into contact with the side wall and the end cap, both of which are chemically inert. Amplitudes of drive pulses received by reservoir determine the horizontal displacements of droplets relative to the ejection aperture. The drive pulses are varied such that the dropper generates a two-dimensional array of vertically-falling droplets. Vertical and horizontal interdroplet spacings may be varied in real time. Applications include droplet analysis experiments such as Millikan fractional charge searches and aerosol characterization, as well as material deposition applications.

  4. Shear viscosity of the quark-gluon plasma in a kinetic theory approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puglisi, A.; Plumari, S.; Scardina, F.; Greco, V.

    2014-05-09

    One of the main results of heavy ions collision (HIC) at relativistic energy experiments is the very small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio of the Quark-Gluon Plasma, close to the conjectured lower bound ?/s=1/4? for systems in the infinite coupling limit. Transport coefficients like shear viscosity are responsible of non-equilibrium properties of a system: Green-Kubo relations give us an exact expression to compute these coefficients. We compute shear viscosity numerically using Green-Kubo relation in the framework of Kinetic Theory solving the relativistic transport Boltzmann equation in a finite box with periodic boundary conditions. We investigate a system of particles interacting via anisotropic and energy dependent cross-section in the range of temperature of interest for HIC. Green-Kubo results are in agreement with Chapman-Enskog approximation while Relaxation Time approximation can underestimates the viscosity of a factor 2. The correct analytic formula for shear viscosity can be used to develop a transport theory with a fixed ?/s and have a comparison with physical observables like elliptic flow.

  5. Automation of a high-speed imaging setup for differential viscosity measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurth, C.; Duane, B.; Whitfield, D.; Smith, S.; Nordquist, A.; Zenhausern, F.

    2013-12-28

    We present the automation of a setup previously used to assess the viscosity of pleural effusion samples and discriminate between transudates and exudates, an important first step in clinical diagnostics. The presented automation includes the design, testing, and characterization of a vacuum-actuated loading station that handles the 2 mm glass spheres used as sensors, as well as the engineering of electronic Printed Circuit Board (PCB) incorporating a microcontroller and their synchronization with a commercial high-speed camera operating at 10 000 fps. The hereby work therefore focuses on the instrumentation-related automation efforts as the general method and clinical application have been reported earlier [Hurth et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 034701 (2011)]. In addition, we validate the performance of the automated setup with the calibration for viscosity measurements using water/glycerol standard solutions and the determination of the viscosity of an “unknown” solution of hydroxyethyl cellulose.

  6. Direct visualization of the hydration layer on alumina nanoparticles with the fluid cell STEM in situ

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Firlar, Emre; Çınar, Simge; Kashyap, Sanjay; Akinc, Mufit; Prozorov, Tanya

    2015-05-21

    Rheological behavior of aqueous suspensions containing nanometer-sized powders is of relevance to many branches of industry. Unusually high viscosities observed for suspensions of nanoparticles compared to those of micron size powders cannot be explained by current viscosity models. Formation of so-called hydration layer on alumina nanoparticles in water was hypothesized, but never observed experimentally. We report here on the direct visualization of aqueous suspensions of alumina with the fluid cell in situ. We observe the hydration layer formed over the particle aggregates and show that such hydrated aggregates constitute new particle assemblies and affect the flow behavior of the suspensions.more » We discuss how these hydrated nanoclusters alter the effective solid content and the viscosity of nanostructured suspensions. As a result, our findings elucidate the source of high viscosity observed for nanoparticle suspensions and are of direct relevance to many industrial sectors including materials, food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical among others employing colloidal slurries with nanometer-scale particles.« less

  7. Effect of surface viscosity, anchoring energy, and cell gap on the response time of nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souza, R.F. de; Yang, D.-Ke; Lenzi, E.K.; Evangelista, L.R.; Zola, R.S.

    2014-07-15

    An analytical expression for the relaxation time of a nematic liquid crystal is obtained for the first time by considering the influence of surface viscosity, anchoring energy strength and cell gap, validated numerically by using the so-called relaxation method. This general equation for the molecular response time (?{sub 0}) was derived for a vertical aligned cell and by solving an eigenvalue equation coming from the usual balance of torque equation in the Derzhanskii and Petrov formulation, recovering the usual equations in the appropriate limit. The results show that ??d{sup b}, where b=2 is observed only for strongly anchored cells, while for moderate to weak anchored cells, the exponent lies between 1 and 2, depending on both, surface viscosity and anchoring strength. We found that the surface viscosity is important when calculating the response time, specially for thin cells, critical for liquid crystal devices. The surface viscosity’s effect on the optical response time with pretilt is also explored. Our results bring new insights about the role of surface viscosity and its effects in applied physics. - Highlights: • The relaxation of nematic liquid crystals is calculated by taking the surface viscosity into account. • An analytical expression for the relaxation time depending on surface viscosity, anchoring strength and cell gap is obtained. • The results are numerically verified. • Surface viscosity is crucial for thin and weak anchored cells. • The effect on optical time and pretilt angle is also studied.

  8. Large-density field theory, viscosity, and '$2k_F$' singularities from

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    string duals (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Large-density field theory, viscosity, and '$2k_F$' singularities from string duals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Large-density field theory, viscosity, and '$2k_F$' singularities from string duals Authors: Polchinski, Joseph ; /Santa Barbara, KITP ; Silverstein, Eva ; /Santa Barbara, KITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC ; , Publication Date: 2013-10-28 OSTI Identifier: 1098113 Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-14883 arXiv:1203.1015 DOE

  9. High-pressure viscosity of liquid Fe and FeS revisited by falling sphere

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    viscometry using ultrafast X-ray imaging (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: High-pressure viscosity of liquid Fe and FeS revisited by falling sphere viscometry using ultrafast X-ray imaging Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-pressure viscosity of liquid Fe and FeS revisited by falling sphere viscometry using ultrafast X-ray imaging Authors: Kono, Yoshio ; Kenney-Benson, Curtis ; Shibazaki, Yuki ; Park, Changyong ; Shen, Guoyin ;

  10. Viscosity of liquid {sup 4}He and quantum of circulation: Are they related?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L’vov, Victor S. E-mail: skrbek@fzu.cz; Skrbek, Ladislav E-mail: skrbek@fzu.cz; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R. E-mail: skrbek@fzu.cz

    2014-04-15

    In the vicinity of the superfluid transition in liquid {sup 4}He, we explore the relation between two apparently unrelated physical quantities—the kinematic viscosity, ?, in the normal state and the quantum of circulation, ?, in the superfluid state. The model developed here leads to the simple relationship ? ? ?/6, and links the classical and quantum flow properties of liquid {sup 4}He. We critically examine available data relevant to this relation and find that the prediction holds well at the saturated vapor pressure. Additionally, we predict the kinematic viscosity for liquid {sup 4}He along the ?-line at negative pressures.

  11. Ultrasonic fluid densitometry and densitometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Lail, Jason C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge having an acoustic impedance that is near the acoustic impedance of the fluid, specifically less than a factor of 11 greater than the acoustic impedance of the fluid. The invention also includes a wedge having at least two transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface.

  12. Ultrasonic fluid densitometry and densitometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenwood, M.S.; Lail, J.C.

    1998-01-13

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge having an acoustic impedance that is near the acoustic impedance of the fluid, specifically less than a factor of 11 greater than the acoustic impedance of the fluid. The invention also includes a wedge having at least two transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface. 6 figs.

  13. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2014-03-06

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  14. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2014-08-06

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  15. Drilling fluid filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; Garner, Kory

    2007-01-23

    A drilling fluid filter for placement within a bore wall of a tubular drill string component comprises a perforated receptacle with an open end and a closed end. A hanger for engagement with the bore wall is mounted at the open end of the perforated receptacle. A mandrel is adjacent and attached to the open end of the perforated receptacle. A linkage connects the mandrel to the hanger. The linkage may be selected from the group consisting of struts, articulated struts and cams. The mandrel operates on the hanger through the linkage to engage and disengage the drilling fluid filter from the tubular drill string component. The mandrel may have a stationary portion comprising a first attachment to the open end of the perforated receptacle and a telescoping adjustable portion comprising a second attachment to the linkage. The mandrel may also comprise a top-hole interface for top-hole equipment.

  16. Oscillating fluid power generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, David C

    2014-02-25

    A system and method for harvesting the kinetic energy of a fluid flow for power generation with a vertically oriented, aerodynamic wing structure comprising one or more airfoil elements pivotably attached to a mast. When activated by the moving fluid stream, the wing structure oscillates back and forth, generating lift first in one direction then in the opposite direction. This oscillating movement is converted to unidirectional rotational movement in order to provide motive power to an electricity generator. Unlike other oscillating devices, this device is designed to harvest the maximum aerodynamic lift forces available for a given oscillation cycle. Because the system is not subjected to the same intense forces and stresses as turbine systems, it can be constructed less expensively, reducing the cost of electricity generation. The system can be grouped in more compact clusters, be less evident in the landscape, and present reduced risk to avian species.

  17. Nanoparticle Assemblies at Fluid Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Thomas P.

    2015-03-10

    A systematic study of the structure and dynamics of nanoparticles (NP) and NP-surfactants was performed. The ligands attached to both the NPs and NP-surfactants dictate the manner in which the nanoscopic materials assemble at fluid interfaces. Studies have shown that a single layer of the nanoscpic materials form at the interface to reduce the interactions between the two immiscible fluids. The shape of the NP is, also, important, where for spherical particles, a disordered, liquid-like monolayer forms, and, for nanorods, ordered domains at the interface is found and, if the monolayers are compressed, the orientation of the nanorods with respect to the interface can change. By associating end-functionalized polymers to the NPs assembled at the interface, NP-surfactants are formed that increase the energetic gain in segregating each NP at the interface which allows the NP-surfactants to jam at the interface when compressed. This has opened the possibility of structuring the two liquids by freezing in shape changes of the liquids.

  18. Integrated experimental and theoretical study of the thermophysical properties of fluid mixtures. Annual report, September 1984-September 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynes, W.M.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done in the twelve months from September 30, 1984. Results include: PVT data for methanol (to 300/sup 0/C) and benzene (to 450/sup 0/C); basic studies of a fluid in nonequilibrium; high temperature VLE data for CO/sub 2//butane; viscosity experimental data and predictive procedures on association for coal liquids, and results on the phenomenon of shear induced phase changes.

  19. Correlation between the critical viscosity and ash fusion temperatures of coal gasifier ashes*

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsieh, Peter

    2015-07-02

    Coal gasification yields synthesis gas, an important intermediate in chemical manufacturing. It is also vital to the production of liquid fuels through the Fischer-Tropsch process and electricity in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle power generation. Minerals naturally present in coal become molten in entrained-flow slagging gasifiers. Molten coal ash slag penetrates and dissolves refractory bricks, leading to costly plant shutdowns. The extent of coal ash slag penetration and refractory brick dissolution depends on the slag viscosity, the gasification temperature, and the composition of slag and bricks. We measured the viscosity of several synthetic coal ash slags with a high-temperature rotary viscometer and their ash fusion temperatures through optical image analysis. All measurements were made in a carbon monoxide-carbon dioxide reducing atmosphere that approximates coal gasification conditions. Empirical correlation models based on ash fusion temperatures were used to calculate critical viscosity temperatures based on the coal ash compositions. These values were then compared with those obtained from thermodynamic phase-transition models. An understanding of slag viscosity as a function of ash composition is important to reducing refractory wear in slagging coal gasifiers, which would help to reduce the cost and environmental impact of coal for chemical and electricity production.

  20. Dynamics of a confined dusty fluid in a sheared ion flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laishram, Modhuchandra; Sharma, Devendra; Kaw, Predhiman K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2014-07-15

    Dynamics of an isothermally driven dust fluid is analyzed which is confined in an azimuthally symmetric cylindrical setup by an effective potential and is in equilibrium with an unconfined sheared flow of a streaming plasma. Cases are analyzed where the confining potential constitutes a barrier for the driven fluid, limiting its spatial extension and boundary velocity. The boundary effects entering the formulation are characterized by applying the appropriate boundary conditions and a range of solutions exhibiting single and multiple vortex are obtained. The equilibrium solutions considered in the cylindrical setup feature a transition from single to multiple vortex state of the driven flow. Effects of (i) the variation in dust viscosity, (ii) coupling between the driving and the driven fluid, and (iii) a friction determining the equilibrium dynamics of the driven system are characterized.

  1. Tailored Working Fluids for Enhanced Binary Geothermal Power Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Program Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project Objective: To improve the utilization of available energy in geothermal resources and increase the energy conversion efficiency of systems employed by a) tailoring the subcritical and/or supercritical glide of enhanced working fluids to best match thermal resources, and b) identifying appropriate thermal system and component designs for the down-selected working fluids.

  2. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.

    1993-11-30

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

  3. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, John L. (Richland, WA); Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W.sub.o that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W.sub.o of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions.

  4. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Working Fluids Low GWP Refrigerants - CRADA Ed Vineyard Oak Ridge National Laboratory vineyardea@ornl.gov (865) 574-0576 3 April 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: - High GWP refrigerants increase CO 2 equivalent emissions for HVAC&R equipment - Low GWP alternatives may increase energy consumption, introduce safety risks, require significant modifications to equipment, and have higher costs Impact of Project: - Primary market

  5. Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM); Kaduchak, Gregory (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-11-23

    An apparatus for acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.

  6. Fluid injection microvalve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renzi, Ronald F.

    2005-11-22

    A microvalve for extracting small volume samples into analytical devices, e.g., high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) column, includes: a first body having a first interior surface and two or more outlet ports at the first interior surface that are in fluid communication with two or more first channels; a second body having a second interior surface and two or more inlet ports at the second interior surface that are in fluid communication with two or more second channels wherein the outlet ports of the first body are coaxial with the corresponding inlet ports of the second body such that there are at least two sets of coaxial port outlets and port inlets; a plate member, which has a substantially planar first mating surface and a substantially planar second mating surface, that is slidably positioned between the first interior surface and the second interior surface wherein the plate member has at least one aperture that traverses the height of the plate member, and wherein the aperture can be positioned to be coaxial with any of the at least two sets of coaxial port outlets and port inlets; and means for securing the first surface of the first body against the first mating surface and for securing the second surface of the second body against the second mating surface.

  7. Borehole Fluid Conductivity Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-03-15

    Dynamic wellbore electrical conductivity logs provide a valuable means to determine the flow characteristics of fractures intersectin a wellbore, in order to study the hydrologic behavior of fractured rocks. To expedite the analysis of log data, a computer program called BORE II has been deveoloped that considers multiple inflow or outflow points along the wellbore, including the case of horizontal flow across the wellbore, BORE II calculates the evolution of fluid electrical conducivity (FEC) profilesmore »in a wellbore or wellbore section, which may be pumped at a low rate, and compares model results to log data in a variety of ways. FEC variations may arise from inflow under natural-state conditions or due to tracer injected in a neighboring well (interference tests). BORE II has an interactive, graphical user interface and runs on a personal computer under the Windows operating system. BORE II is a modification and extension of older codes called BORE and BOREXT, which considered inflow points only. Finite difference solution of the one-dimensional advection-diffusion equation with explicit time stepping; feed points treated as prescribed-mass sources or sinks; assume quadratic relationship between fluid electrical conductivity and ion consentration. Graphical user interface; interactive modification of model parameters and graphical display of model results and filed data in a variety of ways. Can examine horizontal flow or arbitarily complicated combination of upflow, downflow, and horizontal flow. Feed point flow rate and/or concentration may vary in time.« less

  8. Chemical and Microbial Characterization of North Slope Viscous Oils to Assess Viscosity Reduction and Enhanced Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar; Mary Beth Leigh

    2008-12-31

    A large proportion of Alaska North Slope (ANS) oil exists in the form of viscous deposits, which cannot be produced entirely using conventional methods. Microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a promising approach for improving oil recovery for viscous deposits. MEOR can be achieved using either ex situ approaches such as flooding with microbial biosurfactants or injection of exogenous surfactant-producing microbes into the reservoir, or by in situ approaches such as biostimulation of indigenous surfactant-producing microbes in the oil. Experimental work was performed to analyze the potential application of MEOR to the ANS oil fields through both ex situ and in situ approaches. A microbial formulation containing a known biosurfactant-producing strain of Bacillus licheniformis was developed in order to simulate MEOR. Coreflooding experiments were performed to simulate MEOR and quantify the incremental oil recovery. Properties like viscosity, density, and chemical composition of oil were monitored to propose a mechanism for oil recovery. The microbial formulation significantly increased incremental oil recovery, and molecular biological analyses indicated that the strain survived during the shut-in period. The indigenous microflora of ANS heavy oils was investigated to characterize the microbial communities and test for surfactant producers that are potentially useful for biostimulation. Bacteria that reduce the surface tension of aqueous media were isolated from one of the five ANS oils (Milne Point) and from rock oiled by the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), and may prove valuable for ex situ MEOR strategies. The total bacterial community composition of the six different oils was evaluated using molecular genetic tools, which revealed that each oil tested possessed a unique fingerprint indicating a diverse bacterial community and varied assemblages. Collectively we have demonstrated that there is potential for in situ and ex situ MEOR of ANS oils. Future work should focus on lab and field-scale testing of ex situ MEOR using Bacillus licheniformis as well as the biosurfactant-producing strains we have newly isolated from the Milne Point reservoir and the EVOS environment.

  9. Ultrasonic fluid quality sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gomm, Tyler J. (Meridian, ID); Kraft, Nancy C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Phelps, Larry D. (Pocatello, ID); Taylor, Steven C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-10-08

    A system for determining the composition of a multiple-component fluid and for determining linear flow comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the multiple-component fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the multiple-component fluid. A system for determining flow uses two of the inventive circuits, one of which is set at an angle that is not perpendicular to the direction of flow.

  10. Ultrasonic Fluid Quality Sensor System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gomm, Tyler J. (Meridian, ID); Kraft, Nancy C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Phelps, Larry D. (Pocatello, ID); Taylor, Steven C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2003-10-21

    A system for determining the composition of a multiple-component fluid and for determining linear flow comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the multiple-component fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the multiple-component fluid. A system for determining flow uses two of the inventive circuits, one of which is set at an angle that is not perpendicular to the direction of flow.

  11. Viscosity Solutions of Systems of PDEs with Interconnected Obstacles and Switching Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamadene, S. Morlais, M. A.

    2013-04-15

    This paper deals with existence and uniqueness of a solution in viscosity sense, for a system of m variational partial differential inequalities with inter-connected obstacles. A particular case is the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellmann system of the Markovian stochastic optimal m-states switching problem. The switching cost functions depend on (t,x). The main tool is the notion of systems of reflected backward stochastic differential equations with oblique reflection.

  12. Numerical Verification of Bounce Harmonic Resonances in Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity for Tokamaks

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    7 PPPL- 4867 Numerical Verification of Bounce Harmonic Resonances in Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity for Tokamaks April, 2013 Kimin Kim, Jong-Kyu Park and Allen H. Boozer Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Report Disclaimers Full Legal Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors or their

  13. Fluid relief and check valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaedel, K.L.; Lord, S.C.; Murray, I.

    1986-07-17

    A passive fluid pressure relief and check valve allows the relief pressure to be slaved to a reference pressure independently of the exhaust pressure. The pressure relief valve is embodied by a submerged vent line in a sealing fluid, the relief pressure being a function of the submerged depth. A check valve is embodied by a vertical column of fluid (the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of fluid). The pressure is vented into an exhaust system which keeps the exhaust out of the area providing the reference pressure.

  14. Two-fluid Hydrodynamic Model for Fluid-Flow Simulation in Fluid-Solids Systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-06-20

    FLUFIX is a two-dimensional , transient, Eulerian, and finite-difference program, based on a two-fluid hydrodynamic model, for fluid flow simulation in fluid-solids systems. The software is written in a modular form using the Implicit Multi-Field (IMF) numerical technique. Quantities computed are the spatial distribution of solids loading, gas and solids velocities, pressure, and temperatures. Predicted are bubble formation, bed frequencies, and solids recirculation. Applications include bubbling and circulating atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed reactors, combustors,more » gasifiers, and FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracker) reactors.« less

  15. Direct visualization of the hydration layer on alumina nanoparticles with the fluid cell STEM in situ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firlar, Emre; Ç?nar, Simge; Kashyap, Sanjay; Akinc, Mufit; Prozorov, Tanya

    2015-05-21

    Rheological behavior of aqueous suspensions containing nanometer-sized powders is of relevance to many branches of industry. Unusually high viscosities observed for suspensions of nanoparticles compared to those of micron size powders cannot be explained by current viscosity models. Formation of so-called hydration layer on alumina nanoparticles in water was hypothesized, but never observed experimentally. We report here on the direct visualization of aqueous suspensions of alumina with the fluid cell in situ. We observe the hydration layer formed over the particle aggregates and show that such hydrated aggregates constitute new particle assemblies and affect the flow behavior of the suspensions. We discuss how these hydrated nanoclusters alter the effective solid content and the viscosity of nanostructured suspensions. As a result, our findings elucidate the source of high viscosity observed for nanoparticle suspensions and are of direct relevance to many industrial sectors including materials, food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical among others employing colloidal slurries with nanometer-scale particles.

  16. Fluid jet electric discharge source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bender, Howard A. (Ripon, CA)

    2006-04-25

    A fluid jet or filament source and a pair of coaxial high voltage electrodes, in combination, comprise an electrical discharge system to produce radiation and, in particular, EUV radiation. The fluid jet source is composed of at least two serially connected reservoirs, a first reservoir into which a fluid, that can be either a liquid or a gas, can be fed at some pressure higher than atmospheric and a second reservoir maintained at a lower pressure than the first. The fluid is allowed to expand through an aperture into a high vacuum region between a pair of coaxial electrodes. This second expansion produces a narrow well-directed fluid jet whose size is dependent on the size and configuration of the apertures and the pressure used in the reservoir. At some time during the flow of the fluid filament, a high voltage pulse is applied to the electrodes to excite the fluid to form a plasma which provides the desired radiation; the wavelength of the radiation being determined by the composition of the fluid.

  17. A framework for developing a mimetic tensor artificial viscosity for Lagrangian hydrocodes on arbitrary polygonal and polyhedral meshes (u)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipnikov, Konstantin; Shashkov, Mikhail

    2011-01-11

    We construct a new mimetic tensor artificial viscosity on general polygonal and polyhedral meshes. The tensor artificial viscosity is based on a mimetic discretization of coordinate invariant operators, divergence of a tensor and gradient of a vector. The focus of this paper is on the symmetric form, div ({mu},{var_epsilon}(u)), of the tensor artificial viscosity where {var_epsilon}(u) is the symmetrized gradient of u and {mu}, is a tensor. The mimetic discretizations of this operator is derived for the case of a full tensor coefficient {mu}, that may reflect a shock direction. We demonstrate performance of the new viscosity for the Noh implosion, Sedov explosion and Saltzman piston problems in both Cartesian and axisymmetric coordinate systems.

  18. Effective perfect fluids in cosmology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo; Bellazzini, Brando E-mail: brando.bellazzini@pd.infn.it

    2013-04-01

    We describe the cosmological dynamics of perfect fluids within the framework of effective field theories. The effective action is a derivative expansion whose terms are selected by the symmetry requirements on the relevant long-distance degrees of freedom, which are identified with comoving coordinates. The perfect fluid is defined by requiring invariance of the action under internal volume-preserving diffeomorphisms and general covariance. At lowest order in derivatives, the dynamics is encoded in a single function of the entropy density that characterizes the properties of the fluid, such as the equation of state and the speed of sound. This framework allows a neat simultaneous description of fluid and metric perturbations. Longitudinal fluid perturbations are closely related to the adiabatic modes, while the transverse modes mix with vector metric perturbations as a consequence of vorticity conservation. This formalism features a large flexibility which can be of practical use for higher order perturbation theory and cosmological parameter estimation.

  19. Fluid flow monitoring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKay, Mark D. (1426 Socastee Dr., North Augusta, SC 29841); Sweeney, Chad E. (3600 Westhampton Dr., Martinez, GA 30907-3036); Spangler, Jr., B. Samuel (2715 Margate Dr., Augusta, GA 30909)

    1993-01-01

    A flow meter and temperature measuring device comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips.

  20. Fluid flow monitoring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKay, M.D.; Sweeney, C.E.; Spangler, B.S. Jr.

    1993-11-30

    A flow meter and temperature measuring device are described comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips. 7 figures.

  1. Incompressible Viscous Fluid Dynamics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-13

    NACHOS2 is a finite element program designed for the analysis of two-dimensional, incompressible viscous fluid flow problems. The basic flows considered may be isothermal, nonisothermal, or may involve other physical processes, such as mass transport. Both steady and transient flows may be analyzed. The class of problems treated are those described by the two-dimensional (plane or axisymmetric) incompressible form of the Navier-Stokes equations. An energy transport equation is included in the formulation for problems inmore » which heat transfer effects are important. Two auxiliary transport equations can be added to describe other physical processes,e.g. mass transfer, chemical reactions. Among the specific types of flow problems treated are: isothermal flow; forced, free, or mixed convection; conjugate heat transfer; flow in saturated porous media with or without heat transfer; and inelastic, non-Newtonian flows with or without heat transfer. Other problem classes are possible depending on the specific definitions applied to the auxiliary transport equations.« less

  2. Incompressible Viscous Fluid Dynamics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-13

    NACHOS2 is a finite element program designed for the analysis of two-dimensional, incompressible viscous fluid flow problems. The basic flows considered may be isothermal, nonisothermal, or may involve other physical processes, such as mass transport. Both steady and transient flows may be analyzed. The class of problems treated are those described by the two-dimensional (plane or axisymmetric) incompressible form of the Navier-Stokes equations. An energy transport equation is included in the formulation for problems inmore »which heat transfer effects are important. Two auxiliary transport equations can be added to describe other physical processes,e.g. mass transfer, chemical reactions. Among the specific types of flow problems treated are: isothermal flow; forced, free, or mixed convection; conjugate heat transfer; flow in saturated porous media with or without heat transfer; and inelastic, non-Newtonian flows with or without heat transfer. Other problem classes are possible depending on the specific definitions applied to the auxiliary transport equations.« less

  3. Computational Fluid Dynamics Library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-03-04

    CFDLib05 is the Los Alamos Computational Fluid Dynamics LIBrary. This is a collection of hydrocodes using a common data structure and a common numerical method, for problems ranging from single-field, incompressible flow, to multi-species, multi-field, compressible flow. The data structure is multi-block, with a so-called structured grid in each block. The numerical method is a Finite-Volume scheme employing a state vector that is fully cell-centered. This means that the integral form of the conservation lawsmore » is solved on the physical domain that is represented by a mesh of control volumes. The typical control volume is an arbitrary quadrilateral in 2D and an arbitrary hexahedron in 3D. The Finite-Volume scheme is for time-unsteady flow and remains well coupled by means of time and space centered fluxes; if a steady state solution is required, the problem is integrated forward in time until the user is satisfied that the state is stationary.« less

  4. Modeling and Algorithmic Approaches to Constitutively-Complex, Micro-structured Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forest, Mark Gregory [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill] [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

    2014-05-06

    The team for this Project made significant progress on modeling and algorithmic approaches to hydrodynamics of fluids with complex microstructure. Our advances are broken down into modeling and algorithmic approaches. In experiments a driven magnetic bead in a complex fluid accelerates out of the Stokes regime and settles into another apparent linear response regime. The modeling explains the take-off as a deformation of entanglements, and the longtime behavior is a nonlinear, far-from-equilibrium property. Furthermore, the model has predictive value, as we can tune microstructural properties relative to the magnetic force applied to the bead to exhibit all possible behaviors. Wave-theoretic probes of complex fluids have been extended in two significant directions, to small volumes and the nonlinear regime. Heterogeneous stress and strain features that lie beyond experimental capability were studied. It was shown that nonlinear penetration of boundary stress in confined viscoelastic fluids is not monotone, indicating the possibility of interlacing layers of linear and nonlinear behavior, and thus layers of variable viscosity. Models, algorithms, and codes were developed and simulations performed leading to phase diagrams of nanorod dispersion hydrodynamics in parallel shear cells and confined cavities representative of film and membrane processing conditions. Hydrodynamic codes for polymeric fluids are extended to include coupling between microscopic and macroscopic models, and to the strongly nonlinear regime.

  5. Fluid Flow Phenomena during Welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    MOLTEN WELD POOLS are dynamic. Liquid in the weld pool in acted on by several strong forces, which can result in high-velocity fluid motion. Fluid flow velocities exceeding 1 m/s (3.3 ft/s) have been observed in gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds under ordinary welding conditions, and higher velocities have been measured in submerged arc welds. Fluid flow is important because it affects weld shape and is related to the formation of a variety of weld defects. Moving liquid transports heat and often dominates heat transport in the weld pool. Because heat transport by mass flow depends on the direction and speed of fluid motion, weld pool shape can differ dramatically from that predicted by conductive heat flow. Temperature gradients are also altered by fluid flow, which can affect weld microstructure. A number of defects in GTA welds have been attributed to fluid flow or changes in fluid flow, including lack of penetration, top bead roughness, humped beads, finger penetration, and undercutting. Instabilities in the liquid film around the keyhole in electron beam and laser welds are responsible for the uneven penetration (spiking) characteristic of these types of welds.

  6. Consequences of Urban Stability Conditions for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Urban Dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundquist, J K; Chan, S T

    2005-11-30

    The validity of omitting stability considerations when simulating transport and dispersion in the urban environment is explored using observations from the Joint URBAN 2003 field experiment and computational fluid dynamics simulations of that experiment. Four releases of sulfur hexafluoride, during two daytime and two nighttime intensive observing periods, are simulated using the building-resolving computational fluid dynamics model, FEM3MP to solve the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with two options of turbulence parameterizations. One option omits stability effects but has a superior turbulence parameterization using a non-linear eddy viscosity (NEV) approach, while the other considers buoyancy effects with a simple linear eddy viscosity (LEV) approach for turbulence parameterization. Model performance metrics are calculated by comparison with observed winds and tracer data in the downtown area, and with observed winds and turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) profiles at a location immediately downwind of the central business district (CBD) in the area we label as the urban shadow. Model predictions of winds, concentrations, profiles of wind speed, wind direction, and friction velocity are generally consistent with and compare reasonably well with the field observations. Simulations using the NEV turbulence parameterization generally exhibit better agreement with observations. To further explore this assumption of a neutrally-stable atmosphere within the urban area, TKE budget profiles slightly downwind of the urban wake region in the 'urban shadow' are examined. Dissipation and shear production are the largest terms which may be calculated directly. The advection of TKE is calculated as a residual; as would be expected downwind of an urban area, the advection of TKE produced within the urban area is a very large term. Buoyancy effects may be neglected in favor of advection, shear production, and dissipation. For three of the IOPs, buoyancy production may be neglected entirely, and for one IOP, buoyancy production contributes approximately 25% of the total TKE at this location. For both nighttime releases, the contribution of buoyancy to the total TKE budget is always negligible though positive. Results from the simulations provide estimates of the average TKE values in the upwind, downtown, downtown shadow, and urban wake zones of the computational domain. These values suggest that building-induced turbulence can cause the average turbulence intensity in the urban area to increase by as much as much as seven times average 'upwind' values, explaining the minimal role of buoyant forcing in the downtown region. The downtown shadow exhibits an exponential decay in average TKE, while the distant downwind wake region approaches the average upwind values. For long-duration releases in downtown and downtown shadow areas, the assumption of neutral stability is valid because building-induced turbulence dominates the budget. However, further downwind in the urban wake region, which we find to be approximately 1500 m beyond the perimeter of downtown Oklahoma City, the levels of building-induced turbulence greatly subside, and therefore the assumption of neutral stability is less valid.

  7. High-density fluid compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanders, D.C.

    1981-09-29

    Clear, high-density fluids suitable for use as well completion, packing, and perforation media comprise aqueous solutions of zinc bromide and calcium bromide having densities lying in the range of about 14.5 up to about 18.0 pounds per gallon and measured PH's lying in the range of about 3.5 up to about 6.0. Optionally, such fluids may also comprise calcium chloride and/or a soluble film-forming amine-based corrosion inhibitor. Such fluids under conditions of ordinary use exhibit low corrosion rates and have crystallization points lying well below the range of temperatures under which they are used.

  8. Particle sorter comprising a fluid displacer in a closed-loop fluid circuit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perroud, Thomas D.; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2012-04-24

    Disclosed herein are methods and devices utilizing a fluid displacer in a closed-loop fluid circuit.

  9. Standardization of Thermo-Fluid Modeling in Modelica.Fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franke, Rudiger; Casella, Francesco; Sielemann, Michael; Proelss, Katrin; Otter, Martin; Wetter, Michael

    2009-09-01

    This article discusses the Modelica.Fluid library that has been included in the Modelica Standard Library 3.1. Modelica.Fluid provides interfaces and basic components for the device-oriented modeling of onedimensional thermo-fluid flow in networks containing vessels, pipes, fluid machines, valves and fittings. A unique feature of Modelica.Fluid is that the component equations and the media models as well as pressure loss and heat transfer correlations are decoupled from each other. All components are implemented such that they can be used for media from the Modelica.Media library. This means that an incompressible or compressible medium, a single or a multiple substance medium with one or more phases might be used with one and the same model as long as the modeling assumptions made hold. Furthermore, trace substances are supported. Modeling assumptions can be configured globally in an outer System object. This covers in particular the initialization, uni- or bi-directional flow, and dynamic or steady-state formulation of mass, energy, and momentum balance. All assumptions can be locally refined for every component. While Modelica.Fluid contains a reasonable set of component models, the goal of the library is not to provide a comprehensive set of models, but rather to provide interfaces and best practices for the treatment of issues such as connector design and implementation of energy, mass and momentum balances. Applications from various domains are presented.

  10. Heat recirculating cooler for fluid stream pollutant removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, George A. (Morgantown, WV); Berry, David A. (Morgantown, WV)

    2008-10-28

    A process by which heat is removed from a reactant fluid to reach the operating temperature of a known pollutant removal method and said heat is recirculated to raise the temperature of the product fluid. The process can be utilized whenever an intermediate step reaction requires a lower reaction temperature than the prior and next steps. The benefits of a heat-recirculating cooler include the ability to use known pollutant removal methods and increased thermal efficiency of the system.

  11. Final Report: Ionization chemistry of high temperature molecular fluids

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Final Report: Ionization chemistry of high temperature molecular fluids Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final Report: Ionization chemistry of high temperature molecular fluids With the advent of coupled chemical/hydrodynamic reactive flow models for high explosives, understanding detonation chemistry is of increasing importance to DNT. The accuracy of first principles detonation codes, such as CHEETAH, are dependent on an

  12. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Zeolite nanocomposites synthesized by microwave assisted coprecipitation and its performance in reducing viscosity of heavy oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iskandar, Ferry; Fitriani, Pipit; Merissa, Shanty; Khairurrijal,; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Mukti, Rino R.

    2014-02-24

    Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Zeolite nanocomposites have been synthesized via microwave assisted coprecipitation method and show to be efficient in reducing viscosity of heavy oil compared to other Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Zeolite nanocomposites prepared by conventional method. The following precursors such as FeCl{sub 3}?6H{sub 2}O, FeSO{sub 4}?7H{sub 2}O, NH{sub 4}OH, and natural zeolite of heulandite type were used in the sample preparation. In this study, the effect of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composition in the composite and microwave time heating were investigated. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Zeolite nanocomposites were then characterized to study the influence on crystal structures, morphology and physicochemical properties. The characterization techniques include X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen physisorption. The results show that by increasing the microwave heating time, the degree of nanocomposite intergrowth can be enhanced. The nanocomposite was tested in catalytic aquathermolysis of heavy oil at 200°C for 6 h and the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/zeolite of 1 to 4 ratios performed the highest viscosity reduction of heavy oil reaching 92%.

  13. Fluid Dynamics with Free Surfaces

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-01

    RIPPLE is a two-dimensional, transient, free surface incompressible fluid dynamics program. It allows multiple free surfaces with surface tension and wall adhesion forces and has a partial cell treatment which allows curved boundaries and interior obstacles.

  14. Fluid Inclusion Analysis | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Area (2004) Coso Geothermal Area 2004 2004 GEOTHERMAL FLUID PROPENE AND PROPANE: INDICATORS OF FLUID GEOLOGY AND MINERAL PARAGENESIS STUDY WITHIN THE COSO-EGS...

  15. Variable flexure-based fluid filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Steve B.; Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Marshall, Graham; Wolcott, Duane

    2007-03-13

    An apparatus and method for filtering particles from a fluid comprises a fluid inlet, a fluid outlet, a variable size passage between the fluid inlet and the fluid outlet, and means for adjusting the size of the variable size passage for filtering the particles from the fluid. An inlet fluid flow stream is introduced to a fixture with a variable size passage. The size of the variable size passage is set so that the fluid passes through the variable size passage but the particles do not pass through the variable size passage.

  16. Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the bulk properties of the juxtaposed fluid and solid phases? How do altered interfacial fluid properties couple with complex substrate nanogeometries and functionalities to...

  17. Encapsulated Nanoparticle Synthesis and Characterization for Improved Storage Fluids: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatzmaier, G. C.; Pradhan, S.; Kang, J.; Curtis, C.; Blake, D.

    2010-10-01

    Nanoparticles are typically composed of 50--500 atoms and exhibit properties that are significantly different from the properties of larger, macroscale particles that have the same composition. The addition of these particles to traditional fluids may improve the fluids' thermophysical properties. As an example, the addition of a nanoparticle or set of nanoparticles to a storage fluid may double its heat capacity. This increase in heat capacity would allow a sensible thermal energy storage system to store the same amount of thermal energy in half the amount of storage fluid. The benefit is lower costs for the storage fluid and the storage tanks, resulting in lower-cost electricity. The goal of this long-term research is to create a new class of fluids that enable concentrating solar power plants to operate with greater efficiency and lower electricity costs. Initial research on this topic developed molecular dynamic models that predicted the energy states and transition temperatures for these particles. Recent research has extended the modeling work, along with initiating the synthesis and characterization of bare metal nanoparticles and metal nanoparticles that are encapsulated with inert silica coatings. These particles possess properties that make them excellent candidates for enhancing the heat capacity of storage fluids.

  18. Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NV)

    2000-01-01

    A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DRILLING FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David B. Burnett

    2003-08-01

    The goal of the project has been to develop new types of drill-in fluids (DIFs) and completion fluids (CFs) for use in natural gas reservoirs. Phase 1 of the project was a 24-month study to develop the concept of advanced type of fluids usable in well completions. Phase 1 tested this concept and created a kinetic mathematical model to accurately track the fluid's behavior under downhole conditions. Phase 2 includes tests of the new materials and practices. Work includes the preparation of new materials and the deployment of the new fluids and new practices to the field. The project addresses the special problem of formation damage issues related to the use of CFs and DIFs in open hole horizontal well completions. The concept of a ''removable filtercake'' has, as its basis, a mechanism to initiate or trigger the removal process. Our approach to developing such a mechanism is to identify the components of the filtercake and measure the change in the characteristics of these components when certain cleanup (filtercake removal) techniques are employed.

  20. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenwood, Margaret S. (Richland, WA); Harris, Robert V. (Pasco, WA)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface.

  1. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenwood, M.S.; Harris, R.V.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface. 6 figs.

  2. Fluid Imaging of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Attempting to Image EGS Fracture & Fluid Networks; Employing joint Geophysical Imaging Technologies.

  3. Fully alternating, triaxial electric or magnetic fields offer new routes to fluid vorticity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Martin, James E.; Solis, Kyle J.

    2014-10-31

    Noncontact methods of generating strong fluid vorticity are important to problems involving heat and mass transfer, fluid mixing, active wetting, and droplet transport. Furthermore, because zero or even negative shear viscosities can be induced, vorticity can greatly extend the control range of the smart fluids used in magnetorheological devices. In recent work we have shown that a particular class of ac/ac/dc triaxial fields (so-called symmetry-breaking rational fields) can create strong vorticity in magnetic particle suspensions and have presented a theory of the vorticity that is based on the symmetry of the 2-d Lissajous trajectories of the field and its converse.more » In this paper we demonstrate that there are three countably infinite sets of fully alternating ac/ac/ac triaxial fields whose frequencies form rational triads that have the symmetry required to drive fluid vorticity. The symmetry of the 3-d Lissajous trajectories of the field and its converse can be derived and from this the direction of the vorticity axis can be predicted, as can the dependence of the sign of the vorticity on the phase relations between the three field components. Experimental results are presented that validate the symmetry theory. These discoveries significantly broaden the class of triaxial fields that can be exploited to produce strong noncontact flow.« less

  4. Effects of Measurement Materials and Oxygen Partial Pressure on the Viscosity of synthetic Eastern and Western United States Coal Slags

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jingxi; Tetsuya, Kenneth; Mu, Haoyuan; Bennett, James P.; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2012-07-01

    The viscosity of the molten ash (slag) resulting from the mineral constituents in carbon feedstock used in slagging gasifiers is critical for controlling the gasification process. The viscosity of two synthetic slags with compositions resembling the mineral impurities in average eastern and western coal feedstock was examined at temperatures from 1300–1500 °C using a rotating bob viscometer. A few combinations of atmospheres and experimental materials were investigated with respect to one another to determine slag viscosity. A CO/CO{sub 2} atmosphere (CO/CO{sub 2} = 1.8, corresponding to a P{sub O{sub 2}} = 10–8 atm) is required to sustain ferrous ions in FeO-containing slags, an environment that is oxidizing to most metals. Iron oxide in the slag prevents usage of Fe parts. In unpurified Ar, the Fe metal surface oxidizes. Using purified argon prevents iron measurement components from oxidation; however, the metallic surfaces act as nucleation sites for the reduction of the Fe oxide in the slag into metallic Fe. Dissolution of ceramic materials into the slag, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2}, occurs in both atmospheres. Therefore, evaluating slag properties in the laboratory is challenging. The measured viscosities of two synthetic slags in this study diverged depending upon material selection. This difference is likely attributable to container/spindle-slag interactions. Viscosity measurements of the eastern coal slag using all ceramic parts agreed best with FactSage prediction above 1350 °C, with an average activation energy of 271.2 kJ. For western coal slag, the dissolution of container/spindle materials was substantial during the measurement, with precipitation of crystalline phase noted. The experimental viscosity data of the western coal slag agreed best with Kalmanovitch prediction above 1350 °C. The activation energy changed dramatically for both data sets of western coal slag, likely indicating the Newtonian-to-non-Newtonian transition.

  5. Method and apparatus for measuring shear modulus and viscosity of a monomolecular film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Bernard M. (Oak Park, IL); Miyano, Kenjiro (Sendai, JP); Ketterson, John B. (Evanston, IL)

    1985-01-01

    Instrument for measuring the shear modulus of a monomolecular film comprises a circular trough having inwardly sloping sides containing a liquid for supporting the monolayer on the surface thereof; a circular rotor suspended above the trough such that the lower surface of the rotor contacts the surface of the liquid, positioned such that the axis of the rotor is concentric with the axis of the trough and freely rotable about its axis; apparatus for hydrostatically compressing the monolayer in the annular region formed between the rotor and the sides of the trough; and apparatus for rotating the trough about its axis. Preferably, hydrostatic compression of the monolayer is achieved by removing liquid from the bottom of the trough (decreasing the surface area) while raising the trough vertically along its axis to maintain the monolayer at a constant elevation (and maintain rotor contact). In order to measure viscosity, a apparatus for rotating the rotor about its axis is added to the apparatus.

  6. Method and apparatus for measuring shear modulus and viscosity of a monomolecular film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, B.M.; Miyano, K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-10-18

    Apparatus for measuring the shear modulus of a monomolecular film comprises a circular trough having inwardly sloping sides containing a liquid for supporting the monolayer on the surface thereof; a circular rotor suspended above the trough such that the lower surface of the rotor contacts the surface of the liquid, positioned such that the axis of the rotor is concentric with the axis of the trough and freely rotable about its axis; means for hydrostatically compressing the monolayer in the annular region formed between the rotor and the sides of the trough; and means for rotating the trough about its axis. Preferably, hydrostatic compression of the monolayer is achieved by removing liquid from the bottom of the trough (decreasing the surface area) while raising the trough vertically along its axis to maintain the monolayer at a constant elevation (and maintain rotor contact). In order to measure viscosity, a means for rotating the rotor about its axis is added to the apparatus.

  7. Bulk viscosity in a hyperonic star and r-mode instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, T. K.; Mishra, H.; Sreekanth, V.

    2010-08-15

    We consider a rotating neutron star with the presence of hyperons in its core. We use an equation of state in an effective chiral model within the relativistic mean-field approximation. We calculate the hyperonic bulk viscosity coefficient caused by nonleptonic weak interactions. By estimating the damping time scales of the dissipative processes, we investigate its role in the suppression of gravitationally driven instabilities in the r mode. We observe that r-mode instability remains very significant for hyperon core temperatures of around 10{sup 8} K, which results in a comparatively larger instability window. We find that such instability can reduce the angular velocity of the rapidly rotating star considerably up to {approx}0.04{Omega}{sub K}, with {Omega}{sub K} as the Keplerian angular velocity.

  8. Fluid-solid contact vessel having fluid distributors therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Jr., John B. (Rifle, CO)

    1980-09-09

    Rectangularly-shaped fluid distributors for large diameter, vertical vessels include reinforcers for high heat operation, vertical sides with gas distributing orifices and overhanging, sloped roofs. Devices are provided for cleaning the orifices from a buildup of solid deposits resulting from the reactions in the vessel.

  9. Well completion and servicing fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimsley, R.L.

    1990-09-25

    This patent describes a well completion servicing fluid for controlling formation pressure during completion or servicing of a well. It comprises: an aqueous solution of calcium chloride, a solid weighing agent suspended in the solution and being selected from the group consisting of zinc, zinc oxide, and mixtures thereof; and a viscosifier dissolved in the solution in an amount effective to suspend the weighing agent. The fluid has a density of greater than 15 pounds per gallon and being substantially free of bromide ions and being substantially free of solid material which is not soluble in hydrochloric acid.

  10. Wellbottom fluid implosion treatment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brieger, Emmet F.

    2001-01-01

    A system for inducing implosion shock forces on perforation traversing earth formations with fluid pressure where an implosion tool is selected relative to a shut in well pressure and a tubing pressure to have a large and small area piston relationship in a well tool so that at a predetermined tubing pressure the pistons move a sufficient distance to open an implosion valve which permits a sudden release of well fluid pressure into the tubing string and produces an implosion force on the perforations. A pressure gauge on the well tool records tubing pressure and well pressure as a function of time.

  11. Transport coefficients of gluonic fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Santosh K.; Alam, Jan-e

    2011-06-01

    The shear ({eta}) and bulk ({zeta}) viscous coefficients have been evaluated for a gluonic fluid. The elastic, gg{yields}gg and the inelastic, number nonconserving, gg{yields}ggg processes have been considered as the dominant perturbative processes in evaluating the viscous coefficients to entropy density (s) ratios. Recently the processes: gg{yields}ggg has been revisited and a correction to the widely used Gunion-Bertsch (GB) formula has been obtained. The {eta} and {zeta} have been evaluated for gluonic fluid with the formula recently derived. At large {alpha}{sub s} the value of {eta}/s approaches its lower bound, {approx}1/4{pi}.

  12. CO2-based mixtures as working fluids for geothermal turbines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Steven Alan; Conboy, Thomas M.; Ames, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is investigating advanced Brayton cycles using supercritical working fluids for application to a variety of heat sources, including geothermal, solar, fossil, and nuclear power. This work is centered on the supercritical CO{sub 2} (S-CO{sub 2}) power conversion cycle, which has the potential for high efficiency in the temperature range of interest for these heat sources and is very compact-a feature likely to reduce capital costs. One promising approach is the use of CO{sub 2}-based supercritical fluid mixtures. The introduction of additives to CO{sub 2} alters the equation of state and the critical point of the resultant mixture. A series of tests was carried out using Sandia's supercritical fluid compression loop that confirmed the ability of different additives to increase or lower the critical point of CO{sub 2}. Testing also demonstrated that, above the modified critical point, these mixtures can be compressed in a turbocompressor as a single-phase homogenous mixture. Comparisons of experimental data to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties (REFPROP) Standard Reference Database predictions varied depending on the fluid. Although the pressure, density, and temperature (p, {rho}, T) data for all tested fluids matched fairly well to REFPROP in most regions, the critical temperature was often inaccurate. In these cases, outside literature was found to provide further insight and to qualitatively confirm the validity of experimental findings for the present investigation.

  13. Directed flow fluid rinse trough

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kempka, S.N.; Walters, R.N.

    1996-07-02

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The tanks are suitable for one or more essentially planar items having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs also require less rinse fluid to accomplish a thorough rinse than prior art troughs. 9 figs.

  14. Directed flow fluid rinse trough

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kempka, Steven N.; Walters, Robert N.

    1996-01-01

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The tanks are suitable for one or more essentially planar items having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs also require less rinse fluid to accomplish a thorough rinse than prior art troughs.

  15. General Transient Fluid Flow Algorithm

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-03-12

    SALE2D calculates two-dimensional fluid flows at all speeds, from the incompressible limit to highly supersonic. An implicit treatment of the pressure calculation similar to that in the Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (ICE) technique provides this flow speed flexibility. In addition, the computing mesh may move with the fluid in a typical Lagrangian fashion, be held fixed in an Eulerian manner, or move in some arbitrarily specified way to provide a continuous rezoning capability. This latitude resultsmore » from use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) treatment of the mesh. The partial differential equations solved are the Navier-Stokes equations and the mass and internal energy equations. The fluid pressure is determined from an equation of state and supplemented with an artificial viscous pressure for the computation of shock waves. The computing mesh consists of a two-dimensional network of quadrilateral cells for either cylindrical or Cartesian coordinates, and a variety of user-selectable boundary conditions are provided in the program.« less

  16. Manipulation of coupled osmotic flows for stabilisation of shales exposed to water-based drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oort, E. van; Hale, A.H.; Mody, F.K.

    1995-12-31

    Coupled osmotic flows have been studied as a means of stabilising shales exposed to water-based muds. The prime factor that governs the magnitude of chemical osmotic flow, i.e. the shale-fluid membrane efficiency, was investigated in detail. Its dependence on shale parameters, fluid parameters and external conditions was quantified. Membrane efficiency was found to increase with an increase in (hydrated) solute-to-pore-size ratio, with an increase in the shale`s high-surface area clay content and with a decrease shale permeability when increasing effective confining stress. Moreover, new drilling fluid chemistries for improving the efficiencies of low- and non-selective shale-fluid systems were identified. Induced osmotic flow with optimised shale-fluid membrane efficiencies in water-based environments is presented as a new strategy for improving wellbore stability in shales.

  17. Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W

    2014-11-25

    A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.

  18. Laboratory development and field application of a novel water-based drill-in fluid for geopressured horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobson, J.W.; Harrison, J.C.; Hale, A.H.

    1996-12-31

    Research has identified a novel water-based drill-in fluid for drilling and completing geopressured horizontal wells. This fluid has a unique combination of properties which make it especially suitable for geopressured applications. They include the use of calcium and/or zinc bromide as a base brine, minimal concentration of calcium carbonate as bridging material, low plastic viscosity, tight fluid loss control, good filter cake properties, and excellent return permeability. This drill-in fluid has been used successfully to drill a 1,200 foot production interval, 4.75 inch diameter wellbore in the Gulf of Mexico with a system weight of 13.2 lbm/gal, bottom hole temperature of 185{degrees} F., and a 1400 to 1700 psi overbalance. The system functioned very well in both the drilling and completion operations. Fluid rheology was easily maintainable and the hole conditions were excellent without torque or drag problems. Initial production data suggests that the well is producing at expected rates with low drawdown pressure.

  19. Fluid sampling system for a nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lau, L.K.; Alper, N.I.

    1994-11-22

    A system of extracting fluid samples, either liquid or gas, from the interior of a nuclear reactor containment utilizes a jet pump. To extract the sample fluid, a nonradioactive motive fluid is forced through the inlet and discharge ports of a jet pump located outside the containment, creating a suction that draws the sample fluid from the containment through a sample conduit connected to the pump suction port. The mixture of motive fluid and sample fluid is discharged through a return conduit to the interior of the containment. The jet pump and means for removing a portion of the sample fluid from the sample conduit can be located in a shielded sample grab station located next to the containment. A non-nuclear grade active pump can be located outside the grab sampling station and the containment to pump the nonradioactive motive fluid through the jet pump. 1 fig.

  20. Fluid sampling system for a nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lau, Louis K. (Monroeville, PA); Alper, Naum I. (Monroeville, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A system of extracting fluid samples, either liquid or gas, from the interior of a nuclear reactor containment utilizes a jet pump. To extract the sample fluid, a nonradioactive motive fluid is forced through the inlet and discharge ports of a jet pump located outside the containment, creating a suction that draws the sample fluid from the containment through a sample conduit connected to the pump suction port. The mixture of motive fluid and sample fluid is discharged through a return conduit to the interior of the containment. The jet pump and means for removing a portion of the sample fluid from the sample conduit can be located in a shielded sample grab station located next to the containment. A non-nuclear grade active pump can be located outside the grab sampling station and the containment to pump the nonradioactive motive fluid through the jet pump.

  1. Aqueous cutting fluid for machining fissionable materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duerksen, Walter K. (Norris, TN); Googin, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Napier, Jr., Bradley (Powell, TN)

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a cutting fluid for machining fissionable material. The cutting fluid is formed of glycol, water and boron compound in an adequate concentration for effective neutron attenuation so as to inhibit criticality incidents during machining.

  2. Apparatus for unloading pressurized fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehberger, Kevin M. (3600 Westhampton Dr., Martinez, GA 30907)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for unloading fluid, preferably pressurized gas, from containers in a controlled manner that protects the immediate area from exposure to the container contents. The device consists of an unloading housing, which is enclosed within at least one protective structure, for receiving the dispensed contents of the steel container, and a laser light source, located external to the protective structure, for opening the steel container instantaneously. The neck or stem of the fluid container is placed within the sealed interior environment of the unloading housing. The laser light passes through both the protective structure and the unloading housing to instantaneously pierce a small hole within the stem of the container. Both the protective structure and the unloading housing are specially designed to allow laser light passage without compromising the light's energy level. Also, the unloading housing allows controlled flow of the gas once it has been dispensed from the container. The external light source permits remote operation of the unloading device.

  3. Low-frequency dilatational wave propagation through unsaturated porous media containing two immiscible fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lo, W.-C.; Sposito, G.; Majer, E.

    2007-02-01

    An analytical theory is presented for the low-frequency behavior of dilatational waves propagating through a homogeneous elastic porous medium containing two immiscible fluids. The theory is based on the Berryman-Thigpen-Chin (BTC) model, in which capillary pressure effects are neglected. We show that the BTC model equations in the frequency domain can be transformed, at sufficiently low frequencies, into a dissipative wave equation (telegraph equation) and a propagating wave equation in the time domain. These partial differential equations describe two independent modes of dilatational wave motion that are analogous to the Biot fast and slow compressional waves in a single-fluid system. The equations can be solved analytically under a variety of initial and boundary conditions. The stipulation of 'low frequency' underlying the derivation of our equations in the time domain is shown to require that the excitation frequency of wave motions be much smaller than a critical frequency. This frequency is shown to be the inverse of an intrinsic time scale that depends on an effective kinematic shear viscosity of the interstitial fluids and the intrinsic permeability of the porous medium. Numerical calculations indicate that the critical frequency in both unconsolidated and consolidated materials containing water and a nonaqueous phase liquid ranges typically from kHz to MHz. Thus engineering problems involving the dynamic response of an unsaturated porous medium to low excitation frequencies (e.g. seismic wave stimulation) should be accurately modeled by our equations after suitable initial and boundary conditions are imposed.

  4. Direct Measurements of Pore Fluid Density by Vibrating Tube Densimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruszkiewicz, Miroslaw {Mirek} S; Rother, Gernot; Wesolowski, David J; Cole, David R; Wallacher, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The densities of pore-confined fluids were measured for the first time by means of a vibrating tube method. Isotherms of total adsorption capacity were measured directly making the method complementary to the conventional gravimetric or volumetric/piezometric adsorption techniques, which yield the excess adsorption (the Gibbsian surface excess). A custom-made high-pressure, high-temperature vibrating tube densimeter (VTD) was used to measure the densities of subcritical and supercritical propane (between 35 C and 97 C) and supercritical carbon dioxide (between 32 C and 50 C) saturating hydrophobic silica aerogel (0.2 g/cm3, 90% porosity) synthesized inside Hastelloy U-tubes. Additionally, excess adsorption isotherms for supercritical CO2 and the same porous solid were measured gravimetrically using a precise magnetically-coupled microbalance. Pore fluid densities and total adsorption isotherms increased monotonically with increasing density of the bulk fluid, in contrast to excess adsorption isotherms, which reached a maximum at a subcritical density of the bulk fluid, and then decreased towards zero or negative values at supercritical densities. Compression of the confined fluid significantly beyond the density of the bulk liquid at the same temperature was observed at subcritical temperatures. The features of the isotherms of confined fluid density are interpreted to elucidate the observed behavior of excess adsorption. The maxima of excess adsorption were found to occur below the critical density of the bulk fluid at the conditions corresponding to the beginning of the plateau of total adsorption, marking the end of the transition of pore fluid to a denser, liquid-like pore phase. The results for propane and carbon dioxide showed similarity in the sense of the principle of corresponding states. No measurable effect of pore confinement on the liquid-vapor critical point was found. Quantitative agreement was obtained between excess adsorption isotherms determined from VTD total adsorption results and those measured gravimetrically at the same temperature, confirming the validity of the vibrating tube measurements. Vibrating tube densimetry was demonstrated as a novel experimental approach capable of providing the average density of pore-confined fluids.

  5. Method for removing impurities from an impurity-containing fluid stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Fox, Robert V.

    2010-04-06

    A method of removing at least one polar component from a fluid stream. The method comprises providing a fluid stream comprising at least one nonpolar component and at least one polar component. The fluid stream is contacted with a supercritical solvent to remove the at least one polar component. The at least one nonpolar component may be a fat or oil and the at least one polar component may be water, dirt, detergents, or mixtures thereof. The supercritical solvent may decrease solubility of the at least one polar component in the fluid stream. The supercritical solvent may function as a solvent or as a gas antisolvent. The supercritical solvent may dissolve the nonpolar components of the fluid stream, such as fats or oils, while the polar components may be substantially insoluble. Alternatively, the supercritical solvent may be used to increase the nonpolarity of the fluid stream.

  6. Polymers with increased order

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawan, Samuel P. (Tyngsborough, MA); Talhi, Abdelhafid (Rochester, MI); Taylor, Craig M. (Jemez Springs, NM)

    1998-08-25

    The invention features polymers with increased order, and methods of making them featuring a dense gas.

  7. Calculation of large scale relative permeabilities from stochastic properties of the permeability field and fluid properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenormand, R.; Thiele, M.R.

    1997-08-01

    The paper describes the method and presents preliminary results for the calculation of homogenized relative permeabilities using stochastic properties of the permeability field. In heterogeneous media, the spreading of an injected fluid is mainly sue to the permeability heterogeneity and viscosity fingering. At large scale, when the heterogeneous medium is replaced by a homogeneous one, we need to introduce a homogenized (or pseudo) relative permeability to obtain the same spreading. Generally, is derived by using fine-grid numerical simulations (Kyte and Berry). However, this operation is time consuming and cannot be performed for all the meshes of the reservoir. We propose an alternate method which uses the information given by the stochastic properties of the field without any numerical simulation. The method is based on recent developments on homogenized transport equations (the {open_quotes}MHD{close_quotes} equation, Lenormand SPE 30797). The MHD equation accounts for the three basic mechanisms of spreading of the injected fluid: (1) Dispersive spreading due to small scale randomness, characterized by a macrodispersion coefficient D. (2) Convective spreading due to large scale heterogeneities (layers) characterized by a heterogeneity factor H. (3) Viscous fingering characterized by an apparent viscosity ration M. In the paper, we first derive the parameters D and H as functions of variance and correlation length of the permeability field. The results are shown to be in good agreement with fine-grid simulations. The are then derived a function of D, H and M. The main result is that this approach lead to a time dependent . Finally, the calculated are compared to the values derived by history matching using fine-grid numerical simulations.

  8. Viscosity of NaCl and other solutions up to 350{sup 0}C and 50 MPa pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, S.L.; Ozbek, H.; Igbene, A.; Litton, G.

    1980-11-01

    Experimental values for the viscosity of sodium chloride solutions are critically reviewed for application to geothermal energy. Data published recently by Kestin, Los, Pepinov, and Semenyuk as well as earlier data are included. A theoretically based equation for calculating relative viscosity was developed, and used to generate tables of smoothed values over the ranges 20{sup 0}C to 350{sup 0}C, 0 to 5 m and pressures up to 50 MPa. The equation reproduces selected data to an average of better than 2 percent over the entire range of temperatures and pressures. Selected tables of data are included for KCl up to 150{sup 0}C, CaCl{sub 2} solutions up to 100{sup 0}C, and for mixtures of NaCl with KCl and CaCl{sub 2}. Recommendations are given for additional data needs.

  9. Transient Wellbore Fluid Flow Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1982-04-06

    WELBORE is a code to solve transient, one-dimensional two-phase or single-phase non-isothermal fluid flow in a wellbore. The primary thermodynamic variables used in solving the equations are the pressure and specific energy. An equation of state subroutine provides the density, quality, and temperature. The heat loss out of the wellbore is calculated by solving a radial diffusion equation for the temperature changes outside the bore. The calculation is done at each node point in themore » wellbore.« less

  10. Fluid cooled vehicle drive module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Meyer, Andreas A.; Gollhardt, Neil; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2005-11-15

    An electric vehicle drive includes a support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support, in conjunction with other packaging features may form a shield from both external EM/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  11. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01

    An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  12. Apparatus for unloading pressurized fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehberger, K.M.

    1994-01-04

    An apparatus is described for unloading fluid, preferably pressurized gas, from containers in a controlled manner that protects the immediate area from exposure to the container contents. The device consists of an unloading housing, which is enclosed within at least one protective structure, for receiving the dispensed contents of the steel container, and a laser light source, located external to the protective structure, for opening the steel container instantaneously. The neck or stem of the fluid container is placed within the sealed interior environment of the unloading housing. The laser light passes through both the protective structure and the unloading housing to instantaneously pierce a small hole within the stem of the container. Both the protective structure and the unloading housing are specially designed to allow laser light passage without compromising the light's energy level. Also, the unloading housing allows controlled flow of the gas once it has been dispensed from the container. The external light source permits remote operation of the unloading device. 2 figures.

  13. Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, J.R.

    1982-05-04

    A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion. 3 figs.

  14. Split driveshaft pump for hazardous fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, II, Thomas P. (Aiken, SC); Purohit, Jwalit J. (Evans, GA); Fazio, John M. (Orchard Park, NY)

    1995-01-01

    A pump having a split driveshaft for use in pumping hazardous fluids wherein only one driveshaft becomes contaminated by the fluid while the second remains isolated from the fluid. The pump has a first portion and a second portion. The first portion contains a pump motor, the first driveshaft, a support pedestal, and vapor barriers and seals. The second portion contains a second, self-lubricating driveshaft and an impeller. The first and second driveshafts are connected together by a releasable coupling. A shield and a slinger deployed below the coupling prevent fluid from the second portion from reaching the first portion. In operation, only the second assembly comes into contact with the fluid being pumped, so the risk of contamination of the first portion by the hazardous fluid is reduced. The first assembly can be removed for repairs or routine maintenance by decoupling the first and second driveshafts and disconnecting the motor from the casing.

  15. Fluid control structures in microfluidic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathies, Richard A. (Moraga, CA); Grover, William H. (Berkeley, CA); Skelley, Alison (Berkeley, CA); Lagally, Eric (Oakland, CA); Liu, Chung N. (Albany, CA)

    2008-11-04

    Methods and apparatus for implementing microfluidic analysis devices are provided. A monolithic elastomer membrane associated with an integrated pneumatic manifold allows the placement and actuation of a variety of fluid control structures, such as structures for pumping, isolating, mixing, routing, merging, splitting, preparing, and storing volumes of fluid. The fluid control structures can be used to implement a variety of sample introduction, preparation, processing, and storage techniques.

  16. Vibratory pumping of a free fluid stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM); Woloshun, Keith A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A vibratory fluid pump having a force generator for generating asymmetric periodic waves or oscillations connected to one end of one or more fluid conveyance means, such as filaments. The opposite ends of the filaments are connected to springs. Fluid introduced onto the filaments will traverse along the filaments according to the magnitude of the positive and negative excursions of the periodic waves or oscillations, and can be recovered from the filaments.

  17. Vibratory pumping of a free fluid stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, M.A.; Woloshun, K.A.

    1990-11-13

    A vibratory fluid pump is described having a force generator for generating asymmetric periodic waves or oscillations connected to one end of one or more fluid conveyance means, such as filaments. The opposite ends of the filaments are connected to springs. Fluid introduced onto the filaments will traverse along the filaments according to the magnitude of the positive and negative excursions of the periodic waves or oscillations, and can be recovered from the filaments. 3 figs.

  18. Value for controlling flow of cryogenic fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knapp, Philip A.

    1996-01-01

    A valve is provided for accurately controlling the flow of cryogenic fluids such as liquid nitrogen. The valve comprises a combination of disc and needle valves affixed to a valve stem in such a manner that the disc and needle are free to rotate about the stem, but are constrained in lateral and vertical movements. This arrangement provides accurate and precise fluid flow control and positive fluid isolation.

  19. Multiple source/multiple target fluid transfer apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, T.D.

    1997-08-26

    A fluid transfer apparatus includes: (a) a plurality of orifices for connection with fluid sources; (b) a plurality of orifices for connection with fluid targets; (c) a set of fluid source conduits and fluid target conduits associated with the orifices; (d) a pump fluidically interposed between the source and target conduits to transfer fluid there between; (e) a purge gas conduit in fluid communication with the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump to receive and pass a purge gas under pressure; (f) a solvent conduit in fluid communication with the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump to receive and pass solvent, the solvent conduit including a solvent valve; (g) pump control means for controlling operation of the pump; (h) purge gas valve control means for controlling operation of the purge gas valve to selectively impart flow of purge gas to the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump; (i) solvent valve control means for controlling operation of the solvent valve to selectively impart flow of solvent to the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump; and (j) source and target valve control means for controlling operation of the fluid source conduit valves and the fluid target conduit valves to selectively impart passage of fluid between a selected one of the fluid source conduits and a selected one of the fluid target conduits through the pump and to enable passage of solvent or purge gas through selected fluid source conduits and selected fluid target conduits. 6 figs.

  20. Multiple source/multiple target fluid transfer apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Terry D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A fluid transfer apparatus includes: a) a plurality of orifices for connection with fluid sources; b) a plurality of orifices for connection with fluid targets; c) a set of fluid source conduits and fluid target conduits associated with the orifices; d) a pump fluidically interposed between the source and target conduits to transfer fluid therebetween; e) a purge gas conduit in fluid communication with the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump to receive and pass a purge gas under pressure; f) a solvent conduit in fluid communication with the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump to receive and pass solvent, the solvent conduit including a solvent valve; g) pump control means for controlling operation of the pump; h) purge gas valve control means for controlling operation of the purge gas valve to selectively impart flow of purge gas to the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump; i) solvent valve control means for controlling operation of the solvent valve to selectively impart flow of solvent to the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump; and j) source and target valve control means for controlling operation of the fluid source conduit valves and the fluid target conduit valves to selectively impart passage of fluid between a selected one of the fluid source conduits and a selected one of the fluid target conduits through the pump and to enable passage of solvent or purge gas through selected fluid source conduits and selected fluid target conduits.

  1. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-07-11

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater. 11 figs.

  2. Pressurized-fluid-operated engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holleyman, J.E.

    1990-01-30

    This patent describes a pressurized-fluid-operated reciprocating engine for providing output power by use of a pressurized gas that expands within the engine without combustion. It comprises: an engine block having a plurality of cylinders within which respective pistons are reciprocatable to provide a rotary power output; gas inlet means connected with the engine block for introducing a pressurized gas into the respective cylinders in a predetermined, timed relationship to provide a smooth power output from the engine; gas outlet means connected with the engine block for conveying exhaust gas from the respective cylinders after the gas expanded to move the pistons within the cylinders; and recirculation means extending between the inlet means and the outlet means for recirculation a predetermined quantity of exhaust gas. The recirculation means including ejector means for drawing exhaust gas into the recirculation means.

  3. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  4. Coupled Fluid Energy Solute Transport

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-13

    CFEST is a Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport code for the study of a multilayered, nonisothermal ground-water system. It can model discontinuous as well as continuous layers, time-dependent and constant source/sinks, and transient as well as steady-state flow. The finite element method is used for analyzing isothermal and nonisothermal events in a confined aquifer system. Only single-phase Darcian flow is considered. In the Cartesian coordinate system, flow in a horizontal plane, in a verticalmore » plane, or in a fully three-dimensional region can be simulated. An option also exists for the axisymmetric analysis of a vertical cross section. The code employs bilinear quadrilateral elements in all two dimensional analyses and trilinear quadrilateral solid elements in three dimensional simulations. The CFEST finite element formulation can approximate discontinuities, major breaks in slope or thickness, and fault zones in individual hydrogeologic units. The code accounts for heterogeneity in aquifer permeability and porosity and accommodates anisotropy (collinear with the Cartesian coordinates). The variation in the hydraulic properties is described on a layer-by-layer basis for the different hydrogeologic units. Initial conditions can be prescribed hydraulic head or pressure, temperature, or concentration. CFEST can be used to support site, repository, and waste package subsystem assessments. Some specific applications are regional hydrologic characterization; simulation of coupled transport of fluid, heat, and salinity in the repository region; consequence assessment due to natural disruption or human intrusion scenarios in the repository region; flow paths and travel-time estimates for transport of radionuclides; and interpretation of well and tracer tests.« less

  5. Project Profile: Chemically Reactive Working Fluids | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    opportunity announcement (FOA), is working to identify and test new heat-transfer fluids (HTFs) that store energy chemically for more efficient energy transfer in CSP applications. ...

  6. Fluid casting of particle-based articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menchhofer, Paul (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A method for the production of articles made of a particle-based material; e.g., ceramics and sintered metals. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, a thermally settable slurry containing a relatively high concentration of the particles is introduced into an immiscible, heated fluid. The slurry sets or hardens into a shape determined by the physical characteristics of the fluid and the manner of introduction of the slurry into the fluid. For example, the slurry is pulse injected into the fluid to provide spherical articles. The hardened spheres may then be sintered to consolidate the particles and provide a high density product.

  7. Fluid Submersible Sensing Device - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication WO2010151470A1.pdf (476 KB) Technology Marketing Summary The present invention relates to a fluid submersible sensing device and,...

  8. DISPLAYING AND INTERPRETING FLUID INCLUSION STRATIGRAPHY ANALYSES...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DISPLAYING AND INTERPRETING FLUID INCLUSION STRATIGRAPHY ANALYSES ON MUDLOG GRAPHS Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings:...

  9. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Yonas, Gerold

    2016-03-01

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.

  10. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grubelich, Mark C; Yonas, Gerold

    2013-11-12

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.

  11. Managing Increased Charging Demand

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Managing Increased Charging Demand Carrie Giles ICF International, Supporting the Workplace Charging Challenge Workplace Charging Challenge Do you already own an EV? Are you...

  12. Managing Increased Charging Demand

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Managing Increased Charging Demand Carrie Giles ICF International, Supporting the ... Etiquette 4 Workplace Charging Challenge Carrie Giles carrie.giles@icfi.com Learn More: ...

  13. Thermodynamics of fluid conduction through hydrophobic channel of carbon nanotubes: The exciting force for filling of nanotubes with polar and nonpolar fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahu, Pooja; Ali, Sk. M. Shenoy, K. T.

    2015-02-21

    Thermodynamic properties of the fluid in the hydrophobic pores of nanotubes are known to be different not only from the bulk phase but also from other conventional confinements. Here, we use a recently developed theoretical scheme of “two phase thermodynamic (2PT)” model to understand the driving forces inclined to spontaneous filling of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with polar (water) and nonpolar (methane) fluids. The CNT confinement is found to be energetically favorable for both water and methane, leading to their spontaneous filling inside CNT(6,6). For both the systems, the free energy of transfer from bulk to CNT confinement is favored by the increased entropy (T?S), i.e., increased translational entropy and increased rotational entropy, which were found to be sufficiently high to conquer the unfavorable increase in enthalpy (?E) when they are transferred inside CNT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time when it has been established that the increase in translational entropy during confinement in CNT(6,6) is not unique to water-like H bonding fluid but is also observed in case of nonpolar fluids such as methane. The thermodynamic results are explained in terms of density, structural rigidity, and transport of fluid molecules inside CNT. The faster diffusion of methane over water in bulk phase is found to be reversed during the confinement in CNT(6,6). Studies reveal that though hydrogen bonding plays an important role in transport of water through CNT, but it is not the solitary driving factor, as the nonpolar fluids, which do not have any hydrogen bond formation capacity can go inside CNT and also can flow through it. The associated driving force for filling and transport of water and methane is enhanced translational and rotational entropies, which are attributed mainly by the strong correlation between confined fluid molecules and availability of more free space for rotation of molecule, i.e., lower density of fluid inside CNT due to their single file-like arrangement. To the best of our information, this is perhaps the first study of nonpolar fluid within CNT using 2PT method. Furthermore, the fast flow of polar fluid (water) over nonpolar fluid (methane) has been captured for the first time using molecular dynamic simulations.

  14. Silica recovery and control in Hawaiian geothermal fluids. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, D.M.

    1992-06-01

    A series of experiments was performed to investigate methods of controlling silica in waste geothermal brines produced at the HGP-A Generator Facility. Laboratory testing has shown that the rate of polymerization of silica in the geothermal fluids is highly pH dependent. At brine pH values in excess of 8.5 the suspension of silica polymers flocculated and rapidly precipitated a gelatinous silica mass. Optimum flocculation and precipitation rates were achieved at pH values in the range of 10.5 to 11.5. The addition of transition metal salts to the geothermal fluids similarly increased the rate of polymerization as well as the degree of precipitation of the silica polymer from suspension. A series of experiments performed on the recovered silica solids demonstrated that methanol extraction of the water in the gels followed by critical point drying yielded surface areas in excess of 300 M{sup 2}/g and that treatment of the dried solids with 2 N HCl removed most of the adsorbed impurities in the recovered product. A series of experiments tested the response of the waste brines to mixing with steam condensate and non-condensable gases.The results demonstrated that the addition of condensate and NCG greatly increased the stability of the silica in the geothermal brines. They also indicated that the process could reduce the potential for plugging of reinjection wells receiving waste geothermal fluids from commercial geothermal facilities in Hawaii. Conceptual designs were proposed to apply the gas re-combination approach to the disposal of geothermal waste fluids having a range of chemical compositions. Finally, these designs were applied to the geothermal fluid compositions found at Cerro Prieto, Ahuachapan, and Salton Sea.

  15. Silica recovery and control in Hawaiian geothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, D.M.

    1992-06-01

    A series of experiments was performed to investigate methods of controlling silica in waste geothermal brines produced at the HGP-A Generator Facility. Laboratory testing has shown that the rate of polymerization of silica in the geothermal fluids is highly pH dependent. At brine pH values in excess of 8.5 the suspension of silica polymers flocculated and rapidly precipitated a gelatinous silica mass. Optimum flocculation and precipitation rates were achieved at pH values in the range of 10.5 to 11.5. The addition of transition metal salts to the geothermal fluids similarly increased the rate of polymerization as well as the degree of precipitation of the silica polymer from suspension. A series of experiments performed on the recovered silica solids demonstrated that methanol extraction of the water in the gels followed by critical point drying yielded surface areas in excess of 300 M{sup 2}/g and that treatment of the dried solids with 2 N HCl removed most of the adsorbed impurities in the recovered product. A series of experiments tested the response of the waste brines to mixing with steam condensate and non-condensable gases.The results demonstrated that the addition of condensate and NCG greatly increased the stability of the silica in the geothermal brines. They also indicated that the process could reduce the potential for plugging of reinjection wells receiving waste geothermal fluids from commercial geothermal facilities in Hawaii. Conceptual designs were proposed to apply the gas re-combination approach to the disposal of geothermal waste fluids having a range of chemical compositions. Finally, these designs were applied to the geothermal fluid compositions found at Cerro Prieto, Ahuachapan, and Salton Sea.

  16. Conditions for fluid separations in microchannels, capillary-driven fluid separations, and laminated devices capable of separating fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. (Kennewick, WA); Stenkamp, Victoria S. (Richland, WA)

    2008-03-18

    Methods of separating fluids using capillary forces and/or improved conditions for are disclosed. The improved methods may include control of the ratio of gas and liquid Reynolds numbers relative to the Suratman number. Also disclosed are wick-containing, laminated devices that are capable of separating fluids.

  17. Conditions for fluid separations in microchannels, capillary-driven fluid separations, and laminated devices capable of separating fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E [Kennewick, WA; Stenkamp, Victoria S [Richland, WA

    2005-04-05

    Methods of separating fluids using capillary forces and/or improved conditions for are disclosed. The improved methods may include control of the ratio of gas and liquid Reynolds numbers relative to the Suratman number. Also disclosed are wick-containing, laminated devices that are capable of separating fluids.

  18. Fluid dynamic effects on precision cleaning with supercritical fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phelps, M.R.; Hogan, M.O.; Silva, L.J.

    1994-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory staff have assembled a small supercritical fluids parts cleaning test stand to characterize how system dynamics affect the efficacy of precision cleaning with supercritical carbon dioxide. A soiled stainless steel coupon, loaded into a ``Berty`` autoclave, was used to investigate how changes in system turbulence and solvent temperature influenced the removal of test dopants. A pulsed laser beam through a fiber optic was used to investigate real-time contaminant removal. Test data show that cleaning efficiency is a function of system agitation, solvent density, and temperature. These data also show that high levels of cleaning efficiency can generally be achieved with high levels of system agitation at relatively low solvent densities and temperatures. Agitation levels, temperatures, and densities needed for optimal cleaning are largely contaminant dependent. Using proper system conditions, the levels of cleanliness achieved with supercritical carbon dioxide compare favorably with conventional precision cleaning methods. Additional research is currently being conducted to generalize the relationship between cleaning performance and parameters such as contaminant solubilities, mass transfer rates, and solvent agitation. These correlations can be used to optimize cleaning performance, system design, and time and energy consumption for particular parts cleaning applications.

  19. System and method for filling a plurality of isolated vehicle fluid circuits through a common fluid fill port

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Scott C; Fansler, Douglas

    2014-10-14

    A vehicle having multiple isolated fluid circuits configured to be filled through a common fill port includes a first fluid circuit disposed within the vehicle, the first fluid circuit having a first fill port, a second fluid circuit disposed within the vehicle, and a conduit defining a fluid passageway between the first fluid circuit and second fluid circuit, the conduit including a valve. The valve is configured such that the first and second fluid circuits are fluidly coupled via the passageway when the valve is open, and are fluidly isolated when the valve is closed.

  20. Heat pump/refrigerator using liquid working fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C. (Del Mar, CA); Paulson, Douglas N. (Del Mar, CA); Allen, Paul C. (Solana Beach, CA); Knight, William R. (Corvallis, OR); Warkentin, Paul A. (San Diego, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A heat transfer device is described that can be operated as a heat pump or refrigerator, which utilizes a working fluid that is continuously in a liquid state and which has a high temperature-coefficient of expansion near room temperature, to provide a compact and high efficiency heat transfer device for relatively small temperature differences as are encountered in heating or cooling rooms or the like. The heat transfer device includes a pair of heat exchangers that may be coupled respectively to the outdoor and indoor environments, a regenerator connecting the two heat exchangers, a displacer that can move the liquid working fluid through the heat exchangers via the regenerator, and a means for alternately increasing and decreasing the pressure of the working fluid. The liquid working fluid enables efficient heat transfer in a compact unit, and leads to an explosion-proof smooth and quiet machine characteristic of hydraulics. The device enables efficient heat transfer as the indoor-outdoor temperature difference approaches zero, and enables simple conversion from heat pumping to refrigeration as by merely reversing the direction of a motor that powers the device.

  1. Computerized tomographic analysis of fluid flow in fractured tuff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felice, C.W.; Sharer, J.C.; Springer, E.P.

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of this summary is to demonstrate the usefulness of X-ray computerized tomography to observe fluid flow down a fracture and rock matrix imbibition in a sample of Bandelier tuff. This was accomplished by using a tuff sample 152.4 mm long and 50.8 mm in diameter. A longitudinal fracture was created by cutting the core with a wire saw. The fractured piece was then coupled to its adjacent section to that the fracture was not expected. Water was injected into a dry sample at five flow rates and CT scanning performed at set intervals during the flow. Cross sectional images and longitudinal reconstructions were built and saturation profiles calculated for the sample at each time interval at each flow rate. The results showed that for the test conditions, the fracture was not a primary pathway of fluid flow down the sample. At a slow fluid injection rate into the dry sample, the fluid was imbibed into the rock uniformly down the length of the core. With increasing injection rates, the flow remained uniform over the core cross section through complete saturation.

  2. Computerized tomographic analysis of fluid flow in fractured tuff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felice, C.W.; Sharer, J.C. ); Springer, E.P. )

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this summary is to demonstrate the usefulness of X-ray computerized tomography to observe fluid flow down a fracture and rock matrix imbibition in a sample of Bandelier tuff. This was accomplished by using a tuff sample 152.4 mm long and 50.8 mm in diameter. A longitudinal fracture was created by cutting the core with a wire saw. The fractured piece was then coupled to its adjacent section to that the fracture was not expected. Water was injected into a dry sample at five flow rates and CT scanning performed at set intervals during the flow. Cross sectional images and longitudinal reconstructions were built and saturation profiles calculated for the sample at each time interval at each flow rate. The results showed that for the test conditions, the fracture was not a primary pathway of fluid flow down the sample. At a slow fluid injection rate into the dry sample, the fluid was imbibed into the rock uniformly down the length of the core. With increasing injection rates, the flow remained uniform over the core cross section through complete saturation.

  3. Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, J.R.

    1980-05-02

    A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion.

  4. The Start Of Ebullition In Quiescent, Yield-Stress Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, G. R.; Sherwood, David J.; Saez, A. Eduardo

    2012-08-30

    Non-Newtonian rheology is typical for the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) slurries processed in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Hydrogen and other flammable gases are generated in the aqueous phase by radiolytic and chemical reactions. HLW slurries have a capacity for retaining gas characterized by the shear strength holding the bubbles still. The sizes and degassing characteristics of flammable gas bubbles in the HLW slurries expected to be processed by the WTP are important considerations for designing equipment and operating procedures. Slurries become increasingly susceptible to degassing as the bubble concentration increases. This susceptibility and the process of ebullitive bubble enlargement are described here. When disturbed, the fluid undergoes localized flow around neighboring bubbles which are dragged together and coalesce, producing an enlarged bubble. For the conditions considered in this work, bubble size increase is enough to displace the weight required to overcome the fluid shear strength and yield the surroundings. The buoyant bubble ascends and accumulates others within a zone of influence, enlarging by a few orders of magnitude. This process describes how the first bubbles appear on the surface of a 7 Pa shear strength fluid a few seconds after being jarred.

  5. CONTENTS Chemical Control of Fluid Flow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Control of Fluid Flow and Contaminant Release in Shale Microfractures ...................1 Editor's Letter .................................2 Laboratory and Numerical Investigation of Hydraulic Fracture Propagation and Permeability Evolution in Heterogeneous and Anisotropic Shale .................................................7 Probing Hydrocarbon Fluid Behavior in Nanoporous Formations to Maximize Unconventional Oil/Gas Recovery ........................................11 Petrophysics

  6. Foam vessel for cryogenic fluid storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spear, Jonathan D (San Francisco, CA)

    2011-07-05

    Cryogenic storage and separator vessels made of polyolefin foams are disclosed, as are methods of storing and separating cryogenic fluids and fluid mixtures using these vessels. In one embodiment, the polyolefin foams may be cross-linked, closed-cell polyethylene foams with a density of from about 2 pounds per cubic foot to a density of about 4 pounds per cubic foot.

  7. Diesel prices slightly increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices slightly increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose slightly to 3.87 a gallon on Monday. That's up 2-tenths of a penny from a week ago,...

  8. Diesel prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to 3.90 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price...

  9. Diesel prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to 3.84 a gallon on Monday. That's up 2.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price...

  10. Diesel prices increase nationally

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices increase nationally The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to 3.91 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.3 cents from a week ago, based on the...

  11. PRECISION CLEANING OF SEMICONDUCTOR SURFACES USING CARBON DIOXIDE-BASED FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. RUBIN; L. SIVILS; A. BUSNAINA

    1999-07-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory, on behalf of the Hewlett-Packard Company, is conducting tests of a closed-loop CO{sub 2}-based supercritical fluid process, known as Supercritical CO{sub 2} Resist Remover (SCORR). We have shown that this treatment process is effective in removing hard-baked, ion-implanted photoresists, and appears to be fully compatible with metallization systems. We are now performing experiments on production wafers to assess not only photoresist removal, but also residual surface contamination due to particulate and trace metals. Dense-phase (liquid or supercritical) CO{sub 2}, since it is non-polar, acts like an organic solvent and therefore has an inherently high volubility for organic compounds such as oils and greases. Also, dense CO{sub 2} has a low-viscosity and a low dielectric constant. Finally, CO{sub 2} in the liquid and supercritical fluid states can solubilize metal completing agents and surfactants. This combination of properties has interesting implications for the removal not only of organic films, but also trace metals and inorganic particulate. In this paper we discuss the possibility of using CO{sub 2} as a precision-cleaning solvent, with particular emphasis on semiconductor surfaces.

  12. Synthesis and Engineering Materials Properties of Fluid Phase Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Young Joon; Westman, Matthew P.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Chun, Jaehun; Ronnebro, Ewa

    2015-09-01

    Among candidates for chemical hydrogen storage in PEM fuel cell automotive applications, ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3) is considered to be one of the most promising materials due to its high practical hydrogen content of 14-16 wt%. This material is selected as a surrogate chemical for a hydrogen storage system. For easier transition to the existing infrastructure, a fluid phase hydrogen storage material is very attractive and thus, we investigated the engineering materials properties of AB in liquid carriers for a chemical hydrogen storage slurry system. Slurries composed of AB and high temperature liquids were prepared by mechanical milling and sonication in order to obtain stable and fluidic properties. Volumetric gas burette system was adopted to observe the kinetics of the H2 release reactions of the AB slurry and neat AB. Viscometry and microscopy were employed to further characterize slurries engineering properties. Using a tip-sonication method we have produced AB/silicone fluid slurries at solid loadings up to 40wt% (6.5wt% H2) with viscosities less than 500cP at 25°C.

  13. Trace element and isotope geochemistry of geothermal fluids, East Rift Zone, Kilauea, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, H.B.; Delanoy, G.A.; Thomas, D.M. . Hawaii Inst. of Geophysics); Gerlach, D.C. ); Chen, B.; Takahashi, P.; Thomas, D.M. Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA )

    1992-01-01

    A research program has been undertaken in an effort to better characterize the composition and the precipitation characteristic of the geothermal fluids produced by the HGP-A geothermal well located on the Kilauea East Rift Zone on the Island of Hawaii. The results of these studies have shown that the chemical composition of the fluids changed over the production life of the well and that the fluids produced were the result of mixing of at least two, and possibly three, source fluids. These source fluids were recognized as: a sea water composition modified by high temperature water-rock reactions; meteoric recharge; and a hydrothermal fluid that had been equilibrated with high temperature reservoir rocks and magmatic volatiles. Although the major alkali and halide elements show clearly increasing trends with time, only a few of the trace transition metals show a similar trend. The rare earth elements, were typically found at low concentrations and appeared to be highly variable with time. Studies of the precipitation characteristics of silica showed that amorphous silica deposition rates were highly sensitive to fluid pH and that increases in fluid pH above about 8.5 could flocculate more than 80% of the suspended colloidal silica in excess of its solubility. Addition of transition metal salts were also found to enhance the recovery fractions of silica from solution. The amorphous silica precipitate was also found to strongly scavenge the alkaline earth and transition metal ions naturally present in the brines; mild acid treatments were shown to be capable of removing substantial fractions of the scavenged metals from the silica flocs yielding a moderately pure gelatinous by-product. Further work on the silica precipitation process is recommended to improve our ability to control silica scaling from high temperature geothermal fluids or to recover a marketable silica by-product from these fluids prior to reinjection.

  14. Extreme pressure fluid sample transfer pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halverson, Justin E. (Grovertown, GA); Bowman, Wilfred W. (North Augusta, SC)

    1990-01-01

    A transfer pump for samples of fluids at very low or very high pressures comprising a cylinder having a piston sealed with an O-ring, the piston defining forward and back chambers, an inlet and exit port and valve arrangement for the fluid to enter and leave the forward chamber, and a port and valve arrangement in the back chamber for adjusting the pressure across the piston so that the pressure differential across the piston is essentially zero and approximately equal to the pressure of the fluid so that the O-ring seals against leakage of the fluid and the piston can be easily moved, regardless of the pressure of the fluid. The piston may be actuated by a means external to the cylinder with a piston rod extending through a hole in the cylinder sealed with a bellows attached to the piston head and the interior of the back chamber.

  15. Fluid permeability measurement system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis; Renner, Michael John

    2008-02-05

    A system for measuring the permeance of a material. The permeability of the material may also be derived. The system provides a liquid or high concentration fluid bath on one side of a material test sample, and a gas flow across the opposing side of the material test sample. The mass flow rate of permeated fluid as a fraction of the combined mass flow rate of gas and permeated fluid is used to calculate the permeance of the material. The material test sample may be a sheet, a tube, or a solid shape. Operational test conditions may be varied, including concentration of the fluid, temperature of the fluid, strain profile of the material test sample, and differential pressure across the material test sample.

  16. Systems, compositions, and methods for fluid purification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ho, W.S. Winston; Verweij, Hendrik; Shqau, Krenar; Ramasubranian, Kartik

    2015-12-22

    Disclosed herein are membranes comprising a substrate, a support layer, and a selective layer. In some embodiments the membrane may further comprise a permeable layer. Methods of forming membranes are also disclosed comprising forming a support layer on a substrate, removing adsorbed species from the support layer, preparing a solution containing inorganic materials of a selective layer, contacting the support layer with the solution, drying the membrane, and exposing the membrane to rapid thermal processing. Also disclosed are methods of fluid purification comprising providing a membrane having a feed side and a permeable side, passing a fluid mixture across the feed side of the membrane, providing a driving force for transmembrane permeation, removing from the permeate side a permeate stream enriched in a purified fluid, and withdrawing from the feed side a fluid that is depleted in a purified fluid.

  17. Fluid processing device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whyatt, Greg A. (West Richland, WA); Davis, James M. (Richland, WA)

    2006-02-07

    A fluid processing unit having first and second interleaved flow paths in a cross flow configuration is disclosed. The first flow paths are substantially longer than the second flow paths such that the pressure drop in the second flow paths can be maintained at a relatively low level and temperature variations across the second flow paths are reduced. One or more of the flow paths can be microchannels. When used as a vaporizer and/or superheater, the longer first flow paths include an upstream liquid flow portion and a downstream vapor flow portion of enlarged cross sectional area. A substantial pressure drop is maintained through the upstream liquid flow portion for which one or more tortuous flow channels can be utilized. The unit is a thin panel, having a width substantially less its length or height, and is manufactured together with other thin units in a bonded stack of thin metal sheets. The individual units are then separated from the stack after bonding.

  18. Disk Quota Increase Request

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Disk Quota Increase Disk Quota Increase Request NERSC will consider reasonable requests for changes in disk space and inode limits. Please submit a request through the "Request Forms" section at the NERSC help portal. If you select "Hopper scratch directory" from the "File System" menu below, the quota value requested applies to the combined contents of $SCRATCH and $SCRATCH2. Please ask for the least amount of resources you need, since the sum of disk space and

  19. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 10.3 cents from a week ago to $2.96 per gallon. That's up 68.1 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is the largest single week increase since the heating season started in October. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.55 a gallon, up 14.9 cents from last week, and up 79.1 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in

  20. Increasing Employee PEV Awareness

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Increasing Employee PEV Awareness Natalie Committee Communications Specialist, New West Technologies Workplace Charging Challenge The Workplace as a Second Showroom Peer Effect Current PEV Driver Potential PEV Driver Workplace Charging Challenge Workplace Charging= Happy Employees Workplace Charging Challenge Build it and they will come? Not so simple! Workplace Charging Challenge Employee PEV Outreach Resources- Now Available! * Tools and Resources * Talking Points * Support Networks * Top

  1. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.01 per gallon, up 1.2 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.47 per gallon, up 9-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 44.8

  2. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.02 per gallon, up 4-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.48 per gallon, down 1-tenth of a cent from last week, and down 43

  3. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.03 per gallon, up 1 cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.48 per gallon, up 9-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 40.7

  4. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.96 per gallon, up 7-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.43 per gallon, up 1.3 cents from last week, and down 51.7

  5. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.97 per gallon, up 6-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.44 per gallon, up 7-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 50.

  6. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.98 per gallon, up 1.1 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.44 per gallon, up 4-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 49.7

  7. Geothermal energy production with supercritical fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Donald W.

    2003-12-30

    There has been invented a method for producing geothermal energy using supercritical fluids for creation of the underground reservoir, production of the geothermal energy, and for heat transport. Underground reservoirs are created by pumping a supercritical fluid such as carbon dioxide into a formation to fracture the rock. Once the reservoir is formed, the same supercritical fluid is allowed to heat up and expand, then is pumped out of the reservoir to transfer the heat to a surface power generating plant or other application.

  8. Hamiltonian description of the ideal fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid mechanics is examined from a Hamiltonian perspective. The Hamiltonian point of view provides a unifying framework; by understanding the Hamiltonian perspective, one knows in advance (within bounds) what answers to expect and what kinds of procedures can be performed. The material is organized into five lectures, on the following topics: rudiments of few-degree-of-freedom Hamiltonian systems illustrated by passive advection in two-dimensional fluids; functional differentiation, two action principles of mechanics, and the action principle and canonical Hamiltonian description of the ideal fluid; noncanonical Hamiltonian dynamics with examples; tutorial on Lie groups and algebras, reduction-realization, and Clebsch variables; and stability and Hamiltonian systems.

  9. Apparatus and method for fluid analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Bary W.; Peters, Timothy J.; Shepard, Chester L.; Reeves, James H.

    2004-11-02

    The present invention is an apparatus and method for analyzing a fluid used in a machine or in an industrial process line. The apparatus has at least one meter placed proximate the machine or process line and in contact with the machine or process fluid for measuring at least one parameter related to the fluid. The at least one parameter is a standard laboratory analysis parameter. The at least one meter includes but is not limited to viscometer, element meter, optical meter, particulate meter, and combinations thereof.

  10. Fluid properties determine flow line blockage potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, A.

    1996-07-15

    A thorough understanding of fluid properties helps in determining the potential of hydrates, paraffins, or asphaltenes to block subsea flow lines. Thermal, chemical, and mechanical methods are the main ways for preventing deposition. Already in both the North Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, blockages have led to significant losses in production and reserves recovery. This first article in a two-part series discusses thermal and chemical methods in overcoming fluid behavior problems caused by hydrate and other fluid constituents in subsea multiphase flow. The paper discusses subsea production, possible problems, nucleation, growth, deposition, preventing deposition, hydrate predictions, multiphase flow, and hydrate inhibition.

  11. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.00 per gallon, up 7-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.46 per gallon, up 4-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 46.2

  12. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.02 per gallon, up 5-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.48 per gallon, up 7-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 43.3

  13. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.02 per gallon, up 4-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.47 per gallon, down 2-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 41.9

  14. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4, 2015 Residential propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.36 per gallon, up half of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.88 per gallon, down 1-tenth of a cent from last week, and down 90.5

  15. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.96 per gallon, up 1.8 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.42 per gallon, up 6-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 52.9 cents

  16. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.41 per gallon, up 6-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.95 per gallon, up 2-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 12.7 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  17. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.98 per gallon, up 5-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.45 per gallon, up 6-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 48.2

  18. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.99 per gallon, up 3-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.45 per gallon, up 2-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 47.6

  19. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 3.9 cents from a week ago to $2.80 per gallon. That's up 53.7 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.32 a gallon, up 3.8 cents from last week, and up 59

  20. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 2.5 cents from a week ago to $2.83 per gallon. That's up 56 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.36 a gallon, up 3.9 cents from last week, and up 62.3

  1. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose to $2.40 per gallon, up 1.1 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.94 a gallon, up 2.9 cents from last week, and up 2.6 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  2. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 5.5 cents per gallon from last week to $2.62 per gallon; up 37.4 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The retail price for propane in the Midwest region averaged 2.11 per gallon, up 3.4 cents per gallon from last week, and up 39.6

  3. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 9.1 cents from a week ago to $2.71 per gallon. That's up 46.9 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.22 a gallon, up 11 cents from last week, and up 50.8 cents from a year ago

  4. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 4.8 cents from a week ago to $2.76 per gallon. That's up 51.2 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.28 a gallon, up 6.3 cents from last week, and up 56.4

  5. Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Coso Geothermal Area (2004) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis 1) To determine if analyses of fluid propene and propane species in fluid inclusions can be used to interpret fluid type, history, or process....

  6. Thermal Storage and Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities in the area of thermal storage and advanced heat transfer fluids: measuring thermophysical properties, measuring fluid flow and heat transfer, and simulating flow of thermal energy and fluid.

  7. Method and apparatus for fluid dispersion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, Howard A; Anna, Shelley L; Bontoux, Nathalie; Link, Darren Roy; Weitz, David A; Gitlin, Irina; Kumacheva, Eugenia; Garstecki, Piotr; Diluzio, Willow R; Whitesides, George M

    2015-03-24

    A microfluidic method and device for focusing and/or forming discontinuous sections of similar or dissimilar size in a fluid is provided. The device can be fabricated simply from readily-available, inexpensive material using simple techniques.

  8. Method and apparatus for fluid dispersion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, Howard A.; Anna, Shelley L.; Bontoux, Nathalie; Link, Darren Roy; Weitz, David A.; Gitlin, Irina; Kumacheva, Eugenia; Garstecki, Piotr; Diluzio, Willow R.; Whitesides, George M.

    2012-12-25

    A microfluidic method and device for focusing and/or forming discontinuous sections of similar or dissimilar size in a fluid is provided. The device can be fabricated simply from readily-available, inexpensive material using simple techniques.

  9. Method and apparatus for fluid dispersion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, Howard A.; Anna, Shelley L.; Bontoux, Nathalie; Link, Darren R.; Weitz, David A.; Gitlin, Irina; Kumacheva, Eugenia; Garstecki, Piotr; Diluzio, Willow; Whitesides, George M.

    2010-05-04

    A microfluidic method and device for focusing and/or forming discontinuous sections of similar or dissimilar size in a fluid is provided. The device can be fabricated simply from readily-available, inexpensive material using simple techniques.

  10. Reactive flash volatilization of fluid fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.; Dreyer, Bradon J.; Salge, James R.

    2013-01-08

    The invention provides methods for the production of synthesis gas. More particularly, various embodiments of the invention relate to systems and methods for volatilizing fluid fuel to produce synthesis gas by using a metal catalyst on a solid support matrix.

  11. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 3.2 cents from a week ago to $2.86 per gallon. That's up 59.3 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.40 a gallon, up 3.2 cents from last week, and up 65.8 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  12. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 2.3 cents per gallon from last week to $2.57 per gallon; up 32.2 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The retail price for propane in the Midwest region averaged 2.08 per gallon, up 2.4 cents per gallon from last week, and up 36.9 cents from a year earlier. This is Marlana Anderson, with EIA, in Washington.

  13. Electric Power Generation from Coproduced Fluids from Oil and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Power Generation from Coproduced Fluids from Oil and Gas Wells Electric Power Generation from Coproduced Fluids from Oil and Gas Wells The primary objective of this...

  14. ITP Chemicals: Technology Roadmap for Computational Fluid Dynamics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fluid Dynamics, January 1999 ITP Chemicals: Technology Roadmap for Computational Fluid Dynamics, January 1999 PDF icon cfdroadmap.pdf More Documents & Publications 3-D Combustion ...

  15. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants ... Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough ...

  16. Temperature distribution and fluid flow in an enclosure with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Temperature distribution and fluid flow in an enclosure with localized heating and cooling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Temperature distribution and fluid flow in an ...

  17. High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids This fact sheet describes a UCLA-led solar project to ...

  18. DOE MURI: Hig-Operating Temperature Heat Transfer Fluids for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE MURI: Hig-Operating Temperature Heat Transfer Fluids for CSD Applications DOE MURI: Hig-Operating Temperature Heat Transfer Fluids for CSD Applications This presentation was ...

  19. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies ...

  20. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Diesel Engine Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions 2005 Diesel Engine...

  1. Modeling fluid flow in deformation bands with stabilized localization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modeling fluid flow in deformation bands with stabilized localization mixed finite elements. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling fluid flow in deformation bands...

  2. Application of Neutron Imaging and Scattering to Fluid Flow and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Application of Neutron Imaging and Scattering to Fluid Flow and Fracture in EGS Environments Application of Neutron Imaging and Scattering to Fluid Flow and Fracture in EGS...

  3. Property:FluidMechanicsMeasurement | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Name FluidMechanicsMeasurement Property Type String Description MHK Fluid Mechanics Measurement Categories Used in FormTemplate MHKSensor Allows Values Differential...

  4. Category:Fluid Lab Analysis | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fluid Lab Analysis Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Fluid Lab Analysis page? For detailed information on exploration...

  5. Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid inclusions from active geothermal systems Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  6. Water as a thermoacoustic working fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    This short report, addressed only to the thermoacoustic cognoscenti, discusses thermodynamic and transport properties of water with emphasis on water's virtues as a thermoacoustic working fluid. Short-stack-approximation calculations are presented, showing that water is a good working fluid. A very rough design for a sound source using water is also presented as a starting point for discussing the merits and difficulties of this technology. 4 figs.

  7. Control system for fluid heated steam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boland, James F. (Bonneville County, ID); Koenig, John F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1985-01-01

    A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

  8. computational-fluid-dynamics-student-thesis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fluid Dynamics Student Thesis Abstract DEVELOPMENT OF A THREE-DIMENSIONAL SCOURING METHODOLOGY AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION IN A COMMERCIAL CFD CODE FOR OPEN CHANNEL FLOW OVER A FLOODED BRIDGE DECK The Computational Fluid Dynamics staff at TRACC is supporting three students from Northern Illinois University who are working for a Masters degree. The CFD staff is directing the thesis research and working with them on three projects: (1) a three-dimensional scour computation methodology for pressure flow

  9. Fluid driven torsional dipole seismic source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardee, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A compressible fluid powered oscillating downhole seismic source device capable of periodically generating uncontaminated horizontally-propagated, shear waves is provided. A compressible fluid generated oscillation is created within the device which imparts an oscillation to a housing when the device is installed in a housing such as the cylinder off an existing downhole tool, thereby a torsional seismic source is established. Horizontal waves are transferred to the surrounding bore hole medium through downhole clamping.

  10. Nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Elise B.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.

    2014-08-12

    A heat transfer fluid created from nanoparticles that are dispersed into an ionic liquid is provided. Small volumes of nanoparticles are created from e.g., metals or metal oxides and/or alloys of such materials are dispersed into ionic liquids to create a heat transfer fluid. The nanoparticles can be dispersed directly into the ionic liquid during nanoparticle formation or the nanoparticles can be formed and then, in a subsequent step, dispersed into the ionic liquid using e.g., agitation.

  11. Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Perspectives Nonlinear optical approaches for elucidating interfacial fluid and sorbed species structures and dynamics pdf Structural and Dynamic Properties of Room Temperature Ionic Liquids Confined within Hierarchical Porous Materials pdf Structure and Dynamics of Electrical Double Layer Using Integrated Scanning Probe Microscopy and Molecular Simulations pdf Effects of Nano-Confinement on the Fluid Interfacial Structure, Dynamics and Thermodynamic behavior pdf Molecular Insights into

  12. Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Overview (Summary Slides) Scientific Objectives: The unique properties of the FSI emerge from a complex interplay of short- and long-range forces and reactions among the molecular fluid components, solutes and substrates. Potential gradients (chemical, electrical, etc.) can be highly non-linear at the angstrom to nanometer scale. The finite size, shape, directional bonding, charge distribution and polarizability of solvent and solute fluid components are convoluted with their ability to

  13. High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capabilities » High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids /science-innovation/_assets/images/icon-science.jpg High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos National Laboratory for the best of both. No place on Earth pursues a broader array of world-class scientific endeavors. TRIDENT target chamber Sasi Palaniyappan, right, and Rahul Shah left inside a target chamber where the TRIDENT short pulse laser is aimed at a very

  14. Stirling engine with air working fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A. (North Troy, NY)

    1985-01-01

    A Stirling engine capable of utilizing air as a working fluid which includes a compact heat exchange module which includes heating tube units, regenerator and cooler positioned about the combustion chamber. This arrangement has the purpose and effect of allowing the construction of an efficient, high-speed, high power-density engine without the use of difficult to seal light gases as working fluids.

  15. Control system for fluid heated steam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boland, J.F.; Koenig, J.F.

    1984-05-29

    A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

  16. Structural cooling fluid tube for supporting a turbine component and supplying cooling fluid to transition section

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charron, Richard; Pierce, Daniel

    2015-08-11

    A shaft cover support for a gas turbine engine is disclosed. The shaft cover support not only provides enhanced support to a shaft cover of the gas turbine engine, but also includes a cooling fluid chamber for passing fluids from a rotor air cooling supply conduit to an inner ring cooling manifold. Furthermore, the shaft cover support may include a cooling shield supply extending from the cooling fluid chamber between the radially outward inlet and the radially inward outlet on the radially extending region and in fluid communication with the cooling fluid chamber for providing cooling fluids to a transition section. The shaft cover support may also provide additional stiffness and reduce interference of the flow from the compressor. In addition, the shaft cover support accommodates a transition section extending between compressor and turbine sections of the gas turbine engine.

  17. Pump for molten metal or other fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Brown, Donald L. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A pump having no moving parts which can be used to pump high temperature molten metal or other fluids in a vacuum or low pressure environment, and a method for pumping such fluids. The pump combines elements of a bubble pump with a trap which isolates the vacuum or low pressure region from the gas used to create the bubbles. When used in a vacuum the trap prevents the pumping gas from escaping into the isolated region and thereby reducing the quality of the vacuum. The pump includes a channel in which a pumping gas is forced under pressure into a cavity where bubbles are formed. The cavity is in contact with a reservoir which contains the molten metal or other fluid which is to be pumped. The bubbles rise up into a column (or pump tube) carrying the fluid with them. At the top of the column is located a deflector which causes the bubbles to burst and the drops of pumped fluid to fall into a trap. The fluid accumulates in the trap, eventually forcing its way to an outlet. A roughing pump can be used to withdraw the pumping gas from the top of the column and assist with maintaining the vacuum or low pressure environment.

  18. High gliding fluid power generation system with fluid component separation and multiple condensers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahmoud, Ahmad M; Lee, Jaeseon; Radcliff, Thomas D

    2014-10-14

    An example power generation system includes a vapor generator, a turbine, a separator and a pump. In the separator, the multiple components of the working fluid are separated from each other and sent to separate condensers. Each of the separate condensers is configured for condensing a single component of the working fluid. Once each of the components condense back into a liquid form they are recombined and exhausted to a pump that in turn drives the working fluid back to the vapor generator.

  19. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-09-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities.

  20. Final Report - IHLW PCT, Spinel T1%, Electrical Conductivity, and Viscosity Model Development, VSL-07R1240-4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Landmesser, S. M.; Pegg, I. L.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Cooley, Scott K.; Gan, H.; Kot, W. K.

    2013-11-13

    This report is the last in a series of currently scheduled reports that presents the results from the High Level Waste (HLW) glass formulation development and testing work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) of the Catholic University of America (CUA) and the development of IHLW property-composition models performed jointly by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and VSL for the River Protection Project-Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP). Specifically, this report presents results of glass testing at VSL and model development at PNNL for Product Consistency Test (PCT), one-percent crystal fraction temperature (T1%), electrical conductivity (EC), and viscosity of HLW glasses. The models presented in this report may be augmented and additional validation work performed during any future immobilized HLW (IHLW) model development work. Completion of the test objectives is addressed.

  1. Aqueous absorption fluids. Annual report, July 1989-October 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langeliers, J.; Chandler, T.; Rockenfeller, U.

    1990-11-01

    The report describes the third year of study of aqueous-based working fluids that will allow air-cooled absorption chiller operation. The successful development of such fluids will eliminate the need for cooling towers in gas-fired chiller equipment for residential and unitary markets and possibly allow for building heating with absorber heat. The thermophysical property measurements were completed and the vapor pressure and specific heat data were used to compute the enthalpy of LB621-H2O solutions. Solution film heat transfer coefficients were measured in the test sorber apparatus and a dramatic increase in film heat transfer was observed in the presence of heat transfer additives. Measured equilibrium and film heat transfer data were used in the single-stage absorption cycle computer model to analyze the potential performance of LB621-H2O; the analysis confirmed the superiority of LB621-H2O as a single-stage working fluid. In addition, thermal stability and corrosion rate tests demonstrated that LB621-H2O is stable and non-corrosive in a single-stage absorption chiller environment.

  2. Asphaltene reaction via supercritical fluid extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.

    1993-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of bitumen was carried out in a continuous extractor using propane as the solvent at several temperatures and pressures. The asphaltene contents of the residual fractions in the extractor were compared to the asphaltene content of the original bitumen. Asphaltenes were defined as pentane insolubles in this study. It was found that the absolute asphaltene content of the residual fractions exceeded the asphaltene content of the original bitumen. Even when the asphaltene content was prorated by the weight percent of the residual material, it was found to be higher than the original asphaltene content. The data established that the types of compounds separating as asphaltenes changed as the nature of the mixture was altered by SFE. The data also indicated that it may be inappropriate to perform asphaltene material balances to assess the amount of precipitate. The original asphaltene content of a bitumen that is undergoing compositional changes in a sequence of operations may not be an accurate measure of the precipitating tendency of the bitumen in production and processing operations. The asphaltene content of the residual material varied depending on the extraction conditions and was as much as 3--5 times the original asphaltene content. The asphaltene content of the residual material was a maximum at the most efficient extraction condition which was in the vicinity of the critical temperature of propane. The H/C atomic ratio of the residual fractions was lower compared to the original bitumen, indicating that the ratio of polar to nonpolar compounds may also be important from precipitation considerations. Saturate and aromatic compounds were preferentially extracted and the ratio of asphaltenes to resins increased in the residual fractions relative to the original bitumen.

  3. Asphaltene reaction via supercritical fluid extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.

    1993-03-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of bitumen was carried out in a continuous extractor using propane as the solvent at several temperatures and pressures. The asphaltene contents of the residual fractions in the extractor were compared to the asphaltene content of the original bitumen. Asphaltenes were defined as pentane insolubles in this study. It was found that the absolute asphaltene content of the residual fractions exceeded the asphaltene content of the original bitumen. Even when the asphaltene content was prorated by the weight percent of the residual material, it was found to be higher than the original asphaltene content. The data established that the types of compounds separating as asphaltenes changed as the nature of the mixture was altered by SFE. The data also indicated that it may be inappropriate to perform asphaltene material balances to assess the amount of precipitate. The original asphaltene content of a bitumen that is undergoing compositional changes in a sequence of operations may not be an accurate measure of the precipitating tendency of the bitumen in production and processing operations. The asphaltene content of the residual material varied depending on the extraction conditions and was as much as 3--5 times the original asphaltene content. The asphaltene content of the residual material was a maximum at the most efficient extraction condition which was in the vicinity of the critical temperature of propane. The H/C atomic ratio of the residual fractions was lower compared to the original bitumen, indicating that the ratio of polar to nonpolar compounds may also be important from precipitation considerations. Saturate and aromatic compounds were preferentially extracted and the ratio of asphaltenes to resins increased in the residual fractions relative to the original bitumen.

  4. Ultrasonic fluid flow measurement method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the flow of a fluid in a pipe using ultrasonic waves. The apparatus comprises an ultrasonic generator, a lens for focusing the sound energy produced by the generator, and means for directing the focused energy into the side of the pipe through an opening and in a direction close to parallel to the long axis of the pipe. A cone carries the sound energy to the lens from the generator. Depending on the choice of materials, there may be a quarter-wave, acoustic impedance matching section between the generator and the cone to reduce the reflections of energy at the cone boundary. The lens material has an acoustic impedance similar to that of the cone material but a different sonic velocity so that the lens can converge the sound waves in the fluid. A transition section between the lens and the fluid helps to couple the energy to the fluid and assures it is directed as close to parallel to the fluid flow direction as possible.

  5. Ultrasonic fluid flow measurement method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-10-12

    An apparatus for measuring the flow of a fluid in a pipe using ultrasonic waves. The apparatus comprises an ultrasonic generator, a lens for focusing the sound energy produced by the generator, and means for directing the focused energy into the side of the pipe through an opening and in a direction close to parallel to the long axis of the pipe. A cone carries the sound energy to the lens from the generator. Depending on the choice of materials, there may be a quarter-wave, acoustic impedance matching section between the generator and the cone to reduce the reflections of energy at the cone boundary. The lens material has an acoustic impedance similar to that of the cone material but a different sonic velocity so that the lens can converge the sound waves in the fluid. A transition section between the lens and the fluid helps to couple the energy to the fluid and assures it is directed as close to parallel to the fluid flow direction as possible. 3 figures.

  6. Drilling Fluids Market Analysis | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Drilling Fluids Market Analysis Home There are currently no posts in this category. Syndicate content...

  7. Selective evaporation of focusing fluid in two-fluid hydrodynamic print head.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keicher, David M.; Cook, Adam W.

    2014-09-01

    The work performed in this project has demonstrated the feasibility to use hydrodynamic focusing of two fluid steams to create a novel micro printing technology for electronics and other high performance applications. Initial efforts focused solely on selective evaporation of the sheath fluid from print stream provided insight in developing a unique print head geometry allowing excess sheath fluid to be separated from the print flow stream for recycling/reuse. Fluid flow models suggest that more than 81 percent of the sheath fluid can be removed without affecting the print stream. Further development and optimization is required to demonstrate this capability in operation. Print results using two-fluid hydrodynamic focusing yielded a 30 micrometers wide by 0.5 micrometers tall line that suggests that the cross-section of the printed feature from the print head was approximately 2 micrometers in diameter. Printing results also demonstrated that complete removal of the sheath fluid is not necessary for all material systems. The two-fluid printing technology could enable printing of insulated conductors and clad optical interconnects. Further development of this concept should be pursued.

  8. Multipurpose Acoustic Sensor for Downhole Fluid Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pantea, Cristian

    2012-05-04

    The projects objectives and purpose are to: (1) development a multipurpose acoustic sensor for downhole fluid monitoring in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) reservoirs over typical ranges of pressures and temperatures and demonstrate its capabilities and performance for different EGS systems; (2) determine in real-time and in a single sensor package several parameters - temperature, pressure, fluid flow and fluid properties; (3) needed in nearly every phase of an EGS project, including Testing of Injection and Production Wells, Reservoir Validation, Inter-well Connectivity, Reservoir Scale Up and Reservoir Sustainability. (4) Current sensors are limited to operating at lower temperatures, but the need is for logging at high temperatures. The present project deals with the development of a novel acoustic-based sensor that can work at temperatures up to 374 C, in inhospitable environments.

  9. Detecting low levels of radionuclides in fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patch, Keith D. (Lexington, MA); Morgan, Dean T. (Sudbury, MA)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting low levels of one or more radionuclides in a fluid sample uses a substrate that includes an ion exchange resin or other sorbent material to collect the radionuclides. A collecting apparatus includes a collecting chamber that exposes the substrate to a measured amount of the fluid sample such that radionuclides in the fluid sample are collected by the ion exchange resin. A drying apparatus, which can include a drying chamber, then dries the substrate. A measuring apparatus measures emissions from radionuclides collected on the substrate. The substrate is positioned in a measuring chamber proximate to a detector, which provides a signal in response to emissions from the radionuclides. Other analysis methods can be used to detect non-radioactive analytes, which can be collected with other types of sorbent materials.

  10. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Daniel O.; Walsh, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  11. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Daniel O.; Walsh, Michael M.

    1999-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel in order to mix its respective portion of liquid water with the corresponding portion of the stream. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  12. Advanced Heat Transfer and Thermal Storage Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moens, L.; Blake, D.

    2005-01-01

    The design of the next generation solar parabolic trough systems for power production will require the development of new thermal energy storage options with improved economics or operational characteristics. Current heat-transfer fluids such as VP-1?, which consists of a eutectic mixture of biphenyl and diphenyl oxide, allow a maximum operating temperature of ca. 300 C, a limit above which the vapor pressure would become too high and would require pressure-rated tanks. The use of VP-1? also suffers from a freezing point around 13 C that requires heating during cold periods. One of the goals for future trough systems is the use of heat-transfer fluids that can act as thermal storage media and that allow operating temperatures around 425 C combined with lower limits around 0 C. This paper presents an outline of our latest approach toward the development of such thermal storage fluids.

  13. LANL Shock Tube Kathy Prestridge Extreme Fluids Team

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Header image FLUID DYNAMICS at Los Alamos Extreme Fluids Team in Physics Division home the team research publications pictures diversity contact The Extreme Fluids Team On the P-23 Extreme Fluids Team at Los Alamos National Laboratory, we apply high-resolution diagnostics to study fluid dynamics problems in extreme environments, such as shock-driven mixing, multiphase flows, and variable-density turbulence. The team is composed of Los Alamos staff, postdocs, and students. EXPERIMENTAL FACILITIES

  14. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability trends. The Lower Grandstand sand consists of two coarsening-upward shoreface sands sequences while the Upper Grandstand consists of a single coarsening-upward shoreface sand. Each of the shoreface sands shows a distinctive permeability profile with high horizontal permeability at the top getting progressively poorer towards the base of the sand. In contrast, deltaic sandstones in the overlying Ninuluk are more permeable at the base of the sands, with decreasing permeability towards the sand top. These trends impart a strong permeability anisotropy to the reservoir and are being incorporated into the reservoir model. These observations also suggest that horizontal wells should target the upper part of the major sands. Natural fractures may superimpose another permeability pattern on the Umiat reservoir that need to be accounted for in both the simulation and in drilling. Examination of legacy core from Umiat field indicate that fractures are present in the subsurface, but don't provide information on their orientation and density. Nearby surface exposures of folds in similar stratigraphy indicate there are at least three possible fracture sets: an early, N/S striking set that may predate folding and two sets possibly related to folding: an EW striking set of extension fractures that are parallel to the fold axes and a set of conjugate shear fractures oriented NE and NW. Analysis of fracture spacing suggests that these natural fractures are fairly widely spaced (25-59 cm depending upon the fracture set), but could provide improved reservoir permeability in horizontal legs drilled perpendicular to the open fracture set. The phase behavior of the Umiat fluid needed to be well understood in order for the reservoir simulation to be accurate. However, only a small amount of Umiat oil was available; this oil was collected in the 1940’s and was severely weathered. The composition of this ‘dead’ Umiat fluid was characterized by gas chromatography. This analysis was then compared to theoretical Umiat composition derived using the Pedersen method with original Umiat fluid properties published in the original reports. This comparison allowed estimation of the ‘lost’ light hydrocarbon fractions. An Umiat 'dead' oil sample then could be physically created by adding the lost light ends to the weatherized Umiat dead oil sample. This recreated sample was recombined with solution gas to create a 'pseudo-live' Umiat oil sample which was then used for experimental PVT and phase behavior studies to determine fluid properties over the range of reservoir pressures and temperatures. The phase behavior of the ‘pseudo-live’ oil was also simulated using the Peng- Robinson equations of state (EOS). The EOS model was tuned with measured experimental data to accurately simulate the differential liberation tests in order to obtain the necessary data for reservoir simulation studies, including bubble point pressure and oil viscosity. The bubble point pressure of the reconstructed Umiat oil is 345 psi, suggesting that maintenance of reservoir pressures above that pressure will be important for the any proposed production technique. A major part of predicting how the Umiat reservoir will perform is determining the relative permeability of oil in the presence of ice. Early in the project, UAF work on samples of the Umiat reservoir indicated that there is a significant reduction in the relatively permeability of oil in the presence of ice. However, it was not clear as to why this reduction occurred or where the ice resided. To explore this further, additional experimental and theoretical work was conducted. Core flood experiments were performed on two clean Berea sandstone cores under permafrost conditions to determine the relative permeability to oil (kro) over a temperature range of 23ºC to - 10ºC and for a range of connate water salinities. Both cores showed maximum reduction in relative permeability to oil when saturated with deionized water and less reduction when saturated with saline water. This reduction in relative permeability can be explained by formation of ice crystals in the center of pores. Theoretically, the radius of ice formed in the center of the pore can be determined using the Kozeny–Carman Equation by assuming the pores and pore throats as a cube with ‘N’ identical parallel pipes embedded in it. Using the values of kro obtained from the experimental work as input to the Kozeny–Carman Equation at -10ºC, the radius of ice crystals dropped from 0.145 μm to 0.069 μm when flooding-water salinity is increased to 6467 ppm. This explains the reduction of relative permeability with decreasing salinity but does not take into consideration other effects such as variations in pore throat structure. In addition, fluids like deionized water, saline water, and antifreeze (a mixture of 60% ethylene or propylene glycol with 40% water) were tested to find the best flooding agent for frozen reservoirs. At 0ºC, 9% greater recovery was observed with antifreeze was used as a flooding agent as compared to using saline water. Antifreeze showed 48% recovery even at -10ºC, at which temperature the rest of the fluids failed to increase production. Preliminary evaluation of drilling fluids indicate that the brine-based muds caused significantly less swelling in the Umiat reservoir sands when compared to fresh-water based muds. However since freezing filtrate is another cause of formation damage, a simple water-based-mud may not a viable option. It is recommended that new fluids be tested, including different salts, brines, polymers and oil-based fluids. These fluids should be tested at low temperatures in order to determine the potential for formation damage, the fluid properties under these conditions and to ensure that the freezing point is below that of the reservoir. In order to reduce the surface footprint while accessing the maximum amount of the Lower Grandstand interval, simulations used development from 5 surface locations with a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers. There is no active aquifer support due to small peizometric head in the area and no existing gas cap, so an alternative method of pressure support is needed. Cold gas injection was used in the simulations as it is considered the most viable means of providing pressure maintenance while maintaining wellbore stability and reducing impact on the permafrost. Saline water injection may be a viable alternative, though this may have a detrimental effect on permafrost. In the short term, the results of this work are being incorporated into Linc Energy’s drilling and development plan. This project has also provided valuable information on the rock and fluid properties of low temperature reservoirs as well as the efficacy of potential production techniques for Umiat or similar shallow frozen reservoirs in the circum-Arctic.

  15. Geomechanical Simulation of Fluid-Driven Fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makhnenko, R.; Nikolskiy, D.; Mogilevskaya, S.; Labuz, J.

    2012-11-30

    The project supported graduate students working on experimental and numerical modeling of rock fracture, with the following objectives: (a) perform laboratory testing of fluid-saturated rock; (b) develop predictive models for simulation of fracture; and (c) establish educational frameworks for geologic sequestration issues related to rock fracture. These objectives were achieved through (i) using a novel apparatus to produce faulting in a fluid-saturated rock; (ii) modeling fracture with a boundary element method; and (iii) developing curricula for training geoengineers in experimental mechanics, numerical modeling of fracture, and poroelasticity.

  16. Increased

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568, Japan B. E. Chapman and J. S. Sarff University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706...

  17. Nonlinear stability of ideal fluid equilibria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holm, D.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Lyapunov method for establishing stability is related to well- known energy principles for nondissipative dynamical systems. A development of the Lyapunov method for Hamiltonian systems due to Arnold establishes sufficient conditions for Lyapunov stability by using the energy plus other conserved quantities, together with second variations and convexity estimates. When treating the stability of ideal fluid dynamics within the Hamiltonian framework, a useful class of these conserved quantities consists of the Casimir functionals, which Poisson-commute with all functionals of the dynamical fluid variables. Such conserved quantities, when added to the energy, help to provide convexity estimates that bound the growth of perturbations. These convexity estimates, in turn, provide norms necessary for establishing Lyapunov stability under the nonlinear evolution. In contrast, the commonly used second variation or spectral stability arguments only prove linearized stability. As ideal fluid examples, in these lectures we discuss planar barotropic compressible fluid dynamics, the three-dimensional hydrostatic Boussinesq model, and a new set of shallow water equations with nonlinear dispersion due to Basdenkov, Morosov, and Pogutse(1985). Remarkably, all three of these samples have the same Hamiltonian structure and, thus, possess the same Casimir functionals upon which their stability analyses are based. We also treat stability of modified quasigeostrophic flow, a problem whose Hamiltonian structure and Casimirs closely resemble Arnold's original example. Finally, we discuss some aspects of conditional stability and the applicability of Arnold's development of the Lyapunov technique. 100 refs.

  18. 2-Phase Fluid Flow & Heat Transport

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-03-13

    GEOTHER is a three-dimensional, geothermal reservoir simulation code. The model describes heat transport and flow of a single component, two-phase fluid in porous media. It is based on the continuity equations for steam and water, which are reduced to two nonlinear partial differential equations in which the dependent variables are fluid pressure and enthalpy. GEOTHER can be used to simulate the fluid-thermal interaction in rock that can be approximated by a porous media representation. Itmore »can simulate heat transport and the flow of compressed water, two-phase mixtures, and superheated steam in porous media over a temperature range of 10 to 300 degrees C. In addition, it can treat the conversion from single to two-phase flow, and vice versa. It can be used for evaluation of a near repository spatial scale and a time scale of a few years to thousands of years. The model can be used to investigate temperature and fluid pressure changes in response to thermal loading by waste materials.« less

  19. 2-Phase Fluid Flow & Heat Transport

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-03-13

    GEOTHER is a three-dimensional, geothermal reservoir simulation code. The model describes heat transport and flow of a single component, two-phase fluid in porous media. It is based on the continuity equations for steam and water, which are reduced to two nonlinear partial differential equations in which the dependent variables are fluid pressure and enthalpy. GEOTHER can be used to simulate the fluid-thermal interaction in rock that can be approximated by a porous media representation. Itmore » can simulate heat transport and the flow of compressed water, two-phase mixtures, and superheated steam in porous media over a temperature range of 10 to 300 degrees C. In addition, it can treat the conversion from single to two-phase flow, and vice versa. It can be used for evaluation of a near repository spatial scale and a time scale of a few years to thousands of years. The model can be used to investigate temperature and fluid pressure changes in response to thermal loading by waste materials.« less

  20. Study of fractionation of refrigerant blends in contact with lubricants and measurement of the solubility, density, and viscosity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavestri, R.C.; Falconi, E.A.

    1999-07-01

    The fractionation of two refrigerant blends was studied using the gas equilibrium method. The amount of fractionation was measured by maintaining a constant composition of the refrigerant gas vapor over the lubricant, which was equal in composition to the liquid refrigerant gas blend introduced into the viscometer. Specifically, the concentration of the dissolved refrigerant gas in the lubricant ranges from 0.6% to 78% by weight in the specified temperature range of {minus}25 C to 125 C and within the highest test pressure of 500 psia (3.45 MPa). The polyolester chosen for this study was a 32 ISO VG complex branched acid pentaerythritol product. Smoothed graphical data presented were obtained from individual isothermal measurements. These individual isothermal measurement temperatures detail the composition of the equilibrium gas fractionation of R-32 and R-134a in the lubricant, mixed vapor pressure, concentration of the total mixed blend as percent by weight in the lubricant and viscosity in centipoise (cP) and centistokes (cSt). The raw data are presented in a smoothed graphical form based on a fixed vapor composition.

  1. Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs State-of-the-Art Computational Fluid Dynamics Model Optimizes Fuel Rate in Blast Furnaces The blast furnace (BF) is the most widely used ironmaking process in the U.S. A major advance in BF ironmaking has been the use of pulverized coal which partially replaces metallurgi- cal coke. This results in substantial improvement in furnace effciency and thus the reductions of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. Method and apparatus for chemically altering fluids in continuous flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heath, William O. (Richland, WA); Virden, Jr., Judson W. (Richland, WA); Richardson, R. L. (West Richland, WA); Bergsman, Theresa M. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention relates to a continuous flow fluid reactor for chemically altering fluids. The reactor operates on standard frequency (50 to 60 Hz) electricity. The fluid reactor contains particles that are energized by the electricity to form a corona throughout the volume of the reactor and subsequently a non-equilibrium plasma that interacts with the fluid. Particles may form a fixed bed or a fluid bed. Electricity may be provided through electrodes or through an inductive coil. Fluids include gases containing exhaust products and organic fuels requiring oxidation.

  3. Method and apparatus for chemically altering fluids in continuous flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heath, W.O.; Virden, J.W. Jr.; Richardson, R.L.; Bergsman, T.M.

    1993-10-19

    The present invention relates to a continuous flow fluid reactor for chemically altering fluids. The reactor operates on standard frequency (50 to 60 Hz) electricity. The fluid reactor contains particles that are energized by the electricity to form a corona throughout the volume of the reactor and subsequently a non-equilibrium plasma that interacts with the fluid. Particles may form a fixed bed or a fluid bed. Electricity may be provided through electrodes or through an inductive coil. Fluids include gases containing exhaust products and organic fuels requiring oxidation. 4 figures.

  4. Computational Modeling of Fluid Flow through a Fracture in Permeable Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H

    2010-01-01

    Laminar, single-phase, finite-volume solutions to the Navier–Stokes equations of fluid flow through a fracture within permeable media have been obtained. The fracture geometry was acquired from computed tomography scans of a fracture in Berea sandstone, capturing the small-scale roughness of these natural fluid conduits. First, the roughness of the two-dimensional fracture profiles was analyzed and shown to be similar to Brownian fractal structures. The permeability and tortuosity of each fracture profile was determined from simulations of fluid flow through these geometries with impermeable fracture walls. A surrounding permeable medium, assumed to obey Darcy’s Law with permeabilities from 0.2 to 2,000 millidarcies, was then included in the analysis. A series of simulations for flows in fractured permeable rocks was performed, and the results were used to develop a relationship between the flow rate and pressure loss for fractures in porous rocks. The resulting frictionfactor, which accounts for the fracture geometric properties, is similar to the cubic law; it has the potential to be of use in discrete fracture reservoir-scale simulations of fluid flow through highly fractured geologic formations with appreciable matrix permeability. The observed fluid flow from the surrounding permeable medium to the fracture was significant when the resistance within the fracture and the medium were of the same order. An increase in the volumetric flow rate within the fracture profile increased by more than 5% was observed for flows within high permeability-fractured porous media.

  5. FLUID GEOCHEMISTRY AT THE RAFT RIVER GEOTHERMAL FIELD, IDAHO...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the fluid geochemistry in the field is spatially variable and complex, with two distinct deep geothermal fluid types (high vs. low K, Na, Cl, Ca, Li, F concentrations) and two...

  6. Can We Accurately Model Fluid Flow in Shale?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Can We Accurately Model Fluid Flow in Shale? Can We Accurately Model Fluid Flow in Shale? Print Thursday, 03 January 2013 00:00 Over 20 trillion cubic meters of natural gas are...

  7. Methods of conveying fluids and methods of sublimating solid particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M

    2013-10-01

    A heat exchanger and associated methods for sublimating solid particles therein, for conveying fluids therethrough, or both. The heat exchanger includes a chamber and a porous member having a porous wall having pores in communication with the chamber and with an interior of the porous member. A first fluid is conveyed into the porous member while a second fluid is conveyed into the porous member through the porous wall. The second fluid may form a positive flow boundary layer along the porous wall to reduce or eliminate substantial contact between the first fluid and the interior of the porous wall. The combined first and second fluids are conveyed out of the porous member. Additionally, the first fluid and the second fluid may each be conveyed into the porous member at different temperatures and may exit the porous member at substantially the same temperature.

  8. A Fluid-Inclusion Investigation Of The Tongonan Geothermal Field...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fluid-Inclusion Investigation Of The Tongonan Geothermal Field, Philippines Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A Fluid-Inclusion...

  9. Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rapier, Pascal M. (Richmond, CA)

    1982-01-01

    Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carry-over through the turbine causes corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

  10. Removing sulphur oxides from a fluid stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Torsten; Riemann, Christian; Bartling, Karsten; Rigby, Sean Taylor; Coleman, Luke James Ivor; Lail, Marty Alan

    2014-04-08

    A process for removing sulphur oxides from a fluid stream, such as flue gas, comprising: providing a non-aqueous absorption liquid containing at least one hydrophobic amine, the liquid being incompletely miscible with water; treating the fluid stream in an absorption zone with the non-aqueous absorption liquid to transfer at least part of the sulphur oxides into the non-aqueous absorption liquid and to form a sulphur oxide-hydrophobic amine-complex; causing the non-aqueous absorption liquid to be in liquid-liquid contact with an aqueous liquid whereby at least part of the sulphur oxide-hydrophobic amine-complex is hydrolyzed to release the hydrophobic amine and sulphurous hydrolysis products, and at least part of the sulphurous hydrolysis products is transferred into the aqueous liquid; separating the aqueous liquid from the non-aqueous absorption liquid. The process mitigates absorbent degradation problems caused by sulphur dioxide and oxygen in flue gas.

  11. Method and apparatus for controlling fluid flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, J.R.

    1980-06-27

    A method and apparatus for precisely controlling the rate (and hence amount) of fluid flow are given. The controlled flow rate is finely adjustable, can be extremely small (on the order of microliter-atmospheres per second), can be adjusted to zero (flow stopped), and is stable to better than 1% with time. The dead volume of the valve can be made arbitrarily small, in fact essentially zero. The valve employs no wearing mechanical parts (including springs, stems, or seals). The valve is finely adjustable, has a flow rate dynamic range of many decades, can be made compatible with any fluid, and is suitable for incorporation into an open or closed loop servo-control system.

  12. Method and device for measuring fluid flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atherton, Richard; Marinkovich, Phillip S.; Spadaro, Peter R.; Stout, J. Wilson

    1976-11-23

    This invention is a fluid flow measuring device for determining the coolant flow at the entrance to a specific nuclear reactor fuel region. The device comprises a plurality of venturis having the upstream inlet and throat pressure of each respectively manifolded together to provide one static pressure signal for each region monitored. The device provides accurate flow measurement with low pressure losses and uniform entrance and discharge flow distribution.

  13. Low-melting point heat transfer fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel (Oakland, CA); Bradshaw, Robert W. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-11-09

    A low-melting point, heat transfer fluid made of a mixture of five inorganic salts including about 29.1-33.5 mol % LiNO.sub.3, 0-3.9 mol % NaNO.sub.3, 2.4-8.2 mol % KNO.sub.3, 18.6-19.9 mol % NaNO.sub.2, and 40-45.6 mol % KNO.sub.2. These compositions can have liquidus temperatures below 80.degree. C. for some compositions.

  14. Reducing mode circulating fluid bed combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Yung-Yi (Katy, TX); Sadhukhan, Pasupati (Katy, TX); Fraley, Lowell D. (Sugarland, TX); Hsiao, Keh-Hsien (Houston, TX)

    1986-01-01

    A method for combustion of sulfur-containing fuel in a circulating fluid bed combustion system wherein the fuel is burned in a primary combustion zone under reducing conditions and sulfur captured as alkaline sulfide. The reducing gas formed is oxidized to combustion gas which is then separated from solids containing alkaline sulfide. The separated solids are then oxidized and recycled to the primary combustion zone.

  15. Large-Scale Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computational Fluid Dynamics - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  16. Working Fluids: Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Working Fluids: Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Omar Abdelaziz, abdelazizoa@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National Laboratory Honeywell University of Maryland Project Summary Timeline: Start date: 01-Oct-2010 Planned end date: 30-Sep-2016 Key Milestones 1. Data analysis and reporting of supermarket system: baseline and alternative refrigerants; 12/31/2014 2. Perform initial field testing of alternative refrigerant in 3 rd party installation; 9/30/2014

  17. Acoustic energy-driven fluid pump and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janus, Michael C.; Richards, George A.; Robey, Edward H.

    1997-12-01

    Bulk fluid motion is promoted in a gaseous fluid contained within a conduit system provided with a diffuser without the need for a mean pressure differential across the conduit system. The contacting of the gaseous fluid with unsteady energy at a selected frequency and pressure amplitude induces fluid flow through the conical diffuser. The unsteady energy can be provided by pulse combustors, thermoacoustic engines, or acoustic energy generators such as acoustic speakers.

  18. Optimizing drilling performance using a selected drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judzis, Arnis; Black, Alan D.; Green, Sidney J.; Robertson, Homer A.; Bland, Ronald G.; Curry, David Alexander; Ledgerwood, III, Leroy W.

    2011-04-19

    To improve drilling performance, a drilling fluid is selected based on one or more criteria and to have at least one target characteristic. Drilling equipment is used to drill a wellbore, and the selected drilling fluid is provided into the wellbore during drilling with the drilling equipment. The at least one target characteristic of the drilling fluid includes an ability of the drilling fluid to penetrate into formation cuttings during drilling to weaken the formation cuttings.

  19. Working Fluids and Their Effect on Geothermal Turbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Program Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objective: Identify new working fluids for binary geothermal plants.

  20. Barracuda® Computational Particle Fluid Dynamics (CPFD®) Software |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Barracuda® Computational Particle Fluid Dynamics (CPFD®) Software Barracuda® Computational Particle Fluid Dynamics (CPFD®) Software Innovative Software Program Extends the Capabilities of CFD by Modeling Solid Particle Movement Invented at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in the 1950s and '60s, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a mathematical expression of the physics of the movements of fluids (liquids and gases). CFD computer software simulates real-world

  1. Specialized Materials and Fluids and Power Plants | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Specialized Materials and Fluids and Power Plants Specialized Materials and Fluids and Power Plants Below are the project presentations and respective peer review results for Specialized Materials and Fluids and Power Plants. Evaluate Thermal Spray Coatings as a Pressure Seal, Joseph A. Henfling, Sandia National Laboratories Technologies for Extracting Valuable Metals and Compounds from Geothermal Fluids, Dr. Stephen Harrison, Simbol Mining Corp. Chemical Energy Carriers (CEC) for the

  2. Technique for thermodynamic crystallization temperature of brine fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, D.E.; Hubbard, J.T.

    1983-03-01

    The application of high density solids free brine fluids has proven to be technically and economically successful in hydrocarbon completion and workover operations. The use of inorganic salts such as calcium chloride, calcium bromide, zinc bromide, and sodium bromide has contributed to the development of complex salt systems. As the density and complexity of these systems becomes more detailed, the requirement for proper fluid design becomes increasingly important. When a brine solution is cooled sufficiently, a temperature is reached where the solution will be saturated. A further decrease in temperature will result in the precipitation of salt from the solution. The temperature at which this transpires, provided no super-cooling occurs, is the crystallization point of the solution. A correctly formulated solids free brine should have the optimum crystallization point for the temperature conditions it will encounter. A recently developed semiautomatic procedure constructs a cooling curve plot of each brine tested. This cooling curve plot allows the determination of the super-cooling potential, the Thermodynamic Crystallization Temperature, and the Last Crystal To Dissolve Temperature. The device provides a permanent record of the cooling curve with repeatable accuracy, which assists in the development of error free brine formulation tables, brine density, and/or crystallization point adjustments, and brine analysis.

  3. Universal penetration test apparatus with fluid penetration sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Phillip W.; Stampfer, Joseph F.; Bradley, Orvil D.

    1999-01-01

    A universal penetration test apparatus for measuring resistance of a material to a challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a pad saturated with the challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a compression assembly for compressing the material between the pad and a compression member. The apparatus also includes a sensor mechanism for automatically detecting when the challenge fluid penetrates the material.

  4. Universal penetration test apparatus with fluid penetration sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, P.W.; Stampfer, J.F.; Bradley, O.D.

    1999-02-02

    A universal penetration test apparatus is described for measuring resistance of a material to a challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a pad saturated with the challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a compression assembly for compressing the material between the pad and a compression member. The apparatus also includes a sensor mechanism for automatically detecting when the challenge fluid penetrates the material. 23 figs.

  5. Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture Fluids | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fracture Fluids Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture Fluids PDF icon Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture Fluids More Documents & Publications Natural Gas from Shale: Questions and Answers Shale Gas Glossary Report of the Task Force on FracFocus 2.0

  6. Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda PDF icon BES Report Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow.pdf More Documents & Publications AGU SubTER Town Hall Presentation 2015 SubTER Grand Challenge Roundtable: Imaging Geophysical and Geochemical Signals in the Subsurface

  7. Use of supercritical fluid solution expansion processes for drug delivery, particle synthesis, and thin film deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hybertson, B.M.

    1992-01-01

    Properties of the gases and aerosols resulting from the expansion of supercritical fluid solutions were studied. Film deposition, particle formation, and drug delivery processes using supercritical fluids were developed. Thin films of palladium, copper, aluminum, silver, and silicon dioxide were deposited by a method called supercritical fluid transport-chemical deposition (SFT-CD). In each case, a precursor compound was dissolved in a supercritical fluid and the solution was allowed to expand through a restrictor nozzle into a reaction chamber at subcritical pressure, resulting in the formation of aerosol particles of the precursor. A chemical reaction was induced to occur at the surface of a substrate, resulting in deposition of a thin film. Micron-sized particles of aluminum fluoride and copper oxide were synthesized by a method called supercritical fluid transport-chemical formation of particles (SFT-CFP). The process was similar to that in SFT-CD, but the chemical reactions were induced to occur in the gas phase instead of at a substrate surface, resulting in the formation of fine particles. A new method of pulmonary drug delivery called supercritical fluid drug delivery (SFDD) was conceived and demonstrated. In SFDD a drug compound is dissolved in a supercritical fluid, and the solution is allowed to expand through a restrictor nozzle. The resultant aerosol is directly inhaled by a human or animal subject and the fine drug particles are deposited in the lungs. Menthol, vanillin, camphor, cholesterol, Sudan III, and Oil Blue N were used as model drug compounds for SFDD. Delivery of [alpha]-tocopherol to rat lung tissue was demonstrated, with observed increases of 80-290% above background levels.

  8. Moving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Mudunuri, Ramesh Raju; Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael; Jaiswal, Namit; Mo, Weijian

    2010-05-18

    A method for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. The method includes heating a first portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the first portion. The heat is controlled to increase a fluid injectivity of the first portion. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid is injected and/or created in the first portion to cause at least some hydrocarbons to move from a second portion of the hydrocarbon layer to a third portion of the hydrocarbon layer. The second portion is between the first portion and the third portion. The first, second, and third portions are horizontally displaced from each other. The third portion is heated from one or more heaters located in the third portion. Hydrocarbons are produced from the third portion of the formation. The hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons from the second portion of the formation.

  9. Shale gas and non-aqueous fracturing fluids: Opportunities and challenges for supercritical COâ‚‚

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Middleton, Richard S.; Carey, James William; Currier, Robert P.; Hyman, Jeffrey De'Haven; Kang, Qinjun; Karra, Satish; Jiménez-Martínez, Joaquín; Porter, Mark L.; Viswanathan, Hari S.

    2015-06-01

    Hydraulic fracturing of shale formations in the United States has led to a domestic energy boom. Currently, water is the only fracturing fluid regularly used in commercial shale oil and gas production. Industry and researchers are interested in non-aqueous working fluids due to their potential to increase production, reduce water requirements, and to minimize environmental impacts. Using a combination of new experimental and modeling data at multiple scales, we analyze the benefits and drawbacks of using COâ‚‚ as a working fluid for shale gas production. We theorize and outline potential advantages of COâ‚‚ including enhanced fracturing and fracture propagation, reduction of flow-blocking mechanisms, increased desorption of methane adsorbed in organic-rich parts of the shale, and a reduction or elimination of the deep re-injection of flow-back water that has been linked to induced seismicity and other environmental concerns. We also examine likely disadvantages including costs and safety issues associated with handling large volumes of supercritical COâ‚‚. The advantages could have a significant impact over time leading to substantially increased gas production. In addition, if COâ‚‚ proves to be an effective fracturing fluid, then shale gas formations could become a major utilization option for carbon sequestration.

  10. Shale gas and non-aqueous fracturing fluids: Opportunities and challenges for supercritical COâ‚‚

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Middleton, Richard S.; Carey, James William; Currier, Robert P.; Hyman, Jeffrey De'Haven; Kang, Qinjun; Karra, Satish; Jiménez-Martínez, Joaquín; Porter, Mark L.; Viswanathan, Hari S.

    2015-06-01

    Hydraulic fracturing of shale formations in the United States has led to a domestic energy boom. Currently, water is the only fracturing fluid regularly used in commercial shale oil and gas production. Industry and researchers are interested in non-aqueous working fluids due to their potential to increase production, reduce water requirements, and to minimize environmental impacts. Using a combination of new experimental and modeling data at multiple scales, we analyze the benefits and drawbacks of using CO₂ as a working fluid for shale gas production. We theorize and outline potential advantages of CO₂ including enhanced fracturing and fracture propagation, reductionmore » of flow-blocking mechanisms, increased desorption of methane adsorbed in organic-rich parts of the shale, and a reduction or elimination of the deep re-injection of flow-back water that has been linked to induced seismicity and other environmental concerns. We also examine likely disadvantages including costs and safety issues associated with handling large volumes of supercritical CO₂. The advantages could have a significant impact over time leading to substantially increased gas production. In addition, if CO₂ proves to be an effective fracturing fluid, then shale gas formations could become a major utilization option for carbon sequestration.« less

  11. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management - Combining Fluid Loops in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles have increased vehicle thermal management complexity, using separate coolant loop for advanced power electronics and electric motors. Additional thermal components result in higher costs. Multiple cooling loops lead to reduced range due to increased weight. Energy is required to meet thermal requirements. This presentation for the 2013 Annual Merit Review discusses integrated vehicle thermal management by combining fluid loops in electric drive vehicles.

  12. Solid catalyzed isoparaffin alkylation at supercritical fluid and near-supercritical fluid conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fox, Robert V. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved method for the alkylation reaction of isoparaffins with olefins over solid catalysts including contacting a mixture of an isoparaffin, an olefin and a phase-modifying material with a solid acid catalyst member under alkylation conversion conditions at either supercritical fluid, or near-supercritical fluid conditions, at a temperature and a pressure relative to the critical temperature(T.sub.c) and the critical pressure(P.sub.c) of the reaction mixture. The phase-modifying phase-modifying material is employed to promote the reaction's achievement of either a supercritical fluid state or a near-supercritical state while simultaneously allowing for decreased reaction temperature and longer catalyst life.

  13. Controlled differential pressure system for an enhanced fluid blending apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis (Knoxville, TN)

    2009-02-24

    A system and method for producing a controlled blend of two or more fluids. Thermally-induced permeation through a permeable tube is used to mix a first fluid from outside the tube with a second fluid flowing through the tube. Mixture ratios may be controlled by adjusting the temperature of the first fluid or by adjusting the pressure drop through the permeable tube. The combination of a back pressure control valve and a differential regulator is used to control the output pressure of the blended fluid. The combination of the back pressure control valve and differential regulator provides superior flow control of the second dry gas. A valve manifold system may be used to mix multiple fluids, and to adjust the volume of blended fluid produced, and to further modify the mixture ratio.

  14. Well fluid isolation and sample apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schalla, Ronald; Smith, Ronald M.; Hall, Stephen H.; Smart, John E.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention specifically permits purging and/or sampling of a well but only removing, at most, about 25% of the fluid volume compared to conventional methods and, at a minimum, removing none of the fluid volume from the well. The invention is an isolation assembly that is inserted into the well. The isolation assembly is designed so that only a volume of fluid between the outside diameter of the isolation assembly and the inside diameter of the well over a fluid column height from the bottom of the well to the top of the active portion (lower annulus) is removed. A seal may be positioned above the active portion thereby sealing the well and preventing any mixing or contamination of inlet fluid with fluid above the packer. Purged well fluid is stored in a riser above the packer. Ports in the wall of the isolation assembly permit purging and sampling of the lower annulus along the height of the active portion.

  15. Conductor for a fluid-cooled winding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kenney, Walter J. (Clinton, TN)

    1983-01-01

    A conductor and method of making the conductor are provided for use in winding electrical coils which are cooled by a fluid communicating with the conductor. The conductor is cold worked through twisting and reshaping steps to form a generally rectangular cross section conductor having a plurality of helical cooling grooves extending axially of the conductor. The conductor configuration makes it suitable for a wide variety of winding applications and permits the use of simple strip insulation between turns and perforated sheet insulation between layers of the winding.

  16. Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publication List For The Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport (FIRST) Energy Frontier Research Center * = Solely Supported by the FIRST Center ** = Not Solely Supported by the FIRST Center *Achtyl, J.L.; Unocic, R.R.; Xu, L.; Yu, C.; Raju, M.; Zhang, W.; Sacci, R.L.; Vlassiouk, I.V.; Fulvio P.F.; Ganesh, P.; Wesolowski, D.J.; Dai, S.; van Duin, A.C.T.; Neurock, M.; Geiger, F.M. Aqueous Proton Transfer across Single Layer Graphene. Nat. Comm. 2015, 6, 6539, [10.1038/ncomms7539]. *

  17. Automated fluid analysis apparatus and techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szecsody, James E.

    2004-03-16

    An automated device that couples a pair of differently sized sample loops with a syringe pump and a source of degassed water. A fluid sample is mounted at an inlet port and delivered to the sample loops. A selected sample from the sample loops is diluted in the syringe pump with the degassed water and fed to a flow through detector for analysis. The sample inlet is also directly connected to the syringe pump to selectively perform analysis without dilution. The device is airtight and used to detect oxygen-sensitive species, such as dithionite in groundwater following a remedial injection to treat soil contamination.

  18. Modular power converter having fluid cooled support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Meyer, Andreas A.; Gollhardt, Neil; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2005-09-06

    A support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support, in conjunction with other packaging features may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  19. Modular power converter having fluid cooled support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Meyer, Andreas A.; Gollhardt, Neil; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2005-12-06

    A support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support, in conjunction with other packaging features may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  20. Requesting an Increase in Allocation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home For Users Accounts & Allocations Allocations Request More Time Requesting an Increase in Allocation If your project runs out of MPP time the project PI or its...

  1. Increasing Our Nation's Energy Surety

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... demonstration will integrate a higher number of critical mission loads, a more complex generation portfolio, and increased demand-response capabilities than the previous one. ...

  2. Channelized fluid flow through shear zones during fluid-enhanced dynamic recrystallization, Northern Apennines, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, K.E.; Dworkin, S.I. )

    1990-08-01

    Geochemical and petrographic studies of the Triassic Portoro limestone of the Tuscan nappe in Liguria, Italy, indicate that fluid flow was channeled through interlayered bedding-parallel shear zones during Miocene shearing and low-grade metamorphism. Carbon, oxygen, and strontium isotopic compositions and trace element concentrations in the Portoro indicate that it was precipitated from normal marine waters. In sheared and unsheared layers these isotopic compositions are indistinguishable, yet sheared layers of microspar contain less than half the amount of strontium preserved in undeformed layers. Wavy grain boundaries and a dimensional preferred orientation of elongated grains indicate that calcite within sheared zones was dynamically recrystallized. On the basis of these observations we suggest that during burial, extraformational fluids were buffered into oxygen isotopic, but not strontium-concentration, equilibrium with the Portoro. These syndeformational fluids were channeled through discrete 1- to 15-cm-thick shear zones in which strontium was expelled from calcite and incorporated into grain-boundary fluids during dynamic recrystallization.

  3. Methods for separating a fluid, and devices capable of separating a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E; Humble, Paul H; Caldwell, Dustin D

    2013-05-14

    Methods and apparatus for separating fluids are disclosed. We have discovered that, surprisingly, providing an open pore structure between a wick and an open flow channel resulted in superior separation performance. A novel and compact integrated device components for conducting separations are also described.

  4. Environmentally Friendly, Rheoreversible, Hydraulic-fracturing Fluids for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Hongbo; Kabilan, Senthil; Stephens, Sean A.; Suresh, Niraj; Beck, Anthon NR; Varga, Tamas; Martin, Paul F.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Jung, Hun Bok; Um, Wooyong; Bonneville, Alain; Heldebrant, David J.; Carroll, KC; Moore, Joseph; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2015-07-01

    Cost-effective creation of high-permeability reservoirs inside deep crystalline bedrock is the primary challenge for the feasibility of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). Current reservoir stimulation entails adverse environmental impacts and substantial economic costs due to the utilization of large volumes of water “doped” with chemicals including rheology modifiers, scale and corrosion inhibitors, biocides, friction reducers among others where, typically, little or no information of composition and toxicity is disclosed. An environmentally benign, CO2-activated, rheoreversible fracturing fluid has recently been developed that significantly enhances rock permeability at effective stress significantly lower than current technology. We evaluate the potential of this novel fracturing fluid for application on geothermal sites under different chemical and geomechanical conditions, by performing laboratory-scale fracturing experiments with different rock sources under different confining pressures, temperatures, and pH environments. The results demonstrate that CO2-reactive aqueous solutions of environmentally amenable Polyallylamine (PAA) represent a highly versatile fracturing fluid technology. This fracturing fluid creates/propagates fracture networks through highly impermeable crystalline rock at significantly lower effective stress as compared to control experiments where no PAA was present, and permeability enhancement was significantly increased for PAA compared to conventional hydraulic fracturing controls. This was evident in all experiments, including variable rock source/type, operation pressure and temperature (over the entire range for EGS applications), as well as over a wide range of formation-water pH values. This versatile novel fracturing fluid technology represents a great alternative to industrially available fracturing fluids for cost-effective and competitive geothermal energy production.

  5. Thermodynamic Model for Fluid-Fluid Interfacial Areas in Porous Media for Arbitrary Drainage-Imbibition Sequences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroth, Martin H.; Oostrom, Mart; Dobson, Richard; Zeyer, Josef

    2008-08-01

    Fluid/fluid interfacial areas are important in controlling the rate of mass and energy transfer between fluid phases in porous media. We present a modified thermodynamically based model (TBM) to predict fluid/fluid interfacial areas in porous media for arbitrary drainage/imbibition sequences. The TBM explicitly distinguishes between interfacial areas associated with continuous (free) and isolated (entrapped) nonwetting fluids. The model is restricted to two-fluid systems in which (1) no significant conversion of mechanical work into heat occurs, (2) the wetting fluid completely wets the porous medium’s solid surfaces, and (3) no changes in interfacial area due to mass transfer between phases occur. We show example calculations for two different drainage/imbibition sequences in two porous media: a highly uniform silica sand and a well-graded silt. The TBM’s predictions for interfacial area associated with free nonwetting-fluid are identical to those of a previously published geometry-based model (GBM). However, predictions for interfacial area associated with entrapped nonwetting-fluid are consistently larger in the TBM than in the GBM. Although a comparison of model predictions with experimental data is currently only possible to a limited extent, good general agreement was found for the TBM. As required model parameters are commonly used as inputs for or tracked during multifluid-flow simulations, the modified TBM may be easily incorporated in numerical codes.

  6. Piston-Driven Fluid Ejectors In Silicon Mems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galambos, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Benavides, Gilbert L. (Los Ranchos, NM); Jokiel, Jr., Bernhard (Albuquerque, NM); Jakubczak II, Jerome F. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2005-05-03

    A surface-micromachined fluid-ejection apparatus is disclosed which utilizes a piston to provide for the ejection of jets or drops of a fluid (e.g. for ink-jet printing). The piston, which is located at least partially inside a fluid reservoir, is moveable into a cylindrical fluid-ejection chamber connected to the reservoir by a microelectromechanical (MEM) actuator which is located outside the reservoir. In this way, the reservoir and fluid-ejection chamber can be maintained as electric-field-free regions thereby allowing the apparatus to be used with fluids that are electrically conductive or which may react or break down in the presence of a high electric field. The MEM actuator can comprise either an electrostatic actuator or a thermal actuator.

  7. The cylindrical magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability for viscous fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambers, K.; Forbes, L. K.

    2012-10-15

    This paper considers a cylindrical Rayleigh-Taylor instability, in which a heavy fluid surrounds a light fluid, and gravity is directed radially inwards. A massive object is located at the centre of the light fluid, and it behaves like a line dipole both for fluid flow and magnetic field strength. The initially circular interface between the two conducting fluids evolves into plumes, dependent on the magnetic and fluid dipole strengths and the nature of the initial disturbance to the interface. A spectral method is presented to solve the time-dependent interface shapes, and results are presented and discussed. Bipolar solutions are possible, and these are of particular relevance to astrophysics. The solutions obtained resemble structures of some HII regions and nebulae.

  8. Fluid flow plate for decreased density of fuel cell assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vitale, Nicholas G. (Albany, NY)

    1999-01-01

    A fluid flow plate includes first and second outward faces. Each of the outward faces has a flow channel thereon for carrying respective fluid. At least one of the fluids serves as reactant fluid for a fuel cell of a fuel cell assembly. One or more pockets are formed between the first and second outward faces for decreasing density of the fluid flow plate. A given flow channel can include one or more end sections and an intermediate section. An interposed member can be positioned between the outward faces at an interface between an intermediate section, of one of the outward faces, and an end section, of that outward face. The interposed member can serve to isolate the reactant fluid from the opposing outward face. The intermediate section(s) of flow channel(s) on an outward face are preferably formed as a folded expanse.

  9. Fluid flow plate for decreased density of fuel cell assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitale, N.G.

    1999-11-09

    A fluid flow plate includes first and second outward faces. Each of the outward faces has a flow channel thereon for carrying respective fluid. At least one of the fluids serves as reactant fluid for a fuel cell of a fuel cell assembly. One or more pockets are formed between the first and second outward faces for decreasing density of the fluid flow plate. A given flow channel can include one or more end sections and an intermediate section. An interposed member can be positioned between the outward faces at an interface between an intermediate section, of one of the outward faces, and an end section, of that outward face. The interposed member can serve to isolate the reactant fluid from the opposing outward face. The intermediate section(s) of flow channel(s) on an outward face are preferably formed as a folded expanse.

  10. Solid Catalyzed Isoparaffin Alkylation at Supercritical Fluid and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Near-Supercritical Fluid Conditions - Energy Innovation Portal Startup America Startup America Find More Like This Return to Search Solid Catalyzed Isoparaffin Alkylation at Supercritical Fluid and Near-Supercritical Fluid Conditions Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary INL has developed a solid catalyst process for the alkylation reaction of isoparaffins with olefins over solid catalysts. The process includes contacting a mixture of an

  11. Geothermal Produced Fluids: Characteristics, Treatment Technologies, and Management Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finster, Molly; Clark, Corrie; Schroeder, Jenna; Martino, Louis

    2015-10-01

    Geothermal power plants use geothermal fluids as a resource and create waste residuals as part of the power generation process. Both the geofluid resource and the waste stream are considered produced fluids. The chemical and physical nature of produced fluids can have a major impact on the geothermal power industry and can influence the feasibility of geothermal power development, exploration approaches, power plant design, operating practices, and the reuse or disposal of residuals. In general, produced fluids include anything that comes out of a geothermal field and that subsequently must be managed on the surface. These fluids vary greatly depending on the geothermal reservoir being harnessed, power plant design, and the life cycle stage in which the fluid exists, but generally include water and fluids used to drill geothermal wells, fluids used to stimulate wells in enhanced geothermal systems, and makeup and/or cooling water used during operation of a geothermal power plant. Additional geothermal-related produced fluids include many substances that are similar to waste streams from the oil and gas industry, such as scale, flash tank solids, precipitated solids from brine treatment, hydrogen sulfide, and cooling-tower-related waste. This review paper aims to provide baseline knowledge on specific technologies and technology areas associated with geothermal power production. Specifically, this research focused on the management techniques related to fluids produced and used during the operational stage of a geothermal power plant; the vast majority of which are employed in the generation of electricity. The general characteristics of produced fluids are discussed. Constituents of interest that tend to drive the selection of treatment technologies are described, including total dissolved solids, noncondensable gases, scale and corrosion, silicon dioxide, metal sulfides, calcium carbonate, corrosion, metals, and naturally occurring radioactive material. Management options for produced fluids that require additional treatment for these constituents are also discussed, including surface disposal, reuse and recycle, agricultural industrial and domestic uses, mineral extraction and recovery, and solid waste handling.

  12. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2003-02-10

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity.

  13. High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids This fact sheet describes a UCLA-led solar project to investigate high operating temperature liquid metal heat transfer fluids, funded by the SunShot initiative. The project team is using a combination of modeling along with a variety of property measurement and validation studies to demonstrate that the metal alloys identified can meet all the needs of a

  14. Characterization of fluid distributions in porous media by NMR techniques

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Characterization of fluid distributions in porous media by NMR techniques Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Characterization of fluid distributions in porous media by NMR techniques The characterization of pore structures and fluid phase distributions in porous media is of fundamental importance for accurate evaluation of reservoir resources and petroleum recovery as well as for environmental remediation and many chemical engineering processes.

  15. Preparation, Injection and Combustion of Supercritical Fluids | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Preparation, Injection and Combustion of Supercritical Fluids Preparation, Injection and Combustion of Supercritical Fluids This project shows the conceptual design of diesel fuel-EGR flow from sub- to super-critical conditions of 394 degrees C and 229 bar. PDF icon deer09_anitescu.pdf More Documents & Publications Volatility of Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical Fuel Injection Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced

  16. Fracture Network and Fluid Flow Imaging for EGS Applications from

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multi-Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Structure | Department of Energy Network and Fluid Flow Imaging for EGS Applications from Multi-Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Structure Fracture Network and Fluid Flow Imaging for EGS Applications from Multi-Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Structure Fracture Network and Fluid Flow Imaging for EGS Applications from Multi-Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Structure presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. PDF

  17. Educating Consumers: New Content on Diesel Vehicles, Diesel Exhaust Fluid,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Selective Catalytic Reduction Technologies on the AFDC | Department of Energy Educating Consumers: New Content on Diesel Vehicles, Diesel Exhaust Fluid, and Selective Catalytic Reduction Technologies on the AFDC Educating Consumers: New Content on Diesel Vehicles, Diesel Exhaust Fluid, and Selective Catalytic Reduction Technologies on the AFDC Showcases new content added to the AFDC including: Diesel Vehicles, Diesel Exhaust Fluid, Selective Catalytic Reduction Technologies, and an

  18. System for Dispensing a Precise Amount of Fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA); Visuri, Steven R. (Livermore, CA); Dzenitis, John M. (Danville, CA); Ness, Kevin D. (Mountain View, CA)

    2008-08-12

    A dispensing system delivers a precise amount of fluid for biological or chemical processing and/or analysis. Dispensing means moves the fluid. The dispensing means is operated by a pneumatic force. Connection means delivers the fluid to the desired location. An actuator means provides the pneumatic force to the dispensing means. Valving means transmits the pneumatic force from the actuator means to the dispensing means.

  19. Low-melting point heat transfer fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cordaro, Joseph G. (Oakland, CA); Bradshaw, Robert W. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-04-12

    A low-melting point, heat transfer fluid comprising a mixture of LiNO.sub.3, NaNO.sub.3, KNO.sub.3, NaNO.sub.2 and KNO.sub.2 salts where the Li, Na and K cations are present in amounts of about 20-33.5 mol % Li, about 18.6-40 mol % Na, and about 40-50.3 mol % K and where the nitrate and nitrite anions are present in amounts of about 36-50 mol % NO.sub.3, and about 50-62.5 mol % NO.sub.2. These compositions can have liquidus temperatures between 70.degree. C. and 80.degree. C. for some compositions.

  20. Immobilized fluid membranes for gas separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Wei; Canfield, Nathan L; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xiaohong Shari; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-03-18

    Provided herein are immobilized liquid membranes for gas separation, methods of preparing such membranes and uses thereof. In one example, the immobilized membrane includes a porous metallic host matrix and an immobilized liquid fluid (such as a silicone oil) that is immobilized within one or more pores included within the porous metallic host matrix. The immobilized liquid membrane is capable of selective permeation of one type of molecule (such as oxygen) over another type of molecule (such as water). In some examples, the selective membrane is incorporated into a device to supply oxygen from ambient air to the device for electrochemical reactions, and at the same time, to block water penetration and electrolyte loss from the device.

  1. Acoustic sand detector for fluid flowstreams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beattie, Alan G. (Corrales, NM); Bohon, W. Mark (Frisco, TX)

    1993-01-01

    The particle volume and particle mass production rate of particulate solids entrained in fluid flowstreams such as formation sand or fracture proppant entrained in oil and gas production flowstreams is determined by a system having a metal probe interposed in a flow conduit for transmitting acoustic emissions created by particles impacting the probe to a sensor and signal processing circuit which produces discrete signals related to the impact of each of the particles striking the probe. The volume or mass flow rate of particulates is determined from making an initial particle size distribution and particle energy distribution and comparing the initial energy distribution and/or the initial size distribution with values related to the impact energies of a predetermined number of recorded impacts. The comparison is also used to recalibrate the system to compensate for changes in flow velocity.

  2. Thermally matched fluid cooled power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Kannenberg, Daniel G.; Kaishian, Steven C.; Beihoff, Bruce C.

    2005-06-21

    A thermal support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. Power electronic circuits are thermally matched, such as between component layers and between the circuits and the support. The support may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  3. Power converter having improved fluid cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Andreas A.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Beihoff, Bruce C.; Kehl, Dennis L.; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2007-03-06

    A thermal support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support, which may be controlled in a closed-loop manner. Interfacing between circuits, circuit mounting structure, and the support provide for greatly enhanced cooling. The support may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  4. Molecular theory of fluid thermal properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, K.P.; Zhang, S.; White, J.A.

    1993-04-01

    A recently developed renormalization group theory of condensable gases that takes into account short range attractive intermolecular forces is successful in describing the thermal properties of real fluids both at the critical point and in a large adjoining neighborhood. The theory has been tested for a variety of models, and for real gases such as argon and ethane. In its simplest form, the theory employs three free parameters - attraction constant a, hard core volume b, and cohesion volume c of the molecules. These parameters can be calculated from the theory and the authors have done so using Lennard-Jones and Yukawa potentials with hard cores. A brief review of the theory will be presented and results discussed.

  5. Residential heating oil price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 11.2 cents from a week ago to 2.91 per gallon. That's down 1.33 from a year ago, based on the...

  6. Diesel prices continue to increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices continue to increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to 3.88 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.9 cents from a week ago, based on the...

  7. Diesel prices continue to increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices continue to increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to 3.87 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.9 cents from a week ago, based on the...

  8. Diesel prices continue to increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices continue to increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to 3.92 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.2 cents from a week ago, based on the...

  9. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 12 cents from a week ago to 4.18 per gallon. That's up 13 cents from a year ago, based on the...

  10. Residential heating oil price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5, 2015 Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 14.7 cents from a week ago to 3.19 per gallon. That's down 1.06 from a year...

  11. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5, 2014 Residential heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 6.5 cents from a week ago to 4.24 per gallon. That's up 14.9 cents from a year...

  12. Diesel prices continue to increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices continue to increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to 3.98 a gallon. That's up 2.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price...

  13. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 2.9 cents from a week ago to 3.98 per gallon. That's up 6-tenths of a penny from a year ago, based...

  14. Residential heating oil price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9, 2015 Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 11.7 cents from a week ago to 3.03 per gallon. That's down 1.20 from a year...

  15. Diesel prices continue to increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices continue to increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to 3.98 a gallon on Labor Day Monday. That's up 6.8 cents from a week ago, based...

  16. Gasoline prices increase (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    gasoline prices increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to 3.69 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.2 cents from a week ago, based on the...

  17. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 5.4 cents from a week ago to 4.04 per gallon. That's up 4.9 cents from a year ago, based on the...

  18. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3, 2014 Residential heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 4.4 cents from a week ago to 4.06 per gallon. That's up 4.1 cents from a year...

  19. Diesel prices continue to increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices continue to increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to 3.90 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.6 cents from a week ago, based on the...

  20. Diesel prices continue to increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices continue to increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to 3.89 a gallon on Monday. That's up 2.4 cents from a week ago, based on the...

  1. Diesel prices slightly increase nationally

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices slightly increase nationally The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose slightly to 3.90 a gallon on Monday. That's up 4-tenths of a penny from a...

  2. Diesel prices continue to increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices continue to increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to 3.91 a gallon on Monday. That's up 7-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based...

  3. Residential heating oil price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 10.3 cents from a week ago to 3.29 per gallon. That's down 93.7 cents from a year ago, based on the...

  4. Two-fluid turbulence including electron inertia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrés, Nahuel Gómez, Daniel; Gonzalez, Carlos; Martin, Luis; Dmitruk, Pablo

    2014-12-15

    We present a full two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description for a completely ionized hydrogen plasma, retaining the effects of the Hall current, electron pressure, and electron inertia. According to this description, each plasma species introduces a new spatial scale: the ion inertial length ?{sub i} and the electron inertial length ?{sub e}, which are not present in the traditional MHD description. In the present paper, we seek for possible changes in the energy power spectrum in fully developed turbulent regimes, using numerical simulations of the two-fluid equations in two-and-a-half dimensions. We have been able to reproduce different scaling laws in different spectral ranges, as it has been observed in the solar wind for the magnetic energy spectrum. At the smallest wavenumbers where plain MHD is valid, we obtain an inertial range following a Kolmogorov k{sup ?5?3} law. For intermediate wavenumbers such that ?{sub i}{sup ?1}?k??{sub e}{sup ?1}, the spectrum is modified to a k{sup ?7?3} power-law, as has also been obtained for Hall-MHD neglecting electron inertia terms. When electron inertia is retained, a new spectral region given by k>?{sub e}{sup ?1} arises. The power spectrum for magnetic energy in this region is given by a k{sup ?11?3} power law. Finally, when the terms of electron inertia are retained, we study the self-consistent electric field. Our results are discussed and compared with those obtained in the solar wind observations and previous simulations.

  5. Methods and systems for integrating fluid dispensing technology with stereolithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Medina, Francisco (El Paso, TX); Wicker, Ryan (El Paso, TX); Palmer, Jeremy A. (Albuquerque, NM); Davis, Don W. (Albuquerque, NM); Chavez, Bart D. (Albuquerque, NM); Gallegos, Phillip L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-02-09

    An integrated system and method of integrating fluid dispensing technologies (e.g., direct-write (DW)) with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies (e.g., stereolithography (SL)) without part registration comprising: an SL apparatus and a fluid dispensing apparatus further comprising a translation mechanism adapted to translate the fluid dispensing apparatus along the Z-, Y- and Z-axes. The fluid dispensing apparatus comprises: a pressurized fluid container; a valve mechanism adapted to control the flow of fluid from the pressurized fluid container; and a dispensing nozzle adapted to deposit the fluid in a desired location. To aid in calibration, the integrated system includes a laser sensor and a mechanical switch. The method further comprises building a second part layer on top of the fluid deposits and optionally accommodating multi-layered circuitry by incorporating a connector trace. Thus, the present invention is capable of efficiently building single and multi-material SL fabricated parts embedded with complex three-dimensional circuitry using DW.

  6. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Coso Geothermal Area (1990) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date 1990 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown...

  7. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Indian Valley Hot Springs Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Details Location Indian Valley Hot Springs Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date 1990 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown...

  8. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Sierra Valley Geothermal Area (1990...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Details Location Sierra Valley Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date 1990 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown...

  9. Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processing with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method Supercritical ...

  10. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Rose Valley Geothermal Area (1990...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rose Valley Geothermal Area (1990) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Rose Valley Geothermal Area (1990)...

  11. Computational Fluid Dynamics & Large-Scale Uncertainty Quantification...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fluid Dynamics & Large-Scale Uncertainty Quantification for Wind Energy - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure ...

  12. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Coso Geothermal Area (1982) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date 1982 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis...

  13. Modeling Fluid Flow in Natural Systems, Model Validation and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modeling Fluid Flow in Natural Systems, Model Validation and Demonstration Clay and granitic units are potential host media for future repositories for used nuclear fuel. The ...

  14. Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... applied strain, hydrostatic pressure, temperature and the introduction of relevant fluids. ... nanometers to kilometers and include dislocations, cracks, fractures, joints and faults. ...

  15. Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Lightning Dock Area (Norman & Moore...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lightning Dock Area (Norman & Moore, 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Lightning Dock Area...

  16. Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Coso Geothermal Area (1996) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    that the interior of the system is still undergoing heating. References Lutz, S. J.; Moore, J. N.; Copp, J. F. (24 January 1996) Integrated mineralogical and fluid inclusion...

  17. Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Geysers Area (Moore, Et Al., 2001...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area (Moore, Et Al., 2001) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Geysers Area (Moore, Et Al., 2001)...

  18. ORGANIC SPECIES IN GEOTHERMAL WATERS IN LIGHT OF FLUID INCLUSION...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    that indicate H2 concentrations > 0.001 mol % typically have ethane > ethylene, propane > propylene, and butane > butylene. There are three end member fluid compositions:...

  19. Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Coso Geothermal Area (2003) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    that indicate H2 concentrations > 0.001 mol % typically have ethane > ethylene, propane > propylene, and butane > butylene. There are three end member fluid compositions...

  20. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity: Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area (Goff, Et Al., 1982) Exploration Activity Details Location Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs...

  1. Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area (Sasada & Goff, 1995) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Valles Caldera...

  2. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity: Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area (Goff, Et Al., 1985) Exploration Activity Details Location Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs...

  3. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Taylor & Gerlach, 1983) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Long...

  4. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Coso Geothermal Area (2007) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the coso east flank hydrothermal fluids: implications for the location and nature of the heat source Additional References Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  5. Evaluation of subsurface fracture geometry using fluid pressure...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    geometry using fluid pressure response to solid earth tidal strain Abstract The nature of solid earth tidal strain and surface load deformation due to the influence of...

  6. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Salt Wells Area (Shevenell & Garside...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    At Salt Wells Area (Shevenell & Garside, 2003) Exploration Activity Details Location Salt Wells Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date 2002 -...

  7. Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy Interpretation of New Wells in the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Stratigraphy Interpretation of New Wells in the Coso Geothermal Field Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Fluid Inclusion...

  8. Fluid-inclusion evidence for past temperature fluctuations in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the inclusion fluids range from dilute meteoric water to highly modified sea water concentrated by boiling. Comparison of measured drill-hole temperatures with...

  9. Adjoints and Large Data Sets in Computational Fluid Dynamics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oana Marin Speaker(s) Title: Postdoctoral Appointee, MCS Optimal flow control and stability analysis are some of the fields within Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) that...

  10. Monitoring and Modeling Fluid Flow in a Developing EGS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Monitoring and Modeling Fluid Flow in a Developing EGS presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  11. Mineral Recovery from Geothermal Fluids | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Metals and Compounds from Geothermal Fluids California Simbol Mining Corp. Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and DevelopmentAnalysis Albuquerque, NM,...

  12. Project Profile: Dual-Purpose Heat Transfer Fluids for CSP

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Argonne National Laboratory, under an ARRA CSP Award, is developing advanced heat transfer fluids (HTFs) by incorporating multifunctional engineered nanoparticles in heat transfer applications and thermal energy storage.

  13. Flow Of Mantle Fluids Through The Ductile Lower Crust- Helium...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ratios and active transtensional deformation indicates a deformation-enhanced permeability and that mantle fluids can penetrate the ductile lithosphere, even in regions where...

  14. Can We Accurately Model Fluid Flow in Shale?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rycroft, and Barenblatt posits a porous, fissurized matrix (I) with enough permeability to be treated by standard fluid mechanics, as well as a kerogen inclusion (II) with...

  15. Synthesis and Engineering Materials Properties of Fluid Phase...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Synthesis and Engineering Materials Properties of Fluid Phase Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials for Automotive Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synthesis ...

  16. Materials Engineering and Scale Up of Fluid Phase Chemical Hydrogen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Materials Engineering and Scale Up of Fluid Phase Chemical Hydrogen Storage for Automotive Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Materials Engineering and Scale ...

  17. Methodologies for Reservoir Characterization Using Fluid Inclusion Gas Chemistry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Methodologies for Reservoir Characterization Using Fluid Inclusion Gas Chemistry presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  18. Monitoring and Modeling Fluid Flow in a Developing Enhanced Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) Reservoir; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Monitoring and Modeling Fluid Flow in a Developing Enhanced Geothermal System ...

  19. Thermal Imaging Technique for Measuring Mixing of Fluids - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fluid flow. Current methods rely on different physical principles such as: pressure measurement, particle tracking using images, heat removal from a wire and Doppler shift...

  20. Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Geysers Geothermal Area (1990) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Area (1990) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Geysers Geothermal Area (1990) Exploration...

  1. Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Coso Geothermal Area (2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Coso Geothermal Area (2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  2. Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Chena Geothermal Area (Kolker, 2008...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chena Geothermal Area (Kolker, 2008) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Chena Geothermal Area (Kolker,...

  3. Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Salton Sea Geothermal Area (1990...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Salton Sea Geothermal Area (1990) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Salton Sea Geothermal Area (1990)...

  4. Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Yellowstone Region (Sturchio, Et...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Yellowstone Region (Sturchio, Et Al., 1990) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Yellowstone Region...

  5. Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Coso Geothermal Area (1990) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    0) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Coso Geothermal Area (1990) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  6. Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Redondo Geothermal Area (Sasada, 1988) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Valles Caldera - Redondo...

  7. Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Valles Caldera Geothermal Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Region (1990) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Valles Caldera Geothermal Region (1990)...

  8. Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Raft River Geothermal Area (2011...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Raft River Geothermal Area (2011) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Raft River Geothermal Area (2011)...

  9. Isotopic Analysis-Fluid At Raft River Geothermal Area (1982)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis-Fluid At Raft River Geothermal Area (1982) Exploration Activity Details Location Raft River...

  10. Isotopic Analysis-Fluid At Raft River Geothermal Area (1977)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis-Fluid At Raft River Geothermal Area (1977) Exploration Activity Details Location Raft River...

  11. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Interactions in the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems I. Fluid Mixing and Chemical Geothermometry Additional References Retrieved from "http:...

  12. Bio-Oil Separation and Stabilization by Supercritical Fluid Fractionation. 2014 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agblevor, Foster; Petkovic, Lucia; Bennion, Edward; Quinn, Jason; Moses, John; Newby, Deborah; Ginosar, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this project is to use supercritical fluids to separate and fractionate algal-based bio-oils into stable products that can be subsequently upgraded to produce drop-in renewable fuels. To accomplish this objective, algae was grown and thermochemically converted to bio-oils using hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), pyrolysis, and catalytic pyrolysis. The bio-oils were separated into an extract and a raffinate using near-critical propane or carbon dioxide. The fractions were then subjected to thermal aging studies to determine if the extraction process had stabilized the products. It was found that the propane extract fraction was twice as stable as the parent catalytic pyrolysis bio-oils as measured by the change in viscosity after two weeks of accelerated aging at 80°C. Further, in-situ NMR aging studies found that the propane extract was chemically more stable than the parent bio-oil. Thus the milestone of stabilizing the product was met. A preliminary design of the extraction plant was prepared. The design was based on a depot scale plant processing 20,000,000 gallons per year of bio-oil. It was estimated that the capital costs for such a plant would be $8,700,000 with an operating cost of $3,500,000 per year. On a per gallon of product cost and a 10% annual rate of return, capital costs would represent $0.06 per gallon and operating costs would amount to $0.20 per gallon. Further, it was found that the energy required to run the process represented 6.2% of the energy available in the bio-oil, meeting the milestone of less than 20%. Life cycle analysis and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission analysis found that the energy for running the critical fluid separation process and the GHG emissions were minor compared to all the inputs to the overall well to pump system. For the well to pump system boundary, energetics in biofuel conversion are typically dominated by energy demands in the growth, dewater, and thermochemical process. Bio-oil stabilization by near critical propane extraction had minimal impact in the overall energetics of the process with NER contributions of 0.03. Based on the LCA, the overall conversion pathways were found to be energy intensive with a NER of about 2.3 and 1.2 for catalytic pyrolysis and HTL, respectively. GHG emissions for the catalytic pyrolysis process were greater than that of petroleum diesel at 210 g CO2 eq compared to 18.9 g CO2 eq. Microalgae bio-oil based diesel with thermochemical conversion through HTL meets renewable fuel standards with favorable emission reductions of -10.8 g CO2 eq. The importance of the outcomes is that the critical fluid extraction and stabilization process improved product stability and did so with minimal energy inputs and processing costs. The LCA and GHG emission calculations point toward the HTL pathway as the more favorable thermochemical route towards upgrading algae to bio-fuels. Since the quality of the HTL oil was significantly lower than that of the catalytic pyrolysis bio-oil, the next steps point toward improving the quality of the HTL oils from algae biomass and focusing the critical fluid stabilization on that bio-oil product.

  13. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of coal gasification in a pressurized spout-fluid bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhongyi Deng; Rui Xiao; Baosheng Jin; He Huang; Laihong Shen; Qilei Song; Qianjun Li

    2008-05-15

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, which has recently proven to be an effective means of analysis and optimization of energy-conversion processes, has been extended to coal gasification in this paper. A 3D mathematical model has been developed to simulate the coal gasification process in a pressurized spout-fluid bed. This CFD model is composed of gas-solid hydrodynamics, coal pyrolysis, char gasification, and gas phase reaction submodels. The rates of heterogeneous reactions are determined by combining Arrhenius rate and diffusion rate. The homogeneous reactions of gas phase can be treated as secondary reactions. A comparison of the calculated and experimental data shows that most gasification performance parameters can be predicted accurately. This good agreement indicates that CFD modeling can be used for complex fluidized beds coal gasification processes. 37 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Structural cooling fluid tube for supporting a turbine component and supplying cooling fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charron, Richard; Pierce, Daniel

    2015-02-24

    A shaft cover support for a gas turbine engine is disclosed. The shaft cover support not only provides enhanced support to a shaft cover of the gas turbine engine, but also includes a cooling fluid chamber for passing fluids from a rotor air cooling supply conduit to an inner ring cooling manifold. As such, the shaft cover support accomplishes in a single component what was only partially accomplished in two components in conventional configurations. The shaft cover support may also provide additional stiffness and reduce interference of the flow from the compressor. In addition, the shaft cover support accommodates a transition section extending between compressor and turbine sections of the engine. The shaft cover support has a radially extending region that is offset from the inlet and outlet that enables the shaft cover support to surround the transition, thereby reducing the overall length of this section of the engine.

  15. Method And Apparatus For Atomizing Fluids With A Multi-Fluid Nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Vincent J. (Downers Grove, IL); Ahluwalia, Rajesh K. (Burr Ridge, IL)

    2004-12-07

    The invention relates to a method an apparatus for atomizing liquids. In particular, the present invention relates to a method and apparatus for atomizing heavy hydrocarbon fuels such as diesel, as part of a fuel reforming process. During normal operating conditions the fuel is atomized by a high pressure fluid. Under start-up conditions when only a low pressure gas is available the fuel films across part of the nozzle and is subsequently atomized by a radially directed low pressure dispersion gas.

  16. Phenylnaphthalene Derivatives as Heat Transfer Fluids for Concentrating Solar Power: Loop Experiments and Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, Joanna; Bell, Jason R; Felde, David K; Joseph III, Robert Anthony; Qualls, A L; Weaver, Samuel P

    2013-02-01

    ORNL and subcontractor Cool Energy completed an investigation of higher-temperature, organic thermal fluids for solar thermal applications. Although static thermal tests showed promising results for 1-phenylnaphthalene, loop testing at temperatures to 450 C showed that the material isomerized at a slow rate. In a loop with a temperature high enough to drive the isomerization, the higher melting point byproducts tended to condense onto cooler surfaces. So, as experienced in loop operation, eventually the internal channels of cooler components such as the waste heat rejection exchanger may become coated or clogged and loop performance will decrease. Thus, pure 1-phenylnaphthalene does not appear to be a fluid that would have a sufficiently long lifetime (years to decades) to be used in a loop at the increased temperatures of interest. Hence a decision was made not to test the ORNL fluid in the loop at Cool Energy Inc. Instead, Cool Energy tested and modeled power conversion from a moderate-temperature solar loop using coupled Stirling engines. Cool Energy analyzed data collected on third and fourth generation SolarHeart Stirling engines operating on a rooftop solar field with a lower temperature (Marlotherm) heat transfer fluid. The operating efficiencies of the Stirling engines were determined at multiple, typical solar conditions, based on data from actual cycle operation. Results highlighted the advantages of inherent thermal energy storage in the power conversion system.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF HETEROGENEITIES AT THE RESERVOIR SCALE: SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND INFLUENCE ON FLUID FLOW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael R. Gross; Kajari Ghosh; Alex K. Manda; Sumanjit Aich

    2006-05-08

    The theory behind how chemically reactive tracers are used to characterize the velocity and temperature distribution in steady flowing systems is reviewed. Kinetic parameters are established as a function of reservoir temperatures and fluid residence times for selecting appropriate reacting systems. Reactive tracer techniques are applied to characterize the temperature distribution in a laminar-flow heat exchanger. Models are developed to predict reactive tracer behavior in fractured geothermal reservoirs of fixed and increasing size.

  18. Controllable magneto-rheological fluid-based dampers for drilling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raymond, David W. (Edgewood, NM); Elsayed, Mostafa Ahmed (Youngsville, LA)

    2006-05-02

    A damping apparatus and method for a drillstring comprising a bit comprising providing to the drillstring a damping mechanism comprising magnetorheological fluid and generating an electromagnetic field affecting the magnetorheological fluid in response to changing ambient conditions encountered by the bit.

  19. Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lambirth, Gene Richard (Houston, TX)

    2011-01-11

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method includes treating a hydrocarbon containing formation. The method may include providing heat to the formation; producing heated fluid from the formation; and generating electricity from at least a portion of the heated fluid using a Kalina cycle.

  20. Apparatus and method for handling magnetic particles in a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holman, David A. (Richland, WA); Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J. (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is an apparatus and method for handling magnetic particles suspended in a fluid, relying upon the known features of a magnetic flux conductor that is permeable thereby permitting the magnetic particles and fluid to flow therethrough; and a controllable magnetic field for the handling. The present invention is an improvement wherein the magnetic flux conductor is a monolithic porous foam.