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1

Viscosity of High Energy Nuclear Fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Relativistic high energy heavy ion collision cross sections have been interpreted in terms of almost ideal liquid droplets of nuclear matter. The experimental low viscosity of these nuclear fluids have been of considerable recent quantum chromodynamic interest. The viscosity is here discussed in terms of the string fragmentation models wherein the temperature dependence of the nuclear fluid viscosity obeys the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann law.

V. Parihar; A. Widom; D. Drosdoff; Y. N. Srivastava

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

2

Non-invasive fluid density and viscosity measurement  

SciTech Connect

The noninvasively measurement of the density and viscosity of static or flowing fluids in a section of pipe such that the pipe performs as the sensing apparatus, is described. Measurement of a suitable structural vibration resonance frequency of the pipe and the width of this resonance permits the density and viscosity to be determined, respectively. The viscosity may also be measured by monitoring the decay in time of a vibration resonance in the pipe.

Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Study on Aluminum Foam with Fly Ash Increase Viscosity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

May 1, 2007 ... Study on Aluminum Foam with Fly Ash Increase Viscosity by Yong Wang, Guang- chun Yao, and Bing Li. Publisher: TMS. Product Format: PDF.

4

Drop Formation and Breakup of Low Viscosity Elastic Fluids: Effects of Molecular Weight and Concentration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dynamics of drop formation and pinch-off have been investigated for a series of low viscosity elastic fluids possessing similar shear viscosities, but differing substantially in elastic properties. On initial approach ...

Tirtaatmadja, Viyada

2007-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

5

Enhanced Remedial Amendment Delivery through Fluid Viscosity Modifications: Experiments and numerical simulations  

SciTech Connect

Abstract Heterogeneity is often encountered in subsurface contamination characterization and remediation. Low-permeability zones are typically bypassed when remedial fluids are injected into subsurface heterogeneous aquifer systems. Therefore, contaminants in the bypassed areas may not be contacted by the amendments in the remedial fluid, which may significantly prolong the remediation operations. Laboratory experiments and numerical studies have been conducted to develop the Mobility-Controlled Flood (MCF) technology for subsurface remediation and to demonstrate the capability of this technology in enhancing the remedial amendments delivery to the lower permeability zones in heterogeneous systems. Xanthan gum, a bio-polymer, was used to modify the viscosity of the amendment-containing remedial solutions. Sodium mono-phosphate and surfactant were the remedial amendment used in this work. The enhanced delivery of the amendments was demonstrated in two-dimensional (2-D) flow cell experiments, packed with heterogeneous systems. The impact of polymer concentration, fluid injection rate, and permeability contract in the heterogeneous systems has been studied. The Subsurface Transport over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator was modified to include polymer-induced shear thinning effects. Shear rates of polymer solutions were computed from pore-water velocities using a relationship proposed in the literature. Viscosity data were subsequently obtained from empirical viscosity-shear rate relationships derived from laboratory data. The experimental and simulation results clearly show that the MCF technology is capable of enhancing the delivery of remedial amendments to subsurface lower permeability zones. The enhanced delivery significantly improved the NAPL removal from these zones and the sweeping efficiency on a heterogeneous system was remarkably increased when a polymer fluid was applied. MCF technology is also able to stabilize the fluid displacing front when there is a density difference between the fluids. The modified STOMP simulator was able to predict the experimental observed fluid displacing behavior. The simulator may be used to predict the subsurface remediation performance when a shear thinning fluid is used to remediate a heterogeneous system.

Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Covert, Matthew A.

2008-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

6

Computer simulation of effective viscosity of fluid-proppant mixture used in hydraulic fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper presents results of numerical experiments performed to evaluate the effective viscosity of a fluid-proppant mixture, used in hydraulic fracturing. The results, obtained by two complimenting methods (the particle dynamics and the smoothed particle hydrodynamics), coincide to the accuracy of standard deviation. They provide an analytical equation for the dependence of effective viscosity on the proppant concentration, needed for numerical simulation of the hydraulic fracture propagation.

Kuzkin, Vitaly A; Linkov, Aleksandr M

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Cosmological model with viscosity media (dark fluid) described by an effective equation of state  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A generally parameterized equation of state (EOS) is investigated in the cosmological evolution with bulk viscosity media modelled as dark fluid, which can be regarded as a unification of dark energy and dark matter. Compared with the case of the perfect fluid, this EOS has possessed four additional parameters, which can be interpreted as the case of the non-perfect fluid with time-dependent viscosity or the model with variable cosmological constant. From this general EOS, a completely integrable dynamical equation to the scale factor is obtained with its solution explicitly given out. (i) In this parameterized model of cosmology, for a special choice of the parameters we can explain the late-time accelerating expansion universe in a new view. The early inflation, the median (relatively late time) deceleration, and the recently cosmic acceleration may be unified in a single equation. (ii) A generalized relation of the Hubble parameter scaling with the redshift is obtained for some cosmology interests. (iii) By using the SNe Ia data to fit the effective viscosity model we show that the case of matter described by $p=0$ plus with effective viscosity contributions can fit the observational gold data in an acceptable level

J. Ren; Xin He Meng

2005-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

8

Analysis of hydraulic power transduction in regenerative rotary shock absorbers as function of working fluid kinematic viscosity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This investigation seeks to investigate the relationship of kinematic fluid viscosity to the effective power transduction seen by a hydraulic motor. Applications of this research specifically relate to energy recovery from ...

Avadhany, Shakeel N

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Topical viscosity control for light hydrocarbon displacing fluids in petroleum recovery and in fracturing fluids for well stimulation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Solvent-type flooding fluids comprising light hydrocarbons in the range of ethane to hexane (and mixtures thereof) are used to displace crude oil in formations having temperatures of about 20 degrees to about 150 degrees Centigrade and pressures above about 650 psi, the light hydrocarbons having dissolved therein from about 0.05% to about 3% of an organotin compound of the formula R.sub.3 SnF where each R is independently an alkyl, aryl or alkyaryl group from 3 to 12 carbon atoms. Under the pressures and temperatures described, the organotin compounds become pentacoordinated and linked through the electronegative bridges, forming polymers within the light hydrocarbon flooding media to render them highly viscous. Under ambient conditions, the viscosity control agents will not readily be produced from the formation with either crude oil or water, since they are insoluble in the former and only sparingly soluble in the latter.

Heller, John P. (Socorro, NM); Dandge, Dileep K. (Socorro, NM)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Three-dimensional natural convection of a fluid with temperature-dependent viscosity in an enclosure with localized heating  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Three-dimensional natural convection of a fluid in an enclosure is examined. The geometry is motivated by a possible magmaenergy extraction system, and the fluid is a magma simulant and has a highly temperature-dependent viscosity. Flow simulations are performed for enclosures with and without a cylinder, which represents the extractor, using the finite-element code FIDAP (Fluid Dynamics International). The presence of the cylinder completely alters the flow pattern. Flow-visualization and PIV experiments are in qualitative agreement wit the simulations.

Torczynski, J.R.; Henderson, J.A.; O`Hern, T.J.; Chu, T.Y.; Blanchat, T.K.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

A numerical study of fluids with pressure dependent viscosity flowing through a rigid porous media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we consider modifications to Darcy's equation wherein the drag coefficient is a function of pressure, which is a realistic model for technological applications like enhanced oil recovery and geological carbon sequestration. We first outline the approximations behind Darcy's equation and the modifications that we propose to Darcy's equation, and derive the governing equations through a systematic approach using mixture theory. We then propose a stabilized mixed finite element formulation for the modified Darcy's equation. To solve the resulting nonlinear equations we present a solution procedure based on the consistent Newton-Raphson method. We solve representative test problems to illustrate the performance of the proposed stabilized formulation. One of the objectives of this paper is also to show that the dependence of viscosity on the pressure can have a significant effect both on the qualitative and quantitative nature of the solution.

Nakshatrala, K B

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Viscosity measuring using microcantilevers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the measurement of the viscosity of a fluid uses a micromachined cantilever mounted on a moveable base. As the base is rastered while in contact with the fluid, the deflection of the cantilever is measured and the viscosity determined by comparison with standards.

Oden, Patrick Ian (Plano, TX)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Aging, rejuvenation and thixotropy in complex fluids. Time-dependence of the viscosity at rest and under constant shear rate or shear stress  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Complex fluids exhibit time-dependent changes in viscosity that have been ascribed to both thixotropy and aging. However, there is no consensus for which phenomenon is the origin of which changes. A novel thixotropic model is defined that incorporates aging. Conditions under which viscosity changes are due to thixotropy and aging are unambiguously defined. Viscosity changes in a complex fluid during a period of rest after destructuring exhibit a bifurcation at a critical volume fraction PHIc2. For volume fractions less than PHIc2, the viscosity remains finite in the limit t => infinite. For volume fractions above critical the viscosity grows without limit, so aging occurs at rest. At constant shear rate there is no bifurcation, whereas under constant shear stress the model predicts a new bifurcation in the viscosity at a critical stress sB, identical to the yield stress sy observed under steady conditions. The divergence of the viscosity for stress s sB is best defined as aging. However, for s > sB, where the viscosity remains finite, it seems preferable to use the concepts of restructuring and destructuring, rather than aging and rejuvenation. Nevertheless, when a stress sA (sB) is applied during aging, slower aging is predicted and discussed as true rejuvenation. Plastic behaviour is predicted under steady conditions when s > sB. The Herschel-Bulkley model fits the flow curve for stresses close to sB, whereas the Bingham model gives a better fit for s >> sB. Finally, the model's predictions are shown to be consistent with experimental data from the literature for the transient behaviour of laponite gels.

Daniel Quemada

2008-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

14

Ionizing Electron Incidents as an Efficient Way to Reduce Viscosity of Heavy Petroleum Fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dependence on oil and the fact that petroleum conventional reservoirs are becoming depleted direct attentions toward unconventional-and harder to access-reservoirs. Among those, heavy and extremely heavy oil reservoirs and tar sands form a considerable portion of all petroleum resources. Conventional thermal and thermocatalytic refining methods are not affordable choices in some cases, as they demand a considerable energy investment. On the other hand, electron irradiation, as a novel technology, provides more promising results in heavy oil upgrading. Electron irradiation, as a method of delivering energy to a target molecule, ensures that most of the energy is absorbed by the molecule electronic structure. This leads to a very efficient generation of reactive species, which are capable of initiating chemical reactions. In contrast, when using thermal energy, only a small portion of the energy goes into the electronic structure of the molecule; therefore, bond rupture will result only at high energy levels. The effect of electron irradiation on different heavy petroleum fluids is investigated in this study. Radiation-induced physical and chemical changes of the fluids have been evaluated using different analytical instruments. The results show that high energy electron particles intensify the cracking of heavy hydrocarbons into lighter species. Moreover, irradiation is seen to limit any post-treatment reactions, providing products of higher stability. Depending on the characteristics of the radiolyzed fluid, irradiation may change the distribution pattern of the products, or the radiolysis process may follow the same mechanism that thermal cracking does. In addition to that, we have studied the effectiveness of different influencing variables such as reaction temperature, absorbed dose values, and additives on radiolytic reactions. More specifically, the following subjects are addressed in this study: *Radiation?induced chain reactions of heavy petroleum fluids *Complex hydrocarbon cracking mechanism *High and low temperature radiolysis *Synergetic effects of different chemical additives in radiolysis reactions *Time stability of radiation products

Alfi, Masoud

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

METHOD OF INHIBITING IRRADIATION-INDUCED VISCOSITY INCREASE OF ORGANIC FLUIDS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods of reducing radiation-induced thickening of lubricating oils are presented. A system subjected to nuclear radiation is lubricated with an oil containing iodonaphthalene, preferably in the amount of 0.5 to 16 per cent by volume. (AEC)

Denison, G.H.; Bolt, R.O.; Kent, J.W.; Christiansen, F.A.; Carroll, J.G.

1963-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

16

METHOD OF OPPOSING IRRADIATION-INDUCED VISCOSITY INCREASE IN EMPLOYMENT OF ORGANIC FLUIDS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for conducting mechanical operations necessitating the use of a lubricant in a medium operaject to reactor irradiation of 0.5 x 10/ sup 12/ to 1 x 10/sup 12/ neut rons/ cm/sup 2//sec. A thiopolyether lubricant such as 16, 19-dioxa-13, 22-dithiatetratriacontane is used. (AEC)

Balt, R.O.

1961-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

17

Hall viscosity from gauge/gravity duality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In (2+1)-dimensional systems with broken parity, there exists yet another transport coefficient, appearing at the same order as the shear viscosity in the hydrodynamic derivative expansion. In condensed matter physics, it is referred to as "Hall viscosity". We consider a simple holographic realization of a (2+1)-dimensional isotropic fluid with broken spatial parity. Using techniques of fluid/gravity correspondence, we uncover that the holographic fluid possesses a nonzero Hall viscosity, whose value only depends on the near-horizon region of the background. We also write down a Kubo's formula for the Hall viscosity. We confirm our results by directly computing the Hall viscosity using the formula.

Omid Saremi; Dam Thanh Son

2011-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

18

Viscosity of alumina nanoparticles dispersed in car engine coolant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present paper, describes our experimental results on the viscosity of the nanofluid prepared by dispersing alumina nanoparticles (car coolant. The nanofluid prepared with calculated amount of oleic acid (surfactant) was tested to be stable for more than 80 days. The viscosity of the nanofluids is measured both as a function of alumina volume fraction and temperature between 10 and 50 C. While the pure base fluid display Newtonian behavior over the measured temperature, it transforms to a non-Newtonian fluid with addition of a small amount of alumina nanoparticles. Our results show that viscosity of the nanofluid increases with increasing nanoparticle concentration and decreases with increase in temperature. Most of the frequently used classical models severely under predict the measured viscosity. Volume fraction dependence of the nanofluid viscosity, however, is predicted fairly well on the basis of a recently reported theoretical model for nanofluids that takes into account the effect of Brownian motion of nanoparticles in the nanofluid. The temperature dependence of the viscosity of engine coolant based alumina nanofluids obeys the empirical correlation of the type: log ({mu}{sub nf}) = A exp(BT), proposed earlier by Namburu et al. (author)

Kole, Madhusree; Dey, T.K. [Thermophysical Measurements Laboratory, Cryogenic Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

19

Early dissipation and viscosity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider dissipative phenomena due to the relaxation of an initial anisotropic local pressure in the fireball created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, both for the Bjorken boost-invariant case and for the azimuthally symmetric radial expansion with boost-invariance. The resulting increase of the entropy can be counterbalanced by a suitable retuning of the initial temperature. An increase of the transverse collective flow is observed. The influence of the shear viscosity on the longitudinal expansion is also studied. Viscosity reduces the cooling rate from the longitudinal work and counteracts the pressure gradients that accelerate the longitudinal flow.

Piotr Bozek

2008-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

20

Gas Viscosity at High Pressure and High Temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas viscosity is one of the gas properties that is vital to petroleum engineering. Its role in the oil and gas production and transportation is indicated by its contribution in the resistance to the flow of a fluid both in porous media and pipes. Although viscosity of some pure components such as methane, ethane, propane, butane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and binary mixtures of these components at low-intermediate pressure and temperature had been studied intensively and been understood thoroughly, very few investigations were performed on viscosity of naturally occurring gases, especially gas condensates at low-intermediate pressure and temperature, even fewer lab data were published. No gas viscosity data at high pressures and high temperatures (HPHT) is available. Therefore this gap in the oil industry still needs to be filled. Gas viscosity at HPHT becomes crucial to modern oil industry as exploration and production move to deep formation or deep water where HPHT is not uncommon. Therefore, any hydrocarbon encountered there is more gas than oil due to the chemical reaction causing oil to transfer to gas as temperature increases. We need gas viscosity to optimize production rate for production system, estimate reserves, model gas injection, design drilling fluid, and monitor gas movement in well control. Current gas viscosity correlations are derived using measured data at low-moderate pressures and temperatures, and then extrapolated to HPHT. No measured gas viscosities at HPHT are available so far. The validities of these correlations for gas viscosity at HPHT are doubted due to lack of experimental data. In this study, four types of viscometers are evaluated and their advantages and disadvantages are listed. The falling body viscometer is used to measure gas viscosity at a pressure range of 3000 to 25000 psi and a temperature range of 100 to 415 oF. Nitrogen viscosity is measured to take into account of the fact that the concentration of nonhydrocarbons increase drastically in HPHT reservoir. More nitrogen is found as we move to HPHT reservoirs. High concentration nitrogen in natural gas affects not only the heat value of natural gas, but also gas viscosity which is critical to petroleum engineering. Nitrogen is also one of common inject gases in gas injection projects, thus an accurate estimation of its viscosity is vital to analyze reservoir performance. Then methane viscosity is measured to honor that hydrocarbon in HPHT which is almost pure methane. From our experiments, we found that while the Lee-Gonzalez-Eakin correlation estimates gas viscosity at a low-moderate pressure and temperature accurately, it cannot give good match of gas viscosity at HPHT. Apparently, current correlations need to be modified to predict gas viscosity at HPHT. New correlations constructed for HPHT conditions based on our experiment data give more confidence on gas viscosity.

Ling, Kegang

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid viscosity increases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Cutting Fluids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 6   Cutting fluids for aluminum...Table 6 Cutting fluids for aluminum Type of lubricant Principal ingredients Viscosity range Application; maintenance Relative effectiveness Necessary precautions Mineral oils (fatty-additive type preferred) Mineral oil, lard, or neats-foot oil; oleic acid

22

Evaluation of saponite and saponite/sepiolite fluids for geothermal drilling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The rheology and other properties of drilling fluids containing saponite and a saponite-sepiolite mixture as the main vicosifier have been systematically evaluated in the temperature range of 300-600{degree}F under appropriate confining pressures up to 16,000 psi. Saponite represents the magnesium analog of the clay mineral montmorillonite, which is the main constituent in conventional bentonite-based fluids. The fluid with 6% saponite exhibits a prominent viscosity enhancement at temperatures above 250{degree}F. This viscosity enhancement is easily controlled by salts and hydroxides of Na and K. The addition of Na-polyacrylates (low- and high-molecular weight polymers) eliminates the viscosity anomaly of pure saponite fluids. These polymers also increase the filtration control of saponite. The anomalous viscosity enhancement of saponite is significantly reduced by the addition of sepiolite (a clay mineral with a fibrous morphology). 12 refs., 31 figs., 26 tabs.

Guven, N.; Panfil, D.J.; Carney, L.L. (Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (USA). Dept. of Geosciences)

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Bulk viscosity in nuclear and quark matter: A short review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The history and recent progresses in the study of bulk viscosity in nuclear and quark matter are reviewed. The constraints from baryon number conservation and electric neutrality in quark matter on particle densities and fluid velocity divergences are discussed.

Hui Dong; Nan Su; Qun Wang

2007-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

24

Factors affecting viscosity changes in corn  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Corn meals with known differences were tested using the Rapid Visco Analyzer. Various tests included the effect of solid concentration, effect of heating rate, effect of particle size, effect of Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and effect of heating rate, holding temperature and CMC. Differences were found to exist between meals from different crop years which were not attributable to particle size. When tested at 13, 15 and 17% solids, new meal consistently developed viscosity earliest. Aged meal consistently developed the least amount of viscosity. At 17% solids, a distinct peak was formed by new meal. When heated at various heating rate (2, 7 and 14'C/min), the slowest heating rate developed a distinct peak. New meal consistently developed viscosity earliest. Aged meal developed the least amount of viscosity. As particle size decreased, viscosity increased. The addition of various amounts of CMC showed significant differences in viscosity at 95'C. CMC changed the order of highest viscosity and masked differences in peak time. When testing heating rate, holding time and addition of CMC, 95'C was found to develop viscosity to a greater degree than 70'C. Holding temperature did not have a significant effect and CMC masked differences between samples and produced unusual curves. Whole and decorticated corns were stored for various lengths of time at 60, 50, 22 and 6'C. Density decreased over time when stored at elevated temperatures. Hardness values increased, indicating a softer grain. However, this is more likely an indicator of brittleness. Decorticated grains developed higher viscosity. Pericarp acts as a diluent. Peak temperature increased with storage at elevated temperature. Density, hardness, peak viscosity and peak temperature were found to be the most significant indicators measured.

McGill, Kendra Louise

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Apparatus and method for measuring viscosity  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for measuring the viscosity of a fluid. This apparatus and method is particularly useful for the measurement of the viscosity of a liquid in a harsh environment characterized by high temperature and the presence of corrosive or deleterious gases and vapors which adversely affect conventional ball or roller bearings. The apparatus and method of the present invention employ one or more flexural or torsional bearings to suspend a bob capable of limited angular motion within a rotatable sleeve suspended from a stationary frame.

Murphy, Jr., Robert J. (Bellaire, TX)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Bulk viscosity in quasi particle models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss transport properties of dynamical fluid composed of quasi-particles whose masses depend on temperature and charge chemical potentials. Based on the relativistic kinetic theory formulated under the relaxation time approximation, we derive a general expression for the bulk viscosity in the quasi-particle medium. We show that dynamically generated particle masses imply an essential modification of the fluid compressibility. As an application of our results we consider a class of quasi-particle models with the chiral phase transition belonging to O(4) and Z(2) universality class. Based on the Ginzburg-Landau and the scaling theory we study the critical properties of the bulk viscosity zeta near the phase transition. We show that under the relaxation time approximation the zeta is not expected to show singular behavior near the O(4) and Z(2) critical point through static critical exponents.

Sasaki, C

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Bulk viscosity in quasi particle models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss transport properties of dynamical fluid composed of quasi-particles whose masses depend on temperature and charge chemical potentials. Based on the relativistic kinetic theory formulated under the relaxation time approximation, we derive a general expression for the bulk viscosity in the quasi-particle medium. We show that dynamically generated particle masses imply an essential modification of the fluid compressibility. As an application of our results we consider a class of quasi-particle models with the chiral phase transition belonging to O(4) and Z(2) universality class. Based on the Ginzburg-Landau and the scaling theory we study the critical properties of the bulk viscosity zeta near the phase transition. We show that under the relaxation time approximation the zeta is not expected to show singular behavior near the O(4) and Z(2) critical point through static critical exponents.

C. Sasaki; K. Redlich

2008-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

28

Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation of shear viscosity by a uniform momentum source-and-sink scheme  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A uniform momentum source-and-sink scheme of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) is developed to calculate the shear viscosity of fluids in this paper. The uniform momentum source and sink are realized by momentum exchanges of individual atoms in ... Keywords: Molecular fluid, Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics, Shear viscosity, Uniform source-and-sink scheme

Bing-Yang Cao; Ruo-Yu Dong

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Viscosity of aqueous and cyanate ester suspensions containing alumina nanoparticles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The viscosities of both aqueous and cyanate ester monomer (BECy) based suspensions of alumina nanoparticle were studied. The applications for these suspensions are different: aqueous suspensions of alumina nanoparticles are used in the production of technical ceramics made by slip casting or tape casting, and the BECy based suspensions are being developed for use in an injection-type composite repair resin. In the case of aqueous suspensions, it is advantageous to achieve a high solids content with low viscosity in order to produce a high quality product. The addition of a dispersant is useful so that higher solids content suspensions can be used with lower viscosities. For BECy suspensions, the addition of nanoparticles to the BECy resin is expected to enhance the mechanical properties of the cured composite. The addition of saccharides to aqueous suspensions leads to viscosity reduction. Through DSC measurements it was found that the saccharide molecules formed a solution with water and this resulted in lowering the melting temperature of the free water according to classic freezing point depression. Saccharides also lowered the melting temperature of the bound water, but this followed a different rule. The shear thinning and melting behaviors of the suspensions were used to develop a model based on fractal-type agglomeration. It is believed that the structure of the particle flocs in these suspensions changes with the addition of saccharides which leads to the resultant viscosity decrease. The viscosity of the BECy suspensions increased with solids content, and the viscosity increase was greater than predicted by the classical Einstein equation for dilute suspensions. Instead, the Mooney equation fits the viscosity behavior well from 0-20 vol% solids. The viscosity reduction achieved at high particle loadings by the addition of benzoic acid was also investigated by NMR. It appears that the benzoic acid interacts with the surface of the alumina particle which may be the cause of the viscosity reduction. The flow behavior of alumina particles in water and BECy is markedly different. Aqueous alumina suspensions are shear thinning at all alumina loadings and capable of 50 vol% loading before losing fluidity whereas BECy/alumina suspensions show Newtonian behavior up to 5 vol%, and above 5 vol% show shear thinning at all shear rates. Highly loaded suspensions (i.e. 20vol% alumina) exhibit shear thinning at low and moderate shear rates and shear thickening at higher shear rates. The maximum particle loading for a fluid suspension, in this case, appears to be about 20 vol%. The difference in the viscosity of these suspensions must be related to the solvent-particle interactions for each system. The reason is not exactly known, but there are some notable differences between BECy and water. Water molecules are {approx}0.28 nm in length and highly hydrogen bonded with a low viscosity (1 mPa's) whereas in the cyanate ester (BECy) system, the solvent molecule is about 1.2 nm, in the largest dimension, with surfaces of varied charge distribution throughout the molecule. The viscosity of the monomer is also reasonably low for organic polymer precursor, about 7 mPa's. Nanoparticles in water tend to agglomerate and form flocs which are broken with the shear force applied during viscosity measurement. The particle-particle interaction is very important in this system. In BECy, the particles appear to be well dispersed and not as interactive. The solvent-particle interaction appears to be most important. It is not known exactly how the alumina particles interact with the monomer, but NMR suggests hydrogen bonding. These hydrogen bonds between the particle and monomer could very well affect the viscosity. A conclusion that can be reached in this work is that the presence of hydroxyl groups on the surface of the alumina particles is significant and seems to affect the interactions between other particles and the solvent. Thus, the hydrogen bonding between particles, particle/additive and/or particle/solvent dictates the behavior of nanos

Lawler, Katherine

2009-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

30

Full Life Wind Turbine Gearbox Lubricating Fluids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Industrial gear box lubricants typically are hydrocarbon based mineral oils with considerable amounts of additives to overcome the lack of base fluid properties like wear protection, oxidation stability, load carrying capacity, low temperature solidification and drop of viscosity at higher temperatures. For today's wind turbine gearboxes, the requirements are more severe and synthetic hydrocarbon oils are used to improve on this, but all such hydrocarbon based lubricants require significant amounts of Extreme Pressure (EP) additives to meet performance requirements. Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) fluids provide load carrying capacity as an inherent property. During the course of the project with the main tasks of 'Establish a Benchmark', 'Lubricant Evaluation', 'Full Scale Gearbox Trial' and 'Economic Evaluation', the PAO Reference oil exhibited significant changes after laboratory gear testing, in service operation in the field and full scale gearbox trial. Four hydrocarbon base oils were selected for comparison in the benchmarking exercise and showed variation with respect to meeting the requirements for the laboratory micro-pitting tests, while the PFPE fluid exceeded the requirements even with the material taken after the full scale gear box trial. This is remarkable for a lubricant without EP additives. Laboratory bearing tests performed on the PFPE fluids before and after the full scale gear box trial showed the results met requirements for the industry standard. The PFPE fluid successfully completed the full scale gear box test program which included baseline and progressive staged load testing. The evaluation of gears showed no micro-pitting or objectionable wear. By the final stage, lubricant film thickness had been reduced to just 21% of its original value, this was by design and resulted in a lambda ratio of well below 1. This test design scenario of a low lambda ratio is a very undesirable lubrication condition for real world but creates the ability to test the lubricating fluids performance under the most extreme conditions. The PAO Reference oil also passed its testing without any noticeable deterioration of the gear surface. However the PAO Reference oil was replaced midway through the progressive loading, as the lubricant was burned in an attempt to raise the sump temperature to the same levels as for the PFPE. Both materials experienced a decrease of viscosity during their respective run times. The viscosity index decreased for the PAO there while there was a slight increase for the PFPE. FZG laboratory gear tests and measurements of the drive motor's current during the full scale gear box trial were made to characterize the relative efficiency between the PFPE fluid and the PAO Reference oil. In the FZG laboratory efficiency test, the PFPE fluids show much higher churning losses due to their higher viscosity and density. The analysis seems to show that the efficiency correlates better to dynamic viscosity than any other of the measured metrics such as film thickness. In load stages where the load, speed and temperature are similar, the PFPE fluid has a greater film thickness and theoretical gear protection, but requires a larger current for the drive motor than the PAO. However in load stages where the film thickness is the same, the PFPE fluid's reduced dynamic viscosity gives it a slight efficiency advantage relative to the PAO reference oil. Ultimately, many factors such as temperature, rotational speed, and fluid viscosity combine in a complex fashion to influence the results. However, the PFPE's much lower change of viscosity with respect to temperature, allows variations in designing an optimum viscosity to balance efficiency versus gear protection. Economic analysis was done using Cost of Energy calculations. The results vary from 5.3% for a 'Likely Case' to 16.8% for a 'Best Case' scenario as potential cost improvement by using PFPE as the gearbox lubricating fluid. It is important to note the largest portion of savings comes in Levelized Replacement Cost, which is dictated by the assumption on gearb

Lutz, Glenn A.; Jungk, Manfred; Bryant, Jonathan J.; Lauer, Rebecca S.; Chobot, Anthony; Mayer, Tyler; Palmer, Shane; Kauffman, Robert E.

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

31

Reference Values of Gas Viscosity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... only 0.08%. The viscosity of hydrogen, methane, and xenon will be obtained with similarly small uncertainties. The low ...

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

32

Shear viscosity of nuclear matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this talk I report my recent study on the shear viscosity of neutron-rich nuclear matter from a relaxation time approach. An isospin- and momentum-dependent interaction is used in the study. Effects of density, temperature, and isospin asymmetry of nuclear matter on its shear viscosity have been discussed. Similar to the symmetry energy, the symmetry shear viscosity is defined and its density and temperature dependence are studied.

Jun Xu

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Shear viscosity of nuclear matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this talk I report my recent study on the shear viscosity of neutron-rich nuclear matter from a relaxation time approach. An isospin- and momentum-dependent interaction is used in the study. Effects of density, temperature, and isospin asymmetry of nuclear matter on its shear viscosity have been discussed. Similar to the symmetry energy, the symmetry shear viscosity is defined and its density and temperature dependence are studied.

Xu, Jun

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

The matching of a one-dimensional numerical simulation and experiment results for low viscosity Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids during fast filament stretching and subsequent break-up  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

D modeling when com- pared with 2D modeling is a decrease in computing time of at least 2 orders of magnitude and this enables the lubrication model to effectively explore effects such as operating conditions and fluids properties [Hoeve et al. (2010... of the paper is as follows: in Sec. II, the mathematical formulation is detailed and the 1D constitutive equations derived. In addition, the fluids and the experi- mental apparatus are presented. The comparison of the model for fluid filament stretching...

Tembely, M.; Vadillo, D.; Mackley, M.R.; Soucemarianadin, A.

2012-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

35

Second law analysis for a variable viscosity plane Poiseuille flow with asymmetric convective cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A second-law analysis of a pressure-driven variable viscosity fluid flow through a channel with asymmetric convective cooling at the walls is investigated. Flow is assumed to be steady, laminar and fully-developed. The effect of heat generation due to ... Keywords: Asymmetric convective cooling, Entropy generation analysis, Poiseuille flow, Variable viscosity

O. D. Makinde; A. Aziz

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Natural convection flow over an inclined flat plate with internal heat generation and variable viscosity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present investigation deals with study of laminar natural convection flow of a viscous fluid over a semi-infinite flat plate inclined at a small angle to the horizontal with internal heat generation and variable viscosity. The dimensionless boundary ... Keywords: Heat generation, Inclined flat surface, Natural convection, Temperature dependent viscosity

S. Siddiqa; S. Asghar; M. A. Hossain

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Fracturing fluid high-temperature breaker for improving well performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oxidative breakers are currently being used in fracturing treatments to reduce polymeric gel damage in high-temperature reservoirs. Dissolved high-temperature oxidative breakers are very reactive at high temperatures (275 to 350 F), typically requiring less than 0.25 lbm/1,000 gal of fluid. Recent introduction of a new nonpersulfate oxidative high-temperature encapsulated breaker (HTEB) provides controlled degradation of the fracturing fluid polymers. Laboratory tests show viscosity reduction and delayed release of active oxidizer breaker. HTEB conductivity data show a two-fold increase in retained permeability at 300 F in a borate-crosslinked fluid system.

McConnell, B.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Post-processing of polymer foam tissue scaffolds with high power ultrasound: a route to increased pore interconnectivity, pore size and fluid transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We expose thick polymer foam tissue scaffolds to high power ultrasound and study its effect on the openness of the pore architecture and fluid transport through the scaffold. Our analysis is supported by measurements of fluid uptake during insonification and imaging of the scaffold microstructure via x-ray computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy and acoustic microscopy. The ultrasonic treatment is found to increase the mean pore size by over 10%. More striking is the improvement in fluid uptake: for scaffolds with only 40% water uptake via standard immersion techniques, we can routinely achieve full saturation of the scaffold over approximately one hour of exposure. These desirable modifications occur with no loss of scaffold integrity and negligible mass loss, and are optimized when the ultrasound treatment is coupled to a pre-wetting stage with ethanol. Our findings suggest that high power ultrasound is a highly targetted and efficient means to promote pore interconnectivity and fluid transport in...

Watson, N J; Reinwald, Y; White, L J; Ghaemmaghami, A M; Morgan, S P; Rose, F R A J; Povey, M J W; Parker, N G

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Post-processing of polymer foam tissue scaffolds with high power ultrasound: a route to increased pore interconnectivity, pore size and fluid transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We expose thick polymer foam tissue scaffolds to high power ultrasound and study its effect on the openness of the pore architecture and fluid transport through the scaffold. Our analysis is supported by measurements of fluid uptake during insonification and imaging of the scaffold microstructure via x-ray computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy and acoustic microscopy. The ultrasonic treatment is found to increase the mean pore size by over 10%. More striking is the improvement in fluid uptake: for scaffolds with only 40% water uptake via standard immersion techniques, we can routinely achieve full saturation of the scaffold over approximately one hour of exposure. These desirable modifications occur with no loss of scaffold integrity and negligible mass loss, and are optimized when the ultrasound treatment is coupled to a pre-wetting stage with ethanol. Our findings suggest that high power ultrasound is a highly targetted and efficient means to promote pore interconnectivity and fluid transport in thick foam tissue scaffolds.

N J Watson; R K Johal; Y Reinwald; L J White; A M Ghaemmaghami; S P Morgan; F R A J Rose; M J W Povey; N G Parker

2013-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

40

Physical viscosity in smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of galaxy clusters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy cluster formation carried out to date have tried to model the cosmic gas as an ideal, inviscid fluid, where only a small amount of (unwanted) numerical viscosity is present, arising from practical limitations of the numerical method employed, and with a strength that depends on numerical resolution. However, the physical viscosity of the gas in hot galaxy clusters may in fact not be negligible, suggesting that a self-consistent treatment that accounts for the internal gas friction would be more appropriate. To allow such simulations using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method, we derive a novel SPH formulation of the Navier-Stokes and general heat transfer equations and implement them in the GADGET-2 code. We include both shear and bulk viscosity stress tensors, as well as saturation criteria that limit viscous stress transport where appropriate. Adopting Braginskii's parameterization for the shear viscosity of hot gaseous plasmas, we then study the influence of viscosity on the interplay between AGN-inflated bubbles and the surrounding intracluster medium (ICM). We find that certain bubble properties like morphology, maximum clustercentric radius reached, or survival time depend quite sensitively on the assumed level of viscosity. Interestingly, the sound waves launched into the ICM by the bubble injection are damped by physical viscosity, establishing a non-local heating process. Finally, we carry out cosmological simulations of galaxy cluster formation with a viscous intracluster medium. Viscosity modifies the dynamics of mergers and the motion of substructures through the cluster atmosphere. Substructures are generally more efficiently stripped of their gas, leading to prominent long gaseous tails behind infalling massive halos. (Abridged)

Debora Sijacki; Volker Springel

2006-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid viscosity increases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF NANOPARTICLE-ENHANCED IONIC LIQUIDS HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

An experimental investigation was completed on nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids as an alternative to conventional organic based heat transfer fluids (HTFs). These nanoparticle-based HTFs have the potential to deliver higher thermal conductivity than the base fluid without a significant increase in viscosity at elevated temperatures. The effect of nanoparticle morphology and chemistry on thermophysical properties was examined. Whisker shaped nanomaterials were found to have the largest thermal conductivity temperature dependence and were also less likely to agglomerate in the base fluid than spherical shaped nanomaterials.

Fox, E.

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

42

The viscosity plate thrust bearing  

SciTech Connect

The results of tests on a viscosity plate thrust bearing indicated that serious differences existed between theoretical predictions by existing methods and experimental values. In particular the load carrying capacity at any speed and plate gap was much overestimated by calculation, and the variation of load with speed, at constant gap, appeared to be quite different in theory and experiment. While the theoretical load speed curve departed by only a small amount from linearity, the experimental curves indicated a definite flattening out at high speed, and corresponding to a given gap, a maximum load was reached and maintained independent of speed. It is the aim of this investigation to find the reason for this flattening out of the curve, and to indicate why it is not shown by the theoretical methods. The aerodynamic theory of viscosity plate bearings is considered, and taking into account as many aerodynamic effects as possible, a new method of performance prediction is developed. Results by this method agree quite well with those of existing methods, and therefore the effect which is being looked for cannot be an aerodynamic one already included in the method. Other possible explanations are considered including centrifugal action on the gas, heating up the gas due to frictional losses, a comparison of the plate gap with the mean free path of molecules of the gas, and distortion of the grooved plate under pressure load. Of these it is shown that the first three are not important, but that with the type of plate mounting used in the experiments very serious deflections of the stationary plate can be expected at high speed. At 21,000 rpm and a plate gap of 2.0 x 10/sup -4/ in. and with the theoretically predicted load, the plate deflection reaches a maximum of about five times the nominal gap and moreover varies considerably with radius and around the disc. Because of these distortions the theoretical methods discussed are not applicable to the experimental conditions and the calculated and measured results cannot be compared. It will be seen that constant plate clearance is not involved in the theories in a simple manner and a method which took into account both aerodynamic and elastic effects would be most complex. Although it has not been demonstrated that these additional elastic effects would lead to the flattening out of the calculated curves, it seems most likey that they are responsible for the discrepancies between the theoretical and experimental results. This could be most easily shown by tests on a similar bearing with the grooved plate considerably thicker to increase its stiffness. (auth)

Wordsworth, D.V.

1958-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Transmission Problem Between Two Herschel-Bulkley Fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper is devoted to the study of transmission problem between two Herschel-Bulkley fluids with different viscosities, yield limits and power law index.

Farid Messelmi

2011-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

44

Anomalous-viscosity current drive  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for maintaining a steady-state current for magnetically confining the plasma in a toroidal magnetic confinement device using anomalous viscosity current drive. A second aspect of this invention relates to an apparatus and method for the start-up of a magnetically confined toroidal plasma.

Stix, T.H.; Ono, M.

1986-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

45

Fluid turbine  

SciTech Connect

A fluid turbine designed for increased power output includes an annular housing provided with a semi-spherical dome for directing incoming fluid flow to impinge on a plurality of rotor blades within the housing fixed to a vertical output shaft. An angle on the order of between 5 to 85/sup 0/, in the direction of rotation of the shaft, exists between the upper (Leading) and lower (Trailing) edges of each blade. The blades are manufactured from a plurality of aerodynamically-shaped, radially spaced ribs covered with a skin. The leading edge of each rib is curved, while the trailing edge is straight. The straight edge of the ribs in each blade approach a vertical plane through the vertical axis of the housing output shaft as the ribs progress radially inwardly towards the output shaft. The housing has fluid exit passages in its base so that deenergized fluid can be quickly flushed from the housing by the downwardly directed flow in combination with the novel blade configuration, which acts as a screw or force multiplier, to expel deenergized fluid. The airfoil shaped ribs also provide the blades with a contour for increasing the fluid velocity on the underside of the blades adjacent the fluid exit passage to aid in expelling the deenergized air while providing the turbine with both impulse and axial-flow, fluid impingement on the blades, resulting in a force vector of increased magnitude. A downwardly directed, substantially semi-cylindrical deflector frame connected to the housing blocks the path of flow of ambient fluid to create a low pressure area beneath the base to aid in continuously drawing fluid into the housing at high velocity to impinge on the rotor blades. The increased flow velocity and force on the blades along with the enhanced removal of deenergized fluid results in increased power output of the turbine.

Lebost, B.A.

1980-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

46

Project Title: VIscosity Reduction Date:  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4t 3 4t 3 l I Project lnfonnatlon Project Title: VIscosity Reduction Date: 11-22-2010 DOE Code: 673()-()20-51141 Contractor Code: 8067-778 Project Lead: Frank Ingham Project Overview 1. The purpose of the project is to test a tool that temporarily reduces the viscosity of oil which allows it to be 1. Brief project description ~nclude pumped through pipelines easier. The test will require about 4 miles of line to pump the oil through after anything that could impact the treatment (hence the need to connect the 31oops together), a holding volume for recovery, then repeat. environmenJ] There will be tanks to hold the original volume, tanks to receive the volume after treatment and pumping 2. Legal location through the line, possible transfer between tanks, transport (trucking) of the oil to the site (by the COC) and

47

High Temperature, high pressure equation of state density correlations and viscosity correlations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global increase in oil demand and depleting reserves has derived a need to find new oil resources. To find these untapped reservoirs, oil companies are exploring various remote and harsh locations such as deep waters in Gulf of Mexico, remote arctic regions, unexplored deep deserts, etc. Further, the depth of new oil/gas wells being drilled has increased considerably to tap these new resources. With the increase in the well depth, the bottomhole temperature and pressure are also increasing to extreme values (i.e. up to 500 F and 35,000 psi). The density and viscosity of natural gas and crude oil at reservoir conditions are critical fundamental properties required for accurate assessment of the amount of recoverable petroleum within a reservoir and the modeling of the flow of these fluids within the porous media. These properties are also used to design appropriate drilling and production equipment such as blow out preventers, risers, etc. With the present state of art, there is no accurate database for these fluid properties at extreme conditions. As we have begun to expand this experimental database it has become apparent that there are neither equations of state for density or transport models for viscosity that can be used to predict these fundamental properties of multi-component hydrocarbon mixtures over a wide range of temperature and pressure. Presently, oil companies are using correlations based on lower temperature and pressure databases that exhibit an unsatisfactory predictive capability at extreme conditions (e.g. as great as {+-} 50%). From the perspective of these oil companies that are committed to safely producing these resources, accurately predicting flow rates, and assuring the integrity of the flow, the absence of an extensive experimental database at extreme conditions and models capable of predicting these properties over an extremely wide range of temperature and pressure (including extreme conditions) makes their task even more daunting.

Tapriyal, D.; Enick, R.; McHugh, M.; Gamwo, I.; Morreale, B.

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

48

Reversible shear thickening at low shear rates of electrorheological fluids under electric fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shear thickening is a phenomenon of significant viscosity increase of colloidal suspensions. While electrorheological (ER) fluids can be turned into a solid-like material by applying an electric field, their shear strength is widely represented by the attractive electrostatic interaction between ER particles. By shearing ER fluids between two concentric cylinders, we show a reversible shear thickening of ER fluids above a low critical shear rate (electric field strength (>100 V/mm), which could be characterized by a modified Mason number. Shear thickening and electrostatic particle interaction-induced inter-particle friction forces is considered to be the real origin of the high shear strength of ER fluids, while the applied electric field controls the extent of shear thickening. The electric field-controlled reversible shear thickening has implications for high-performance ER/magnetorheological (MR) fluid design, clutch fluids with high friction forces triggered by applying local electric field, other field-responsive materials and intelligent systems.

Yu Tian; Minliang Zhang; Jile Jiang; Noshir Pesika; Hongbo Zeng; Jacob Israelachvili; Yonggang Meng; Shizhu Wen

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

49

Fracturing fluids -- then and now  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fracturing fluid provides the means by which the hydraulic fracturing process can take place. All applications of well stimulation by fracturing must include selection of fracturing fluid in the initial phases of fracture design and treatment planning. Fracturing fluid has two important purposes: (1) to provide sufficient viscosity to suspend and transport proppant deep into the created fracture system and (2) to decompose, or break, chemically to a low viscosity to allow flowback of a major part of the fluid to the surface for fracture cleanup after the treatment is completed. Because of the importance of its rheological properties and behavior in the fracture under reservoir conditions during (and immediately after) the treatment, service company research laboratories have spent millions of dollars on R and D of fracturing fluids.

Jennings, A.R. Jr. [Enhanced Well Stimulation Inc., Plano, TX (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Effective viscosity of non-gravitactic Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii microswimmer suspensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Active microswimmers are known to affect the macroscopic viscosity of suspensions in a more complex manner than passive particles. For puller-like microswimmers an increase in the viscosity has been observed. It has been suggested that the persistence of the orientation of the microswimmers hinders the rotation that is normally caused by the vorticity. It was previously shown that some sorts of algaes are bottom-heavy swimmers, i.e. their centre of mass is not located in the centre of the body. In this way, the algae affects the vorticity of the flow when it is perpendicular oriented to the axis of gravity. This orientation of gravity to vorticity is given in a rheometer that is equipped with a cone-plate geometry. Here we present measurements of the viscosity both in a cone-plate and a Taylor-Couette cell. The two set-ups yielded the same increase in viscosity although the axis of gravitation in the Taylor-Couette cell is parallel to the direction of vorticity. In a complementary experiment we tested the orientation of the direction of swimming through microscopic observation of single \\textit{Chlamydomonas reinhardtii} and could not identify a preferred orientation, i. e. our specific strain of \\textit{Chlamydomonas reinhardtii} are not bottom-heavy swimmers. We thus conclude that bottom heaviness is not a prerequisite for the increase of viscosity and that the effect of gravity on the rheology of our strain of \\textit{Chlamydomonas reinhardtii} is negligible. This finding reopens the question of whether origin of persistence in the orientation of cells is actually responsible for the increased viscosity of the suspension.

Matthias Mussler; Salima Rafai; Philippe Peyla; Christian Wagner

2013-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

51

Local rheological probes for complex fluids: Application to Laponite suspensions C. Wilhelm,1,2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the fluid viscosity on the applied stress, and a dynamical yield stress which saturates with the fluid aging . Their constitutive entities are in interaction; the competition between the different energies generates structures to ensure a Stokes flow: Re uR/v 10 2 , where v is the fluid dynamic viscosity. 2 This value of corresponds

Weeks, Eric R.

52

Phantom dark energy as an effect of bulk viscosity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a homogeneous and isotropic universe bulk viscosity is the unique viscous effect capable to modify the background dynamics. Effects like shear viscosity or heat conduction can only change the evolution of the perturbations. The existence of a bulk viscous pressure in a fluid, which in order to obey to the second law of thermodynamics is negative, reduces its effective pressure. We discuss in this study the degeneracy in bulk viscous cosmologies and address the possibility that phantom dark energy cosmology could be caused by the existence of non-equilibrium pressure in any cosmic component. We establish the conditions under which either matter or radiation viscous cosmologies can be mapped into the phantom dark energy scenario with constraints from multiple observational data-sets

Hermano Velten; Jiaxin Wang; Xinhe Meng

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

53

"Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced Industrial Heat Transfer Fluids"  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced industrial Heat Transfer Fluids Improving the efficiency of Industrial Heat Exchangers offers a great opportunity to improve overall process efficiencies in diverse industries such as pharmaceutical, materials manufacturing and food processing. The higher efficiencies can come in part from improved heat transfer during both cooling and heating of the material being processed. Additionally, there is great interest in enhancing the performance and reducing the weight of heat exchangers used in automotives in order to increase fuel efficiency. The goal of the Phase I program was to develop nanoparticle containing heat transfer fluids (e.g., antifreeze, water, silicone and hydrocarbon-based oils) that are used in transportation and in the chemical industry for heating, cooling and recovering waste heat. Much work has been done to date at investigating the potential use of nanoparticle-enhanced thermal fluids to improve heat transfer in heat exchangers. In most cases the effect in a commercial heat transfer fluid has been marginal at best. In the Phase I work, we demonstrated that the thermal conductivity, and hence heat transfer, of a fluid containing nanoparticles can be dramatically increased when subjected to an external influence. The increase in thermal conductivity was significantly larger than what is predicted by commonly used thermal models for two-phase materials. Additionally, the surface of the nanoparticles was engineered so as to have a minimal influence on the viscosity of the fluid. As a result, a nanoparticle-laden fluid was successfully developed that can lead to enhanced heat transfer in both industrial and automotive heat exchangers

Dr. Ganesh Skandan; Dr. Amit Singhal; Mr. Kenneth Eberts; Mr. Damian Sobrevilla; Prof. Jerry Shan; Stephen Tse; Toby Rossmann

2008-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

54

Use of microPCM fluids as enhanced liquid coolants in automotive EV and HEV vehicles. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Proof-of-concept experiments using a specific microPCM fluid that potentially can have an impact on the thermal management of automotive EV and HEV systems have been conducted. Samples of nominally 20-micron diameter microencapsulated octacosane and glycol/water coolant were prepared for testing. The melting/freezing characteristics of the fluid, as well as the viscosity, were determined. A bench scale pumped-loop thermal system was used to determine heat transfer coefficients and wall temperatures in the source heat exchanged. Comparisons were made which illustrate the enhancements of thermal performance, reductions of pumping power, and increases of heat transfer which occur with the microPCM fluid.

Mulligan, James C.; Gould, Richard D.

2001-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

55

A viscosity counteracting approach in the lattice Boltzmann BGK model for low viscosity flow: Preliminary verification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to numerical instability, the lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) with the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) collision operator has some limitations in the simulation of low viscosity flows. In this paper, we propose a viscosity counteracting approach for simulating ... Keywords: Couette flow, Lattice Boltzmann BGK model, Lid-driven cavity flow, Poiseuille flow, Taylor-Green vortex flow, Verification, Viscosity counteracting

Yongguang Cheng; Hui Zhang

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Effect of water dissolution on oil viscosity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water dissolution in crude oil becomes significant at temperatures > 150 C, and 250 C, water solubilities in heavy crudes are [approx]40 mol%. Dissolved water acts as a low-viscosity solvent that reduces oil-phase viscosity. This phenomenon has been considered in thermal recovery simulations but has never been substantiated. In this work, the effect of water on viscosity was measured for four crude samples with gravities ranging from 0.97 to 1.03 g/cm[sup 3]. At the highest experimental temperature of 286 C, viscosities of water-saturated samples were about one-half those of water-free counterparts. The viscosity reduction, although quite significant, was not as pronounced as the drop estimated by viscosity mixing rules used for hydrocarbon systems. While a log mixing rule or a one-quarter power mixing rule overestimated viscosity effects, a mole-fraction-weighted average of oil and water viscosities matched the experimental data. A possible explanation for failure of the log mixing rule is that the water dissolved in the oil exists not as monomers but as hydrogen-bonded clusters. The authors find good agreement with experiment when the mole fraction of water clusters, calculated from a statistical mechanics based theory is used in the log mixing rule.

Giandt, C.A. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (United States)); Chapman, W.G. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States))

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Double-diffusive convection with variable viscosity from a vertical truncated cone in porous media in the presence of magnetic field and radiation effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work is focused on the study of combined heat and mass transfer or double-diffusive convection near a vertical truncated cone embedded in a fluid-saturated porous medium in the presence of thermal radiation, magnetic field and variable viscosity ... Keywords: Double diffusion, Magnetic field, Porous media, Radiation, Truncated cone, Variable viscosity

A. Mahdy; A. J. Chamkha; Yousef Baba

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

RMOTC to Test Oil Viscosity Reduction Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to Test Oil Viscosity Reduction Technology to Test Oil Viscosity Reduction Technology The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) announces that the "Teapot Dome" oil field in Wyoming is hosting a series of tests funded by STWA, Inc. ("STWA") to determine the performance of its Applied Oil Technology (AOT(tm)) in reducing crude oil's viscosity to lower transportation costs for pipeline operators. The testing is managed by RMOTC, and conducted at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3, also known as the Teapot Dome oil field. RMOTC is providing the infrastructure and technical expertise to support companies such as STWA in their efforts to validate new technologies and bring those products and

59

The Bulk Viscosity of a Pion Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compute the bulk viscosity of a gas of pions at temperatures below the QCD crossover temperature, for the physical value of pion mass, to lowest order in chiral perturbation theory. Bulk viscosity is controlled by number-changing processes which become exponentially slow at low temperatures when the pions become exponentially dilute, leading to an exponentially large bulk viscosity zeta ~ (F_0^8/m_\\pi^5) exp(2m_\\pi/T), where F_0 = 93 MeV is the pion decay constant.

Egang Lu; Guy D. Moore

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

60

Shear viscosity in the postquasistatic approximation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We apply the postquasistatic approximation, an iterative method for the evolution of self-gravitating spheres of matter, to study the evolution of anisotropic nonadiabatic radiating and dissipative distributions in general relativity. Dissipation is described by viscosity and free-streaming radiation, assuming an equation of state to model anisotropy induced by the shear viscosity. We match the interior solution, in noncomoving coordinates, with the Vaidya exterior solution. Two simple models are presented, based on the Schwarzschild and Tolman VI solutions, in the nonadiabatic and adiabatic limit. In both cases, the eventual collapse or expansion of the distribution is mainly controlled by the anisotropy induced by the viscosity.

Peralta, C.; Rosales, L.; Rodriguez-Mueller, B.; Barreto, W. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Frankfurter Str. 135, 63067 Offenbach (Germany); Laboratorio de Fisica Computacional, Universidad Experimental Politecnica 'Antonio Jose de Sucre', Puerto Ordaz (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Computational Science Research Center, College of Sciences, San Diego State University, San Diego, California (United States); Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid viscosity increases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Bulk viscosity of N=2* plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use gauge theory/string theory correspondence to study the bulk viscosity of strongly coupled, mass deformed SU(N_c) N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma, also known as N=2^* gauge theory. For a wide range of masses we confirm the bulk viscosity bound proposed in arXiv:0708.3459. For a certain choice of masses, the theory undergoes a phase transition with divergent specific heat c_V ~ |1-T_c/T|^(-1/2). We show that, although bulk viscosity rapidly grows as T -> T_c, it remains finite in the vicinity of the critical point.

Alex Buchel; Chris Pagnutti

2008-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

62

Heat Transfer in Complex Fluids  

SciTech Connect

Amongst the most important constitutive relations in Mechanics, when characterizing the behavior of complex materials, one can identify the stress tensor T, the heat flux vector q (related to heat conduction) and the radiant heating (related to the radiation term in the energy equation). Of course, the expression 'complex materials' is not new. In fact, at least since the publication of the paper by Rivlin & Ericksen (1955), who discussed fluids of complexity (Truesdell & Noll, 1992), to the recently published books (Deshpande et al., 2010), the term complex fluids refers in general to fluid-like materials whose response, namely the stress tensor, is 'non-linear' in some fashion. This non-linearity can manifest itself in variety of forms such as memory effects, yield stress, creep or relaxation, normal-stress differences, etc. The emphasis in this chapter, while focusing on the constitutive modeling of complex fluids, is on granular materials (such as coal) and non-linear fluids (such as coal-slurries). One of the main areas of interest in energy related processes, such as power plants, atomization, alternative fuels, etc., is the use of slurries, specifically coal-water or coal-oil slurries, as the primary fuel. Some studies indicate that the viscosity of coal-water mixtures depends not only on the volume fraction of solids, and the mean size and the size distribution of the coal, but also on the shear rate, since the slurry behaves as shear-rate dependent fluid. There are also studies which indicate that preheating the fuel results in better performance, and as a result of such heating, the viscosity changes. Constitutive modeling of these non-linear fluids, commonly referred to as non-Newtonian fluids, has received much attention. Most of the naturally occurring and synthetic fluids are non-linear fluids, for example, polymer melts, suspensions, blood, coal-water slurries, drilling fluids, mud, etc. It should be noted that sometimes these fluids show Newtonian (linear) behavior for a given range of parameters or geometries; there are many empirical or semi-empirical constitutive equations suggested for these fluids. There have also been many non-linear constitutive relations which have been derived based on the techniques of continuum mechanics. The non-linearities oftentimes appear due to higher gradient terms or time derivatives. When thermal and or chemical effects are also important, the (coupled) momentum and energy equations can give rise to a variety of interesting problems, such as instability, for example the phenomenon of double-diffusive convection in a fluid layer. In Conclusion, we have studied the flow of a compressible (density gradient type) non-linear fluid down an inclined plane, subject to radiation boundary condition. The heat transfer is also considered where a source term, similar to the Arrhenius type reaction, is included. The non-dimensional forms of the equations are solved numerically and the competing effects of conduction, dissipation, heat generation and radiation are discussed. It is observed that the velocity increases rapidly in the region near the inclined surface and is slower in the region near the free surface. Since R{sub 7} is a measure of the heat generation due to chemical reaction, when the reaction is frozen (R{sub 7}=0.0) the temperature distributions would depend only on R{sub 1}, and R{sub 2}, representing the effects of the pressure force developed in the material due to the distribution, R{sub 3} and R{sub 4} viscous dissipation, R{sub 5} the normal stress coefficient, R{sub 6} the measure of the emissivity of the particles to the thermal conductivity, etc. When the flow is not frozen (RP{sub 7} > 0) the temperature inside the flow domain is much higher than those at the inclined and free surfaces. As a result, heat is transferred away from the flow toward both the inclined surface and the free surface with a rate that increases as R{sub 7} increases. For a given temperature, an increase in {zeta} implies that the activation energy is smaller and thus, the reaction ra

Mehrdad Massoudi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Development and field application of a mathematical model for predicting the kinematic viscosity of crude oil/diluter mixture under continuous production conditions  

SciTech Connect

Experience producing medium to heavy oil areas has demonstrated that most conventional artificial production systems are inefficient. This situation has been improved by mixing diluter fluids or light crude oil with medium to heavy crude oil downhole. The mixing increases production efficiency, crude oil selling value, and conditions crude to meet minimum selling conditions. An analytical model has been developed to analyze the behavior of crude oil/diluter mixtures under continuous production conditions. The model developed for this study has practical application in field operations. The most important applications are: to select the proper diluter fluid to be used in a specific area; to calculate the exact amount of diluter to be mixed with crude oil to obtain a specific viscosity; to forecast the amount of diluter fluid required for normal and continuous oilfield operations; to predict crude oil-diluter mixture kinematic viscosity under any proportion of the components for economic evaluation; and to calculate API gravities of the produced mixture under continuous operation. The crude oils used in this study have a gravity between 8.6/sup 0/API and 14.3/sup 0/API. The diluters used have a gravity between 31.4/sup 0/API and 63/sup 0/API. The paper presents the analytical model and one application to Venezuelan field in the Orinoco Petroleum Belt, one of the largest oil reserves in the world. Each well in the field has a different viscosity and different production rate. The production rate was considered continuous and under exponential decline.

Alcocer, C.F.; Menzie, D.E.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Measurement of DWPF glass viscosity - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This report details the results of a scoping study funded by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for the measurement of melt viscosities for simulated glasses representative of Macrobatch 2 (Tank 42/51 feed).

Harbour, J.R.

2000-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

65

Adequate description of heavy oil viscosities and a method to assess optimal steam cyclic periods for thermal reservoir simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A global steady increase of energy consumption coupled with the decline of conventional oil resources points to a more aggressive exploitation of heavy oil. Heavy oil is a major source of energy in this century with a worldwide base reserve exceeding 2.5 trillion barrels. Management decisions and production strategies from thermal oil recovery processes are frequently based on reservoir simulation. A proper description of the physical properties, particularly oil viscosity, is essential in performing reliable modeling studies of fluid flow in the reservoir. We simulated cyclic steam injections on the highly viscous Hamaca oil, with a viscosity of over 10,000 cp at ambient temperature, and the production was drastically impacted by up to an order of magnitude when using improper mixing rules to describe the oil viscosity. This thesis demonstrates the importance of these mixing rules and alerts reservoir engineers to the significance of using different options simulators have built in their platforms to describe the viscosity of heavy oils. Log linear and power mixing rules do not provide enough flexibility to describe the viscosity of extra heavy oil with temperature. A recently implemented mixing rule in a commercial simulator has been studied providing satisfactory results. However, the methodology requires substantial interventions, and cannot be automatically updated. We provide guidelines to improve it and suggest more flexible mixing rules that could easily be implemented in commercial simulators. We also provide a methodology to determine the adequate time for each one of the periods in cyclic steam injection: injection, soaking and production. There is a lot of speculation in this matter and one of the objectives of this thesis is to better understand and provide guidelines to optimize oil production using proper lengths in each one of these periods. We have found that the production and injection periods should be similar in time length. Nevertheless, the production period should not be less than the injection period. On the other hand, the soaking period should be as short as possible because it is unproductive time in terms of field oil production for the well and therefore it translates into a negative cash flow for a company.

Mago, Alonso Luis

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

High-Temperature Viscosity of Commercial Glasses  

SciTech Connect

Arrhenius models were developed for glass viscosity within the processing temperature of six types of commercial glasses: low-expansion-borosilicate glasses, E glasses, fiberglass wool glasses, TV panel glasses, container glasses, and float glasses. Both local models (for each of the six glass types) and a global model (for the composition region of commercial glasses, i.e., the six glass types taken together) are presented. The models are based on viscosity data previously obtained with rotating spindle viscometers within the temperature range between 900 C and 1550 C; the viscosity varied from 1 Pa?s to 750 Pa?s. First-order models were applied to relate Arrhenius coefficients to the mass fractions of 15 components: SiO2, TiO2, ZrO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, B2O3, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, PbO, ZnO, Li2O, Na2O, K2O. The R2 is 0.98 for the global model and ranges from .097 to 0.99 for the six local models. The models are recommended for glasses containing 42 to 84 mass% SiO2 to estimate viscosities or temperatures at a constant viscosity for melts within both the temperature range from 1100 C to 1550 C and viscosity range from 5 to 400 Pa?s.

Hrma, Pavel R.

2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

67

EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF HEAVY OIL VISCOSITY UNDER RESERVOIR CONDITIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The USA deposits of heavy oils and tar sands contain significant energy reserves. Thermal methods, particularly steam drive and steam soak, are used to recover heavy oils and bitumen. Thermal methods rely on several displacement mechanisms to recover oil, but the most important is the reduction of crude viscosity with increasing temperature. The main objective of this research is to propose a simple procedure to predict heavy oil viscosity at reservoir conditions as a function of easily determined physical properties. This procedure will avoid costly experimental testing and reduce uncertainty in designing thermal recovery processes. First, we reviewed critically the existing literature choosing the most promising models for viscosity determination. Then, we modified an existing viscosity correlation, based on the corresponding states principle in order to fit more than two thousand commercial viscosity data. We collected data for compositional and black oil samples (absence of compositional data). The data were screened for inconsistencies resulting from experimental error. A procedure based on the monotonic increase or decrease of key variables was implemented to carry out the screening process. The modified equation was used to calculate the viscosity of several oil samples where compositional data were available. Finally, a simple procedure was proposed to calculate black oil viscosity from common experimental information such as, boiling point, API gravity and molecular weight.

Dr. Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Technology for Increasing Geothermal Energy Productivity. Computer Models to Characterize the Chemical Interactions of Goethermal Fluids and Injectates with Reservoir Rocks, Wells, Surface Equiptment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This final report describes the results of a research program we carried out over a five-year (3/1999-9/2004) period with funding from a Department of Energy geothermal FDP grant (DE-FG07-99ID13745) and from other agencies. The goal of research projects in this program were to develop modeling technologies that can increase the understanding of geothermal reservoir chemistry and chemistry-related energy production processes. The ability of computer models to handle many chemical variables and complex interactions makes them an essential tool for building a fundamental understanding of a wide variety of complex geothermal resource and production chemistry. With careful choice of methodology and parameterization, research objectives were to show that chemical models can correctly simulate behavior for the ranges of fluid compositions, formation minerals, temperature and pressure associated with present and near future geothermal systems as well as for the very high PT chemistry of deep resources that is intractable with traditional experimental methods. Our research results successfully met these objectives. We demonstrated that advances in physical chemistry theory can be used to accurately describe the thermodynamics of solid-liquid-gas systems via their free energies for wide ranges of composition (X), temperature and pressure. Eight articles on this work were published in peer-reviewed journals and in conference proceedings. Four are in preparation. Our work has been presented at many workshops and conferences. We also considerably improved our interactive web site (geotherm.ucsd.edu), which was in preliminary form prior to the grant. This site, which includes several model codes treating different XPT conditions, is an effective means to transfer our technologies and is used by the geothermal community and other researchers worldwide. Our models have wide application to many energy related and other important problems (e.g., scaling prediction in petroleum production systems, stripping towers for mineral production processes, nuclear waste storage, CO2 sequestration strategies, global warming). Although funding decreases cut short completion of several research activities, we made significant progress on these abbreviated projects.

Nancy Moller Weare

2006-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

69

Entropy Production in Simple Special Relativistic Fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is well known that, in the absence of external forces, simple non-relativistic fluids involve entropy production only through heat conduction and shear viscosity. In this work, it is shown that a number density gradient contributes to the local entropy production of a simple relativistic fluid using special relativistic kinetic theory. Also, the presence of an external field may cause strictly relativistic contributions to the entropy production, a fact not widely recognized. The implications of these effects are thoroughly discussed.

D. Brun-Battistini; A. Sandoval-Villalbazo; A. L. Garcia-Perciante

2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

70

SRM -? Fluids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... These reference fluid formulations characterize the behavior of broad ranges of chemically similar fluids; in this way data on propane, for example ...

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Bottom Ekman Pumping with Stress-Dependent Eddy Viscosity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reconsiders the classic problem of bottom Ekman pumping below a steady geostrophic flow by relaxing the assumption of a constant eddy viscosity. It is assumed instead that the eddy viscosity depends on the magnitude of the bottom ...

Benoit Cushman-Roisin; Vlado Mala?i?

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Geothermal fracture stimulation technology. Volume III. Geothermal fracture fluids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A detailed study of all available and experimental frac fluid systems is presented. They have been examined and tested for physical properties that are important in the stimulation of hot water geothermal wells. These fluids consist of water-based systems containing high molecular weight polymers in the uncrosslinked and crosslinked state. The results of fluid testing for many systems are summarized specifically at geothermal conditions or until breakdown occurs. Some of the standard tests are ambient viscosity, static aging, high temperature viscosity, fluid-loss testing, and falling ball viscosity at elevated temperatures and pressures. Results of these tests show that unalterable breakdown of the polymer solutions begins above 300/sup 0/F. This continues at higher temperatures with time even if stabilizers or other high temperature additives are included.

Not Available

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Effects of petroleum distillate on viscosity, density and surface tension of intermediate and heavy crude oils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental and analytical studies have been carried out to better understand the effects of additives on viscosity, density and surface tension of intermediate and heavy crude oils. The studies have been conducted for the following oil samples: San Francisco oil from Columbia with specific gravity of 28o-29o API, Duri oil with gravity of 19o-21o API, Jobo oil with gravity of 8o-9o API and San Ardo oil gravity of 11o-13o API. The additive used in all of the experiments is petroleum distillate. The experiments consist of using petroleum distillate as an additive for different samples of heavy crude oils. The experiments include making a mixture by adding petroleum distillate to oil samples and measuring surface tension, viscosity and density of pure oil samples and mixtures at different temperatures. The petroleum distillate/oil ratios are the following ratios: 1:100, 2:100, 3:100, 4:100 and 5:100. Experimental results showed that use of petroleum distillate as an additive increases API gravity and leads to reduction in viscosity and surface tension for all the samples. Results showed for all petroleum distillate/oil ratios viscosity and interfacial tension decreases with temperature. As petroleum distillate/oil ratio increases, oil viscosity and surface tension decrease more significantly at lower temperatures than at higher temperatures. After all experiments were completed an analytical correlation was done based on the experiment results to develop mixing rules. Using this correlation viscosity, density and surface tension of different petroleum distillate/oil mixtures were obtained (output).These had properties of pure oil and petroleum distillate, mixture ratios and temperatures at which measurement is supposed to be done (output). Using this correlation a good match was achieved. For all of the cases (viscosity, density and surface tension), correlation coefficient (R) was more than 0.9 which proved to be optimum for a really good match.

Abdullayev, Azer

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity Equations for Nitrogen ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... that both could be used as reference equations for ... the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). ... of state for air as a pseudo-pure fluid. ...

2004-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

75

Formulation for the Viscosity of Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... IN Metaxa Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece ... It contains contributions for the dilute gas limit, dense-fluid ...

2006-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

76

The Role of Viscosity in TATB Hot Spot Ignition  

SciTech Connect

The role of dissipative effects, such as viscosity, in the ignition of high explosive pores is investigated using a coupled chemical, thermal, and hydrodynamic model. Chemical reactions are tracked with the Cheetah thermochemical code coupled to the ALE3D hydrodynamic code. We perform molecular dynamics simulations to determine the viscosity of liquid TATB. We also analyze shock wave experiments to obtain an estimate for the shock viscosity of TATB. Using the lower bound liquid-like viscosities, we find that the pore collapse is hydrodynamic in nature. Using the upper bound viscosity from shock wave experiments, we find that the pore collapse is closest to the viscous limit.

Fried, L E; Zepeda-Ruis, L; Howard, W M; Najjar, F; Reaugh, J E

2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

77

Influence of Viscous and Capillary Forces on Immiscible Fluid Displacement: Pore-Scale Experimental Study in a Water-Wet Micromodel Demonstrating Viscous and Capillary Fingering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Unstable immiscible fluid displacement in porous media affects geological carbon sequestration, enhanced oil recovery, and groundwater contamination by nonaqueous phase liquids. Characterization of immiscible displacement processes at the pore-scale is important to better understand macroscopic processes at the continuum-scale. A series of displacement experiments was conducted to investigate the impacts of viscous and capillary forces on displacement stability and fluid saturation distributions in a homogeneous water-wet pore network micromodel with precisely-microfabricated pore structures. Displacements were studied using seven wetting-nonwetting fluid pairs with viscosity ratios M (viscosity of the advancing nonwetting fluid divided by the viscosity of the displaced wetting fluid) ranging four orders of magnitude from logM = -1.95 to 1.88. The micromodel was initially saturated with either polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG200) or water as a wetting fluid, which was then displaced by a nonwetting alkane fluid under different flow rates. Capillary numbers (Ca) ranged over four orders of magnitude for the reported experiments, from logCa = -5.88 to -1.02. Fluorescent microscopy was used to visualize displacement and measure nonwetting fluid saturation distributions. These experiments extend the classical work by Lenormand et al. by using water-wet micromodels, high-precision fabrication, and enhanced image analysis of the saturation distributions. In the micromodel experiments initially saturated with PEG200, a viscous wetting fluid, unstable displacement occurred by viscous fingering over the whole range of imposed capillary numbers. For the experiments initially saturated with water, unstable displacement occurred by capillary fingering at low capillary numbers. When the viscous forces were increased by increasing the injection rate, crossover into stable displacement was observed for the fluid pairs with M > 0. For unstable displacement experiments applying the same capillary number for the various fluid pairs, nonwetting fluid saturations were higher when capillary fingering was the dominant fingering process compared to viscous fingering. Our saturation distributions are consistent with other published experimental work and confirm the numerical results obtained by Lenormand et al.

Zhang, Changyong; Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Grate, Jay W.; Warner, Marvin G.

2011-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

78

Bulk viscous fluid hypersurface - homogeneous cosmological models with time varying G and ?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hypersurface - homogeneous cosmological models containing a bulk viscous fluid with time varying G and ? have been presented. We have shown that the field equations are solvable for any arbitrary cosmic scale function. The viscosity coefficient ... Keywords: bulk viscosity, hypersurface - homogeneous, variable G and ?. LATEX

Shri Ram; M. K. Verma

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Partitioned solution to fluid-structure interaction problem in application to free-surface flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

distribution). Fluid material properties are the dynamic viscosity µ and the density . To write a unique Computational fluid Dynamic programs solve the fluid equations on a fixed (Eulerian) grid. The classical and structure sub-problems. Contrary to explicit algorithms which generate spurious energy at the in- terface

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

80

Entropy production at freeze-out from dissipative fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Entropy production due to shear viscosity during the continuous freeze-out of a longitudinally expanding dissipative fluid is addressed. Assuming the validity of the fluid dynamical description during the continuous removal of interacting matter we estimated a small entropy production as function of the freeze-out duration and the ratio of dissipative to non-dissipative quantities in case of a relativistic massless pion fluid.

E. Molnar

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid viscosity increases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Hydroliquefaction of Big Brown lignite in supercritical fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Big Brown lignite was liquefied in a fixed bed tube reactor. Three solvents were used in the liquefaction studies, toluene, cyclohexane and methanol. Two co-solvents, tetralin and water were used with toluene. The effects of the solvents and co-solvents were investigated. Supercritical fluid is the fluid at the temperature and pressure above its critical values. Toluene was the main supercritical fluid used in this study. Tetralin and water as co-solvents can contribute hydrogen to stabilize the free radicals produced during liquefaction reaction. The total conversion of Big Brown lignite and yield of liquid were increased. Water is not as good as tetralin in producing hydrogen, but it can increase the polarity of the solvent, which increases the solvency of supercritical fluids. The liquid product was found to consist primarily of saturated hydrocarbons. It illustrated that the free radicals were saturated by hydrogen during liquefaction. Alkylated aromatics and furans are also common chemical species present in the liquid products. The aromatic species were predominantly alkylated phenols, benzenes, indenes, pyridines and naphthalenes. At the supercritical conditions of this study, temperature and flowrate of the solvent were not important to the conversion of Big Brown lignite and yield of liquid, since supercritical fluids have gas-like viscosities with very high solubilities. To get more liquid products, the main point is to produce more free radicals from coal, inhibit the recombination of these radicals, and prevent the decomposition of these radicals to gas. Tetralin and water are good co-solvents for coal hydroliquefaction. Further research on the mechanism of water as a co-solvent in coal hydroliquefaction was recommended.

Chen, Hui

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Shear Viscosity in a CFL Quark Star  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compute the mean free path and shear viscosity in the color-flavor locked (CFL) phase of dense quark matter at low temperature T, when the contributions of mesons, quarks and gluons to the transport coefficients are Boltzmann suppressed. CFL quark matter displays superfluid properties, and transport phenomena in such cold regime are dominated by phonon-phonon scattering. We study superfluid phonons within thermal field theory and compute the mean free path associated to their most relevant collision processes. Small-angle processes turn out to be more efficient in slowing transport phenomena in the CFL matter, while the mean free path relevant for the shear viscosity is less sensitive to collinear scattering due to the presence of zero modes in the Boltzmann equation. In analogy with superfluid He4, we find the same T power law for the superfluid phonon damping rate and mean free path. Our results are relevant for the study of rotational properties of compact stars, and correct wrong estimates existing in the literature.

Cristina Manuel; Antonio Dobado; Felipe J. Llanes-Estrada

2004-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

83

Shear Viscosity Coefficient from Microscopic Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transport coefficient of shear viscosity is studied for a hadron matter through microscopic transport model, the Ultra--relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD), using the Green--Kubo formulas. Molecular--dynamical simulations are performed for a system of light mesons in a box with periodic boundary conditions. Starting from an initial state composed of $\\pi, \\eta ,\\omega ,\\rho ,\\phi$ with a uniform phase--space distribution, the evolution takes place through elastic collisions, production and annihilation. The system approaches a stationary state of mesons and their resonances, which is characterized by common temperature. After equilibration, thermodynamic quantities such as the energy density, particle density, and pressure are calculated. From such an equilibrated state the shear viscosity coefficient is calculated from the fluctuations of stress tensor around equilibrium using Green--Kubo relations. We do our simulations here at zero net baryon density so that the equilibration times depend on the energy density. We do not include hadron strings as degrees of freedom so as to maintain detailed balance. Hence we do not get the saturation of temperature but this leads to longer equilibration times.

Azwinndini Muronga

2003-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

84

Viscosity Measurement G.E. Leblanc  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and applications as diverse as fluid flow in pipes, the flow of blood, lubrication of engine parts, the dynamics, INSTRUMENTATION, AND SENSORS HANDBOOK" (c) 1999 by CRC Press LLC #12;T H E MEASUREMENT, INSTRUMENTATION

Kostic, Milivoje M.

85

Three-dimensional simulations of geometrically complex subduction with large viscosity variations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The incorporation of geologic realism into numerical models of subduction is becoming increasingly necessary as observational and experimental constraints indicate plate boundaries are inherently three-dimensional (3D) in nature and contain large viscosity ... Keywords: ACM proceedings, mantle convection, multigrid, rheology, subduction

Margarete A. Jadamec; Magali I. Billen; Oliver Kreylos

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Excess volumes and excess viscosities of binary mixtures of 1 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Excess volumes V E, excess viscosities 1/E, and excess free energies of activation ... KEY WORDS: activation energy; binary mixtures; free energy; l-

87

Effect of Silicon on the Viscosity and Solidification Properties of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The viscosity of molten irons with same titanium of 0.2 weight percent but .... Reductive Sulfur-fixation Smelting of Stibnite Concentrate in Sodium Molten Salt.

88

Asymptotic Behavior of a Viscous Liquid-Gas Model with Mass-Dependent Viscosity and Vacuum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we consider two classes of free boundary value problems of a viscous two-phase liquid-gas model relevant to the flow in wells and pipelines with mass-dependent viscosity coefficient. The liquid is treated as an incompressible fluid whereas the gas is assumed to be polytropic. We obtain the asymptotic behavior and decay rates of the mass functions $n(x,t)$,\\$m(x,t)$ when the initial masses are assumed to be connected to vacuum both discontinuously and continuously, which improves the corresponding result about Navier-Stokes equations in \\cite{Zhu}.

liu, Qingqing

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Flow of power-law fluids in self-affine fracture channels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The two-dimensional pressure driven flow of non-Newtonian power-law fluids in self-affine fracture channels at finite Reynolds number is calculated. The channels have constant mean aperture and two values $\\zeta$=0.5 and 0.8 of the Hurst exponent are considered. The calculation is based on the lattice-Boltzmann method, using a novel method to obtain a power-law variation in viscosity, and the behavior of shear-thinning, Newtonian and shear-thickening liquids is compared. Local aspects of the flow fields, such as maximum velocity and pressure fluctuations, were studied, and the non-Newtonian fluids were compared to the (previously-studied) Newtonian case. The permeability results may be collapsed into a master curve of friction factor vs. Reynolds number using a scaling similar to that employed for porous media flow, and exhibits a transition from a linear regime to a more rapid variation at Re increases.

Yiguang Yan; Joel Koplik

2007-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

90

Viscosity of concentrated suspensions of sphere/rod mixtures  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the viscosity of concentrated suspensions of sphere/rod mixtures by adopting the Thomas relations for spheres and Milliken`s for randomly oriented rods with aspect ratio of 20. The relative viscosity of a mixed suspension may now be calculated for any combination of rods (of aspect ratio 20) and spheres.

Mor, R.; Gottlieb, M. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Graham, A.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Mondy, L.A.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Spinodal phase decomposition with dissipative fluid dynamics  

SciTech Connect

The spinodal amplification of density fluctuations is treated perturbatively within dissipative fluid dynamics including not only shear and bulk viscosity but also heat conduction, as well as a gradient term in the local pressure. The degree of spinodal amplification is calculated along specific dynamical phase trajectories and the results suggest that the effect can be greatly enhanced by tuning the collision energy so that maximum compression occurs inside the region of spinodal instability.

Randrup, J., E-mail: JRandrup@LBL.gov [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division (United States)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

92

Viscosity of ?-pinene secondary organic material and implications for particle growth and reactivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Particles composed of secondary organic material (SOM) are abundant in the lower troposphere and play important roles in climate, air quality, and health. The viscosity of these particles is a fundamental property that is presently poorly quantified for conditions relevant to the lower troposphere. Using two new techniques, namely a bead-mobility technique and a poke-flow technique, in conjunction with simulations of fluid flow, we measure the viscosity of the watersoluble component of SOM produced by ?-pinene ozonolysis. The viscosity is comparable to that of honey at 90% relative humidity (RH), comparable to that of peanut butter at 70% RH and greater than or comparable to that of bitumen for ? 30% RH, implying that the studied SOM ranges from liquid to semisolid/solid at ambient relative humidities. With the Stokes-Einstein relation, the measured viscosities further imply that the growth and evaporation of SOM by the exchange of organic molecules between the gas and condensed phases may be confined to the surface region when RH ? 30%, suggesting the importance of an adsorption-type mechanism for partitioning in this regime. By comparison, for RH ? 70% partitioning of organic molecules may effectively occur by an absorption mechanism throughout the bulk of the particle. Finally, the net uptake rates of semi-reactive atmospheric oxidants such as O3 are expected to decrease by two to five orders of magnitude for a change in RH from 90% to ? 30% RH, with possible implications for the rates of chemical aging of SOM particles in the atmosphere.

Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Grayson, James W.; Bateman, Adam P.; Kuwata, Mikinori; Sellier, Mathieu; Murray, Benjamin J.; Shilling, John E.; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

93

NIST Fluid Metrology Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... thermal conductivity of argon with a standard uncertainty of only 0.08%. The viscosity of hydrogen, methane, and xenon ...

2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

94

HYDRAULIC FLUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions (FAQs) about hydraulic fluids. For more information, call the ATSDR Information Center at 1-888-422-8737. This fact sheet is one in a series of summaries about hazardous substances and their health effects. This information is important because this substance may harm you. The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other chemicals are present. HIGHLIGHTS: Exposure to hydraulic fluids occurs mainly in the workplace. Drinking certain types of hydraulic fluids can cause death in humans, and swallowing or inhaling certain types of hydraulic fluids has caused nerve damage in animals. Contact with some types of hydraulic fluids can irritate your skin or eyes. These substances have been found in at least 10 of the 1,428 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). What are hydraulic fluids? (Pronounced ?????????????????) Hydraulic fluids are a large group of liquids made of many kinds of chemicals. They are used in automobile automatic

unknown authors

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Causal Viscosity in Accretion Disc Boundary Layers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The structure of the boundary layer region between the disc and a comparatively slowly rotating star is studied using a causal prescription for viscosity. The vertically integrated viscous stress relaxes towards its equilibrium value on a relaxation timescale $\\tau$, which naturally yields a finite speed of propagation for viscous information. For a standard alpha prescription with alpha in the range 0.1-0.01, and ratio of viscous speed to sound speed in the range 0.02-0.5, details in the boundary layer are strongly affected by the causality constraint. We study both steady state polytropic models and time dependent models, taking into account energy dissipation and transport. Steady state solutions are always subviscous with a variety of $\\Omega$ profiles which may exhibit near discontinuities. For alpha =0.01 and small viscous speeds, the boundary layer adjusted to a near steady state. A long wavelength oscillation generated by viscous overstability could be seen at times near the outer boundary. Being confined there, the boundary layer remained almost stationary. However, for alpha =0.1 and large viscous speeds, short wavelength disturbances were seen throughout which could significantly affect the power output in the boundary layer. This could be potentially important in producing time dependent behaviour in accreting systems such as CVs and protostars.

W. Kley; J. C. B. Papaloizou

1997-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

96

Self-similar Breakup of Near-inviscid Fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

algorithms that model the formation of droplets by dripping and jetting, [4, 10]. However, given that these simulations usually contain several free param- eters, other standards are desirable for further parametric validations, including the breakup angle... dripped 3into the reservoir and the liquid was recirculated by the pump. The working fluids consisted of tri-distilled water and 99.9% ethanol and the experiments were carried out at 21o C. Fluid density, viscosity and surface tension were measured...

Castrejon-Pita, J.R.; Castrejon-Pita, A.A.; Hinch, E.J.; Lister, J.R.; Hutchings, I.M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

A Brief Review of Viscosity Models for Slag in Coal Gasification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many researchers have defined the phenomenon of 'slagging' as the deposition of ash in the radiative section of a boiler, while 'fouling' refers to the deposition of ash in the convective-pass region. Among the important parameters affecting ash deposition that need to be studied are ash chemistry, its transport, deposit growth, and strength development; removability of the ash deposit; heat transfer mechanisms; and the mode of operation for boilers. The heat transfer at the walls of a combustor depends on many parameters including ash deposition. This depends on the processes or parameters controlling the impact efficiency and the sticking efficiency. For a slagging combustor or furnace, however, the temperatures are so high that much of the coal particles are melted and the molten layer, in turn, captures more particles as it flows. The main problems with ash deposition are reduced heat transfer in the boiler and corrosion of the tubes. Common ways of dealing with these issues are soot blowing and wall blowing on a routine basis; however, unexpected or uncontrolled depositions can also complicate the situation, and there are always locations inaccessible to the use of such techniques. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1300 C and 1500 C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa {center_dot} s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. In such cases the slag should be regarded as a non-Newtonian suspension, consisting of liquid silicate and crystals. A better understanding of the rheological properties of the slag, such as yield stress and shear-thinning, are critical in determining the optimum operating conditions. To develop an accurate heat transfer model in any type of coal combustion or gasification process, the heat transfer and to some extent the rheological properties of ash and slag, especially in high-temperature environments need to be understood and properly modeled. The viscosity of slag and the thermal conductivity of ash deposits are among two of the most important constitutive parameters that need to be studied. The accurate formulation or representations of the (transport) properties of coal (and biomass for co-firing cases) present a special challenge of modeling efforts in computational fluid dynamics applications. In this report, we first provide a brief review of the various approaches taken by different researchers in formulating or obtaining a slag viscosity model. In general, these models are based on experiments. Since slag behaves as a non-linear fluid, we discuss the constitutive modeling of slag and the important parameters that must be studied.

Massoudi, Mehrdad; Wang, Ping

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.) [comps.

1977-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Method for controlling the viscosity of siloxane oils  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a method of controlling the viscosity of siloxane oils in the presence of lead by adding a small amount of a dione such as p-benzoquinone or 2,3-butanedione.

Carey, A.A.; Shor, J.T.

1984-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

100

Spectral Viscosity for Shallow Water Equations in Spherical Geometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A spherical spectral viscosity operator is proposed as an alternative to standard horizontal diffusion terms in global atmospheric models. Implementation in NCAR's Spectral Transform Shallow Water Model and application to a suite of standard test ...

Anne Gelb; James P. Gleeson

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid viscosity increases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Method for controlling the viscosity of siloxane oils  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a method of controlling the viscosity of siloxane oils in the presence of lead by adding a small amount of a dione such as p-benzoquinone or 2,3-butanedione.

Carey, A. Andrew (Lenoir City, TN); Shor, Joel T. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Atomic Dynamics and Viscosity in the Liquid - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently we discovered a direct link between viscosity and the atomic level ... Measuring Strains In Operando in Alloy-based Anodes for Lithium Ion ... Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction Study of the Plasticity of Bulk Metallic Glass Composites.

103

Relationship between the shear viscosity and heating rate in metallic glasses below the glass transition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been shown that first-order irreversible structural relaxation with distributed activation energies must lead to a linear decrease of the logarithm of Newtonian shear viscosity with the logarithm of heating rate upon linear heating of glass. Such a behavior is indeed observed in the experiments on metallic glasses. Structural relaxation-induced viscous flow leads to infra-low-frequency Maxwell viscoelastic internal friction, which is predicted to increase with the heating rate.

Khonik, Vitaly A.; Kobelev, N. P. [Department of General Physics, State Pedagogical University, Lenin Street 86, 394043 Voronezh (Russian Federation); Institute for Solid State Physics, Chernogolovka, 142432 Moscow District (Russian Federation)

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Hydrocarbon compositions of high elongational viscosity and process for making the same  

SciTech Connect

A hydrocarbon composition is described consisting essentially of a hydrocarbon liquid and an ionic-association or coordination-complex polymer in an amount sufficient to increase and maintain the elongational viscosity of the composition at a level greater than that of the hydrocarbon alone. The polymer is capable of dissociation upon application of the high shear regime to which the hydrocarbon is subjected, and reassociation upon withdrawal of the high shear.

Hamil, H.F.; Weatherford, W.D. Jr.; Fodor, G.E.

1988-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

105

Bulk viscosity and the conformal anomaly in the pion gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We calculate the bulk viscosity of the massive pion gas within Unitarized Chiral Perturbation Theory. We obtain a low temperature peak arising from explicit conformal breaking due to the pion mass and another peak near the critical temperature, dominated by the conformal anomaly through gluon condensate terms. The correlation between bulk viscosity and conformal breaking supports a recent QCD proposal. We discuss the role of resonances, heavier states and large-$N_c$ counting.

D. Fernandez-Fraile; A. Gomez Nicola

2008-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

106

Using Nanotechnology in Viscoelastic Surfactant Stimulation Fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Viscoelastic surfactant (VES) fluids are preferred for many applications in the oil industry. Their viscoelastic behavior is due to the overlap and entanglement of very long wormlike micelles. The growth of these wormlike micelles depends on the charge of the head group, salt concentration, temperature, and the presence of other interacting components. The problem with these fluids is that they are expensive and used at temperatures less than 200F. The viscoelasticity of nanoparticle-networked VES fluid systems were analyzed in an HP/HT viscometer. A series of rheology experiments have been performed by using 2-4 vol% amidoamine oxide surfactant in 13 to 14.2 ppg CaBr2 brines and 10.8 to 11.6 ppg CaCl2 brines at different temperatures up to 275F and a shear rate of 10 s-1. The nanoparticles evaluated were MgO and ZnO at 6 pptg concentration. In addition, the effect of different nanoparticle concentrations (0.5 to 8 pptg) and micron size particles on the viscosity of VES fluid was investigated. The oscillatory shear rate sweep (100 to 1 s-1) was performed from 100 to 250F. The effect of fish oil as an internal breaker on the viscosity of VES micelles was examined. This study showed that the addition of nanoparticles improved the thermal stability of VES micellar structures in CaBr2 and CaCl2 brines up to 275F and showed an improved viscosity yield at different shear rates. Micro- and nanoparticles have potential to improve the viscosity of VES fluids. Lab tests show that for VES micellar systems without nanoparticles, the dominant factor is the storage modulus but when nanoparticles are added to the system at 275F the loss modulus becomes the dominant factor. These positive effects of nanoparticles on VES fluid characteristics suggest that these particles can reduce treatment cost and will exceed temperature range to 275F. With this work, we hope to have better understanding of nanoparticle/viscoelastic surfactant interaction.

Gurluk, Merve 1986-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Investigation on the effects of ultra-high pressure and temperature on the rheological properties of oil-based drilling fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Designing a fit-for-purpose drilling fluid for high-pressure, high-temperature (HP/HT) operations is one of the greatest technological challenges facing the oil and gas industry today. Typically, a drilling fluid is subjected to increasing temperature and pressure with depth. While higher temperature decreases the drilling fluids viscosity due to thermal expansion, increased pressure increases its viscosity by compression. Under these extreme conditions, well control issues become more complicated and can easily be masked by methane and hydrogen sulfide solubility in oil-base fluids frequently used in HP/HT operations. Also current logging tools are at best not reliable since the anticipated bottom-hole temperature is often well above their operating limit. The Literature shows limited experimental data on drilling fluid properties beyond 350F and 20,000 psig. The practice of extrapolation of fluid properties at some moderate level to extreme-HP/HT (XHP/HT) conditions is obsolete and could result in significant inaccuracies in hydraulics models. This research is focused on developing a methodology for testing drilling fluids at XHP/HT conditions using an automated viscometer. This state-of-the-art viscometer is capable of accurately measuring drilling fluids properties up to 600F and 40,000 psig. A series of factorial experiments were performed on typical XHP/HT oil-based drilling fluids to investigate their change in rheology at these extreme conditions (200 to 600F and 15,000 to 40,000 psig). Detailed statistical analyses involving: analysis of variance, hypothesis testing, evaluation of residuals and multiple linear regression are implemented using data from the laboratory experiments. I have developed the FluidStats program as an effective statistical tool for characterizing drilling fluids at XHP/HT conditions using factorial experiments. Results from the experiments show that different drilling fluids disintegrate at different temperatures depending on their composition (i.e. weighting agent, additives, oil/water ratio etc). The combined pressure-temperature effect on viscosity is complex. At high thresholds, the temperature effect is observed to be more dominant while the pressure effect is more pronounced at low temperatures. This research is vital because statistics show that well control incident rates for non- HP/HT wells range between 4% to 5% whereas for HP/HT wells, it is as high as 100% to 200%. It is pertinent to note that over 50% of the worlds proven oil and gas reserves lie below 14,000 ft subsea according to the Minerals Management Service (MMS). Thus drilling in HP/HT environment is fast becoming a common place especially in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) where HP/HT resistant drilling fluids are increasingly being used to ensure safe and successful operations.

Ibeh, Chijioke Stanley

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Magnetic separation of micro-spheres from viscous biological fluids.  

SciTech Connect

A magnetically based detoxification system is being developed as a therapeutic tool for selective and rapid removal of biohazards, i.e. chemicals and radioactive substances, from human blood. One of the key components of this system is a portable magnetic separator capable of separating polymer-based magnetic nano/micro-spheres from arterial blood flow in an ex vivo unit. The magnetic separator consists of an array of alternating and parallel capillary tubing and magnetizable wires, which is exposed to an applied magnetic field created by two parallel permanent magnets such that the magnetic field is perpendicular to both the wires and the fluid flow. In this paper, the performance of this separator was evaluated via preliminary in vitro flow experiments using a separator unit consisting of single capillary glass tubing and two metal wires. Pure water, ethylene glycol-water solution (v:v = 39:61 and v:v = 49:51) and human whole blood were used as the fluids. The results showed that when the viscosity increased from 1.0 cp to 3.0 cp, the capture efficiency (CE) decreased from 90% to 56%. However, it is still feasible to obtain >90% CE in blood flow if the separator design is optimized to create higher magnetic gradients and magnetic fields in the separation area.

Chen, H.; Kaminski, M. D.; Xianqiao, L.; Caviness, P.; Torno, M.; Rosengart, A. J.; Dhar, P.; Chemical Engineering; Univ. of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine; Illinois Inst. of Tech.

2007-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

109

Use of ammonia to reduce the viscosity of bottoms streams produced in hydroconversion processes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal, petroleum residuum and similar carbonaceous feed materials are subjected to hydroconversion in the presence of molecular hydrogen to produce a hydroconversion effluent which is then subjected to one or more separation steps to remove lower molecular weight liquids and produce a heavy bottoms stream containing high molecular weight liquids and unconverted carbonaceous material. The viscosity of the bottoms streams produced in the separation step or steps is prevented from increasing rapidly by treating the feed to the separation step or steps with ammonia gas prior to or during the separation step or steps. The viscosity of the heavy bottoms stream produced in the final separation step is also controlled by treating these bottoms with ammonia gas. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the effluent from the hydroconversion reactor is subjected to an atmospheric distillation followed by a vacuum distillation and the feeds to these distillations are contacted with ammonia during the distillations.

Zaczepinski, Sioma (Houston, TX); Billimoria, Rustom M. (Houston, TX); Tao, Frank (Baytown, TX); Lington, Christopher G. (Houston, TX); Plumlee, Karl W. (Baytown, TX)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

R fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A theory of collisionless fluids is developed in a unified picture, where nonrotating figures with anisotropic random velocity component distributions and rotating figures with isotropic random velocity component distributions, make adjoints configurations to the same system. R fluids are defined and mean and rms angular velocities and mean and rms tangential velocity components are expressed, by weighting on the moment of inertia and the mass, respectively. The definition of figure rotation is extended to R fluids. The generalized tensor virial equations are formulated for R fluids and further attention is devoted to axisymmetric configurations where, for selected coordinate axes, a variation in figure rotation has to be counterbalanced by a variation in anisotropy excess and vice versa. A microscopical analysis of systematic and random motions is performed under a few general hypotheses, by reversing the sign of tangential or axial velocity components of an assigned fraction of particles, leaving the distribution function and other parameters unchanged (Meza 2002). The application of the reversion process to tangential velocity components, implies the conversion of random motion rotation kinetic energy into systematic motion rotation kinetic energy. The application of the reversion process to axial velocity components, implies the conversion of random motion translation kinetic energy into systematic motion translation kinetic energy, and the loss related to a change of reference frame is expressed in terms of systematic (imaginary) motion rotation kinetic energy. A procedure is sketched for deriving the spin parameter distribution (including imaginary rotation) from a sample of observed or simulated large-scale collisionless fluids i.e. galaxies and galaxy clusters.

R. Caimmi

2007-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

111

Kubo formulas for relativistic fluids in strong magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

Magnetohydrodynamics of strongly magnetized relativistic fluids is derived in the ideal and dissipative cases, taking into account the breaking of spatial symmetries by a quantizing magnetic field. A complete set of transport coefficients, consistent with the Curie and Onsager principles, is derived for thermal conduction, as well as shear and bulk viscosities. It is shown that in the most general case the dissipative function contains five shear viscosities, two bulk viscosities, and three thermal conductivity coefficients. We use Zubarev's non-equilibrium statistical operator method to relate these transport coefficients to correlation functions of the equilibrium theory. The desired relations emerge at linear order in the expansion of the non-equilibrium statistical operator with respect to the gradients of relevant statistical parameters (temperature, chemical potential, and velocity.) The transport coefficients are cast in a form that can be conveniently computed using equilibrium (imaginary-time) infrared Green's functions defined with respect to the equilibrium statistical operator. - Highlights: > Strong magnetic fields can make charged fluids behave anisotropically. > Magnetohydrodynamics for these fluids contains 5 shear, 2 bulk viscosities, and 3 heat conductivities. > We derive Kubo formulas for these transport coefficients.

Huang Xuguang, E-mail: xhuang@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Sedrakian, Armen [Institute for Theoretical Physics, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Rischke, Dirk H. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

112

RESEARCH ON THE RADIATION STABILITY OF ORGANIC FLUIDS. Progress Report for January 1, 1953 through September 30, 1953. Report No. 6  

SciTech Connect

Additional knowledge was gained pertaining to effects of irradiation variables, chemical components, etc., on the stability of organics. This basic program was supplemented with an applied program wherein research was undertaken of particular irterest in reactor moderator-coolart and lubricant applications. Irradiations of the capsule type in the absence of air were conducted in the MTR, BNL, and X-10 reactors under a variety of conditions in investigations of effects of temperature, flux, dosage, and organic chemical structure. The MTR gamma facility and the California Research Co/sup 60/ source were also used. With highly aromatic organics, damage measured by viscosity change was found independent of irradiation temperature up to 371 deg C. Coke formation was minor, although it was universal at 426 deg C. Many fused ring and nonfused ring aromatics were stable at 371 deg C. Viscosity changes were slight, and gassing amounted to about 2 to 5 ml gas/ml fluid. Simple molecular distillations showed biphenyl, naphthalene, and 1,3-diphenylbenzene, to be 93 to 97% distillable, of which 72 to 81% was pure starting material. The stabilities of solutions of highly viscous polymers in low viscosity alkylbenzenes were studied in the presence of air with gamma radiation. Styrene-alkene copolymer, polyalkene, and polyester solutions markedly decreased in viscosity on irradiation; whereas, polystyrene solutions merely increased slowly. Comparative stabilities of representative types of organics with combined neutron and gamma radiation allowed the tentative determination, based on viscosity change, that one fast neutron (>1 Mev) causes approximately 16 times the damage of one gamma (1.6 Mev). Thermal neutrons cause insignificant damage. As a result, it is suggested that the radiation dosage to cause damage be expressed in terms of "equivalent fast neutrons," a number obtained by adding to the number of fast neutrons the damage equivalent number each of gamma rays and epithermal neutrons. (auth)

1953-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

113

Intrinsic aging and effective viscosity in the slow dynamics of a soft glass with tunable elasticity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate by rheology and light scattering the influence of the elastic modulus, $G_0$, on the slow dynamics and the aging of a soft glass. We show that the slow dynamics and the aging can be entirely described by the evolution of an effective viscosity, $\\eta_{eff}$, defined as the characteristic time measured in a stress relaxation experiment times $G_0$. At all time, $\\eta_{eff}$ is found to be independent of $G_0$, of elastic perturbations, and of the rate at which the sample is quenched in the glassy phase. We propose a simple model that links $\\eta_{eff}$ to the internal stress built up at the fluid-to-solid transition.

Laurence Ramos; Luca Cipelletti

2004-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

114

Fluid extraction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Laintz, Kenneth E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

The Viscosity of a Liquid Plutonium-Iron Eutectic Alloy  

SciTech Connect

The viscosity of a liquid plutonium-iron eutectic alloy, which contains 9.5 atom per cent iron and melts at 411 degrees C, was determined up to 808 degrees C at Mound Laboratory by an oscillating cup viscosimeter. This type of apparatus employed a right-circular cylindrical cup containing the liquid under investigation attached to a torsion fiber. The dampening effect of the liquid upon the normal oscillations of the pendululm was a function of the viscosity of the liquid. The amplitudes of the oscillations of the pendulum were measured by a photographic technique. The periods of the oscillations were determined by an automatic timing mechanism. The reliability of the viscosimeter was demonstrated by following the expected function of the viscosity of liquid lead and bismuth over a larger temperature range than was previously reported.

Wittenberg, L. J., Jones, L. V., Ofte, D.

1960-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Characterization of Filter Cake Buildup and Cleanup under Dynamic Fluid Loss Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing is a popular stimulation method in tight gas and shale gas reservoirs that uses a viscous fluid to fracture the reservoir rock and uniformly transport proppant to create a highly conductive path that is kept open by the proppant after fracturing. This method is used to improve the productivity of the otherwise low permeability reservoirs. Hydraulic fracturing, though in general beneficial, is a complex process that has a number of challenges in fracturing design and execution. This research focuses on studying the damage caused by the fracturing fluid (gel) to the fracture and the conditions to remove the damage. Guar gum and its derivatives have been the most commonly used polymers to increase the viscosity of fracturing fluids. The fracturing fluid gets dehydrated under pressure leaving behind a highly concentrated unbroken residue called filter cake which causes permeability impairment in the proppant pack, resulting in low fracture conductivity and decreased effective fracture length. This study seeks to characterize filter cakes. By measuring its thickness and with the leak off volume, the concentration and yield stress of the filter cake can be estimated. The thickness of the filter cake was measured with a precise laser profilometer. Correlations are proposed to estimate filter cake properties (thickness, concentration and yield stress) based on pumping conditions (pump rate, time and net pressure) and rock properties. With these properties known, a required flow back rate of the reservoir fluid can be estimated to clean up the filter cake modeled as a non-newtonian fluid exhibiting a yield stress. Typical field conditions were referenced and scaled down in the lab to closely represent the field conditions. Recommendations are provided on gel damage based on the observation of the study.

Yango, Takwe

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Encapsulated breaker for aqueous polymeric fluids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Persulfates are commonly used as breakers for aqueous fluids viscosified with guar or cellulose derivatives. These breakers are necessary to minimize permeability damage to proppant packs at temperatures where there is little thermal degradation of the polymers. Unfortunately, dissolved persulfates are much too reactive, even at moderate temperatures (140 to 200{degrees} F), to be used at concentrations sufficient to degrade concentrated, high-molecular-weight polymers thoroughly. Technology described in this paper was used to produce a delayed breaker. The breaker is prepared by encapsulating ammonium persulfate (APS) with a water-resistant coating. The coating shields the fluid from the breaker so that high breaker concentrations can be added to the fluid without causing the premature loss of fluid properties, such as viscosity or fluid-loss control. Critical factors in the design of encapsulated breakers (such as coating barrier properties, release mechanisms, and reactive chemical properties) are discussed. The effects of encapsulated breaker on fluid rheology were compared for several encapsulated persulfates.

Gulbis, J.; King, M.T.; Hawkins, G.W.; Brannon, H.D. (Dowell Schlumberger (US))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Effect of Varying Bulk Viscosity on Generalized Chaplygin Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, viscous generalized Chaplygin gas as a model of dark energy considered. We assume non-constant bulk viscous coefficient and study dark energy density. We consider several cases of density-dependent viscosities. We find that, in the special case, the viscous generalized Chaplygin gas is corresponding to modified Chaplygin gas.

Saadat, H

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Effect of Varying Bulk Viscosity on Generalized Chaplygin Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, viscous generalized Chaplygin gas as a model of dark energy considered. We assume non-constant bulk viscous coefficient and study dark energy density. We consider several cases of density-dependent viscosities. We find that, in the special case, the viscous generalized Chaplygin gas is corresponding to modified Chaplygin gas.

H. Saadat; B. Pourhassan

2013-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

120

Glass viscosity calculation based on a global statistical modelling approach  

SciTech Connect

A global statistical glass viscosity model was developed for predicting the complete viscosity curve, based on more than 2200 composition-property data of silicate glasses from the scientific literature, including soda-lime-silica container and float glasses, TV panel glasses, borosilicate fiber wool and E type glasses, low expansion borosilicate glasses, glasses for nuclear waste vitrification, lead crystal glasses, binary alkali silicates, and various further compositions from over half a century. It is shown that within a measurement series from a specific laboratory the reported viscosity values are often over-estimated at higher temperatures due to alkali and boron oxide evaporation during the measurement and glass preparation, including data by Lakatos et al. (1972) and the recently published High temperature glass melt property database for process modeling by Seward et al. (2005). Similarly, in the glass transition range many experimental data of borosilicate glasses are reported too high due to phase separation effects. The developed global model corrects those errors. The model standard error was 9-17C, with R^2 = 0.985-0.989. The prediction 95% confidence interval for glass in mass production largely depends on the glass composition of interest, the composition uncertainty, and the viscosity level. New insights in the mixed-alkali effect are provided.

Fluegel, Alex

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid viscosity increases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Determination of Liquidus Temperatures from Viscosity for CaO ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Novel Vacuum Aluminothermic Reduction Lithium Process A Study on Production of ... An Estimation Model for the Viscosities of CaF2(-CaO)-Al2O3 Slags .... The Directional Preparation of Colored Steel Slag Glass-ceramic The Effect of...

122

Eddy Viscosity and Stochastic Backscatter Parameterizations on the Sphere for Atmospheric Circulation Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stochastic backscatter, eddy drain viscosity, and net eddy viscosity parameterizations are formulated and calculated for two-dimensional turbulence on the sphere based on eddy damped quasi-normal Markovian and direct interaction approximation ...

Jorgen S. Frederiksen; Antony G. Davies

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Theoretical treatment of the bulk and surface properties of fluids containing long, flexible molecules  

SciTech Connect

Purpose is to develop an equation of state for predicting the thermodynamic properties of fluids containing chain-like molecules ranging from alkanes to polymers. Foundation of this work is the Generalized Flory Dimer (GFD) theory. GFD is extended to square-well chain mixtures. The second virial coefficient has been evaluated for hard-chain and square-well chain fluids using a Monte Carlo approach. The polymer RISM theory was used to determine the segment-segment radial distributrion function for hard chain fluids. Monte Carlo simulations are being performed of the self-diffusion coeffient, shear and longitudinal viscosities, and thermal conductivity for hard chain fluids. (DLC)

Not Available

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Theoretical treatment of the bulk and surface properties of fluids containing long, flexible molecules  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose is to develop an equation of state for predicting the thermodynamic properties of fluids containing chain-like molecules ranging from alkanes to polymers. Foundation of this work is the Generalized Flory Dimer (GFD) theory. GFD is extended to square-well chain mixtures. The second virial coefficient has been evaluated for hard-chain and square-well chain fluids using a Monte Carlo approach. The polymer RISM theory was used to determine the segment-segment radial distributrion function for hard chain fluids. Monte Carlo simulations are being performed of the self-diffusion coeffient, shear and longitudinal viscosities, and thermal conductivity for hard chain fluids. (DLC)

Not Available

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Geothermal binary-cycle working-fluid properties information. Annual report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The research discussed was performed prior to December 31, 1979. The report was not released until September 30, 1981, so that pressure-enthalpy diagrams for a number of potential geothermal binary cycle working fluids could be prepared in SI units. Efforts were directed principally to working fluid thermophysical property correlation and presentation of properties information. Pressure-enthalpy diagrams are presented for propane, normal butane, isobutane, normal pentane, isopentane and propylene. Generalized correlations are presented for the thermodynamic and transport properties of hydrocarbon pure and mixture working fluids. Specific correlations are presented for the thermodynamic properties of 27 fluids and for the viscosity and thermal conductivity of hydrocarbons including isobutane and isopentane.

Starling, K.E.; Kumar, K.H.; Malik, Z.I.; Batson, B.; Plumb, P.

1981-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

126

Apparatus and method for high temperature viscosity and temperature measurements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A probe for measuring the viscosity and/or temperature of high temperature liquids, such as molten metals, glass and similar materials comprises a rod which is an acoustical waveguide through which a transducer emits an ultrasonic signal through one end of the probe, and which is reflected from (a) a notch or slit or an interface between two materials of the probe and (b) from the other end of the probe which is in contact with the hot liquid or hot melt, and is detected by the same transducer at the signal emission end. To avoid the harmful effects of introducing a thermally conductive heat sink into the melt, the probe is made of relatively thermally insulative (non-heat-conductive) refractory material. The time between signal emission and reflection, and the amplitude of reflections, are compared against calibration curves to obtain temperature and viscosity values.

Balasubramaniam, Krishnan (Mississippi State, MS); Shah, Vimal (Houston, TX); Costley, R. Daniel (Mississippi State, MS); Singh, Jagdish P. (Mississippi State, MS)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Kinetic Alfven double layer formed by electron viscosity  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the electron viscosity on the kinetic Alfven solitary wave is investigated. It is found that small electron viscosity changes the electron motion along the magnetic field producing a boundary layer, and thus that in a low beta electron-ion plasma({beta} Much-Less-Than m{sub e}/m{sub i}), an obliquely propagating kinetic solitary Alfven wave can become a double layer. This double layer can exist in the sub-Alfvenic and super-Alfvenic regimes. The length scale of density drop for this double layer is on the order of that of the conventional kinetic solitary Alfven wave, and thus this double layer can accelerate electrons on a very short length scale.

Woo, M. H.; Ryu, C.-M. [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, C. R. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

128

Process for stabilizing the viscosity characteristics of coal derived materials and the stabilized materials obtained thereby  

SciTech Connect

A process is disclosed for stabilizing the viscosity of coal derived materials such as an SRC product by adding up to 5.0% by weight of a light volatile phenolic viscosity repressor. The viscosity will remain stabilized for a period of time of up to 4 months.

Bronfenbrenner, James C. (Allentown, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Allentown, PA); Tewari, Krishna (Allentown, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

The effective approach for predicting viscosity of saturated and undersaturated reservoir oil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Predicting reservoir oil viscosity with numerical correlation equations using field-measured variables is widely used in the petroleum industry. Most published correlation equations, however, have never profoundly realized the genuine relationship between the reservoir oil viscosity and other field-measured parameters. Using the proposed systematic strategy is an effective solution for achieving a high performance correlation equation of reservoir oil viscosity. The proposed strategy begins with creating a large database of pressure-volumetemperature (PVT) reports and screening all possible erroneous data. The relationship between the oil viscosity and other field-measured parameters is intensively analyzed by using theoretical and empirical approaches to determine the influential parameters for correlating reservoir oil viscosity equations. The alternating conditional expectation (ACE) algorithm is applied for correlating saturated and undersaturated oil viscosity equations. The precision of field-measured PVT data is inspected by a data reconciliation technique in order to clarify the correctness of oil viscosity correlations. Finally, the performance of the proposed oil viscosity correlation equations is represented in terms of statistical error analysis functions. The result of this study shows that reservoir oil density turns out to be the most effective parameter for correlating both saturated and undersaturated reservoir oil viscosity equations. Expected errors in laboratory-measured oil viscosity are the main factors that degrade the efficiency of oil viscosity correlation equations. The proposed correlation equations provide a reasonable estimate of reservoir oil viscosity; and their superior performance is more reliable than that of published correlation equations at any reservoir conditions.

Kulchanyavivat, Sawin

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

A framework for developing a mimetic tensor artificial viscosity for Lagrangian hydrocodes on arbitrary polygonal meshes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We construct a new mimetic tensor artificial viscosity on general polygonal meshes. The tensor artificial viscosity is based on discretization of coordinate invariant operators, divergence of a tensor and gradient of a vector. The focus of this paper ... Keywords: Artificial numerical viscosity, Lagrangian hydrodynamics, Polygonal meshes

K. Lipnikov; M. Shashkov

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Evaluation of commercially available geothermal drilling fluids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A review of geothermal drilling in the United States has revealed that serious problems are being encountered with corrosion and degradation of drilling fluids in high temperature wells. The best high temperature drilling fluids that could be formulated from commercially available materials were obtained from the five largest mud companies. These included samples of 9 and 18 lb/gal water muds and 18 lb/gal oil muds. Over 4,000 tests were conducted on these muds to evaluate their performance at high temperature. This included testing at temperatures to 550/sup 0/F and pressures to 15,000 psi. These tests revealed that most of the water muds had high viscosity, high filtration rates and poor corrosivity characteristics at temperatures above 350/sup 0/F. Although the oil muds performed better than water muds at high temperatures, some problems were encountered with viscosity at temperatures above 450/sup 0/F and with filtration at temperatures above 500/sup 0/F. Generally the corrosivity characteristics of the oil muds were much better than those of the water muds. Overall, oil muds have better temperature stability than water muds but their use is often limited because of problems with surface pollution, contamination of water zones and reservoir damage. Biodegradable oil mud systems would overcome some of these limitations.

Remont, L.J.; Rehm, W.A.; McDonald, W.J.; Maurer, W.C.

1976-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Viscosity and Rotation in Core-Collapse Supernovae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct models of core-collapse supernovae in one spatial dimension, including rotation, angular momentum transport, and viscous dissipation employing an alpha-prescription. We compare the evolution of a fiducial 11 M_sun non-rotating progenitor with its evolution including a wide range of imposed initial rotation profiles (1.25viscosity in the core-collapse environment: neutrino viscosity, turbulent viscosity caused by the magnetorotational instability (MRI), and turbulent viscosity by entropy- and composition-gradient-driven convection. We argue that the MRI is the most effective. We find that for rotation periods in the range P_0<~5 s, and a range of viscous stresses, that the post-bounce dynamics is significantly effected by the inclusion of this extra energy deposition mechanism; in several cases we obtain strong supernova explosions.

Todd A. Thompson; Eliot Quataert; Adam Burrows

2004-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

133

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND VISCOSITY OF GAS MIXTURES (thesis)  

SciTech Connect

Correlations based upon empirical modified equations derived from kinetic theory were developed for the thermal conductivity and viscosity of gas mixtures. The conductivity equation was compared to 226 binary mixture conductivities in temperatures from 0 to 774 deg C from the literature and this work. The average deviation is 2.1%. In correlating conductivity data of mixtures of polyatomic molecules, the energy transport is considered in two parts, i.e., one protion transferred by collision and the other by diffusion. The proposed viscosity equation reproduces 103 binary data points with an average deviation of 1.3%. These equations are more consistent with experiment than existing correlations in the literature. the relation of the conductivity or viscosity to composition and temperature are discussed in the light of the proposed equations. It has been demonstrated that, at a given composition, the ratio of the measured conductivity to that calculated on the molar average basis for mixtures of most simple molecules and the ratio of the measured viscosity to that calculated on the molar average basis for mixtures of most gases should be nearly constant over a temperature range of 200 to 300 deg C. The thermal conductivity of ten gases and selected binary and ternary mixtures of them were measured in a concentric silver cylinder cell in the temperature range of 100 to 540 deg C The gases are He, A, N/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, C/sub 2/ H/sub 4/, C/sub 3/H/sub 8/, methyl ether , and methyl formats. (auth)

Cheung, H.

1958-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Electrical Conduction, Heat Conduction, Shear Viscosity and Entropy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present here how to study steady linear transport phenomena by using entropy. We study the system and the environment together and identify their entropies. Concerning their interaction, quantum mechanics is considered. A time parameter $\\tau$ is therefore introduced to characterize the discrete nature of the quantum interactions. By combining $\\tau$ and the entropy, an approach is constructed successfully to study electrical conduction, heat conduction and shear viscosity

Zhang, Yong-Jun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Thermal conductivity and viscosity of self-assembled alcohol ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Aldrich) that have hydrophilic heads facing inward and hydropho- bic tails facing outward into the base fluid PAO (Chevron Phillips Chemical ...

2011-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

136

TURBULENT EXCHANGE OF MOMENTUM, MASS, AND HEAT BETWEEN FLUID STREAMS AND PIPE WALL  

SciTech Connect

S>A new correlation is presented to describe mass and heat transfer to a fluid in a fully developed turbulent flow in a pipe. The correlation differs from earlier empirical relations in that it is based on a theoretical continuous eddy-viscosity distribution from the wall to the center of the pipe. Transfer rates calculated from the new correlation are in excellent agree ment with experimental data on mass and heat transfer to fluid streams. (auth)

Wasan, D.T.; Wilke, C.R.

1963-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Fluid Resistance Analysis of Sand Control Slotted Liner with Compound Cavity Based on Fluent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Slotted liners have been used for many years to provide sand control in many oil industry applications. They are commonly applied in reservoirs that produce high-viscosity oil from horizontal wells with unconsolidated, high-permeability sands. However, ... Keywords: slotted liner, newly-designed slot, Fluid resistance

Hang Li; Yonghong Liu; Jianmin Ma; Xinfang Wei

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Fluid effects on seismic waves in hard rocks with fractures and in soft granular media  

SciTech Connect

When fractures in otherwise hard rocks are filled with fluids (oil, gas, water, CO{sub 2}), the type and physical state of the fluid (liquid or gas) can make a large difference in the wave speeds and attenuation properties of seismic waves. The present work summarizes methods of deconstructing theses effects of fractures, together with any fluids contained within them, on wave propagation as observed in reflection seismic data. Additional studies of waves in fluid-saturated granular media show that the behavior can be quite different from that for fractured media, since these materials are typically much softer mechanically than are the fractured rocks (i.e., having a very small drained moduli). Important fluid effects in such media are often governed as much by fluid viscosity as by fluid bulk modulus.

Berryman, James G.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Effects of Bulk Viscosity in Non-linear Bubble Dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The non-linear bubble dynamics equations in a compressible liquid have been modified considering the effects of compressibility of both the liquid and the gas at the bubble interface. A new bubble boundary equation has been derived, which includes a new term resulted from the liquid bulk viscosity effects. The influence of this term has been numerically investigated considering the effects of water vapor and chemical reactions on the bubble evolution. The results clearly indicate that the new term has an important damping role at the collapse, so that its consideration decreases the amplitude of the bubble rebounds after the collapse. This damping feature is more remarkable for higher deriving pressures.

Moshaii, A; Taeibi-Rahni, M; Moshaii, Ahmad; Sadighi-Bonabi, Rasool; Taeibi-Rahni, Mohammad

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Shear viscosity to entropy density ratio of a relativistic Hagedorn resonance gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The new state of matter produced at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider reveals a strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma with an extremely small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio eta/s. We calculate the eta/s of an equilibrated hadron matter characterized by a relativistic hadron resonance gas with a Hagedorn mass spectrum that grows exponentially with the hadron mass. We find with increase in temperature of the system the eta/s value decreases due to rapid increase in the multiplicity of massive resonances. In the vicinity of the critical temperature for deconfinement transition, the minimum value of eta/s in the Hagedorn resonance gas is found to be consistent with the current estimates for a strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma.

Subrata Pal

2010-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid viscosity increases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Fluid transport container  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitting for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container. 13 figs.

DeRoos, B.G.; Downing, J.P. Jr.; Neal, M.P.

1995-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

142

Fluid transport container  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitment for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container.

DeRoos, Bradley G. (41 James St., Sequim, WA 98382); Downing, Jr., John P. (260 Kala Heights Dr., Port Townsand, WA 98368); Neal, Michael P. (921 Amberly Pl., Columbus, OH 43220)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Pore-scale modeling of immiscible and miscible fluid flows using smoothed particle hydrodynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A numerical model based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) was developed and used to simulate immiscible and miscible fluid flows in porous media and to study effects of porous scale heterogeneity and anisotropy on such flows. Models for heterogeneous porous media were generated by using randomly located non-intersecting circular grains of different sizes, and pore scale anisotropy was introduced by randomly inserting non-overlapping particles on either side of the gap between two self-affine fractal curves to create a microfracture. . Different fluid wetting behaviors and surface tensions were modeled using pairwise particle-particle interactions. Particles with different masses and viscosities were used to model multiphase flow. In simulations of miscible fluid flow, particles with variable, composition dependent, masses and viscosities were used. Artificial surface tension effects were avoided by basing the SPH equations on the particle number density.

Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Meakin, Paul

2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

144

Generation of energy by means of a working fluid, and regeneration of a working fluid  

SciTech Connect

A method is provided of optimizing, within limits imposed by a heating medium from the surface of an ocean and a cooling medium from an ocean depth, the energy supply capability of a gaseous working fluid which is expanded from a charged high pressure level to a spent low pressure level to provide available energy, the method comprising expanding the gaseous working fluid to a spent low pressure level where the condensation temperature of the working fluid is below the minimum temperature of the cold water, and regenerating the spent working fluid by, in at least one regeneration stage, absorbing the working fluid being regenerated in an absorption stage by dissolving it in a solvent solution while cooling with the cold water, the solvent solution comprising a solvent having an initial working fluid concentration which is sufficient to provide a solution having a boiling point, after dissolving the working fluid being regenerated, which is above the minimum temperature of the cold water to permit effective absorption of the working fluid being regenerated, increasing the pressure and then evaporating the working fluid being regenerated by heating in an evaporation stage with the available hot water, feeding the evaporated working fluid and the solvent solution to a separator stage for separating the evaporated working fluid and the solvent solution, recovering the evaporated, separated working fluid, and recycling the balance of the solvent solution from the separator stage to constitute the solvent solution for the absorption stage; and an apparatus for carrying out the method.

Kalina, A.I.

1982-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

145

Control of Slag Chemistry for the Reduction of Viscosity and Refractory Corrosion  

The current invention describes methods to control slag chemistry for both the reduction of slag viscosity and refractory wear in gasification ...

146

Environmentally safe fluid extractor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

Sungaila, Zenon F. (Orland Park, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Drilling Fluid Corrosion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 8   Drilling fluid corrosion control troubleshooting chart...Table 8 Drilling fluid corrosion control troubleshooting chart Corrosion cause Primary source Identification Major corrosion forms Remedies Oxygen Atmosphere, mud conditioning, equipment, oxidizing

148

Fluid Dynamics of Carbon Dioxide Disposal into Saline Aquifers  

SciTech Connect

Injection of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into saline aquifers has been proposed as a means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (geological carbon sequestration). Large-scale injection of CO{sub 2} will induce a variety of coupled physical and chemical processes, including multiphase fluid flow, fluid pressurization and changes in effective stress, solute transport, and chemical reactions between fluids and formation minerals. This work addresses some of these issues with special emphasis given to the physics of fluid flow in brine formations. An investigation of the thermophysical properties of pure carbon dioxide, water and aqueous solutions of CO{sub 2} and NaCl has been conducted. As a result, accurate representations and models for predicting the overall thermophysical behavior of the system CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-NaCl are proposed and incorporated into the numerical simulator TOUGH2/ECO{sub 2}. The basic problem of CO{sub 2} injection into a radially symmetric brine aquifer is used to validate the results of TOUGH2/ECO2. The numerical simulator has been applied to more complex flow problem including the CO{sub 2} injection project at the Sleipner Vest Field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea and the evaluation of fluid flow dynamics effects of CO{sub 2} injection into aquifers. Numerical simulation results show that the transport at Sleipner is dominated by buoyancy effects and that shale layers control vertical migration of CO{sub 2}. These results are in good qualitative agreement with time lapse surveys performed at the site. High-resolution numerical simulation experiments have been conducted to study the onset of instabilities (viscous fingering) during injection of CO{sub 2} into saline aquifers. The injection process can be classified as immiscible displacement of an aqueous phase by a less dense and less viscous gas phase. Under disposal conditions (supercritical CO{sub 2}) the viscosity of carbon dioxide can be less than the viscosity of the aqueous phase by a factor of 15. Because of the lower viscosity, the CO{sub 2} displacement front will have a tendency towards instability. Preliminary simulation results show good agreement between classical instability solutions and numerical predictions of finger growth and spacing obtained using different gas/liquid viscosity ratios, relative permeability and capillary pressure models. Further studies are recommended to validate these results over a broader range of conditions.

Garcia, Julio Enrique

2003-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

149

Fluid Suspensions & Emulsions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fluid Suspensions & Emulsions. Summary: Our primary interest is protein ... protein solutions? 1. Health & Safety. There is ongoing ...

2013-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

150

Fluid dynamics of bacterial turbulence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Self-sustained turbulent structures have been observed in a wide range of living fluids, yet no quantitative theory exists to explain their properties. We report experiments on active turbulence in highly concentrated 3D suspensions of Bacillus subtilis and compare them with a minimal fourth-order vector-field theory for incompressible bacterial dynamics. Velocimetry of bacteria and surrounding fluid, determined by imaging cells and tracking colloidal tracers, yields consistent results for velocity statistics and correlations over two orders of magnitude in kinetic energy, revealing a decrease of fluid memory with increasing swimming activity and linear scaling between energy and enstrophy. The best-fit model parameters allow for quantitative agreement with experimental data.

Jrn Dunkel; Sebastian Heidenreich; Knut Drescher; Henricus H. Wensink; Markus Br; Raymond E. Goldstein

2013-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

151

Fluid Dynamic and Performance Behavior of Multiphase Progressive Cavity Pumps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is common for an oil well to produce a mixture of hydrocarbons that flash when exposed to atmospheric pressure. The separation of oil and gas mixtures on site may prove expensive and lead to higher infrastructure and maintenance costs as well. A multiphase pump offers a good alternative with a lower capital cost and increased overall production. A Progressive Cavity Pump (PCP) is a positive displacement pump type that can be used to pump a wide range of multiphase mixtures, including high viscosity fluids with entrained gas and solid particles in suspension. Despite its advantages, a PCP has a reduced ability to handle high gas-liquid ratios due to limitations of its elastomeric stator material required to overcome thermo and mechanical effects. Also the efficiency decreases significantly with increases in gas volume fractions and reduced differential pressures. The current study focuses on studying the behavior of this unique pump in a wide range of GVFs and studying the effect of this ratio on overall efficiency, temperature and pressure distribution on the stator. The pump exhibits vibration issues at specific differential pressures and they have been studied in this work. This can be of critical value as severe vibration issues can damage the pump components such as couplings and bearings leading to high maintenance costs. Another important issue addressed by this research is the behavior of this pump in transient conditions. Oil well production is highly unpredictable with unexpected rises and drops in GVFs. These transient conditions have been simulated by varying the GVF over wide ranges and studying the pump's behavior in terms of load, temperature rises and instantaneous pressure profiles on the pump stator. This thesis provides a comprehensive study of this pump, its operating ranges and behavior in off-design conditions to assist oil and gas exploration ventures in making an informed choice in pump selection for their applications based on field conditions.

Narayanan, Shankar Bhaskaran

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Spinning fluid cosmology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dynamics of a spinning fluid in a flat cosmological model is investigated. The space-time is itself generated by the spinning fluid which is characterized by an energy-momentum tensor consisting a sum of the usual perfect-fluid energy-momentum tensor and some Belinfante-Rosenfeld tensors. It is shown that the equations of motion admit a solution for which the fluid four-velocity and four-momentum are not co-linear in general. The momentum and spin densities of the fluid are expressed in terms of the scale factor.

Morteza Mohseni

2008-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

153

Spinning fluid cosmology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dynamics of a spinning fluid in a flat cosmological model is investigated. The space-time is itself generated by the spinning fluid which is characterized by an energy-momentum tensor consisting a sum of the usual perfect-fluid energy-momentum tensor and some Belinfante-Rosenfeld tensors. It is shown that the equations of motion admit a solution for which the fluid four-velocity and four-momentum are not co-linear in general. The momentum and spin densities of the fluid are expressed in terms of the scale factor.

Mohseni, Morteza

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Spinning fluids reactor  

SciTech Connect

A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

155

Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

Tiegs, T.N.; Wittmer, D.E.

1995-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

156

Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Wittmer, Dale E. (Carbondale, IL)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

A high-wavenumber viscosity for high-resolution numerical methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A spectral-like viscosity is proposed for centered differencing schemes to help stabilize numerical solutions and reduce oscillations near discontinuities. Errors introduced by the added dissipation can be made arbitrarily small by adjusting the power ... Keywords: artificial viscosity, compact schemes, shock capturing

Andrew W. Cook; William H. Cabot

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Inertial Coupling Method for particles in an incompressible fluctuating fluid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop an inertial coupling method for modeling the dynamics of point-like 'blob' particles immersed in an incompressible fluid, generalizing previous work for compressible fluids. The coupling consistently includes excess (positive or negative) inertia of the particles relative to the displaced fluid, and accounts for thermal fluctuations in the fluid momentum equation. The coupling between the fluid and the blob is based on a no-slip constraint equating the particle velocity with the local average of the fluid velocity, and conserves momentum and energy. We demonstrate that the formulation obeys a fluctuation-dissipation balance, owing to the non-dissipative nature of the no-slip coupling. We develop a spatio-temporal discretization that preserves, as best as possible, these properties of the continuum formulation. In the spatial discretization, the local averaging and spreading operations are accomplished using compact kernels commonly used in immersed boundary methods. We find that the special properties of these kernels make the discrete blob a particle with surprisingly physically-consistent volume, mass, and hydrodynamic properties. We develop a second-order semi-implicit temporal integrator that maintains discrete fluctuation-dissipation balance, and is not limited in stability by viscosity. Furthermore, the temporal scheme requires only constant-coefficient Poisson and Helmholtz linear solvers, enabling a very efficient and simple FFT-based implementation on GPUs. We numerically investigate the performance of the method on several standard test problems...

F. Balboa Usabiaga; R. Delgado-Buscalioni; B. E. Griffith; A. Donev

2012-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

159

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Working Fluids Low GWP Working Fluids Low GWP Refrigerants - CRADA Ed Vineyard Oak Ridge National Laboratory vineyardea@ornl.gov (865) 574-0576 3 April 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: - High GWP refrigerants increase CO 2 equivalent emissions for HVAC&R equipment - Low GWP alternatives may increase energy consumption, introduce safety risks, require significant modifications to equipment, and have higher costs

160

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Working Fluids Low GWP Working Fluids Low GWP Refrigerants - CRADA Ed Vineyard Oak Ridge National Laboratory vineyardea@ornl.gov (865) 574-0576 3 April 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: - High GWP refrigerants increase CO 2 equivalent emissions for HVAC&R equipment - Low GWP alternatives may increase energy consumption, introduce safety risks, require significant modifications to equipment, and have higher costs

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid viscosity increases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Dissipative instability of MHD tangential discontinuity in magnetized plasmas with anisotropic viscosity and thermal conductivity.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The stability of the MHD tangential discontinuity is studied in compressible plasmas in the presence of anisotropic viscosity and thermal conductivity. The general dispersion equation is derived and solutions to this dispersion equation and stability criteria are obtained for the limiting cases of incompressible and cold plasmas. In these two limiting cases the effect of thermal conductivity vanishes and the solutions are only influenced by viscosity. The stability criteria for viscous plasmas are compared with those for ideal plasmas where stability is determined by the Kelvin-Helmholtz velocity VKH as a threshold for the difference in the equilibrium velocities. Viscosity turns out to have a destabilizing influence when the viscosity coefficient takes different values at the two sides of the discontinuity. Viscosity lowers the threshold velocity V c below the ideal KelvinHelmholtz velocity VKH , so that there is a range of velocities between V c and VKH where the overstability is of ...

Michael Ruderman; Erwin Verwichte; Robertus Erdelyi; Marcel Goossens; Elyiyy

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Low-melting point inorganic nitrate salt heat transfer fluid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low-melting point, heat transfer fluid made of a mixture of four inorganic nitrate salts: 9-18 wt % NaNO.sub.3, 40-52 wt % KNO.sub.3, 13-21 wt % LiNO.sub.3, and 20-27 wt % Ca(NO.sub.3).sub.2. These compositions can have liquidus temperatures less than 100 C; thermal stability limits greater than 500 C; and viscosity in the range of 5-6 cP at 300 C; and 2-3 cP at 400 C.

Bradshaw, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Brosseau, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

163

Motion of Fluids in the Presence of a Boundary | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Motion of Fluids in the Presence of a Boundary Motion of Fluids in the Presence of a Boundary Jan 09 2014 10:00 AM - 11:00 AM Gung-Min Gie, Indiana University, Bloomington Computer Science and Mathematics Division Seminar Joint Institute for Computational Sciences (Building 5100), Auditorium (Room 128) CONTACT : Email: Clayton Webster Phone:865.574.3649 Add to Calendar SHARE In most practical applications of fluid mechanics, it is the interaction of the fluid with the boundary that is most critical to understanding the behavior of the fluid. Physically important parameters, such as the lift and drag of a wing, are determined by the sharp transition the air makes from being at rest on the wing to flowing freely around the airplane near the wing. Mathematically, the behavior of such flows at small viscosity is

164

Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems May 16, 2013 - 3:02pm Addthis Illustration of a solar water heater. Illustration of a solar water heater. Heat-transfer fluids carry heat through solar collectors and a heat exchanger to the heat storage tanks in solar water heating systems. When selecting a heat-transfer fluid, you and your solar heating contractor should consider the following criteria: Coefficient of expansion - the fractional change in length (or sometimes in volume, when specified) of a material for a unit change in temperature Viscosity - resistance of a liquid to sheer forces (and hence to flow) Thermal capacity - the ability of matter to store heat Freezing point - the temperature below which a liquid turns into a

165

Ten iterative steps for model development and evaluation applied to Computational Fluid Dynamics for Environmental Fluid Mechanics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is increasingly used to study a wide variety of complex Environmental Fluid Mechanics (EFM) processes, such as water flow and turbulent mixing of contaminants in rivers and estuaries and wind flow and air pollution ... Keywords: Air and water quality, Building aerodynamics, Environmental Fluid Mechanics, River hydraulics, Transverse mixing, Wind flow

B. Blocken; C. Gualtieri

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Role of Fluid Pressure in the Production Behavior of EnhancedGeothermal Systems with CO2 as Working Fluid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical simulation is used to evaluate mass flow and heatextraction rates from enhanced geothermal injection-production systemsthat are operated using either CO2 or water as heat transmission fluid.For a model system patterned after the European hot dry rock experimentat Soultz, we find significantly greater heat extraction rates for CO2 ascompared to water. The strong dependence of CO2 mobility (=density/viscosity) upon temperature and pressure may lead to unusualproduction behavior, where heat extraction rates can actually increasefor a time, even as the reservoir is subject to thermaldepletion.

Pruess, Karsten

2007-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

167

Microwave fluid flow meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

Billeter, Thomas R. (Richland, WA); Philipp, Lee D. (Richland, WA); Schemmel, Richard R. (Lynchburg, VA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Design and implement for diagnosis systems of hemorheology on blood viscosity syndrome based on GrC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses the design and implement for the diagnosis software of blood flowing dynamic theory on blood viscosity syndrome (BVS). The BVS is a clinical syndrome caused by one or several blood viscosity factors. The software of diagnosis and ...

Qing Liu; Feng Jiang; Dayong Deng

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Definition: Isotopic Analysis- Fluid | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons. An isotopic analysis looks at a particular isotopic element(s) in a given system, while the conditions which increase/decrease the number of neutrons are well understood and measurable. Fluid isotopes are used to characterize a fluids origin, age, and/or interaction with rocks or other fluids based on unique isotopic ratios or concentrations.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Isotope geochemistry is an aspect of geology based upon study of the relative and absolute concentrations of the elements and their isotopes in

170

Direct Numerical Simulation of Surfactant-Stabilized Emulsions Morphology and Shear Viscosity in Starting Shear Flow  

SciTech Connect

A 3D lattice Boltzmann model for two-phase flow with amphiphilic surfactant was used to investigate the evolution of emulsion morphology and shear stress in starting shear flow. The interfacial contributions were analyzed for low and high volume fractions and varying surfactant activity. A transient viscoelastic contribution to the emulsion rheology under constant strain rate conditions was attributed to the interfacial stress. For droplet volume fractions below 0.3 and an average capillary number of about 0.25, highly elliptical droplets formed. Consistent with affine deformation models, gradual elongation of the droplets increased the shear stress at early times and reduced it at later times. Lower interfacial tension with increased surfactant activity counterbalanced the effect of increased interfacial area, and the net shear stress did not change significantly. For higher volume fractions, co-continuous phases with a complex topology were formed. The surfactant decreased the interfacial shear stress due mainly to advection of surfactant to higher curvature areas. Our results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data for polymer blends in terms of transient interfacial stresses and limited enhancement of the emulsion viscosity at larger volume fractions where the phases are co-continuous.

Roar Skartlien; Espen Sollum; Andreas Akselsen; Paul Meakin

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Complex Fluids Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... applications in energy, sustainability, electronics and medicine. As these materials are typically in the fluid state during their production or end-use ...

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

172

Working/Functional Fluids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... power cycle except that it uses an organic working fluid instead of water to allow operation at lower temperatures, including geothermal or solar ...

2012-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

173

Hydrodynamic modes in a confined granular fluid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Confined granular fluids, placed in a shallow box that is vibrated vertically, can achieve homogeneous stationary states thanks to energy injection mechanisms that take place throughout the system. These states can be stable even at high densities and inelasticities allowing for a detailed analysis of the hydrodynamic modes that govern the dynamics of granular fluids. Analyzing the decay of the time correlation functions it is shown that there is a crossover between a quasielastic regime in which energy evolves as a slow mode, to a inelastic regime, with energy slaved to the other conserved fields. The two regimes have well differentiated transport properties and, in the inelastic regime, the dynamics can be described by a reduced hydrodynamics with modified longitudinal viscosity and sound speed. The crossover between the two regimes takes place at a wavevector that is proportional to the inelasticity. A two dimensional granular model, with collisions that mimic the energy transfers that take place in a confined system is studied by means of microscopic simulations. The results show excellent agreement with the theoretical framework and allows the validation of hydrodynamic-like models.

Ricardo Brito; Dino Risso; Rodrigo Soto

2013-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

174

Supercritical Fluid Extraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In supercritical fluid extraction, many options are available for achieving and controlling the desired selectivity, which is extremely sensitive to variations in pressure, temperature, and choice of solvent. The ability of supercritical fluids to vaporize relatively nonvolatile compounds at moderate temperatures can reduce the energy requirements compared to distillation and liquid extraction.

Johnston, K. P.; Flarsheim, W. M.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

MAX Fluid Dynamics facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MAX Fluid Dynamics facility MAX Fluid Dynamics facility Capabilities Engineering Experimentation Reactor Safety Testing and Analysis Overview Nuclear Reactor Severe Accident Experiments MAX NSTF SNAKE Aerosol Experiments System Components Laser Applications Robots Applications Other Facilities Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr MAX Fluid Dynamics facility Providing high resolution data for development of computational tools that model fluid flow and heat transfer within complex systems such as the core of a nuclear reactor. 1 2 3 4 5 Hot and cold air jets are mixed within a glass tank while laser-based anemometers and a high-speed infrared camera characterize fluid flow and heat transfer behavior. Click on image to view larger size image.

176

Frequency-dependent processing and interpretation (FDPI) of seismic data for identifying, imaging and monitoring fluid-saturated underground reservoirs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for identifying, imaging and monitoring dry or fluid-saturated underground reservoirs using seismic waves reflected from target porous or fractured layers is set forth. Seismic imaging the porous or fractured layer occurs by low pass filtering of the windowed reflections from the target porous or fractured layers leaving frequencies below low-most corner (or full width at half maximum) of a recorded frequency spectra. Additionally, the ratio of image amplitudes is shown to be approximately proportional to reservoir permeability, viscosity of fluid, and the fluid saturation of the porous or fractured layers.

Goloshubin, Gennady M. (Sugar Land, TX); Korneev, Valeri A. (Lafayette, CA)

2005-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

177

Equatorial Circulation of a Global Ocean Climate Model with Anisotropic Horizontal Viscosity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Horizontal momentum flux in a global ocean climate model is formulated as an anisotropic viscosity with two spatially varying coefficients. This friction can be made purely dissipative, does not produce unphysical torques, and satisfies the ...

William G. Large; Gokhan Danabasoglu; James C. McWilliams; Peter R. Gent; Frank O. Bryan

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

On Eddy Viscosity, Energy Cascades, and the Horizontal Resolution of Gridded Satellite Altimeter Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Motivated by the recent interest in ocean energetics, the widespread use of horizontal eddy viscosity in models, and the promise of high horizontal resolution data from the planned wide-swath satellite altimeter, this paper explores the impacts of ...

Brian K. Arbic; Kurt L. Polzin; Robert B. Scott; James G. Richman; Jay F. Shriver

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

D6: Viscosity of Ethylene Glycol+Water Based Al2O3 Nanofluids ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

However, few studies are available on viscosity of nanofluids especially in presence of ... A12: In Vitro Evaluation of Three-Dimensional PCL-Bioactive Glass Scaffolds .... D22: Phase Field Model of Li Dendrite Formation in Lithium Ion Batteries.

180

Effects of lubricant viscosity and surface texturing on ring-pack performance in internal combustion engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The piston ring-pack contributes approximately 25% of the mechanical losses in an internal combustion engine. Both lubricant viscosity and surface texturing were investigated in an effort to reduce this ring-pack friction ...

Takata, Rosalind (Rosalind Kazuko), 1978-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid viscosity increases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Fluid sampling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank.

Houck, Edward D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Fluid sampling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention comprises a fluid sampling system which allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped up into a sampling jet of venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to decrease, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodicially leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank.

Houck, E.D.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

183

Fluid sampling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to be decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank. 4 figs.

Houck, E.D.

1994-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

184

Tracing Geothermal Fluids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Geothermal water must be injected back into the reservoir after it has been used for power production. Injection is critical in maximizing the power production and lifetime of the reservoir. To use injectate effectively the direction and velocity of the injected water must be known or inferred. This information can be obtained by using chemical tracers to track the subsurface flow paths of the injected fluid. Tracers are chemical compounds that are added to the water as it is injected back into the reservoir. The hot production water is monitored for the presence of this tracer using the most sensitive analytic methods that are economically feasible. The amount and concentration pattern of the tracer revealed by this monitoring can be used to evaluate how effective the injection strategy is. However, the tracers must have properties that suite the environment that they will be used in. This requires careful consideration and testing of the tracer properties. In previous and parallel investigations we have developed tracers that are suitable from tracing liquid water. In this investigation, we developed tracers that can be used for steam and mixed water/steam environments. This work will improve the efficiency of injection management in geothermal fields, lowering the cost of energy production and increasing the power output of these systems.

Michael C. Adams; Greg Nash

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

TRACING FLUID SOURCES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM USING FLUID...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

TRACING FLUID SOURCES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM USING FLUID-INCLUSION GAS CHEMISTRY Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: TRACING...

186

FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

Subhash Shah

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Shear viscosity and the r-mode instability window in superfluid neutron stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze how recent computations of the shear viscosity $\\eta$ in the core of superfluid neutron stars affect the r-mode instability window. We first analyze the contribution of superfluid phonons to the viscosity, both in their hydrodynamical and ballistic regime. We also consider the recent computation of $\\eta$ arising from the collisions of electrons with electrons and protons by Shternin and Yakovlev, and discuss how the interactions among superfluid phonons and electrons might contribute to the shear viscosity. For assessing the r-mode instability window we compare the shear viscosity due to phonons in the hydrodynamical regime with respect to the shear viscosity due to electron collisions. Only at high temperatures the superfluid phonon contribution to $\\eta$ starts to dominate the process of r-mode damping. While our results for the instability window are preliminary, as other dissipative processes should be taken into account as well, they differ from previous evaluations of the r-mode damping due to the shear viscosity in superfluid neutron stars.

Cristina Manuel; Laura Tolos

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

188

Supercritical fluid extraction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Laintz, Kenneth (Pullman, WA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Free convection over a non-isothermal axisymmetric body immersed in a porous medium saturated with an electrically conducting non-Newtonian fluid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The study investigates the problem of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) free convection over a non-isothermal axisymmetric body under the action of transverse magnetic field. The body is embedded in a porous medium saturated with electrically conducting non-Newtonian power law fluid. In order to obtain similarity solution, it is assumed that the viscosity of the fluid decays exponentially with temperature. The qualitative results are illustrated for a vertical flat plate, horizontal cylinder and sphere.

Shobha Bagai; Chandrashekhar Nishad

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

190

IDENTIFYING FRACTURES AND FLUID TYPES USING FLUID INCLUSION STRATIGRAPHY |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

IDENTIFYING FRACTURES AND FLUID TYPES USING FLUID INCLUSION STRATIGRAPHY IDENTIFYING FRACTURES AND FLUID TYPES USING FLUID INCLUSION STRATIGRAPHY Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: IDENTIFYING FRACTURES AND FLUID TYPES USING FLUID INCLUSION STRATIGRAPHY Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy (FIS) is a method currently being developed for use in geothermal systems to identify fractures and fluid types. This paper is the third in a series of papers on the development of FIS. Fluid inclusion gas chemistry is analyzed and plotted on well log diagrams. The working hypothesis is that select gaseous species and species ratios indicate areas of groundwater and reservoir fluid flow and reservoir seals. Previously we showed that FIS analyses identify fluid types and

191

Application of Cutting Fluids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...is transferred to the drill by a rotating gland and is forced directly into the cutting zone. The fluid flowing from the hole assists in chip removal. Oil-hole drills have become very popular in

192

Basic fluid system trainer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention, a trainer mounted and housed within a mobile console, is used to teach and reinforce fluid principles to students. The system trainer has two centrifugal pumps, each driven by a corresponding two-speed electric motor. The motors are controlled by motor controllers for operating the pumps to circulate the fluid stored within a supply tank through a closed system. The pumps may be connected in series or in parallel. A number of valves are also included within the system to effect different flow paths for the fluid. In addition, temperature and pressure sensing instruments are installed throughout the closed system for measuring the characteristics of the fluid, as it passes through the different valves and pumps. These measurements are indicated on a front panel mounted to the console, as a teaching aid, to allow the students to observe the characteristics of the system.

Semans, J.P.; Johnson, P.G.; LeBoeuf, R.F. Jr.; Kromka, J.A.; Goron, R.H.; Hay, G.D.

1991-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

193

Basic fluid system trainer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A trainer, mounted and housed within a mobile console, is used to teach and reinforce fluid principles to students. The system trainer has two centrifugal pumps, each driven by a corresponding two-speed electric motor. The motors are controlled by motor controllers for operating the pumps to circulate the fluid stored within a supply tank through a closed system. The pumps may be connected in series or in parallel. A number of valves are also included within the system to effect different flow paths for the fluid. In addition, temperature and pressure sensing instruments are installed throughout the closed system for measuring the characteristics of the fluid, as it passes through the different valves and pumps. These measurements are indicated on a front panel mounted to the console, as a teaching aid, to allow the students to observe the characteristics of the system.

Semans, Joseph P. (Uniontown, PA); Johnson, Peter G. (Pittsburgh, PA); LeBoeuf, Jr., Robert F. (Clairton, PA); Kromka, Joseph A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Goron, Ronald H. (Connellsville, PA); Hay, George D. (Venetia, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Phoresis in fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a unified theory of phoretic phenomena in single-component fluids. Simple formulas are given for the phoretic velocities of small inert force-free non-Brownian particles migrating through otherwise ...

Brenner, Howard

195

MEASUREMENT OF INTERFACIAL TENSION IN FLUID-FLUID SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interfacial tension at fluid-fluid interfaces is a reflection of the excess energy associated with unsaturated in parts per million concentration (27). DYNAMIC INTERFACIAL TENSION MEASUREMENTS In fluid-fluid systems, detergency, foam or froth generation, and stability (3). In these pro- cesses, dynamic interfacial tensions

Loh, Watson

196

GEOTHERMAL FLUID PROPENE AND PROPANE: INDICATORS OF FLUID | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

FLUID PROPENE AND PROPANE: INDICATORS OF FLUID FLUID PROPENE AND PROPANE: INDICATORS OF FLUID Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: GEOTHERMAL FLUID PROPENE AND PROPANE: INDICATORS OF FLUID Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The use of fluid inclusion gas analysis propene/propene ratios is investigated. Ratios of these species are affected by geothermal fluid temperature and oxidations state. Our purpose is to determine if analyses of these species in fluid inclusions these species to can be used to interpret fluid type, history, or process. Analyses were performed on drill cuttings at 20ft intervals from four Coso geothermal wells. Two wells are good producers, one has cold-water entrants in the production zone, and the fourth is a non-producer. The ratios show distinct differences between

197

Control of Slag Chemistry for the Reduction of Viscosity and ...  

coal added to petcoke slags, increasing energy efficiency and reducing raw material costs Allows for use of refractory lining materials other than ...

198

Lecture notes Ideal fluid mechanics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

involves energy loss--such fluids are known as viscous fluids--we will not consider them here. Some fluids of the basic equations underlying the dynamics of ideal fluids is based on three basic principles (see Chorin. Conservation of energy, energy is neither created nor destroyed. In turn these principles generate the: 1

Malham, Simon J.A.

199

Nucleation kinetics of vapor bubbles in a liquid with arbitrary viscosity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The theory of vapor bubbles nucleation in single-component liquids developed in [J. Phys. Chem. B 116, 9445 (2012)] for the case of high viscosity (the (V,/rho,T)- theory) is extended to the case of arbitrary viscosity. For this purpose, Langevin's approach in the theory of Brownian motion, or Kramers' model of chemical reactions, is employed. The obtained expression for the bubbles nucleation rate is valid for arbitrary relations between the kinetic parameters controlling the nucleation process: viscosity, inertia of a liquid, the rate of evaporation into a bubble and the rate of heat exchange between the bubble and ambient liquid. So, the presented theory together with the (V,/rho,T)- theory gives a complete description of the vapor-bubbles nucleation kinetics in one-component liquids. Limiting cases with respect to the mentioned parameters are considered, in particular, the low viscosity limit. It is shown that the low- and high-viscosity nucleation rates differ from each other qualitatively and quantitatively. The possibility of application of the theory to cavitation in superfluid helium-4 is discussed.

Nikolay V. Alekseechkin

2013-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

200

Boiler using combustible fluid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

1974-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid viscosity increases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Universal fluid droplet ejector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A droplet generator comprises a fluid reservoir having a side wall made of glass or quartz, and an end cap made from a silicon plate. The end cap contains a micromachined aperture through which the fluid is ejected. The side wall is thermally fused to the end cap, and no adhesive is necessary. This means that the fluid only comes into contact with the side wall and the end cap, both of which are chemically inert. Amplitudes of drive pulses received by reservoir determine the horizontal displacements of droplets relative to the ejection aperture. The drive pulses are varied such that the dropper generates a two-dimensional array of vertically-falling droplets. Vertical and horizontal interdroplet spacings may be varied in real time. Applications include droplet analysis experiments such as Millikan fractional charge searches and aerosol characterization, as well as material deposition applications.

Lee, Eric R. (Redwood City, CA); Perl, Martin L. (Palo Alto, CA)

1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

202

Evaluation of polymer free drill-in fluids for use in high productivity, horizontal well completions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Advancements in deepwater drilling have necessitated the use of more specialized reservoir drill-in fluids (RDIF). These RDIFs must exhibit unique rheological properties while minimizing formation damage. Xanthan gum biopolymer is generally used as a primary viscosifier in RDIFs. In high salinity brines the high shear rate viscosity that xanthan gum provides can approach levels that could exceed the fracture gradient of the well. Therefore, it is important to maintain a xanthan gum concentration that keeps the equivalent circulating density at a modest level. Reducing the xanthan gum level, however, compromises the hole cleaning properties that the low- shear-rate viscosity provides. Xanthan gum biopolymers are also associated with formation damage, which inhibits the flow of oil and gas during production. A new RDIF, which utilizes no xanthan gum biopolymer, has been recently developed. The new product uses a starch instead of polymer to develop rheological properties. This fluid will primarily be targeted for production zone drilling in highly deviated and horizontal wells. This research focused on filtercake cleanup and the reduced formation damage associated with this biopolymer-free fluid. The behavior of the polymer free fluid was analyzed developing tests at different temperatures, at different drill solids content, and with different treatment fluids. The laboratory methods used were a ceramic disc cell and a linear flow cell. The former will permit an analysis of the time that a certain cleaning treatment takes to flow through a filter cake. The latter simulates well completions in unconsolidated horizontal well reservoirs permitting the estimation of formation damage produced by drilling and completion fluids and the effectiveness of the cleaning treatment applied. Multivariate statistical analysis was performed with the experimental results obtained. Comparison with conventional RDIF data from polymer carbonate and sized salt fluids provided informative contrasts in performance.

Falla Ramirez, Jorge H

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Viscosity of aqueous solutions of n-methyldiethanolamine and of diethanolamine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aqueous solutions of alkanolamines such as monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), di-2-propanolamine (DIPA), and bis[2-(hydroxyamino)ethyl] ether (DGA) are good solvents for the removal of acid gases such as CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2]S from the gas streams of many processes in the natural gas, petroleum, ammonia synthesis, and some chemical industries. The viscosity of aqueous solutions of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and of diethanolamine (DEA) have been measured at five temperatures in the range 25--80 C throughout the whole concentration range. The viscosity has been correlated as a function of composition for use in industrial calculations.

Teng, T.T.; Maham, Y.; Hepler, L.G.; Mather, A.E. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada))

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Viscosity, wave damping and shock wave formation in cold hadronic matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study linear and nonlinear wave propagation in a dense and cold hadron gas and also in a cold quark gluon plasma, taking viscosity into account and using the Navier-Stokes equation. The equation of state of the hadronic phase is derived from the nonlinear Walecka model in the mean field approximation. The quark gluon plasma phase is described by the MIT equation of state. We show that in a hadron gas viscosity strongly damps wave propagation and also hinders shock wave formation. This marked difference between the two phases may have phenomenological consequences and lead to new QGP signatures.

D. A. Fogaa; F. S. Navarra; L. G. Ferreira Filho

2013-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

205

Reacting fluids in the expanding Universe: A new mechanism for entropy production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is shown that two reacting cosmological fluids, each of them perfect on its own, which exchange energy and momentum without preserving particle numbers, give rise to an entropy producing `reactive' bulk stress of the system as a whole, as soon as the detailed balance between decay and inverse decay processes is perturbed. This demonstrates explicitly that particle generation is dynamically equivalent to an effective bulk pressure. We derive a semiquantitative formula for the corresponding new kinetic coefficient and evaluate the latter for the out-of-equilibrium decay of heavy, nonrelativistic particles into radiation. It turns out that the associated reactive bulk viscosity may be more than one order of magnitude larger than the conventional bulk viscosity, calculated, e.g., in radiative hydrodynamics.

Winfried Zimdahl

1997-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

206

Thermal and hydrodynamic effects in the ordering of lamellar fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Phase separation in a complex fluid with lamellar order has been studied in the case of cold thermal fronts propagating diffusively from external walls. The velocity hydrodynamic modes are taken into account by coupling the convection-diffusion equation for the order parameter to a generalised Navier-Stokes equation. The dynamical equations are simulated by implementing a hybrid method based on a lattice Boltzmann algorithm coupled to finite difference schemes. Simulations show that the ordering process occurs with morphologies depending on the speed of the thermal fronts or, equivalently, on the value of the thermal conductivity {\\xi}. At large value of {\\xi}, as in instantaneous quenching, the system is frozen in entangled configurations at high viscosity while consists of grains with well ordered lamellae at low viscosity. By decreasing the value of {\\xi}, a regime with very ordered lamellae parallel to the thermal fronts is found. At very low values of {\\xi} the preferred orientation is perpendicular to the walls in d = 2, while perpendicular order is lost moving far from the walls in d = 3.

G. Gonnella; A. Lamura; A. Tiribocchi

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

207

The Fluid Nature of Quark-Gluon Plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Collisions of heavy nuclei at very high energies offer the exciting possibility of experimentally exploring the phase transformation from hadronic to partonic degrees of freedom which is predicted to occur at several times normal nuclear density and/or for temperatures in excess of $\\sim 170$ MeV. Such a state, often referred to as a quark-gluon plasma, is thought to have been the dominant form of matter in the universe in the first few microseconds after the Big Bang. Data from the first five years of heavy ion collisions of Brookhaven National Laboratory's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) clearly demonstrate that these very high temperatures and densities have been achieved. While there are strong suggestions of the role of quark degrees of freedom in determining the final-state distributions of the produced matter, there is also compelling evidence that the matter does {\\em not} behave as a quasi-ideal state of free quarks and gluons. Rather, its behavior is that of a dense fluid with very low kinematic viscosity exhibiting strong hydrodynamic flow and nearly complete absorption of high momentum probes. The current status of the RHIC experimental studies is presented, with a special emphasis on the fluid properties of the created matter, which may in fact be the most perfect fluid ever studied in the laboratory.

W. A. Zajc

2008-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

208

Phonon contribution to the shear viscosity of a superfluid Fermi gas in the unitarity limit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a detailed analysis of the contribution of small-angle Nambu-Goldstone boson (phonon) collisions to the shear viscosity, $\\eta$, in a superfluid atomic Fermi gas close to the unitarity limit. We show that the experimental values of the shear viscosity coefficient to entropy ratio, $\\eta/s$, obtained at the lowest reached temperature can be reproduced assuming that phonons give the leading contribution to $\\eta$. The phonon contribution is evaluated considering $1 \\leftrightarrow 2$ processes and taking into account the finite size of the experimental system. In particular, for very low temperatures, $T \\lesssim 0.1 T_F$, we find that phonons are ballistic and the contribution of phonons to the shear viscosity is determined by the processes that take place at the interface between the superfluid and the normal phase. This result is independent of the detailed form of the phonon dispersion law and leads to two testable predictions: the shear viscosity should correlate with the size of the optical trap and it should decrease with decreasing temperature. For higher temperatures the detailed form of the phonon dispersion law becomes relevant and, within our model, we find that the experimental data for $\\eta/s$ can be reproduced assuming that phonons have an anomalous dispersion law.

Massimo Mannarelli; Cristina Manuel; Laura Tolos

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

209

Thermophysical Properties of Lithium Bromide + 1, 2-Propanediol Aqueous Solutions Solubility, Density and Viscosity  

SciTech Connect

The solubilities, densities and viscosities of lithium bromide (LiBr) + 1, 2-propanediol (HO-CH2-CHOH-CH3) aqueous solution (mass ratio of LiBr/HO-CH2-CHOH-CH3 = 3.5, 4.5 and 5.5) were measured in the mass fraction range from 0.30 to 0.75. Solubility measurements were performed by the visual method in the temperature range of (271.15 to 345.15) K. The density measurements were made using an automated vibrating tube density meter, and the viscosity measurements were carried out with an automated falling-ball viscometer in the temperature range of (293.15 to 363.15) K. The density and viscosity data were correlated with appropriate regression equations as a function of the mass fraction and temperature. The maximum average absolute deviations (AAD) between experimental and correlated data were 0.08% and 1.51% for densities and viscosities, respectively.

Wang, Kai [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Shear viscosity of a highly excited string and the black hole membrane paradigm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The black hole membrane paradigm states that a certain viscous membrane seems to be sitting on a stretched horizon of a black hole from the viewpoint of a distant observer. We show that the shear viscosity of the fictitious membrane can be reproduced by a highly excited string covering the stretched horizon except for a numerical coefficient.

Sasai, Yuya [Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Zahabi, Ali [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

211

Experimental Properties of Fluids Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Experimental Properties of Fluids Group, Physical and Chemical Properties Division of the Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory, NIST.

2000-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

212

Supercritical fluid reverse micelle systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

of 1 ) United States Patent 5,158,704 Fulton , et al. October 27, 1992 Supercritical fluid reverse micelle systems

Fulton, John L. (Richland, WA); Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Production of MHD fluid  

SciTech Connect

A hot gaseous fluid of low ash content, suitable for use in open-cycle MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) power generation, is produced by means of a three-stage process comprising (1) partial combustion of a fossil fuel to produce a hot gaseous product comprising CO.sub.2 CO, and H.sub.2 O, (2) reformation of the gaseous product from stage (1) by means of a fluidized char bed, whereby CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O are converted to CO and H.sub.2, and (3) combustion of CO and H.sub.2 from stage (2) to produce a low ash-content fluid (flue gas) comprising CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O and having a temperature of about 4000.degree. to 5000.degree.F.

Lacey, James J. (Library, PA); Kurtzrock, Roy C. (Bethel Park, PA); Bienstock, Daniel (Pittsburgh, PA)

1976-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

214

Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development  

SciTech Connect

A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

Bill Turner

2006-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

215

Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

216

Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W.sub.o that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W.sub.o of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions.

Fulton, John L. (Richland, WA); Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Fluid bed material transfer method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized bed apparatus comprising a pair of separated fluid bed enclosures, each enclosing a fluid bed carried on an air distributor plate supplied with fluidizing air from below the plate. At least one equalizing duct extending through sidewalls of both fluid bed enclosures and flexibly engaged therewith to communicate the fluid beds with each other. The equalizing duct being surrounded by insulation which is in turn encased by an outer duct having expansion means and being fixed between the sidewalls of the fluid bed enclosures.

Pinske, Jr., Edward E. (Akron, OH)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.

Ward, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM); Kaduchak, Gregory (Los Alamos, NM)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

219

It's The Fluids SEG Honorary Lecture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

T.P. Water Butane CO2 #12;Fluid ­ Density 800 1000 1200FluidDensity[kg/m3] Brine CO2 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 200 400 600 Fluid Pressure [MPa] FluidDensity[kg/m Butane CO2 #12;Fluid ­ Modulus 2000 2500 3000 FluidModulus[MPa] Brine 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 500 1000 1500 Fluid Pressure [MPa] FluidModulus[MPa] Butane CO2 #12;GENERAL PHASE

220

How to treat and recycle heavy clear brine fluids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Clear brine fluids, such as CaCl/sub 2/, are replacing muds in well completions and workovers. These ''solids-free'' fluids have caused increases in well productivity of as much as 850%. To use the fluids in higher density ranges, it is necessary to blend the CaCl/sub 2/ brines with the more expensive bromide fluids. This, in turn, has increased the importance of reclaiming weighted brines to make their use more cost effective. To reclaim clear fluids, the solids picked up during use are removed and the fluid is reused or reweighted. A common problem though is the post-precipitation of dissolved contaminants that may appear in the used brines after several days or weeks in storage. Precipitation also may occur if other heavy fluids are added to adjust density before reuse. Laboratory tests have identified the solids as primarily iron hydroxides and halides. (Halides are salts containing a halogen-flourine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine.) Additional experimentation has shown that pH adjustment at the well site or before transfer to storage facilities can provide a simple and effective way of controlling the precipitation of metal hydroxides and halides. This article discusses methods of pH control, measurement, and adjustment, which will allow for optimum use of clear brine fluids.

Pasztor, A.J.; Snover, J.S.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid viscosity increases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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221

Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid inclusions from active geothermal systems Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid inclusions from active geothermal systems Details Activities (4) Areas (4) Regions (0) Abstract: A system for analysis of inclusion gas contents based upon quadrupole mass spectrometry has been designed, assembled and tested during the first 7 months of funding. The system is currently being tested and calibrated using inclusions with known gas contents from active geothermal systems. Analyses are in progress on inclusions from the Salton Sea, Valles Caldera, Geysers, and Coso geothermal systems. Author(s): Mckibben, M. A.

222

The increased efficiency of fish swimming in a school  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is increasing evidence that fish gain energetic benefits when they swim in a school. The most recent indications of such benefits are a lower tail (or fin) beat at the back of a school and reduced oxygen consumption in schooling fish versus solitary ones. How such advantages may arise is poorly understood. Current hydrodynamic theories concern either fish swimming side by side or in a diamond configuration and they largely ignore effects of viscosity and interactions among wakes and individuals. In reality, however, hydrodynamic effects are complex and fish swim in many configurations. Since these hydrodynamic effects are difficult to study empirically, we investigate them in a computer model by incorporating viscosity and interactions among wakes and with individuals. We compare swimming efficiency of mullets of 12.6 cm travelling solitarily and in schools of four different configurations at several inter-individual distances. The resulting Reynolds number (based on fish length) is approximately 1150. ...

Hemelrijk, C K; Hildenbrandt, H; Padding, J T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Chemical and Microbial Characterization of North Slope Viscous Oils to Assess Viscosity Reduction and Enhanced Recovery  

SciTech Connect

A large proportion of Alaska North Slope (ANS) oil exists in the form of viscous deposits, which cannot be produced entirely using conventional methods. Microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a promising approach for improving oil recovery for viscous deposits. MEOR can be achieved using either ex situ approaches such as flooding with microbial biosurfactants or injection of exogenous surfactant-producing microbes into the reservoir, or by in situ approaches such as biostimulation of indigenous surfactant-producing microbes in the oil. Experimental work was performed to analyze the potential application of MEOR to the ANS oil fields through both ex situ and in situ approaches. A microbial formulation containing a known biosurfactant-producing strain of Bacillus licheniformis was developed in order to simulate MEOR. Coreflooding experiments were performed to simulate MEOR and quantify the incremental oil recovery. Properties like viscosity, density, and chemical composition of oil were monitored to propose a mechanism for oil recovery. The microbial formulation significantly increased incremental oil recovery, and molecular biological analyses indicated that the strain survived during the shut-in period. The indigenous microflora of ANS heavy oils was investigated to characterize the microbial communities and test for surfactant producers that are potentially useful for biostimulation. Bacteria that reduce the surface tension of aqueous media were isolated from one of the five ANS oils (Milne Point) and from rock oiled by the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), and may prove valuable for ex situ MEOR strategies. The total bacterial community composition of the six different oils was evaluated using molecular genetic tools, which revealed that each oil tested possessed a unique fingerprint indicating a diverse bacterial community and varied assemblages. Collectively we have demonstrated that there is potential for in situ and ex situ MEOR of ANS oils. Future work should focus on lab and field-scale testing of ex situ MEOR using Bacillus licheniformis as well as the biosurfactant-producing strains we have newly isolated from the Milne Point reservoir and the EVOS environment.

Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar; Mary Beth Leigh

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

224

Lattice Boltzmann Method for Multiphase Flows with High Density and Viscosity Ratios  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lattice Boltzmann Method for Multiphase Flows with High Density and Viscosity Ratios Lattice Boltzmann Method for Multiphase Flows with High Density and Viscosity Ratios Seckin Gokaltun, Dwayne McDaniel and David Roelant Florida International University, Miami, FL Background As a result of atomic weapons production, millions of gallons of radioactive waste was generated and stored in underground tanks at various U.S. Department of Energy sites. Department of Energy is currently in the process of transferring the waste from single shell tanks to double shell tanks. Various waste retrieval and processing methods are employed during the transfer of the waste. One such method, pulsed-air mixing, involves injection of discrete pulses of compressed air or inert gas at the bottom of the tank to produce large bubbles that rise due to buoyancy and mix the waste in the tank

225

EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF HEAVY OIL VISCOSITY UNDER RESERVOIR CONDITIONS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF HEAVY EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF HEAVY OIL VISCOSITY UNDER RESERVOIR CONDITIONS FINAL PROGRESS REPORT PERIOD: OCT 1999-MAY 2003 CONTRACT NUMBER: DE-FG26-99FT40615 PROJECT START DATE: October 1999 PROJECT DURATION: October 1999 - May 2003 TOTAL FUNDING REQUESTED: $ 199,320 TECHNICAL POINTS OF CONTACT: Jorge Gabitto Maria Barrufet Prairie View A&M State University Texas A&M University Department of Chemical Engineering Petroleum Engineering Department Prairie View, TX 77429 College Station TX, 77204 TELE:(936) 857-2427 TELE:(979) 845-0314 FAX: (936) 857-4540 FAX:(979) 845-0325 EMAIL:jgabitto@aol.com EMAIL:barrufet@spindletop. tamu.edu 1 EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF HEAVY OIL VISCOSITY UNDER RESERVOIR CONDITIONS

226

Viscosity control of the dynamic self-assembly in ferromagnetic suspensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent studies of dynamic self-assembly in ferromagnetic colloids suspended in liquid-air or liquid-liquid interfaces revealed a rich variety of dynamic structures ranging from linear snakes to axisymmetric asters, which exhibit novel morphology of the magnetic ordering accompanied by large-scale hydrodynamic flows. Based on controlled experiments and first principle theory, we argue that the transition from snakes to asters is governed by the viscosity of the suspending liquid where less viscous liquids favor snakes and more viscous, asters. By obtaining analytic solutions of the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, we gain insights into the role of mean hydrodynamic flows and an overall balance of forces governing the self-assembly. Our results illustrate that the viscosity can be used to control the outcome of the dynamic self-assembly in magnetic colloidal suspensions.

D. L. Piet; A. V. Straube; A. Snezhko; I. S. Aranson

2013-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

227

Non-Equilibrium 2PI Potential and Its Possible Application to Evaluation of Bulk Viscosity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Within non-equilibrium Green's function technique on the real-time contour and the two-particle-irreducable (2PI) $\\Phi$-functional method, a non-equilibrium potential is introduced. It naturally generalizes the conventional thermodynamic potential with which it coincides in thermal equilibrium. Variations of the non-equilibrium potential over respective parameters result in the same quantities as those of the thermodynamic potential but in arbitrary non-equilibrium. In particular, for slightly non-equilibrium inhomogeneous configurations a variation of the non-equilibrium potential over volume is associated with the trace of the non-equilibrium stress tensor. The latter is related to the bulk viscosity. This provides a novel way for evaluation of the bulk viscosity.

Ivanov, Yu B

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

THE INFLUENCE OF PRESSURE-DEPENDENT VISCOSITY ON THE THERMAL EVOLUTION OF SUPER-EARTHS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the thermal evolution of super-Earths with a one-dimensional (1D) parameterized convection model that has been adopted to account for a strong pressure dependence of the viscosity. A comparison with a 2D spherical convection model shows that the derived parameterization satisfactorily represents the main characteristics of the thermal evolution of massive rocky planets. We find that the pressure dependence of the viscosity strongly influences the thermal evolution of super-Earths-resulting in a highly sluggish convection regime in the lower mantles of those planets. Depending on the effective activation volume and for cooler initial conditions, we observe with growing planetary mass even the formation of a conductive lid above the core-mantle boundary (CMB), a so-called CMB-lid. For initially molten planets our results suggest no CMB-lids but instead a hot lower mantle and core as well as sluggish lower mantle convection. This implies that the initial interior temperatures, especially in the lower mantle, become crucial for the thermal evolution-the thermostat effect suggested to regulate the interior temperatures in terrestrial planets does not work for massive planets if the viscosity is strongly pressure dependent. The sluggish convection and the potential formation of the CMB-lid reduce the convective vigor throughout the mantle, thereby affecting convective stresses, lithospheric thicknesses, and heat fluxes. The pressure dependence of the viscosity may therefore also strongly affect the propensity of plate tectonics, volcanic activity, and the generation of a magnetic field of super-Earths.

Stamenkovic, Vlada; Noack, Lena; Spohn, Tilman [Institute of Planetology, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 10, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Breuer, Doris, E-mail: Vlada.Stamenkovic@dlr.de, E-mail: Lena.Noack@dlr.de, E-mail: Doris.Breuer@dlr.de, E-mail: Tilman.Spohn@dlr.de [Institute of Planetary Research, German Aerospace Center DLR, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

229

Leading order QCD shear viscosity from the three-particle irreducible effective action  

SciTech Connect

In this article we calculate the leading order shear viscosity in QCD using the resummed three-particle irreducible effective action. We work to 3-loop order in the effective action. We show that the integral equations that resum the pinch and collinear contributions are produced naturally by the formalism. All leading order terms are included, without the need for any kind of power counting arguments.

Carrington, M. E.; Kovalchuk, E. [Department of Physics, Brandon University, Brandon, Manitoba, R7A 6A9 (Canada) and Winnipeg Institute for Theoretical Physics, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

230

Spectral functions for composite fields and viscosity in hot scalar field theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive a spectral representation for the two-point Green function for arbitrary composite field operators in Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD). A simple way for calculating the spectral density within TFD is pointed out and compared with known results from the imaginary time formalism. The method is applied to hot $\\phi^4$ theory. We give a compact derivation of the one-loop contribution to the shear viscosity and show that it is dominated by low-momentum plasmons.

Enke Wang; Xiaofei Zhang; Ulrich Heinz

1995-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

231

Ultrasonic fluid quality sensor system  

SciTech Connect

A system for determining the composition of a multiple-component fluid and for determining linear flow comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the multiple-component fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the multiple-component fluid. A system for determining flow uses two of the inventive circuits, one of which is set at an angle that is not perpendicular to the direction of flow.

Gomm, Tyler J. (Meridian, ID); Kraft, Nancy C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Phelps, Larry D. (Pocatello, ID); Taylor, Steven C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

232

Ultrasonic Fluid Quality Sensor System  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for determining the composition of a multiple-component fluid and for determining linear flow comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the multiple-component fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the multiple-component fluid. A system for determining flow uses two of the inventive circuits, one of which is set at an angle that is not perpendicular to the direction of flow.

Gomm, Tyler J. (Meridian, ID); Kraft, Nancy C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Phelps, Larry D. (Pocatello, ID); Taylor, Steven C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2003-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

233

MOLTEN SALT HEAT TRANSFER FLUID  

thermal energy storage tanks Sandia has developed a heat transfer fluid (HTF) for use at elevated temperatures that has a lower freezing point

234

Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Documentation Page Documentation Page 1. Report No. DE - FC 21 - 92MC29077 2. 3. Recipient's Accession No. 5. Report Date August 31, 2000 4. Title and Subtitle Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility 6. 7. Author(s) The University of Oklahoma 8. Performing Organization Rept. No. 10. Project/Task/Work Unit No. 9. Performing Organization Name and Address The University of Oklahoma Sarkeys Energy Center T301 100 E Boyd St Norman, OK 73019 11. Contract (C) or Grant (G) No. DOE:DE FC21 92 MC29077 13. Type of Report & Period Covered Final Report 09 30 92 - 03 31 00 12. Sponsoring Organization Name and Address US Dept of Energy - FETL 3610 Collins Ferry Road Morgantown, WV 26505 14. 15. Supplementary Notes Several technical papers were prepared and presented at various Society of Petroleum Engineers Conferences and US

235

A framework for developing a mimetic tensor artificial viscosity for Lagrangian hydrocodes on arbitrary polygonal and polyhedral meshes (u)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We construct a new mimetic tensor artificial viscosity on general polygonal and polyhedral meshes. The tensor artificial viscosity is based on a mimetic discretization of coordinate invariant operators, divergence of a tensor and gradient of a vector. The focus of this paper is on the symmetric form, div ({mu},{var_epsilon}(u)), of the tensor artificial viscosity where {var_epsilon}(u) is the symmetrized gradient of u and {mu}, is a tensor. The mimetic discretizations of this operator is derived for the case of a full tensor coefficient {mu}, that may reflect a shock direction. We demonstrate performance of the new viscosity for the Noh implosion, Sedov explosion and Saltzman piston problems in both Cartesian and axisymmetric coordinate systems.

Lipnikov, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shashkov, Mikhail [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

236

Analytical formulas, general properties and calculation of transport coefficients in the hadron gas: shear and bulk viscosities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Elaborated calculations of the shear and the bulk viscosities in the hadron gas, using the ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model cross sections, are made. These cross sections are analyzed and improved. A special treatment of the resonances is implemented additionally. All this allows for better hydrodynamical description of the experimental data. The previously considered approximation of one constant cross section for all hadrons is justified. It's found that the bulk viscosity of the hadron gas is much larger than the bulk viscosity of the pion gas while the shear viscosity is found to be less sensitive to the hadronic mass spectrum. The maximum of the bulk viscosity of the hadron gas is expected to be approximately in the temperature range ${T=150 190 MeV}$ with zero chemical potentials. This range covers the critical temperature values found from lattice calculations. We comment on some important aspects of calculations of the bulk viscosity, which were not taken into account or were not analyzed well previously. Doing this, a generalized Chapman-Enskog procedure, taking into account deviations from the chemical equilibrium, is outlined. Some general properties, features, the physical meaning of the bulk viscosity and some other comments on the deviations from the chemical equilibrium supplement this discussion. Analytical closed-form expressions for the transport coefficients and some related quantities within a quite large class of cross sections can be obtained. Some examples are explicitly considered. Comparisons with some previous calculations of the viscosities in the hadron gas and the pion gas are done.

Oleg Moroz

2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

237

Thermal Performance of a Novel Heat Transfer Fluid Containing Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present research work aims to develop a new heat transfer fluid by combining multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCMs). Stable nanofluids have been prepared using different sizes of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and their properties like thermal conductivity and viscosity have been measured. Microencapsulated phase change material slurries containing microcapsules of octadecane have been purchased from Thies Technology Inc. Tests have been conducted to determine the durability and viscosity of the MPCM slurries. Heat transfer experiments have been conducted to determine the heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop of the MWCNT nanofluids and MPCM slurries under turbulent flow and constant heat flux conditions. The MPCM slurry and the MWCNT nanofluid have been combined to form a new heat transfer fluid. Heat transfer tests have been conducted to determine the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop of the new fluid under turbulent flow and constant heat flux conditions. The potential use of this fluid in convective heat transfer applications has also been discussed. The heat transfer results of the MPCM slurry containing octadecane microcapsules was in good agreement with the published literature. The thermal conductivity enhancement obtained for MWCNTs with diameter (60-100 nm) and length (0.5-40?m) was 8.11%. The maximum percentage enhancement (compared to water) obtained in the heat transfer coefficient of the MWCNT nanofluid was in the range of 20-25%. The blend of MPCMs and MWCNTs was highly viscous and displayed a shear thinning behavior. Due to its high viscosity, the flow became laminar and the heat transfer performance was lowered. It was interesting to observe that the value of the maximum local heat transfer coefficient achieved in the case of the blend (laminar flow), was comparable to that obtained in the case of the MPCM slurry (turbulent flow). The pressure drop of the blend was lower than that of the MWCNT nanofluid.

Tumuluri, Kalpana

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Transdisciplinary Fluid Integration Research Center  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Environment Reality-Coupled Computation Energy Dynamics Integrated Visual Informatics Super-Real-Time Medical of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, in April 2003. The next generation transdisciplinary research Research focus is to advance utilization of Computer Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for solving engineering problems

Obayashi, Shigeru

239

Fluid Dynamics of Carbon Dioxide Disposal into Saline Aquifers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon dioxide can be less than the viscosity of the aqueous phase by a factorcarbon dioxide can be less than the viscosity of the aqueous phase by a factor

Garcia, Julio Enrique

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Heat recirculating cooler for fluid stream pollutant removal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process by which heat is removed from a reactant fluid to reach the operating temperature of a known pollutant removal method and said heat is recirculated to raise the temperature of the product fluid. The process can be utilized whenever an intermediate step reaction requires a lower reaction temperature than the prior and next steps. The benefits of a heat-recirculating cooler include the ability to use known pollutant removal methods and increased thermal efficiency of the system.

Richards, George A. (Morgantown, WV); Berry, David A. (Morgantown, WV)

2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid viscosity increases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Fluid flow monitoring device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention consists of a flow meter and temperature measuring device comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips.

McKay, M.D.; Sweeney, C.E.

1991-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

242

New Environmentally Friendly Dispersants for High Temperature Invert-Emulsion Drilling Fluids Weighted by Manganese Tetraoxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis provides a detailed evaluation of different environmentally friendly dispersants in invert-emulsion drilling fluids that can be used to drill wells under difficult conditions such as HPHT. The drilling fluid is weighted by manganese tetraoxide (Mn3O4) particles, which have a specific gravity of 4.8 and a mean particle diameter of ca1 micrometers. Manganese tetraoxide has different wetting properties and surface chemistry than other weighting agents. Hence, there is a need to find dispersants for manganese tetraoxide that give reduced sag, reduced rheology, and low fluid-loss at HPHT conditions. This is particularly important for deep wells with narrow operating windows between pore-pressure and fracture pressure gradients. The stricter global environmental regulations mandated the dispersants to be environmentally friendly, e.g. within OCNS group D or E. First, oil compatibility tests and particle settling time experiments were conducted on 31 dispersants. From the experiments, we identified 3 oil-compatible dispersants that gave the longest settling time in base oil and belonged to OCNS group D. We investigated the effectiveness of selected chemicals in dispersing manganese tetraoxide at HPHT conditions. 1.95 and 2.4 S.G. drilling fluid samples were first prepared and tested without any contaminant and then in the presence of rev dust and cement as contaminants. Drilling fluid samples were statically aged at 400 degrees F and 500 psi for 16 hours. Sag and rheological measurements were taken before and after aging to determine the effect of HPHT conditions on fluid properties. Then, HPHT dynamic filtration tests were done at 500 psi differential pressure and 300 degrees F to determine HPHT dynamic fluid-loss. We have found that one of the dispersants (nonionic) gives low rheology and reduced sag before and after static aging. It also gives the lowest fluid-loss of the selected dispersants. For 2.4 S.G. fluid without contaminants, 10-minute gel strength was reduced from 50 to 32 lb/100 ft^2, plastic viscosity from 37 to 25 cp, sag from 0.249 to 0.135 lbm/gal, and fluid-loss was reduced from 44.4 to 39.6 cm^3 with the addition of dispersant. This dispersant prevents agglomeration of particles, thereby reducing fluid rheology, sag, and fluid-loss.

Rehman, Abdul

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Particle sorter comprising a fluid displacer in a closed-loop fluid circuit  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed herein are methods and devices utilizing a fluid displacer in a closed-loop fluid circuit.

Perroud, Thomas D. (San Jose, CA); Patel, Kamlesh D. (Dublin, CA); Renzi, Ronald F. (Tracy, CA)

2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

244

Modeling and Simulation of Pore Scale Multiphase Fluid Flow and Reactive Transport in Fractured and Porous Media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the subsurface fluids play a critical role by transporting dissolved minerals, colloids and contaminants (sometimes over long distances), by mediating dissolution and precipitation processes and enabling chemical transformations in solution and at mineral surfaces. Although the complex geometries of fracture apertures, fracture networks and pore spaces may make it difficult to accurately predict fluid flow in saturated (single-phase) subsurface systems, well developed methods are available. The simulation of multiphase fluid flow in the subsurface is much more challenging because of the large density and/or viscosity ratios found in important applications (water/air in the vadose zone, water/oil, water/gas, gas/oil and water/oil/gas in oil reservoirs, water/air/non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) in contaminated vadose zone systems and gas/molten rock in volcanic systems, for example). In addition, the complex behavior of fluid-fluid-solid contact lines, and its impact on dynamic contact angles, must also be taken into account, and coupled with the fluid flow. Pore network models and simple statistical physics based models such as the invasion percolation and diffusion-limited aggregation models have been used quite extensively. However, these models for multiphase fluid flow are based on simplified models for pore space geometries and simplified physics. Other methods such a lattice Boltzmann and lattice gas models, molecular dynamics, Monte Carlo methods, and particle methods such as dissipative particle dynamics and smoothed particle hydrodynamics are based more firmly on first principles, and they do not require simplified pore and/or fracture geometries. However, they are less (in some cases very much less) computationally efficient that pore network and statistical physics models. Recently a combination of continuum computation fluid dynamics, fluid-fluid interface tracking or capturing and simple models for the dependence of contact angles on fluid velocity at the contact line has been used to simulate multiphase fluid flow in fracture apertures, fracture networks and pore spaces. Fundamental conservation principles - conservation of momentum, and conservation of mass (or conservation of volume for incompressible fluids) and conservation of energy, as well as symmetries (Galilean invariance and isotropy) are central to the physics of fluids and the models used to simulate them. In molecular and mesoscale models observance of these conservation principles and symmetries at the microscopic level leads to macroscopic fluid dynamics that can be represented by the Navier Stokes equation. The remarkable fact that the flow of all simpe fluids, irrespective of their chemical nature, can be described by the Navier-Stokes equation is a result of these conservation principles and symmetries acting on the molecular level.

Paul Meakin; Alexandre Tartakovsky

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Standardization of Thermo-Fluid Modeling in Modelica.Fluid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This article discusses the Modelica.Fluid library that has been included in the Modelica Standard Library 3.1. Modelica.Fluid provides interfaces and basic components for the device-oriented modeling of onedimensional thermo-fluid flow in networks containing vessels, pipes, fluid machines, valves and fittings. A unique feature of Modelica.Fluid is that the component equations and the media models as well as pressure loss and heat transfer correlations are decoupled from each other. All components are implemented such that they can be used for media from the Modelica.Media library. This means that an incompressible or compressible medium, a single or a multiple substance medium with one or more phases might be used with one and the same model as long as the modeling assumptions made hold. Furthermore, trace substances are supported. Modeling assumptions can be configured globally in an outer System object. This covers in particular the initialization, uni- or bi-directional flow, and dynamic or steady-state formulation of mass, energy, and momentum balance. All assumptions can be locally refined for every component. While Modelica.Fluid contains a reasonable set of component models, the goal of the library is not to provide a comprehensive set of models, but rather to provide interfaces and best practices for the treatment of issues such as connector design and implementation of energy, mass and momentum balances. Applications from various domains are presented.

Rdiger Franke; et al.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Encapsulated Nanoparticle Synthesis and Characterization for Improved Storage Fluids: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Nanoparticles are typically composed of 50--500 atoms and exhibit properties that are significantly different from the properties of larger, macroscale particles that have the same composition. The addition of these particles to traditional fluids may improve the fluids' thermophysical properties. As an example, the addition of a nanoparticle or set of nanoparticles to a storage fluid may double its heat capacity. This increase in heat capacity would allow a sensible thermal energy storage system to store the same amount of thermal energy in half the amount of storage fluid. The benefit is lower costs for the storage fluid and the storage tanks, resulting in lower-cost electricity. The goal of this long-term research is to create a new class of fluids that enable concentrating solar power plants to operate with greater efficiency and lower electricity costs. Initial research on this topic developed molecular dynamic models that predicted the energy states and transition temperatures for these particles. Recent research has extended the modeling work, along with initiating the synthesis and characterization of bare metal nanoparticles and metal nanoparticles that are encapsulated with inert silica coatings. These particles possess properties that make them excellent candidates for enhancing the heat capacity of storage fluids.

Glatzmaier, G. C.; Pradhan, S.; Kang, J.; Curtis, C.; Blake, D.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Isotopic Analysis- Fluid | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Details Activities (61) Areas (32) Regions (6) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Lab Analysis Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Fluid Lab Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Fluid Lab Analysis Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Water rock interaction Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Origin of hydrothermal fluids; Mixing of hydrothermal fluids Thermal: Isotopic ratios can be used to characterize and locate subsurface thermal anomalies. Dictionary.png Isotopic Analysis- Fluid: Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons. An isotopic analysis looks at a particular isotopic element(s) in

248

Downhole Fluid Sampling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Downhole Fluid Sampling Downhole Fluid Sampling Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Downhole Fluid Sampling Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Downhole Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Well Testing Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Well Testing Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Water composition and source of fluids. Gas composition and source of fluids. Thermal: Water temperature. Distinguish magmatic/mantle heat inputs. Can be used to estimate reservoir fluid temperatures. Dictionary.png Downhole Fluid Sampling: Downhole fluid sampling is done to characterize the chemical, thermal, or hydrological properties of a surface or subsurface aqueous system. Downhole

249

Intelligent Fluid Infrastructure for Embedded Networking  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mobile element into the networking infrastructure.Our fluid infrastructure design saves significant energy inIntelligent Fluid Infrastructure for Embedded Networks Aman

Kansal, Aman; Somasundara, Arun; Jea, David C; Srivastava, Mani B; Estrin, D

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Intelligent Fluid Infrastructure for Embedded Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intelligent Fluid Infrastructure for Embedded Networks Amanto develop a fluid infrastructure: mobile components arebuilt into the system infrastructure for enabling specific

Aman Kansal; Arun Somasundara; David Jea; Mani Srivastava; Deborah Estrin

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Shear viscosity of neutron-rich nucleonic matter near its liquid-gas phase transition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Within a relaxation time approach using free nucleon-nucleon cross sections modified by the in-medium nucleon masses that are determined from an isospin- and momentum-dependent effective nucleon-nucleon interaction, we investigate the specific shear viscosity ($\\eta/s$) of neutron-rich nucleonic matter near its liquid-gas phase transition. It is found that as the nucleonic matter is heated at fixed pressure or compressed at fixed temperature, its specific shear viscosity shows a valley shape in the temperature or density dependence, with the minimum located at the boundary of the phase transition. Moreover, the value of $\\eta/s$ drops suddenly at the first-order liquid-gas phase transition temperature, reaching as low as $4\\sim5$ times the KSS bound of $\\hbar/4\\pi$. However, it varies smoothly for the second-order liquid-gas phase transition. Effects of the isospin degree of freedom and the nuclear symmetry energy on the value of $\\eta/s$ are also discussed.

Jun Xu; Lie-Wen Chen; Che Ming Ko; Bao-An Li; Yu-Gang Ma

2013-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

252

Fluid Imaging | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Fluid Imaging Jump to: navigation, search Contents 1 Geothermal Lab Call Projects for Fluid Imaging 2 Geothermal ARRA Funded Projects for Fluid Imaging Geothermal Lab Call Projects for Fluid Imaging Loading map... {"format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"limit":200,"offset":0,"link":"all","sort":[""],"order":[],"headers":"show","mainlabel":"","intro":"","outro":"","searchlabel":"\u2026 further results","default":"","geoservice":"google","zoom":14,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","forceshow":true,"showtitle":true,"hidenamespace":false,"template":false,"title":"","label":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"locations":[{"text":"

253

Nonlinear Fluid Dynamics from Gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Black branes in AdS5 appear in a four parameter family labeled by their velocity and temperature. Promoting these parameters to Goldstone modes or collective coordinate fields -- arbitrary functions of the coordinates on the boundary of AdS5 -- we use Einstein's equations together with regularity requirements and boundary conditions to determine their dynamics. The resultant equations turn out to be those of boundary fluid dynamics, with specific values for fluid parameters. Our analysis is perturbative in the boundary derivative expansion but is valid for arbitrary amplitudes. Our work may be regarded as a derivation of the nonlinear equations of boundary fluid dynamics from gravity. As a concrete application we find an explicit expression for the expansion of this fluid stress tensor including terms up to second order in the derivative expansion.

Sayantani Bhattacharyya; Veronika E Hubeny; Shiraz Minwalla; Mukund Rangamani

2007-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

254

Visually simulating realistic fluid motion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis we investigate various methods for visually simulating fluid flow. The focus is on implementing effective fluid simulation within an interactive animation system. Two implementations have been developed based on derivations and simplifications of the Navier-Stokes' equations. The first implementation is the most accurate and follows the physics of fluid dynamics more closely. However, the high computation times incurred by this implementation make it inappropriate as an interactive method. The second approach is not as accurate as the first one, however it incurs lower computation times. This second method is only able to model a subset of the total fluid behavior. The second method has been integrated into an interactive modeling and animation environment. Several examples are included.

Naithani, Priyanka

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Deferring trust in fluid replication  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mobile nodes rely on external services to provide safety, sharing, and additional resources. Unfortunately, as mobile nodes move through the networking infrastructure, the costs of accessing servers change. Fluid replication allows mobile clients to ...

Brian D. Noble; Ben Fleis; Landon P. Cox

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Bio-inspired fluid locomotion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed several novel methods of locomotion at low Reynolds number, for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids: Robosnails 1 and 2, which operate on a lubrication layer, and the three-link swimmer which moves ...

Chan, Brian, 1980-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Does Life Come from Water or Fluids?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the present work the Stochastic generalization of the quantum hydrodynamic analogy (SQHA) is used to obtain the far from equilibrium kinetics for a real gas and its fluid phase. In gasses and their liquids, interacting by Lennard-Jones potentials whose mean distance is bigger than the quantum correlation distance and than the molecular interaction distance r0, it is possible to define a Fokker-Plank type equation of motion as a function of the mean phase space molecular volume that far from equilibrium shows maximizing the dissipation of a part of the generalized SQHA-free energy. In the case of a real gas with no chemical reactions and at quasi-isothermal conditions, the principle disembogues into the maximum free energy dissipation confirming the experimental outputs of electro-convective instability. In this case, the model shows that the transition to stationary states with higher free energy can happen and that, in incompressible fluids, the increase of free energy is almost given by a decrease of entropy leading to the appearance of self-ordered structures. The output of the theory showing that the generation of order, via energy dissipation, is more efficient in fluids than in gasses, because of their incompressibility, leads to the re-conciliation between physics and biology furnishing the eplanation why the life was born in water. The theoretical output also suggests that the search for life out of the earth must consider the possibility to find it in presence of liquid phases different from water.

Piero Chiarelli

2013-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

258

Tracing Geothermal Fluids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Chemical compounds have been designed under this contract that can be used to trace water that has been injected into vapor-dominated and two-phase geothermal fields. Increased knowledge of the injection flow is provided by the tracers, and this augments the power that can be produced. Details on the stability and use of these tracers are included in this report.

Michael C. Adams Greg Nash

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

259

Strongly Correlated Quantum Fluids: Ultracold Quantum Gases, Quantum Chromodynamic Plasmas, and Holographic Duality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Strongly correlated quantum fluids are phases of matter that are intrinsically quantum mechanical, and that do not have a simple description in terms of weakly interacting quasi-particles. Two systems that have recently attracted a great deal of interest are the quark-gluon plasma, a plasma of strongly interacting quarks and gluons produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions, and ultracold atomic Fermi gases, very dilute clouds of atomic gases confined in optical or magnetic traps. These systems differ by more than 20 orders of magnitude in temperature, but they were shown to exhibit very similar hydrodynamic flow. In particular, both fluids exhibit a robustly low shear viscosity to entropy density ratio which is characteristic of quantum fluids described by holographic duality, a mapping from strongly correlated quantum field theories to weakly curved higher dimensional classical gravity. This review explores the connection between these fields, and it also serves as an introduction to the Focus Issue of New Journal of Physics on Strongly Correlated Quantum Fluids: from Ultracold Quantum Gases to QCD Plasmas. The presentation is made accessible to the general physics reader and includes discussions of the latest research developments in all three areas.

Allan Adams; Lincoln D. Carr; Thomas Schaefer; Peter Steinberg; John E. Thomas

2012-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

260

Selection and Properties of Alternative Forming Fluids for TRISO Fuel Kernel Production  

SciTech Connect

Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ~10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1- bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 C and 80 C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

Doug Marshall; M. Baker; J. King; B. Gorman

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid viscosity increases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Experimental Assessment of Water Based Drilling Fluids in High Pressure and High Temperature Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proper selection of drilling fluids plays a major role in determining the efficient completion of any drilling operation. With the increasing number of ultra-deep offshore wells being drilled and ever stringent environmental and safety regulations coming into effect, it becomes necessary to examine and understand the behavior of water based drilling fluids - which are cheaper and less polluting than their oil based counterpart - under extreme temperature and pressure conditions. In most of the existing literature, the testing procedure is simple - increase the temperature of the fluid in steps and record rheological properties at each step. A major drawback of this testing procedure is that it does not represent the continuous temperature change that occurs in a drilling fluid as it is circulated through the well bore. To have a better understanding of fluid behavior under such temperature variation, a continuous test procedure was devised in which the temperature of the drilling fluid was continuously increased to a pre-determined maximum value while monitoring one rheological parameter. The results of such tests may then be used to plan fluid treatment schedules. The experiments were conducted on a Chandler 7600 XHPHT viscometer and they seem to indicate specific temperature ranges above which the properties of the drilling fluid deteriorate. Different fluid compositions and drilling fluids in use in the field were tested and the results are discussed in detail.

Ravi, Ashwin

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Polymers with increased order  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention features polymers with increased order, and methods of making them featuring a dense gas.

Sawan, Samuel P. (Tyngsborough, MA); Talhi, Abdelhafid (Rochester, MI); Taylor, Craig M. (Jemez Springs, NM)

1998-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

263

Effects of Measurement Materials and Oxygen Partial Pressure on the Viscosity of synthetic Eastern and Western United States Coal Slags  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The viscosity of the molten ash (slag) resulting from the mineral constituents in carbon feedstock used in slagging gasifiers is critical for controlling the gasification process. The viscosity of two synthetic slags with compositions resembling the mineral impurities in average eastern and western coal feedstock was examined at temperatures from 13001500 C using a rotating bob viscometer. A few combinations of atmospheres and experimental materials were investigated with respect to one another to determine slag viscosity. A CO/CO{sub 2} atmosphere (CO/CO{sub 2} = 1.8, corresponding to a P{sub O{sub 2}} = 108 atm) is required to sustain ferrous ions in FeO-containing slags, an environment that is oxidizing to most metals. Iron oxide in the slag prevents usage of Fe parts. In unpurified Ar, the Fe metal surface oxidizes. Using purified argon prevents iron measurement components from oxidation; however, the metallic surfaces act as nucleation sites for the reduction of the Fe oxide in the slag into metallic Fe. Dissolution of ceramic materials into the slag, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2}, occurs in both atmospheres. Therefore, evaluating slag properties in the laboratory is challenging. The measured viscosities of two synthetic slags in this study diverged depending upon material selection. This difference is likely attributable to container/spindle-slag interactions. Viscosity measurements of the eastern coal slag using all ceramic parts agreed best with FactSage prediction above 1350 C, with an average activation energy of 271.2 kJ. For western coal slag, the dissolution of container/spindle materials was substantial during the measurement, with precipitation of crystalline phase noted. The experimental viscosity data of the western coal slag agreed best with Kalmanovitch prediction above 1350 C. The activation energy changed dramatically for both data sets of western coal slag, likely indicating the Newtonian-to-non-Newtonian transition.

Zhu, Jingxi; Tetsuya, Kenneth; Mu, Haoyuan; Bennett, James P.; Sridhar, Seetharaman

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface.

Greenwood, Margaret S. (Richland, WA); Harris, Robert V. (Pasco, WA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Study of ebullated bed fluid dynamics. Final progress report, September 1980-July 1983  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fluid dynamics occurring in HRI's H-coal process development unit coal liquefaction reactor during Run PDU-10 were measured and compared with Amoco Oil cold-flow fluidization results. It was found that catalyst bed expansions and gas holdups are higher in the PDU than those observed in the cold-flow tests for slurries having the same nominal viscosity. Comparison of PDU results with cold-flow results shows that the bulk of the operating reactor gas flow lies in the ideal bubbly regime. It also appears that the gas bubbles in these PDU tests are rising quite slowly. Only two of the operating points in our test program on the PDU were found to lie in the churn turbulent regime. Existence of churn turbulent behavior during these two experiments is consistent with trends observed in earlier cold-flow experiments. Two- and three-phase fluidization experiments were carried out in Amoco's cold-flow fluid dynamics unit. The data base now includes fluidization results for coal char/kerosene slurry concentrations of 4.0, 9.8, and 20.7 vol% in addition to the 15.5 and 17.8 vol% data from our earlier work. Both HDS-2A and Amocat-1A catalysts were used in the tests. Bed expansion is primarily a function of slurry velocity, with gas velocity having only a weak effect. Bed contractions have been observed in some cases at sufficiently high gas velocity. Gas and liquid holdups were found to be uniform across the cross-section of the Amoco cold-flow fluid dynamics pilot plant. A viscometer was adapted for measurement of the viscosity of coal slurries at high temperature and pressure. Based on experiments carried out in the Amoco cold-flow unit, a significant degree of backmixing was found to occur in the H-Coal system. 70 references, 93 figures, 32 tables.

Schaefer, R.J.; Rundell, D.N.; Shou, J.K.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Ultracentrifuge for separating fluid mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

1. A centrifuge for the separation of fluid mixtures having light and heavy fractions comprising a cylindrical rotor, disc type end-plugs closing the ends of the rotor, means for mounting said rotor for rotation about its cylindrical axis, a housing member enclosing the rotor, a vacuum chamber in said housing about the central portion of the rotor, a collection chamber at each end of the housing, the innermost side of which is substantially formed by the outer face of the end-plug, means for preventing flow of the fluid from the collection chambers to said vacuum chamber, at least one of said end-plugs having a plurality of holes therethrough communicating between the collection chamber adjacent thereto and the inside of the rotor to induce countercurrent flow of the fluid in the centrifuge, means for feeding fluid to be processed into the centrifuge, means communicating with the collection chambers to extract the light and heavy separated fractions of the fluid, and means for rotating the rotor.

Lowry, Ralph A. (Charlottesville, VA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DRILLING FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the project has been to develop new types of drill-in fluids (DIFs) and completion fluids (CFs) for use in natural gas reservoirs. Phase 1 of the project was a 24-month study to develop the concept of advanced type of fluids usable in well completions. Phase 1 tested this concept and created a kinetic mathematical model to accurately track the fluid's behavior under downhole conditions. Phase 2 includes tests of the new materials and practices. Work includes the preparation of new materials and the deployment of the new fluids and new practices to the field. The project addresses the special problem of formation damage issues related to the use of CFs and DIFs in open hole horizontal well completions. The concept of a ''removable filtercake'' has, as its basis, a mechanism to initiate or trigger the removal process. Our approach to developing such a mechanism is to identify the components of the filtercake and measure the change in the characteristics of these components when certain cleanup (filtercake removal) techniques are employed.

David B. Burnett

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Fluid Metrology Calibration Services - Gas, Water, or Liquid ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fluid Metrology Calibration Services - Gas, Water, Natural Gas, or Liquid Hydrocarbon Flows Special Tests. Fluid Metrology ...

2013-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

269

Method and apparatus for measuring shear modulus and viscosity of a monomolecular film  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for measuring the shear modulus of a monomolecular film comprises a circular trough having inwardly sloping sides containing a liquid for supporting the monolayer on the surface thereof; a circular rotor suspended above the trough such that the lower surface of the rotor contacts the surface of the liquid, positioned such that the axis of the rotor is concentric with the axis of the trough and freely rotable about its axis; means for hydrostatically compressing the monolayer in the annular region formed between the rotor and the sides of the trough; and means for rotating the trough about its axis. Preferably, hydrostatic compression of the monolayer is achieved by removing liquid from the bottom of the trough (decreasing the surface area) while raising the trough vertically along its axis to maintain the monolayer at a constant elevation (and maintain rotor contact). In order to measure viscosity, a means for rotating the rotor about its axis is added to the apparatus.

Abraham, B.M.; Miyano, K.; Ketterson, J.B.

1983-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

270

Method and apparatus for measuring shear modulus and viscosity of a monomolecular film  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Instrument for measuring the shear modulus of a monomolecular film comprises a circular trough having inwardly sloping sides containing a liquid for supporting the monolayer on the surface thereof; a circular rotor suspended above the trough such that the lower surface of the rotor contacts the surface of the liquid, positioned such that the axis of the rotor is concentric with the axis of the trough and freely rotable about its axis; apparatus for hydrostatically compressing the monolayer in the annular region formed between the rotor and the sides of the trough; and apparatus for rotating the trough about its axis. Preferably, hydrostatic compression of the monolayer is achieved by removing liquid from the bottom of the trough (decreasing the surface area) while raising the trough vertically along its axis to maintain the monolayer at a constant elevation (and maintain rotor contact). In order to measure viscosity, a apparatus for rotating the rotor about its axis is added to the apparatus.

Abraham, Bernard M. (Oak Park, IL); Miyano, Kenjiro (Sendai, JP); Ketterson, John B. (Evanston, IL)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Numerical Verification of Bounce Harmonic Resonances in Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity for Tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

This Letter presents the rst numerical veri cation for the bounce-harmonic (BH) resonance phenomena of the neoclassical transport in a tokamak perturbed by non-axisymmetric magnetic elds. The BH resonances were predicted by analytic theories of neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV), as the parallel and perpendicular drift motions can be resonant and result in a great enhancement of the radial momentum transport. A new drift-kinetic #14;f guiding-center particle code, POCA, clearly veri ed that the perpendicular drift motions can reduce the transport by phase-mixing, but in the BH resonances the motions can form closed orbits and particles radially drift out fast. The POCA calculations on resulting NTV torque are largely consistent with analytic calculations, and show that the BH resonances can easily dominate the NTV torque when a plasma rotates in the perturbed tokamak and therefore is a critical physics for predicting the rotation and stability in ITER. __________________________________________________

Kimin Kim, Jong-Kyu Park and Allen H. Boozer

2013-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

272

CO2-based mixtures as working fluids for geothermal turbines.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories is investigating advanced Brayton cycles using supercritical working fluids for application to a variety of heat sources, including geothermal, solar, fossil, and nuclear power. This work is centered on the supercritical CO{sub 2} (S-CO{sub 2}) power conversion cycle, which has the potential for high efficiency in the temperature range of interest for these heat sources and is very compact-a feature likely to reduce capital costs. One promising approach is the use of CO{sub 2}-based supercritical fluid mixtures. The introduction of additives to CO{sub 2} alters the equation of state and the critical point of the resultant mixture. A series of tests was carried out using Sandia's supercritical fluid compression loop that confirmed the ability of different additives to increase or lower the critical point of CO{sub 2}. Testing also demonstrated that, above the modified critical point, these mixtures can be compressed in a turbocompressor as a single-phase homogenous mixture. Comparisons of experimental data to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties (REFPROP) Standard Reference Database predictions varied depending on the fluid. Although the pressure, density, and temperature (p, {rho}, T) data for all tested fluids matched fairly well to REFPROP in most regions, the critical temperature was often inaccurate. In these cases, outside literature was found to provide further insight and to qualitatively confirm the validity of experimental findings for the present investigation.

Wright, Steven Alan; Conboy, Thomas M.; Ames, David E.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Identifying Fracture Types and Relative Ages Using Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) are designed to recover heat from the subsurface by mechanically creating fractures in subsurface rocks. Understanding the life cycle of a fracture in a geothermal system is fundamental to the development of techniques for creating fractures. Recognizing the stage of a fracture, whether it is currently open and transmitting fluids; if it recently has closed; or if it is an ancient fracture would assist in targeting areas for further fracture stimulation. Identifying dense fracture areas as well as large open fractures from small fracture systems will also assist in fracture stimulation selection. Geothermal systems are constantly generating fractures, and fluids and gases passing through rocks in these systems leave small fluid and gas samples trapped in healed microfractures. Fluid inclusions trapped in minerals as the fractures heal are characteristic of the fluids that formed them, and this signature can be seen in fluid inclusion gas analysis. Our hypothesis is that fractures over their life cycle have different chemical signatures that we can see in fluid inclusion gas analysis and by using the new method of fluid inclusion stratigraphy (FIS) the different stages of fractures, along with an estimate of fracture size can be identified during the well drilling process. We have shown with this study that it is possible to identify fracture locations using FIS and that different fractures have different chemical signatures however that signature is somewhat dependent upon rock type. Open, active fractures correlate with increase concentrations of CO2, N2, Ar, and to a lesser extent H2O. These fractures would be targets for further enhancement. The usefulness of this method is that it is low cost alternative to current well logging techniques and can be done as a well is being drilled.

Dilley, Lorie M.; Norman, David; Owens, Lara

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

274

Wellbottom fluid implosion treatment system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for inducing implosion shock forces on perforation traversing earth formations with fluid pressure where an implosion tool is selected relative to a shut in well pressure and a tubing pressure to have a large and small area piston relationship in a well tool so that at a predetermined tubing pressure the pistons move a sufficient distance to open an implosion valve which permits a sudden release of well fluid pressure into the tubing string and produces an implosion force on the perforations. A pressure gauge on the well tool records tubing pressure and well pressure as a function of time.

Brieger, Emmet F. (HC 67 Box 58, Nogal, NM 88341)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Holographic plasma and anyonic fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use alternative quantisation of the $D3/D5$ system to explore properties of a strongly coupled charged plasma and strongly coupled anyonic fluids. The $S$-transform of the $D3/D5$ system is used as a model for charged matter interacting with a U(1) gauge field in the large coupling regime, and we compute the dispersion relationship of the propagating electromagnetic modes as the density and temperature are changed. A more general $SL(2,\\mathbb{Z})$ transformation gives a strongly interacting anyonic fluid, and we study its transport properties as we change the statistics of the anyons and the background magnetic field.

Daniel K. Brattan; Gilad Lifschytz

2013-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

276

Isotope Geochemistry Of Minerals And Fluids From Newberry Volcano, Oregon |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Isotope Geochemistry Of Minerals And Fluids From Newberry Volcano, Oregon Isotope Geochemistry Of Minerals And Fluids From Newberry Volcano, Oregon Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Isotope Geochemistry Of Minerals And Fluids From Newberry Volcano, Oregon Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Isotopic compositions were determined for hydrothermal quartz, calcite, and siderite from core samples of the Newberry 2 drill hole, Oregon. The Δ15O values for these minerals decrease with increasing temperatures. The values indicate that these hydrothermal minerals precipitated in isotopic equilibrium with water currently present in the reservoirs. The Δ18O values of quartz and calcite from the andesite and basalt flows (700-932 m) have isotopic values which require that the equilibrated water Δ18O values increase slightly (- 11.3 to -9.2‰) with

277

Heat transfer in porous media with fluid phase changes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A one-dimensional experimental apparatus was built to study the heat pipe phenomenon. Basically, it consists of a 25 cm long, 2.5 cm I.D. Lexane tube packed with Ottawa sand. The two ends of the tube were subjected to different tempratures, i.e., one above the boiling temperature and the other below. The tube was well insulated so that a uniform one-dimensional heat flux could pass through the sand pack. Presence of the heat pipe phenomenon was confirmed by the temperature and saturation profiles of the sand pack at the final steady state condition. A one-dimensional steady state theory to describe the experiment has been developed which shows the functional dependence of the heat pipe phenomenon on liquid saturation gradient, capillary pressure, permeability, fluid viscosity, latent heat, heat flux and gravity. Influence of the heat pipe phenomenon on wellbore heat losses was studied by use of a two-phase two-dimensional cylindrical coordinate computer model.

Su, H.J.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

GF5 / ROBO Test or ASTM Sequence IIIGA Test, ASTM D7528 Aged Oil LowTemperature Viscosity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GF5 / ROBO Test or ASTM Sequence IIIGA Test, ASTM D7528 Aged Oil LowTemperature Viscosity SPECIFICATIONS PROCEDURE PARAMETERS The ROBO test is a proposed test for performance category GF.5, ASTM D7528. The ASTM Sequence IIIGA Test, ASTM D7320 may be run instead of the above. A total

Chapman, Clark R.

279

Directed flow fluid rinse trough  

SciTech Connect

Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The tanks are suitable for one or more essentially planar items having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs also require less rinse fluid to accomplish a thorough rinse than prior art troughs.

Kempka, Steven N. (9504 Lona La., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Walters, Robert N. (11872 LaGrange St., Boise, ID 83709)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Increased Power Flow Guidebook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Increased Power Flow (IPF) Guidebook is a state-of-the-art and best practices guidebook on increasing power flow capacities of existing overhead transmission lines, underground cables, power transformers, and substation equipment without compromising safety and reliability. The Guidebook discusses power system concerns and limiting conditions to increasing capacity, reviews available technology options and methods, illustrates alternatives with case studies, and analyzes costs and benefits of differe...

2005-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid viscosity increases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Method and apparatus for implementing a thermodynamic cycle using a fluid of changing concentration  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of generating usable energy comprising the steps of: vaporizing, at an upper intermediate pressure, only part of an initial multi-component working fluid stream having lower and higher temperature boiling components to form a first vapor fraction, the first vapor fraction being enriched with the lower boiling temperature component; mixing the first vapor fraction with a part of the initial working fluid stream and absorbing it therein to produce a rich solution enriched relatively to the initial working fluid stream with respect to the lower temperature boiling component, and using a remaining part of the initial working fluid stream as a lean solution which is impoverished relatively to the rich solution with respect to the lower temperature boiling component; increasing the pressure of the rich solution to a charged high pressure level and evaporating the rich solution to produce a charged gaseous main working fluid; expanding the charged gaseous main working fluid to a spent low pressure level to transform its energy into usable form; cooling and condensing the spent main working fluid by absorbing it in a lean solution at the spent low pressure level to form a distillation fluid; increasing the pressure of the condensed fluid to a lower intermediate pressure; forming from a part of the lean solution a second vapor fraction enriched with the lower boiling temperature component with respect to the condensed fluid; mixing the second vapor fraction with the distillation fluid to form a mixture; and increasing the pressure of the mixture to upper intermediate pressure to form the initial multicomponent working fluid stream.

Kalina, A.I.

1986-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

282

Solar absorption refrigeration system using new working fluid pairs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Absorption refrigeration systems powered by solar energy increasingly attract research interests in the last years. In this study, thermodynamic analyses for different working fluid pairs are performed. A computer simulation model has been developed ... Keywords: NH3-LiNO3, absorption, crystallization, generator, performance, refrigeration, solar energy

Jasim M. Abdulateef; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; M. A. Alghoul; Mohd Yusof Sulaiman; Azami Zaharim; Ibrahim Ahmad

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Review: Application of computational fluid dynamics for modeling and designing photobioreactors for microalgae production: A review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The past decade has seen a rapid increase of numerical simulation studies on photobioreactors (PBRs). Developments in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the availability of more powerful computers have paved the way for the modeling and designing ... Keywords: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Computer simulation, Microalgae, Photobioreactors

J. P. Bitog; I. -B. Lee; C. -G. Lee; K. -S. Kim; H. -S. Hwang; S. -W. Hong; I. -H. Seo; K. -S. Kwon; E. Mostafa

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% {sup 239}Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: {sm_bullet}bare, {sm_bullet}1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or {sm_bullet}12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection.

WITTEKIND WD

2007-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

285

Environmentally Acceptable Transformer Fluids: An Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report offers information about the physical, dielectric, chemical, and environmental properties of transformer fluids and their operational impacts. Companies can use this information to choose environmentally acceptable green fluids.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

286

Fluid sampling system for a nuclear reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system of extracting fluid samples, either liquid or gas, from the interior of a nuclear reactor containment utilizes a jet pump. To extract the sample fluid, a nonradioactive motive fluid is forced through the inlet and discharge ports of a jet pump located outside the containment, creating a suction that draws the sample fluid from the containment through a sample conduit connected to the pump suction port. The mixture of motive fluid and sample fluid is discharged through a return conduit to the interior of the containment. The jet pump and means for removing a portion of the sample fluid from the sample conduit can be located in a shielded sample grab station located next to the containment. A non-nuclear grade active pump can be located outside the grab sampling station and the containment to pump the nonradioactive motive fluid through the jet pump. 1 fig.

Lau, L.K.; Alper, N.I.

1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

287

Direct Measurements of Pore Fluid Density by Vibrating Tube Densimetry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The densities of pore-confined fluids were measured for the first time by means of a vibrating tube method. Isotherms of total adsorption capacity were measured directly making the method complementary to the conventional gravimetric or volumetric/piezometric adsorption techniques, which yield the excess adsorption (the Gibbsian surface excess). A custom-made high-pressure, high-temperature vibrating tube densimeter (VTD) was used to measure the densities of subcritical and supercritical propane (between 35 C and 97 C) and supercritical carbon dioxide (between 32 C and 50 C) saturating hydrophobic silica aerogel (0.2 g/cm3, 90% porosity) synthesized inside Hastelloy U-tubes. Additionally, excess adsorption isotherms for supercritical CO2 and the same porous solid were measured gravimetrically using a precise magnetically-coupled microbalance. Pore fluid densities and total adsorption isotherms increased monotonically with increasing density of the bulk fluid, in contrast to excess adsorption isotherms, which reached a maximum at a subcritical density of the bulk fluid, and then decreased towards zero or negative values at supercritical densities. Compression of the confined fluid significantly beyond the density of the bulk liquid at the same temperature was observed at subcritical temperatures. The features of the isotherms of confined fluid density are interpreted to elucidate the observed behavior of excess adsorption. The maxima of excess adsorption were found to occur below the critical density of the bulk fluid at the conditions corresponding to the beginning of the plateau of total adsorption, marking the end of the transition of pore fluid to a denser, liquid-like pore phase. The results for propane and carbon dioxide showed similarity in the sense of the principle of corresponding states. No measurable effect of pore confinement on the liquid-vapor critical point was found. Quantitative agreement was obtained between excess adsorption isotherms determined from VTD total adsorption results and those measured gravimetrically at the same temperature, confirming the validity of the vibrating tube measurements. Vibrating tube densimetry was demonstrated as a novel experimental approach capable of providing the average density of pore-confined fluids.

Gruszkiewicz, Miroslaw {Mirek} S [ORNL; Rother, Gernot [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL; Wallacher, Dirk [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Graphene Compositions And Drilling Fluids Derived Therefrom ...  

Drilling fluids comprising graphenes and nanoplatelet additives and methods for production thereof are disclosed. Graphene includes graphite oxide, graphene oxide ...

289

SUBSIDENCE DUE TO GEOTHERMAL FLUID WITHDRAWAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

drilling activity completely ceased. Of these, 65 bores account for about 95 percent of the total fluid

Narasimhan, T.N.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Fluid Metrology Calibration Services - Water Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fluid Metrology Calibration Services - Water Flow. Water Flow Calibrations 18020C. ... NIST provides calibration services for water flow meters. ...

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

291

Attrition Resistant Catalyst Materials for Fluid Bed ...  

Biomass and Biofuels Attrition Resistant Catalyst Materials for Fluid Bed Applications National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Contact NREL About This ...

292

Ultrasonic fluid densitometer for process control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses at least one pair of transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within a material wedge. A temperature sensor is provided to monitor the temperature of the wedge material. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface and comparing a transducer voltage and wedge material temperature to a tabulation as a function of density.

Greenwood, Margaret S. (Richland, WA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Diesel prices increase nationally  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Diesel prices increase nationally The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to 3.91 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.3 cents from a week ago, based on the...

294

Diesel prices increase  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Diesel prices increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to 3.84 a gallon on Monday. That's up 2.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price...

295

Calculation of Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity with a Particle Simulation in the Tokamak Magnetic Breaking Experiments  

SciTech Connect

Accurate calculation of perturbed distribution function #14;?f and perturbed magnetic fi eld #14;?B is essential to achieve prediction of non-ambipolar transport and neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) in perturbed tokamaks. This paper reports a study of the NTV with a #14;?f particle code (POCA) and improved understanding of magnetic braking in tokamak experiments. POCA calculates the NTV by computing #14;f with guiding-center orbit motion and using #14;B from the ideal perturbed equilibrium code (IPEC). POCA simulations are compared with experimental estimations for NTV, which are measured from angular momentum balance (DIII-D) and toroidal rotational damping rate (NSTX). The calculation shows good agreement in total NTV torque for the DIII-D discharge, where an analytic neoclassical theory also gives a consistent result thanks to relatively large aspect-ratio and slow toroidal rotations. In NSTX discharges, where the aspect-ratio is small and the rotation is fast, the theory only gives a qualitative guide for predicting NTV. However, the POCA simulation largely improves the quantitative NTV prediction for NSTX. It is discussed that a self- consistent calculation of ?#14;B using general perturbed equilibria is eventually necessary since a non-ideal plasma response can change the perturbed eld and thereby the NTV torque.

Kimin Kim, et al

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

296

Helium measurements of pore-fluids obtained from SAFOD drillcore  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ionized water (DI) as drilling fluid. This procedure avoidsbeen contaminated with drilling fluids during recovery ofscheduled drilling phases to enable fluid-only sampling.

Ali, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Gas Analysis Of Geothermal Fluid Inclusions- A New Technology For  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Gas Analysis Of Geothermal Fluid Inclusions- A New Technology For Geothermal Exploration Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Gas Analysis Of Geothermal Fluid Inclusions- A New Technology For Geothermal Exploration Details Activities (7) Areas (6) Regions (0) Abstract: To increase our knowledge of gaseous species in geothermal systems by fluid inclusion analysis in order to facilitate the use of gas analysis in geothermal exploration. The knowledge of gained by this program can be applied to geothermal exploration, which may expand geothermal

298

Wavelet Turbulence for Fluid Simulation Theodore Kim  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the running time. We instead propose an algorithm that generates small-scale fluid de- tail procedurally. We of the key results of Kolmogorov the- ory is that the energy spectrum of a turbulent fluid approaches a five spectra [Perrier et al. 1995], and the sub- stitution is common in fluid dynamics [Farge et al. 1996

California at Santa Barbara, University of

299

Two Fluid Shear-Free Composites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shear-free composite fluids are constructed from two Letelier rotated unaligned perfect fluids. The component fluid parameters necessary to construct a shear-free composite are investigated. A metric in the Stephani-Barnes solution family and a simple stationary metric are discussed.

J. P. Krisch; E. N. Glass

2013-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

300

Fall 2011 ME 542 Advanced Fluid Mechanics ENG ME 542 Advanced Fluid Mechanics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fall 2011 ME 542 Advanced Fluid Mechanics ENG ME 542 Advanced Fluid Mechanics Instructor: M. S. Howe EMA 218 mshowe@bu.edu This course is intended to consolidate your knowledge of fluid mechanics specialized courses on fluid mechanics, acoustics and aeroacoustics. Outline syllabus: Equations of motion

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid viscosity increases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Viscosity of NaCl and other solutions up to 350{sup 0}C and 50 MPa pressures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experimental values for the viscosity of sodium chloride solutions are critically reviewed for application to geothermal energy. Data published recently by Kestin, Los, Pepinov, and Semenyuk as well as earlier data are included. A theoretically based equation for calculating relative viscosity was developed, and used to generate tables of smoothed values over the ranges 20{sup 0}C to 350{sup 0}C, 0 to 5 m and pressures up to 50 MPa. The equation reproduces selected data to an average of better than 2 percent over the entire range of temperatures and pressures. Selected tables of data are included for KCl up to 150{sup 0}C, CaCl{sub 2} solutions up to 100{sup 0}C, and for mixtures of NaCl with KCl and CaCl{sub 2}. Recommendations are given for additional data needs.

Phillips, S.L.; Ozbek, H.; Igbene, A.; Litton, G.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

A biomechanical model of swallowing for understanding the influence of saliva and food bolus viscosity on flavour release  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

After swallowing a liquid or a semi-liquid food product, a thin film responsible for the dynamic profile of aroma release coats the pharyngeal mucosa. The objective of the present article was to understand and quantify physical mechanisms explaining pharyngeal mucosa coating. An elastohydrodynamic model of swallowing was developed for Newtonian liquids that focused on the most occluded region of the pharyngeal peristaltic wave. The model took lubrication by a saliva film and mucosa deformability into account. Food bolus flow rate and generated load were predicted as functions of three dimensionless variables: the dimensionless saliva flow rate, the viscosity ratio between saliva and the food bolus, and the elasticity number. Considering physiological conditions, the results were applied to predict aroma release kinetics. Two sets of conditions were distinguished. The first one was obtained when the saliva film is thin, in which case food bolus viscosity has a strong impact on mucosa coating and on flavour rel...

De Loubens, Clment; Doyennette, Marion; Trla, Ioan Cristian; Souchon, Isabelle

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Fluid Inclusion Analysis | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fluid Inclusion Analysis Fluid Inclusion Analysis Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Fluid Inclusion Analysis Details Activities (20) Areas (11) Regions (1) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Lab Analysis Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Fluid Lab Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Fluid Lab Analysis Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Fluid composition at a point in time and space Thermal: The minimum temperature of fluid inclusion formation Cost Information Low-End Estimate (USD): 17.571,757 centUSD 0.0176 kUSD 1.757e-5 MUSD 1.757e-8 TUSD / sample Median Estimate (USD): 17.571,757 centUSD 0.0176 kUSD 1.757e-5 MUSD 1.757e-8 TUSD / sample High-End Estimate (USD): 26.782,678 centUSD

304

The role of computational fluid dynamics in the management of unruptured intracranial aneurysms: a clinicians' view  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Objective. The importance of hemodynamics in the etiopathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) is widely accepted. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is being used increasingly for hemodynamic predictions. However, alogn with the continuing development ...

Pankaj K. Singh; Alberto Marzo; Stuart C. Coley; Guntram Berti; Philippe Bijlenga; Patricia V. Lawford; Mari-Cruz Villa-Uriol; Daniel A. Rufenacht; Keith M. McCormack; Alejandro Frangi; Umang J. Patel; D. Rodney Hose

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Group Velocity and the Linear Response of Stratified Fluids to Internal Heat or Mass Sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A steadily maintained line heat or mass source turned on in an unbounded, steadily moving, uniformly stratified flow will in general create ever-increasing vertical displacements of the fluid. Lin and Smith viewed a maintained heat source as a ...

Chris Bretherton

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Reference Data for the Density and Viscosity of Liquid Cadmium, Cobalt, Gallium, Indium, Mercury, Silicon, Thallium, and Zinc  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The available experimental data for the density and viscosity of liquid cadmium, cobalt, gallium, indium, mercury, silicon, thallium, and zinc have been critically examined with the intention of establishing both a density and a viscosity standard. All experimental data have been categorized into primary and secondary data according to the quality of measurement, the technique employed and the presentation of the data, as specified by a series of criteria. The proposed standard reference correlations for the density of liquid cadmium, cobalt, gallium, indium, silicon, thallium, and zinc are characterized by percent deviations at the 95% confidence level of 0.6, 2.1, 0.4, 0.5, 2.2, 0.9, and 0.7, respectively. In the case of mercury, since density reference values already exist, no further work was carried out. The standard reference correlations for the viscosity of liquid cadmium, cobalt, gallium, indium, mercury, silicon, thallium, and zinc are characterized by percent deviations at the 95% confidence level of 9.4, 14.0, 13.5, 2.1, 7.3, 15.7, 5.1, and 9.3, respectively.

Assael, Marc J.; Armyra, Ivi J.; Brillo, Juergen; Stankus, Sergei V.; Wu Jiangtao; Wakeham, William A. [Chemical Engineering Department, Aristotle University, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Institut fuer Materialphysik im Weltraum, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, 51170 Koeln (Germany); Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Brunch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Lavrentyev ave. 1, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Center of Thermal and Fluid Science, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Chemical Engineering Department, Imperial College, London SW7 2BY (United Kingdom)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

307

Disk Quota Increase Request  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Disk Disk Quota Increase Disk Quota Increase Request NERSC will consider reasonable requests for changes in disk space and inode limits. Please submit a request through the "Request Forms" section at the NERSC help portal. If you select "Hopper scratch directory" from the "File System" menu below, the quota value requested applies to the combined contents of $SCRATCH and $SCRATCH2. Please ask for the least amount of resources you need, since the sum of disk space and inodes allocated to users already exceeds system capacity. In other words, system resources would be exhausted before all users could use their existing quotas. You can find out the current quotas and usage of disk space and inodes for your home and scratch file systems with the myquota command. You can find

308

Pemex increasing offshore activity  

SciTech Connect

Although austere by boom-year standards, Mexico's National Energy Program for 1984-1988 calls for forty wildcats and 90 to 144 development wells off the coast, primarily in the prolific Campeche Bay area. Platform additions will include nine drilling platforms, each for twelve wells, and eight eight platforms to drill injection wells. Additionally, 7 production, 6 accomodation, 6 linkage and 8 compression platforms and 13 tetrapods will be installed. The main objectives of the plan are energy self-sufficiency through the turn of the century, and energy diversification, savings and productivity. The most controversial portion of Mexico's energy program is that calling for nuclear energy development. The energy program lists three basic goals in hydrocarbon production: continuing research on better techniques of secondary recovery; increasing capacity for refining primary and secondary crude products and improving production of heavy crudes; and increasing storage capacity and installing pipelines capable of carrying a greater volume of crude.

Beachy, D.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Dependence of drop speed on nozzle diameter, viscosity and drive amplitude in drop-on-demand ink-jet printing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

recent numerical codes developed by collaborators in the University of Leeds, and from simple models for drop-on-demand fluid jetting resulting from physical laws...

Hoath, S.D.; Hsiao, W.-K.; Jung, S.; Martin, G.D.; Hutchings, I.M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion. 3 figs.

Fincke, J.R.

1982-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

312

Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion.

Fincke, James R. (Rigby, ID)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Apparatus for unloading pressurized fluid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus is described for unloading fluid, preferably pressurized gas, from containers in a controlled manner that protects the immediate area from exposure to the container contents. The device consists of an unloading housing, which is enclosed within at least one protective structure, for receiving the dispensed contents of the steel container, and a laser light source, located external to the protective structure, for opening the steel container instantaneously. The neck or stem of the fluid container is placed within the sealed interior environment of the unloading housing. The laser light passes through both the protective structure and the unloading housing to instantaneously pierce a small hole within the stem of the container. Both the protective structure and the unloading housing are specially designed to allow laser light passage without compromising the light's energy level. Also, the unloading housing allows controlled flow of the gas once it has been dispensed from the container. The external light source permits remote operation of the unloading device. 2 figures.

Rehberger, K.M.

1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

314

Controlling the fluid-fluid mixing-demixing phase transition with electric fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review recent theoretical advances on controlling the fluid-fluid phase transition with electric fields. Using a mean-field approach, we compare the effects of uniform versus non-uniform electric fields, and show how non-uniform fields are better at altering the phase diagram. Focusing on non-uniform fields, we then discuss the behavior of the fluid concentration profile and the parameters (temperature, fluid concentration, etc.) that control the location of the fluid-fluid interface from both equilibrium and dynamic perspectives.

Jennifer Galanis; Sela Samin; Yoav Tsori

2012-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

315

The utilization of the microflora indigenous to and present in oil-bearing formations to selectively plug the more porous zones thereby increasing oil recovery during waterflooding. Sixteenth quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

There are ten injection wells receiving nutrients and twenty producing wells in test patterns are being monitoring for responses. Petrophysical studies of recovered core sample from the 3 newly drilled wells are still in progress. Monthly collection of produced fluids from the test and control wells in all patterns continued with the following tasks being performed: aliphatic profile (gas chromatographic analysis); API gravity and absolute viscosity under reservoir temperature; pH of produced water; surface tension (ST) of produced water (water-air); interfacial tension (IFT) for produced oil-water system; microbiological population; and inorganic analyses (nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, sulfide, chloride, potassium, and hardness). Production data on all wells in all patterns continues to be evaluated. Increased gas production that has been noted in some wells could be the result of microbial activity or from previous unswept areas of the reservoir. Samples of gas were collected from selected production wells and analyzed by gas chromatography using a Fisher Model No. 12 Gas Partitioner. The results of analyses from four sets of samples are given.

Brown, L.R.; Vadie, A.A. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)

1998-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

316

Silica recovery and control in Hawaiian geothermal fluids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of experiments was performed to investigate methods of controlling silica in waste geothermal brines produced at the HGP-A Generator Facility. Laboratory testing has shown that the rate of polymerization of silica in the geothermal fluids is highly pH dependent. At brine pH values in excess of 8.5 the suspension of silica polymers flocculated and rapidly precipitated a gelatinous silica mass. Optimum flocculation and precipitation rates were achieved at pH values in the range of 10.5 to 11.5. The addition of transition metal salts to the geothermal fluids similarly increased the rate of polymerization as well as the degree of precipitation of the silica polymer from suspension. A series of experiments performed on the recovered silica solids demonstrated that methanol extraction of the water in the gels followed by critical point drying yielded surface areas in excess of 300 M{sup 2}/g and that treatment of the dried solids with 2 N HCl removed most of the adsorbed impurities in the recovered product. A series of experiments tested the response of the waste brines to mixing with steam condensate and non-condensable gases.The results demonstrated that the addition of condensate and NCG greatly increased the stability of the silica in the geothermal brines. They also indicated that the process could reduce the potential for plugging of reinjection wells receiving waste geothermal fluids from commercial geothermal facilities in Hawaii. Conceptual designs were proposed to apply the gas re-combination approach to the disposal of geothermal waste fluids having a range of chemical compositions. Finally, these designs were applied to the geothermal fluid compositions found at Cerro Prieto, Ahuachapan, and Salton Sea.

Thomas, D.M.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Silica recovery and control in Hawaiian geothermal fluids. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of experiments was performed to investigate methods of controlling silica in waste geothermal brines produced at the HGP-A Generator Facility. Laboratory testing has shown that the rate of polymerization of silica in the geothermal fluids is highly pH dependent. At brine pH values in excess of 8.5 the suspension of silica polymers flocculated and rapidly precipitated a gelatinous silica mass. Optimum flocculation and precipitation rates were achieved at pH values in the range of 10.5 to 11.5. The addition of transition metal salts to the geothermal fluids similarly increased the rate of polymerization as well as the degree of precipitation of the silica polymer from suspension. A series of experiments performed on the recovered silica solids demonstrated that methanol extraction of the water in the gels followed by critical point drying yielded surface areas in excess of 300 M{sup 2}/g and that treatment of the dried solids with 2 N HCl removed most of the adsorbed impurities in the recovered product. A series of experiments tested the response of the waste brines to mixing with steam condensate and non-condensable gases.The results demonstrated that the addition of condensate and NCG greatly increased the stability of the silica in the geothermal brines. They also indicated that the process could reduce the potential for plugging of reinjection wells receiving waste geothermal fluids from commercial geothermal facilities in Hawaii. Conceptual designs were proposed to apply the gas re-combination approach to the disposal of geothermal waste fluids having a range of chemical compositions. Finally, these designs were applied to the geothermal fluid compositions found at Cerro Prieto, Ahuachapan, and Salton Sea.

Thomas, D.M.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Mechanistic modeling of increased oxygen transport using functionalized magnetic fluids in bioreactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Absorption of gases into a liquid is of crucial importance to multiphase reactions because diffusion of a sparingly soluble gas across a gas-liquid interface generally limits the relevant reaction rates. Pertinent examples ...

Oll Pocurull, Bernat

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Valve for controlling flow of cryogenic fluid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A valve is provided for accurately controlling the flow of cryogenic fluids such as liquid nitrogen. The valve comprises a combination of disc and needle valves affixed to a valve stem in such a manner that the disc and needle are free to rotate about the stem, but are constrained in lateral and vertical movements. This arrangement provides accurate and precise fluid flow control and positive fluid isolation.

Knapp, P.A.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

320

Flow Of Mantle Fluids Through The Ductile Lower Crust- Helium Isotope  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Of Mantle Fluids Through The Ductile Lower Crust- Helium Isotope Of Mantle Fluids Through The Ductile Lower Crust- Helium Isotope Trends Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Flow Of Mantle Fluids Through The Ductile Lower Crust- Helium Isotope Trends Details Activities (5) Areas (5) Regions (0) Abstract: Heat and mass are injected into the shallow crust when mantle fluids are able to flow through the ductile lower crust. Minimum He-3/He-4 ratios in surface fluids from the northern Basin and Range Province, western North America, increase systematically from low crustal values in the east to high mantle values in the west, a regional trend that correlates with the rates of active crustal deformation. The highest ratios occur where the extension and shear strain rates are greatest. The

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid viscosity increases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Definition: Fluid Inclusion Analysis | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

or liquid) and occasionally mineral crystals, that are considered to represent the chemical and physical properties of a hydrothermal fluid at a single point in time and...

322

Non-invasive Ultrasonic Fluid Processing Technology ...  

Search PNNL. PNNL Home; About; Research; Publications; Jobs; News; Contacts; Non-invasive Ultrasonic Fluid Processing Technology. Battelle Number(s): ...

323

Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture Fluids | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Centers Field Sites Power Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture Fluids Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture...

324

Universal Fluid Droplet Ejector - Energy Innovation Portal  

... deposition and cell-sorting applications Description A fluid ejector capable of producing micron sized droplets on demand is ... 5,943,075 (USA) ...

325

Universal fluid droplet ejector - Energy Innovation Portal  

A droplet generator comprises a fluid reservoir having a side wall made of glass or quartz, and an end cap made from a silicon plate. The end cap ...

326

Fluid Submersible Sensing Device - Energy Innovation Portal  

The present invention relates to a fluid submersible sensing device and, more particularly, to such a device having sensing structure provided within ...

327

MODELING SUBSIDENCE DUE TO GEOTHERMAL FLUID PRODUCTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

compaction, computers, geothermal energy, pore-waternot MODELING SUBSIDENCE DUE T GEOTHERMAL FLUID PRODUCTION Opromise f o r developing geothermal energy i n the United

Lippmann, M.J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Theory and Modeling of Fluids Group Homepage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Modeling of Fluids Group is working in consort with the University of Colorado and the Division's Cryogenics Group on a DARPA funded project to ...

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

329

Heat pump/refrigerator using liquid working fluid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat transfer device is described that can be operated as a heat pump or refrigerator, which utilizes a working fluid that is continuously in a liquid state and which has a high temperature-coefficient of expansion near room temperature, to provide a compact and high efficiency heat transfer device for relatively small temperature differences as are encountered in heating or cooling rooms or the like. The heat transfer device includes a pair of heat exchangers that may be coupled respectively to the outdoor and indoor environments, a regenerator connecting the two heat exchangers, a displacer that can move the liquid working fluid through the heat exchangers via the regenerator, and a means for alternately increasing and decreasing the pressure of the working fluid. The liquid working fluid enables efficient heat transfer in a compact unit, and leads to an explosion-proof smooth and quiet machine characteristic of hydraulics. The device enables efficient heat transfer as the indoor-outdoor temperature difference approaches zero, and enables simple conversion from heat pumping to refrigeration as by merely reversing the direction of a motor that powers the device.

Wheatley, John C. (Del Mar, CA); Paulson, Douglas N. (Del Mar, CA); Allen, Paul C. (Solana Beach, CA); Knight, William R. (Corvallis, OR); Warkentin, Paul A. (San Diego, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater. 11 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

331

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Trace element and isotope geochemistry of geothermal fluids, East Rift Zone, Kilauea, Hawaii  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A research program has been undertaken in an effort to better characterize the composition and the precipitation characteristic of the geothermal fluids produced by the HGP-A geothermal well located on the Kilauea East Rift Zone on the Island of Hawaii. The results of these studies have shown that the chemical composition of the fluids changed over the production life of the well and that the fluids produced were the result of mixing of at least two, and possibly three, source fluids. These source fluids were recognized as: a sea water composition modified by high temperature water-rock reactions; meteoric recharge; and a hydrothermal fluid that had been equilibrated with high temperature reservoir rocks and magmatic volatiles. Although the major alkali and halide elements show clearly increasing trends with time, only a few of the trace transition metals show a similar trend. The rare earth elements, were typically found at low concentrations and appeared to be highly variable with time. Studies of the precipitation characteristics of silica showed that amorphous silica deposition rates were highly sensitive to fluid pH and that increases in fluid pH above about 8.5 could flocculate more than 80% of the suspended colloidal silica in excess of its solubility. Addition of transition metal salts were also found to enhance the recovery fractions of silica from solution. The amorphous silica precipitate was also found to strongly scavenge the alkaline earth and transition metal ions naturally present in the brines; mild acid treatments were shown to be capable of removing substantial fractions of the scavenged metals from the silica flocs yielding a moderately pure gelatinous by-product. Further work on the silica precipitation process is recommended to improve our ability to control silica scaling from high temperature geothermal fluids or to recover a marketable silica by-product from these fluids prior to reinjection.

West, H.B.; Delanoy, G.A.; Thomas, D.M. (Hawaii Univ., Honolulu, HI (United States). Hawaii Inst. of Geophysics); Gerlach, D.C. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Chen, B.; Takahashi, P.; Thomas, D.M. (Hawaii Univ., Honolulu, HI (United States) Evans (Charles) and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

The Start Of Ebullition In Quiescent, Yield-Stress Fluids  

SciTech Connect

Non-Newtonian rheology is typical for the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) slurries processed in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Hydrogen and other flammable gases are generated in the aqueous phase by radiolytic and chemical reactions. HLW slurries have a capacity for retaining gas characterized by the shear strength holding the bubbles still. The sizes and degassing characteristics of flammable gas bubbles in the HLW slurries expected to be processed by the WTP are important considerations for designing equipment and operating procedures. Slurries become increasingly susceptible to degassing as the bubble concentration increases. This susceptibility and the process of ebullitive bubble enlargement are described here. When disturbed, the fluid undergoes localized flow around neighboring bubbles which are dragged together and coalesce, producing an enlarged bubble. For the conditions considered in this work, bubble size increase is enough to displace the weight required to overcome the fluid shear strength and yield the surroundings. The buoyant bubble ascends and accumulates others within a zone of influence, enlarging by a few orders of magnitude. This process describes how the first bubbles appear on the surface of a 7 Pa shear strength fluid a few seconds after being jarred.

Reed, G. R.; Sherwood, David J.; Saez, A. Eduardo

2012-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

334

Models of low-speed flow for near-critical fluids with gravitational and capillary effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study low-speed flows of a highly compressible, single-phase fluid in the presence of gravity, for example in a regime appropriate for modeling recent space-shuttle experiments on fluids near the liquid-vapor critical point. In the equations of motion, we include forces due to capillary stresses that arise from a contribution made by strong density gradients to the free energy. We derive formally simplified sets of equations in a low-speed limit analogous to the zero Mach number limit in combustion theory. When viscosity is neglected and gravity is weak, the simplified system includes: a hyperbolic equation for velocity, a parabolic equation for temperature, an elliptic equation related to volume expansion, an integro-differential equation for mean pressure, and an algebraic equation (the equation of state). Solutions are determined by initial values for the mean pressure, the temperature field, and the divergence-free part of the velocity field. To model multidimensional flows with strong gravity, we offe...

Denny, D L; Denny, Diane L.; Pego, Robert L.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

PRECISION CLEANING OF SEMICONDUCTOR SURFACES USING CARBON DIOXIDE-BASED FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory, on behalf of the Hewlett-Packard Company, is conducting tests of a closed-loop CO{sub 2}-based supercritical fluid process, known as Supercritical CO{sub 2} Resist Remover (SCORR). We have shown that this treatment process is effective in removing hard-baked, ion-implanted photoresists, and appears to be fully compatible with metallization systems. We are now performing experiments on production wafers to assess not only photoresist removal, but also residual surface contamination due to particulate and trace metals. Dense-phase (liquid or supercritical) CO{sub 2}, since it is non-polar, acts like an organic solvent and therefore has an inherently high volubility for organic compounds such as oils and greases. Also, dense CO{sub 2} has a low-viscosity and a low dielectric constant. Finally, CO{sub 2} in the liquid and supercritical fluid states can solubilize metal completing agents and surfactants. This combination of properties has interesting implications for the removal not only of organic films, but also trace metals and inorganic particulate. In this paper we discuss the possibility of using CO{sub 2} as a precision-cleaning solvent, with particular emphasis on semiconductor surfaces.

J. RUBIN; L. SIVILS; A. BUSNAINA

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion.

Fincke, J.R.

1980-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

337

A Universe with a Ghost Dark Energy and van der Waals fluid interacting with a Fluid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider a model of a Universe with Ghost Dark Energy and van der Waals fluid interacting with a fluid which was born as a result of interaction between original fluid and some other fluid existing in Universe. We suppose that Ghost Dark energy has its contribution to the model by an interaction term $Q$ and we suppose that $Q=3Hb(\\rho_{\\small{tot}}-\\rho_{GDe})$.

Martiros Khurshudyan

2013-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

338

A biomechanical model of swallowing for understanding the influence of saliva and food bolus viscosity on flavour release  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

After swallowing a liquid or a semi-liquid food product, a thin film responsible for the dynamic profile of aroma release coats the pharyngeal mucosa. The objective of the present article was to understand and quantify physical mechanisms explaining pharyngeal mucosa coating. An elastohydrodynamic model of swallowing was developed for Newtonian liquids that focused on the most occluded region of the pharyngeal peristaltic wave. The model took lubrication by a saliva film and mucosa deformability into account. Food bolus flow rate and generated load were predicted as functions of three dimensionless variables: the dimensionless saliva flow rate, the viscosity ratio between saliva and the food bolus, and the elasticity number. Considering physiological conditions, the results were applied to predict aroma release kinetics. Two sets of conditions were distinguished. The first one was obtained when the saliva film is thin, in which case food bolus viscosity has a strong impact on mucosa coating and on flavour release. More importantly, we demonstrated the existence of a second set of conditions. It was obtained when the saliva film is thick and the food bolus coating the mucosa is very diluted by saliva during the swallowing process and the impact of its viscosity on flavour release is weak. This last phenomenon explains physically in vivo observations for Newtonian food products found in the literature. Moreover, in this case, the predicted thickness of the mix of food bolus with saliva coating the mucosa is approximately of 20 $\\mu$m; value in agreement with orders of magnitude found in the literature.

Clment De Loubens; Albert Magnin; Marion Doyennette; Ioan Cristian Trla; Isabelle Souchon

2013-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

339

Electrohydraulic Control Fluid and Elastomer Compatibility Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electrohydraulic Control Fluid and Elastomer Compatibility Guide provides power plant personnel with current information on the compatibility of turbine-generator electrohydraulic control (EHC) fluids and various elastomers, such as hoses, seals, and gaskets. The information in the guide should assist plant personnel in improving the reliability and performance of the EHC system.

2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

340

Joint Distributions for Interacting Fluid Queues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Motivated by recent traffic control models in ATM systems, we analyse three closely related systems of fluid queues, each consisting of two consecutive reservoirs, in which the first reservoir is fed by a two-state (on and off) Markov source. The first ... Keywords: feedback, fluid queue, joint distribution, stationary distribution, tandem queue, traffic shaper

Dirk P. Kroese; Werner R. W. Scheinhardt

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid viscosity increases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Fluid Lab Analysis | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Fluid Lab Analysis Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Fluid Lab Analysis Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Lab Analysis Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Fluid Lab Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Lab Analysis Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Results can aid in the determination of fluid source regions and circulation pathways, and assist in determining the degree of mixing between different hydrothermal fluids. Thermal: Certain elements exhibit high spatial correlation with high-temperature geothermal systems; Isotopic ratios can be used to characterize and locate subsurface thermal anomalies.

342

Definition: Fluid Lab Analysis | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fluid Lab Analysis Fluid Lab Analysis Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Fluid Lab Analysis Fluid lab analysis encompasses a broad array of techniques used for the analysis of water and gas samples. These analyses are used in a variety of disciplines to quantify the chemical components and properties of groundwater systems. In geothermal exploration and development, fluid analyses often provide a first look into the characteristics of a hydrothermal system, and are routinely used in ongoing monitoring of geothermal reservoirs.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Water chemistry analyses are carried out to identify and quantify the chemical components and properties of a certain water. This include pH, major cations and anions, trace elements and isotopes. Water chemistry

343

Definition: Downhole Fluid Sampling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Downhole Fluid Sampling Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Downhole Fluid Sampling Downhole fluid sampling is done to characterize the chemical, thermal, or hydrological properties of a surface or subsurface aqueous system. Downhole fluid sampling is typically performed to monitor water quality, study recharge and flow in groundwater systems, and evaluate resource potential of geothermal reservoirs. Analysis of both the liquid and gas fractions of the reservoir fluid allows for detailed characterize the chemical, thermal, or hydrological properties of the subsurface hydrothermal system. View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Ret Like Like You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like.

344

Radiation stability of biocompatibile magnetic fluid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The radiation stability of biocompatibile magnetic fluid used in nanomedicine after electron irradiation was studied. Two types of the water-based magnetic fluids were prepared. The first one was based on the magnetite nanoparticles stabilized by one surfactant natrium oleate. The second one was biocompatibile magnetic fluid stabilized with two surfactants, natrium oleate as a first surfactant and Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a second surfactant. The magnetization measurements showed that electron irradiation up to 1000Gy caused 50% reduction of saturation magnetization in the case of the first sample with only one surfactant while in the case of the second biocompatibile magnetic fluid, only 25% reduction of saturation magnetization was observed. In the first magnetic fluid the radiation caused the higher sedimentation of the magnetic particles than in the second case, when magnetic particles are covered also with PEG. The obtained results show that PEG behave as a protective element.

Natalia Tomasovicova; Ivan Haysak; Martina Koneracka; Jozef Kovac; Milan Timko; Vlasta Zavisova; Alexander Okunev; Alexander Parlag; Alexey Fradkin; Peter Kopcansky

2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

345

Fluid permeability measurement system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for measuring the permeance of a material. The permeability of the material may also be derived. The system provides a liquid or high concentration fluid bath on one side of a material test sample, and a gas flow across the opposing side of the material test sample. The mass flow rate of permeated fluid as a fraction of the combined mass flow rate of gas and permeated fluid is used to calculate the permeance of the material. The material test sample may be a sheet, a tube, or a solid shape. Operational test conditions may be varied, including concentration of the fluid, temperature of the fluid, strain profile of the material test sample, and differential pressure across the material test sample.

Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis (Knoxville, TN); Renner, Michael John (Oak Ridge, TN)

2008-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

346

Possible evidence for fluid-rock oxygen isotope disequilibrium in hydrothermal systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There is ample evidence from geothermal systems that isotope temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope fractionation between alteration phases and coexisting aquifer fluids agree closely with measured bore-hole temperatures. Similar, but limited evidence is found in epithermal vein deposits where isotopes temperature agree well with fluid inclusion homogenization temperature. Conversely, many hydrothermal systems exhibit varying degrees of fluid-rock oxygen isotope equilibration. There appears to be a crude relationship between increasing degree of equilibrium and increasing temperature and salinity. The observed variations in the degree of exchange may have resulted from local, self-sealing of the fracture network prior to equilibration. The ability for fracture to remain open or to propogate allowing continued fluid flow may be the deciding factor in the attainment of isotopic equilibration.

Cole, D.R.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Possible evidence for fluid-rock oxygen isotope disequilibrium in hydrothermal systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There is ample evidence from geothermal systems that isotope temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope fractionation between alteration phases and coexisting aquifer fluids agree closely with measured bore-hole temperatures. Similar, but limited evidence is found in epithermal vein deposits where isotopes temperature agree well with fluid inclusion homogenization temperature. Conversely, many hydrothermal systems exhibit varying degrees of fluid-rock oxygen isotope equilibration. There appears to be a crude relationship between increasing degree of equilibrium and increasing temperature and salinity. The observed variations in the degree of exchange may have resulted from local, self-sealing of the fracture network prior to equilibration. The ability for fracture to remain open or to propogate allowing continued fluid flow may be the deciding factor in the attainment of isotopic equilibration.

Cole, D.R.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

A Mechanical Fluid-Dynamical Model For Ground Movements At Campi Flegrei  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mechanical Fluid-Dynamical Model For Ground Movements At Campi Flegrei Mechanical Fluid-Dynamical Model For Ground Movements At Campi Flegrei Caldera Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: A Mechanical Fluid-Dynamical Model For Ground Movements At Campi Flegrei Caldera Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: We present here a consistent model, which explains the mechanisms of unrest phenomena at Campi Flegrei (Italy), both at short-term (years) and at secular scales. The model consists basically of two effects: the first one is related to the elastic response of the shallow crust to increasing pressure within a shallow magma chamber; the second involves the fluid-dynamics of shallow aquifers in response to increasing pressure and/or temperature at depth. The most important roles in the proposed model

349

Heat exchanger with intermediate evaporating and condensing fluid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A shell and tube-type heat exchanger, such as a liquid sodium-operated steam generator for use in nuclear reactors, comprises a shell containing a primary fluid tube bundle, a secondary fluid tube bundle at higher elevation, and an intermediate fluid vaporizing at the surface of the primary fluid tubes and condensing at the surface of the secondary fluid tubes.

Fraas, Arthur P. (Knoxville, TN)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Physics-Based Simulations for Fluid Mixtures Dongwoon Lee  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

experience a chemical reaction which produces a new type of fluid or generates heat energy. When heat energy knowledge of fluids. He helped me to understand dynamics of fluids through his lectures and experiments. I Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3 Fluid Models 10 3.1 Fluid Dynamics

Toronto, University of

351

Drilling fluid effects on crop growth and iron and zinc availability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Waste drilling fluids are often land-farmed following completion of an oil or gas well in Colorado. This material usually contains production water, bentonitic clays, formation cuttings, barite, Na compounds, and synthetic organic polymers. The authors investigated the effects of 5 to 60 dry g drilling fluid kg{sup {minus}1} soil on the growth and trace metal concentration of sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench DeKalb ST-6-S sudanense) in the greenhouse. A nonlinear regression exponential-rise model fit the increased plant total dry matter yield response to increasing drilling fluid rates. Increased plant tissue Fe concentration and uptake indicated that increased plant-available Fe was primarily responsible for the yield response, but increased Zn availability was also suspected. Results from a second greenhouse study confirmed that drilling fluid can also correct Zn deficiency in corn (Zea mays L.). Soil SAR (sodium adsorption ratio) was higher with increasing drilling fluid, but was still sorghum-sudangrass and provided evidence that land application is an acceptable method of disposal.

Bauder, T.A.; Barbarick, K.A.; Ayers, P.D.; Chapman, P.L. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Shanahan, J.F. [Agricultural Research Service, Lincoln, NE (United States)

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Interpretation of the Stephan Quintet Galaxy Cluster using Hydro-Gravitational-Dynamics: Viscosity and Fragmentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stephan's Quintet (SQ) is a compact group of galaxies that has been well studied since its discovery in 1877 but is mysterious using cold dark matter hierarchical clustering cosmology (CDMHCC). Anomalous red shifts $z = (0.0027,0.019, 0.022, 0.022, 0.022)$ among galaxies in SQ either reduce it to a Trio with two highly improbable intruders from CDMHCC or support the Arp (1973) hypothesis that its red shifts are intrinsic. An alternative is provided by the Gibson 1996-2006 hydro-gravitational-dynamics (HGD) theory where superclusters, clusters and galaxies all originate by gravitational fragmentation in the super-viscous plasma epoch and at planetary and star cluster mass scales in the primordial gas of the expanding universe. By this fluid-mechanical cosmology, the SQ galaxies gently separate and remain precisely along a line of sight because of perspective and the small transverse velocities permitted by their sticky viscous-gravitational beginnings. Star and gas bridges and young-globular-star-cluster (YGC) trails observed by the Hubble Space Telescope are triggered as SQ galaxies separate through viscous baryonic-dark-matter halos of dark proto-globular-cluster (PGC) clumps of frozen Earth-mass primordial-fog-particles (PFPs).

Carl H. Gibson; Rudolph E. Schild

2007-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

353

Interpretation of the Stephan Quintet Galaxy Cluster using Hydro-Gravitational-Dynamics: Viscosity and Fragmentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stephan's Quintet (SQ) is a compact group of galaxies that has been well studied since its discovery in 1877 but is mysterious using cold dark matter hierarchical clustering cosmology (CDMHCC). Anomalous red shifts $z = (0.0027,0.019, 0.022, 0.022, 0.022)$ among galaxies in SQ either reduce it to a Trio with two highly improbable intruders from CDMHCC or support the Arp (1973) hypothesis that its red shifts are intrinsic. An alternative is provided by the Gibson 1996-2006 hydro-gravitational-dynamics (HGD) theory where superclusters, clusters and galaxies all originate by gravitational fragmentation in the super-viscous plasma epoch and at planetary and star cluster mass scales in the primordial gas of the expanding universe. By this fluid-mechanical cosmology, the SQ galaxies gently separate and remain precisely along a line of sight because of perspective and the small transverse velocities permitted by their sticky viscous-gravitational beginnings. Star and gas bridges and young-globular-star-cluster (YGC)...

Gibson, Carl H

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

TRACING FLUID SOURCES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM USING FLUID-INCLUSION  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

TRACING FLUID SOURCES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM USING FLUID-INCLUSION TRACING FLUID SOURCES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM USING FLUID-INCLUSION GAS CHEMISTRY Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: TRACING FLUID SOURCES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM USING FLUID-INCLUSION GAS CHEMISTRY Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Vein and alteration assemblages from eight Coso wells have been collected and their fluid-inclusion gases analyzed by quadrupole mass spectrometry. Four major types of alteration were sampled: 1) young calcite-hematite-pyrite veins; 2) wairakite or epidote veins and alteration that are spatially associated with deep reservoirs in the main field and eastern wells; 3) older sericite and pyrite wallrock alteration; and 4) stilbite-calcite veins that are common in cooler or marginal portions of

355

Shock capturing with PDE-based artificial viscosity for an adaptive, higher-order discontinuous Galerkin finite element method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The accurate simulation of supersonic and hypersonic flows is well suited to higher-order (p > 1), adaptive computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Since these cases involve flow velocities greater than the speed of sound, an ...

Barter, Garrett E. (Garrett Ehud), 1979-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Shock Capturing with PDE-Based Artificial Viscosity for an Adaptive, Higher-Order Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The accurate simulation of supersonic and hypersonic flows is well suited to higher-order (p > 1), adaptive computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Since these cases involve flow velocities greater than the speed of sound, an ...

Barter, Garrett Ehud

357

Microphase morphology in two dimensional fluids under lateral confinement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the effects of confinement between two parallel walls on a two dimensional fluid with competing interactions which lead to the formation of particle micro-domains at the thermodynamic equilibrium (microphases or microseparation). The possibility to induce structural changes of the morphology of the micro-domains is explored, under different confinement conditions and temperatures. In presence of neutral walls, a switch from stripes of particles to circular clusters (droplets) occurs as the temperature decreases, which does not happen in bulk. While the passage from droplets to stripes, as the density increases, is a well known phenomenon, the change of the stripes into droplets as an effect of temperature is rather unexpected. Depending on the wall separation and on the wall-fluid interaction parameters, the stripes can switch from parallel to perpendicular to the walls and also a mixed morphology can be stable.

A. Imperio; L. Reatto

2007-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

358

Results of the IEA Round Robin on Viscosity and Aging of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils: Long-Term Tests and Repeatability  

SciTech Connect

An international round robin study of the viscosity and aging of fast pyrolysis bio-oil has been undertaken recently and this work is an outgrowth from that effort. Two bio-oil samples were distributed to the laboratories for aging tests and extended viscosity studies. The accelerated aging test was defined as the change in viscosity of a sealed sample of bio-oil held for 24 h at 80 C. The test was repeated 10 times over consecutive days to determine the repeatability of the method. Other bio-oil samples were placed in storage at three temperatures, 21 C, 4 C and -17 C for a period up to a year to evaluate the change in viscosity. The variation in the results of the aging test was shown to be low within a given laboratory. Storage of bio-oil under refrigeration can minimize the amount of change in viscosity. The accelerated aging test gives a measure of change similar to that of 6-12 months of storage at room temperature. These results can be helpful in setting standards for use of bio-oil, which is just coming into the marketplace.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Oasmaa, Anja; Meier, Dietrich; Preto, Fernando; Bridgwater, Anthony V.

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

359

Evaluation of fluid bed heat exchanger optimization parameters. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Uncertainty in the relationship of specific bed material properties to gas-side heat transfer in fluidized beds has inhibited the search for optimum bed materials and has led to over-conservative assumptions in the design of fluid bed heat exchangers. An experimental program was carried out to isolate the effects of particle density, thermal conductivity, and heat capacitance upon fluid bed heat transfer. A total of 31 tests were run with 18 different bed material loads on 12 material types; particle size variations were tested on several material types. The conceptual design of a fluidized bed evaporator unit was completed for a diesel exhaust heat recovery system. The evaporator heat transfer surface area was substantially reduced while the physical dimensions of the unit increased. Despite the overall increase in unit size, the overall cost was reduced. A study of relative economics associated with bed material selection was conducted. For the fluidized bed evaporator, it was found that zircon sand was the best choice among materials tested in this program, and that the selection of bed material substantially influences the overall system costs. The optimized fluid bed heat exchanger has an estimated cost 19% below a fin augmented tubular heat exchanger; 31% below a commercial design fluid bed heat exchanger; and 50% below a conventional plain tube heat exchanger. The comparisons being made for a 9.6 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h waste heat boiler. The fluidized bed approach potentially has other advantages such as resistance to fouling. It is recommended that a study be conducted to develop a systematic selection of bed materials for fluidized bed heat exchanger applications, based upon findings of the study reported herein.

Not Available

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Apparatus And Method For Fluid Analysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an apparatus and method for analyzing a fluid used in a machine or in an industrial process line. The apparatus has at least one meter placed proximate the machine or process line and in contact with the machine or process fluid for measuring at least one parameter related to the fluid. The at least one parameter is a standard laboratory analysis parameter. The at least one meter includes but is not limited to viscometer, element meter, optical meter, particulate meter, and combinations thereof.

Wilson, Bary W. (Richland, WA); Peters, Timothy J. (Richland, WA); Shepard, Chester L. (West Richland, WA); Reeves, James H. (Richland, WA)

2003-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid viscosity increases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Hamiltonian description of the ideal fluid  

SciTech Connect

Fluid mechanics is examined from a Hamiltonian perspective. The Hamiltonian point of view provides a unifying framework; by understanding the Hamiltonian perspective, one knows in advance (within bounds) what answers to expect and what kinds of procedures can be performed. The material is organized into five lectures, on the following topics: rudiments of few-degree-of-freedom Hamiltonian systems illustrated by passive advection in two-dimensional fluids; functional differentiation, two action principles of mechanics, and the action principle and canonical Hamiltonian description of the ideal fluid; noncanonical Hamiltonian dynamics with examples; tutorial on Lie groups and algebras, reduction-realization, and Clebsch variables; and stability and Hamiltonian systems.

Morrison, P.J.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy: Interpretation of New Wells in...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy: Interpretation of New Wells in the Coso Geothermal Field Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: Fluid...

363

Thermal Conductivity Prediction of Nano Fluid Using ANN/GA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Thermal conductivities of nano fluid in a two-phase having different compositions of both base fluid as well as nano particles in a closed...

364

A STOCHASTIC METHOD FOR MODELING FLUID DISPLACEMENT IN PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FLUID DISPLACEMENT IN PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS C. Anderson andFLUID DISPLACEMENT IN PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS C. Anderson andachieve optimal recovery of petroleum from a reservoir, it

Anderson, C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

ORGANIC SPECIES IN GEOTHERMAL WATERS IN LIGHT OF FLUID INCLUSION...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

> 0.001 mol % typically have ethane > ethylene, propane > propylene, and butane > butylene. There are three end member fluid compositions: type 1 fluids in which...

366

FLUID INCLUSION STRATIGRAPHY: NEW METHOD FOR GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

(0) Abstract: Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy (FIS) is a new technique developed for the oil industry in order to map borehole fluids. This method is being studied for application...

367

Reinjection of fluids into a producing geopressured reservoir. Topical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A reservoir simulator (MUSHRM) was employed to examine the effects of reinjecting the processed brine on the longterm performance of a representative geopressured reservoir. These calculations indicate that reinjection can be used to substantially increase methane and brine production. The results suggest that power requirements for reinjection pumps can be met by either burning approximately two-thirds of the produced methane (This may in some cases negate the benefits of reinjection as far as methane production is concerned.), or by using the heat of the produced brine (320/sup 0/F) to generate electric power. Assuming that electric power produced from hot brine is used to reinject the processed fluids, it appears that reinjection is a viable production strategy for increasing methane recovery from some geopressured systems. The attractiveness of reinjection to recover methane increases with increasing formation permeability, and decreasing formation compressibility.

Not Available

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Water-Miscible (Water-Soluble) Fluids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, algae, and fungi. If disposal is of no concern, phenolics can be used. The soaps, wetting agents, and couplers used as emulsifiers in water-miscible fluids reduce surface

369

Nanostructured Materials: Symthesis in Supercritical Fluids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This chapter summarizes the recent developent of synthesis and characterization of nanostructured materials synthesized in supercritical fluids. Nanocomposite catalysts such as Pt and Pd on carbon nanotube support have been synthesized and used for fuel cell applications.

Lin, Yuehe; Ye, Xiangrong; Wai, Chien M.

2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

370

PULSE RADIOLYSIS IN SUPERCRITICAL RARE GAS FLUIDS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, supercritical fluids have become quite popular in chemical and semiconductor industries for applications in chemical synthesis, extraction, separation processes, and surface cleaning. These applications are based on: the high dissolving power due to density build-up around solute molecules, and the ability to tune the conditions of a supercritical fluid, such as density and temperature, that are most suitable for a particular reaction. The rare gases also possess these properties and have the added advantage of being supercritical at room temperature. Information about the density buildup around both charged and neutral species can be obtained from fundamental studies of volume changes in the reactions of charged species in supercritical fluids. Volume changes are much larger in supercritical fluids than in ordinary solvents because of their higher compressibility. Hopefully basic studies, such as discussed here, of the behavior of charged species in supercritical gases will provide information useful for the utilization of these solvents in industrial applications.

HOLROYD,R.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Optimal control of fluid catalytic cracking processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An investigation was made of the applicability of optimal control theory to the design of control systems for non-linear, multivariable chemical processes. A hypothetical fluid catalytic cracking process was selected as a typical representative of such ...

L. A. Gould; L. B. Evans; H. Kurihara

1970-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Transparent fluids for 157-nm immersion lithography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the latter determined by the thickness of the spacer gaskets. Since the calcium fluoride windows were found that enables the fluid to be reused for many 100 expo- sure fields will be both necessary and possible

French, Roger H.

373

Control system for fluid heated steam generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

Boland, James F. (Bonneville County, ID); Koenig, John F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Fluid driven torsional dipole seismic source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compressible fluid powered oscillating downhole seismic source device capable of periodically generating uncontaminated horizontally-propagated, shear waves is provides. A compressible fluid generated oscillation is created within the device which imparts an oscillation to a housing when the device is installed in a housing such as the cylinder of an existing downhole tool, thereby a torsional seismic source is established. Horizontal waves are transferred to the surrounding bore hole medium through downhole clamping. 4 figs.

Hardee, H.C.

1990-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

375

Control system for fluid heated steam generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

Boland, J.F.; Koenig, J.F.

1984-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

376

Inkjet printing of non-Newtonian fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

G. Harlen; Department of Applied Mathematics; University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, U.K. Abstract Jet breakup is strongly affected by fluid rheology. In par- ticular, small amounts of polymer can cause substantially differ- ent breakup dynamics... fluid dynamics (2008) from the University of Cambridge. Since then he has worked at the Department of Applied Mathematics at the University of Leeds. His recent research involves the development of computational techniques for the simulation of flows...

Morrison, N.F.; Harlen, O.G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Stirling engine with air working fluid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Stirling engine capable of utilizing air as a working fluid which includes a compact heat exchange module which includes heating tube units, regenerator and cooler positioned about the combustion chamber. This arrangement has the purpose and effect of allowing the construction of an efficient, high-speed, high power-density engine without the use of difficult to seal light gases as working fluids.

Corey, John A. (North Troy, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Parametric internal waves in a compressible fluid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe the effect of vibration on a confined volume of fluid which is density stratified due to its compressibility. We show that internal gravity-acoustic waves can be parametrically destabilized by the vibration. The resulting instability is similar to the classic Faraday instability of surface waves, albeit modified by the compressible nature of the fluid. It may be possible to observe experimentally near a gas-liquid critical point.

Kausik S. Das; Stephen W. Morris; A. Bhattacharyay

2007-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

379

Parametric internal waves in a compressible fluid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe the effect of vibration on a confined volume of fluid which is density stratified due to its compressibility. We show that internal gravity-acoustic waves can be parametrically destabilized by the vibration. The resulting instability is similar to the classic Faraday instability of surface waves, albeit modified by the compressible nature of the fluid. It may be possible to observe experimentally near a gas-liquid critical point.

Das, Kausik S; Bhattacharyay, A

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Noncommutative fluid dynamics in the Khler parametrization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose a first order action functional for a large class of systems that generalize the relativistic perfect fluids in the K\\"{a}hler parametrization to noncommutative spacetimes. We calculate the equations of motion for the fluid potentials and the energy-momentum tensor in the first order in the noncommutative parameter. The density current does not receive any noncommutative corrections and it is conserved under the action of the commutative generators $P_{\\mu}$ but the energy-momentum tensor is not. Therefore, we determine the set of constraints under which the energy-momentum tensor is divergenceless. Another set of constraints on the fluid potentials is obtained from the requirement of the invariance of the action under the generalization of the volume preserving transformations of the noncommutative spacetime. We show that the proposed action describes noncommutative fluid models by casting the energy-momentum tensor in the familiar fluid form and identifying the corresponding energy and momentum densities. In the commutative limit, they are identical to the corresponding quantities of the relativistic perfect fluids. The energy-momentum tensor contains a dissipative term that is due to the noncommutative spacetime and vanishes in the commutative limit. Finally, we particularize the theory to the case when the complex fluid potentials are characterized by a function $K(z,\\bar{z})$ that is a deformation of the complex plane and show that this model has important common features with the commutative fluid such as infinitely many conserved currents and a conserved axial current that in the commutative case is associated to the topologically conserved linking number.

L. Holender; M. A. Santos; M. T. D. Orlando; I. V. Vancea

2011-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid viscosity increases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Pump for molten metal or other fluid  

SciTech Connect

A pump having no moving parts which can be used to pump high temperature molten metal or other fluids in a vacuum or low pressure environment, and a method for pumping such fluids. The pump combines elements of a bubble pump with a trap which isolates the vacuum or low pressure region from the gas used to create the bubbles. When used in a vacuum the trap prevents the pumping gas from escaping into the isolated region and thereby reducing the quality of the vacuum. The pump includes a channel in which a pumping gas is forced under pressure into a cavity where bubbles are formed. The cavity is in contact with a reservoir which contains the molten metal or other fluid which is to be pumped. The bubbles rise up into a column (or pump tube) carrying the fluid with them. At the top of the column is located a deflector which causes the bubbles to burst and the drops of pumped fluid to fall into a trap. The fluid accumulates in the trap, eventually forcing its way to an outlet. A roughing pump can be used to withdraw the pumping gas from the top of the column and assist with maintaining the vacuum or low pressure environment.

Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Brown, Donald L. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Fluid-bed-augmented CAES systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) systems are potentially attractive for future electric utility load leveling applications. A potential long-term weakness of the conventional CAES concept is its reliance on clean petroleum fuels during the power generation period. This consumption of petroleum could be completely eliminated by the use of coal-fired fluid bed combustors in second generation CAES plants. A large number of CAES power system configurations are possible using atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC) and pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC). The fuel consumption rates for these systems are generally comparable to those for oil-fired CAES systems. The future prognosis for using PFBC in CAES systems looks good. Recent corrosion and erosion experiments in fluid bed systems suggest that gas turbines with acceptable lifetimes in fluid bed systems suggest that gas turbines with acceptable lifetimes are a distinct possibility. The commercial status of these systems depends on the outcome of extensive corrosion/erosion testing in static and rotating test rigs. CAES systems using AFBC may be an attractive alternative to using PFBC, although the materials problem would then be transferred from the turbine to the high temperature heat exchanger surface. A reasonable expectation for the date of commercialization of fluid bed augmented CAES system ranges from 10 to 15 years.

Giramonti, A. J.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Seismoelectric Phenomena in Fluid-Saturated Sediments  

SciTech Connect

Seismoelectric phenomena in sediments arise from acoustic wave-induced fluid motion in the pore space, which perturbs the electrostatic equilibrium of the electric double layer on the grain surfaces. Experimental techniques and the apparatus built to study this electrokinetic (EK) effect are described and outcomes for studies of seismoelectric phenomena in loose glass microspheres and medium-grain sand are presented. By varying the NaCl concentration in the pore fluid, we measured the conductivity dependence of two kinds of EK behavior: (1) the electric fields generated within the samples by the passage of transmitted acoustic waves, and (2) the electromagnetic wave produced at the fluid-sediment interface by the incident acoustic wave. Both phenomena are caused by relative fluid motion in the sediment pores--this feature is characteristic of poroelastic (Biot) media, but not predicted by either viscoelastic fluid or solid models. A model of plane-wave reflection from a fluid-sediment interface using EK-Biot theory leads to theoretical predictions that compare well to the experimental data for both sand and glass microspheres.

Block, G I; Harris, J G

2005-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

384

Enhanced Remedial Amendment Delivery to Subsurface Using Shear Thinning Fluid and Aqueous Foam  

SciTech Connect

A major issue with in situ subsurface remediation is the ability to achieve an even spatial distribution of remedial amendments to the contamination zones in an aquifer or vadose zone. Delivery of amendment to the aquifer using shear thinning fluid and to the vadose zone using aqueous foam has the potential to enhance the amendment distribution into desired locations and improve the remediation. 2-D saturated flow cell experiments were conducted to evaluate the enhanced sweeping, contaminant removal, and amendment persistence achieved by shear thinning fluid delivery. Bio-polymer xanthan gum solution was used as the shear thinning fluid. Unsaturated 1-D column and 2-D flow cell experiments were conducted to evaluate the mitigation of contaminant mobilization, amendment uniform distribution enhancement, and lateral delivery improvement by foam delivery. Surfactant sodium lauryl ether sulfate was used as the foaming agent. It was demonstrated that the shear thinning fluid injection enhanced the fluid sweeping over a heterogeneous system and increased the delivery of remedial amendment into low-permeability zones. The persistence of the amendment distributed into the low-perm zones by the shear thinning fluid was prolonged compared to that of amendment distributed by water injection. Foam delivery of amendment was shown to mitigate the mobilization of highly mobile contaminant from sediments under vadose zone conditions. Foam delivery also achieved more uniform amendment distribution in a heterogeneous unsaturated system, and demonstrated remarkable increasing in lateral distribution of the injected liquid compared to direct liquid injection.

Zhong, Lirong; Szecsody, James E.; Oostrom, Martinus; Truex, Michael J.; Shen, Xin; Li, Xiqing

2011-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

385

Flow of mantle fluids through the ductile lower crust: Heliumisotope trends  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Heat and mass are injected into the shallow crust when mantle fluids are able to flow through the ductile lower crust. Minimum 3He/4He ratios in surface fluids from the northern Basin and Range province, western North America increase systematically from low, crustal values in the east to high, mantle values in the west, a regional trend that correlates with the rates of active crustal deformation. The highest ratios occur where the extension and shear strain rates are greatest. The correspondence of helium isotope ratios and active trans-tensional deformation indicates a deformation enhanced permeability and that mantle fluids can penetrate the ductile lithosphere in regions even where there is no significant magmatism. Superimposed on the regional trend are local, high-{sup 3}He/{sup 4}He anomalies signifying hidden magmatic activity and/or deep fluid production with locally enhanced permeability, identifying zones with high resource potential, particularly for geothermal energy development.

Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

2007-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

386

Gas Analysis of Geothermal Fluid Inclusions: A New Technology For Geothermal Exploration  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To increase our knowledge of gaseous species in geothermal systems by fluid inclusion analysis in order to facilitate the use of gas analysis in geothermal exploration. The knowledge of gained by this program can be applied to geothermal exploration, which may expand geothermal production. Knowledge of the gas contents in reservoir fluids can be applied to fluid inclusion gas analysis of drill chip cuttings in a similar fashion as used in the petroleum industry. Thus the results of this project may lower exploration costs both in the initial phase and lower drill hole completion costs. Commercial costs for fluid inclusion analysis done on at 20 feet intervals on chip samples for 10,000 ft oil wells is about $6,000, and the turn around time is a few weeks.

David I. Norman; Joseph Moore

2004-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

387

Final Report - IHLW PCT, Spinel T1%, Electrical Conductivity, and Viscosity Model Development, VSL-07R1240-4  

SciTech Connect

This report is the last in a series of currently scheduled reports that presents the results from the High Level Waste (HLW) glass formulation development and testing work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) of the Catholic University of America (CUA) and the development of IHLW property-composition models performed jointly by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and VSL for the River Protection Project-Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP). Specifically, this report presents results of glass testing at VSL and model development at PNNL for Product Consistency Test (PCT), one-percent crystal fraction temperature (T1%), electrical conductivity (EC), and viscosity of HLW glasses. The models presented in this report may be augmented and additional validation work performed during any future immobilized HLW (IHLW) model development work. Completion of the test objectives is addressed.

Kruger, Albert A.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Landmesser, S. M.; Pegg, I. L.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Cooley, Scott K.; Gan, H.; Kot, W. K.

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

388

Effect of Working Fluid and Fluid Loading on the Performance of Rotating Heat Pipes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The steady state heat transfer performance of axially rotating heat pipes with methanol, ethanol and water as working fluid was measured for rotational speeds (more)

Home, Deepayan

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Gas bubble retention and its effect on waste properties: Retention mechanisms, viscosity, and tensile and shear strengths  

SciTech Connect

Several of the underground nuclear storage tanks at Hanford have been placed on a flammable gas watch list, because the waste is either known or suspected to generate, store, and episodically release flammable gases. Because retention and episodic release of flammable gases from these tanks containing radioactive waste slurries are critical safety concerns, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is studying physical mechanisms and waste properties that contribute to the episodic gas release from these storage tanks. This study is being conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company as part of the PNL Flammable Gas project. Previous investigations have concluded that gas bubbles are retained by the slurry or sludge that has settled at the bottom of the tanks; however, the mechanisms responsible for the retention of these bubbles are not well understood. Understanding the rheological behavior of the waste, particularly of the settled sludge, is critical to characterizing the tendency of the waste to retain gas bubbles and the dynamics of how these bubbles are released from the waste. The presence of gas bubbles is expected to affect the rheology of the sludge, specifically its viscosity and tensile and shear strengths, but essentially no literature data are available to assess the effect of bubbles. The objectives of this study were to conduct experiments and develop theories to understand better how bubbles are retained by slurries and sludges, to measure the effect of gas bubbles on the viscosity of simulated slurries, and to measure the effect of gas bubbles on the tensile and shear strengths of simulated slurries and sludges. In addition to accomplishing these objectives, this study developed correlations, based on the new experimental data, that can be used in large-scale computations of waste tank physical phenomena.

Gauglitz, P.A.; Rassat, S.D.; Powell, M.R. [and others

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

SPECIAL HEAT TRANSFER PHENOMENA FOR SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

Present-day knowledge concerning the molecular structure of supercritical fluids is briefly reviewed. It is shown that liquid-like and gas- like phases may coexist at supercritical pressures, although they may not be in equllibrium with each other. it is postulated that on the basis of the coexistence of these two phases a "boiling-like" phenomenon may provide the mechanism of heat transfer to supercritical fluids at high heat fluxes and certain other conditions. An unusual mode of heat transfer was actually observed at supercritical pressures during tests which produced the high heat fluxes and other conditions under which such "boiling" would be expected. The tests and the various conditions are briefly described. An emission of high-frequeney, high- intensity sounds usually accompanied these tests. It is shown that similar screaming sounds were heard during boiling at subcritical pressures, giving further support to the hypothesis that "boiling" may occur at supercritical pressures. A seeond possible explanation for the unusual mode of heat transfer is based on boundarylayer stability considerations. At high heat fluxes large density differences exist between the bulk of the fluid and the fluid in the boundary layer near the wall. A breakdown of the boundary layer may be caused by the build-up of ripples between its low-density fluid and the high-density bulk fluid, in a manner quite similar to the breaking of ocean waves at high wind velocities. It is pointed out that the density variation of supercritical fluide may be used to advantage by certrifuging boundary layers. (auth)

Goldmann, K.

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

High-potential Working Fluids for Next Generation Binary Cycle...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...61 6.3 Heat Exchanger Sizing for the Supercritical NEW FLUID ORC Test Rig. . . . . . . . . . . ....

392

Determining temperature limits of drilling fluids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A capillary three tube viscometer has been designed which allows the measurement of rheological properties of time dependent non-Newtonian fluids in laminar flow at high temperture and pressure. The objective of this investigation is to determine the temperature stability of clay-water suspensions containing various drilling fluid additives. The additives studied consisted of viscosifiers, filtrate reducers, and chemical thinners. The temperature range studied is from room temperature to 550{sup 0}F. The system pressure is consistently maintained above the vapor pressure. The Bentonite and water standardized base mud used is equivalent to a 25 ppB fluid. Stabilization of the base mud is necessary to obtain steady state laminar flow conditions and to obtain reliable temperature thinning effects with each temperature interval under investigation. Generally the temperature levels are maintained for one hour until 550{sup 0}F is attained. The last interval is then maintained until system fluid degradation occurs. Rheological measurements are obtained from differential pressure transducers located in a three diameter tube test section and externally at ambient conditions from a Baroid Rotational Viscometer. The power law model for non-Newtonian fluids is used to correlate the data.

Thuren, J.B.; Chenevert, M.E.; Huang, W.T.W.; Szymanski, E.; Arkeketa, P.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Ultrasonic fluid flow measurement method and apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of an apparatus for measuring the flow of a fluid in a pipe using ultrasonic waves. The apparatus comprises an ultrasonic generator, a lens for focusing the sound energy produced by the generator, and means for directing the focused energy into the side of the pipe through an opening and in a direction close to parallel to the long axis of the pipe. A cone carries the sound energy to the lens from the generator. Depending on the choice of materials, there may be a quarter-wave, acoustic impedance matching section between the generator and the cone to reduce the reflections of energy at the cone boundary. The lens material has an acoustic impedance similar to that of the cone material but a different sonic velocity so that the lens can converge the sound waves in the fluid. A transition section between the lens and the fluid helps to couple the energy to the fluid and assures it is directed as close to parallel to the fluid flow direction as possible.

Kronberg, J.W.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

394

THE RANDOM CHOICE METHOD FOR CALCULATING FLUID DISPLACEMENT IN A POROUS MEDIUM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract Multiphase fluid displacement in a porous mediumIntroduction Multiphase fluid displacement in a porous

Albright, N.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

The Fluid Mechanics of Gravitational Structure Formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The standard model for gravitational structure formation in astrophysics, astronomy, and cosmology is questioned. Cold dark matter (CDM) hierarchical clustering cosmology neglects particle collisions, viscosity, turbulence and diffusion and makes predictions in conflict with observations. From Jeans 1902 and CDMHC, the non-baryonic dark matter NBDM forms small clumps during the plasma epoch after the big bang that ``cluster'' into larger clumps. CDM halo clusters collect the baryonic matter (H and He) by gravity so that after 300 Myr of ``dark ages'', huge, explosive (Population III) first stars appear, and then galaxies and galaxy clusters. Contrary to CDMHC cosmology, ``hydro-gravitational-dynamics'' HGD cosmology suggests the diffusive NBDM material cannot clump and the clumps cannot cluster. From HGD, the big bang results from an exothermic turbulent instability at Planck scales (10^{-35} m). Turbulent stresses cause an inflation of space and fossil density turbulence remnants that trigger gravitational i...

Gibson, C H

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

The Fluid Mechanics of Gravitational Structure Formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The standard model for gravitational structure formation in astrophysics, astronomy, and cosmology is questioned. Cold dark matter (CDM) hierarchical clustering cosmology neglects particle collisions, viscosity, turbulence and diffusion and makes predictions in conflict with observations. From Jeans 1902 and CDMHC, the non-baryonic dark matter NBDM forms small clumps during the plasma epoch after the big bang that ``cluster'' into larger clumps. CDM halo clusters collect the baryonic matter (H and He) by gravity so that after 300 Myr of ``dark ages'', huge, explosive (Population III) first stars appear, and then galaxies and galaxy clusters. Contrary to CDMHC cosmology, ``hydro-gravitational-dynamics'' HGD cosmology suggests the diffusive NBDM material cannot clump and the clumps cannot cluster. From HGD, the big bang results from an exothermic turbulent instability at Planck scales (10^{-35} m). Turbulent stresses cause an inflation of space and fossil density turbulence remnants that trigger gravitational instability at protosupercluster masses (10^{46} kg) in the H-He plasma. These fragment along plasma turbulence vortex lines to form protogalaxy masses (10^{42} kg) just before the transition to gas. The gas has x10^{-13} smaller viscosity, so it fragments at planetary and globular-star-cluster masses (10^{25} and 10^{36} kg) to form the baryonic dark matter (BDM). Observations from the Hubble Space Telescope show protogalaxies (PGs) in linear clusters reflecting their likely fragmentation on plasma vortex lines. From merging BDM planets, these PGs gently form small stars in globular clusters <1 Myr after the big bang without the dark ages, superstars, or reionization of CDM cosmology.

Carl H. Gibson

2006-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

397

Percutaneous Vertebroplasty and Bone Cement Leakage: Clinical Experience with a New High-Viscosity Bone Cement and Delivery System for Vertebral Augmentation in Benign and Malignant Compression Fractures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of and venous leakage reduction in percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) using a new high-viscosity bone cement (PMMA). PV has been used effectively for pain relief in osteoporotic and malignant vertebral fractures. Cement extrusion is a common problem and can lead to complications. Sixty patients (52 female; mean age, 72.2 {+-} 7.2) suffering from osteoporosis (46), malignancy (12), and angiomas (2), divided into two groups (A and B), underwent PV on 190 vertebrae (86 dorsal, 104 lumbar). In Group A, PV with high-viscosity PMMA (Confidence, Disc-O-Tech, Israel) was used. This PMMA was injected by a proprietary delivery system, a hydraulic saline-filled screw injector. In Group B, a standard low-viscosity PMMA was used. Postprocedural CT was carried out to detect PMMA leakages and complications. Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon rank test were used to assess significant differences (p PV was feasible, achieving good clinical outcome (p < 0.0001) without major complications. In Group A, postprocedural CT showed an asymptomatic leak in the venous structures of 8 of 98 (8.2%) treated vertebrae; a discoidal leak occurred in 6 of 98 (6.1%). In Group B, a venous leak was seen in 38 of 92 (41.3%) and a discoidal leak in 12 of 92 (13.0%). Reduction of venous leak obtained by high-viscosity PMMA was highly significant (p < 0.0001), whereas this result was not significant (p = 0.14) related to the disc. The high-viscosity PMMA system is safe and effective for clinical use, allowing a significant reduction of extravasation rate and, thus, leakage-related complications.

Anselmetti, Giovanni Carlo, E-mail: giovanni.anselmetti@ircc.i [Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment (IRCC), Interventional Radiology Unit (Italy); Zoarski, Gregg [University of Maryland, Radiology and Radiological Science (United States); Manca, Antonio [Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment (IRCC), Radiology Unit (Italy); Masala, Salvatore [University 'Tor Vergata', Radiology Unit and Interventional Radiology Unit (Italy); Eminefendic, Haris; Russo, Filippo; Regge, Daniele [Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment (IRCC), Radiology Unit (Italy)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

398

High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids /science-innovation/_assets/images/icon-science.jpg High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos National Laboratory for the best of both. No place on Earth pursues a broader array of world-class scientific endeavors. TRIDENT target chamber Sasi Palaniyappan, right, and Rahul Shah left inside a target chamber where the TRIDENT short pulse laser is aimed at a very thin diamond- foil target, a fraction of a micrometer thick. The laser delivers a power on target of 150 Terawatts focused into a 7 micrometer spot, yielding laser brilliance over 100 times more intense than needed to make the target electrons fully relativistic. These experiments test novel methods of producing intense

399

Multipurpose Acoustic Sensor for Downhole Fluid Monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The projects objectives and purpose are to: (1) development a multipurpose acoustic sensor for downhole fluid monitoring in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) reservoirs over typical ranges of pressures and temperatures and demonstrate its capabilities and performance for different EGS systems; (2) determine in real-time and in a single sensor package several parameters - temperature, pressure, fluid flow and fluid properties; (3) needed in nearly every phase of an EGS project, including Testing of Injection and Production Wells, Reservoir Validation, Inter-well Connectivity, Reservoir Scale Up and Reservoir Sustainability. (4) Current sensors are limited to operating at lower temperatures, but the need is for logging at high temperatures. The present project deals with the development of a novel acoustic-based sensor that can work at temperatures up to 374 C, in inhospitable environments.

Pantea, Cristian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

400

Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel in order to mix its respective portion of liquid water with the corresponding portion of the stream. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NY); Walsh, Michael M. (Fairfield, CT)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid viscosity increases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NY); Walsh, Michael M. (Fairfield, CT)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Advanced Heat Transfer and Thermal Storage Fluids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The design of the next generation solar parabolic trough systems for power production will require the development of new thermal energy storage options with improved economics or operational characteristics. Current heat-transfer fluids such as VP-1?, which consists of a eutectic mixture of biphenyl and diphenyl oxide, allow a maximum operating temperature of ca. 300 C, a limit above which the vapor pressure would become too high and would require pressure-rated tanks. The use of VP-1? also suffers from a freezing point around 13 C that requires heating during cold periods. One of the goals for future trough systems is the use of heat-transfer fluids that can act as thermal storage media and that allow operating temperatures around 425 C combined with lower limits around 0 C. This paper presents an outline of our latest approach toward the development of such thermal storage fluids.

Moens, L.; Blake, D.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Visualizing multiphase flow and trapped fluid configurations in a model three-dimensional porous medium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report an approach to fully visualize the flow of two immiscible fluids through a model three-dimensional (3D) porous medium at pore-scale resolution. Using confocal microscopy, we directly image the drainage of the medium by the non-wetting oil and subsequent imbibition by the wetting fluid. During imbibition, the wetting fluid pinches off threads of oil in the narrow crevices of the medium, forming disconnected oil ganglia. Some of these ganglia remain trapped within the medium. By resolving the full 3D structure of the trapped ganglia, we show that the typical ganglion size, and the total amount of residual oil, decreases as the capillary number Ca increases; this behavior reflects the competition between the viscous pressure in the wetting fluid and the capillary pressure required to force oil through the pores of the medium. This work thus shows how pore-scale fluid dynamics influence the trapped fluid configurations in multiphase flow through 3D porous media.

Amber T. Krummel; Sujit S. Datta; Stefan Mnster; David A. Weitz

2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

404

Visualizing multiphase flow and trapped fluid configurations in a model three-dimensional porous medium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report an approach to fully visualize the flow of two immiscible fluids through a model three-dimensional (3D) porous medium at pore-scale resolution. Using confocal microscopy, we directly image the drainage of the medium by the non-wetting oil and subsequent imbibition by the wetting fluid. During imbibition, the wetting fluid pinches off threads of oil in the narrow crevices of the medium, forming disconnected oil ganglia. Some of these ganglia remain trapped within the medium. By resolving the full 3D structure of the trapped ganglia, we show that the typical ganglion size, and the total amount of residual oil, decreases as the capillary number Ca increases; this behavior reflects the competition between the viscous pressure in the wetting fluid and the capillary pressure required to force oil through the pores of the medium. This work thus shows how pore-scale fluid dynamics influence the trapped fluid configurations in multiphase flow through 3D porous media.

Krummel, Amber T; Mnster, Stefan; Weitz, David A; 10.1002/aic.14005

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Some surprises in the transport of miscible fluids in the presence of a second immiscible phase  

SciTech Connect

Displacements were conducted in Berea cores to gain insight into the mechanism of tertiary oil displacement and propagation by a micellar slug. Contrary to expectation, the first oil mobilized by micellar fluid was among the first oil (instead of the last oil) to be produced, giving the appearance of either viscous fingering or of unusually large dispersion. To eliminate the possibility of unfavorable mobility ratios caused by oil/water/surfactant interaction, we conducted several runs in which an injected hydrocarbon displaced another hydrocarbon, initially at residual saturation. In other experiments, water (the wetting phase) at irreducible saturation was displaced by a distinguishable injected aqueous phase. Injected hydrocarbon appeared in the produced fluids immediately after oil breakthrough, yielding behavior similar to the micellar-slug experiments. Even with a favorable viscosity ratio of less than 0.01, the apparent dispersion was huge. However, mixing zones in the wetting-phase displacements were quite normal and similar to those observed for single-phase flow. Nonwetting-phase fronts (injected hydrocarbon displacing resident hydrocarbon) are smeared much more than wetting-phase fronts because the entrance of hydrocarbon into smaller water-filled pore throats is delayed until the capillary entrance pressure is overcome by differences in the flowing oil and water pressure gradients. Oil might not be displaced from the smaller pores until long after oil breakthrough. Nonwetting-phase dispersion, which occurs in many EOR processes, can be expected to be one or two orders of magnitude greater than dispersion measured in singlephase-flow experiments. Entrance of the wetting phase, however, is not delayed; hence, wetting-phase mixing zones are short.

Jones, S.C.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Geomechanical Simulation of Fluid-Driven Fractures  

SciTech Connect

The project supported graduate students working on experimental and numerical modeling of rock fracture, with the following objectives: (a) perform laboratory testing of fluid-saturated rock; (b) develop predictive models for simulation of fracture; and (c) establish educational frameworks for geologic sequestration issues related to rock fracture. These objectives were achieved through (i) using a novel apparatus to produce faulting in a fluid-saturated rock; (ii) modeling fracture with a boundary element method; and (iii) developing curricula for training geoengineers in experimental mechanics, numerical modeling of fracture, and poroelasticity.

Makhnenko, R.; Nikolskiy, D.; Mogilevskaya, S.; Labuz, J.

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

407

Corrosion tests in Hawaiian geothermal fluids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Exposure tests were conductd in binary geothermal brine on the island of Hawaii. The steam which flashes from the high pressure, high temperature water as it is brought to ambient pressure contains substantial amounts of H{sub 2}S. In the absence of oxygen this steam is only moderately aggressive but in the aerated state it is highly aggressive to carbon steels and copper alloys. The liquid after flasing is intermediately aggressive. The Hawaiian fluid is unique in chemistry and corrosion behavior; its corrosiveness is relatively mild for a geothermal fluid falling close to the Iceland-type resources. 24 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Larsen-Basse, J.; Lam, Kam-Fai

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Fluid bed adsorption of carbon dioxide on immobilized polyethyenimine (PEI): kinetic analysis and breakthrough behavior  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The adsorption of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) by immobilized polyethylenimine (PEI) on mesoporous silica was investigated in a fluid bed. The tests were performed to determine breakthrough behavior with varying bed temperature, flow rates and feed concentrations. Experimental breakthrough curves were analyzed using a theoretical 1D model developed by Bohart and Adams. The results showed that Bohart-Adams model was suitable for the normal description of breakthrough curve for the temperature ranges of 40-90{degree}C. The maximum capacity increased with temperature up to 70{degree}C and then decreased. The adsorption rate constant exhibited a negative temperature dependence decreasing as the temperature increased. Parameters characteristic of a fluid bed adsorber were inferred from these breakthrough curves including the breakthrough time, saturation time, critical reactor length, and length of mass transfer zone LMTZ. These parameters can be used to design fluid bed adsorption system without resolving the mechanistic contributions of dispersion, mixing, and intraparticle diffusion.

Monazam, Esmail R.; Spenik,, James; Shadle, Lawrence J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

On the production behavior of enhanced geothermal systems with CO2as working fluid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical simulation is used to evaluate mass flow and heatextraction rates from enhanced geothermal injection-production systemsthat are operated using either CO2 or water as heat transmission fluid.For a model system patterned after the European hot dry rock experimentat Soultz, we find significantly greater heat extraction rates for CO2 ascompared to water. The strong dependence of CO2 mobility (=density/viscosity) upon temperature and pressure may lead to unusualproduction behavior, where heat extraction rates can actually increasefor a time, even as the reservoir is subject to thermal depletion. Wepresent the first-ever three-dimensional simulations of CO2injection-production systems. These show strong effects of gravity onmass flow and heat extraction, due to the large contrast of CO2 densitybetween cold injection and hot production conditions. The tendency forpreferential flow of cold, dense CO2 along the reservoir bottom can leadto premature thermal breakthrough. The problem can be avoided byproducing from only a limited depth interval at the top of thereservoir.

Pruess, K.

2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

410

Numerical modeling of the elution peak profiles of retained solutes in supercritical fluid chromatography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), the significant expansion of the mobile phase along the column causes the formation of axial and radial gradients of temperature. Due to these gradients, the mobile phase density, its viscosity, its velocity, its diffusion coefficients, etc. are not constant throughout the column. This results in a nonuniform flow velocity distribution, itself causing a loss of column efficiency in certain cases, even at low flow rates, as they do in HPLC. At high flow rates, an important deformation of the elution profiles of the sample components may occur. The model previously used to account satisfactorily for the retention of an unsorbed solute in SFC is applied to the modeling of the elution peak profiles of retained compounds. The numerical solution of the combined heat and mass balance equations provides the temperature and the pressure profiles inside the column and values of the retention time and the band profiles of retained compounds that are in excellent agreement with independent experimental data for large value of mobile phase reduced density. At low reduced densities, the band profiles can strongly depend on the column axial distribution of porosity.

Kaczmarski, Krzysztof [University of Tennessee and Rzeszow University of Technology, Poland; Guiochon, Georges A [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Instrumentation for Increased Power Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is the second Technical Update of the Instrumentation for Managing Increased Power Flow project, part of EPRI's Increased Power Flow (IPF) program. The project, initiated in 2006 and expected to continue for several years, studies the feasibility of new instrumentation to support increased power flow strategies. In 2007 the work focused on two primary developments: the Backscatter Sensor for the real-time measurement of transmission line temperature and current and the Emissivity Test Instrum...

2007-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

412

Increased Power Flow Guidebook - 2012  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The EPRI Increased Power Flow (IPF) Guidebook is a state-of-the-art and best- practices reference and guidebook on increasing the power flow capacities of existing overhead transmission lines, underground cables, power transformers, and substation equipment, without compromising safety and reliability. The Guidebook discusses power system concerns and limiting conditions to increasing capacity, reviews available technology options and methods, illustrates the alternatives with case ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

413

Increased Power Flow Guidebook - 2013  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The EPRI Increased Power Flow (IPF) Guidebook is a state-of-the-art and best- practices reference and guidebook on increasing the power flow capacities of existing overhead transmission lines, underground cables, power transformers, and substation equipment, without compromising safety and reliability. The Guidebook discusses power system concerns and limiting conditions to increasing capacity, reviews available technology options and methods, illustrates the alternatives with case ...

2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

414

Increase Duct and Plenum Insulation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

changes to the commercial provisions of the 2012 IECC: Increase Duct and Plenum Insulation R Hart Pacific Northwest National Laboratory December 2012 Proposal Description This...

415

Increasing State Capacity Through Clans  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

their role in increasing state capacity With the decline ofhere focus on state capacity and the associated discussionselements of state capacity during the transition from one

Doyle, Jr, Thomas Martin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Electrohydraulic Control (EHC) Fluid Maintenance Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The "Electrohydraulic Control (EHC) Fluid Maintenance Guide" provides plant personnel with information on the operation, maintenance, and performance of the electrohydraulic control (EHC) system. The contents of this guide will aid plant workers in improving EHC system reliability, performance, and plant maintenance practices.

2002-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

417

Dynamical instability of collapsing radiating fluid  

SciTech Connect

We take the collapsing radiative fluid to investigate the dynamical instability with cylindrical symmetry. We match the interior and exterior cylindrical geometries. Dynamical instability is explored at radiative and non-radiative perturbations. We conclude that the dynamical instability of the collapsing cylinder depends on the critical value {gamma} < 1 for both radiative and nonradiative perturbations.

Sharif, M., E-mail: msharif.math@pu.edu.pk; Azam, M., E-mail: azammath@gmail.com [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics (Pakistan)

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

418

Vlasov fluid model with electron pressure  

SciTech Connect

The Vlasov-ion, fluid-electron model of Freidberg for studying the linear stability of hot-ion pinch configurations is here extended to include electron pressure. Within the framework of an adiabatic electron-gas picture, it is shown that this model is still amenable to the numerical methods described by Lewis and Freidberg. (auth)

Gerwin, R.

1975-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Stability of a Hot Smoluchowski Fluid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study coupled nonlinear parabolic equations for a fluid described by a material density ? and a temperature \\gJ, both functions of space and time. In one dimension, we find some stationary solutions corresponding to fixing the temperature on the ...

R. F. Streater

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Fluid and Particulate systems 424514 /2012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/201 rticulate 4514/2 FLUIDISATION/FLUIDISATION/ PNEUMATIC/HYDRAULICPNEUMATIC/HYDRAULIC Fluid&Pa 4245 id&Par ?A424 PNEUMATIC/HYDRAULICPNEUMATIC/HYDRAULIC CONVEYINGCONVEYING FFlu RonRon Zevenhoven with a similar theory as d f ti i ll l Systems 0 Systems 2012 used for connections in parallel. d articulateS 514

Zevenhoven, Ron

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid viscosity increases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Method and apparatus for chemically altering fluids in continuous flow  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a continuous flow fluid reactor for chemically altering fluids. The reactor operates on standard frequency (50 to 60 Hz) electricity. The fluid reactor contains particles that are energized by the electricity to form a corona throughout the volume of the reactor and subsequently a non-equilibrium plasma that interacts with the fluid. Particles may form a fixed bed or a fluid bed. Electricity may be provided through electrodes or through an inductive coil. Fluids include gases containing exhaust products and organic fuels requiring oxidation. 4 figures.

Heath, W.O.; Virden, J.W. Jr.; Richardson, R.L.; Bergsman, T.M.

1993-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

422

Method and apparatus for chemically altering fluids in continuous flow  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a continuous flow fluid reactor for chemically altering fluids. The reactor operates on standard frequency (50 to 60 Hz) electricity. The fluid reactor contains particles that are energized by the electricity to form a corona throughout the volume of the reactor and subsequently a non-equilibrium plasma that interacts with the fluid. Particles may form a fixed bed or a fluid bed. Electricity may be provided through electrodes or through an inductive coil. Fluids include gases containing exhaust products and organic fuels requiring oxidation.

Heath, William O. (Richland, WA); Virden, Jr., Judson W. (Richland, WA); Richardson, R. L. (West Richland, WA); Bergsman, Theresa M. (Richland, WA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Increased Water Use Efficeincy Through Trickle Irrigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The gap between supply and demand of water for agricultural and municipal uses is rapidly closing at a time when world food requirements are increasing at an alarming rate. To meet the demand for agricultural products, new lands must be brought into production or higher yields must be realized from existing lands. In either case, more efficient use of water is prerequisite. Trickle irrigation is an approach to obtain increased water use efficiencies (ratio of weight of grain harvested to weight of total crop water use) and therefore a way to increase food production with our limited water resources. The ultimate goal of this investigation was the development of required crop inputs for selected crops to optimize the design of trickle irrigation systems and obtain an optimum water balance for living plants. Specific objectives were as follows: 1. To quantitatively determine optimum irrigation timing and necessary water application amounts for selected crops when using trickle irrigation; and 2. To develop a general method for the hydraulic design of trickle irrigation systems using inputs from the first objective for optimizing the system. To achieve these objectives, experiments were conducted in field lysimeters and in a well-instrumented field plot installation for evaluating the crop inputs. Complete control of the soil water balance can be achieved by the use of these facilities. By knowing the required crop inputs and utilizing known principles of fluid mechanics proper design procedures were developed to provide optimum design for trickle irrigation systems. To achieve the first objective, three research experiments were conducted at the research lysimeters of the Department of Agricultural Engineering at Texas A&M University for which grain sorghum was selected as the experimental crop. The first two experiments were designed to study the response of grain sorghum to trickle and subsurface irrigation. A comparison of water use efficiencies under well-watered conditions using both intensified and conventional water application methods and the evaluation of water use efficiencies with trickle irrigation applications designed to limit the availability of water were the specific objectives. The results indicated higher water use efficiencies and better crop response when the trickle method of application was used. Also, the results showed that higher water use efficiencies can be obtained by applying sparing amounts. An additional investigation carried out under a different research project of the Texas Water Resources Institute (TWRI Project No. A024TEX) was designed to develop a computer model to simulate grain sorghum yield and water use under high frequency irrigation. The simulation methods used in this study can be used to simulate a complete irrigation experiment greatly reducing research costs and allowing the determination of water requirements for many crops under many different soil and climatic conditions. The objective of the third research experiment conducted in 1974 was to determine if different irrigation frequencies would influence the growth and water use efficiency of grain sorghum when irrigated at optimum levels. Results indicated that frequency of application had no significant effect on the water use efficiency of grain sorghum for irrigation intervals up to 7 days. To attain the second goal of this investigation two trickle irrigation lateral design methods were developed. With the first method the pressure loss and emitter flow ratio for trickle irrigation laterals can be determined. The design method is based upon known principles of fluid mechanics. A computer program was written to determine the lateral pressure loss and emitter flow ratio at a given design length as function of pipe size, tree spacing, number of emitters per tree, emitter spacing, downstream lateral pressure and lateral slope. For a given set of design inputs, the program can be used to determine if the given pipe size will be adequate to li

Hiler, E. A.

1975-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

J. Fluid Mech. (2012), vol. 702, pp. 265285. c Cambridge University Press 2012 265 doi:10.1017/jfm.2012.175  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA 2 Environmental Fluid Dynamics Laboratories, Department of Civil Engineering generated when a fluid, being at rest or in the state of solid-body rotation, experiences an increase the isotherms to tilt from their initial horizontal position generating an unstable system. The potential energy

Pacheco, Jose Rafael

425

Diesel prices continue to increase  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Diesel prices continue to increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to 3.98 a gallon on Labor Day Monday. That's up 6.8 cents from a week ago, based...

426

Diesel prices continue to increase  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Diesel prices continue to increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to 3.90 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.6 cents from a week ago, based on the...

427

Diesel prices slightly increase nationally  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Diesel prices slightly increase nationally The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose slightly to 3.90 a gallon on Monday. That's up 4-tenths of a penny from a...

428

Diesel prices continue to increase  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Diesel prices continue to increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to 3.87 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.9 cents from a week ago, based on the...

429

Diesel prices continue to increase  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Diesel prices continue to increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to 3.92 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.2 cents from a week ago, based on the...

430

Diesel prices continue to increase  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Diesel prices continue to increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to 3.89 a gallon on Monday. That's up 2.4 cents from a week ago, based on the...

431

Diesel prices continue to increase  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Diesel prices continue to increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to 3.88 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.9 cents from a week ago, based on the...

432

Gas utilities to increase outlays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Despite rising natural gas prices and falling consumer demand for gas, experts predict a 16% increase in US gas transmission and distribution expenditures for 1983. Production and storage outlays will probably decrease because of the current gas surplus. The demand for natural gas has been below production levels since 1981. Increases in residential and commercial requirements have been offset by a drop in industrial use, which represents 50% of total gas demand.

O'Donnell, J.P.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Economics of Increased Power Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report focuses on methodologies for evaluating the costs and benefits of the diverse technologies that can be used either individually or jointly to increase the flow of power through the transmission system. It begins by describing a broad slate of potential technologies and approaches for increasing transmission capacity and improving system efficiency and then provides an overall framework for assessing the benefits and costs of these technologies. Later sections cover the practical implementatio...

2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

434

Static and dynamic response of a fluid-fluid interface to electric point and line charge  

SciTech Connect

We consider the behavior of a dielectric fluid-fluid interface in the presence of a strong electric field from a point charge and line charge, respectively, both statically and, in the latter case, dynamically. The fluid surface is elevated above its undisturbed level until balance is reached between the electromagnetic lifting force, gravity and surface tension. We derive ordinary differential equations for the shape of the fluid-fluid interface which are solved numerically with standard means, demonstrating how the elevation depends on field strength and surface tension coefficient. In the dynamic case of a moving line charge, the surface of an inviscid liquid-liquid interface is left to oscillate behind the moving charge after it has been lifted against the force of gravity. We show how the wavelength of the oscillations depends on the relative strength of the forces of gravity and inertia, whereas the amplitude of the oscillations is a nontrivial function of the velocity at which the line charge moves. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluid surface elevation analyzed near a static point and line charge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevation determined by interaction of gravity, dielectric force and surface tension. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic equation of motion for the moving line charge is derived. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface waves behind moving charge calculated and analysed for different velocities.

Ellingsen, Simen A, E-mail: simen.a.ellingsen@ntnu.no; Brevik, Iver, E-mail: iver.h.brevik@ntnu.no

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

Porosity and Permeability Evolution Accompanying Hot fluid Injection into Diatomite, SUPRI TR-123  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental study of silica dissolution was performed to probe the evolution of permeability and porosity in siliceous diatomite during hot fluid injection such as water or steam flooding. Two competing mechanisms were identified. Silica solubility in water at elevated temperature causes rock dissolution thereby increasing permeability; however, the rock is mechanically weak leading to compressing of the solid matrix during injection. Permeability and porosity can decrease at the onset of fluid flow. A laboratory flow apparatus was designed and built to examine these processes in diatomite core samples.

Diabira, I.; Castanier, L.M.; Kovscek, A.R.

2001-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

436

The effect of adding crystalline silicotitanate on the durability, liquidus, and viscosity of simulated high-level waste glasses at Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary of the results obtained for a limited variability study for glasses containing Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST), Monosodium Titanate (MST), and either simulated Purex or HM sludge. Twenty-two glasses containing Purex sludge and three glasses containing HM sludge were fabricated and tested. The fabricated glasses were tested for durability using the 7-day Product Consistency Test (PCT) and characterized by measuring the viscosity at 1,150 C and by determining an approximate, bounding liquidus temperature. The current models used by Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for predicting durability, viscosity, and liquidus temperature were applied to all 25 glasses. The goal of this work was to identify any major problems from a glass perspective, within the scope of this effort, which could potentially preclude the use of CST at DWPF.

Harbour, J.R.

2000-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

437

Building Technologies Office: Recovery Act-Funded Working Fluid Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Working Fluid Projects to someone by E-mail Working Fluid Projects to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Recovery Act-Funded Working Fluid Projects on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Recovery Act-Funded Working Fluid Projects on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Recovery Act-Funded Working Fluid Projects on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Recovery Act-Funded Working Fluid Projects on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Recovery Act-Funded Working Fluid Projects on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Recovery Act-Funded Working Fluid Projects on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy Partner with DOE Activities Appliances Research Building Envelope Research Windows, Skylights, & Doors Research Space Heating & Cooling Research

438

Category:Fluid Lab Analysis | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Category Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Category:Fluid Lab Analysis Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Fluid Lab Analysis page? For detailed information on exploration techniques, click here. Category:Fluid Lab Analysis Add.png Add a new Fluid Lab Analysis Technique Pages in category "Fluid Lab Analysis" The following 5 pages are in this category, out of 5 total. C Compound and Elemental Analysis F Fluid Inclusion Analysis I Isotopic Analysis- Fluid M Mercury Vapor T Trace Element Analysis Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Fluid_Lab_Analysis&oldid=689846"

439

A Class of Semi-Lagrangian Approximations for Fluids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses a class of finite-difference approximations to the evolution equations of fluid dynamics. These approximations derive from elementary properties of differential forms. Values of a fluid variable ? at any two points of a space-...

Piotr K. Smolarkiewicz; Janusz A. Pudykiewicz

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

FLUID STRATIGRAPHY OF THE COSO GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

FLUID STRATIGRAPHY OF THE COSO GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR FLUID STRATIGRAPHY OF THE COSO GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: FLUID STRATIGRAPHY OF THE COSO GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: A fluid model for the Coso geothermal reservoir is developed from Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy (FIS) analyses. Fluid inclusion gas chemistry in well cuttings collected at 20 ft intervals is analyzed and plotted on well log diagrams. The working hypothesis is that select gaseous species and species ratios indicate areas of groundwater and reservoir fluid flow, fluid processes and reservoir seals. Boiling and condensate zones are distinguished. Models are created using cross-sections and fence diagrams. A thick condensate and boiling zone is indicated across the western portion

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid viscosity increases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Synthetic aperture imaging for three dimensional resolution of fluid flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fluid mechanics and instrumentation have a long history together, as experimental fluids studies play an important role in describing a more complete physical picture in a variety of problems. Presently. state-of-the-art ...

Belden, Jesse (Jesse Levi)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

A Geostrophic Adjustment Model of Two Buoyant Fluids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combination of analytical calculations and laboratory experiments has been used to investigate the geostrophic adjustment of two buoyant fluids having different densities in a third denser ambient fluid. The frontal position, the depth profile, ...

Claudia Cenedese; James A. Lerczak; Giuseppe Bartone

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Supercritical fluid-based extraction/processing: then and now  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An expert in supercritical fluid technologies reviews past, present, and future developments in this field as they relate to lipids. Supercritical fluid-based extraction/processing: then and now Inform Magazine Inform Archives Processing Jerry W. King

444

On Boundary Value Problems of the Ideal-Fluid Thermocline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent developments of ideal-fluid thermocline models are briefly reviewed. Using density coordinates, boundary value problems are formulated for the ideal-fluid thermocline with continuous stratification. Ekman pumping and surface density are ...

Rui Xin Huang

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Arrayed microfluidic actuation for active sorting of fluid bed particulates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fluidic actuation offers a facile method to move large quantities of small solids, often referred to as fluid-bed movement. Applications for fluid bed processing are integral to many fields including petrochemical, petroleum, ...

Gerhardt, Antimony L

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Testing and standards related to fluid and chemical transport  

Testing and standards related to fluid and chemical transport R. Doug Hooton UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO DEPT. CIVIL ENGINEERING

447

Novel Tube-in-Tube System Simplifies Subsurface Fluid Sampling ...  

* Builds on a proven methodology for retrieving uncontaminated fluid samples Applications and Industries * Carbon dioxide sequestration * Oil and gas exploration

448

Reply to Engelder: Potential for fluid migration from the Marcellus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tension and imbibition sequester frack fluid in Marcellus gas shale. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 10.1073/pnas

Jackson, Robert B.

449

U.S. Refinery Thermal Cracking, Fluid Coking Downstream Charge ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Thermal Cracking, Fluid Coking Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

450

Fluid Flow in Fractured Rock: Theory and Application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Porous Media, Pullman, WA, July 9-18,1989, and to be published in the Proceedings Fluid Flow in Fractured

Long, J.C.S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Optimizing drilling performance using a selected drilling fluid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

To improve drilling performance, a drilling fluid is selected based on one or more criteria and to have at least one target characteristic. Drilling equipment is used to drill a wellbore, and the selected drilling fluid is provided into the wellbore during drilling with the drilling equipment. The at least one target characteristic of the drilling fluid includes an ability of the drilling fluid to penetrate into formation cuttings during drilling to weaken the formation cuttings.

Judzis, Arnis (Salt Lake City, UT); Black, Alan D. (Coral Springs, FL); Green, Sidney J. (Salt Lake City, UT); Robertson, Homer A. (West Jordan, UT); Bland, Ronald G. (Houston, TX); Curry, David Alexander (The Woodlands, TX); Ledgerwood, III, Leroy W. (Cypress, TX)

2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

452

Isotropic singularities in shear-free perfect fluid cosmologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate barotropic perfect fluid cosmologies which admit an isotropic singularity. From the General Vorticity Result of Scott, it is known that these cosmologies must be irrotational. In this paper we prove, using two different methods, that if we make the additional assumption that the perfect fluid is shear-free, then the fluid flow must be geodesic. This then implies that the only shear-free, barotropic, perfect fluid cosmologies which admit an isotropic singularity are the FRW models.

Geoffery Ericksson; Susan M. Scott

2001-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

453

Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) - Energy Innovation Portal  

Solar Thermal Industrial Technologies Energy Storage Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) Sandia National Laboratories. Contact SNL About This ...

454

Acoustic energy-driven fluid pump and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Bulk fluid motion is promoted in a gaseous fluid contained within a conduit system provided with a diffuser without the need for a mean pressure differential across the conduit system. The contacting of the gaseous fluid with unsteady energy at a selected frequency and pressure amplitude induces fluid flow through the conical diffuser. The unsteady energy can be provided by pulse combustors, thermoacoustic engines, or acoustic energy generators such as acoustic speakers.

Janus, Michael C.; Richards, George A.; Robey, Edward H.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

AFM Fluid Delivery/Liquid Extraction Surface Sampling ...  

Disclosure Number 201303009 . Technology Summary This invention is an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) Fluid Delivery/Electrostatic ... The invention pro ...

456

Calculation of fluid-mineral equilibria using the simplex algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: CHILLER, K-feldspar, PATH, SIMCALC, SIMPLEX, equilibria, fluid-mineral, geochemistry, hydrolysis, mass transfer, paragenesis

J. R. Wood

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

In-Line Fluid Analysis Technology - Available Technologies ...  

Computers & Electronics; Manufacturing & Warehousing; Oil & Gas; Brochure(s) In-Line Fluid Analysis Brochure (pdf) Enabled by the Office ...

458

Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management - Combining Fluid Loops in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles have increased vehicle thermal management complexity, using separate coolant loop for advanced power electronics and electric motors. Additional thermal components result in higher costs. Multiple cooling loops lead to reduced range due to increased weight. Energy is required to meet thermal requirements. This presentation for the 2013 Annual Merit Review discusses integrated vehicle thermal management by combining fluid loops in electric drive vehicles.

Rugh, J. P.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z