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1

Year/PAD District Cokers Catalytic Crackers Hydrocrackers Capacity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Cokers Catalytic Crackers Hydrocrackers Capacity Inputs Capacity Inputs Capacity Inputs Table 8. Capacity and Fresh Feed Input to Selected Downstream Units at U.S. Refineries, 2011 - 2013 (Barrels per Calendar Day) Reformers Capacity Inputs 2011 2,396,787 5,794,214 1,687,745 2,093,849 4,952,455 1,466,627 2,570,970 3,346,457 93,700 673,300 41,500 37,932 490,729 18,030 PADD I 188,389 266,950 373,897 1,176,972 254,000 350,063 1,017,616 223,751 PADD II 664,852 812,244 1,318,440 2,933,842 841,285 1,183,318 2,570,348 744,638 PADD III 1,243,427 1,629,967 80,350 185,800 28,200 63,362 158,192 18,214 PADD IV 96,649 120,190 530,400 824,300 522,760 459,175 715,570 461,995 PADD V 377,652 517,106 2012 2,499,293 5,611,191 1,706,540 2,173,336 4,901,284 1,528,708 2,614,571 3,246,874 74,900 489,300 20,000

2

Optimal control of fluid catalytic cracking processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An investigation was made of the applicability of optimal control theory to the design of control systems for non-linear, multivariable chemical processes. A hypothetical fluid catalytic cracking process was selected as a typical representative of such ...

L. A. Gould; L. B. Evans; H. Kurihara

1970-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Catalytic dewaxing of middle distillates  

SciTech Connect

The fractionation and stripping equipment of a middle distillate catalytic dewaxing unit may be eliminated by integrating the catalytic dewaxing unit with a catalytic cracking unit. The light cycle oil sidestream from the cat cracker fractionator, bypasses the sidestream stripper and serves as the feed to the catalytic dewaxing unit. The dewaxed product is separated into a gasoline fraction which is recycled for fractionation in the cat cracker fractionator and a fuel oil fraction which is recycled to the cat cracker sidestream stripper for removal of light materials to produce a low pour fuel oil meeting product specifications.

Antal, M.J.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Catalytic cracking process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Processes and apparatus for providing improved catalytic cracking, specifically improved recovery of olefins, LPG or hydrogen from catalytic crackers. The improvement is achieved by passing part of the wet gas stream across membranes selective in favor of light hydrocarbons over hydrogen.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Educating Consumers: New Content on Diesel Vehicles, Diesel Exhaust Fluid, and Selective Catalytic Reduction Technologies on the AFDC (Presentation)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation covers new content available on the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Data Center regarding diesel vehicles, diesel exhaust fluid, and selective catalytic reduction technologies.

Brodt-Giles, D.

2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

6

Hydrodesulfurization of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Decant Oils for the Production of Low-sulfur Needle Coke Feedstocks.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Needle coke, produced by the delayed coking of fluid catalytic cracking decant oils, is the primary filler used in the production of graphite electrodes. The… (more)

Wincek, Ronald

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Fluid catalytic cracking is an important step in producing ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... (much as water makes sand into quicksand). Because the catalyst is fluid, it can circulate around the FCC, moving between reactor and regenerator vessels ...

8

Investigation of Coal-biomass Catalytic Gasification using Experiments, Reaction Kinetics, and Computational Fluid Dynamics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal-biomass Catalytic Coal-biomass Catalytic Gasification using Experiments, Reaction Kinetics, and Computational Fluid Dynamics Background The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports research and development efforts targeted to improve efficiency and reduce the negative environmental effects of the use of fossil fuels. One way to achieve these goals is to combine coal with biomass to create synthesis gas (syngas) for use in turbines and refineries to produce energy, fuels,

9

Producing light cycle oil in the cat cracker  

SciTech Connect

The refining industry in the United States uses the catalytic-cracking process primarily to produce gasoline (generally defined as hydrocarbons in the 100-430/sup 0/F boiling range). When compared with other refinery processes, such as hydrocracking, coking, and thermal cracking, cat cracking provides an efficient, inexpensive means of upgrading gas oils and heavy residual oils into gasoline-range products. However, in many other areas of the world, light cycle oil (generally defined as hydrocarbons in the 430-650/sup 0/F boiling range) has a higher value because automobiles are less plentiful. And in the United States many refiners seek seasonal means of increasing light cycle oil (LCO) yields to meet higher wintertime fuel oil demands. The Davison planning group estimates one third of the LCO produced in the United States is derived from cat cracking. Because of the many questions and misunderstandings about light cycle yields and quality from the cat cracker, the aim in this paper is to (1) provide a general overview of ways the industry can change the cat-cracker operation to increase LCO yield, and (2) clear up some misunderstandings about yield and quality.

Ritter, R.E.; Creighton, J.E.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Catalytic gasification studies in a pressurized fluid-bed unit  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of the project is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gas products via the catalytic gasification of biomass. This report presents the results of research conducted from October 1980 to November 1982. In the laboratory scale studis, active catalysts were developed for generation of synthesis gases from wood by steam gasification. A trimetallic catalyst, Ni-Co-Mo on silica-alumina doped with 2 wt % Na, was found to retain activity indefinitely for generation of a methanol synthesis gas from wood at 1380/sup 0/F (750/sup 0/C) and 1 atm (100 kPa) absolute pressure. Catalysts for generation of a methane-rich gas were deactivated rapidly and could not be regenerated as required for economic application. Sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate were effective as catalysts for conversion of wood to synthesis gases and methane-rich gas and should be economically viable. Catalytic gasification conditions were found to be suitable for processing of alternative feedstocks: bagasse, alfalfa, rice hulls, and almond hulls. The PDU was operated successfully at absolute pressures of up to 10 atm (1000 kPa) and temperatures of up to 1380/sup 0/F (750/sup 0/C). Yields of synthesis gases at elevated pressure were greater than those used for previous economic evaluations. A trimetallic catalyst, Ni-Cu-Mo on silica-alumina, did not display a long life as did the doped trimetallic catalyst used in laboratory studies. A computer program for a Radio Shack TRS-80 Model I microcomputer was developed to evaluate rapidly the economics of producing either methane or methanol from wood. The program is based on economic evaluations reported in previous studies. Improved yields from the PDU studies were found to result in a reduction of about 9 cents/gal in methanol cost.

Mudge, L.K.; Baker, E.G.; Mitchell, D.H.; Robertus, R.J.; Brown, M.D.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Catalytic conversion of LPG  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The low reactivity of light paraffins has long hindered their utilization as petrochemical feedstocks. Except for their use in ethylene crackers, LPG fractions have traditionally been consumed as fuel. New catalytic processes now being commercialized open new avenues for the utilization of LPG as sources of valuable petrochemical intermediates. This paper discusses processes for the dehydrogenation and aromatization of LPG.

Pujado, P.R.; Vora, B.V.; Mowry, J.R.; Anderson, R.F.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Spectroscopic studies on the formation of coke on individual Fluid Catalytic Cracking particles: the effect of poisoning metal compounds.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The formation of coke on individual Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) catalyst particles was studied using UV/Vis microspectroscopy and confocal fluorescence microscopy, with n-hexane cracking as… (more)

Goetze, J.G.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Tools protecting stakeholders against hackers and crackers: an insight review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The internet is considered as an effective tool that ensures communications globally. However, this has been hindered by hackers and crackers continuously. In doing so, a multitude of network-facilitated tools such as firewalls, virtual private networks ... Keywords: VPN, antivirus software, computer hacking, cracking, data matching, electronic security, firewalls, hackers, internet, network security, training, virtual private networks, vulnerability analysis

Hossein Jahankani; Branko Antonijevic; Terry H. Walcott

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Have You Ever Seen a Cat Cracker in Person? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Have You Ever Seen a Cat Cracker in Person? Have You Ever Seen a Cat Cracker in Person? Have You Ever Seen a Cat Cracker in Person? June 8, 2011 - 2:47pm Addthis Ginny Simmons Ginny Simmons Former Managing Editor for Energy.gov, Office of Public Affairs Want a surefire bet to be hipper at the Department of Energy? Well, I have no idea. But I do know how to have a bit more fun: learn the energy slang. Folks in the energy sector have some great nicknames for the energy infrastructure and processes they use every day. Here are a few: Wheeling Electricity "wheeling" is when electricity is moved through a local grid for use in another area. Christmas Tree A Christmas tree is a set of valves, pipes, and fittings used to control the flow of oil and gas as it leaves a well and enters a pipeline. Doghouse

15

Increasing Distillate Production at U.S. Refineries – Past ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

optimization around fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) feeds and operations, hydrocrackers in ... The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the U.S.

16

Catalytic reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic reactor is provided with one or more reaction zones each formed of set(s) of reaction tubes containing a catalyst to promote chemical reaction within a feed stream. The reaction tubes are of helical configuration and are arranged in a substantially coaxial relationship to form a coil-like structure. Heat exchangers and steam generators can be formed by similar tube arrangements. In such manner, the reaction zone(s) and hence, the reactor is compact and the pressure drop through components is minimized. The resultant compact form has improved heat transfer characteristics and is far easier to thermally insulate than prior art compact reactor designs. Various chemical reactions are contemplated within such coil-like structures such that as steam methane reforming followed by water-gas shift. The coil-like structures can be housed within annular chambers of a cylindrical housing that also provide flow paths for various heat exchange fluids to heat and cool components.

Aaron, Timothy Mark (East Amherst, NY); Shah, Minish Mahendra (East Amherst, NY); Jibb, Richard John (Amherst, NY)

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

17

Concentric catalytic combustor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic combustor (28) includes a tubular pressure boundary element (90) having a longitudinal flow axis (e.g., 56) separating a first portion (94) of a first fluid flow (e.g., 24) from a second portion (95) of the first fluid flow. The pressure boundary element includes a wall (96) having a plurality of separate longitudinally oriented flow paths (98) annularly disposed within the wall and conducting respective portions (100, 101) of a second fluid flow (e.g., 26) therethrough. A catalytic material (32) is disposed on a surface (e.g., 102, 103) of the pressure boundary element exposed to at least one of the first and second portions of the first fluid flow.

Bruck, Gerald J. (Oviedo, FL); Laster, Walter R. (Oviedo, FL)

2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

18

Catalytic Reforming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Don Little's Catalytic Reforming deals exclusively with reforming. With the increasing need for unleaded gasoline, the importance of this volume has escalated since it combines various related aspects of reforming technology into a single publication. For those with no practical knowledge of catalytic reforming, the chemical reactions, flow schemes and how the cat reformer fits into the overall refinery process will be of interest. Contents include: Catalytic reforming in refinery processing: How catalytic reformers work - chemical reactions; Process design; The catalyst, process variables and unit operation; Commercial processes; BTX operation; Feed preparation; naphtha hydrotreating and catalytic reforming; Index.

Little, D.M.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Catalytic Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Catalytic Distillation' refers to a chemical process which performs both a catalyzed reaction and primary fractionation of the reaction components simultaneously. A structured catalyst which also is an effective distillation component has been patented by Chemical Research & Licensing Co., Houston, Texas, and developed in a joint venture with Neochem Corp., Houston, Texas, and the Department of Energy. The catalytic distillation packing has been commercially demonstrated successfully with nearly three years continuous service for an acid catalyzed reaction in a carbon steel distillation tower.

Smith, L. A., Jr.; Hearn, D.; Wynegar, D. P.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Fluid-Bed Testing of Greatpoint Energy's Direct Oxygen Injection Catalytic Gasification Process for Synthetic Natural Gas and Hydrogen Coproduction Year 6 - Activity 1.14 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology  

SciTech Connect

The GreatPoint Energy (GPE) concept for producing synthetic natural gas and hydrogen from coal involves the catalytic gasification of coal and carbon. GPE’s technology “refines” coal by employing a novel catalyst to “crack” the carbon bonds and transform the coal into cleanburning methane (natural gas) and hydrogen. The GPE mild “catalytic” gasifier design and operating conditions result in reactor components that are less expensive and produce pipeline-grade methane and relatively high purity hydrogen. The system operates extremely efficiently on very low cost carbon sources such as lignites, subbituminous coals, tar sands, petcoke, and petroleum residual oil. In addition, GPE’s catalytic coal gasification process eliminates troublesome ash removal and slagging problems, reduces maintenance requirements, and increases thermal efficiency, significantly reducing the size of the air separation plant (a system that alone accounts for 20% of the capital cost of most gasification systems) in the catalytic gasification process. Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale gasification facilities were used to demonstrate how coal and catalyst are fed into a fluid-bed reactor with pressurized steam and a small amount of oxygen to “fluidize” the mixture and ensure constant contact between the catalyst and the carbon particles. In this environment, the catalyst facilitates multiple chemical reactions between the carbon and the steam on the surface of the coal. These reactions generate a mixture of predominantly methane, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. Product gases from the process are sent to a gas-cleaning system where CO{sub 2} and other contaminants are removed. In a full-scale system, catalyst would be recovered from the bottom of the gasifier and recycled back into the fluid-bed reactor. The by-products (such as sulfur, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2}) would be captured and could be sold to the chemicals and petroleum industries, resulting in near-zero hazardous air or water pollution. This technology would also be conducive to the efficient coproduction of methane and hydrogen while also generating a relatively pure CO{sub 2} stream suitable for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) or sequestration. Specific results of bench-scale testing in the 4- to 38-lb/hr range in the EERC pilot system demonstrated high methane yields approaching 15 mol%, with high hydrogen yields approaching 50%. This was compared to an existing catalytic gasification model developed by GPE for its process. Long-term operation was demonstrated on both Powder River Basin subbituminous coal and on petcoke feedstocks utilizing oxygen injection without creating significant bed agglomeration. Carbon conversion was greater than 80% while operating at temperatures less than 1400°F, even with the shorter-than-desired reactor height. Initial designs for the GPE gasification concept called for a height that could not be accommodated by the EERC pilot facility. More gas-phase residence time should allow the syngas to be converted even more to methane. Another goal of producing significant quantities of highly concentrated catalyzed char for catalyst recovery and material handling studies was also successful. A Pd–Cu membrane was also successfully tested and demonstrated to produce 2.54 lb/day of hydrogen permeate, exceeding the desired hydrogen permeate production rate of 2.0 lb/day while being tested on actual coal-derived syngas that had been cleaned with advanced warm-gas cleanup systems. The membranes did not appear to suffer any performance degradation after exposure to the cleaned, warm syngas over a nominal 100-hour test.

Swanson, Michael; Henderson, Ann

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid catalytic cracker" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Catalytic reforming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for the catalytic reforming of a feedstock which contains at least one reformable organic compound. The process consists of contacting the feedstock under suitable reforming conditions with a catalyst composition selected from the group consisting of a catalyst. The catalyst essentially consists of zinc oxide and a spinel structure alumina. Another catalyst consists essentially of a physical mixture of zinc titanate and a spinel structure alumina in the presence of sufficient added hydrogen to substantially prevent the formation of coke. Insufficient zinc is present in the catalyst composition for the formation of a bulk zinc aluminate.

Aldag, A.W. Jr.

1986-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

22

CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBL-11 019 UC-61 CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION Sabri Ergun,Catalytic Liquefaction of Biomass,n M, Seth, R. Djafar, G.of California. CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION QUARTERLY

Ergun, Sabri

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Piloted rich-catalytic lean-burn hybrid combustor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic combustor assembly which includes, an air source, a fuel delivery means, a catalytic reactor assembly, a mixing chamber, and a means for igniting a fuel/air mixture. The catalytic reactor assembly is in fluid communication with the air source and fuel delivery means and has a fuel/air plenum which is coated with a catalytic material. The fuel/air plenum has cooling air conduits passing therethrough which have an upstream end. The upstream end of the cooling conduits is in fluid communication with the air source but not the fuel delivery means.

Newburry, Donald Maurice (Orlando, FL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

This is a working document prepared by the Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

downstream processing technologies (hydro-cracker, fluid cat-cracker, coker, reformer, alkylation, and polymerization) for further processing and upgrading.

25

Raney nickel catalytic device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic device for use in a conventional coal gasification process which includes a tubular substrate having secured to its inside surface by expansion a catalytic material. The catalytic device is made by inserting a tubular catalytic element, such as a tubular element of a nickel-aluminum alloy, into a tubular substrate and heat-treating the resulting composite to cause the tubular catalytic element to irreversibly expand against the inside surface of the substrate.

O' Hare, Stephen A. (Vienna, VA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION OF BIOMASS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

liquid Fuels from Biomass: "Catalyst Screening and KineticUC-61 (l, RCO osn CDL or BIOMASS CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION ManuCATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION OF BIOMASS Manu Seth, Roger Djafar,

Seth, Manu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solvent Systems Catalystic Biomass Liquefaction Investigatereactor Product collection Biomass liquefaction process12-13, 1980 CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION Sabri Ergun,

Ergun, Sabri

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Process for catalytic reforming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved catalytic reforming process is disclosed wherein hydrogen and light hydrocarbons generated in the catalytic reaction zone are passed to a hydrogen production/purification zone and and reacted and processed therein to produce substantially pure hydrogen. A portion of the hydrogen is then admixed with the charge stock to the catalytic reforming zone to provide the hydrogen requirements of the catalytic reforming reaction zone.

James, R. B. Jr.

1984-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

29

Rich catalytic injection  

SciTech Connect

A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

Veninger, Albert (Coventry, CT)

2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

30

Multizone catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for the catalytic reforming of hydrocarbons comprising contacting the hydrocarbon feed in two sequential catalyst zones. It comprises: a first catalyst zone contains a first catalytic composite consisting essentially of a platinum component, a germanium component, a refractory inorganic oxide, and a halogen component; and a second catalyst zone contains a second catalytic composite comprising a platinum component, a germanium component, a refractory inorganic oxide, a halogen component, and catalytically effective amounts of a metal promoter selected from rhenium, rhodium, ruthenium, cobalt, nickel, and iridium, and mixtures thereof.

Moser, M.C.; Lawson, R.J.; Antos, G.J.; Wang, L.; Parulekar, V.N.

1990-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

31

Catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A catalytic reforming process is disclosed in which substantially all of the heat requirements of the product stabilizer column is supplied by multiple indirect heat exchange.

Peters, K.D.

1983-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

32

Catalytic conversion of biomass.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Catalytic processes for conversion of biomass to transportation fuels have gained an increasing attention in sustainable energy production. The biomass can be converted to… (more)

Calleja Aguado, Raquel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Catalytic distillation structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Performance characterization of a hydrogen catalytic heater.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the performance of a high efficiency, compact heater that uses the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen to provide heat to the GM Hydrogen Storage Demonstration System. The heater was designed to transfer up to 30 kW of heat from the catalytic reaction to a circulating heat transfer fluid. The fluid then transfers the heat to one or more of the four hydrogen storage modules that make up the Demonstration System to drive off the chemically bound hydrogen. The heater consists of three main parts: (1) the reactor, (2) the gas heat recuperator, and (3) oil and gas flow distribution manifolds. The reactor and recuperator are integrated, compact, finned-plate heat exchangers to maximize heat transfer efficiency and minimize mass and volume. Detailed, three-dimensional, multi-physics computational models were used to design and optimize the system. At full power the heater was able to catalytically combust a 10% hydrogen/air mixture flowing at over 80 cubic feet per minute and transfer 30 kW of heat to a 30 gallon per minute flow of oil over a temperature range from 100 C to 220 C. The total efficiency of the catalytic heater, defined as the heat transferred to the oil divided by the inlet hydrogen chemical energy, was characterized and methods for improvement were investigated.

Johnson, Terry Alan; Kanouff, Michael P.

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Refining and upgrading of synfuels from coal and oil shales by advanced catalytic processes. Quarterly report, July--September 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to determine the feasibility and estimate the economics of hydropreocessing four synthetic fuels to distillate fuels, including high octane gasoline, using presently available technology. The feedstocks include shale oil and three coal-derived synthetic crudes. The first feedstock is Paraho crude shale oil, produced in the indirectly heated mode. Pilot plant studies of hydrofining of whole shale oil with ICR 106 catalyst have been completed. The product resembles the fraction of a waxy petroleum crude boiling below 1000/sup 0/F. There is no 1100/sup 0/F+ residuum. A 3500-hour pilot plant run showed that the catalyst fouling rate is low and demonstrated that a commercial length run is feasible. However, a guard bed is necessary ahead of the catalyst bed to remove arsenic and iron which can cause plugging. Hydrofined shale oil is an excellent feed for a catalytic cracker. Pilot plant studies show that the 650/sup 0/F+ fraction of hydrofined shale oil is very similar to hydrofined Middle Eastern vacuum gas oils in its performance in a catalytic cracker. Process design studies based on pilot plant results indicate that it is desirable to hydrofine the whole shale oil to a nitrogen content of about 500 ppM and then to fractionate the product before conventional downstream processing to produce transportation fuels. An alternate scheme for shale oil processing is the coking of the shale oil followed by hydrofinishing of the coker distillate. Preliminary results appear promising. The second feedstock is solvent refined coal. Studies of the hydrofining of a 50/50 blend of SRC and creosote were continued. A run of 1100 hours was achieved with ICR 106 catalyst without the plugging problem that had plagued an earlier test. The catalyst deactivated at a relatively rapid rate.

Sullivan, R.F.; Rudy, C.E.; Green, D.C.; Chen, H.C.

1977-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Multizone catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for the catalytic reforming of hydrocarbons comprising contacting the hydrocarbon feed in two sequential catalyst zones. It comprises: an initial catalyst zone which is a fixed-bed system and contains an initial catalytic composite comprising a platinum component, a germanium component, a refractory inorganic oxide, and a halogen component; and a terminal catalyst zone which is a moving-bed system with associated continuous catalyst regeneration and contains a terminal catalytic composite having the essential absence of germanium and comprising a platinum component, a refractory inorganic oxide, a halogen component, and catalytically effective amounts of a metal promoter selected from one or more of the rhenium, tin, indium, rhodium, ruthenium, cobalt, nickel, and iridium.

Moser, M.; Lawson, R.J.; Wang, L.; Parulekar, V.; Peer, R.L.; Hamlin, C.R.

1991-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

37

Catalytic distillation process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Catalytic distillation process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1982-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

39

Catalytic distillation structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1984-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

40

Effect of reformer conditions on catalytic reforming of biomass-gasification tars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Parametric tests on catalytic reforming of tars produced in biomass gasification are performed using a bench-scale, fluid-bed catalytic reformer containing a commercial nickel-based catalyst. The product gas composition and yield vary with reformer temperature, space time, and steam: biomass ratio. Under certain catalytic tar reforming conditions, the gas yield increases by 70%; 97% of the tars are cracked into gases; and benzene and naphthalene, the predominant tar species, are virtually eliminated from the product gas.

Kinoshita, C.M.; Wang, Y.; Zhou, J. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid catalytic cracker" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Process: Catalytic Reforming Catalytic Cracking Catalytic Hydrocracking Delayed and Fluid Coking Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Process: Catalytic Reforming Catalytic Cracking Catalytic Hydrocracking Delayed and Fluid Coking Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Process Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History U.S. 2,563 2,667 2,739 2,807 2,705 2,609 2010-2013 PADD 1 176 178 180 173 156 167 2010-2013 East Coast 166 164 163 161 140 153 2010-2013 Appalachian No. 1 9 14 16 12 15 14 2010-2013 PADD 2 642 638 668 695 677 615 2010-2013 Ind., Ill. and Ky. 426 411 426 460 450 399 2010-2013 Minn., Wis., N. Dak., S. Dak. 67 62 70 72 72 57 2010-2013 Okla., Kans., Mo.

42

Catalytic Coal Gasification Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalytic Coal Gasification Process Catalytic Coal Gasification Process for the Production of Methane-Rich Syngas Opportunity Research is active on the patent pending technology, titled "Production of Methane-Rich Syngas from Fuels Using Multi-functional Catalyst/Capture Agent." This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview Reducing pollution emitted by coal and waste power plants in an economically viable manner and building power plants that co-generate fuels and chemicals during times of low electricity demand are pressing goals for the energy industry. One way to achieve these goals in an economically viable manner is through the use of a catalytic gasifier that

43

Catalytic hydrotreating process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carbonaceous liquids boiling above about 300.degree. C such as tars, petroleum residuals, shale oils and coal-derived liquids are catalytically hydrotreated by introducing the carbonaceous liquid into a reaction zone at a temperature in the range of 300.degree. to 450.degree. C and a pressure in the range of 300 to 4000 psig for effecting contact between the carbonaceous liquid and a catalytic transition metal sulfide in the reaction zone as a layer on a hydrogen permeable transition metal substrate and then introducing hydrogen into the reaction zone by diffusing the hydrogen through the substrate to effect the hydrogenation of the carbonaceous liquid in the presence of the catalytic sulfide layer.

Karr, Jr., Clarence (Morgantown, WV); McCaskill, Kenneth B. (Morgantown, WV)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Cracker Gothic: A Memoir .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this collection of four creative non-fiction essays, the author describes her experience of returning to her small hometown in mid-life. She uses the writings… (more)

Duncan, Wanda

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Steam reformer with catalytic combustor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

Voecks, Gerald E. (La Crescenta, CA)

1990-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

46

Catalytic Solutions Inc CSI | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Developer of the breakthrough catalytic coating technology and the Mixed Phase Catalyst (MPCTM), and also manufacturer of catalytic converters. References Catalytic...

47

Catalytic coal liquefaction process  

SciTech Connect

An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Sunder, Swaminathan (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Catalytic coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids. 1 fig.

Garg, D.; Sunder, S.

1986-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

49

Catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A catalytic reforming process is disclosed wherein the reboiler heat requirements of the stabilizer column are supplied by means of indirect heat exchange with hot combustion gases in the reforming reactants fired heater convection heating section. Heat in excess of the reboiler requirements is passed to the stabilizer column with control being effected by removal of excess heat from the column.

James, R.B. Jr.

1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

50

Catalytic skeletal isomerization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The catalytic reforming of a feedstock which contains a derivative of cyclopentane or which contains organic compounds which are convertible to a derivative of cyclopentane is carried out in the presence of a hydrogrel of zinc titanate and a suitable acidic material. Also, the attrition resistance of zinc titanate is improved by incorporating the zinc titanate into a hydrogel structure.

Aldag, A.W.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

SRM -? Fluids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... These reference fluid formulations characterize the behavior of broad ranges of chemically similar fluids; in this way data on propane, for example ...

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Improving the SAGE Refinery Representation  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... Model Structure Includes five types of crude oil Six downstream processing technologies (1) hydro-cracker, (2) fluid cat-cracker, (3) coker, (4) reformer ...

53

Catalytic thermal barrier coatings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

Kulkarni, Anand A. (Orlando, FL); Campbell, Christian X. (Orlando, FL); Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

54

CSD: Research: Catalytic Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalytic Science Catalytic Science The DOE Chemical Energy program supports basic research in the area of chemical transformations or conversions which are fundamental to new or existing concepts of energy production and storage. A further goal of the program is to identify and develop environmentally benign approaches to the synthesis of chemicals via routes requiring a minimal consumption of energy. These objectives lead naturally to an emphasis on catalysis. Novel homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts are constantly being sought to enable the synthesis of desired products from nontraditional reactants, often with the aim of minimizing the production of toxic intermediates or byproducts, or to enable the more efficient production of products via existing reaction pathways. To this end, efforts are undertaken to

55

Catalytic reforming catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved catalyst, having a reduced fouling rate when used in a catalytic reforming process, said catalyst comprising platinum disposed on an alumina support wherein the alumina support is obtained by removing water from aluminum hydroxide produced as a by-product from a ziegler higher alcohol synthesis reaction, and wherein the alumina is calcined at a temperature of 1100-1400/sup 0/F so as to have a surface area of 165 to 215 square meters per gram.

Buss, W.C.; Kluksdahl, H.E.

1980-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

56

Catalytic distillation : design and application of a catalytic distillation column.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Catalytic Distillation (CD) is a hybrid technology that utilizes the dynamics of si- multaneous reaction and separation in a single process unit to achieve a… (more)

Nieuwoudt, Josias Jakobus (Jako)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Catalytic reforming methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

58

Catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a catalytic reforming process which comprises contacting a naphtha range feed with a low acidity extrudate comprising an intermediate and/or a large pore acidic zeolite bound with a low acidity refractory oxide under reforming conditions to provide a reaction product of increased aromatic content, the extrudate having been prepared with at least an extrusion-facilitating amount of a low acidity refractory oxide in colloidal form and containing at least one metal species selected from the platinum group metals.

Absil, R.P.; Huss, A. Jr.; McHale, W.D.; Partridge, R.D.

1989-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

59

Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

Stuart Nemser, PhD

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Catalytic Conversion of Bioethanol to Hydrocarbons  

ORNL 2011-G00219/jcn UT-B ID 201002414 08.2011 Catalytic Conversion of Bioethanol to Hydrocarbons Technology Summary A method for catalytically converting an alcohol ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid catalytic cracker" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Catalytic Conversion of Bioethanol to Hydrocarbons  

ORNL 2011-G00219/jcn UT-B ID 201002414 08.2011 Catalytic Conversion of Bioethanol to Hydrocarbons Technology Summary A method for catalytically ...

62

Catalytic reforming optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have previously examined correlations between catalytic reforming parameters for an L-35-6 unit at the Gor'knefteorgsintez Industrial Association. Experimental design was used to derive polynomial equations describing the correlations for each reactor. Further research on optimizing the reforming has been based on these results. They adopted the following strategy to define the best working parameters: they define a temperature that would provide the maximum target-product yield while maintaining a given working life. Most of the aromatic hydrocarbons are formed by the naphthene dehydrogenation, which is endothermic, so the greater the temperature drop over the height, the more rapid the process. The temperature difference thus indicates the current catalyst activity. To increase the target-product yield, one must raise the inlet temperature and ensure the largest drop across the catalyst. They examined an algorithm with fixed inlet conditions as regards flow rate and raw material composition. This algorithm provides the basis of software for the automatic control of the L-35-6 reactor unit at the Gor'knefteorgsintez Industrial Association. The system has been checked out and put into experimental operation.

Mazina, S.G.; Rybtsov, V.V.; Priss-Titarenko, T.A.

1988-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

63

Puerto Rico Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Puerto Rico Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

64

Mississippi Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Mississippi Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

65

Louisiana Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Louisiana Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

66

Fluid turbine  

SciTech Connect

A fluid turbine designed for increased power output includes an annular housing provided with a semi-spherical dome for directing incoming fluid flow to impinge on a plurality of rotor blades within the housing fixed to a vertical output shaft. An angle on the order of between 5 to 85/sup 0/, in the direction of rotation of the shaft, exists between the upper (Leading) and lower (Trailing) edges of each blade. The blades are manufactured from a plurality of aerodynamically-shaped, radially spaced ribs covered with a skin. The leading edge of each rib is curved, while the trailing edge is straight. The straight edge of the ribs in each blade approach a vertical plane through the vertical axis of the housing output shaft as the ribs progress radially inwardly towards the output shaft. The housing has fluid exit passages in its base so that deenergized fluid can be quickly flushed from the housing by the downwardly directed flow in combination with the novel blade configuration, which acts as a screw or force multiplier, to expel deenergized fluid. The airfoil shaped ribs also provide the blades with a contour for increasing the fluid velocity on the underside of the blades adjacent the fluid exit passage to aid in expelling the deenergized air while providing the turbine with both impulse and axial-flow, fluid impingement on the blades, resulting in a force vector of increased magnitude. A downwardly directed, substantially semi-cylindrical deflector frame connected to the housing blocks the path of flow of ambient fluid to create a low pressure area beneath the base to aid in continuously drawing fluid into the housing at high velocity to impinge on the rotor blades. The increased flow velocity and force on the blades along with the enhanced removal of deenergized fluid results in increased power output of the turbine.

Lebost, B.A.

1980-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

67

Cutting Fluids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 6   Cutting fluids for aluminum...Table 6 Cutting fluids for aluminum Type of lubricant Principal ingredients Viscosity range Application; maintenance Relative effectiveness Necessary precautions Mineral oils (fatty-additive type preferred) Mineral oil, lard, or neats-foot oil; oleic acid

68

HYDRAULIC FLUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions (FAQs) about hydraulic fluids. For more information, call the ATSDR Information Center at 1-888-422-8737. This fact sheet is one in a series of summaries about hazardous substances and their health effects. This information is important because this substance may harm you. The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other chemicals are present. HIGHLIGHTS: Exposure to hydraulic fluids occurs mainly in the workplace. Drinking certain types of hydraulic fluids can cause death in humans, and swallowing or inhaling certain types of hydraulic fluids has caused nerve damage in animals. Contact with some types of hydraulic fluids can irritate your skin or eyes. These substances have been found in at least 10 of the 1,428 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). What are hydraulic fluids? (Pronounced ?????ô????????????) Hydraulic fluids are a large group of liquids made of many kinds of chemicals. They are used in automobile automatic

unknown authors

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

High severity catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-severity catalytic reforming process is described comprising: (a) passing a mixture comprising a catalytic reforming feed stream and a recycle stream into a catalytic reforming reaction zone which is maintained at high-severity reforming conditions; (b) cooling an effluent stream comprising hydrogen and hydrocarbonaceous catalytic reforming reaction products which is withdrawn from the reaction zone; (c) passing the cooled effluent stream into a vapor-liquid separation zone and recovering therefrom a liquid stream comprising hydrocarbons and a hydrogen-rich gas stream; (d) passing the hydrogen-rich gas stream through an adsorption zone wherein the gas is contacted with a treating material which removes polycyclic aromatic compounds from the gas stream, the compounds remaining in the adsorption zone; (e) mixing a portion of the hydrogen-rich gas stream, which is the recycle stream, with the feed stream to form the charge stock mixture and withdrawing the balance of the hydrogen-rich gas stream, which is denoted as net hydrogen, from the catalytic reforming area, all of the hydrogen-rich gas stream being substantially free of polycyclic aromatic compounds; and (f) fractionating the liquid stream and recovering an overhead product comprising light hydrocarbons and a bottoms product comprising reformate.

Bennett, R.W.; Cottrell, P.R.; Gilsdorf, N.L.; Winfield, M.D.

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

70

Imaging the proton concentration and mapping the spatial distribution of the electric field of catalytic micropumps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Catalytic engines can use hydrogen peroxide as a chemical fuel in order to drive motion at the microscale. The chemo-mechanical actuation is a complex mechanism based on the interrelation between catalytic reactions and electro-hydrodynamics phenomena. We studied catalytic micropumps using fluorescence confocal microscopy to image the concentration of protons in the liquid. In addition, we measured the motion of particles with different charges in order to map the spatial distributions of the electric field, the electrostatic potential and the fluid flow. The combination of these two techniques allows us to contrast the gradient of the concentration of protons against the spatial variation in the electric field. We present numerical simulations that reproduce the experimental results. Our work sheds light on the interrelation between the different processes at work in the chemo-mechanical actuation of catalytic pumps. Our experimental approach could be used to study other electrochemical systems with heterogeneous electrodes.

A. Afshar Farniya; M. J. Esplandiu; D. Reguera; A. Bachtold

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

71

High temperature catalytic membrane reactors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Current state-of-the-art inorganic oxide membranes offer the potential of being modified to yield catalytic properties. The resulting modules may be configured to simultaneously induce catalytic reactions with product concentration and separation in a single processing step. Processes utilizing such catalytically active membrane reactors have the potential for dramatically increasing yield reactions which are currently limited by either thermodynamic equilibria, product inhibition, or kinetic selectivity. Examples of commercial interest include hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, partial and selective oxidation, hydrations, hydrocarbon cracking, olefin metathesis, hydroformylation, and olefin polymerization. A large portion of the most significant reactions fall into the category of high temperature, gas phase chemical and petrochemical processes. Microporous oxide membranes are well suited for these applications. A program is proposed to investigate selected model reactions of commercial interest (i.e. dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene and dehydrogenation of butane to butadiene) using a high temperature catalytic membrane reactor. Membranes will be developed, reaction dynamics characterized, and production processes developed, culminating in laboratory-scale demonstration of technical and economic feasibility. As a result, the anticipated increased yield per reactor pass economic incentives are envisioned. First, a large decrease in the temperature required to obtain high yield should be possible because of the reduced driving force requirement. Significantly higher conversion per pass implies a reduced recycle ratio, as well as reduced reactor size. Both factors result in reduced capital costs, as well as savings in cost of reactants and energy.

Not Available

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Superconducting Cuprates on Catalytic Substrates - Energy ...  

Electricity Transmission Superconducting Cuprates on Catalytic Substrates Brookhaven National Laboratory. Contact BNL About This Technology Technology Marketing ...

73

INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING FOR GAS TURBINE Prepared For: California Energy REPORT (FAR) INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING FOR GAS TURBINE CYCLES EISG AWARDEE University://www.energy.ca.gov/research/index.html. #12;Page 1 Integral Catalytic Combustion/Fuel Reforming for Gas Turbine Cycles EISG Grant # 99

74

R fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A theory of collisionless fluids is developed in a unified picture, where nonrotating figures with anisotropic random velocity component distributions and rotating figures with isotropic random velocity component distributions, make adjoints configurations to the same system. R fluids are defined and mean and rms angular velocities and mean and rms tangential velocity components are expressed, by weighting on the moment of inertia and the mass, respectively. The definition of figure rotation is extended to R fluids. The generalized tensor virial equations are formulated for R fluids and further attention is devoted to axisymmetric configurations where, for selected coordinate axes, a variation in figure rotation has to be counterbalanced by a variation in anisotropy excess and vice versa. A microscopical analysis of systematic and random motions is performed under a few general hypotheses, by reversing the sign of tangential or axial velocity components of an assigned fraction of particles, leaving the distribution function and other parameters unchanged (Meza 2002). The application of the reversion process to tangential velocity components, implies the conversion of random motion rotation kinetic energy into systematic motion rotation kinetic energy. The application of the reversion process to axial velocity components, implies the conversion of random motion translation kinetic energy into systematic motion translation kinetic energy, and the loss related to a change of reference frame is expressed in terms of systematic (imaginary) motion rotation kinetic energy. A procedure is sketched for deriving the spin parameter distribution (including imaginary rotation) from a sample of observed or simulated large-scale collisionless fluids i.e. galaxies and galaxy clusters.

R. Caimmi

2007-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

75

High quality ultrathin Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} films on CaF{sub 2} and CaF{sub 2}/Si by molecular beam epitaxy with a radio frequency cracker cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report a method to fabricate high quality Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin films using molecular beam epitaxy with a radio frequency cracker cell as an atomic selenium source. With Se-to-Bi ratios close to exact stoichiometry, optimal layer-by-layer growth of high quality Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin films with smooth surfaces has been achieved on CaF{sub 2}(111) substrates and Si(111) substrates with a thin epitaxial CaF{sub 2} buffer layer (CaF{sub 2}/Si). Transport measurements show a characteristic weak-antilocalization magnetoresistance in all the films, with the emergence of a weak-localization contribution in the ultrathin film limit. Quantum oscillations, attributed to the topological surface states have been observed, including in films grown on CaF{sub 2}/Si.

Zhang Li; Dolev, Merav [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Hammond, Robert [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Liu Min [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Palevski, Alexander [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Kapitulnik, Aharon [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2012-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

76

Catalytic Device International LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Catalytic Device International LLC Catalytic Device International LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name Catalytic Device International LLC Place Pleasanton, California Product California-based, firm focused on portable, heat-on-demand products. References Catalytic Device International LLC[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Catalytic Device International LLC is a company located in Pleasanton, California . References ↑ "Catalytic Device International LLC" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Catalytic_Device_International_LLC&oldid=343285" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations Stubs What links here Related changes Special pages

77

Endothermic photo-catalytic reactions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall objective of this report is to present the results of an investigation to provide guidelines for future experimental work, on solar energy driven endothermic photo-catalytic reactions, and primarily to select candidate synthesis reactions which lead to high $-value products. An intensive literature search was conducted to find properties, market demand, and prices of pertinent chemicals; meeting four criteria: (1) the reaction must be endothermic and favorable; (2) the reaction must be catalytic; (3) the product must be produced from low cost feedstocks; and (4) the product must have a sales price >$1.00/lb. Initial examination of low cost feedstocks to high value products lead to consideration of n-paraffins to aromatics and substituted aromatics. Fifteen candidate endothermic synthesis reactions, meeting the above criteria, are suggested. The ratio of product price by reactant cost indicates {approximately}5--8 for the best possibilities; all can be visualized as starting with low cost paraffin and methanol feedstocks.

Prengle, H.W. Jr.; Wentworth, W.E.; Polonczyk, K.C.; Saghafi, M.; Wilking, J.A.; Kramer, K.S. (Houston Univ., TX (United States))

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Coal conversion wastewater treatment by catalytic oxidation in supercritical water  

SciTech Connect

Wastewaters from coal-conversion processes contain phenolic compounds in appreciable concentrations. These compounds need to be removed so that the water can be discharged or re-used. Catalytic oxidation in supercritical water is one potential means of treating coal-conversion wastewaters, and this project examined the reactions of phenol over different heterogeneous oxidation catalysts in supercritical water. More specifically, the authors examined the oxidation of phenol over a commercial catalyst and over bulk MnO{sub 2}, bulk TiO{sub 2}, and CuO supported on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. They used phenol as the model pollutant because it is ubiquitous in coal-conversion wastewaters and there is a large database for non-catalytic supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) with which they can contrast results from catalytic SCWO. The overall objective of this research project is to obtain the reaction engineering information required to evaluate the utility of catalytic supercritical water oxidation for treating wastes arising from coal conversion processes. All four materials were active for catalytic supercritical water oxidation. Indeed, all four materials produced phenol conversions and CO{sub 2} yields in excess of those obtained from purely homogeneous, uncatalyzed oxidation reactions. The commercial catalyst was so active that the authors could not reliably measure reaction rates that were not limited by pore diffusion. Therefore, they performed experiments with bulk transition metal oxides. The bulk MnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} catalysts enhance both the phenol disappearance and CO{sub 2} formation rates during SCWO. MnO{sub 2} does not affect the selectivity to CO{sub 2}, or to the phenol dimers at a given phenol conversion. However, the selectivities to CO{sub 2} are increased and the selectivities to phenol dimers are decreased in the presence of TiO{sub 2}, which are desirable trends for a catalytic SCWO process. The role of the catalyst appears to be accelerating the rate of formation of phenoxy radicals, which then react in the fluid phase by the same mechanism operative for non-catalytic SCWO of phenol. The rates of phenol disappearance and CO{sub 2} formation are sensitive to the phenol and O{sub 2} concentrations, but independent of the water density. Power-law rate expressions were developed to correlate the catalytic kinetics. The catalytic kinetics were also consistent with a Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate law derived from a dual-site mechanism comprising the following steps: reversible adsorption of phenol on one type of catalytic site, reversible dissociative adsorption of oxygen on a different type of site, and irreversible, rate-determining surface reaction between adsorbed phenol and adsorbed oxygen.

Phillip E. Savage

1999-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

79

COAL CONVERSION WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY CATALYTIC OXIDATION IN SUPERCRITICAL WATER  

SciTech Connect

Wastewaters from coal-conversion processes contain phenolic compounds in appreciable concentrations. These compounds need to be removed so that the water can be discharged or re-used. Catalytic oxidation in supercritical water is one potential means of treating coal-conversion wastewaters, and this project examined the reactions of phenol over different heterogeneous oxidation catalysts in supercritical water. More specifically, we examined the oxidation of phenol over a commercial catalyst and over bulk MnO{sub 2}, bulk TiO{sub 2}, and CuO supported on Al{sub 2} O{sub 3}. We used phenol as the model pollutant because it is ubiquitous in coal-conversion wastewaters and there is a large database for non-catalytic supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) with which we can contrast results from catalytic SCWO. The overall objective of this research project is to obtain the reaction engineering information required to evaluate the utility of catalytic supercritical water oxidation for treating wastes arising from coal conversion processes. All four materials were active for catalytic supercritical water oxidation. Indeed, all four materials produced phenol conversions and CO{sub 2} yields in excess of those obtained from purely homogeneous, uncatalyzed oxidation reactions. The commercial catalyst was so active that we could not reliably measure reaction rates that were not limited by pore diffusion. Therefore, we performed experiments with bulk transition metal oxides. The bulk MnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} catalysts enhance both the phenol disappearance and CO{sub 2} formation rates during SCWO. MnO{sub 2} does not affect the selectivity to CO{sub 2}, or to the phenol dimers at a given phenol conversion. However, the selectivities to CO{sub 2} are increased and the selectivities to phenol dimers are decreased in the presence of TiO{sub 2} , which are desirable trends for a catalytic SCWO process. The role of the catalyst appears to be accelerating the rate of formation of phenoxy radicals, which then react in the fluid phase by the same mechanism operative for non-catalytic SCWO of phenol. The rates of phenol disappearance and CO{sub 2} formation are sensitive to the phenol and O{sub 2} concentrations, but independent of the water density. Power-law rate expressions were developed to correlate the catalytic kinetics. The catalytic kinetics were also consistent with a Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate law derived from a dual-site mechanism comprising the following steps: reversible adsorption of phenol on one type of catalytic site, reversible dissociative adsorption of oxygen on a different type of site, and irreversible, rate-determining surface reaction between adsorbed phenol and adsorbed oxygen.

Phillip E. Savage

1999-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

80

Fluid extraction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Laintz, Kenneth E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid catalytic cracker" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Method of improving catalytic activity and catalytics produced thereby  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for dissociating H{sub 2}S in a gaseous feed using an improved catalytic material is disclosed in which the feed is contacted at a temperature of at least about 275C with a catalyst of rutile nanocrystalline titania having grain sizes in the range of from about 1 to about 100 manometers. Other transition metal catalysts are disclosed, each of nanocrystalline material with grain sizes in the 1--100 nm range. This invention may have application to vehicle emissions control (three-way catalysts).

Beck, D.D.; Siegel, R.W.

1993-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

82

Catalytic steam gasification of carbon  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Unsupported carbide powders with high specific surface area, namely {alpha}-WC (35 m{sup 2}/g, hexagonal), {beta}-WC{sub 0.61} (100 m{sup 2}/g, cubic face centered) and {beta}-WC{sub 0.5} (15 m{sup 2}/g, hexagonal) have been prepared. The key element in this preparation is the successful removal of surface polymeric carbon by careful gasification to methane by means of dihydrogen. These tungsten carbide powders have been used in catalytic reactions of oxidation of H{sub 2} and hydrogenolysis of alkanes, such as butane, hexane, and neopentane.

Boudart, M.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

83

Catalytic membranes for fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell of the present invention comprises a cathode and an anode, one or both of the anode and the cathode including a catalyst comprising a bundle of longitudinally aligned graphitic carbon nanotubes including a catalytically active transition metal incorporated longitudinally and atomically distributed throughout the graphitic carbon walls of said nanotubes. The nanotubes also include nitrogen atoms and/or ions chemically bonded to the graphitic carbon and to the transition metal. Preferably, the transition metal comprises at least one metal selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, and Cr.

Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yang, Junbing (Bolingbrook, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Naperville, IL)

2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

84

An update on catalytic reforming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The UOP Platforming process is a catalytic reforming process in widespread use throughout the petroleum and petrochemical industries. Since the first unit went onstream in 1949, the process has become a standard feature in refineries worldwide. Over the years, significant improvements have been made in process catalysts and process design. The most recent improvement is the combination of a catalyst called R-72 with a new patented flow scheme, R-72 staged loading, which gives significantly higher yields and provides increased catalyst stability. In this article, the authors describe two types of Platforming processes and the new R-72 staged loading scheme.

Wei, D.H.; Moser, M.D.; Haizmann, R.S.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalytic Lean (RCL TM ) technology, Figure 1, is being developed as an ultra low NOx gas turbine combustor for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC). In this concept,...

86

Catalytic conversion of light alkanes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The second Quarterly Report of 1992 on the Catalytic Conversion of Light Alkanes reviews the work done between April 1, 1992 and June 31, 1992 on the Cooperative Agreement. The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in a simple economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to oxygenate products that can either be used as clean-burning, high octane liquid fuels, as fuel components or as precursors to liquid hydrocarbon uwspomdon fuel. During the past quarter we have continued to design, prepare, characterize and test novel catalysts for the mild selective reaction of light hydrocarbons with air or oxygen to produce alcohols directly. These catalysts are designed to form active metal oxo (MO) species and to be uniquely active for the homolytic cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in light alkanes producing intermediates which can form alcohols. We continue to investigate three molecular environments for the active catalytic species that we are trying to generate: electron-deficient macrocycles (PHASE I), polyoxometallates (PHASE II), and regular oxidic lattices including zeolites and related structures as well as other molecular surface structures having metal oxo groups (PHASE I).

Lyons, J.E.

1992-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

87

Pemex opts for catalytic dehydrogenation  

SciTech Connect

In the gas-rich areas such as the Middle East, Southeast Asia, Canada, and Mexico, low-cost ethane is the feed of choice for ethylene production. Coproduct production is minimal. Continued growth in demand for propylene, isobutylene, normal butone-1, and butadiene requires that alternate sources of these normally coproduct olefins be developed. Catalytic dehydrogenation, with its high selectivity to the desired olefin, is the logical and economic choice. Mexico is a case in point. It's ethylene production is based on ethane. Demand is rising for propylene and butadiene derivatives, and a potential demand exists for isobutylene to produce octane enhancers to implement an announced lead phase down. Only modest amounts of by-product monoolefin will be available from refining operations. Pemex, the Mexican refining and petrochemical giant, recognized this and started up its first Houdry Catadene /SUP TM/ plant in 1975 at Ciudad Madero to produce 55,000 metric ton/year of butadiene from normal butane. Pemex recently committed to a large (350,000 metric ton/year) propylene-from-propane plant at Morelos based on the Houdry Catofin /SUP TM/ catalytic dehydrogenation process. The plant will supply propylene to a long list of derivative plants (Table 1).

Craig, R.G.; Penny, S.J.; Schwartz, W.A.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Method of fabricating a catalytic structure  

SciTech Connect

A precursor to a catalytic structure comprising zinc oxide and copper oxide. The zinc oxide has a sheet-like morphology or a spherical morphology and the copper oxide comprises particles of copper oxide. The copper oxide is reduced to copper, producing the catalytic structure. The catalytic structure is fabricated by a hydrothermal process. A reaction mixture comprising a zinc salt, a copper salt, a hydroxyl ion source, and a structure-directing agent is formed. The reaction mixture is heated under confined volume conditions to produce the precursor. The copper oxide in the precursor is reduced to copper. A method of hydrogenating a carbon oxide using the catalytic structure is also disclosed, as is a system that includes the catalytic structure.

Rollins, Harry W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Petkovic, Lucia M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2009-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

89

Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Biomass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A recent development in biomass gasification is the use of a pressurized water processing environment in order that drying of the biomass can be avoided. This paper reviews the research undertaken developing this new option for biomass gasification. This review does not cover wet oxidation or near-atmospheric-pressure steam-gasification of biomass. Laboratory research on hydrothermal gasification of biomass focusing on the use of catalysts is reviewed here, and a companion review focuses on non-catalytic processing. Research includes liquid-phase, sub-critical processing as well as super-critical water processing. The use of heterogeneous catalysts in such a system allows effective operation at lower temperatures, and the issues around the use of catalysts are presented. This review attempts to show the potential of this new processing concept by comparing the various options under development and the results of the research.

Elliott, Douglas C.

2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

90

APPARATUS FOR CATALYTICALLY COMBINING GASES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A convection type recombiner is described for catalytically recombining hydrogen and oxygen which have been radiolytically decomposed in an aqueous homogeneous nuclear reactor. The device is so designed that the energy of recombination is used to circulate the gas mixture over the catalyst. The device consists of a vertical cylinder having baffles at its lower enda above these coarse screens having platinum and alumina pellets cemented thereon, and an annular passage for the return of recombined, condensed water to the reactor moderator system. This devicea having no moving parts, provides a simple and efficient means of removing the danger of accumulated hot radioactive, explosive gases, and restoring them to the moderator system for reuse.

Busey, H.M.

1958-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

91

Catalytic reactor with improved burner  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

To more uniformly distribute heat to the plurality of catalyst tubes in a catalytic reaction furnace, the burner disposed in the furnace above the tops of the tubes includes concentric primary and secondary annular fuel and air outlets. The fuel-air mixture from the primary outlet is directed towards the tubes adjacent the furnace wall, and the burning secondary fuel-air mixture is directed horizontally from the secondary outlet and a portion thereof is deflected downwardly by a slotted baffle toward the tubes in the center of the furnace while the remaining portion passes through the slotted baffle to another baffle disposed radially outwardly therefrom which deflects it downwardly in the vicinity of the tubes between those in the center and those near the wall of the furnace.

Faitani, Joseph J. (Hartford, CT); Austin, George W. (Glastonbury, CT); Chase, Terry J. (Somers, CT); Suljak, George T. (Vernon, CT); Misage, Robert J. (Manchester,all of, CT)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

TCS 2014 Symposium on Thermal and Catalytic Sciences for Biofuels...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

TCS 2014 Symposium on Thermal and Catalytic Sciences for Biofuels and Biobased Products TCS 2014 Symposium on Thermal and Catalytic Sciences for Biofuels and Biobased Products...

93

Catalytic Properties of Ni-Al Intermetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to pursue high catalytic performance of Ni-Al intermetallic ... very high catalytic activity for methanol decomposition and methane steam reforming.

94

Revolutionary systems for catalytic combustion and diesel catalytic particulate traps.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is a summary of an LDRD project completed for the development of materials and structures conducive to advancing the state of the art for catalyst supports and diesel particulate traps. An ancillary development for bio-medical bone scaffolding was also realized. Traditionally, a low-pressure drop catalyst support, such as a ceramic honeycomb monolith, is used for catalytic reactions that require high flow rates of gases at high-temperatures. A drawback to the traditional honeycomb monoliths under these operating conditions is poor mass transfer to the catalyst surface in the straight-through channels. ''Robocasting'' is a unique process developed at Sandia National Laboratories that can be used to manufacture ceramic monoliths with alternative 3-dimensional geometries, providing tortuous pathways to increase mass transfer while maintaining low-pressure drops. These alternative 3-dimensional geometries may also provide a foundation for the development of self-regenerating supports capable of trapping and combusting soot particles from a diesel engine exhaust stream. This report describes the structures developed and characterizes the improved catalytic performance that can result. The results show that, relative to honeycomb monolith supports, considerable improvement in mass transfer efficiency is observed for robocast samples synthesized using an FCC-like geometry of alternating rods. Also, there is clearly a trade-off between enhanced mass transfer and increased pressure drop, which can be optimized depending on the particular demands of a given application. Practical applications include the combustion of natural gas for power generation, production of syngas, and hydrogen reforming reactions. The robocast lattice structures also show practicality for diesel particulate trapping. Preliminary results for trapping efficiency are reported as well as the development of electrically resistive lattices that can regenerate the structure by combusting the trapped soot. During this project an ancillary bio-medical application was discovered for lattices of hydroxyapatite. These structures show promise as bone scaffolds for the reparation of damaged bone. A case study depicting the manufacture of a customized device that fits into a damaged mandible is described.

Stuecker, John Nicholas; Witze, Peter O.; Ferrizz, Robert Matthew; Cesarano, Joseph, III; Miller, James Edward

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of catalytic gasification of bagasse to produce methanol. In previous studies, a catalytic steam gasification process was developed which converted wood to methanol synthesis gas in one step using nickel based catalysts in a fluid-bed gasifier. Tests in a nominal 1 ton/day process development unit (PDU) gasifier with these same catalysts showed bagasse to be a good feedstock for fluid-bed gasifiers, but the catalysts deactivated quite rapidly in the presence of bagasse. Laboratory catalyst screening tests showed K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ doped on the bagasse to be a promising catalyst for converting bagasse to methanol synthesis gas. PDU tests with 10 wt % K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ doped on bagasse showed the technical feasibility of this type of catalyst on a larger scale. A high quality synthesis gas was produced and carbon conversion to gas was high. The gasifier was successfully operated without forming agglomerates of catalyst, ash, and char in the gasifier. There was no loss of activity throughout the runs because catalysts is continually added with the bagasse. Laboratory tests showed about 80% of the potassium carbonate could be recovered and recycled with a simple water wash. An economic evaluation of the process for converting bagasse to methanol showed the required selling price of methanol to be significantly higher than the current market price of methanol. Several factors make this current evaluaton using bagasse as a feedstock less favorable: (1) capital costs are higher due to inflation and some extra costs required to use bagasse, (2) smaller plant sizes were considered so economies of scale are lost, and (3) the market price of methanol in the US has fallen 44% in the last six months. 24 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs.

Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Robertus, R.J.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Vacuum-insulated catalytic converter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic converter has an inner canister that contains catalyst-coated substrates and an outer canister that encloses an annular, variable vacuum insulation chamber surrounding the inner canister. An annular tank containing phase-change material for heat storage and release is positioned in the variable vacuum insulation chamber a distance spaced part from the inner canister. A reversible hydrogen getter in the variable vacuum insulation chamber, preferably on a surface of the heat storage tank, releases hydrogen into the variable vacuum insulation chamber to conduct heat when the phase-change material is hot and absorbs the hydrogen to limit heat transfer to radiation when the phase-change material is cool. A porous zeolite trap in the inner canister absorbs and retains hydrocarbons from the exhaust gases when the catalyst-coated substrates and zeolite trap are cold and releases the hydrocarbons for reaction on the catalyst-coated substrate when the zeolite trap and catalyst-coated substrate get hot.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Glycoside hydrolases: Catalytic base/nucleophile diversity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Glycoside Glycoside Hydrolases: Catalytic Base/Nucleophile Diversity Thu V. Vuong, David B. Wilson Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, 458 Biotechnology Building, Ithaca, New York 14850; telephone: 607-255-5706; fax: 607-255-2428; e-mail: dbw3@cornell.edu Received 1 April 2010; revision received 27 May 2010; accepted 2 June 2010 Published online 15 June 2010 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI 10.1002/bit.22838 ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that a number of glycoside hydrolase families do not follow the classical catalytic mechanisms, as they lack a typical catalytic base/ nucleophile. A variety of mechanisms are used to replace this function, including substrate-assisted catalysis, a network of several residues, and the use of non-carboxylate residues or exogenous nucleophiles. Removal of the catalytic base/ nucleophile

98

Fluid transport container  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitting for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container. 13 figs.

DeRoos, B.G.; Downing, J.P. Jr.; Neal, M.P.

1995-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

99

Fluid transport container  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitment for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container.

DeRoos, Bradley G. (41 James St., Sequim, WA 98382); Downing, Jr., John P. (260 Kala Heights Dr., Port Townsand, WA 98368); Neal, Michael P. (921 Amberly Pl., Columbus, OH 43220)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

VOC Destruction by Catalytic Combustion Microturbine  

SciTech Connect

This project concerned the application of a catalytic combustion system that has been married to a micro-turbine device. The catalytic combustion system decomposes the VOC's and transmits these gases to the gas turbine. The turbine has been altered to operate on very low-level BTU fuels equivalent to 1.5% methane in air. The performance of the micro-turbine for VOC elimination has some flexibility with respect to operating conditions, and the system is adaptable to multiple industrial applications. The VOC source that was been chosen for examination was the emissions from coal upgrading operations. The overall goal of the project was to examine the effectiveness of a catalytic combustion based system for elimination of VOCs while simultaneously producing electrical power for local consumption. Project specific objectives included assessment of the feasibility for using a Flex-Microturbine that generates power from natural gas while it consumes VOCs generated from site operations; development of an engineering plan for installation of the Flex-Microturbine system; operation of the micro-turbine through various changes in site and operation conditions; measurement of the VOC destruction quantitatively; and determination of the required improvements for further studies. The micro-turbine with the catalytic bed worked effectively to produce power on levels of fuel much lower than the original turbine design. The ability of the device to add or subtract supplemental fuel to augment the amount of VOC's in the inlet air flow made the device an effective replacement for a traditional flare. Concerns about particulates in the inlet flow and the presence of high sulfur concentrations with the VOC mixtures was identified as a drawback with the current catalytic design. A new microturbine design was developed based on this research that incorporates a thermal oxidizer in place of the catalytic bed for applications where particulates or contamination would limit the lifetime of the catalytic bed.

Tom Barton

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid catalytic cracker" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

VOC Destruction by Catalytic Combustion Microturbine  

SciTech Connect

This project concerned the application of a catalytic combustion system that has been married to a micro-turbine device. The catalytic combustion system decomposes the VOC's and transmits these gases to the gas turbine. The turbine has been altered to operate on very low-level BTU fuels equivalent to 1.5% methane in air. The performance of the micro-turbine for VOC elimination has some flexibility with respect to operating conditions, and the system is adaptable to multiple industrial applications. The VOC source that was been chosen for examination was the emissions from coal upgrading operations. The overall goal of the project was to examine the effectiveness of a catalytic combustion based system for elimination of VOCs while simultaneously producing electrical power for local consumption. Project specific objectives included assessment of the feasibility for using a Flex-Microturbine that generates power from natural gas while it consumes VOCs generated from site operations; development of an engineering plan for installation of the Flex-Microturbine system; operation of the micro-turbine through various changes in site and operation conditions; measurement of the VOC destruction quantitatively; and determination of the required improvements for further studies. The micro-turbine with the catalytic bed worked effectively to produce power on levels of fuel much lower than the original turbine design. The ability of the device to add or subtract supplemental fuel to augment the amount of VOC's in the inlet air flow made the device an effective replacement for a traditional flare. Concerns about particulates in the inlet flow and the presence of high sulfur concentrations with the VOC mixtures was identified as a drawback with the current catalytic design. A new microturbine design was developed based on this research that incorporates a thermal oxidizer in place of the catalytic bed for applications where particulates or contamination would limit the lifetime of the catalytic bed.

Tom Barton

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

102

Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse has conducted a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1 - Implementation Plan, Phase 2 - Validation Testing and Phase 3 - Field Testing. Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the program have been completed. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCLTM) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to oxidize a portion of the fuel, increasing the temperature of fuel/air mixture prior to the main combustion zone. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the technology necessary for the application of the catalytic concept to IGCC fuels was developed through detailed design and subscale testing. Phase III (currently not funded) will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

W. R. Laster; E. Anoshkina

2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

103

Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse is conducting a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1-Implementation Plan, Phase 2-Validation Testing and Phase 3-Field Testing. The Phase 1 program has been completed. Phase II was initiated in October 2004. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCL{trademark}) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to react part of the fuel, increasing the fuel/air mixture temperature. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the catalytic concept will be demonstrated through subscale testing. Phase III will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

W. R. Laster; E. Anoshkina; P. Szedlacsek

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

104

Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse has conducted a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1- Implementation Plan, Phase 2- Validation Testing and Phase 3 – Field Testing. Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the program have been completed. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCLTM) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to oxidize a portion of the fuel, increasing the temperature of fuel/air mixture prior to the main combustion zone. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the technology necessary for the application of the catalytic concept to IGCC fuels was developed through detailed design and subscale testing. Phase III (currently not funded) will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

Laster, W. R.; Anoshkina, E.

2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

105

Environmentally safe fluid extractor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

Sungaila, Zenon F. (Orland Park, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Drilling Fluid Corrosion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 8   Drilling fluid corrosion control troubleshooting chart...Table 8 Drilling fluid corrosion control troubleshooting chart Corrosion cause Primary source Identification Major corrosion forms Remedies Oxygen Atmosphere, mud conditioning, equipment, oxidizing

107

Electro Catalytic Oxidation (ECO) Operation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The power industry in the United States is faced with meeting many new regulations to reduce a number of air pollutants including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fine particulate matter, and mercury. With over 1,000 power plants in the US, this is a daunting task. In some cases, traditional pollution control technologies such as wet scrubbers and SCRs are not feasible. Powerspan's Electro-Catalytic Oxidation, or ECO{reg_sign} process combines four pollution control devices into a single integrated system that can be installed after a power plant's particulate control device. Besides achieving major reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mercury (Hg), ECO produces a highly marketable fertilizer, which can help offset the operating costs of the process system. Powerspan has been operating a 50-MW ECO commercial demonstration unit (CDU) at FirstEnergy Corp.'s R.E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio, since February 2004. In addition to the CDU, a test loop has been constructed beside the CDU to demonstrate higher NOx removal rates and test various scrubber packing types and wet ESP configurations. Furthermore, Powerspan has developed the ECO{reg_sign}{sub 2} technology, a regenerative process that uses a proprietary solvent to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas. The CO{sub 2} capture takes place after the capture of NOx, SO{sub 2}, mercury, and fine particulate matter. Once the CO{sub 2} is captured, the proprietary solution is regenerated to release CO{sub 2} in a form that is ready for geological storage or beneficial use. Pilot scale testing of ECO{sub 2} began in early 2009 at FirstEnergy's Burger Plant. The ECO{sub 2} pilot unit is designed to process a 1-MW flue gas stream and produce 20 tons of CO{sub 2} per day, achieving a 90% CO{sub 2} capture rate. The ECO{sub 2} pilot program provided the opportunity to confirm process design and cost estimates, and prepare for large scale capture and sequestration projects. The objectives of this project were to prove at a commercial scale that ECO is capable of extended operations over a range of conditions, that it meets the reliability requirements of a typical utility, and that the fertilizer co-product can be consistently generated, providing ECO with an economic advantage over conventional technologies currently available. Further objectives of the project were to show that the ECO system provides flue gas that meets the inlet standards necessary for ECO{sub 2} to operate, and that the outlet CO{sub 2} and other constituents produced by the ECO{sub 2} pilot can meet Kinder-Morgan pipeline standards for purposes of sequestration. All project objectives are consistent with DOE's Pollution Control Innovations for Power Plants program goals.

Morgan Jones

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

108

Fluid Suspensions & Emulsions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fluid Suspensions & Emulsions. Summary: Our primary interest is protein ... protein solutions? 1. Health & Safety. There is ongoing ...

2013-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

109

Spinning fluid cosmology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dynamics of a spinning fluid in a flat cosmological model is investigated. The space-time is itself generated by the spinning fluid which is characterized by an energy-momentum tensor consisting a sum of the usual perfect-fluid energy-momentum tensor and some Belinfante-Rosenfeld tensors. It is shown that the equations of motion admit a solution for which the fluid four-velocity and four-momentum are not co-linear in general. The momentum and spin densities of the fluid are expressed in terms of the scale factor.

Morteza Mohseni

2008-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

110

Spinning fluid cosmology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dynamics of a spinning fluid in a flat cosmological model is investigated. The space-time is itself generated by the spinning fluid which is characterized by an energy-momentum tensor consisting a sum of the usual perfect-fluid energy-momentum tensor and some Belinfante-Rosenfeld tensors. It is shown that the equations of motion admit a solution for which the fluid four-velocity and four-momentum are not co-linear in general. The momentum and spin densities of the fluid are expressed in terms of the scale factor.

Mohseni, Morteza

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Spinning fluids reactor  

SciTech Connect

A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

112

Fundamental kinetic modeling of the catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, a fundamental kinetic model for the catalytic reforming process has been developed. The complex network of elementary steps and molecular reactions occurring in catalytic reforming has been generated through a computer algorithm characterizing ...

Rogelio Sotelo-Boyas / Gilbert F. Froment; Rayford G. Anthony

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Annual Operation of Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 2009, many coal-fired generating units equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for nitrogen oxide (NOX) control will convert from seasonal to annual SCR operation. This report provides guidelines on how to prepare for annual operation. It focuses on existing experience with annual operation, catalyst management strategy, equipment reliability, cold weather issues, low load and cycling operation, and risk assessment.

2007-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

114

Fuzzy modeling of fluidized catalytic cracking unit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper deals with the fuzzy system identification of reactor-regenerator-stripper-fractionator's (RRSF) section of a fluidized catalytic cracking unit (FCCU). The fuzzy system identification based on the data collected from an operating refinery of ... Keywords: Dynamic fuzzy model, FCCU models, Fuzzy clustering, Fuzzy inference systems, Fuzzy models, Hybrid learning, Mountain clustering, Supervised learning, Unsupervised learning

Mohammad Fazle Azeem; Nesar Ahmad; M. Hanmandlu

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Rapid Deployment of Rich Catalytic Combustion  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this research under the Turbines Program is the deployment of fuel flexible rich catalytic combustion technology into high-pressure ratio industrial gas turbines. The resulting combustion systems will provide fuel flexibility for gas turbines to burn coal derived synthesis gas or natural gas and achieve NO{sub x} emissions of 2 ppmvd or less (at 15 percent O{sub 2}), cost effectively. This advance will signify a major step towards environmentally friendly electric power generation and coal-based energy independence for the United States. Under Phase 1 of the Program, Pratt & Whitney (P&W) performed a system integration study of rich catalytic combustion in a small high-pressure ratio industrial gas turbine with a silo combustion system that is easily scalable to a larger multi-chamber gas turbine system. An implementation plan for this technology also was studied. The principal achievement of the Phase 1 effort was the sizing of the catalytic module in a manner which allowed a single reactor (rather than multiple reactors) to be used by the combustion system, a conclusion regarding the amount of air that should be allocated to the reaction zone to achieve low emissions, definition of a combustion staging strategy to achieve low emissions, and mechanical integration of a Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) combustor liner with the catalytic module.

Richard S. Tuthill

2004-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

116

2001 Workshop on Selective Catalytic Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Approximately 100,000 megawatts of coal-fired capacity in the United States will employ selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for the control of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions by 2004. The 2001 Workshop on SCR, held in Baltimore, Maryland, provided a forum for discussion of current SCR issues.

2002-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

117

Purification of reformer streams by catalytic hydrogenation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalytic Reforming is one of the most important processes to produce high grade motor gasolines. Feedstocks are mainly gasoline and naphtha streams from the crude oil distillation boiling in the range of 212 F to 350 F. By catalytic reforming the octane number of these gasoline components is increased from 40--60 RON to 95--100 RON. Besides isomerization and dehydrocyclization reactions mainly formation of aromatics by dehydrogenation of naphthenes occur. Thus, catalytic reformers within refineries are an important source of BTX--aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylenes). Frequently, high purity aromatics are recovered from these streams using modern extractive distillation or liquid extraction processes, e.g. the Krupp-Koppers MORPHYLANE{reg_sign} process. Aromatics product specifications, notably bromine index and acid wash color, have obligated producers to utilize clay treatment to remove trace impurities of diolefins and/or olefins. The conventional clay treatment is a multiple vessel batch process which periodically requires disposal of the spent clay in a suitable environmental manner. BASF, in close cooperation with Krupp-Koppers, has developed a continuous Selective Catalytic Hydrogenation Process (SCHP) as an alternative to clay treatment which is very efficient, cost effective and environmentally compatible. In the following the main process aspects including the process scheme catalyst and operating conditions is described.

Polanek, P.J. [BASF Corp., Geismar, LA (United States); Hooper, H.M. [Krupp Wilputte Corp., Bridgeville, PA (United States); Mueller, J.; Walter, M. [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Emmrich, G. [Krupp Koppers GmbH, Essen (Germany)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Puerto Rico Refinery Catalytic Hydrotreating, Kerosene/Jet Fuel ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Puerto Rico Refinery Catalytic Hydrotreating, Kerosene/Jet Fuel Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

119

Puerto Rico Refinery Catalytic Hydrocracking, Gas Oil Downstream ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Puerto Rico Refinery Catalytic Hydrocracking, Gas Oil Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

120

Colorado Refinery Catalytic Hydrotreating, Other/Residual Fuel Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Colorado Refinery Catalytic Hydrotreating, Other/Residual Fuel Oil Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid catalytic cracker" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

New Jersey Refinery Catalytic Reforming/High Pressure Downstream ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

New Jersey Refinery Catalytic Reforming/High Pressure Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

122

Arkansas Refinery Catalytic Reforming/High Pressure Downstream ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Arkansas Refinery Catalytic Reforming/High Pressure Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

123

U.S. Refinery Catalytic Hydrotreating, Heavy Gas Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Catalytic Hydrotreating, Heavy Gas Oil Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

124

Microwave fluid flow meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

Billeter, Thomas R. (Richland, WA); Philipp, Lee D. (Richland, WA); Schemmel, Richard R. (Lynchburg, VA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Complex Fluids Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... applications in energy, sustainability, electronics and medicine. As these materials are typically in the fluid state during their production or end-use ...

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

126

Working/Functional Fluids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... power cycle except that it uses an organic working fluid instead of water to allow operation at lower temperatures, including geothermal or solar ...

2012-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

127

An Energy Analysis of the Catalytic Combustion Burner  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The gas boilers of conventional flame always produce varying degrees of combustion products NOx and CO, which pollute the environment and waste energy. As a new way of combustion, catalytic combustion breaks the flammable limits of conventional flame combustion, and realizes the combustion of ultra-natural gas/air mixture under the flammable limits. Its combustion efficiency is higher, which improves the ratio of energy utilization. Applying the catalytic combustion to gas boilers could solve the gas boilers' lower combustion efficiency, and achieve energy savings. On the basis of the catalytic combustion burner, the catalytic combustion burner was designed according to the catalytic combustion and water heaters. In this paper, we analyzed the heat loss and thermal efficiency of the catalytic combustion burner, and compared it to that of flame combustion boilers. The results showed that catalytic combustion burner ?'s heat loss is not so high as originally considered, and its pollutant emissions are lower.

Dong, Q.; Zhang, S.; Duan, Z.; Zhou, Q.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Endothermic photo-catalytic reactions. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this report is to present the results of an investigation to provide guidelines for future experimental work, on solar energy driven endothermic photo-catalytic reactions, and primarily to select candidate synthesis reactions which lead to high $-value products. An intensive literature search was conducted to find properties, market demand, and prices of pertinent chemicals; meeting four criteria: (1) the reaction must be endothermic and favorable; (2) the reaction must be catalytic; (3) the product must be produced from low cost feedstocks; and (4) the product must have a sales price >$1.00/lb. Initial examination of low cost feedstocks to high value products lead to consideration of n-paraffins to aromatics and substituted aromatics. Fifteen candidate endothermic synthesis reactions, meeting the above criteria, are suggested. The ratio of product price by reactant cost indicates {approximately}5--8 for the best possibilities; all can be visualized as starting with low cost paraffin and methanol feedstocks.

Prengle, H.W. Jr.; Wentworth, W.E.; Polonczyk, K.C.; Saghafi, M.; Wilking, J.A.; Kramer, K.S. [Houston Univ., TX (United States)

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Exxon catalytic coal gasification process: predevelopment program. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1976  

SciTech Connect

Predevelopment Program activities for the Exxon Catalytic Gasification Process include: recommissioning of the existing 20 lbs/hr Fluid Bed Gasifier (FBG); modifications to the FBG data acquisition system including the on-line computer program for the calculation of unit material balances from process variable data; start-up and initial operations of the 1-3 lbs/hr Continuous Gasification Unit (CGU); and computer programs development for CRT display of the CGU operating variables profile and for on-line material balance calculations. Data were obtained in the CGU for the gasification of catalyzed Illinois coal during four continuous and two captive fluid-bed yield periods. Good agreement was obtained with previous fixed bed kinetic data. This project is an ERDA-sponsored extension of previous EXXON results.

Kalina, T.

1976-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Database - Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst Deactivation Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst deactivation is a critical parameter controlling to a large extent achievable catalyst life, as well as overall SCR system performance. Accurate assessment and prediction of catalyst deactivation is required to adequately manage reactor potential. EPRI has on-going efforts underway aimed at better understanding the factors that affect catalyst deactivation, especially as a function of fuel, boiler design, and boiler operating conditions, in hopes of ...

2013-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

131

2006 Workshop on Selective Catalytic Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI held the 2006 Workshop on Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) on October 31 November 2, 2006 at the Dearborn Inn in Dearborn, Michigan and at DTE Energy's Monroe Station. Post-Combustion NOX Control Program members, invited speakers, and EPRI staff participated in this two and a half day event. The workshop agenda was comprised of twenty-seven presentations, two panel discussions, and a plant tour. Operating experience reports on SCR systems at Baldwin, Bowen, Bull Run, Crist, Cumberland, Gaston, Go...

2007-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

132

Preconversion catalytic deoxygenation of phenolic functional groups  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The deoxygenation of phenols is a conceptually simple, but unusually difficult chemical transformation to achieve. Aryl carbon-oxygen bond cleavage is a chemical transformation of importance in coal liquefaction and the upgrading of coal liquids as well as in the synthesis of natural products. This proposed research offers the possibility of effecting the selective catalytic deoxygenation of phenolic functional groups using CO. A program of research for the catalytic deoxygenation of phenols, via a low energy mechanistic pathway that is based on the use of the CO/CO{sub 2} couple to remove phenolic oxygen atoms, is underway. We are focusing on systems which have significant promise as catalysts: Ir(triphos)OPh, (Pt(triphos)OPh){sup +} and Rh(triphos)OPh. Our studies of phenol deoxygenation focus on monitoring the reactions for the elementary processes upon which catalytic activity will depend: CO insertion into M-OPh bonds, CO{sub 2} elimination from aryloxy carbonyls {l brace}M-C(O)-O-Ph{r brace}, followed by formation of a coordinated benzyne intermediate.

Kubiak, C.P.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

A revolution in micropower : the catalytic nanodiode.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our ability to field useful, nano-enabled microsystems that capitalize on recent advances in sensor technology is severely limited by the energy density of available power sources. The catalytic nanodiode (reported by Somorjai's group at Berkeley in 2005) was potentially an alternative revolutionary source of micropower. Their first reports claimed that a sizable fraction of the chemical energy may be harvested via hot electrons (a 'chemicurrent') that are created by the catalytic chemical reaction. We fabricated and tested Pt/GaN nanodiodes, which eventually produced currents up to several microamps. Our best reaction yields (electrons/CO{sub 2}) were on the order of 10{sup -3}; well below the 75% values first reported by Somorjai (we note they have also been unable to reproduce their early results). Over the course of this Project we have determined that the whole concept of 'chemicurrent', in fact, may be an illusion. Our results conclusively demonstrate that the current measured from our nanodiodes is derived from a thermoelectric voltage; we have found no credible evidence for true chemicurrent. Unfortunately this means that the catalytic nanodiode has no future as a micropower source.

Cross, Karen Charlene; Heller, Edwin J.; Figiel, Jeffrey James; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Creighton, James Randall; Koleske, Daniel David; Bogart, Katherine Huderle Andersen; Coltrin, Michael Elliott; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick; Baucom, Kevin C.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

IFP solutions for revamping catalytic reforming units  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The decision-making process for the refiner considering a revamp of a catalytic reforming unit comprises many factors. These may be grouped in two broad areas: technical and economic. This paper presents the results of a study performed by IFP that illustrates catalytic reforming unit revamp options. Three IFP processes are described and operating conditions, expected yields, and economic data are presented. The following options are discussed: base case Conventional, fixed-bed, semi-regenerative catalytic reformer; Case 1--revamp using IFP Dualforming technology; Case 2--revamp using IFP Dualforming Plus technology; and Case 3--revamp to IFP Octanizing technology. The study illustrates various options for the refiner to balance unit performance improvements with equipment, site, and economic constraints. The study was performed assuming design feedrate of 98.2 tons/hour (20,000 BPSD) in all cases. Because of the increased need for octane in many refineries, the study assumed that operating severity was set at a design value of 100 research octane number clear (RON). In all of the cases in this study, it was assumed that the existing recycle compressor was reused. Operating pressure differences between the cases is discussed separately. Also, in all cases, a booster compressor was included in order to return export hydrogen pressure to that of the conventional unit.

Gendler, J.L. [HRI, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Domergue, B.; Mank, L. [Inst. Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison (France)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Supercritical Fluid Extraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In supercritical fluid extraction, many options are available for achieving and controlling the desired selectivity, which is extremely sensitive to variations in pressure, temperature, and choice of solvent. The ability of supercritical fluids to vaporize relatively nonvolatile compounds at moderate temperatures can reduce the energy requirements compared to distillation and liquid extraction.

Johnston, K. P.; Flarsheim, W. M.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

MAX Fluid Dynamics facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MAX Fluid Dynamics facility MAX Fluid Dynamics facility Capabilities Engineering Experimentation Reactor Safety Testing and Analysis Overview Nuclear Reactor Severe Accident Experiments MAX NSTF SNAKE Aerosol Experiments System Components Laser Applications Robots Applications Other Facilities Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr MAX Fluid Dynamics facility Providing high resolution data for development of computational tools that model fluid flow and heat transfer within complex systems such as the core of a nuclear reactor. 1 2 3 4 5 Hot and cold air jets are mixed within a glass tank while laser-based anemometers and a high-speed infrared camera characterize fluid flow and heat transfer behavior. Click on image to view larger size image.

137

Combustion Air Preheat on Steam Cracker Furnaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Beginning in 1978, Exxon has started up nine large new steam cracking furnaces with various levels of air preheat, and has seven more under construction. Sources of heat have included process streams, flue gas and gas turbine exhaust. Several aspects of the technology employed have been patented in the U.S. and elsewhere. This paper discusses the use of process heat and gas turbine exhaust for air preheat to provide plant fuel savings of about 8% over and above a modern, fuel efficient alternative furnace without air preheat.

Kenney, W. F.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Feedstock Economics for Global Steam Crackers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The high level of current profitability within the petrochemical industry has spurred an unprecedented number of announcements of new global capacity. Many of the announcements have been made by organizations with no previous background in petrochemicals, who believe they possess strategic competitive advantages for success in the business. The choice of cracking feedstocks has a tremendous impact on the future economic success of the venture. Feedstock determines the two major economic variables in ethylene plants: first cost and operating cost. For any particular ethylene plant design capacity, there is a range in investment cost, driven primarily by the choice of feedstock. In addition, feedstock costs represent over two-thirds of plant operating costs. This study presents the results of SRI work on determining the economics of ethylene plants based upon five alternative feedstocks, and then modifying the data for 10 global regions in which significant new ethylene capacity has been announced. The five feedstocks considered are: ethane, propane, butane, wide range naphtha, and atmospheric gas oil. The 10 regions considered in the study are the US Gulf Coast, Brazil, Western Canada, China, Indonesia, Japan, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Taiwan, and West Germany. The business climate considered in the study is the second half of 1989, and the market prices used for feedstock, utilities, products and labor represent average contract prices during the fourth quarter of 1989.

McCormack, G.; Pavone, T.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

TRACING FLUID SOURCES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM USING FLUID...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

TRACING FLUID SOURCES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM USING FLUID-INCLUSION GAS CHEMISTRY Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: TRACING...

140

FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

Subhash Shah

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid catalytic cracker" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Supercritical fluid extraction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Laintz, Kenneth (Pullman, WA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

IDENTIFYING FRACTURES AND FLUID TYPES USING FLUID INCLUSION STRATIGRAPHY |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

IDENTIFYING FRACTURES AND FLUID TYPES USING FLUID INCLUSION STRATIGRAPHY IDENTIFYING FRACTURES AND FLUID TYPES USING FLUID INCLUSION STRATIGRAPHY Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: IDENTIFYING FRACTURES AND FLUID TYPES USING FLUID INCLUSION STRATIGRAPHY Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy (FIS) is a method currently being developed for use in geothermal systems to identify fractures and fluid types. This paper is the third in a series of papers on the development of FIS. Fluid inclusion gas chemistry is analyzed and plotted on well log diagrams. The working hypothesis is that select gaseous species and species ratios indicate areas of groundwater and reservoir fluid flow and reservoir seals. Previously we showed that FIS analyses identify fluid types and

143

2002 Workshop on Selective Catalytic Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Approximately 100,000 MW of coal-fired generating capacity in the United States will be equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems to meet the nitrogen oxides (NOx) limits of the state implementation plan (SIP) call. Approximately 20,000 MW of capacity was expected to go into operation in 2002. Added to early SCR adopters in prior years, about 25 percent of the planned inventory is presently operable. Since 1999, EPRI has organized annual SCR workshops to discuss key issues and development...

2003-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

144

2003 Workshop on Selective Catalytic Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Approximately 105,000 MW of coal-fired generating capacity in the United States will be equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems to meet the nitrogen oxide (NOx) limits of the state implementation plan (SIP). Power producers placed approximately 40,000 MW of capacity into operation in 2003. Combined with early SCR adopters from prior years, about 65 percent of the planned inventory is presently operable. Since 1999, EPRI has organized and held annual SCR workshops to discuss key issues a...

2004-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

145

Transport in a Microfluidic Catalytic Reactor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study of the heat and mass transfer, flow, and thermodynamics of the reacting flow in a catalytic microreactor is presented. Methanol reforming is utilized in the fuel processing system driving a micro-scale proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Understanding the flow and thermal transport phenomena as well as the reaction mechanisms is essential for improving the efficiency of the reforming process as well as the quality of the processed fuel. Numerical studies have been carried out to characterize the transport in a silicon microfabricated reactor system. On the basis of these results, optimized conditions for fuel processing are determined.

Park, H G; Chung, J; Grigoropoulos, C P; Greif, R; Havstad, M; Morse, J D

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

146

Noble metal alkaline zeolites for catalytic reforming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a method for producing a noble-metal containing zeolite suitable for catalytic reforming contacting a zeolite selected from alkaline faujasites and L zeolites and zeolites and zeolites isostructural thereto, with a noble-metal compound selected from Pt(acetylacetonate){sub 2} and Pd(acetylacetonate){sub 2} for a effective amount of time to incorporate Pt and/or Pd into the pore surface regions of the zeolite, but not to disperse the Pt and/or Pd throughout the entire zeolite; and calcining the so treated zeolite at a temperature from about 250 {degrees} C, to about 600 {degrees} C for an effective amount of time.

Schweizer, A.E.

1991-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

147

Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction (CMSL)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. has conducted a series of eleven catalytic, multi-stage, liquefaction (CMSL) bench scale runs between February, 1991, and September, 1995. The purpose of these runs was to investigate novel approaches to liquefaction relating to feedstocks, hydrogen source, improved catalysts as well as processing variables, all of which are designed to lower the cost of producing coal-derived liquid products. This report summarizes the technical assessment of these runs, and in particular the evaluation of the economic impact of the results.

Comolli, A.G.; Ganguli, P.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, T.L.K.; Pradhan, V.R.; Popper, G.A.; Smith, T.; Stalzer, R.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Application of Cutting Fluids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...is transferred to the drill by a rotating gland and is forced directly into the cutting zone. The fluid flowing from the hole assists in chip removal. Oil-hole drills have become very popular in

149

Basic fluid system trainer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention, a trainer mounted and housed within a mobile console, is used to teach and reinforce fluid principles to students. The system trainer has two centrifugal pumps, each driven by a corresponding two-speed electric motor. The motors are controlled by motor controllers for operating the pumps to circulate the fluid stored within a supply tank through a closed system. The pumps may be connected in series or in parallel. A number of valves are also included within the system to effect different flow paths for the fluid. In addition, temperature and pressure sensing instruments are installed throughout the closed system for measuring the characteristics of the fluid, as it passes through the different valves and pumps. These measurements are indicated on a front panel mounted to the console, as a teaching aid, to allow the students to observe the characteristics of the system.

Semans, J.P.; Johnson, P.G.; LeBoeuf, R.F. Jr.; Kromka, J.A.; Goron, R.H.; Hay, G.D.

1991-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

150

Basic fluid system trainer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A trainer, mounted and housed within a mobile console, is used to teach and reinforce fluid principles to students. The system trainer has two centrifugal pumps, each driven by a corresponding two-speed electric motor. The motors are controlled by motor controllers for operating the pumps to circulate the fluid stored within a supply tank through a closed system. The pumps may be connected in series or in parallel. A number of valves are also included within the system to effect different flow paths for the fluid. In addition, temperature and pressure sensing instruments are installed throughout the closed system for measuring the characteristics of the fluid, as it passes through the different valves and pumps. These measurements are indicated on a front panel mounted to the console, as a teaching aid, to allow the students to observe the characteristics of the system.

Semans, Joseph P. (Uniontown, PA); Johnson, Peter G. (Pittsburgh, PA); LeBoeuf, Jr., Robert F. (Clairton, PA); Kromka, Joseph A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Goron, Ronald H. (Connellsville, PA); Hay, George D. (Venetia, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Phoresis in fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a unified theory of phoretic phenomena in single-component fluids. Simple formulas are given for the phoretic velocities of small inert force-free non-Brownian particles migrating through otherwise ...

Brenner, Howard

152

Catalytic reforming and hydrocracking of organic compounds employing promoted zinc titanate as the catalytic agent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The catalytic reforming of a feedstock which contains at least one reformable organic compound or the hydrocracking of a feedstock which contains at least one hydrocrackable organic compound is carried out in the presence of a catalyst composition comprising zinc, titanium and rhenium.

Drehman, L.E.; Farha, F.E.

1981-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

153

Catalytic reforming and hydrocracking of organic compounds employing zinc titanate as the catalytic agent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The catalytic reforming of a feedstock which contains at least one reformable organic compound or the hydrocracking of a feedstock which contains at least one hydrocrackable organic compound is carried out in the presence of a catalyst composition comprising zinc and titanium.

Drehman, L.E.; Farha, F.E.; Walker, D.W.

1981-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

154

CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF SOLVENT REFINED COAL TO LIQUID PRODUCTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Friedman, S. ,"Conversion of Anthraxylon - Kinetics ofiv- LBL 116807 CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF SOLVENT REFINED COALand Mechanisms of Coal Conversion to Clean Fuel,iI pre-

Tanner, K.I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels ...  

Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels by progressive removal of oxygen to facilitate separation processes and achieve high selectivities

156

Revealing the rapid isothermal growth of graphene on catalytic...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Synthesis from Atoms to Systems Revealing the rapid isothermal growth of graphene on catalytic substrates July 01, 2013 Optical reflectivity tracks the rapid growth of...

157

Hydrogen-assisted catalytic ignition characteristics of different fuels  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen-assisted catalytic ignition characteristics of methane (CH{sub 4}), n-butane (n-C{sub 4}H{sub 10}) and dimethyl ether (DME) were studied experimentally in a Pt-coated monolith catalytic reactor. It is concluded that DME has the lowest catalytic ignition temperature and the least required H{sub 2} flow, while CH{sub 4} has the highest catalytic ignition temperature and the highest required H{sub 2} flow among the three fuels. (author)

Zhong, Bei-Jing; Yang, Fan [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang, Qing-Tao [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Aerodynamics Research and Development Center, Mianyang 621000 (China)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

158

Catalytic Acceleration of Carbon Capture via Bio-processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, transformation of the biomass into fuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel or functional chemicals by means of catalytic and enzymatic conversion has ...

159

Multi-step catalytic hydroprocessing to produce hydrocarbon fuels ...  

Multi-step catalytic hydroprocessing to produce hydrocarbon fuels from biomass pyrolysis bio-oil (PNNL IPID 16665) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

160

Catalytic distillation for the synthesis of tertiary butyl alcohol.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Catalytic Distillation for the synthesis of tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) is investigated in this thesis. The solvent, ethylene glycol, is proposed as a means of… (more)

Safinski, Tomasz

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid catalytic cracker" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

MEASUREMENT OF INTERFACIAL TENSION IN FLUID-FLUID SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interfacial tension at fluid-fluid interfaces is a reflection of the excess energy associated with unsaturated in parts per million concentration (27). DYNAMIC INTERFACIAL TENSION MEASUREMENTS In fluid-fluid systems, detergency, foam or froth generation, and stability (3). In these pro- cesses, dynamic interfacial tensions

Loh, Watson

162

GEOTHERMAL FLUID PROPENE AND PROPANE: INDICATORS OF FLUID | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

FLUID PROPENE AND PROPANE: INDICATORS OF FLUID FLUID PROPENE AND PROPANE: INDICATORS OF FLUID Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: GEOTHERMAL FLUID PROPENE AND PROPANE: INDICATORS OF FLUID Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The use of fluid inclusion gas analysis propene/propene ratios is investigated. Ratios of these species are affected by geothermal fluid temperature and oxidations state. Our purpose is to determine if analyses of these species in fluid inclusions these species to can be used to interpret fluid type, history, or process. Analyses were performed on drill cuttings at 20ft intervals from four Coso geothermal wells. Two wells are good producers, one has cold-water entrants in the production zone, and the fourth is a non-producer. The ratios show distinct differences between

163

Lecture notes Ideal fluid mechanics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

involves energy loss--such fluids are known as viscous fluids--we will not consider them here. Some fluids of the basic equations underlying the dynamics of ideal fluids is based on three basic principles (see Chorin. Conservation of energy, energy is neither created nor destroyed. In turn these principles generate the: 1

Malham, Simon J.A.

164

Fluidic Catalytic Cracking Power Recovery Dynamic Computer Simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fluidic Cat Crackers (FCC) using the catalyst regeneration cycle are candidates for more power efficient operation by the use of high temperature dirty gas expanders. In a previous paper, a computer simulation was described for the steady state operation of the primary mechanical components, specifically the axial compressor and hot gas expander. The present work expands upon the steady state model to add the dynamic characteristics of these elements as well as the effects of the controlling process valves. In many applications the expander will develop more power than the axial compressor can absorb. A power absorbing source, specifically an electrical generator, converts the mechanical excess power into electrical energy. A review of the mechanical equipment and the electrical generator operating modes and controls is needed so that the process designer and operator will know how the system will respond if process upsets were to occur. The program code developed can simulate these elements for specific processes and demonstrate the logic control scheme proposed by the process designer. This information will therefore allow the process operator, process designer and mechanical equipment supplier an understanding of the interplay of the system control elements and define specific operating limits.

Samurin, N. A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Boiler using combustible fluid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

1974-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

166

Universal fluid droplet ejector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A droplet generator comprises a fluid reservoir having a side wall made of glass or quartz, and an end cap made from a silicon plate. The end cap contains a micromachined aperture through which the fluid is ejected. The side wall is thermally fused to the end cap, and no adhesive is necessary. This means that the fluid only comes into contact with the side wall and the end cap, both of which are chemically inert. Amplitudes of drive pulses received by reservoir determine the horizontal displacements of droplets relative to the ejection aperture. The drive pulses are varied such that the dropper generates a two-dimensional array of vertically-falling droplets. Vertical and horizontal interdroplet spacings may be varied in real time. Applications include droplet analysis experiments such as Millikan fractional charge searches and aerosol characterization, as well as material deposition applications.

Lee, Eric R. (Redwood City, CA); Perl, Martin L. (Palo Alto, CA)

1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

167

State-of-the-art review of computational fluid dynamics modeling for fluid-solids systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As the result of 15 years of research (50 staff years of effort) Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), through its involvement in fluidized-bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamics, and a variety of environmental programs, has produced extensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software and models to predict the multiphase hydrodynamic and reactive behavior of fluid-solids motions and interactions in complex fluidized-bed reactors (FBRS) and slurry systems. This has resulted in the FLUFIX, IRF, and SLUFIX computer programs. These programs are based on fluid-solids hydrodynamic models and can predict information important to the designer of atmospheric or pressurized bubbling and circulating FBR, fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) and slurry units to guarantee optimum efficiency with minimum release of pollutants into the environment. This latter issue will become of paramount importance with the enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1995. Solids motion is also the key to understanding erosion processes. Erosion rates in FBRs and pneumatic and slurry components are computed by ANL`s EROSION code to predict the potential metal wastage of FBR walls, intervals, feed distributors, and cyclones. Only the FLUFIX and IRF codes will be reviewed in the paper together with highlights of the validations because of length limitations. It is envisioned that one day, these codes with user-friendly pre and post-processor software and tailored for massively parallel multiprocessor shared memory computational platforms will be used by industry and researchers to assist in reducing and/or eliminating the environmental and economic barriers which limit full consideration of coal, shale and biomass as energy sources, to retain energy security, and to remediate waste and ecological problems.

Lyczkowski, R.W.; Bouillard, J.X.; Ding, J.; Chang, S.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Burge, S.W. [Babcock and Wilcox, Alliance, OH (United States). Alliance Research Center

1994-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

168

Catalytic cartridge SO.sub.3 decomposer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic cartridge surrounding a heat pipe driven by a heat source is utilized as a SO.sub.3 decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO.sub.3 gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube surrounding the heat pipe. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO.sub.3 gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and surrounding the heat pipe. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety.

Galloway, Terry R. (Berkeley, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Catalytic carbon membranes for hydrogen production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Commercial carbon composite microfiltration membranes may be modified for gas separation applications by providing a gas separation layer with pores in the 1- to 10-nm range. Several organic polymeric precursors and techniques for depositing a suitable layer were investigated in this project. The in situ polymerization technique was found to be the most promising, and pure component permeation tests with membrane samples prepared with this technique indicated Knudsen diffusion behavior. The gas separation factors obtained by mixed-gas permeation tests were found to depend strongly on gas temperature and pressure indicating significant viscous flow at high-pressure conditions. The modified membranes were used to carry out simultaneous water gas shift reaction and product hydrogen separation. These tests indicated increasing CO conversions with increasing hydrogen separation. A simple process model was developed to simulate a catalytic membrane reactor. A number of simulations were carried out to identify operating conditions leading to product hydrogen concentrations over 90 percent. (VC)

Damle, A.S.; Gangwal, S.K.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Catalytic cartridge SO/sub 3/ decomposer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic cartridge surrounding a heat pipe driven by a heat source is utilized as a SO/sub 3/ decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube surrounding the heat pipe. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and surrounding the heat pipe. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety. A fusion reactor may be used as the heat source.

Galloway, T.R.

1980-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

171

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor, contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1984-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

173

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catatlyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are disclosed for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1985-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

175

Simulation of catalytic oxidation and selective catalytic NOx reduction in lean-exhaust hybrid vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We utilize physically-based models for diesel exhaust catalytic oxidation and urea-based selective catalytic NOx reduction to study their impact on drive cycle performance of hypothetical light-duty diesel powered hybrid vehicles. The models have been implemented as highly flexible SIMULINK block modules that can be used to study multiple engine-aftertreatment system configurations. The parameters of the NOx reduction model have been adjusted to reflect the characteristics of Cu-zeolite catalysts, which are of widespread current interest. We demonstrate application of these models using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software for vehicle simulations, along with a previously published methodology that accounts for emissions and temperature transients in the engine exhaust. Our results illustrate the potential impact of DOC and SCR interactions for lean hybrid electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Novel Fast Pyrolysis/Catalytic Technology for the Production of Stable Upgraded Liquids  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the proposed research is the demonstration and development of a novel biomass pyrolysis technology for the production of a stable bio-oil. The approach is to carry out catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and upgrading together with pyrolysis in a single fluidized bed reactor with a unique two-level design that permits the physical separation of the two processes. The hydrogen required for the HDO will be generated in the catalytic section by the water-gas shift reaction employing recycled CO produced from the pyrolysis reaction itself. Thus, the use of a reactive recycle stream is another innovation in this technology. The catalysts will be designed in collaboration with BASF Catalysts LLC (formerly Engelhard Corporation), a leader in the manufacture of attrition-resistant cracking catalysts. The proposed work will include reactor modeling with state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics in a supercomputer, and advanced kinetic analysis for optimization of bio-oil production. The stability of the bio-oil will be determined by viscosity, oxygen content, and acidity determinations in real and accelerated measurements. A multi-faceted team has been assembled to handle laboratory demonstration studies and computational analysis for optimization and scaleup.

Ted Oyama, Foster Agblevor, Francine Battaglia, Michael Klein

2013-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

177

NETL: C&CBTL - Investigation of Coal-Biomass Catalytic Gasification Using  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal/Biomass Feed and Gasification Coal/Biomass Feed and Gasification Investigation of Coal-Biomass Catalytic Gasification Using Experiments, Reaction Kinetics and Computational Fluid Dynamics Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Project Number: FE0005476 Project Description The objectives of the proposed study are to obtain experimental reactor data and develop kinetic rate expressions for pyrolysis and char gasification for the coal-biomass blends under conditions free from transport limitations, to develop a detailed understanding of the effect of pyrolysis conditions on the porous char structure, to build mathematical models that combine true kinetic rate expressions with transport models for predicting gasification behavior for a broad range of pressures and temperatures, and to investigate the physical and chemical parameters that might lead to synergistic effects in coal-biomass blends gasification.

178

Synergize fuel and petrochemical processing plans with catalytic reforming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Depending on the market, refiner`s plans to produce clean fuels and higher value petrochemicals will weigh heavily on the catalytic reformer`s flexibility. It seems that as soon as a timely article related to catalytic reforming operations is published, a new {open_quotes}boutique{close_quotes} gasoline fuel specification is slapped on to existing fuel standards, affecting reformer operations and processing objectives. Just as importantly, the petrochemical market (such as aromatics) that refiners are targeting, can be very fickle. That`s why process engineers have endeavored to maintain an awareness of the flexibility that technology suppliers are building into modern catalytic reformers.

NONE

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Experimental Properties of Fluids Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Experimental Properties of Fluids Group, Physical and Chemical Properties Division of the Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory, NIST.

2000-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

180

Supercritical fluid reverse micelle systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

of 1 ) United States Patent 5,158,704 Fulton ,   et al. October 27, 1992 Supercritical fluid reverse micelle systems

Fulton, John L. (Richland, WA); Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid catalytic cracker" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Production of MHD fluid  

SciTech Connect

A hot gaseous fluid of low ash content, suitable for use in open-cycle MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) power generation, is produced by means of a three-stage process comprising (1) partial combustion of a fossil fuel to produce a hot gaseous product comprising CO.sub.2 CO, and H.sub.2 O, (2) reformation of the gaseous product from stage (1) by means of a fluidized char bed, whereby CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O are converted to CO and H.sub.2, and (3) combustion of CO and H.sub.2 from stage (2) to produce a low ash-content fluid (flue gas) comprising CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O and having a temperature of about 4000.degree. to 5000.degree.F.

Lacey, James J. (Library, PA); Kurtzrock, Roy C. (Bethel Park, PA); Bienstock, Daniel (Pittsburgh, PA)

1976-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

182

Catalytic Reactor For Oxidizing Mercury Vapor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic reactor (10) for oxidizing elemental mercury contained in flue gas is provided. The catalyst reactor (10) comprises within a flue gas conduit a perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) having a plurality of through openings (33) and a plurality of projecting corona discharge electrodes (31); a perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) having a plurality of through openings (43) axially aligned with the through openings (33) of the perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) displaced from and opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31); and a catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) overlaying that face of the perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31). A uniformly distributed corona discharge plasma (1000) is intermittently generated between the plurality of corona discharge electrode tips (31) and the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) when a stream of flue gas is passed through the conduit. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is not being generated, the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) adsorb mercury vapor contained in the passing flue gas. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is being generated, ions and active radicals contained in the generated corona discharge plasma (1000) desorb the mercury from the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d), oxidizing the mercury in virtually simultaneous manner. The desorption process regenerates and activates the catalyst member molecules.

Helfritch, Dennis J. (Baltimore, MD)

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

183

Development of high temperature catalytic membrane reactors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Significant progress was made in 1991 on the development of ceramic membranes as catalytic reactors. Efforts were focused on the design, construction and startup of a reactor system capable of duplicating relevant commercial operating conditions. With this system, yield enhancement was demonstrated for the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene in a membrane reactor compared to the standard packed bed configuration. This enhancement came with no loss in styrene selectivity. During operation, coke deposition on the membrane was observed, but this deposition was mitigated by the presence of steam in the reaction mixture and a steady state permeability was achieved for run times in excess of 200 hours. Work began on optimizing the membrane reactor by exploring several parameters including the effect of N{sub 2} diluent in the reaction feed and the effect of a N{sub 2} purge on the permeate side of the membrane. This report details the experimental progress made in 1991. Interactions with the University of Wisconsin on this project are also summarized. Finally, current status of the project and next steps are outlined.

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Catalytic oxidative pyrolysis of liquid fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The oxidative pyrolysis of n-heptane was investigated with metal oxides Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/, MnO/sub 2/, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, NiO, Co/sub 3/O/sub 4/, and CuO supported on alumina. Metallic content of the catalyst weight varied from 0.1 to 2.0% with catalytic activity reaching a maximum when the metal content was 1%. The most active catalysts were Co/sub 3/O/sub 4/, MnO/sub 2/, and NiO. Pyrolysis of cyclohexane and toluene was also studied with Co/sub 3/O/sub 4/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ as catalyst. Hydrocarbon stability and coke formation increase with increase of hydrocarbon condensation in the series paraffin < naphthalene < aromatic hydrocarbons. Pyrolysis of the various hydrocarbons at 800/sup 0/C yielded a gas that has an octane number of 90 to 93, and the process was shown to be adaptable to pyrolysis of various commercial fractions such as benzines A-72 and A-76, petroleum fractions, and liquid paraffins to produce gas of about the same octane. (BLM)

Antonova, V.M.; Gorlov, E.G.; Paushkin, Ya.M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Catalytic Preparation of Pyrrolidones from Renewable Resources  

SciTech Connect

Use of renewable resources for production of valuable chemical commodities is becoming a topic of great national interest and importance. This objective fits well with the USDOE’s objective of promoting the industrial bio-refinery concept in which a wide array of valuable chemical, fuel, food, nutraceuticals and animal feed products all result from the integrated processing of grains, oil seeds and other bio-mass materials. The bio-refinery thus serves to enhance the overall utility and profitability of the agriculture industry as well as helping to reduce the dependence on petroleum. Pyrrolidones fit well with the bio-refinery concept since they may be produced in a scheme beginning with the fermentation of a portion of the bio-refinery’s sugar product into succinate. Pyrrolidones are a class of industrially important chemicals with a variety of uses including as polymer intermediates, cleaners, and “green solvents” which can replace hazardous chlorinated compounds. Battelle has developed an efficient process for the thermo – catalytic conversion of succinate into pyrrolidones, especially n-methylpyrrolidone. The process uses both novel Rh based catalysts and novel aqueous process conditions and results in high selectivities and yields of pyrrolidone compounds. The process also includes novel methodology for enhancing yields by recycling and converting non-useful side products of the catalysis into additional pyrrolidone. The process has been demonstrated in both batch and continuous reactors. Additionally, stability of the unique Rh-based catalyst has been demonstrated.

Frye, John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Werpy, Todd A.; Wang, Yong

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Catalytic Preparation of Pyrrolidones from Renewable Resources  

SciTech Connect

Abstract Use of renewable resources for production of valuable chemical commodities is becoming a topic of great national interest and importance. This objective fits well with the U.S. DOE’s objective of promoting the industrial bio-refinery concept in which a wide array of valuable chemical, fuel, food, nutraceuticals, and animal feed products all result from the integrated processing of grains, oil seeds, and other bio-mass materials. The bio-refinery thus serves to enhance the overall utility and profitability of the agriculture industry as well as helping to reduce the USA’s dependence on petroleum. Pyrrolidones fit well into the bio-refinery concept since they may be produced in a scheme beginning with the fermentation of a portion of the bio-refinery’s sugar product into succinate. Pyrrolidones are a class of industrially important chemicals with a variety of uses including polymer intermediates, cleaners, and “green solvents” which can replace hazardous chlorinated compounds. Battelle has developed an efficient process for the thermo-catalytic conversion of succinate into pyrrolidones, especially n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. The process uses both novel Rh based catalysts and novel aqueous process conditions and results in high selectivities and yields of pyrrolidone compounds. The process also includes novel methodology for enhancing yields by recycling and converting non-useful side products of the catalysis into additional pyrrolidone. The process has been demonstrated in both batch and continuous reactors. Additionally, stability of the unique Rh-based catalyst has been demonstrated.

Frye, John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Werpy, Todd A.; Wang, Yong

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and show to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hyrdocarbons into hydrocarbons removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

Nicholas, Christpher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

188

Catalytic partial oxidation reforming of hydrocarbon fuels.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is the primary candidate as the power source for light-duty transportation systems. On-board conversion of fuels (reforming) to supply the required hydrogen has the potential to provide the driving range that is typical of today's automobiles. Petroleum-derived fuels, gasoline or some distillate similar to it, are attractive because of their existing production, distribution, and retailing infrastructure. The fuel may be either petroleum-derived or other alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol, natural gas, etc. [1]. The ability to use a variety of fuels is also attractive for stationary distributed power generation [2], such as in buildings, or for portable power in remote locations. Argonne National Laboratory has developed a catalytic reactor based on partial oxidation reforming that is suitable for use in light-duty vehicles powered by fuel cells. The reactor has shown the ability to convert a wide variety of fuels to a hydrogen-rich gas at less than 800 C, temperatures that are several hundreds of degrees lower than alternative noncatalytic processes. The fuel may be methanol, ethanol, natural gas, or petroleum-derived fuels that are blends of various hydrocarbons such as paraffins, olefins, aromatics, etc., as in gasoline. This paper will discuss the results obtained from a bench-scale (3-kWe) reactor., where the reforming of gasoline and natural gas generated a product gas that contained 38% and 42% hydrogen on a dry basis at the reformer exit, respectively.

Ahmed, S.

1998-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

189

Microchannel Reactor System for Catalytic Hydrogenation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We successfully demonstrated a novel process intensification concept enabled by the development of microchannel reactors, for energy efficient catalytic hydrogenation reactions at moderate temperature, and pressure, and low solvent levels. We designed, fabricated, evaluated, and optimized a laboratory-scale microchannel reactor system for hydrogenation of onitroanisole and a proprietary BMS molecule. In the second phase of the program, as a prelude to full-scale commercialization, we designed and developed a fully-automated skid-mounted multichannel microreactor pilot plant system for multiphase reactions. The system is capable of processing 1 – 10 kg/h of liquid substrate, and an industrially relevant immiscible liquid-liquid was successfully demonstrated on the system. Our microreactor-based pilot plant is one-of-akind. We anticipate that this process intensification concept, if successfully demonstrated, will provide a paradigm-changing basis for replacing existing energy inefficient, cost ineffective, environmentally detrimental slurry semi-batch reactor-based manufacturing practiced in the pharmaceutical and fine chemicals industries.

Adeniyi Lawal; Woo Lee; Ron Besser; Donald Kientzler; Luke Achenie

2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

190

Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development  

SciTech Connect

A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

Bill Turner

2006-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

191

Method for catalytic destruction of organic materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for converting waste organic materials into an innocuous product gas. The method comprises maintaining, in a pressure vessel, in the absence of oxygen, at a temperature of 250.degree. C. to 500.degree. C. and a pressure of at least 50 atmospheres, a fluid organic waste material, water, and a catalyst consisting essentially of reduced nickel in an amount sufficient to catalyze a reaction of the organic waste material to produce an innocuous product gas composed primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. The methane in the product gas may be burned to preheat the organic materials.

Sealock, Jr., L. John (Richland, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Method for catalytic destruction of organic materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for converting waste organic materials into an innocuous product gas. The method comprises maintaining, in a pressure vessel, in the absence of oxygen, at a temperature of 250 to 500 C and a pressure of at least 50 atmospheres, a fluid organic waste material, water, and a catalyst consisting essentially of reduced nickel in an amount sufficient to catalyze a reaction of the organic waste material to produce an innocuous product gas composed primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. The methane in the product gas may be burned to preheat the organic materials. 7 figs.

Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

1997-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

193

In situ XAS Characterization of Catalytic Nano-Materials with...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

XAS Characterization of Catalytic Nano-Materials with Applications to Fuel Cells and Batteries Friday, July 12, 2013 - 11:00am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Qingying...

194

Hydrogen permeable protective coating for a catalytic surface  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A protective coating for a surface comprising a layer permeable to hydrogen, said coating being deposited on a catalyst layer; wherein the catalytic activity of the catalyst layer is preserved.

Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golen, CO); Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO)

2007-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

195

Catalytic Transformation of Waste Carbon Dioxide into Valuable Products  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalytic Transformation of Waste Catalytic Transformation of Waste Carbon Dioxide into Valuable Products Background Many industrial processes contribute large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to the earth's atmosphere. In an effort to reduce the amount of CO 2 released to the atmosphere, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is funding efforts to develop CO 2 capture and storage technologies. In addition to permanent storage of CO 2 in underground reservoirs, some

196

Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Operation and Maintenance Guidelines for Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document is the 2009 update to Operation and Maintenance Guidelines for Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems, originally published in 2001. The landscape of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology has significantly changed since then and promises to continue to change in the coming years. Specifically, the number of SCR applications on coal-fired units has increased considerably beyond the 15 units operating in mid 2001. Approximately 120 GW of capacity are expected to utilize SCR for NOx co...

2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

198

Operation and Maintenance Guidelines for Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Timely and proper execution of operation and maintenance (O&M) activities may be a key factor in ensuring the successful function of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. This report serves as the 2012 update of EPRI’s Operation and Maintenance Guidelines for Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems, originally published in 2001 and updated annually. New and revised content this year includes: 1) recent developments in in situ NOx analyzers, including a ...

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

199

Operation and Maintenance Guidelines for Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is the 2011 update of Operation and Maintenance Guidelines for Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems, originally published in 2001 and updated annually. New and revised content this year includes: (1) an analysis of the performance of the U.S. fleet of selective catalytic reduction (SCR)equipped generating units in 2009, 2010, and 2011; (2) a discussion of experience in mitigating the role of arsenic in catalyst deactivation, including the addition of alkali material to the coal; (3) an updat...

2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

200

Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid catalytic cracker" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W.sub.o that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W.sub.o of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions.

Fulton, John L. (Richland, WA); Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Fluid bed material transfer method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized bed apparatus comprising a pair of separated fluid bed enclosures, each enclosing a fluid bed carried on an air distributor plate supplied with fluidizing air from below the plate. At least one equalizing duct extending through sidewalls of both fluid bed enclosures and flexibly engaged therewith to communicate the fluid beds with each other. The equalizing duct being surrounded by insulation which is in turn encased by an outer duct having expansion means and being fixed between the sidewalls of the fluid bed enclosures.

Pinske, Jr., Edward E. (Akron, OH)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Non-catalytic steam hydrolysis of fats  

SciTech Connect

Hydrolysis of fats and oils produces fatty acid and glycerol. The catalyzed, liquid phase Colgate-Emry process, state-of-the-art, produces impure products that require extensive energy investment for their purification to commercial grade. Non-catalytic steam hydrolysis may produce products more easily purified. A bench-scale hydrolyzer was designed and constructed to contact descending liquid fat or oil with rising superheated steam. Each of the five stages in the reactor was designed similar to a distillation column stage to promote intimate liquid-gas contact. Degree of hydrolysis achieved in continuous tests using tallow feed were 15% at 280C and 35% at 300C at a tallow-to-steam mass feed ratio of 4.2. At a feed ratio of 9.2, the degree of hydrolysis was 21% at 300C. Decomposition was strongly evident at 325C but not at lower temperatures. Soybean oil rapidly polymerized under reaction conditions. Batch tests at 320C produced degrees of hydrolyses of between 44% and 63% using tallow and palm oil feeds. Over 95% fatty acids were present in a clean, readily separated organic portion of the overhead product from most tests. The test reactor had serious hydraulic resistance to liquid down-flow which limited operation to very long liquid residence times. These times are in excess of those that tallow and palm oil are stable at the reaction temperature. Little glycerol and extensive light organics were produced indicating that unexplained competing reactions to hydrolysis occurred in the experimental system. Further tests using an improved reactor will be required.

Deibert, M.C.

1992-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

204

Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.

Ward, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM); Kaduchak, Gregory (Los Alamos, NM)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

205

It's The Fluids SEG Honorary Lecture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

T.P. Water Butane CO2 #12;Fluid ­ Density 800 1000 1200FluidDensity[kg/m3] Brine CO2 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 200 400 600 Fluid Pressure [MPa] FluidDensity[kg/m Butane CO2 #12;Fluid ­ Modulus 2000 2500 3000 FluidModulus[MPa] Brine 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 500 1000 1500 Fluid Pressure [MPa] FluidModulus[MPa] Butane CO2 #12;GENERAL PHASE

206

Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid inclusions from active geothermal systems Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid inclusions from active geothermal systems Details Activities (4) Areas (4) Regions (0) Abstract: A system for analysis of inclusion gas contents based upon quadrupole mass spectrometry has been designed, assembled and tested during the first 7 months of funding. The system is currently being tested and calibrated using inclusions with known gas contents from active geothermal systems. Analyses are in progress on inclusions from the Salton Sea, Valles Caldera, Geysers, and Coso geothermal systems. Author(s): Mckibben, M. A.

207

Ultra Low NOx Catalytic Combustion for IGCC Power Plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order to meet DOE's goals of developing low-emissions coal-based power systems, PCI has further developed and adapted it's Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL{reg_sign}) catalytic reactor to a combustion system operating on syngas as a fuel. The technology offers ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment, with high efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses and reduced diluent requirements), and with catalytically stabilized combustion which extends the lower Btu limit for syngas operation. Tests were performed in PCI's sub-scale high-pressure (10 atm) test rig, using a two-stage (catalytic then gas-phase) combustion process for syngas fuel. In this process, the first stage consists of a fuel-rich mixture reacting on a catalyst with final and excess combustion air used to cool the catalyst. The second stage is a gas-phase combustor, where the air used for cooling the catalyst mixes with the catalytic reactor effluent to provide for final gas-phase burnout and dilution to fuel-lean combustion products. During testing, operating with a simulated Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station syngas, the NOx emissions program goal of less than 0.03 lbs/MMBtu (6 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) was met. NOx emissions were generally near 0.01 lbs/MMBtu (2 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) (PCI's target) over a range on engine firing temperatures. In addition, low emissions were shown for alternative fuels including high hydrogen content refinery fuel gas and low BTU content Blast Furnace Gas (BFG). For the refinery fuel gas increased resistance to combustor flashback was achieved through preferential consumption of hydrogen in the catalytic bed. In the case of BFG, stable combustion for fuels as low as 88 BTU/ft{sup 3} was established and maintained without the need for using co-firing. This was achieved based on the upstream catalytic reaction delivering a hotter (and thus more reactive) product to the flame zone. The PCI catalytic reactor was also shown to be active in ammonia reduction in fuel allowing potential reductions in the burner NOx production. These reductions of NOx emissions and expanded alternative fuel capability make the rich catalytic combustor uniquely situated to provide reductions in capital costs through elimination of requirements for SCR, operating costs through reduction in need for NOx abating dilution, SCR operating costs, and need for co-firing fuels allowing use of lower value but more available fuels, and efficiency of an engine through reduction in dilution flows.

Shahrokh Etemad; Benjamin Baird; Sandeep Alavandi; William Pfefferle

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

208

Ultrasonic fluid quality sensor system  

SciTech Connect

A system for determining the composition of a multiple-component fluid and for determining linear flow comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the multiple-component fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the multiple-component fluid. A system for determining flow uses two of the inventive circuits, one of which is set at an angle that is not perpendicular to the direction of flow.

Gomm, Tyler J. (Meridian, ID); Kraft, Nancy C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Phelps, Larry D. (Pocatello, ID); Taylor, Steven C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

209

Ultrasonic Fluid Quality Sensor System  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for determining the composition of a multiple-component fluid and for determining linear flow comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the multiple-component fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the multiple-component fluid. A system for determining flow uses two of the inventive circuits, one of which is set at an angle that is not perpendicular to the direction of flow.

Gomm, Tyler J. (Meridian, ID); Kraft, Nancy C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Phelps, Larry D. (Pocatello, ID); Taylor, Steven C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2003-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

210

MOLTEN SALT HEAT TRANSFER FLUID  

thermal energy storage tanks Sandia has developed a heat transfer fluid (HTF) for use at elevated temperatures that has a lower freezing point

211

Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Documentation Page Documentation Page 1. Report No. DE - FC 21 - 92MC29077 2. 3. Recipient's Accession No. 5. Report Date August 31, 2000 4. Title and Subtitle Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility 6. 7. Author(s) The University of Oklahoma 8. Performing Organization Rept. No. 10. Project/Task/Work Unit No. 9. Performing Organization Name and Address The University of Oklahoma Sarkeys Energy Center T301 100 E Boyd St Norman, OK 73019 11. Contract (C) or Grant (G) No. DOE:DE FC21 92 MC29077 13. Type of Report & Period Covered Final Report 09 30 92 - 03 31 00 12. Sponsoring Organization Name and Address US Dept of Energy - FETL 3610 Collins Ferry Road Morgantown, WV 26505 14. 15. Supplementary Notes Several technical papers were prepared and presented at various Society of Petroleum Engineers Conferences and US

212

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Catalytic Co - PA 40  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalytic Co - PA 40 Catalytic Co - PA 40 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Catalytic Co. (PA.40 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Philadelphia , Pennsylvania PA.40-1 Evaluation Year: 1991 PA.40-1 Site Operations: Prime contractor for construction of the Fernald facility. Records indicate one time shipment of a very small quantity (4 lbs) of uranium metal to this site. PA.40-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Construction contractor - Potential for residual contamination from the very small quantity of uranium shipped to this site is considered remote PA.40-2 Radioactive Materials Handled: None - as a construction contractor Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Uranium Metal - Believed to be a Souvenier. PA.40-1

213

Method for measuring recovery of catalytic elements from fuel cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is provided for measuring the concentration of a catalytic clement in a fuel cell powder. The method includes depositing on a porous substrate at least one layer of a powder mixture comprising the fuel cell powder and an internal standard material, ablating a sample of the powder mixture using a laser, and vaporizing the sample using an inductively coupled plasma. A normalized concentration of catalytic element in the sample is determined by quantifying the intensity of a first signal correlated to the amount of catalytic element in the sample, quantifying the intensity of a second signal correlated to the amount of internal standard material in the sample, and using a ratio of the first signal intensity to the second signal intensity to cancel out the effects of sample size.

Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ); Matlin, Ramail (Berkeley, NJ)

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

214

Catalytic Cracking of Gaseous Heavy Hydrocarbons by Ceramic Filters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of syngas from waste or biomass gasification to generate electricity is a way which is attracting increasing attention especially with regard to the demands of regenerable energy consumption and to the reduction of waste disposal. In order to feed the syngas to a gas motor or a gas turbine the gas has to be cleaned. In future also the coupling of biomass gasification with a fuel cell will be applied, which needs a very efficient gas cleaning. The decomposition of tars and the removal of particles from the gas are the key issues of gas cleaning. Up to now these two steps are performed in two separate units. Normally, the tars are decomposed in catalytic beds or honeycomb structures. The catalytic decomposition is achieved at temperatures between 750 C and 900 C depending on the catalyst used. Particles are removed by filtration of the hot gas. Filtration at high temperatures and with high efficiencies is possible when using ceramic filter elements. Ceramic hot gas filters are well established in advanced coal gasification, such as the integrated gasification combined cycle process, as well as in waste and biomass gasification and pyrolysis processes. Since the catalytic reaction requires high temperatures the gas has to be reheated after the particles are removed in the filter or the hot unfiltered gas has to flow through the catalytic unit. If the gas is filtered first, reheating of the gas stream is an additional cost factor. Furthermore, pipes downstream of the filter can be plugged, if the temperature of the gas falls below the condensation temperature of the heavy hydrocarbons. Using the second way of hot unfiltered gas flows through the catalytic unit, there is the problem of deactivation of the catalyst by deposition of dust at higher dust concentrations. At worst the catalytic unit can be plugged by dust deposition.

Heidenreich, S.; Nacken, M.; Walch, A.; Chudzinski, S.

2002-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

215

Optimum catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this contract are to discover and evaluate the catalytic properties of novel homogeneous, heterogeneous, or combination catalytic systems for the production of alcohol fuel extenders from syngas, to evaluate analytically and on the bench scale novel reactor concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products, and to develop on the bench scale the best combination of chemistry, reactor, and total process configuration to achieve the minimum product cost for conversion of syngas to liquid fuel products. Methanol production and heterogeneous catalysis utilizing transition elements supported on metal oxides with spinel structure are discussed. 12 figs., 16 tabs.

Not Available

1990-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

216

New process model proves accurate in tests on catalytic reformer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mathematical model has been devised to represent the process that takes place in a fixed-bed, tubular, adiabatic catalytic reforming reactor. Since its development, the model has been applied to the simulation of a commercial semiregenerative reformer. The development of mass and energy balances for this reformer led to a model that predicts both concentration and temperature profiles along the reactor. A comparison of the model's results with experimental data illustrates its accuracy at predicting product profiles. Simple steps show how the model can be applied to simulate any fixed-bed catalytic reformer.

Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Ancheyta-Juarez, J. (Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico))

1994-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

217

Transdisciplinary Fluid Integration Research Center  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Environment Reality-Coupled Computation Energy Dynamics Integrated Visual Informatics Super-Real-Time Medical of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, in April 2003. The next generation transdisciplinary research Research focus is to advance utilization of Computer Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for solving engineering problems

Obayashi, Shigeru

218

Fracturing fluids -- then and now  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fracturing fluid provides the means by which the hydraulic fracturing process can take place. All applications of well stimulation by fracturing must include selection of fracturing fluid in the initial phases of fracture design and treatment planning. Fracturing fluid has two important purposes: (1) to provide sufficient viscosity to suspend and transport proppant deep into the created fracture system and (2) to decompose, or break, chemically to a low viscosity to allow flowback of a major part of the fluid to the surface for fracture cleanup after the treatment is completed. Because of the importance of its rheological properties and behavior in the fracture under reservoir conditions during (and immediately after) the treatment, service company research laboratories have spent millions of dollars on R and D of fracturing fluids.

Jennings, A.R. Jr. [Enhanced Well Stimulation Inc., Plano, TX (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Biomass Gas Cleanup Using a Therminator  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the project is to develop and demonstrate a novel fluidized-bed process module called a �¢����Therminator�¢��� to simultaneously destroy and/or remove tar, NH3 and H2S from raw syngas produced by a fluidized-bed biomass gasifier. The raw syngas contains as much as 10 g/m3 of tar, 4,000 ppmv of NH3 and 100 ppmv of H2S. The goal of the Therminator module would be to use promising regenerable catalysts developed for removing tar, ammonia, and H2S down to low levels (around 10 ppm). Tars are cracked to a non-condensable gas and coke that would deposit on the acid catalyst. We will deposit coke, much like a fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) in a petroleum refinery. The deposited coke fouls the catalyst, much like FCC, but the coke would be burned off in the regenerator and the regenerated catalyst would be returned to the cracker. The rapid circulation between the cracker and regenerator would ensure the availability of the required amount of regenerated catalyst to accomplish our goal. Also, by removing sulfur down to less than 10 ppmv, NH3 decomposition would also be possible in the cracker at 600-700���°C. In the cracker, tar decomposes and lays down coke on the acid sites of the catalyst, NH3 is decomposed using a small amount of metal (e.g., nickel or iron) catalyst incorporated into the catalyst matrix, and H2S is removed by a small amount of a metal oxide (e.g. zinc oxide or zinc titanate) by the H2S-metal oxide reaction to form metal sulfide. After a tolerable decline in activity for these reactions, the catalyst particles (and additives) are transported to the regenerator where they are exposed to air to remove the coke and to regenerate the metal sulfide back to metal oxide. Sulfate formation is avoided by running the regeneration with slightly sub-stoichiometric quantity of oxygen. Following regeneration, the catalyst is transported back to the cracker and the cycling continues. Analogous to an FCC reactor system, rapid cycling will allow the use of very active cracking catalysts that lose activity due to coking within the order of several seconds.

David C. Dayton; Atish Kataria; Rabhubir Gupta

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

220

Fluid flow monitoring device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention consists of a flow meter and temperature measuring device comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips.

McKay, M.D.; Sweeney, C.E.

1991-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid catalytic cracker" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Fluid sampling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank.

Houck, Edward D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Fluid sampling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention comprises a fluid sampling system which allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped up into a sampling jet of venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to decrease, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodicially leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank.

Houck, E.D.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

223

Fluid sampling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to be decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank. 4 figs.

Houck, E.D.

1994-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

224

Tracing Geothermal Fluids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Geothermal water must be injected back into the reservoir after it has been used for power production. Injection is critical in maximizing the power production and lifetime of the reservoir. To use injectate effectively the direction and velocity of the injected water must be known or inferred. This information can be obtained by using chemical tracers to track the subsurface flow paths of the injected fluid. Tracers are chemical compounds that are added to the water as it is injected back into the reservoir. The hot production water is monitored for the presence of this tracer using the most sensitive analytic methods that are economically feasible. The amount and concentration pattern of the tracer revealed by this monitoring can be used to evaluate how effective the injection strategy is. However, the tracers must have properties that suite the environment that they will be used in. This requires careful consideration and testing of the tracer properties. In previous and parallel investigations we have developed tracers that are suitable from tracing liquid water. In this investigation, we developed tracers that can be used for steam and mixed water/steam environments. This work will improve the efficiency of injection management in geothermal fields, lowering the cost of energy production and increasing the power output of these systems.

Michael C. Adams; Greg Nash

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine project, the development of a hydrocarbon-fueled catalytic micro-combustion system is presented. A conventionally-machined catalytic flow reactor was built to simulate the ...

Peck, Jhongwoo, 1976-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Catalytic activation and reforming of methane on supported palladium clusters Aritomo Yamaguchi, Enrique Iglesia *  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of pollutants, oxygen generation, and intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells, as well as catalytic reforming. Sekine et al.56 investigated four catalytic reactions assisted with an electric field to promote

Iglesia, Enrique

227

Continued investigations of the catalytic reduction of N? to NH? by molybdenum triamidoamine complexes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A study of the effects of employing different solvents and the introduction of dihydrogen during the catalytic reduction of dinitrogen to ammonia with [HIPTN 3N]Mo complexes was completed. During a catalytic reaction, the ...

Hanna, Brian S. (Brian Stewart)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Pyrolysis Oil Upgrading to Transportation Fuels by Catalytic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as fast- pyrolysis and catalytic fast-pyrolysis for producing liquid fuels from biomass feedstocks biomass to a fast-pyrolysis reactor (Table 3.4), the greatest mass yield of bio-oil can be attributed............................................................................................- 70 - TABLE 2.18. BIOMASS PYROLYSIS TECHNOLOGIES, REACTION CONDITIONS AND PRODUCTS................- 70

Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit

229

Catalytic Esterification of Model Compounds of Biomass Pyrolysis Oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass pyrolysis oil is a complex mixture containing a wide variety of oxygenated compounds, which results in difficulties in bio-oil upgrading. To gain a clearer understanding of the reaction pathways, seven compounds were chosen to represent biomass ... Keywords: pyrolysis oil, model compounds, catalytic esterification

Zuo-gang Guo; Shu-rong Wang; Ying-ying Zhu

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Homogeneous catalytic hydrogenations of complex carbonaceous substrates. [16 references  

SciTech Connect

Results of homogeneous catalytic hydrogenation of complex unsaturated substrates including coal and coal-derived materials are reported, with organic soluble molecular complexes as catalysts. Among the substrates used were Hvab coal, solvent-refined coal, and COED pyrolysate. The hydrogenations were carried out in an autoclave. The results are summarized in tables.

Cox, J L; Wilcox, W A; Roberts, G L

1976-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

231

Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

ULTRA LOW NOx CATALYTIC COMBUSTION FOR IGCC POWER PLANTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tests were performed in PCI's sub-scale high-pressure (10 atm) test rig, using PCI's two-stage (catalytic / gas-phase) combustion process for syngas fuel. In this process, the first stage is a Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL{trademark}) catalytic reactor, wherein a fuel-rich mixture contacts the catalyst and reacts while final and excess combustion air cool the catalyst. The second stage is a gas-phase combustor, wherein the catalyst cooling air mixes with the catalytic reactor effluent to provide for final gas-phase burnout and dilution to fuel-lean combustion products. During the reporting period, PCI successfully achieved NOx = 0.011 lbs/MMBtu at 10 atm pressure (corresponding to 2.0 ppm NOx corrected to 15% O{sub 2} dry) with near-zero CO emissions, surpassing the project goal of baseload conditions corresponding to Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station operation on 100% syngas (no co-firing of natural gas).

Lance L. Smith

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Catalytic pyrolysis of xylan-based hemicellulose over zeolites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Xylan was selected as model compound of hemicellulose to investigate its thermal behavior over zeolites by using TG-FTIR. The chemical structure of xylan and characterization of catalysts were first studied. All the three catalysts, HZSM-5, H-? ... Keywords: TG-FTIR, acids, catalytic pyrolysis, furans, hemicellulose, xylan, zeolites

Xiujuan Guo; Shurong Wang; Yan Zhou; Zhongynag Luo

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Gold-Copper Nanoparticles: Nanostructural Evolution and Bifunctional Catalytic Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Understanding of the atomic-scale structure is essential for exploiting the unique catalytic properties of any nanoalloy catalyst. This report describes novel findings of an investigation of the nanoscale alloying of gold-copper (AuCu) nanoparticles and its impact on the surface catalytic functions. Two pathways have been explored for the formation of AuCu nanoparticles of different compositons, including wet chemical synthesis from mixed Au- and Cu-precursor molecules, and nanoscale alloying via an evolution of mixed Au- and Cu-precursor nanoparticles near the nanoscale melting temperatures. For the evolution of mixed precursor nanoparticles, synchrotron x-ray based in-situ real time XRD was used to monitor the structural changes, revealing nanoscale alloying and reshaping towards an fcc-type nanoalloy (particle or cube) via a partial melting–resolidification mechanism. The nanoalloys supported on carbon or silica were characterized by in-situ high-energy XRD/PDFs, revealing an intriguing lattice "expanding-shrinking" phenomenon depending on whether the catalyst is thermochemically processed under oxidative or reductive atmosphere. This type of controllable structural changes is found to play an important role in determining the catalytic activity of the catalysts for carbon monoxide oxidation reaction. The tunable catalytic activities of the nanoalloys under thermochemically oxidative and reductive atmospheres are also discussed in terms of the bifunctional sites and the surface oxygenated metal species for carbon monoxide and oxygen activation.

Yin, Jun; Shan, Shiyao; Yang, Lefu; Mott, Derrick; Malis, Oana; Petkov, Valeri; Cai, Fan; Ng, Mei; Luo, Jin; Chen, Bing H.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

236

Recycling and Disposal of Spent Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology has become widespread within the utility industry as a means of controlling emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The technology uses a solid catalyst that deactivates over time; and thus significant volumes of catalyst will need regeneration, recycle, or disposal. This study examined issues related to spent catalyst recycle and disposal.

2003-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

237

Chemical Imaging of Catalytic Solids with Synchrotron Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heterogeneous catalysis is a term normally used to describe a group of catalytic processes, yet it could equally be employed to describe the catalytic solid itself. A better understanding of the chemical and structural variation within such materials is thus a pre-requisite for the rationalising of structure-function relationships and ultimately to the design of new, more sustainable catalytic processes. The past 20 years has witnessed marked improvements in technologies required for analytical measurements at synchrotron sources, including higher photon brightness, nano-focusing, rapid, high resolution data acquisition and in the handling of large volumes of data. It is now possible to image materials using the entire synchrotron radiative profile, thus heralding a new era of in situ/operando measurements of catalytic solids. In this tutorial review we discuss the recent work in this exciting new research area and finally conclude with a future outlook on what will be possible/challenging to measure in the not-too-distant future.

A Beale; S Jacques; B Weckhuysen

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

238

Catalytic cracking. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning applications of catalytic cracking processes in fluidized bed systems, moving beds, refineries, vacuum distillations, and reformers. Design aspects, modeling, control systems, and operating procedures are also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 149 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Simulation of Hydrogen Production from Biomass Catalytic Gasification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, biomass catalytic gasification process for producing H2-rich gas was presented. The process consists of mainly two fluidized beds—a gasifier and a CaO regenerator. The objective of this research is to develop a computer model of ... Keywords: biomass gasification, hydrogen production, Aspen Plus

Shan Cheng; Qian Wang; Hengsong Ji

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Particle sorter comprising a fluid displacer in a closed-loop fluid circuit  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed herein are methods and devices utilizing a fluid displacer in a closed-loop fluid circuit.

Perroud, Thomas D. (San Jose, CA); Patel, Kamlesh D. (Dublin, CA); Renzi, Ronald F. (Tracy, CA)

2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid catalytic cracker" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Industrial Gas Turbine Engine Catalytic Pilot Combustor-Prototype Testing  

SciTech Connect

PCI has developed and demonstrated its Rich Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL®) technology for industrial and utility gas turbines to meet DOEâ??s goals of low single digit emissions. The technology offers stable combustion with extended turndown allowing ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment and further increasing overall efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses). The objective of the work was to develop and demonstrate emission benefits of the catalytic technology to meet strict emissions regulations. Two different applications of the RCL® concept were demonstrated: RCL® catalytic pilot and Full RCL®. The RCL® catalytic pilot was designed to replace the existing pilot (a typical source of high NOx production) in the existing Dry Low NOx (DLN) injector, providing benefit of catalytic combustion while minimizing engine modification. This report discusses the development and single injector and engine testing of a set of T70 injectors equipped with RCL® pilots for natural gas applications. The overall (catalytic pilot plus main injector) program NOx target of less than 5 ppm (corrected to 15% oxygen) was achieved in the T70 engine for the complete set of conditions with engine CO emissions less than 10 ppm. Combustor acoustics were low (at or below 0.1 psi RMS) during testing. The RCL® catalytic pilot supported engine startup and shutdown process without major modification of existing engine controls. During high pressure testing, the catalytic pilot showed no incidence of flashback or autoignition while operating over a wide range of flame temperatures. In applications where lower NOx production is required (i.e. less than 3 ppm), in parallel, a Full RCL® combustor was developed that replaces the existing DLN injector providing potential for maximum emissions reduction. This concept was tested at industrial gas turbine conditions in a Solar Turbines, Incorporated high-pressure (17 atm.) combustion rig and in a modified Solar Turbines, Incorporated Saturn engine rig. High pressure single-injector rig and modified engine rig tests demonstrated NOx less than 2 ppm and CO less than 10 ppm over a wide flame temperature operating regime with low combustion noise (<0.15% peak-to-peak). Minimum NOx for the optimized engine retrofit Full RCL® designs was less than 1 ppm with CO emissions less than 10 ppm. Durability testing of the substrate and catalyst material was successfully demonstrated at pressure and temperature showing long term stable performance of the catalytic reactor element. Stable performance of the reactor element was achieved when subjected to durability tests (>5000 hours) at simulated engine conditions (P=15 atm, Tin=400C/750F.). Cyclic tests simulating engine trips was also demonstrated for catalyst reliability. In addition to catalyst tests, substrate oxidation testing was also performed for downselected substrate candidates for over 25,000 hours. At the end of the program, an RCL® catalytic pilot system has been developed and demonstrated to produce NOx emissions of less than 3 ppm (corrected to 15% O2) for 100% and 50% load operation in a production engine operating on natural gas. In addition, a Full RCL® combustor has been designed and demonstrated less than 2 ppm NOx (with potential to achieve 1 ppm) in single injector and modified engine testing. The catalyst/substrate combination has been shown to be stable up to 5500 hrs in simulated engine conditions.

Shahrokh Etemad; Benjamin Baird; Sandeep Alavandi; William Pfefferle

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

242

High Performance Catalytic Heat Exchanger for SOFC Systems - FuelCell Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalytic Heat Catalytic Heat Exchanger for SOFC Systems-FuelCell Energy Background In a typical solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation system, hot (~900 °C) effluent gas from a catalytic combustor serves as the heat source within a high-temperature heat exchanger, preheating incoming fresh air for the SOFC's cathode. The catalytic combustor and the cathode air heat exchanger together represent the largest opportunity for cost

243

Component Development to Accelerate Commercial Implementation of Ultra-Low Emissions Catalytic Combustion  

SciTech Connect

This final report describes a 2000-2003 program for the development of components and processes to enhance the commercialization of ultra-low emissions catalytic combustion in industrial gas turbines. The range of project tasks includes: development of more durable, lower-cost catalysts and catalytic combustor components; development and design of a catalytic pre-burner and a catalytic pilot burner for gas turbines, and on-site fuel conversion processing for utilization of liquid fuel.

Jon McCarty, Brian Berry, Kare Lundberg, Orris Anson

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

244

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Procurement Guideline for Simple- and Combined-Cycle Combustion Turbines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) procurement guideline for simple- and combined-cycle combustion turbines.

2008-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

245

Plasma Catalytic Conversion of Methane in Ultra Rich Flame using Transient Gliding Arc Combustion Support  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be carried out in a number of ways: steam reforming, thermo-catalytic reforming, partial oxidation, etc. [1

246

Short Communication Catalytic coal gasification: use of calcium versus potassium*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

career on process optimization and control, fluid mechanics, the analysis of coal gasification reactors my earlier work on coal gasification reactors, polymer fiber spinning, and the activated sludge

247

Standardization of Thermo-Fluid Modeling in Modelica.Fluid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This article discusses the Modelica.Fluid library that has been included in the Modelica Standard Library 3.1. Modelica.Fluid provides interfaces and basic components for the device-oriented modeling of onedimensional thermo-fluid flow in networks containing vessels, pipes, fluid machines, valves and fittings. A unique feature of Modelica.Fluid is that the component equations and the media models as well as pressure loss and heat transfer correlations are decoupled from each other. All components are implemented such that they can be used for media from the Modelica.Media library. This means that an incompressible or compressible medium, a single or a multiple substance medium with one or more phases might be used with one and the same model as long as the modeling assumptions made hold. Furthermore, trace substances are supported. Modeling assumptions can be configured globally in an outer System object. This covers in particular the initialization, uni- or bi-directional flow, and dynamic or steady-state formulation of mass, energy, and momentum balance. All assumptions can be locally refined for every component. While Modelica.Fluid contains a reasonable set of component models, the goal of the library is not to provide a comprehensive set of models, but rather to provide interfaces and best practices for the treatment of issues such as connector design and implementation of energy, mass and momentum balances. Applications from various domains are presented.

Rüdiger Franke; et al.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Isotopic Analysis- Fluid | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Details Activities (61) Areas (32) Regions (6) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Lab Analysis Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Fluid Lab Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Fluid Lab Analysis Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Water rock interaction Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Origin of hydrothermal fluids; Mixing of hydrothermal fluids Thermal: Isotopic ratios can be used to characterize and locate subsurface thermal anomalies. Dictionary.png Isotopic Analysis- Fluid: Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons. An isotopic analysis looks at a particular isotopic element(s) in

249

Downhole Fluid Sampling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Downhole Fluid Sampling Downhole Fluid Sampling Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Downhole Fluid Sampling Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Downhole Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Well Testing Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Well Testing Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Water composition and source of fluids. Gas composition and source of fluids. Thermal: Water temperature. Distinguish magmatic/mantle heat inputs. Can be used to estimate reservoir fluid temperatures. Dictionary.png Downhole Fluid Sampling: Downhole fluid sampling is done to characterize the chemical, thermal, or hydrological properties of a surface or subsurface aqueous system. Downhole

250

Intelligent Fluid Infrastructure for Embedded Networking  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mobile element into the networking infrastructure.Our fluid infrastructure design saves significant energy inIntelligent Fluid Infrastructure for Embedded Networks Aman

Kansal, Aman; Somasundara, Arun; Jea, David C; Srivastava, Mani B; Estrin, D

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Intelligent Fluid Infrastructure for Embedded Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intelligent Fluid Infrastructure for Embedded Networks Amanto develop a fluid infrastructure: mobile components arebuilt into the system infrastructure for enabling specific

Aman Kansal; Arun Somasundara; David Jea; Mani Srivastava; Deborah Estrin

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Fluid Imaging | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Fluid Imaging Jump to: navigation, search Contents 1 Geothermal Lab Call Projects for Fluid Imaging 2 Geothermal ARRA Funded Projects for Fluid Imaging Geothermal Lab Call Projects for Fluid Imaging Loading map... {"format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"limit":200,"offset":0,"link":"all","sort":[""],"order":[],"headers":"show","mainlabel":"","intro":"","outro":"","searchlabel":"\u2026 further results","default":"","geoservice":"google","zoom":14,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","forceshow":true,"showtitle":true,"hidenamespace":false,"template":false,"title":"","label":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"locations":[{"text":"

253

Nonlinear Fluid Dynamics from Gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Black branes in AdS5 appear in a four parameter family labeled by their velocity and temperature. Promoting these parameters to Goldstone modes or collective coordinate fields -- arbitrary functions of the coordinates on the boundary of AdS5 -- we use Einstein's equations together with regularity requirements and boundary conditions to determine their dynamics. The resultant equations turn out to be those of boundary fluid dynamics, with specific values for fluid parameters. Our analysis is perturbative in the boundary derivative expansion but is valid for arbitrary amplitudes. Our work may be regarded as a derivation of the nonlinear equations of boundary fluid dynamics from gravity. As a concrete application we find an explicit expression for the expansion of this fluid stress tensor including terms up to second order in the derivative expansion.

Sayantani Bhattacharyya; Veronika E Hubeny; Shiraz Minwalla; Mukund Rangamani

2007-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

254

Visually simulating realistic fluid motion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis we investigate various methods for visually simulating fluid flow. The focus is on implementing effective fluid simulation within an interactive animation system. Two implementations have been developed based on derivations and simplifications of the Navier-Stokes' equations. The first implementation is the most accurate and follows the physics of fluid dynamics more closely. However, the high computation times incurred by this implementation make it inappropriate as an interactive method. The second approach is not as accurate as the first one, however it incurs lower computation times. This second method is only able to model a subset of the total fluid behavior. The second method has been integrated into an interactive modeling and animation environment. Several examples are included.

Naithani, Priyanka

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Deferring trust in fluid replication  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mobile nodes rely on external services to provide safety, sharing, and additional resources. Unfortunately, as mobile nodes move through the networking infrastructure, the costs of accessing servers change. Fluid replication allows mobile clients to ...

Brian D. Noble; Ben Fleis; Landon P. Cox

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Bio-inspired fluid locomotion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed several novel methods of locomotion at low Reynolds number, for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids: Robosnails 1 and 2, which operate on a lubrication layer, and the three-link swimmer which moves ...

Chan, Brian, 1980-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Solar reforming of methane in a direct absorption catalytic reactor on a parabolic dish: 2, Modeling and analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The CAtalytically Enhanced Solar Absorption Receiver (CAESAR) experiment was conducted to determine the thermal, chemical, and mechanical performance of a commercial-scale, dish-mounted, direct catalytic absorption receiver (DCAR) reactor over a range of steady state and transient (cloud) operating conditions. The focus of the experiment is on global performance such as receiver efficiencies and overall methane conversion; it was not intended to provide data for code validation. A numerical model was previously developed to provide guidance in the design of the absorber. The one-dimensional, planar and steady-state model incorporates, the following energy transfer mechanisms: solar and infrared radiation, heterogeneous chemical reaction, conduction in the solid phase, and convection between the fluid and solid phases. A number of upgrades to the model and improved property values are presented here. Model predictions are shown to bound the experimental axial thermocouple data when experimental uncertainties are included. Global predictions are made using a technique in which the incident solar flux distribution is subdivided into flux contour bands. Model predictions for each band are then spatially integrated to provide global predictions such as reactor efficiencies and methane conversions. Global predictions are shown to compare well with experimental data. Reactor predictions for anticipated operating conditions suggest a further decrease in optical density at the front of the absorber inner disk may be beneficial. The need to conduct code-validation experiments is identified as essential to improve the confidence in the capability to predict large-scale reactor operation.

Skocypec, R.D.; Hogan, R.E. Jr.; Muir, J.F.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Method for recovering catalytic elements from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for recovering catalytic elements from a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly is provided. The method includes converting the membrane electrode assembly into a particulate material, wetting the particulate material, forming a slurry comprising the wetted particulate material and an acid leachate adapted to dissolve at least one of the catalytic elements into a soluble catalytic element salt, separating the slurry into a depleted particulate material and a supernatant containing the catalytic element salt, and washing the depleted particulate material to remove any catalytic element salt retained within pores in the depleted particulate material.

Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ); Matlin, Ramail (Berkeley Heights, NJ); Heinz, Robert (Ludwigshafen, DE)

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

259

Solar photo-thermal catalytic reactions to produce high value chemicals  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents a summary of the research work accomplished to date on the utilization of solar photo-thermal energy to convert low cost chemical feedstocks into high $-value chemical products. The rationale is that the solar IR-VIS-UV spectrum is unique, supplying endothermic reaction energy as well as VIS-UV for photochemical activation. Chemical market analysis and product price distribution focused attention on speciality chemicals with prices >$1.00/lb, and a synthesis sequence of n-paraffins to aromatics to partial oxidized products. The experimental work has demonstrated that enhanced reaction effects result from VIS-UV irradiation of catalytically active V2O5/SiO2. Experiments of the past year have been on dehydrogenation and dehydrocyclization of n-paraffins to olefins and aromatics with preference for the latter. Recent results using n-hexane produced 95% conversion with 56% benzene; it is speculated that aromatic yield should reach {approximately}70% by further optimization. Pilot- and commercial-scale reactor configurations have been examined; the odds-on-favorite being a shallow fluid-bed of catalyst with incident radiation from the top. Sequencing for maximum cost effectiveness would be day-time endothermic followed by night-time exothermic reactions to produce the products.

Prengle, H.W. Jr.; Wentworth, W.E. [Houston Univ., TX (United States)

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Catalytic destruction of groundwater contaminants in reactive extraction wells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A system for remediating groundwater contaminated with halogenated solvents, certain metals and other inorganic species based on catalytic reduction reactions within reactive well bores. The groundwater treatment uses dissolved hydrogen as a reducing agent in the presence of a metal catalyst, such a palladium, to reduce halogenated solvents (as well as other substituted organic compounds) to harmless species (e.g., ethane or methane) and immobilize certain metals to low valence states. The reactive wells function by removing water from a contaminated water-bearing zone, treating contaminants with a well bore using catalytic reduction, and then reinjecting the treated effluent into an adjacent water-bearing zone. This system offers the advantages of a compact design with a minimal surface footprint (surface facilities) and the destruction of a broad suite of contaminants without generating secondary waste streams.

McNab, Jr., Walt W. (Concord, CA); Reinhard, Martin (Stanford, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid catalytic cracker" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc.. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

262

Selective dehydrogenation of propane over novel catalytic materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The conversion of small alkanes into alkenes represents an important chemical processing area; ethylene and propylene are the two most important organic chemicals manufactured in the U.S. These chemicals are currently manufactured by steam cracking of ethane and propane, an extremely energy intensive, nonselective process. The development of catalytic technologies (e.g., selective dehydrogenation) that can be used to produce ethylene and propylene from ethane and propane with greater selectivity and lower energy consumption than steam cracking will have a major impact on the chemical processing industry. This report details a study of two novel catalytic materials for the selective dehydrogenation of propane: Cr supported on hydrous titanium oxide ion-exchangers, and Pt nanoparticles encapsulated in silica and alumina aerogel and xerogel matrices.

Sault, A.G.; Boespflug, E.P.; Martino, A.; Kawola, J.S.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Selective Dehydrogenation of Propane over Novel Catalytic Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The conversion of small alkanes into alkenes represents an important chemical processing area; ethylene and propylene are the two most important organic chemicals manufactured in the U.S. These chemicals are currently manufactured by steam cracking of ethane and propane, an extremely energy intensive, nonselective process. The development of catalytic technologies (e.g., selective dehydrogenation) that can be used to produce ethylene and propylene from ethane and propane with greater selectivity and lower energy consumption than steam cracking will have a major impact on the chemical processing industry. This report details a study of two novel catalytic materials for the selective dehydrogenation of propane: Cr supported on hydrous titanium oxide ion-exchangers, and Pt nanoparticles encapsulated in silica and alumina aerogel and xerogel matrices. 4 Acknowledgment The authors thank United Catalysts, Inc. for stimulating technical discussions and for providing samples of commercial ...

Allen Sault Elaine; Elaine P. Boespflug Anthony Martino; Jeffrey S. Kawola

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon monoxide oxidation over ruthenium catalysts has shown an unusual catalytic behavior. Here we report a particle size effect on CO oxidation over Ru nanoparticle (NP) catalysts. Uniform Ru NPs with a tunable particle size from 2 to 6 nm were synthesized by a polyol reduction of Ru(acac){sub 3} precursor in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) stabilizer. The measurement of catalytic activity of CO oxidation over two-dimensional Ru NPs arrays under oxidizing reaction conditions (40 Torr CO and 100 Torr O{sub 2}) showed an activity dependence on the Ru NP size. The CO oxidation activity increases with NP size, and the 6 nm Ru NP catalyst shows 8-fold higher activity than the 2 nm catalysts. The results gained from this study will provide the scientific basis for future design of Ru-based oxidation catalysts.

Joo, Sang Hoon; Park, Jeong Y.; Renzas, J. Russell; Butcher, Derek R.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

2010-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

265

Thermochemical Equilibrium Modeling of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SRC) Catalyst Poisons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A previous EPRI publication (1022073) provided a detailed literature review on the propensity of the alkali and alkaline earth metals sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and the Group (V) elements phosphorus (P) and arsenic (As) to deactivate selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts in commercial flue gas cleaning systems. It also listed the conditions under which such deactivation has been reported. This report extends this earlier work to predict the transformation of SCR catalyst ...

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Selective Catalytic Reduction Mercury Oxidation Data to Support Catalyst Management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) mercury oxidation can be pivotal for Mercury and Air Toxics Standards compliance, especially for those units that rely on co-benefits as their primary method of mercury control. Much work has been done historically to understand the mercury behavior across SCRs, especially as a function of operating conditions, and in particular, flue gas composition. The present work seeks to integrate the accumulated knowledge into a practical document that will aid utilities in ...

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

267

Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) Technology Overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document provides a technology overview regarding the application and operation of selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) to coal-fired electric utility boilers for the incremental reduction of NOx emissions. The document provides a historical perspective of the SNCR technology development, background regarding the reaction chemistry, and process parameters that impact SNCR NOx reduction performance. In addition, a review of reagent choices along with storage and handling requirements is ...

2013-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

268

Operation and Maintenance Guidelines for Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document is the 2010 version of Operation and Maintenance Guidelines for Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems, originally published in 2001 and updated annually. New content this year includes: (1) A section on static mixers added in Chapter 3; (2) Substantial expansion of the discussion on inspection of ammonia storage and delivery equipment in Chapter 8; (3) Expanded coverage of unit startup, shutdown, and low-load operation in Chapter 15; (4) a new chapter, Chapter 18, on the means to ensure tha...

2010-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

269

CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING PENETRATING RADIATION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of hydrogenating an olefinic hydrocarbon by irradiating a substrate catalyst and increasing its catalytic activity is described. Ferric oxide with about 0.005% by weight of at least one oxide of a metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, magnesium, nickel, zirconium, and manganese incorporated therein is irradiated. Then an alkane is placed upon the surface of the catalyst and irradiated in an atmosphere of hydrogen. Any olefin produced from this radiolysis becomes hydrogenated. (AEC)

Caffrey, J.M. Jr.

1961-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Equilibrium Characteristics of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Catalyst Poisons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Power River Basin (PRB) coal applications, phosphorus (P) is known as the primary catalyst poison. Recent utility experience shows that some units burning PRB coal are deactivating the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst more rapidly than others. The exact mechanism is not well understood but could be related to boiler type or combustion modifications leading to increased levels of phosphorus vaporization. With increased levels of phosphorus in flue gas, greater quantities of phosphorus would...

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

271

Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst Recycle and Re-Use Options  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Given the widespread implementation of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology, there is a great deal of interest in finding viable recycle/re-use routes for spent catalyst as an alternative to landfilling. The current effort has focused on detailed evaluation of several recycle/re-use processes that were identified in previous EPRI studies. These recycle/re-use technologies include mineral filler applications, incorporation into wet-bottom boiler slag, cement kiln co-processing, and use in iron/s...

2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

272

Simulation of ethylbenzene dehydrogenation in microporous catalytic membrane reactors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Current state-of-the-art inorganic oxide membranes offer the potential of being modified to yield catalytic properties. The resulting modules may be configured to simultaneously induce catalytic reactions with product concentration and separation in a single processing step. Processes utilizing such catalytically active membrane reactors have the potential for dramatically increasing yield of reactions which are currently limited by either thermodynamic equilibria, product inhibition, or kinetic selectivity. Examples of systems of commercial interest include hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, partial and selective oxidation, hydrations, hydrocarbon cracking, olefin metathesis, hydroformylation, and olefin polymerization. A large portion of the most significant reactions fall into the category of high temperature, gas phase chemical and petrochemical processes. Microporous oxide membranes are well suited for these applications. A program is proposed to investigate selected model reactions of commercial interest (i.e., dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene and dehydrogenation of butane to butadiene) using a high temperature catalytic membrane reactor. Membranes will be developed, reaction dynamics characterized, and production processes developed, culminating in laboratory-scale demonstration of technical and economic feasibility. As a result of the anticipated increased yield per reactor pass, large economic incentives are envisioned. First, a large decrease in the temperature required to obtain high yield should be possible because of the reduced driving force requirement. Significantly higher conversion per pass implies a reduced recycle ratio, as well as reduced reactor size. Both factors result in reduced capital costs, as well as savings in cost reactants and energy. The controlled, defined reaction zone (the membrane interface), will facilitate the reactor design process and permit greater control of reactor dynamics.

Not Available

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification Process Predevelopment Program. Final project report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of work conducted on Predevelopment Research for the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification Process. The eighteen-month effort (July 1976-December 1977) was a coordinated program which included operation of a continuous fluidized-bed gasifier, parallel bench-scale research, and engineering studies leading to the preparation of a commercial-scale plant study design and economics for producing SNG from Illinois coal.

Kalina, T.; Nahas, N.C.

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface.

Greenwood, Margaret S. (Richland, WA); Harris, Robert V. (Pasco, WA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Computational fluid dynamic modeling of fluidized-bed polymerization reactors  

SciTech Connect

Polyethylene is one of the most widely used plastics, and over 60 million tons are produced worldwide every year. Polyethylene is obtained by the catalytic polymerization of ethylene in gas and liquid phase reactors. The gas phase processes are more advantageous, and use fluidized-bed reactors for production of polyethylene. Since they operate so close to the melting point of the polymer, agglomeration is an operational concern in all slurry and gas polymerization processes. Electrostatics and hot spot formation are the main factors that contribute to agglomeration in gas-phase processes. Electrostatic charges in gas phase polymerization fluidized bed reactors are known to influence the bed hydrodynamics, particle elutriation, bubble size, bubble shape etc. Accumulation of electrostatic charges in the fluidized-bed can lead to operational issues. In this work a first-principles electrostatic model is developed and coupled with a multi-fluid computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model to understand the effect of electrostatics on the dynamics of a fluidized-bed. The multi-fluid CFD model for gas-particle flow is based on the kinetic theory of granular flows closures. The electrostatic model is developed based on a fixed, size-dependent charge for each type of particle (catalyst, polymer, polymer fines) phase. The combined CFD model is first verified using simple test cases, validated with experiments and applied to a pilot-scale polymerization fluidized-bed reactor. The CFD model reproduced qualitative trends in particle segregation and entrainment due to electrostatic charges observed in experiments. For the scale up of fluidized bed reactor, filtered models are developed and implemented on pilot scale reactor.

Rokkam, Ram [Ames Laboratory

2012-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

276

Ultracentrifuge for separating fluid mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

1. A centrifuge for the separation of fluid mixtures having light and heavy fractions comprising a cylindrical rotor, disc type end-plugs closing the ends of the rotor, means for mounting said rotor for rotation about its cylindrical axis, a housing member enclosing the rotor, a vacuum chamber in said housing about the central portion of the rotor, a collection chamber at each end of the housing, the innermost side of which is substantially formed by the outer face of the end-plug, means for preventing flow of the fluid from the collection chambers to said vacuum chamber, at least one of said end-plugs having a plurality of holes therethrough communicating between the collection chamber adjacent thereto and the inside of the rotor to induce countercurrent flow of the fluid in the centrifuge, means for feeding fluid to be processed into the centrifuge, means communicating with the collection chambers to extract the light and heavy separated fractions of the fluid, and means for rotating the rotor.

Lowry, Ralph A. (Charlottesville, VA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DRILLING FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the project has been to develop new types of drill-in fluids (DIFs) and completion fluids (CFs) for use in natural gas reservoirs. Phase 1 of the project was a 24-month study to develop the concept of advanced type of fluids usable in well completions. Phase 1 tested this concept and created a kinetic mathematical model to accurately track the fluid's behavior under downhole conditions. Phase 2 includes tests of the new materials and practices. Work includes the preparation of new materials and the deployment of the new fluids and new practices to the field. The project addresses the special problem of formation damage issues related to the use of CFs and DIFs in open hole horizontal well completions. The concept of a ''removable filtercake'' has, as its basis, a mechanism to initiate or trigger the removal process. Our approach to developing such a mechanism is to identify the components of the filtercake and measure the change in the characteristics of these components when certain cleanup (filtercake removal) techniques are employed.

David B. Burnett

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Fluid Metrology Calibration Services - Gas, Water, or Liquid ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fluid Metrology Calibration Services - Gas, Water, Natural Gas, or Liquid Hydrocarbon Flows Special Tests. Fluid Metrology ...

2013-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

279

NETL: Releases & Briefs - MFIX: Particle-fluid flow modeling, fast and free  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MFIX: Particle-fluid Flow Modeling, Fast and Free MFIX: Particle-fluid Flow Modeling, Fast and Free Until recently, full solution of the complex set of equations that describe gas-particle flows was nearly impossible. But an open-source code developed by researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and designed to run on inexpensive PC (Beowulf) clusters, makes it relatively simple. Called MFIX (Multi-phase Flow with Interphase eXchange), the code incorporates special numerical techniques that provide an efficient solution to the coupled equations, exceeding the capabilities of commercial software. Originally developed at NETL to model fixed, fluidized and bubbling coal gasification technologies, its power has been used in research ranging from catalytic cracking in oil refineries to volcanology. A free, fully-functional version is available at www.mfix.org

280

Fluid dynamics of bacterial turbulence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Self-sustained turbulent structures have been observed in a wide range of living fluids, yet no quantitative theory exists to explain their properties. We report experiments on active turbulence in highly concentrated 3D suspensions of Bacillus subtilis and compare them with a minimal fourth-order vector-field theory for incompressible bacterial dynamics. Velocimetry of bacteria and surrounding fluid, determined by imaging cells and tracking colloidal tracers, yields consistent results for velocity statistics and correlations over two orders of magnitude in kinetic energy, revealing a decrease of fluid memory with increasing swimming activity and linear scaling between energy and enstrophy. The best-fit model parameters allow for quantitative agreement with experimental data.

Jörn Dunkel; Sebastian Heidenreich; Knut Drescher; Henricus H. Wensink; Markus Bär; Raymond E. Goldstein

2013-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid catalytic cracker" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Wellbottom fluid implosion treatment system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for inducing implosion shock forces on perforation traversing earth formations with fluid pressure where an implosion tool is selected relative to a shut in well pressure and a tubing pressure to have a large and small area piston relationship in a well tool so that at a predetermined tubing pressure the pistons move a sufficient distance to open an implosion valve which permits a sudden release of well fluid pressure into the tubing string and produces an implosion force on the perforations. A pressure gauge on the well tool records tubing pressure and well pressure as a function of time.

Brieger, Emmet F. (HC 67 Box 58, Nogal, NM 88341)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Holographic plasma and anyonic fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use alternative quantisation of the $D3/D5$ system to explore properties of a strongly coupled charged plasma and strongly coupled anyonic fluids. The $S$-transform of the $D3/D5$ system is used as a model for charged matter interacting with a U(1) gauge field in the large coupling regime, and we compute the dispersion relationship of the propagating electromagnetic modes as the density and temperature are changed. A more general $SL(2,\\mathbb{Z})$ transformation gives a strongly interacting anyonic fluid, and we study its transport properties as we change the statistics of the anyons and the background magnetic field.

Daniel K. Brattan; Gilad Lifschytz

2013-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

283

Directed flow fluid rinse trough  

SciTech Connect

Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The tanks are suitable for one or more essentially planar items having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs also require less rinse fluid to accomplish a thorough rinse than prior art troughs.

Kempka, Steven N. (9504 Lona La., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Walters, Robert N. (11872 LaGrange St., Boise, ID 83709)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Heat Transfer in Complex Fluids  

SciTech Connect

Amongst the most important constitutive relations in Mechanics, when characterizing the behavior of complex materials, one can identify the stress tensor T, the heat flux vector q (related to heat conduction) and the radiant heating (related to the radiation term in the energy equation). Of course, the expression 'complex materials' is not new. In fact, at least since the publication of the paper by Rivlin & Ericksen (1955), who discussed fluids of complexity (Truesdell & Noll, 1992), to the recently published books (Deshpande et al., 2010), the term complex fluids refers in general to fluid-like materials whose response, namely the stress tensor, is 'non-linear' in some fashion. This non-linearity can manifest itself in variety of forms such as memory effects, yield stress, creep or relaxation, normal-stress differences, etc. The emphasis in this chapter, while focusing on the constitutive modeling of complex fluids, is on granular materials (such as coal) and non-linear fluids (such as coal-slurries). One of the main areas of interest in energy related processes, such as power plants, atomization, alternative fuels, etc., is the use of slurries, specifically coal-water or coal-oil slurries, as the primary fuel. Some studies indicate that the viscosity of coal-water mixtures depends not only on the volume fraction of solids, and the mean size and the size distribution of the coal, but also on the shear rate, since the slurry behaves as shear-rate dependent fluid. There are also studies which indicate that preheating the fuel results in better performance, and as a result of such heating, the viscosity changes. Constitutive modeling of these non-linear fluids, commonly referred to as non-Newtonian fluids, has received much attention. Most of the naturally occurring and synthetic fluids are non-linear fluids, for example, polymer melts, suspensions, blood, coal-water slurries, drilling fluids, mud, etc. It should be noted that sometimes these fluids show Newtonian (linear) behavior for a given range of parameters or geometries; there are many empirical or semi-empirical constitutive equations suggested for these fluids. There have also been many non-linear constitutive relations which have been derived based on the techniques of continuum mechanics. The non-linearities oftentimes appear due to higher gradient terms or time derivatives. When thermal and or chemical effects are also important, the (coupled) momentum and energy equations can give rise to a variety of interesting problems, such as instability, for example the phenomenon of double-diffusive convection in a fluid layer. In Conclusion, we have studied the flow of a compressible (density gradient type) non-linear fluid down an inclined plane, subject to radiation boundary condition. The heat transfer is also considered where a source term, similar to the Arrhenius type reaction, is included. The non-dimensional forms of the equations are solved numerically and the competing effects of conduction, dissipation, heat generation and radiation are discussed. It is observed that the velocity increases rapidly in the region near the inclined surface and is slower in the region near the free surface. Since R{sub 7} is a measure of the heat generation due to chemical reaction, when the reaction is frozen (R{sub 7}=0.0) the temperature distributions would depend only on R{sub 1}, and R{sub 2}, representing the effects of the pressure force developed in the material due to the distribution, R{sub 3} and R{sub 4} viscous dissipation, R{sub 5} the normal stress coefficient, R{sub 6} the measure of the emissivity of the particles to the thermal conductivity, etc. When the flow is not frozen (RP{sub 7} > 0) the temperature inside the flow domain is much higher than those at the inclined and free surfaces. As a result, heat is transferred away from the flow toward both the inclined surface and the free surface with a rate that increases as R{sub 7} increases. For a given temperature, an increase in {zeta} implies that the activation energy is smaller and thus, the reaction ra

Mehrdad Massoudi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Catalytic hydroprocessing of shale oil to produce distillate fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results are presented of a Chevron Research Company study sponsored by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) to demonstrate the feasibility of converting whole shale oil to a synthetic crude resembling a typical petroleum distillate. The synthetic crude thus produced can then be processed, in conventional petroleum-refining facilities, to transportation fuels such as high octane gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. The raw shale oil feed used is a typical Colorado shale oil produced in a surface retort in the so-called indirectly heated mode. It is shown that whole shale oil can be catalytically hydrodenitrified to reduce the nitrogen to levels as low as one part per million in a single catalytic stage. However, for economic reasons, it appears preferable to denitrify to about 0.05 wt % nitrogen. The resulting synthetic crude resembles a petroleum distillate that can be fractionated and further processed as necessary in conventional petroleum refining facilities. Shale oil contains about 0.6% sulfur. Sulfur is more easily removed by hydrofining than is nitrogen; therefore, only a few parts per million of sulfur remain at a product nitrogen of 0.05 wt %. Oxygen contained in the shale oil is also reduced to low levels during hydrodenitrification. The shale oil contains appreciable quantities of iron and arsenic which are also potential catalyst poisons. These metals are removed by a guard bed placed upstream from the hydrofining catalyst. Based on correlations, the naphthas from the shale oil hydrofiner can readily be upgraded to high octane gasolines by catalytic reforming. The middle distillate fractions may require some additional hydrofining to produce salable diesel or jet fuel. The technology is available, and pilot plant studies are scheduled to verify diesel hydrofiner performance.

Sullivan, R.F.; Stangeland, B.E.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Fabrication of catalytic electrodes for molten carbonate fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A porous layer of catalyst material suitable for use as an electrode in a molten carbonate fuel cell includes elongated pores substantially extending across the layer thickness. The catalyst layer is prepared by depositing particulate catalyst material into polymeric flocking on a substrate surface by a procedure such as tape casting. The loaded substrate is heated in a series of steps with rising temperatures to set the tape, thermally decompose the substrate with flocking and sinter bond the catalyst particles into a porous catalytic layer with elongated pores across its thickness. Employed as an electrode, the elongated pores provide distribution of reactant gas into contact with catalyst particles wetted by molten electrolyte.

Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Catalytic steam gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) tested the catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol synthesis gas. The process uses steam, indirect heat, and a catalyst to produce synthesis gas in one step in fluidized bed gasifier. Both laboratory and process development scale (nominal 1 ton/day) gasifiers were used to test two different catalyst systems: (1) supported nickel catalysts and (2) alkali carbonates doped on the bagasse. This paper presents the results of laboratory and process development unit gasification tests and includes an economic evaluation of the process. 20 references, 6 figures, 9 tables.

Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Inter-Layer Mixing in Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary parameter for achieving high NOx reduction and low ammonia (NH3) slip in Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems on large coal-fired boilers is a uniform NH3/NOx ratio distribution at the catalyst surface. Large non-uniformities yield local NH3/NOx ratios greater than one, leading directly to NH3 slip. Areas of low NH3/NOx ratios have low NOx reduction. Both of these conditions are undesirable. SCR system designers specify a maximum acceptable NH3/NOx non-uniformity at the catalyst inlet....

2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

289

Catalytic H2O2 decomposition on palladium surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The catalytic decomposition of H?O? at smooth single-crystal and polycrystalline palladium surfaces that had been subjected to various surface modifications has been studied. Monolayer and submonolayer coverages of I, Br and Cl adsorbates were used to pretrial the palladium surfaces. The rate of decomposition was found to be dependent upon the coverage and identity of the halogen adsorbate. Experimental measurements were based upon Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low-energy electron Diffraction (LEED) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for the surface adlayers, redox titration for H?O? concentration determinations, and evolved-O? gas volume measurements for the decomposition rates.

Salinas, S. Adriana

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Catalytic reforming of liquid fuels: Deactivation of catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The catalytic reforming of logistic fuels (e.g., diesel) to provide hydrogen-rich gas for various fuel cells is inevitably accompanied by deactivation. This deactivation can be caused by various mechanisms, such as carbon deposition, sintering, and sulfur poisoning. In general, these mechanisms are, not independent—e.g., carbon deposition may affect sulfur poisoning. However, they are typically studied in separate experiments, with relatively little work reported on their interaction at conditions typical of liquid fuel reforming. Recent work at the U.S. Dept. of Energy/NETL and Louisiana State University has shown progress in understanding the interaction of these deactivation processes, and catalysts designed to minimize them.

Spivey, J.J.; Haynes, D.J.; Berry, D.A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Gardner, T.H.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Catalytic effects of period iv transition metal in the oxidation of biodiesel.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??CATALYTIC EFFECTS OF PERIOD IV TRANSITION METALS IN THE OXIDATION OF BIODIESEL BRADLEY R CLARK December 2011 Advisors: Dr. Steve Salley, Dr. Simon Ng, Dr.… (more)

Clark, Bradley

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Catalytic conversion of C3+ alcohols to hydrocarbon blend-stock  

Catalytic conversion of C3+ alcohols to hydrocarbon blend-stock Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing rights to this ...

293

Microsoft Word - 41890_PW_Catalytic Combustion_Factsheet_Rev01...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plan and Integration Study for rich catalytic combustion as applied to industrial gas turbines fired on both natural gas and coal derived synthesis gas. The overall goal is...

294

Experimental investigation and systems modeling of fractional catalytic pyrolysis of pine .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The fractional catalytic pyrolysis of pine was studied both experimentally and through models. A preliminary stage economic analysis was conducted for a wood chip pyrolysis… (more)

Goteti, Anil Chaitanya

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% {sup 239}Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: {sm_bullet}bare, {sm_bullet}1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or {sm_bullet}12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection.

WITTEKIND WD

2007-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

296

Environmentally Acceptable Transformer Fluids: An Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report offers information about the physical, dielectric, chemical, and environmental properties of transformer fluids and their operational impacts. Companies can use this information to choose environmentally acceptable green fluids.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

297

Fluid sampling system for a nuclear reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system of extracting fluid samples, either liquid or gas, from the interior of a nuclear reactor containment utilizes a jet pump. To extract the sample fluid, a nonradioactive motive fluid is forced through the inlet and discharge ports of a jet pump located outside the containment, creating a suction that draws the sample fluid from the containment through a sample conduit connected to the pump suction port. The mixture of motive fluid and sample fluid is discharged through a return conduit to the interior of the containment. The jet pump and means for removing a portion of the sample fluid from the sample conduit can be located in a shielded sample grab station located next to the containment. A non-nuclear grade active pump can be located outside the grab sampling station and the containment to pump the nonradioactive motive fluid through the jet pump. 1 fig.

Lau, L.K.; Alper, N.I.

1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

298

Graphene Compositions And Drilling Fluids Derived Therefrom ...  

Drilling fluids comprising graphenes and nanoplatelet additives and methods for production thereof are disclosed. Graphene includes graphite oxide, graphene oxide ...

299

SUBSIDENCE DUE TO GEOTHERMAL FLUID WITHDRAWAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

drilling activity completely ceased. Of these, 65 bores account for about 95 percent of the total fluid

Narasimhan, T.N.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Fluid Metrology Calibration Services - Water Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fluid Metrology Calibration Services - Water Flow. Water Flow Calibrations 18020C. ... NIST provides calibration services for water flow meters. ...

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid catalytic cracker" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Attrition Resistant Catalyst Materials for Fluid Bed ...  

Biomass and Biofuels Attrition Resistant Catalyst Materials for Fluid Bed Applications National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Contact NREL About This ...

302

Ultrasonic fluid densitometer for process control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses at least one pair of transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within a material wedge. A temperature sensor is provided to monitor the temperature of the wedge material. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface and comparing a transducer voltage and wedge material temperature to a tabulation as a function of density.

Greenwood, Margaret S. (Richland, WA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Catalytic combustor for integrated gasification combined cycle power plant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gasification power plant 10 includes a compressor 32 producing a compressed air flow 36, an air separation unit 22 producing a nitrogen flow 44, a gasifier 14 producing a primary fuel flow 28 and a secondary fuel source 60 providing a secondary fuel flow 62 The plant also includes a catalytic combustor 12 combining the nitrogen flow and a combustor portion 38 of the compressed air flow to form a diluted air flow 39 and combining at least one of the primary fuel flow and secondary fuel flow and a mixer portion 78 of the diluted air flow to produce a combustible mixture 80. A catalytic element 64 of the combustor 12 separately receives the combustible mixture and a backside cooling portion 84 of the diluted air flow and allows the mixture and the heated flow to produce a hot combustion gas 46 provided to a turbine 48. When fueled with the secondary fuel flow, nitrogen is not combined with the combustor portion.

Bachovchin, Dennis M. (Mauldin, SC); Lippert, Thomas E. (Murrysville, PA)

2008-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

304

Intensified Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Process with Microchannel Catalytic Reactors  

SciTech Connect

A microchannel catalytic reactor with improved heat and mass transport has been used for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to produce fuels and chemicals. This type of novel reactor takes advantages of highly active and selective catalysts with increased site density so that the FT synthesis process can be intensified. It was demonstrated that this microchannel reactor based process can be carried out at gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) as high as 60,000 hr-1 to achieve greater than 60% of one-pass CO conversion while maintaining low methane selectivity (<10%) and high chain growth probability(>0.9). Such superior FT synthesis performance has not ever been reported in the prior open literatures. The overall productivity to heavy hydrocarbons has been significantly improved over the conventional reactor technology. In this study, performance data were obtained in a wide range of pressure (10atm-35atm) and hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio (1-2.5). The catalytic system was characterized by BET, scanning electron microcopy (SEM), transmission electron microcopy(TEM), and H2 chemisorption. A three dimensional pseudo-homogeneous model were used to simulate temperature profiles in the exothermic reaction system in order to optimize the reactor design and intensify the synthesis process. Intraparticle non-isothermal characteristics are also analyzed for the FT synthesis catalyst.

Cao, Chunshe; Hu, Jianli; Li, Shari; Wilcox, Wayne A.; Wang, Yong

2009-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

305

An Exploration of Catalytic Chemistry on Au/Ni(111)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project explored the catalytic oxidation chemistry that can be effected on a Au/Ni(111) surface alloy. A Au/Ni(111) surface alloy is a Ni(111) surface on which less than 60% of the Ni atoms are replaced at random positions by Au atoms. The alloy is produced by vapor deposition of a small amount of Au onto Ni single crystals. The Au atoms do not result in an epitaxial Au overlayer or in the condensation of the Au into droplets. Instead, Au atoms displace and then replace Ni atoms on a Ni(111) surface, even though Au is immiscible in bulk Ni. The two dimensional structure of the clean Ni surface is preserved. This alloy is found to stabilize an adsorbed peroxo-like O2 species that is shown to be the critical reactant in the low temperature catalytic oxidation of CO and that is suspected to be the critical reactant in other oxidation reactions. This investigation revealed a new, practically important catalyst for CO oxidation that has since been patented.

Sylvia T. Ceyer

2011-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

306

Design of Catalytic Materials for Plasma Assisted Catalysis System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In recent years, the Plasma Assisted Catalysis (PAC) approach for controlling NOx and/or particulate emissions from mobile diesel engines has received a significant amount of attention from researchers. Substantial work has been performed by various researchers to develop an understanding of the reaction mechanisms in a plasma reactor in conjunction with conventional lean-NOx catalyst materials. However, less effort has been devoted to systematically investigating new catalyst materials specifically designed for application in the PAC system. Since it is believed that plasma produces a unique environment for a catalyst bed (i.e. oxidation of NO to NO2 and partial oxidation/reforming of hydrocarbon reductants in the exhaust), new catalytic materials that take advantage of the plasma reactor conditions need to be studied. Optimum catalyst materials will be required in order to develop a PAC system that achieves maximum deNOx performance over the wide range of operating conditions in which the system will be required to operate for application on heavy duty diesel engines. This presentation discusses the issues involved in designing catalytic materials for achieving high NOx conversion in a laboratory test PAC system, and what is required to improve the catalyst materials further for application in an on-engine environment.

Park, Paul W.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

307

Helium measurements of pore-fluids obtained from SAFOD drillcore  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ionized water (DI) as drilling fluid. This procedure avoidsbeen contaminated with drilling fluids during recovery ofscheduled drilling phases to enable fluid-only sampling.

Ali, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Wavelet Turbulence for Fluid Simulation Theodore Kim  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the running time. We instead propose an algorithm that generates small-scale fluid de- tail procedurally. We of the key results of Kolmogorov the- ory is that the energy spectrum of a turbulent fluid approaches a five spectra [Perrier et al. 1995], and the sub- stitution is common in fluid dynamics [Farge et al. 1996

California at Santa Barbara, University of

309

Two Fluid Shear-Free Composites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shear-free composite fluids are constructed from two Letelier rotated unaligned perfect fluids. The component fluid parameters necessary to construct a shear-free composite are investigated. A metric in the Stephani-Barnes solution family and a simple stationary metric are discussed.

J. P. Krisch; E. N. Glass

2013-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

310

Fall 2011 ME 542 Advanced Fluid Mechanics ENG ME 542 Advanced Fluid Mechanics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fall 2011 ME 542 Advanced Fluid Mechanics ENG ME 542 Advanced Fluid Mechanics Instructor: M. S. Howe EMA 218 mshowe@bu.edu This course is intended to consolidate your knowledge of fluid mechanics specialized courses on fluid mechanics, acoustics and aeroacoustics. Outline syllabus: Equations of motion

311

Cookie and Cracker Baking Plant EPI | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Federal agency resources Grocery & convenience stores resources Healthcare resources Higher education resources Home-based business resources Hospitality resources Industrial...

312

Research on Algae Removal by Electro-flotation/Photo-catalytic Oxidization Combined Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The lake-type raw water was treated in Photo-catalytic Oxidization reactor. Under the condition of the inflow discharge control in 15L/h, the padding packing compares 2/5, UV lamp 30W, added no chemicals, pH 7.35, use the electro-flotation to treat it ... Keywords: algae, Electro-flotation, photo-catalytic oxidization

Wang Liping; Jiang Weijuan; Gao Naiyun

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

==================== !"#$%&'()*+,-+./,0)12 Development of Micro Ejector for Butane Catalytic Combustor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

==================== !"#$%&'()*+,-+./,0)12 Development of Micro Ejector for Butane Catalytic Combustor ===== ==== !" = !" = = !" A micro ejector for butane catalytic combustor is investigated. Quasi-1 ejector that the volume flow rate of entrained air can reach 43 times the value of butane when the back

Kasagi, Nobuhide

314

Simulation and Optimization of the Stabilizer Tower Operation at Catalytic Reforming of Esfahan Oil Refining Company  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Production of gasoline with low RVP specifications have made the operators of the catalytic reforming unit of Esfahan Oil refining company in Iran to apply new operating conditions. RVP is an abbreviation for Reid Vapor Pressure which is the vapor pressure ... Keywords: RVP, platformate, initial boiling point, catalytic reforming, distillation curve

Ali Izadyar; Bahram Hashemi Shahraki; Ahmad Shariati

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

MEMS-based fuel cells with integrated catalytic fuel processor and method thereof  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Described herein is a means to incorporate catalytic materials into the fuel flow field structures of MEMS-based fuel cells, which enable catalytic reforming of a hydrocarbon based fuel, such as methane, methanol, or butane. Methods of fabrication are also disclosed.

Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Havstad, Mark A. (Davis, CA)

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

316

Control of Natural Gas Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Hydrogen Generation in Fuel Cell Applications1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Control of Natural Gas Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Hydrogen Generation in Fuel Cell Ghosh3 , Huei Peng2 Abstract A fuel processor that reforms natural gas to hydrogen-rich mixture to feed of the hydrogen in the fuel processor is based on catalytic partial oxidation of the methane in the natural gas

Peng, Huei

317

Catalytic studies of supported Pd-Au catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although Pd-Au high-surface area catalysts are used in industry to improve activity and selectivity, a thorough understanding of the nature of these enhancements is lacking. A molecular-level understanding of catalytic reactions under actual reaction conditions is the ultimate goal. This thesis is mainly focused on the application of Pd-Au supported catalysts for vinyl acetate synthesis and CO oxidation reactions using highsurface area catalysts. We have attempted to improve the conventional Pd-Au based catalyst by synthesizing novel acetate-based and polymer-based catalysts. The corresponding catalytic reactivity and selectivity were measured and compared to conventional Pd-Au based catalyst systems. Subsequent characterization was performed using characterization techniques, such as, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From our bimetallic catalytic studies, it was evident that the addition of Au to Pd leads to increased reactivity and selectivity. This surface modification is an important factor in the altered reaction kinetics for vinyl acetate (VA) synthesis and CO oxidation reactions. Promoted and unpromoted Pd-Au/SiO2/K+ catalyst were used for VA synthesis and the effect of pre-adsorbed O2, acetic acid and the role of oxygen were explored. The VA reaction rate of novel acetate-based Pd-Au/SiO2 catalyst was 3.5 times higher than conventional Pd-Au catalysts. Also, 100% selectivity was obtained for acetate-based Pd-Au/SiO2 at 130 oC and the VA formation rate was comparable to that of conventional Pd-Au catalysts. Therefore, the acetate-based Pd-Au/SiO2 catalyst seems very promising and can be explored further. Also, Pd(1):Au(4)/SiO2 catalysts demonstrate 100% CO conversion at much lower temperatures (90 oC) compared with other Pd-Au based catalysts. Furthermore, we were successful in obtaining sufficient CO oxidation activity with increased metal loading (5 wt%) and these catalysts did not deactivate under above-ambient reaction temperature conditions, which make 1:4 Pd- Au/SiO2 catalyst a good candidate for further exploration in CO oxidation reactions.

Boopalachandran, Praveenkumar

318

Fluid Inclusion Analysis | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fluid Inclusion Analysis Fluid Inclusion Analysis Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Fluid Inclusion Analysis Details Activities (20) Areas (11) Regions (1) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Lab Analysis Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Fluid Lab Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Fluid Lab Analysis Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Fluid composition at a point in time and space Thermal: The minimum temperature of fluid inclusion formation Cost Information Low-End Estimate (USD): 17.571,757 centUSD 0.0176 kUSD 1.757e-5 MUSD 1.757e-8 TUSD / sample Median Estimate (USD): 17.571,757 centUSD 0.0176 kUSD 1.757e-5 MUSD 1.757e-8 TUSD / sample High-End Estimate (USD): 26.782,678 centUSD

319

Microsoft Word - 41891_SWPC_Catalytic Combustor_Factsheet_Rev01_04-24.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

891_SWPC_CATALYTIC COMBUSTOR_FACTSHEET_REV01_04-24.DOC 891_SWPC_CATALYTIC COMBUSTOR_FACTSHEET_REV01_04-24.DOC Facts Sheet: Catalytic Combustor for Fuel Flexible Gas Turbine (DE-FC26-03NT41891) I. PROJECT PARTICIPANTS A. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation B. Caterpillar/Solar Turbine C. Penn State University D. Southern Company Services II. PROJECT DESCRIPTION A. Objective: To develop and demonstrate a cost effective, fuel flexible (syngas/natural gas) catalytic combustor that will achieve ultra low NOx emissions (2ppm) at the exit of the gas turbine and without the use of backend cleanup in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) application. B. Background/Relevancy 1. Background: Catalytic combustion has been shown to achieve lowest emissions in conventional gas turbine application (natural gas only). Available technical data indicate that it can be effective

320

Catalytic carbon membranes for hydrogen production. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Commercial carbon composite microfiltration membranes may be modified for gas separation applications by providing a gas separation layer with pores in the 1- to 10-nm range. Several organic polymeric precursors and techniques for depositing a suitable layer were investigated in this project. The in situ polymerization technique was found to be the most promising, and pure component permeation tests with membrane samples prepared with this technique indicated Knudsen diffusion behavior. The gas separation factors obtained by mixed-gas permeation tests were found to depend strongly on gas temperature and pressure indicating significant viscous flow at high-pressure conditions. The modified membranes were used to carry out simultaneous water gas shift reaction and product hydrogen separation. These tests indicated increasing CO conversions with increasing hydrogen separation. A simple process model was developed to simulate a catalytic membrane reactor. A number of simulations were carried out to identify operating conditions leading to product hydrogen concentrations over 90 percent. (VC)

Damle, A.S.; Gangwal, S.K.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid catalytic cracker" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Catalytic Hydrogenation of Bio-Oil for Chemicals and Fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The scope of work includes optimizing processing conditions and demonstrating catalyst lifetime for catalyst formulations that are readily scaleable to commercial operations. We use a bench-scale, continuous-flow, packed-bed, catalytic, tubular reactor, which can be operated in the range of 100-400 mL/hr., from 50-400 C and up to 20MPa (see Figure 1). With this unit we produce upgraded bio-oil from whole bio-oil or useful bio-oil fractions, specifically pyrolytic lignin. The product oils are fractionated, for example by distillation, for recovery of chemical product streams. Other products from our tests have been used in further testing in petroleum refining technology at UOP and fractionation for product recovery in our own lab. Further scale-up of the technology is envisioned and we will carry out or support process design efforts with industrial partners, such as UOP.

Elliott, Douglas C.

2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

322

Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis for the Production of the Hydrocarbon Biofuels  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic fast pyrolysis is a promising technique for conversion of biomass into hydrocarbons for use as transportation fuels. For over 30 years this process has been studied and it has been demonstrated that oils can be produced with high concentrations of hydrocarbons and low levels of oxygen. However, the yields from this type of conversion are typically low and the catalysts, which are often zeolites, are quickly deactivated through coking. In addition, the hydrocarbons produced are primarily aromatic molecules (benzene, toluene, xylene) that not desirable for petroleum refineries and are not well suited for diesel or jet engines. The goals of our research are to develop new multifunction catalysts for the production of gasoline, diesel and jet fuel range molecules and to improve process conditions for higher yields and low coking rates. We are investigating filtration and the use of hydrogen donor molecules to improve catalyst performance.

Nimlos, M. R.; Robichaud, D. J.; Mukaratate, C.; Donohoe, B. S.; Iisa, K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Phenol and phenolics from lignocellulosic biomass by catalytic microwave pyrolysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalytic microwave pyrolysis of biomass using activated carbon was investigated to determine the effects of pyrolytic conditions on the yields of phenol and phenolics. The high concentrations of phenol (38.9%) and phenolics (66.9%) were obtained at the temperature of 589 K, catalyst-to-biomass ratio of 3:1 and retention time of 8 min. The increase of phenol and its derivatives compared to pyrolysis without catalysts has a close relationship with the decomposition of lignin under the performance of activated carbon. The concentration of esters was also increased using activated carbon as a catalyst. The high content of phenols obtained in this study can be used either directly as fuel after upgrading or as feedstock of biobased phenols for chemical industry.

Bu, Quan; Lei, Hanwu; Ren, Shoujie; Wang, Lu; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Zhang, Qin; Tang, Juming; Ruan, Roger

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Coal hydrogenation and deashing in ebullated bed catalytic reactor  

SciTech Connect

An improved process for hydrogenation of coal containing ash with agglomeration and removal of ash from an ebullated bed catalytic reactor to produce deashed hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, a flowable coal-oil slurry is reacted with hydrogen in an ebullated catalyst bed reaction zone at elevated temperature and pressure conditions. The upward velocity and viscosity of the reactor liquid are controlled so that a substantial portion of the ash released from the coal is agglomerated to form larger particles in the upper portion of the reactor above the catalyst bed, from which the agglomerated ash is separately withdrawn along with adhering reaction zone liquid. The resulting hydrogenated hydrocarbon effluent material product is phase separated to remove vapor fractions, after which any ash remaining in the liquid fraction can be removed to produce substantially ash-free coal-derived liquid products.

Huibers, Derk T. A. (Pennington, NJ); Johanson, Edwin S. (Princeton, NJ)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline , diesel and jet range blendstocks . Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

326

In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline, diesel, and jet range blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

327

For stricter emissions needs, try custom catalytic reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When O`Brien California Cogen Ltd. was contracted to develop a system to generate steam for an Artesia, Calif., mild producer`s evaporation process, local regulations required NO{sub x} emissions reduced 9 ppm and CO to 10 ppm. Johnson Matthey supplied the solution with a custom system combining an oxidation catalyst to control CSO emissions and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system to control NO{sub x}. O`Brien`s cogen operation runs off an aircraft-derivative GE Gas Turbine, model LM2500, with a 22.4-MW output. The catalyst system is installed in the exhaust stream of a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) form the Henry Vogt Machine Co.

Chambers, A.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Method For Selective Catalytic Reduction Of Nitrogen Oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

Mowery-Evans, Deborah L. (Broomfield, CO); Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

329

Method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

Mowery-Evans, Deborah L. (Broomfield, CO); Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

330

Removal of sulfur from recycle gas streams in catalytic reforming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes improvement in a process for catalytically reforming a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock boiling in the gasoline range, wherein the reforming is conducted in the presence of hydrogen in a reforming process unit under reforming conditions, the process unit comprised of serially connected reactors, each of the reactors containing a reforming catalyst, and which process unit also includes a regeneration circuit for regenerating the catalyst after it becomes coked, the regeneration comprising treatment with a sulfur containing gas, and which process unit also includes a gas/liquid separator wherein a portion of the gas is recycled and the remaining portion is collected as make-gas. The improvement comprises using a sulfur trap, containing a catalyst comprised of about 10 to about 70 wt. % nickel dispersed on a support, between the gas/liquid separator and the first reactor.

Boyle, J.P.

1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

331

Producing Clean Syngas via Catalytic Reforming for Fuels Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermochemical biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals can be achieved through gasification to syngas. The biomass derived raw syngas contains the building blocks of carbon monoxide and hydrogen as well as impurities such as tars, light hydrocarbons, and hydrogen sulfide. These impurities must be removed prior to fuel synthesis. We used catalytic reforming to convert tars and hydrocarbons to additional syngas, which increases biomass carbon utilization. In this work, nickel based, fluidizable tar reforming catalysts were synthesized and evaluated for tar and methane reforming performance with oak and model syngas in two types of pilot scale fluidized reactors (recirculating and recirculating regenerating). Because hydrogen sulfide (present in raw syngas and added to model syngas) reacts with the active nickel surface, regeneration with steam and hydrogen was required. Pre and post catalyst characterization showed changes specific to the syngas type used. Results of this work will be discussed in the context of selecting the best process for pilot scale demonstration.

Magrini, K. A.; Parent, Y.; Jablonski, W.; Yung, M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Advances in the chemistry of catalytic reforming of naphtha  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalytic reforming of naphtha remains the key process for production of high octane gasoline and aromatics (BTX) which are used as petrochemicals feedstocks. The increased demand for these products has led refiners to investigate ways for improving the performance of the reforming process and its catalysts. Moreover, in order to comply with environmental restrictions, the reduction in lead content would require further increase in the reformate octane number. In response to these requirements, refiners and catalyst manufacturers are examining the role of the catalysts in improving the selectivity to aromatics and in octane enhancement. By understanding the chemistry and the mechanism of the reforming process, higher performance catalysts with longer life on stream and lower cost can be developed. This review covers recent developments in reforming catalysts, process reaction chemistry and mechanism. It also highlights prospective areas of research.

Anabtawi, J.A.; Redwan, D.S.; Al-Jarallah, A.M.; Aitani, A.M. (Petroleum and Gas Technology Div., Research Inst., King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (SA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Separation of hydrogen from a catalytic reforming zone effluent stream  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process for the catalytic reforming of a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock at reforming conditions including a pressure of from about 50 to about 250 psig. Is disclosed. A portion of the hydrogen-rich vapor phase recovered from the reforming zone effluent at a relatively low pressure is compressed and recycled to the reforming zone without further purification. The balance of said hydrogen-rich vapor phase, or the net hydrogen, is compressed to a relatively high pressure and recontacted with at least a portion of the liquid hydrocarbon phase recovered from said low pressure separation to effect a further purification of said net hydrogen and to maximize the recovery of C/sub 3/-C/sub 6/+ the liquid phase.

Schmelzer, E.; Tagamolila, C.P.

1983-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

334

Applications and benefits of catalytic converter thermal management  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A catalytic converter thermal management system (TMS) using variable-conductance vacuum insulation and phase-change thermal storage can maintain the converter temperature above its operating temperature for many hours, allowing most trips to begin with minimal ``cold-start`` emissions. The latest converter TMS prototype was tested on a Ford Taurus (3.0 liter flex-fuel engine) at Southwest Research Institute. Following a 24-hour soak, the FTP-75 emissions were 0.031, 0.13, and 0.066 g/mile for NMHC, CO, and NOx, respectively. Tests were also run using 85% ethanol (E85), resulting in values of 0.005, 0.124, and 0.044 g/mile, and 0.005 g/mile NMOG. Compared to the baseline FTP levels, these values represent reductions of 84% to 96% for NMHC, NMOG, and CO.

Burch, S.D.; Keyser, M.A.; Colucci, C.P.; Potter, T.F.; Benson, D.K.; Biel, J.P.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Br�������¸nsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with blending octane No. of 105, and can replace aromatics in liquid fuels.

Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman

2005-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

336

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Prepr. Pap.-Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Fuel Chem. 2004, 49 (2), xxxx NON-THERMAL PLASMA CATALYTIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrocarbons can be carried out in a number of ways: steam reforming, thermo-catalytic reforming, partial

338

Improvement of Sulphur Resistance of a Nickel-modified Catalytic Filter for Tar Removal from Biomass Gasification Gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work focuses on the development of catalytic candle filters for the simultaneous removal of tars and particles from the biomass gasification gas at high temperature. An improvement of sulphur resistance of the nickel-activated catalytic filter was developed by the addition of CaO. The influences of preparation procedure of catalytic filter, the ratio of Ni/CaO and the loading of Ni and CaO on the performance of the catalytic filter were investigated.

Zhang, Y.; Draelants, D.J.; Engelen, K.; Baron, G.V.

2002-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

339

Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion. 3 figs.

Fincke, J.R.

1982-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

340

Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion.

Fincke, James R. (Rigby, ID)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid catalytic cracker" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

GREENHOUSE GAS CATALYTIC REFORMING TO SYNGAS A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GREENHOUSE GAS CATALYTIC REFORMING TO SYNGAS A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment've missed over the past two years. #12;4 TABLE OF CONTENTS GREENHOUSE GAS CATALYTIC REFORMING TO SYNGAS 1.083 moles CH4, 0.083 moles CO2, and 0.834 moles Ar which are the inlet conditions for many of the catalytic

Columbia University

342

Apparatus for unloading pressurized fluid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus is described for unloading fluid, preferably pressurized gas, from containers in a controlled manner that protects the immediate area from exposure to the container contents. The device consists of an unloading housing, which is enclosed within at least one protective structure, for receiving the dispensed contents of the steel container, and a laser light source, located external to the protective structure, for opening the steel container instantaneously. The neck or stem of the fluid container is placed within the sealed interior environment of the unloading housing. The laser light passes through both the protective structure and the unloading housing to instantaneously pierce a small hole within the stem of the container. Both the protective structure and the unloading housing are specially designed to allow laser light passage without compromising the light's energy level. Also, the unloading housing allows controlled flow of the gas once it has been dispensed from the container. The external light source permits remote operation of the unloading device. 2 figures.

Rehberger, K.M.

1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

343

Controlling the fluid-fluid mixing-demixing phase transition with electric fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review recent theoretical advances on controlling the fluid-fluid phase transition with electric fields. Using a mean-field approach, we compare the effects of uniform versus non-uniform electric fields, and show how non-uniform fields are better at altering the phase diagram. Focusing on non-uniform fields, we then discuss the behavior of the fluid concentration profile and the parameters (temperature, fluid concentration, etc.) that control the location of the fluid-fluid interface from both equilibrium and dynamic perspectives.

Jennifer Galanis; Sela Samin; Yoav Tsori

2012-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

344

DWPF CATALYTIC HYDROGEN GENERATION PROGRAM - REVIEW OF CURRENT STATUS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Significant progress has been made in the past two years in improving the understanding of acid consumption and catalytic hydrogen generation during the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processing of waste sludges in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). This report reviews issues listed in prior internal reviews, describes progress with respect to the recommendations made by the December 2006 external review panel, and presents a summary of the current understanding of catalytic hydrogen generation in the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC). Noble metals, such as Pd, Rh, and Ru, are historically known catalysts for the conversion of formic acid into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Rh, Ru, and Pd are present in the DWPF SRAT feed as by-products of thermal neutron fission of {sup 235}U in the original waste. Rhodium appears to become most active for hydrogen as the nitrite ion concentration becomes low (within a factor of ten of the Rh concentration). Prior to hydrogen generation, Rh is definitely active for nitrite destruction to N{sub 2}O and potentially active for nitrite to NO formation. These reactions are all consistent with the presence of a nitro-Rh complex catalyst, although definite proof for the existence of this complex during Savannah River Site (SRS) waste processing does not exist. Ruthenium does not appear to become active for hydrogen generation until nitrite destruction is nearly complete (perhaps less nitrite than Ru in the system). Catalytic activity of Ru during nitrite destruction is significantly lower than that of either Rh or Pd. Ru appears to start activating as Rh is deactivating from its maximum catalytic activity for hydrogen generation. The slow activation of the Ru, as inferred from the slow rate of increase in hydrogen generation that occurs after initiation, may imply that some species (perhaps Ru itself) has some bound nitrite on it. Ru, rather than Rh, is primarily responsible for the hydrogen generation in the SME cycle when the hydrogen levels are high enough to be noteworthy. Mercury has a role in catalytic hydrogen generation. Two potentially distinct roles have been identified. The most dramatic effect of Hg on hydrogen generation occurs between runs with and without any Hg. When a small amount of Hg is present, it has a major inhibiting effect on Rh-catalyzed H{sub 2} generation. The Rh-Ru-Hg matrix study showed that increasing mercury from 0.5 to 2.5 wt% in the SRAT receipt total solids did not improve the inhibiting effect significantly. The next most readily identified role for Hg is the impact it has on accelerating NO production from nitrite ion. This reaction shifts the time that the ideal concentration of nitrite relative to Rh occurs, and consequently causes the most active nitro-Rh species to form sooner. The potential consequences of this shift in timing are expected to be a function of other factors such as amount of excess acid, Rh concentration, etc. Graphical data from the Rh-Ru-Hg study suggested that Hg might also be responsible for partially inhibiting Ru-catalysis initially, but that the inhibition was not sustained through the SRAT and SME cycles. Continued processing led to a subsequent increase in hydrogen generation that was often abrupt and that frequently more than doubled the hydrogen generation rate. This phenomenon may have been a function of the extent of Hg stripping versus the initial Ru concentration in these tests. Palladium is an active catalyst, and activates during (or prior to) nitrite destruction to promote N{sub 2}O formation followed by a very small amount of hydrogen. Pd then appears to deactivate. Data to date indicate that Pd should not be a species of primary concern relative to Rh and Ru for hydrogen generation. Pd was a very mild catalyst for hydrogen generation compared to Rh and Ru in the simulated waste system. Pd was comparable to Rh in enhancing N{sub 2}O production when present at equal concentration. Pd, however, is almost always present at less than a quarter of the Rh concentration in S

Koopman, D.

2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

345

Valve for controlling flow of cryogenic fluid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A valve is provided for accurately controlling the flow of cryogenic fluids such as liquid nitrogen. The valve comprises a combination of disc and needle valves affixed to a valve stem in such a manner that the disc and needle are free to rotate about the stem, but are constrained in lateral and vertical movements. This arrangement provides accurate and precise fluid flow control and positive fluid isolation.

Knapp, P.A.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

346

Definition: Fluid Inclusion Analysis | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

or liquid) and occasionally mineral crystals, that are considered to represent the chemical and physical properties of a hydrothermal fluid at a single point in time and...

347

Non-invasive Ultrasonic Fluid Processing Technology ...  

Search PNNL. PNNL Home; About; Research; Publications; Jobs; News; Contacts; Non-invasive Ultrasonic Fluid Processing Technology. Battelle Number(s): ...

348

Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture Fluids | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Centers Field Sites Power Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture Fluids Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture...

349

Universal Fluid Droplet Ejector - Energy Innovation Portal  

... deposition and cell-sorting applications Description A fluid ejector capable of producing micron sized droplets on demand is ... 5,943,075 (USA) ...

350

Universal fluid droplet ejector - Energy Innovation Portal  

A droplet generator comprises a fluid reservoir having a side wall made of glass or quartz, and an end cap made from a silicon plate. The end cap ...

351

Fluid Submersible Sensing Device - Energy Innovation Portal  

The present invention relates to a fluid submersible sensing device and, more particularly, to such a device having sensing structure provided within ...

352

MODELING SUBSIDENCE DUE TO GEOTHERMAL FLUID PRODUCTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

compaction, computers, geothermal energy, pore-waternot MODELING SUBSIDENCE DUE T GEOTHERMAL FLUID PRODUCTION Opromise f o r developing geothermal energy i n the United

Lippmann, M.J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Theory and Modeling of Fluids Group Homepage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Modeling of Fluids Group is working in consort with the University of Colorado and the Division's Cryogenics Group on a DARPA funded project to ...

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

354

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

The project, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (GT). The aims of the project are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal; evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (e.g., temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor; and conduct thorough analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. The eutectic catalysts increased gasification rate significantly. The methods of catalyst preparation and addition had significant effect on the catalytic activity and coal gasification. The incipient wetness method gave more uniform catalyst distribution than that of physical mixing for the soluble catalysts resulting in higher gasification rates for the incipient wetness samples. The catalytic activity increased by varying degrees with catalyst loading. The above results are especially important since the eutectic catalysts (with low melting points) yield significant gasification rates even at low temperatures. Among the ternary eutectic catalysts studied, the system 39% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-38.5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-22.5% Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3} showed the best activity and will be used for further bench scale fixed-bed gasification reactor in the next period. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies in the previous reporting period, the project team selected the 43.5% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed-bed studies at UTSI during this reporting period. Temperature was found to have a significant effect on the rate of gasification of coal. The rate of gasification increased up to 1400 F. Pressure did not have much effect on the gasification rates. The catalyst loading increased the gasification rate and approached complete conversion when 10 wt% of catalyst was added to the coal. Upon further increasing the catalyst amount to 20-wt% and above, there was no significant rise in gasification rate. The rate of gasification was lower for a 2:1 steam to char molar ratio (60%) compared to gasification rates at 3.4:1 molar ratio of steam-to-char where the conversion approached 100%. The characterization results of Georgia Tech are very preliminary and inconclusive and will be made available in the next report.

Unknown

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

,"Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input" Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input",16,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/2010" ,"Release Date:","11/27/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","Last Week of December 2013" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pnp_dwns_a_(na)_ydr_mbblpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_dwns_a_(na)_ydr_mbblpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration"

356

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater. 11 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

357

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This progress report on the Department of Energy project DE-FG-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', covers the period April-September 1998. The specific aims of the project for this period were to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal, evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion, and evaluate gasification performance in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) with CAU as the prime contractor. Several single salt catalysts and binary and ternary eutectic catalysts were investigated at Clark Atlanta University. Physical mixing and incipient wetness methods were investigated as catalyst addition techniques. Gasification was carried out using TGA at CAU and UTSI and with a fixed-bed reactor at UTSI. The results showed better gasification activity in the presence of the catalysts tested. The eutectic salt studies showed clear agreement between the melting points of the prepared eutectics and reported literature values. The order of catalytic activity observed was ternary > binary > single salt. With the soluble single salt catalysts, the incipient wetness method was found to give better results than physical mixing technique. Also, catalyst preparation conditions such as catalyst loading, drying time and temperature were found to influence the gasification rate. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies on Task 1, the project team selected the 43.5%Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 2.3% KNO{sub 3}-97.7%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed bed studies at UTSI. The eutectic salts were found to be highly insoluble in aqueous medium. As a result the technique of adding the eutectic to the raw coal was found to be better than using wet methods. Also, addition of the catalyst to the raw coal appeared to give better gasification results than addition to pyrolyzed coal. In addition, eutectic catalysts added to the coal yielded better gasification rates than rates obtained by mixing the individual salts in the eutectic ratio with the coal. These results, especially with the eutectic catalysts are very significant since the use of the low melting eutectics will reduce the severity of gasification processes.

NONE

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This progress report on the Department of Energy project DE-FG-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures,'' covers the period April-September 1998. The specific aims of the project for this period were to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal, evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion, and evaluate gasification performance in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) with CAU as the prime contractor. Several single salt catalysts and binary and ternary eutectic catalysts were investigated at Clark Atlanta University. Physical mixing and incipient wetness methods were investigated as catalyst addition techniques. Gasification was carried out using TGA at CAU and UTSI and with a fixed-bed reactor at UTSI. The results showed better gasification activity in the presence of the catalysts tested. The eutectic salt studies showed clear agreement between the melting points of the prepared eutectics and reported literature values. The order of catalytic activity observed was ternary > binary > single salt. With the soluble single salt catalysts, the incipient wetness method was found to give better results than physical mixing technique. Also, catalyst preparation conditions such as catalyst loading, drying time and temperature were found to influence the gasification rate. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies on Task 1, the project team selected the 43.5%Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 2.3%KNO{sub 3}-97.7%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed bed studies at UTSI. The eutectic salts were found to be highly insoluble in aqueous medium. As a result the technique of adding the eutectic to the raw coal was found to be better than using wet methods. Also, addition of the catalyst to the raw coal appeared to give better gasification results than addition to pyrolyzed coal. In addition, eutectic catalysts added to the coal yielded better gasification rates than rates obtained by mixing the individual salts in the eutectic ratio with the coal. These results, especially with the eutectic catalysts are very significant since the use of the low melting eutectics will reduce the severity of gasification processes.

NONE

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Fundamental kinetic modeling of the catalytic reforming process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, a fundamental kinetic model for the catalytic reforming process has been developed. The complex network of elementary steps and molecular reactions occurring in catalytic reforming has been generated through a computer algorithm characterizing the various species by vectors and Boolean relation matrices. The algorithm is based on the fundamental chemistry occurring on both acid and metal sites of the catalyst. Rates are expressed for each of the elementary steps involved in the transformation of the intermediates. The Hougen-Watson approach is used to express the rates of the molecular reactions occurring on the metal sites of the catalyst. The single event approach is used to account for the effect of structure of reactant and activated complex on the rate coefficients of the elementary steps occurring on the acid sites. This approach recognizes that even if the number of elementary steps is very large they belong to a very limited number of types, and therefore it is possible to express the kinetics of elementary steps by a reduced number of parameters. In addition, the single event approach leads to rate coefficients that are independent of the feedstock, due to their fundamental chemical nature. The total number of parameters at isothermal conditions is 45. To estimate these parameters, an objective function based upon the sum of squares of the residuals was minimized through the Marquardt algorithm. Intraparticle mass transport limitations and deactivation of the catalyst by coke formation are considered in the model. Both the Wilke and the Stefan-Maxwell approaches were used to calculate the concentration gradients inside of the particle. The heterogeneous kinetic model was applied in the simulation of the process for typical industrial conditions for both axial and radial flow fixed bed reactors. The influence of the main process variables on the octane number and reformate volume was investigated and optimal conditions were obtained. Additional aspects studied with the kinetic model are the reduction of aromatics, mainly benzene. The results from the simulations agree with the typical performance found in the industrial process.

Sotelo-Boyas, Rogelio

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid catalytic cracker" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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361

Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion.

Fincke, J.R.

1980-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

362

A Universe with a Ghost Dark Energy and van der Waals fluid interacting with a Fluid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider a model of a Universe with Ghost Dark Energy and van der Waals fluid interacting with a fluid which was born as a result of interaction between original fluid and some other fluid existing in Universe. We suppose that Ghost Dark energy has its contribution to the model by an interaction term $Q$ and we suppose that $Q=3Hb(\\rho_{\\small{tot}}-\\rho_{GDe})$.

Martiros Khurshudyan

2013-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

363

Generation of energy by means of a working fluid, and regeneration of a working fluid  

SciTech Connect

A method is provided of optimizing, within limits imposed by a heating medium from the surface of an ocean and a cooling medium from an ocean depth, the energy supply capability of a gaseous working fluid which is expanded from a charged high pressure level to a spent low pressure level to provide available energy, the method comprising expanding the gaseous working fluid to a spent low pressure level where the condensation temperature of the working fluid is below the minimum temperature of the cold water, and regenerating the spent working fluid by, in at least one regeneration stage, absorbing the working fluid being regenerated in an absorption stage by dissolving it in a solvent solution while cooling with the cold water, the solvent solution comprising a solvent having an initial working fluid concentration which is sufficient to provide a solution having a boiling point, after dissolving the working fluid being regenerated, which is above the minimum temperature of the cold water to permit effective absorption of the working fluid being regenerated, increasing the pressure and then evaporating the working fluid being regenerated by heating in an evaporation stage with the available hot water, feeding the evaporated working fluid and the solvent solution to a separator stage for separating the evaporated working fluid and the solvent solution, recovering the evaporated, separated working fluid, and recycling the balance of the solvent solution from the separator stage to constitute the solvent solution for the absorption stage; and an apparatus for carrying out the method.

Kalina, A.I.

1982-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

364

Mercury Oxidation via Catalytic Barrier Filters Phase II  

SciTech Connect

In 2004, the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory awarded the University of North Dakota a Phase II University Coal Research grant to explore the feasibility of using barrier filters coated with a catalyst to oxidize elemental mercury in coal combustion flue gas streams. Oxidized mercury is substantially easier to remove than elemental mercury. If successful, this technique has the potential to substantially reduce mercury control costs for those installations that already utilize baghouse barrier filters for particulate removal. Completed in 2004, Phase I of this project successfully met its objectives of screening and assessing the possible feasibility of using catalyst coated barrier filters for the oxidation of vapor phase elemental mercury in coal combustion generated flue gas streams. Completed in September 2007, Phase II of this project successfully met its three objectives. First, an effective coating method for a catalytic barrier filter was found. Second, the effects of a simulated flue gas on the catalysts in a bench-scale reactor were determined. Finally, the performance of the best catalyst was assessed using real flue gas generated by a 19 kW research combustor firing each of three separate coal types.

Wayne Seames; Michael Mann; Darrin Muggli; Jason Hrdlicka; Carol Horabik

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

365

Thermal analysis and testing of a vacuum insulated catalytic converter  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Based on a recent US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) study, about 95% of all trips start after a cold-soak period of 16 hours or less. By preserving the heat in the catalyst between trips, exhaust gases could be processed without warm-up delay and without the usual cold-start emissions. Vacuum insulation and phase-change thermal storage have been incorporated into a catalytic converter design to enhance its heat-retention time. Laboratory testing of a bench-scale prototype showed that a ``light off`` temperature (above 350 C) could be maintained during a 10-hour cold soak. Design improvements currently being tested should increase this heat-retention time to more than 16 hours. The thermal conductance of the vacuum insulation will be made continuously variable to prevent overheating and excessive thermal cycling. This approach to thermal management may be more durable and less costly than quick-heat methods using electric or fuel-fired preheat catalysts.

Burch, S D; Potter, T F; Keyser, M A; Benson, D K

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Development of a catalytic system for gasification of wet biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A gasification system is under development at Pacific Northwest Laboratory that can be used with high-moisture biomass feedstocks. The system operates at 350 C and 205 atm using a liquid water phase as the processing medium. Since a pressurized system is used, the wet biomass can be fed as a slurry to the reactor without drying. Through the development of catalysts, a useful processing system has been produced. This paper includes assessment of processing test results of different catalysts. Reactor system results including batch, bench-scale continuous, and engineering-scale processing results are presented to demonstrate the applicability of this catalytic gasification system to biomass. The system has utility both for direct conversion of biomass to fuel gas or as a wastewater cleanup system for treatment of unconverted biomass from bioconversion processes. By the use of this system high conversion of biomass to fuel gas can be achieved. Medium-Btu is the primary product. Potential exists for recovery/recycle of some of the unreacted inorganic components from the biomass in the aqueous byproduct stream.

Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J.; Phelps, M.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Hart, T.R.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Bench-scale reactor tests are in progress at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}), is designed for treating a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from dilute organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. This report describes a test program which used a continuous-feed tubular reactor. This test program is an intermediate stage in the process development. The reactor is a laboratory-scale version of the commercial concept as currently envisioned by the process developers. An energy benefit and economic analysis was also completed on the process. Four conceptual commercial installations of the TEES process were evaluated for three food processing applications and one organic chemical manufacturing application. Net energy production (medium-Btu gas) was achieved in all four cases. The organic chemical application was found to be economically attractive in the present situation. Based on sensitivity studies included in the analysis, the three food processing cases will likely become attractive in the near future as waste disposal regulations tighten and disposal costs increase. 21 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

Elliott, D C; Neuenschwander, G G; Baker, E G; Sealock, Jr, L J; Butner, R S

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Cryogenic methane separation/catalytic hydrogasification process analysis. Quarterly report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this coordinated research program is to obtain the most attractive combinations of acid gas removal, methane separation for the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) and the Rockwell/Cities Service Hydrogasification processes. The program is divided into nine subtasks with each subtask studying the effect of variation of a key design parameter on the treatment cost of the SNG produced. Progress reports of 8 subtasks are presented. The following are some of the highlights. Subtask 1 - Heat and material balance and equipment sizing was completed for the cryogenic methane separation. The overall material balance is presented in a table. Subtask 2 - Preliminary designs for MEA and DEA gas removal systems were established. Subtasks 3 to 5 - Economic evaluation is in proress. Subtask 6 - The SNG product compressor train was simulated for the case where sufficient SNG fuel is withdrawn from the product compressors to fire the dryer reactivation heater. Subtask 7 - Acid gas removal and cryogenic separation equipment was resized to accommodate Exxon's request for a two-train plant design. Subtask 8 - The Benfield and Selexol systems will be evaluated for acid gas removal.

Klosek, J.

1981-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

369

Integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The main advantage of steam gasification of coal to methane and carbon dioxide is that the amount of exergy consumed in the gasifier is small compared to conventional, high temperature, oxygen-blown gasifiers. However, the goal of limiting the amount of exergy destruction in the gasifier has the effect of limiting the rates of chemical reactions. Thus, one of the main advantages of steam gasification leads to one of its main problems: slow reaction kinetics. While conventional entrained-flow, high-temperature gasifiers consume a sizable portion of the available work in the coal oxidation, the consumed exergy speeds up the rates of reactions. And while the rates of steam gasification reactions can be increased through the use of catalysts, only a few catalysts can meet cost requirements because there is often significant deactivation due to chemical reactions between the inorganic species in the coal and the catalyst. Previous research into increasing the kinetics of steam gasification will be reviewed. The goal of this paper is to highlight both the challenges and advantages of integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with SOFCs.

Siefert, N.; Shamsi, A.; Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Catalytic gasification of wet biomass in supercritical water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wet biomass (water hyacinth, banana trees, cattails, green algae, kelp, etc.) grows rapidly and abundantly around the world. As a biomass crop, aquatic species are particularly attractive because their cultivation does not compete with land-based agricultural activities designed to produce food for consumption or export. However, wet biomass is not regarded as a promising feed for conventional thermochemical conversion processes because the cost associated with drying it is too high. This research seeks to address this problem by employing water as the gasification medium. Prior work has shown that low concentrations of glucose (a model compound for whole biomass) can be completely gasified in supercritical water at 600{degrees}C and 34.5 Wa after a 30 s reaction time. Higher concentrations of glucose (up to 22% by weight in water) resulted in incomplete conversion under these conditions. The gas contained hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ethane, propane, and traces of other hydrocarbons. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons are easily converted to hydrogen by commercial technology available in most refineries. This prior work utilized capillary tube reactors with no catalyst. A larger reactor system was fabricated and the heterogeneous catalytic gasification of glucose and wet biomass slurry of higher concentration was studied to attain higher conversions.

Antal, M.J. Jr.; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Xu, Xiaodong [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

371

Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Chemical Models for Bio-oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bio-oil (product liquids from fast pyrolysis of biomass) is a complex mixture of oxygenates derived from the thermal breakdown of the bio-polymers in biomass. In the case of lignocellulosic biomass, the structures of three major components, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, are well represented by the bio-oil components. In order to study the chemical mechanisms of catalytic hydroprocessing of bio-oil, three model compounds were chosen to represent those components. Guaiacol represents the large number of mono- and di-methoxy phenols found in bio-oil derived from softwood or hardwood, respectively. Furfural represents a major pyrolysis product group from cellulosics. Acetic acid is a major product from biomass pyrolysis, derived from the hemicellulose, which has important impacts on the further processing of the bio-oil because of the acidic character. These three compounds were processed using palladium or ruthenium catalyst over a temperature range from 150?C to 300?C. The batch reactor was sampled during each test over a period of four hours. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with both a mass selective detector and a flame ionization detector. The products were determined and the reaction pathways for their formation are suggested based on these results. Both temperature and catalyst metal have significant effects on the product composition.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.

2009-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

372

Catalytic reforming process using noble metal alkaline zeolites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes improvement in a process wherein a gasoline boiling range hydrocarbonaceous feedstock is catalytically reformed in the presence of hydrogen in a reforming process unit comprised of serially connected reactors wherein each of the reactors contains a supported noble metal-containing catalyst. The improvement comprises the noble-metal catalyst of at least one reactor being selected from the group consisting of alkaline faujasite zeolite, L zeolite and zeolites isostructural thereto, which catalysts are prepared by a: contacting an alkaline faujasite zeolite, L zeolite, or zeolite isostructural thereto, with a noble metal composition selected from Pt(acetylacetonate){sub 2} or Pd(acetylacetonate){sub 2} for an effective amount of time to form a substantially homogeneous mixture and to incorporate the platinum and/or palladium into the near surface regions of the zeolite, but not to disperse the platinum and/or palladium throughout the entire zeolite; and calcining the so treated zeolite at a temperature from about 250 {degrees} C to about 600 {degrees} C for an effective amount of time.

Schweizer, A.E.

1991-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

373

Synthesis and catalytic properties of metal and semiconductor nanoclusters  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis of metal or semiconductor nanoclusters in microheterogeneous oil-continuous inverse micelle systems is discussed. We focus on synthesis and catalytic properties of palladium, iron, and iron sulfide nanoclusters. Cluster size-control is achieved by changing the micelle size which is determined by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and chosen to produce cluster in size range of 1-20 nm. Cluster sizes were determined by either transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Cluster structure was determined by either x-ray or electron diffraction. In the case of Fe nanoclusters the crystal structure depended on the chemical nature of the surfactant micelle used in the synthesis, illustrating the important role of the surfactant during the growth process. Results of in-situ pyrene hydrogenation using size-selected Pd clusters show a significant increase in activity/total surface area as the size decreases. These clusters also proved effective as unsupported catalysts for direct coal hydropyrolysis, even at very low metal concentrations. Synthesis and optical features of a new semiconductor cluster material, FeS{sub 2}, is discussed with regard to its use in photocatalysis. Application of FeS{sub 2} in coal hydrogenolysis reactions has improved yields of short chain hydrocarbons significantly compared to conventional FeS{sub 2} powders.

Wilcoxon, J.P.; Martino, T.; Klavetter, E.; Sylwester, A.P.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Electrohydraulic Control Fluid and Elastomer Compatibility Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electrohydraulic Control Fluid and Elastomer Compatibility Guide provides power plant personnel with current information on the compatibility of turbine-generator electrohydraulic control (EHC) fluids and various elastomers, such as hoses, seals, and gaskets. The information in the guide should assist plant personnel in improving the reliability and performance of the EHC system.

2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

375

Joint Distributions for Interacting Fluid Queues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Motivated by recent traffic control models in ATM systems, we analyse three closely related systems of fluid queues, each consisting of two consecutive reservoirs, in which the first reservoir is fed by a two-state (on and off) Markov source. The first ... Keywords: feedback, fluid queue, joint distribution, stationary distribution, tandem queue, traffic shaper

Dirk P. Kroese; Werner R. W. Scheinhardt

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Geek-Up[3.18.2011]: Catalytically Active Material and BELLA | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8.2011]: Catalytically Active Material and BELLA 8.2011]: Catalytically Active Material and BELLA Geek-Up[3.18.2011]: Catalytically Active Material and BELLA March 18, 2011 - 3:54pm Addthis PNNL scientists Grant Johnson and Julia Laskin | Photo Courtesy of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PNNL scientists Grant Johnson and Julia Laskin | Photo Courtesy of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Niketa Kumar Niketa Kumar Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? PNL researchers produced catalytically active material that may help advance fuel cell and solar energy storage applications. In just one meter a single BELLA stage -- with a "boosted-frame" method -- will accelerate an electron beam to 10 billion electron volts. Thanks to an innovative approach from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

377

Thermal catalytic conversion of the used isobutyl isoprene rubber into valuable hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jan MR, Mabood F. Catalytic conversion of waste tyres intoJ, Jan MR, Mabood F. Conversion of waste tires into liquidbest method for maximum conversion into useful product, and

Rasul Jan, M.; Jabeen, Farah; Shah, Jasmin; Mabood, Fazal

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Modelling of catalytic aftertreatment of NOx emissions using hydrocarbon as a reductant.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction (HC-SCR) is emerging as one of the most practical methods for the removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from light-duty-diesel engine exhaust… (more)

Sawatmongkhon, Boonlue

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Catalytic and reactive polypeptides and methods for their preparation and use  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Catalytic and reactive polypeptides include a binding site specific for a reactant or reactive intermediate involved in a chemical reaction of interest. The polypeptides further include at least one active functionality proximate the bi.

Schultz, Peter (Oakland, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Calibration and performance of a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) bench rig for NOx? emissions control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A laboratory test rig was designed and built to easily test SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) technology. Equipped with three 6 kW heaters, connections for liquid N2 and an assortment of test gases, and a connection with ...

Castro Galnares, Sebastián (Castro Galnares Wright Paz)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid catalytic cracker" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Reaction mechanisms for catalytic partial oxidation systems : application to ethylene epoxidation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the rapid advances in kinetic modeling, building elementary surface mechanisms have become vital to understand the complex chemistry for catalytic partial oxidation systems. Given that there is selected experimental ...

Anantharaman, Bharthwaj

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Thermal catalytic conversion of the used isobutyl isoprene rubber into valuable hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

continuous ?ow reactor for thermal degradation of polymers.Qian J. Studies of the thermal degradation of waste rubber.10.1007/s10973-009-0577-3 Thermal catalytic conversion of

Rasul Jan, M.; Jabeen, Farah; Shah, Jasmin; Mabood, Fazal

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Microsoft Word - 41891_SWPC_Catalytic Combustor_Factsheet_Rev01...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

COMBUSTORFACTSHEETREV0104-24.DOC Facts Sheet: Catalytic Combustor for Fuel Flexible Gas Turbine (DE-FC26-03NT41891) I. PROJECT PARTICIPANTS A. Siemens Westinghouse Power...

384

Biomass gasification using a horizontal entrained-flow gasifier and catalytic processing of the product gas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A novel study on biomass-air gasification using a horizontal entrained-flow gasifier and catalytic processing of the product gas has been conducted. The study was designed… (more)

Legonda, Isack Amos

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Modelling and Experimental Study of Methane Catalytic Cracking as a Hydrogen Production Technology.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Production of hydrogen is primarily achieved via catalytic steam reforming, partial oxidation,and auto-thermal reforming of natural gas. Although these processes are mature technologies, they are… (more)

Amin, Ashraf Mukhtar Lotfi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Multi-stage selection catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} in lean burn engine exhaust  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent studies suggest that the conversion of NO to NO{sub 2} is an important intermediate step in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2}. These studies have prompted the development of schemes that use an oxidation catalyst to convert NO to NO{sub 2}, followed by a reduction catalyst to convert NO{sub 2} to N{sub 2}. Multi-stage SCR offers high NO{sub x} reduction efficiency from catalysts that, separately, are not very active for reduction of NO, and alleviates the problem of selectivity between NO reduction and hydrocarbon oxidation. A plasma can also be used to oxidize NO to NO{sub 2}. This paper compares the multi-stage catalytic scheme with the plasma-assisted catalytic scheme for reduction of NO{sub x} in lean-bum engine exhausts. The advantages of plasma oxidation over catalytic oxidation are presented.

Penetrante, B.M.; Hsiao, M.O.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogling, E.

1998-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

387

Role of CeO2 Addition on Catalytic Conversion of Plasma Sprayed ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the current work, 316L steel substrate is plasma sprayed with CeO2-Al2O3 to achieve a catalytic surface. Microstructural evaluation of plasma-sprayed ...

388

Catalytic Addition of Simple Alkenes to Carbonyl Compounds by Use of Group 10 Metals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent advances using nickel complexes in the activation of unactivated monosubstituted olefins for catalytic intermolecular carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions with carbonyl compounds, such as simple aldehydes, isocyanates, ...

Ho, Chun-Yu

389

Review of the Literature on Catalytic Biomass Tar Destruction: Milestone Completion Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A summary of literature pertaining to catalytic biomass gasification''tar'' destruction, an overview of catalysts studied, and an evaluation of the future potential for this gas cleaning technology.

Dayton, D.

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Experimental and Computational Study of Catalytic Combustion of Methane-Air and Syngas-Air Mixtures.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Catalytic combustion and conversion of methane (CH4) and Syngas (in our case, a gas mixture of H2, CO, CO2 and CH4) is characterized by the… (more)

Pathak, Saurav

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

System Study of Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL) Catalytic Combustion for Natural Gas and Coal-Derived Syngas Combustion Turbines  

SciTech Connect

Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL{reg_sign}) technology has been successfully developed to provide improvement in Dry Low Emission gas turbine technology for coal derived syngas and natural gas delivering near zero NOx emissions, improved efficiency, extending component lifetime and the ability to have fuel flexibility. The present report shows substantial net cost saving using RCL{reg_sign} technology as compared to other technologies both for new and retrofit applications, thus eliminating the need for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) in combined or simple cycle for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and natural gas fired combustion turbines.

Shahrokh Etemad; Lance Smith; Kevin Burns

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Fluid Lab Analysis | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Fluid Lab Analysis Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Fluid Lab Analysis Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Lab Analysis Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Fluid Lab Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Lab Analysis Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Results can aid in the determination of fluid source regions and circulation pathways, and assist in determining the degree of mixing between different hydrothermal fluids. Thermal: Certain elements exhibit high spatial correlation with high-temperature geothermal systems; Isotopic ratios can be used to characterize and locate subsurface thermal anomalies.

393

Definition: Isotopic Analysis- Fluid | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons. An isotopic analysis looks at a particular isotopic element(s) in a given system, while the conditions which increase/decrease the number of neutrons are well understood and measurable. Fluid isotopes are used to characterize a fluids origin, age, and/or interaction with rocks or other fluids based on unique isotopic ratios or concentrations.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Isotope geochemistry is an aspect of geology based upon study of the relative and absolute concentrations of the elements and their isotopes in

394

Definition: Fluid Lab Analysis | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fluid Lab Analysis Fluid Lab Analysis Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Fluid Lab Analysis Fluid lab analysis encompasses a broad array of techniques used for the analysis of water and gas samples. These analyses are used in a variety of disciplines to quantify the chemical components and properties of groundwater systems. In geothermal exploration and development, fluid analyses often provide a first look into the characteristics of a hydrothermal system, and are routinely used in ongoing monitoring of geothermal reservoirs.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Water chemistry analyses are carried out to identify and quantify the chemical components and properties of a certain water. This include pH, major cations and anions, trace elements and isotopes. Water chemistry

395

Definition: Downhole Fluid Sampling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Downhole Fluid Sampling Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Downhole Fluid Sampling Downhole fluid sampling is done to characterize the chemical, thermal, or hydrological properties of a surface or subsurface aqueous system. Downhole fluid sampling is typically performed to monitor water quality, study recharge and flow in groundwater systems, and evaluate resource potential of geothermal reservoirs. Analysis of both the liquid and gas fractions of the reservoir fluid allows for detailed characterize the chemical, thermal, or hydrological properties of the subsurface hydrothermal system. View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Ret Like Like You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like.

396

Radiation stability of biocompatibile magnetic fluid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The radiation stability of biocompatibile magnetic fluid used in nanomedicine after electron irradiation was studied. Two types of the water-based magnetic fluids were prepared. The first one was based on the magnetite nanoparticles stabilized by one surfactant natrium oleate. The second one was biocompatibile magnetic fluid stabilized with two surfactants, natrium oleate as a first surfactant and Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a second surfactant. The magnetization measurements showed that electron irradiation up to 1000Gy caused 50% reduction of saturation magnetization in the case of the first sample with only one surfactant while in the case of the second biocompatibile magnetic fluid, only 25% reduction of saturation magnetization was observed. In the first magnetic fluid the radiation caused the higher sedimentation of the magnetic particles than in the second case, when magnetic particles are covered also with PEG. The obtained results show that PEG behave as a protective element.

Natalia Tomasovicova; Ivan Haysak; Martina Koneracka; Jozef Kovac; Milan Timko; Vlasta Zavisova; Alexander Okunev; Alexander Parlag; Alexey Fradkin; Peter Kopcansky

2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

397

Fluid permeability measurement system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for measuring the permeance of a material. The permeability of the material may also be derived. The system provides a liquid or high concentration fluid bath on one side of a material test sample, and a gas flow across the opposing side of the material test sample. The mass flow rate of permeated fluid as a fraction of the combined mass flow rate of gas and permeated fluid is used to calculate the permeance of the material. The material test sample may be a sheet, a tube, or a solid shape. Operational test conditions may be varied, including concentration of the fluid, temperature of the fluid, strain profile of the material test sample, and differential pressure across the material test sample.

Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis (Knoxville, TN); Renner, Michael John (Oak Ridge, TN)

2008-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

398

Catalyst Management Handbook for Coal-Fired Selective Catalytic Reduction NOx Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides guidelines for operators of coal-fired power plants equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) NOx-control processes. These control processes define when to exchange or replace catalyst, while minimizing power-production cost impacts from SCR process equipment.BackgroundSelective catalytic reduction (SCR) is deployed on most major coal-fired generating units in the United States. Over 225 units, totaling 140 GW of ...

2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

399

Heat exchanger with intermediate evaporating and condensing fluid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A shell and tube-type heat exchanger, such as a liquid sodium-operated steam generator for use in nuclear reactors, comprises a shell containing a primary fluid tube bundle, a secondary fluid tube bundle at higher elevation, and an intermediate fluid vaporizing at the surface of the primary fluid tubes and condensing at the surface of the secondary fluid tubes.

Fraas, Arthur P. (Knoxville, TN)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Physics-Based Simulations for Fluid Mixtures Dongwoon Lee  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

experience a chemical reaction which produces a new type of fluid or generates heat energy. When heat energy knowledge of fluids. He helped me to understand dynamics of fluids through his lectures and experiments. I Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3 Fluid Models 10 3.1 Fluid Dynamics

Toronto, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid catalytic cracker" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Catalytic multi-stage process for hydroconversion and refining hydrocarbon feeds  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A multi-stage catalytic hydrogenation and hydroconversion process for heavy hydrocarbon feed materials such as coal, heavy petroleum fractions, and plastic waste materials. In the process, the feedstock is reacted in a first-stage, back-mixed catalytic reactor with a highly dispersed iron-based catalyst having a powder, gel or liquid form. The reactor effluent is pressure-reduced, vapors and light distillate fractions are removed overhead, and the heavier liquid fraction is fed to a second stage back-mixed catalytic reactor. The first and second stage catalytic reactors are operated at 700-850.degree. F. temperature, 1000-3500 psig hydrogen partial pressure and 20-80 lb./hr per ft.sup.3 reactor space velocity. The vapor and light distillates liquid fractions removed from both the first and second stage reactor effluent streams are combined and passed to an in-line, fixed-bed catalytic hydrotreater for heteroatom removal and for producing high quality naphtha and mid-distillate or a full-range distillate product. The remaining separator bottoms liquid fractions are distilled at successive atmospheric and vacuum pressures, low and intermediate-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products are withdrawn, and heavier distillate fractions are recycled and further upgraded to provide additional low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products. This catalytic multistage hydrogenation process provides improved flexibility for hydroprocessing the various carbonaceous feedstocks and adjusting to desired product structures and for improved economy of operations.

Comolli, Alfred G. (Yardley, PA); Lee, Lap-Keung (Cranbury, NJ)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Coke gasification: the influence and behavior of inherent catalytic mineral matter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gasification of coke contributes to its degradation in the blast furnace. In this study, the effect of gasification on the inherent catalytic minerals in cokes and their reciprocal influence on gasification are investigated. The catalytic mineral phases identified in the cokes used in this study were metallic iron, iron sulfides, and iron oxides. Metallic iron and pyrrhotite were rapidly oxidized during gasification to iron oxide. The catalysts had a strong influence on the apparent rates at the initial stages of reaction. As gasification proceeds, their effect on the reaction rate diminishes as a result of reducing the surface contact between catalyst and carbon matrix because of carbon consumption around the catalyst particles; with extended burnout the reactivity of the coke becomes increasingly dependent on surface area. The reaction rate in the initial stages was also influenced by the particle size of the catalytic minerals; for a given catalytic iron level, the cokes whose catalytic minerals were more finely dispersed had a higher apparent reaction rate than cokes containing larger catalytic particles. Iron, sodium, and potassium in the amorphous phase did not appear to affect the reaction rate. 40 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

Mihaela Grigore; Richard Sakurovs; David French; Veena Sahajwalla [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Bangor, NSW (Australia)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

403

TRACING FLUID SOURCES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM USING FLUID-INCLUSION  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

TRACING FLUID SOURCES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM USING FLUID-INCLUSION TRACING FLUID SOURCES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM USING FLUID-INCLUSION GAS CHEMISTRY Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: TRACING FLUID SOURCES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM USING FLUID-INCLUSION GAS CHEMISTRY Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Vein and alteration assemblages from eight Coso wells have been collected and their fluid-inclusion gases analyzed by quadrupole mass spectrometry. Four major types of alteration were sampled: 1) young calcite-hematite-pyrite veins; 2) wairakite or epidote veins and alteration that are spatially associated with deep reservoirs in the main field and eastern wells; 3) older sericite and pyrite wallrock alteration; and 4) stilbite-calcite veins that are common in cooler or marginal portions of

404

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Non-catalytic steam hydrolysis of fats. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Hydrolysis of fats and oils produces fatty acid and glycerol. The catalyzed, liquid phase Colgate-Emry process, state-of-the-art, produces impure products that require extensive energy investment for their purification to commercial grade. Non-catalytic steam hydrolysis may produce products more easily purified. A bench-scale hydrolyzer was designed and constructed to contact descending liquid fat or oil with rising superheated steam. Each of the five stages in the reactor was designed similar to a distillation column stage to promote intimate liquid-gas contact. Degree of hydrolysis achieved in continuous tests using tallow feed were 15% at 280C and 35% at 300C at a tallow-to-steam mass feed ratio of 4.2. At a feed ratio of 9.2, the degree of hydrolysis was 21% at 300C. Decomposition was strongly evident at 325C but not at lower temperatures. Soybean oil rapidly polymerized under reaction conditions. Batch tests at 320C produced degrees of hydrolyses of between 44% and 63% using tallow and palm oil feeds. Over 95% fatty acids were present in a clean, readily separated organic portion of the overhead product from most tests. The test reactor had serious hydraulic resistance to liquid down-flow which limited operation to very long liquid residence times. These times are in excess of those that tallow and palm oil are stable at the reaction temperature. Little glycerol and extensive light organics were produced indicating that unexplained competing reactions to hydrolysis occurred in the experimental system. Further tests using an improved reactor will be required.

Deibert, M.C.

1992-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

406

Integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A review was conducted for coal gasification technologies that integrate with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) to achieve system efficiencies near 60% while capturing and sequestering >90% of the carbon dioxide [1-2]. The overall system efficiency can reach 60% when a) the coal gasifier produces a syngas with a methane composition of roughly 25% on a dry volume basis, b) the carbon dioxide is separated from the methane-rich synthesis gas, c) the methane-rich syngas is sent to a SOFC, and d) the off-gases from the SOFC are recycled back to coal gasifier. The thermodynamics of this process will be reviewed and compared to conventional processes in order to highlight where available work (i.e. exergy) is lost in entrained-flow, high-temperature gasification, and where exergy is lost in hydrogen oxidation within the SOFC. The main advantage of steam gasification of coal to methane and carbon dioxide is that the amount of exergy consumed in the gasifier is small compared to conventional, high temperature, oxygen-blown gasifiers. However, the goal of limiting the amount of exergy destruction in the gasifier has the effect of limiting the rates of chemical reactions. Thus, one of the main advantages of steam gasification leads to one of its main problems: slow reaction kinetics. While conventional entrained-flow, high-temperature gasifiers consume a sizable portion of the available work in the coal oxidation, the consumed exergy speeds up the rates of reactions. And while the rates of steam gasification reactions can be increased through the use of catalysts, only a few catalysts can meet cost requirements because there is often significant deactivation due to chemical reactions between the inorganic species in the coal and the catalyst. Previous research into increasing the kinetics of steam gasification will be reviewed. The goal of this paper is to highlight both the challenges and advantages of integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with SOFCs.

Siefert, N.; Shamsi, A.; Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Apparatus And Method For Fluid Analysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an apparatus and method for analyzing a fluid used in a machine or in an industrial process line. The apparatus has at least one meter placed proximate the machine or process line and in contact with the machine or process fluid for measuring at least one parameter related to the fluid. The at least one parameter is a standard laboratory analysis parameter. The at least one meter includes but is not limited to viscometer, element meter, optical meter, particulate meter, and combinations thereof.

Wilson, Bary W. (Richland, WA); Peters, Timothy J. (Richland, WA); Shepard, Chester L. (West Richland, WA); Reeves, James H. (Richland, WA)

2003-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

408

Hamiltonian description of the ideal fluid  

SciTech Connect

Fluid mechanics is examined from a Hamiltonian perspective. The Hamiltonian point of view provides a unifying framework; by understanding the Hamiltonian perspective, one knows in advance (within bounds) what answers to expect and what kinds of procedures can be performed. The material is organized into five lectures, on the following topics: rudiments of few-degree-of-freedom Hamiltonian systems illustrated by passive advection in two-dimensional fluids; functional differentiation, two action principles of mechanics, and the action principle and canonical Hamiltonian description of the ideal fluid; noncanonical Hamiltonian dynamics with examples; tutorial on Lie groups and algebras, reduction-realization, and Clebsch variables; and stability and Hamiltonian systems.

Morrison, P.J.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy: Interpretation of New Wells in...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy: Interpretation of New Wells in the Coso Geothermal Field Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: Fluid...

410

Thermal Conductivity Prediction of Nano Fluid Using ANN/GA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Thermal conductivities of nano fluid in a two-phase having different compositions of both base fluid as well as nano particles in a closed ...

411

A STOCHASTIC METHOD FOR MODELING FLUID DISPLACEMENT IN PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FLUID DISPLACEMENT IN PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS C. Anderson andFLUID DISPLACEMENT IN PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS C. Anderson andachieve optimal recovery of petroleum from a reservoir, it

Anderson, C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

ORGANIC SPECIES IN GEOTHERMAL WATERS IN LIGHT OF FLUID INCLUSION...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

> 0.001 mol % typically have ethane > ethylene, propane > propylene, and butane > butylene. There are three end member fluid compositions: type 1 fluids in which...

413

FLUID INCLUSION STRATIGRAPHY: NEW METHOD FOR GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

(0) Abstract: Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy (FIS) is a new technique developed for the oil industry in order to map borehole fluids. This method is being studied for application...

414

Water-Miscible (Water-Soluble) Fluids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, algae, and fungi. If disposal is of no concern, phenolics can be used. The soaps, wetting agents, and couplers used as emulsifiers in water-miscible fluids reduce surface

415

Nanostructured Materials: Symthesis in Supercritical Fluids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This chapter summarizes the recent developent of synthesis and characterization of nanostructured materials synthesized in supercritical fluids. Nanocomposite catalysts such as Pt and Pd on carbon nanotube support have been synthesized and used for fuel cell applications.

Lin, Yuehe; Ye, Xiangrong; Wai, Chien M.

2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

416

PULSE RADIOLYSIS IN SUPERCRITICAL RARE GAS FLUIDS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, supercritical fluids have become quite popular in chemical and semiconductor industries for applications in chemical synthesis, extraction, separation processes, and surface cleaning. These applications are based on: the high dissolving power due to density build-up around solute molecules, and the ability to tune the conditions of a supercritical fluid, such as density and temperature, that are most suitable for a particular reaction. The rare gases also possess these properties and have the added advantage of being supercritical at room temperature. Information about the density buildup around both charged and neutral species can be obtained from fundamental studies of volume changes in the reactions of charged species in supercritical fluids. Volume changes are much larger in supercritical fluids than in ordinary solvents because of their higher compressibility. Hopefully basic studies, such as discussed here, of the behavior of charged species in supercritical gases will provide information useful for the utilization of these solvents in industrial applications.

HOLROYD,R.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Transparent fluids for 157-nm immersion lithography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the latter determined by the thickness of the spacer gaskets. Since the calcium fluoride windows were found that enables the fluid to be reused for many 100 expo- sure fields will be both necessary and possible

French, Roger H.

418

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This is the progress report for the DOE grant DE-FG26-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'' for the period April 1999 to October 1999. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University, the University of Tennessee Space Institute and Georgia Institute of Technology. The overall objectives of the project are to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature and system pressure) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct thorough analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. During this reporting period, free swelling index measurements of the coal, fixed-bed gasification experiments, kinetic modeling of the catalyzed gasification, and X-ray diffraction analysis of catalyst and gasified char samples were undertaken. The gasification experiments were carried out using two different eutectic salt mixtures of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (LNK) system and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (NK) system. The gasification process followed a Langmuir-Hinshelwood type model. At 10 wt% of catalyst loading, the activation energy of the ternary catalyst system (LNK) was about half (98kJ/mol) the activation energy of the single catalyst system (K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}), which is about 170 kJ/ mole. The binary catalyst system (NK) showed activation energy of about 201 kJ/mol, which is slightly higher, compared to the K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} catalyst system. The ternary catalyst system was a much better eutectic catalyst system compared to the binary or single catalyst system. In general, a eutectic with a melting point less than the gasification temperature is a better substitute to the single alkali metal salts because they have good catalyst distribution and dispersion in the carbon matrix. The free selling index of the coal was about 1.5 (1 to 2) in comparison to 2.5 (2 to 3) for the coal samples with ternary eutectic. The results for the raw coal were consistent with those from the Penn State Coal Bank. The XRD characterization showed unidentified peaks in the spectra of some of the samples and require further studies to draw any conclusions at the point.

NONE

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Working Fluids Low GWP Working Fluids Low GWP Refrigerants - CRADA Ed Vineyard Oak Ridge National Laboratory vineyardea@ornl.gov (865) 574-0576 3 April 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: - High GWP refrigerants increase CO 2 equivalent emissions for HVAC&R equipment - Low GWP alternatives may increase energy consumption, introduce safety risks, require significant modifications to equipment, and have higher costs

420

Control system for fluid heated steam generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

Boland, James F. (Bonneville County, ID); Koenig, John F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid catalytic cracker" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Viscosity of High Energy Nuclear Fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Relativistic high energy heavy ion collision cross sections have been interpreted in terms of almost ideal liquid droplets of nuclear matter. The experimental low viscosity of these nuclear fluids have been of considerable recent quantum chromodynamic interest. The viscosity is here discussed in terms of the string fragmentation models wherein the temperature dependence of the nuclear fluid viscosity obeys the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann law.

V. Parihar; A. Widom; D. Drosdoff; Y. N. Srivastava

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

422

Fluid driven torsional dipole seismic source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compressible fluid powered oscillating downhole seismic source device capable of periodically generating uncontaminated horizontally-propagated, shear waves is provides. A compressible fluid generated oscillation is created within the device which imparts an oscillation to a housing when the device is installed in a housing such as the cylinder of an existing downhole tool, thereby a torsional seismic source is established. Horizontal waves are transferred to the surrounding bore hole medium through downhole clamping. 4 figs.

Hardee, H.C.

1990-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

423

Control system for fluid heated steam generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

Boland, J.F.; Koenig, J.F.

1984-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

424

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Working Fluids Low GWP Working Fluids Low GWP Refrigerants - CRADA Ed Vineyard Oak Ridge National Laboratory vineyardea@ornl.gov (865) 574-0576 3 April 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: - High GWP refrigerants increase CO 2 equivalent emissions for HVAC&R equipment - Low GWP alternatives may increase energy consumption, introduce safety risks, require significant modifications to equipment, and have higher costs

425

Inkjet printing of non-Newtonian fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

G. Harlen; Department of Applied Mathematics; University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, U.K. Abstract Jet breakup is strongly affected by fluid rheology. In par- ticular, small amounts of polymer can cause substantially differ- ent breakup dynamics... fluid dynamics (2008) from the University of Cambridge. Since then he has worked at the Department of Applied Mathematics at the University of Leeds. His recent research involves the development of computational techniques for the simulation of flows...

Morrison, N.F.; Harlen, O.G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Stirling engine with air working fluid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Stirling engine capable of utilizing air as a working fluid which includes a compact heat exchange module which includes heating tube units, regenerator and cooler positioned about the combustion chamber. This arrangement has the purpose and effect of allowing the construction of an efficient, high-speed, high power-density engine without the use of difficult to seal light gases as working fluids.

Corey, John A. (North Troy, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Parametric internal waves in a compressible fluid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe the effect of vibration on a confined volume of fluid which is density stratified due to its compressibility. We show that internal gravity-acoustic waves can be parametrically destabilized by the vibration. The resulting instability is similar to the classic Faraday instability of surface waves, albeit modified by the compressible nature of the fluid. It may be possible to observe experimentally near a gas-liquid critical point.

Kausik S. Das; Stephen W. Morris; A. Bhattacharyay

2007-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

428

Parametric internal waves in a compressible fluid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe the effect of vibration on a confined volume of fluid which is density stratified due to its compressibility. We show that internal gravity-acoustic waves can be parametrically destabilized by the vibration. The resulting instability is similar to the classic Faraday instability of surface waves, albeit modified by the compressible nature of the fluid. It may be possible to observe experimentally near a gas-liquid critical point.

Das, Kausik S; Bhattacharyay, A

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Entropy Production in Simple Special Relativistic Fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is well known that, in the absence of external forces, simple non-relativistic fluids involve entropy production only through heat conduction and shear viscosity. In this work, it is shown that a number density gradient contributes to the local entropy production of a simple relativistic fluid using special relativistic kinetic theory. Also, the presence of an external field may cause strictly relativistic contributions to the entropy production, a fact not widely recognized. The implications of these effects are thoroughly discussed.

D. Brun-Battistini; A. Sandoval-Villalbazo; A. L. Garcia-Perciante

2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

430

Noncommutative fluid dynamics in the Kähler parametrization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose a first order action functional for a large class of systems that generalize the relativistic perfect fluids in the K\\"{a}hler parametrization to noncommutative spacetimes. We calculate the equations of motion for the fluid potentials and the energy-momentum tensor in the first order in the noncommutative parameter. The density current does not receive any noncommutative corrections and it is conserved under the action of the commutative generators $P_{\\mu}$ but the energy-momentum tensor is not. Therefore, we determine the set of constraints under which the energy-momentum tensor is divergenceless. Another set of constraints on the fluid potentials is obtained from the requirement of the invariance of the action under the generalization of the volume preserving transformations of the noncommutative spacetime. We show that the proposed action describes noncommutative fluid models by casting the energy-momentum tensor in the familiar fluid form and identifying the corresponding energy and momentum densities. In the commutative limit, they are identical to the corresponding quantities of the relativistic perfect fluids. The energy-momentum tensor contains a dissipative term that is due to the noncommutative spacetime and vanishes in the commutative limit. Finally, we particularize the theory to the case when the complex fluid potentials are characterized by a function $K(z,\\bar{z})$ that is a deformation of the complex plane and show that this model has important common features with the commutative fluid such as infinitely many conserved currents and a conserved axial current that in the commutative case is associated to the topologically conserved linking number.

L. Holender; M. A. Santos; M. T. D. Orlando; I. V. Vancea

2011-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

431

Pump for molten metal or other fluid  

SciTech Connect

A pump having no moving parts which can be used to pump high temperature molten metal or other fluids in a vacuum or low pressure environment, and a method for pumping such fluids. The pump combines elements of a bubble pump with a trap which isolates the vacuum or low pressure region from the gas used to create the bubbles. When used in a vacuum the trap prevents the pumping gas from escaping into the isolated region and thereby reducing the quality of the vacuum. The pump includes a channel in which a pumping gas is forced under pressure into a cavity where bubbles are formed. The cavity is in contact with a reservoir which contains the molten metal or other fluid which is to be pumped. The bubbles rise up into a column (or pump tube) carrying the fluid with them. At the top of the column is located a deflector which causes the bubbles to burst and the drops of pumped fluid to fall into a trap. The fluid accumulates in the trap, eventually forcing its way to an outlet. A roughing pump can be used to withdraw the pumping gas from the top of the column and assist with maintaining the vacuum or low pressure environment.

Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Brown, Donald L. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Encapsulated breaker for aqueous polymeric fluids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Persulfates are commonly used as breakers for aqueous fluids viscosified with guar or cellulose derivatives. These breakers are necessary to minimize permeability damage to proppant packs at temperatures where there is little thermal degradation of the polymers. Unfortunately, dissolved persulfates are much too reactive, even at moderate temperatures (140 to 200{degrees} F), to be used at concentrations sufficient to degrade concentrated, high-molecular-weight polymers thoroughly. Technology described in this paper was used to produce a delayed breaker. The breaker is prepared by encapsulating ammonium persulfate (APS) with a water-resistant coating. The coating shields the fluid from the breaker so that high breaker concentrations can be added to the fluid without causing the premature loss of fluid properties, such as viscosity or fluid-loss control. Critical factors in the design of encapsulated breakers (such as coating barrier properties, release mechanisms, and reactive chemical properties) are discussed. The effects of encapsulated breaker on fluid rheology were compared for several encapsulated persulfates.

Gulbis, J.; King, M.T.; Hawkins, G.W.; Brannon, H.D. (Dowell Schlumberger (US))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Fluid-bed-augmented CAES systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) systems are potentially attractive for future electric utility load leveling applications. A potential long-term weakness of the conventional CAES concept is its reliance on clean petroleum fuels during the power generation period. This consumption of petroleum could be completely eliminated by the use of coal-fired fluid bed combustors in second generation CAES plants. A large number of CAES power system configurations are possible using atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC) and pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC). The fuel consumption rates for these systems are generally comparable to those for oil-fired CAES systems. The future prognosis for using PFBC in CAES systems looks good. Recent corrosion and erosion experiments in fluid bed systems suggest that gas turbines with acceptable lifetimes in fluid bed systems suggest that gas turbines with acceptable lifetimes are a distinct possibility. The commercial status of these systems depends on the outcome of extensive corrosion/erosion testing in static and rotating test rigs. CAES systems using AFBC may be an attractive alternative to using PFBC, although the materials problem would then be transferred from the turbine to the high temperature heat exchanger surface. A reasonable expectation for the date of commercialization of fluid bed augmented CAES system ranges from 10 to 15 years.

Giramonti, A. J.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Seismoelectric Phenomena in Fluid-Saturated Sediments  

SciTech Connect

Seismoelectric phenomena in sediments arise from acoustic wave-induced fluid motion in the pore space, which perturbs the electrostatic equilibrium of the electric double layer on the grain surfaces. Experimental techniques and the apparatus built to study this electrokinetic (EK) effect are described and outcomes for studies of seismoelectric phenomena in loose glass microspheres and medium-grain sand are presented. By varying the NaCl concentration in the pore fluid, we measured the conductivity dependence of two kinds of EK behavior: (1) the electric fields generated within the samples by the passage of transmitted acoustic waves, and (2) the electromagnetic wave produced at the fluid-sediment interface by the incident acoustic wave. Both phenomena are caused by relative fluid motion in the sediment pores--this feature is characteristic of poroelastic (Biot) media, but not predicted by either viscoelastic fluid or solid models. A model of plane-wave reflection from a fluid-sediment interface using EK-Biot theory leads to theoretical predictions that compare well to the experimental data for both sand and glass microspheres.

Block, G I; Harris, J G

2005-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

435

Catalytic two-stage coal hydrogenation process using extinction recycle of heavy liquid fraction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for catalytic two-stage hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal with selective extinction recycle of all heavy liquid fractions boiling above a distillation cut point of about 600--750 F to produce increased yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, the particulate coal feed is slurried with a process-derived liquid solvent normally boiling above about 650 F and fed into a first stage catalytic reaction zone operated at conditions which promote controlled rate liquefaction of the coal, while simultaneously hydrogenating the hydrocarbon recycle oils. The first stage reactor is maintained at 710--800 F temperature, 1,000--4,000 psig hydrogen partial pressure, and 10-90 lb/hr per ft[sup 3] catalyst space velocity. Partially hydrogenated material withdrawn from the first stage reaction zone is passed directly to the second stage catalytic reaction zone maintained at 760--860 F temperature for further hydrogenation and hydroconversion reactions. A 600--750 F[sup +] fraction containing 0--20 W % unreacted coal and ash solids is recycled to the coal slurrying step. If desired, the cut point lower boiling fraction can be further catalytically hydrotreated. By this process, the coal feed is successively catalytically hydrogenated and hydroconverted at selected conditions, to provide significantly increased yields of desirable low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products and minimal production of hydrocarbon gases, and no net production of undesirable heavy oils and residuum materials. 2 figs.

MacArthur, J.B.; Comolli, A.G.; McLean, J.B.

1989-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

436

Effect of Working Fluid and Fluid Loading on the Performance of Rotating Heat Pipes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The steady state heat transfer performance of axially rotating heat pipes with methanol, ethanol and water as working fluid was measured for rotational speeds… (more)

Home, Deepayan

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Microsoft Word - 41890_PW_Catalytic Combustion_Factsheet_Rev01_12-03.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deployment of Rich Catalytic Combustion Deployment of Rich Catalytic Combustion DE-FC26-03NT41890 I. PROJECT PARTICIPANTS A. Prime: United Technologies Corporation through its Pratt and Whitney Division B. Sub-award: Precision Combustion, Incorporated II. PROJECT DESCRIPTION A. Objectives: Create an Implementation Plan and Integration Study for rich catalytic combustion as applied to industrial gas turbines fired on both natural gas and coal derived synthesis gas. The overall goal is a combustion system that will be capable of NOx less than 2 ppmvd. at 15% oxygen in an F-class gas turbine without exhaust gas after-treatment. B. Background/relevancy: The objective of the Turbines (HEET) program is to create the necessary technology base leading to Vision 21 (V21) goals. V21

438

SPONTANEOUS CATALYTIC WET AIR OXIDATION DURING PRE-TREATMENT OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE SLUDGE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR) operates the Defense Waste Processing Facility for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Savannah River Site. This facility immobilizes high-level radioactive waste through vitrification following chemical pretreatment. Catalytic destruction of formate and oxalate ions to carbon dioxide has been observed during qualification testing of non-radioactive analog systems. Carbon dioxide production greatly exceeded hydrogen production, indicating the occurrence of a process other than the catalytic decomposition of formic acid. Statistical modeling was used to relate the new reaction chemistry to partial catalytic wet air oxidation of both formate and oxalate ions driven by the low concentrations of palladium, rhodium, and/or ruthenium in the waste. Variations in process conditions led to increases or decreases in the total oxidative destruction, as well as partially shifting the preferred species undergoing destruction from oxalate ion to formate ion.

Koopman, D.; Herman, C.; Pareizs, J.; Bannochie, C.; Best, D.; Bibler, N.; Fellinger, T.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

"Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced Industrial Heat Transfer Fluids"  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced industrial Heat Transfer Fluids” Improving the efficiency of Industrial Heat Exchangers offers a great opportunity to improve overall process efficiencies in diverse industries such as pharmaceutical, materials manufacturing and food processing. The higher efficiencies can come in part from improved heat transfer during both cooling and heating of the material being processed. Additionally, there is great interest in enhancing the performance and reducing the weight of heat exchangers used in automotives in order to increase fuel efficiency. The goal of the Phase I program was to develop nanoparticle containing heat transfer fluids (e.g., antifreeze, water, silicone and hydrocarbon-based oils) that are used in transportation and in the chemical industry for heating, cooling and recovering waste heat. Much work has been done to date at investigating the potential use of nanoparticle-enhanced thermal fluids to improve heat transfer in heat exchangers. In most cases the effect in a commercial heat transfer fluid has been marginal at best. In the Phase I work, we demonstrated that the thermal conductivity, and hence heat transfer, of a fluid containing nanoparticles can be dramatically increased when subjected to an external influence. The increase in thermal conductivity was significantly larger than what is predicted by commonly used thermal models for two-phase materials. Additionally, the surface of the nanoparticles was engineered so as to have a minimal influence on the viscosity of the fluid. As a result, a nanoparticle-laden fluid was successfully developed that can lead to enhanced heat transfer in both industrial and automotive heat exchangers

Dr. Ganesh Skandan; Dr. Amit Singhal; Mr. Kenneth Eberts; Mr. Damian Sobrevilla; Prof. Jerry Shan; Stephen Tse; Toby Rossmann

2008-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

440

SPECIAL HEAT TRANSFER PHENOMENA FOR SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

Present-day knowledge concerning the molecular structure of supercritical fluids is briefly reviewed. It is shown that liquid-like and gas- like phases may coexist at supercritical pressures, although they may not be in equllibrium with each other. it is postulated that on the basis of the coexistence of these two phases a "boiling-like" phenomenon may provide the mechanism of heat transfer to supercritical fluids at high heat fluxes and certain other conditions. An unusual mode of heat transfer was actually observed at supercritical pressures during tests which produced the high heat fluxes and other conditions under which such "boiling" would be expected. The tests and the various conditions are briefly described. An emission of high-frequeney, high- intensity sounds usually accompanied these tests. It is shown that similar screaming sounds were heard during boiling at subcritical pressures, giving further support to the hypothesis that "boiling" may occur at supercritical pressures. A seeond possible explanation for the unusual mode of heat transfer is based on boundarylayer stability considerations. At high heat fluxes large density differences exist between the bulk of the fluid and the fluid in the boundary layer near the wall. A breakdown of the boundary layer may be caused by the build-up of ripples between its low-density fluid and the high-density bulk fluid, in a manner quite similar to the breaking of ocean waves at high wind velocities. It is pointed out that the density variation of supercritical fluide may be used to advantage by certrifuging boundary layers. (auth)

Goldmann, K.

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fluid catalytic cracker" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Final Report, "Molecular Design of Hydrocarbon Oxidation Catalytic Processes"  

SciTech Connect

The main goal of this project had been to use model systems to correlate selectivities in partial oxidation catalysis with the presence of specific sites on the surface of the catalyst. Extensive work was performed this year on characterizing oxygen-treated nickel surfaces by chemical means. Specifically, the surface chemistry of ammonia coadsorbed with atomic oxygen on Ni(110) single-crystal surfaces was studied by temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was determined that at intermediate oxygen coverages direct ammonia adsorption on nickel sites is suppressed, but a new high-temperature reaction regime is generated at 400 K where NHx surface fragments are rehydrogenated concurrently with the production of water and molecular hydrogen. The extensive isotope scrambling and hydrogen transfer seen from nitrogen- to oxygen-containing surface intermediates, and the optimum yields seen for this 400 K state at intermediate oxygen coverages, strongly suggest the direct interaction of the adsorbed ammonia with oxygen atoms at the end of the –Ni–O- rows that form upon reconstruction of the surface. Hydrogen transfer between ammonia and oxygen appears to take place directly via hydrogen bonding, and to be reversible but biased towards water formation. An equilibrium is reached between the produced water and the reacting surface oxygen and hydrogen. The strong influence of the OH surface groups on the thermal chemistry of the adsorbed ammonia was interpreted in terms of the adsorbing geometry of the OH groups on the surface, and of hydrogen bonding between adsorbed OH and NH3 species. In terms of alcohol reactivity, the adsorption of 2-iodoethanol, a precursor for the preparation of 2-hydroxyethyl and oxametallacycle surface species, was found to lead to two configurations involving either just the iodine atom or both iodine and hydroxyl ends of the molecule. A complex chemical behavior starts around 140 K with the production of small amounts of ethylene and water, most likely via the concerted decomposition or disproportionation of the adsorbed molecular species. The bulk of the 2-iodoethanol decomposes at about 150 K via an initial carbon-iodine scission to form –O(H)CH2CH2– (~80%) and 2-hydroxyethyl (~20%) intermediates. Two competing reactions are involved with the subsequent conversion of the 2-hydroxyethyl species around 160 K, a reductive elimination with surface hydrogen to yield ethanol, and a ?-H elimination to surface vinyl alcohol. The –O(H)CH2CH2–, on the other hand, dehydrogenates to a –OCH2CH2– oxametallacycle species about the same temperature. Both 2-hydroxyethyl and oxametallacycle species tautomerize to acetaldehyde, around 210 K and above 250 K, respectively, and some of that acetaldehyde desorbs while the rest decomposes to hydrogen and carbon monoxide. We contend that a better understanding of the surface chemistry of oxygen-containing surfaces can lead to better selectivities in catalysis. This is arguably the most important issue in the field of catalysis in the near future, and one that impacts several technologies of interest to DOE such as the manufacturing of speciality chemicals and the control and removal of pollutants. Additional work was performed on the characterization of the chemistry of methyl and methylene adsorbed species on oxygen-treated nickel surfaces. Complex chemistry was observed involving not only hydrogenation and dehydrogenation steps, but also C-C couplings and methylene insertions to produce heavier hydrocarbons, and oxygen insertion reactions that yield oxygenates. Finally, a dual titration technique employing xenon and a chemically sensitive probe was developed to identify minority catalytic sites on oxide surfaces. In the case of oxygen-treated Ni(110) single crystals, it was found that both hydrogen transfer with adsorbed water or ammonia and certain hydrocarbon hydrogenation reactions take place at the end of the –Ni–O rows that form in this system. Carbon and nitrogen oxides, on the other hand, display no pre

Professor Francisco Zaera

2007-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

442

High-potential Working Fluids for Next Generation Binary Cycle...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...61 6.3 Heat Exchanger Sizing for the Supercritical NEW FLUID ORC Test Rig. . . . . . . . . . . ....

443

Study of the effectiveness of the Cl/sub x/ catalytic ozone loss mechanisms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The importance of catalytic mechanisms involving chlorine species for destroying stratospheric ozone is now well recognized. A number of chlorinated halocarbons have been suggested as anthropogenic sources of stratospheric chlorine. In particular the potential impacts on stratospheric ozone of surface release of CF/sub 2/CL/sub 2/, CFCl/sub 3/ and CH/sub 3/CCl/sub 3/ have been studied extensively previously. With the current understanding of atmospheric photochemical processes, there are now at least three other ozone destroying catalytic cycles involving chlorine species in addition to the well known Cl-C10 catalytic cycle that are of varying importance in the stratosphere. Because of the differences in the vertical distributions of the concentration of the relevant chemical species the most effective altitudes for each cycle are different. Since an individual halocarbon releases chlorine atoms over a range of different altitudes in the stratosphere, its impact on stratospheric ozone must be due to the combined effect of each of these cycles. In this study, a comparison is made of the relative roles of these catalytic cycles for destroying stratospheric ozone when emissions for various halocarbons are considered. It is concluded that there are at least four catalytic cycles for odd oxygen destruction involving chlorine species. The relative efficiency of these cycles vary significantly with altitude. Changes in the ozone vertical distribution from various halocarbon perturbations were found to be different in shape. This was due to the differences in the altitude range of inorganic chlorine release resulting from halocarbon destruction and to the differences in relative catalytic cycle efficiencies.

Wuebbles, D.J.; Chang, J.S.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Refining and upgrading of synfuels from coal and oil shales by advanced catalytic processes. Quarterly report, October--December 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pilot plant studies have now been completed for the processing of Paraho shale oil. Three processing routes are being evaluated: (1) whole shale oil hydrotreating followed by fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) as the major downstream processing step, (2) whole shale oil hydrotreating followed by hydrocracking as the major processing step, (3) coking of the shale oil followed by hydrotreating of the coker distillate as the major downstream processing step. Pilot plant studies show that all three routes are technically feasible. Analyses of the results and process design studies are being completed. The relative merits and economics of each route will be discussed in the final report. SRC is difficult to process compared to most petroleum feeds and to shale oil. Because of its high melting point, it is necessary to dissolve it in an appropriate solvent before it can be hydrotreated in existing fixed bed pilot plant equipment. The first solvent for SRC in these tests was creosote oil; a 50/50 blend was tested. In the first test, ICR 106 catalyst showed little fouling in 330 hours. About half of the 850/sup 0/F + SRC was converted to 850/sup 0/F - distillate; and the nitrogen content was reduced from 1.5% in the SRC/creosote oil blend to 0.2--0.3% in the product. However, after 330 hours on stream, plugging occurred in the catalyst bed. In a second run, 100 hours of operation were achieved without plugging. However, the catalyst deactivation rate was relatively high. Another solvent being tested is the 350--850/sup 0/F product from the SRC/creosote oil hydroprocessing runs. Plugging problems were again encountered using this solvent.

Sullivan, R.F.; Green, D.C.; Chen, H.C.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

A Study of Catalytic Oxidation and Oxide Adsorption for the Removal of Tritium from Air  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus and procedure were developed for studying the containment of tritium using catalytic conversion to the oxide followed by oxide adsorption. Data were obtained on the catalytic oxidation of elemental tritium and tritiated volatile hydrocarbons from pump oils between 23 and 538 degrees C. Oxidation efficiencies as high as 99.99997% (decontamination factor = 3.3 million) were obtained for total tritium levels of 1 ppm and a tritiated hydrocarbon level of approximately 0.2 ppb. In addition, a mathematical study was made to derive equations for the conceptual design of an "Emergency Containment System" for containment of tritium following an accidental release to room air.

Bixel, John C.; Kershner, Carl J.

1972-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

446

Multiple-stage catalytic reforming with gravity-flowing dissimilar catalyst particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multiple-stage catalytic conversion system in which a hydrocarbonaceous charge stock and hydrogen flow serially through a plurality of catalytic reaction zones in each of which the catalyst particles are movable via gravity flow. Dissimilar catalyst particles are utilized in the reactor systems which share a common regenerating tower through which the catalyst particles are downwardly movable via gravity flow and in which the catalyst particles are regenerated in segregated fashion. Dissimilarity of the catalyst particles stems from a difference in activity, stability and selectivity characteristics. In turn, this difference may be attributed either to physical, or chemical distinctions between the two composites, or both.

Sikonia, J. G.; Bennett, R. W.

1985-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

447

Atomic-scale investigations of the struct. and dynamics of complex catalytic materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Prerequisite to the non-empirical design and refinement of improved catalysts is the identification of the atomic-scale structure and properties of the catalytically active sites. This has become a major industrial research priority. The focus of this research program was to combine atomic-resolution Z-contrast electron microscopy with first-principles density functional theory calculations to deliver an atomic-scale description of heterogeneous catalytic systems that could form the basis for non-empirical design of improved catalysts with greater energy efficiency.

Karl Sohlberg, Drexel University

2007-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

448

Determining temperature limits of drilling fluids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A capillary three tube viscometer has been designed which allows the measurement of rheological properties of time dependent non-Newtonian fluids in laminar flow at high temperture and pressure. The objective of this investigation is to determine the temperature stability of clay-water suspensions containing various drilling fluid additives. The additives studied consisted of viscosifiers, filtrate reducers, and chemical thinners. The temperature range studied is from room temperature to 550{sup 0}F. The system pressure is consistently maintained above the vapor pressure. The Bentonite and water standardized base mud used is equivalent to a 25 ppB fluid. Stabilization of the base mud is necessary to obtain steady state laminar flow conditions and to obtain reliable temperature thinning effects with each temperature interval under investigation. Generally the temperature levels are maintained for one hour until 550{sup 0}F is attained. The last interval is then maintained until system fluid degradation occurs. Rheological measurements are obtained from differential pressure transducers located in a three diameter tube test section and externally at ambient conditions from a Baroid Rotational Viscometer. The power law model for non-Newtonian fluids is used to correlate the data.

Thuren, J.B.; Chenevert, M.E.; Huang, W.T.W.; Szymanski, E.; Arkeketa, P.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Ultrasonic fluid flow measurement method and apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of an apparatus for measuring the flow of a fluid in a pipe using ultrasonic waves. The apparatus comprises an ultrasonic generator, a lens for focusing the sound energy produced by the generator, and means for directing the focused energy into the side of the pipe through an opening and in a direction close to parallel to the long axis of the pipe. A cone carries the sound energy to the lens from the generator. Depending on the choice of materials, there may be a quarter-wave, acoustic impedance matching section between the generator and the cone to reduce the reflections of energy at the cone boundary. The lens material has an acoustic impedance similar to that of the cone material but a different sonic velocity so that the lens can converge the sound waves in the fluid. A transition section between the lens and the fluid helps to couple the energy to the fluid and assures it is directed as close to parallel to the fluid flow direction as possible.

Kronberg, J.W.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

450

THE RANDOM CHOICE METHOD FOR CALCULATING FLUID DISPLACEMENT IN A POROUS MEDIUM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract Multiphase fluid displacement in a porous mediumIntroduction Multiphase fluid displacement in a porous

Albright, N.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Behavior of chars from Bursa Mustafa Kemal Pasa Alpagut and Balkesir Dursunbey Cakiirca Lignite (Turkey) during non-catalytic and catalytic gasification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The reactivities of chars obtained by pyrolysis of Bursa Mustafa Kemal Pasa Alpagut lignite and Balkesir Dursunbey Cakiirca lignite (Turkey) at different temperatures were determined by CO{sub 2} gasification and by combustion with O{sub 2}. Catalytic effect of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} on the CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} gasification reactivity of chars was investigated. Gasification tests were performed in the fixed bed reactors operating at ambient pressure. Reactivity of chars during the CO{sub 2} gasification reactions was determined by calculating the reaction rate constants and reactivity of chars during the O{sub 2} gasification was determined by using ignition temperatures of the samples. Activation energies and Arrhenius constants of the chars on the CO{sub 2} gasification reactions were also calculated by the help of Arrhenius curves. The activation energy for CO{sub 2} gasification was generally decreased with pyrolysis temperature, due to the different surface characteristics and different nature of carbon atoms gasified as the gasification reactions proceed. Generally, the increase in pyrolysis temperature leads to an increase in gasification reactivity with CO{sub 2}. The reactivity of chars in catalytic gasification was higher than the corresponding non-catalytic reactivity of the same chars. Ignition temperature increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature.

Bozkurt, Y.; Misirlioglu, Z.; Sinag, A.; Tekes, A.T.; Canel, M. [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Short residence time coal liquefaction process including catalytic hydrogenation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Normally solid dissolved coal product and a distillate liquid product are produced by continuously passing a feed slurry comprising raw feed coal and a recycle solvent oil and/or slurry together with hydrogen to a preheating-reaction zone, the hydrogen pressure in the preheating-reaction zone being at least 1,500 psig (105 kg/cm[sup 2]), reacting the slurry in the preheating-reaction zone at a temperature in the range of between about 455 and about 500 C to dissolve the coal to form normally liquid coal and normally solid dissolved coal. A total slurry residence time is maintained in the reaction zone ranging from a finite value from about 0 to about 0.2 hour, and reaction effluent is continuously and directly contacted with a quenching fluid to substantially immediately reduce the temperature of the reaction effluent to below 425 C to substantially inhibit polymerization so that the yield of insoluble organic matter comprises less than 9 weight percent of said feed coal on a moisture-free basis. The reaction is performed under conditions of temperature, hydrogen pressure and residence time such that the quantity of distillate liquid boiling within the range C[sub 5]-454 C is an amount at least equal to that obtainable by performing the process under the same condition except for a longer total slurry residence time, e.g., 0.3 hour. Solvent boiling range liquid is separated from the reaction effluent and recycled as process solvent. The amount of solvent boiling range liquid is sufficient to provide at least 80 weight percent of that required to maintain the process in overall solvent balance. 6 figs.

Anderson, R.P.; Schmalzer, D.K.; Wright, C.H.

1982-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

453

Petroleum Refinery Catalytic Reforming -- Cutting High Energy Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon reforming involves a variety of chemical reactions at high temperatures and pressures in the presence of suitable catalysts. The conversion of naptha to high octane aromatics requires high energy to initiate and sustain the reaction at temperatures of 850-950oF. Hydrogen - rich off - gases are fired in combinations of process furnaces. Heat is transferred to hydrocarbon fluids by radiation, principally. Feed or return stream temperatures determine the need for convection sections. It is essential that the operation and maintenance of these furnaces be optimized to minimize production costs. This paper describes the performance testing and evaluation of a set of ten refinery furnaces used to thermally drive several reforming reactors and to regenerate catalysts. Firing rates provide an input of 216.2 x 106 Btu/hr. to the furnaces, at $1.90 per 106 Btu. The units are fitted with multiple natural draft burners. There is insufficient turbulence and swirl in the burners. Operators manually set up the burners with excessive airflows for normal, full-load firing. These furnaces represent production limits. Products of combustion exhaust at high thermal levels - the range is from 985-1700oF. The mixed gases flow through a "waste heat" boiler, or they bypass the boiler and enter a single stack. Steam generation at 150 psig averages 38,200 lb/hr. Heat is wasted via the bypass at a rate of 41.1x106 Btu /hr. at 1240oF. When airflows are reduced (to 15% excess air) the loss will be 18.7x106 Btu/hr. at 1180oF. Installation of a second, parallel waste heat boiler will result in a saving of l3.4x106 Btu/hr. Energy savings at this furnace complex will be equivalent to $628,700 per year. Investment costs were estimated to be less than $250,000 for the proposed heat trap addition.

Viar, W. L.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Short residence time coal liquefaction process including catalytic hydrogenation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Normally solid dissolved coal product and a distillate liquid product are produced by continuously passing a feed slurry comprising raw feed coal and a recycle solvent oil and/or slurry together with hydrogen to a preheating-reaction zone (26, alone, or 26 together with 42), the hydrogen pressure in the preheating-reaction zone being at least 1500 psig (105 kg/cm.sup.2), reacting the slurry in the preheating-reaction zone (26, or 26 with 42) at a temperature in the range of between about 455.degree. and about 500.degree. C. to dissolve the coal to form normally liquid coal and normally solid dissolved coal. A total slurry residence time is maintained in the reaction zone ranging from a finite value from about 0 to about 0.2 hour, and reaction effluent is continuously and directly contacted with a quenching fluid (40, 68) to substantially immediately reduce the temperature of the reaction effluent to below 425.degree. C. to substantially inhibit polymerization so that the yield of insoluble organic matter comprises less than 9 weight percent of said feed coal on a moisture-free basis. The reaction is performed under conditions of temperature, hydrogen pressure and residence time such that the quantity of distillate liquid boiling within the range C.sub.5 -454.degree. C. is an amount at least equal to that obtainable by performing the process under the same condition except for a longer total slurry residence time, e.g., 0.3 hour. Solvent boiling range liquid is separated from the reaction effluent (83) and recycled as process solvent (16). The amount of solvent boiling range liquid is sufficient to provide at least 80 weight percent of that required to maintain the process in overall solvent balance.

Anderson, Raymond P. (Overland Park, KS); Schmalzer, David K. (Englewood, CO); Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

1982-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

455

Incineration, Waste-to-energy and Catalytic Gasification: the Past, Present and Future of Medical Waste Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- 1 - Incineration, Waste-to-energy and Catalytic Gasification: the Past, Present and Future Determination 19 Discussion of M.W. Disposal/Use Options Incineration 25 Waste-to-Energy 28 Gasification 29 Waste-to-Energy Ash Research 31 Dioxins 35 Discussion of Gasification/Catalytic Alternative 36 GCMS

Columbia University

456

A Case Study of the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System at the Algonquin Power Energy-From-Waste Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

available NOx control technologies, the APEFW facility chose to install a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR on the reduction of NOx to nitrogen gas. SNCR involves the addition of urea or ammonia at high furnace temperaturesA Case Study of the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System at the Algonquin Power Energy

Columbia University

457

High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids /science-innovation/_assets/images/icon-science.jpg High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos National Laboratory for the best of both. No place on Earth pursues a broader array of world-class scientific endeavors. TRIDENT target chamber Sasi Palaniyappan, right, and Rahul Shah left inside a target chamber where the TRIDENT short pulse laser is aimed at a very thin diamond- foil target, a fraction of a micrometer thick. The laser delivers a power on target of 150 Terawatts focused into a 7 micrometer spot, yielding laser brilliance over 100 times more intense than needed to make the target electrons fully relativistic. These experiments test novel methods of producing intense

458

Multipurpose Acoustic Sensor for Downhole Fluid Monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The projects objectives and purpose are to: (1) development a multipurpose acoustic sensor for downhole fluid monitoring in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) reservoirs over typical ranges of pressures and temperatures and demonstrate its capabilities and performance for different EGS systems; (2) determine in real-time and in a single sensor package several parameters - temperature, pressure, fluid flow and fluid properties; (3) needed in nearly every phase of an EGS project, including Testing of Injection and Production Wells, Reservoir Validation, Inter-well Connectivity, Reservoir Scale Up and Reservoir Sustainability. (4) Current sensors are limited to operating at lower temperatures, but the need is for logging at high temperatures. The present project deals with the development of a novel acoustic-based sensor that can work at temperatures up to 374 C, in inhospitable environments.

Pantea, Cristian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

459

Full Life Wind Turbine Gearbox Lubricating Fluids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Industrial gear box lubricants typically are hydrocarbon based mineral oils with considerable amounts of additives to overcome the lack of base fluid properties like wear protection, oxidation stability, load carrying capacity, low temperature solidification and drop of viscosity at higher temperatures. For today's wind turbine gearboxes, the requirements are more severe and synthetic hydrocarbon oils are used to improve on this, but all such hydrocarbon based lubricants require significant amounts of Extreme Pressure (EP) additives to meet performance requirements. Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) fluids provide load carrying capacity as an inherent property. During the course of the project with the main tasks of 'Establish a Benchmark', 'Lubricant Evaluation', 'Full Scale Gearbox Trial' and 'Economic Evaluation', the PAO Reference oil exhibited significant changes after laboratory gear testing, in service operation in the field and full scale gearbox trial. Four hydrocarbon base oils were selected for comparison in the benchmarking exercise and showed variation with respect to meeting the requirements for the laboratory micro-pitting tests, while the PFPE fluid exceeded the requirements even with the material taken after the full scale gear box trial. This is remarkable for a lubricant without EP additives. Laboratory bearing tests performed on the PFPE fluids before and after the full scale gear box trial showed the results met requirements for the industry standard. The PFPE fluid successfully completed the full scale gear box test program which included baseline and progressive staged load testing. The evaluation of gears showed no micro-pitting or objectionable wear. By the final stage, lubricant film thickness had been reduced to just 21% of its original value, this was by design and resulted in a lambda ratio of well below 1. This test design scenario of a low lambda ratio is a very undesirable lubrication condition for real world but creates the ability to test the lubricating fluids performance under the most extreme conditions. The PAO Reference oil also passed its testing without any noticeable deterioration of the gear surface. However the PAO Reference oil was replaced midway through the progressive loading, as the lubricant was burned in an attempt to raise the sump temperature to the same levels as for the PFPE. Both materials experienced a decrease of viscosity during their respective run times. The viscosity index decreased for the PAO there while there was a slight increase for the PFPE. FZG laboratory gear tests and measurements of the drive motor's current during the full scale gear box trial were made to characterize the relative efficiency between the PFPE fluid and the PAO Reference oil. In the FZG laboratory efficiency test, the PFPE fluids show much higher churning losses due to their higher viscosity and density. The analysis seems to show that the efficiency correlates better to dynamic viscosity than any other of the measured metrics such as film thickness. In load stages where the load, speed and temperature are similar, the PFPE fluid has a greater film thickness and theoretical gear protection, but requires a larger current for the drive motor than the PAO. However in load stages where the film thickness is the same, the PFPE fluid's reduced dynamic viscosity gives it a slight efficiency advantage relative to the PAO reference oil. Ultimately, many factors such as temperature, rotational speed, and fluid viscosity combine in a complex fashion to influence the results. However, the PFPE's much lower change of viscosity with respect to temperature, allows variations in designing an optimum viscosity to balance efficiency versus gear protection. Economic analysis was done using Cost of Energy calculations. The results vary from 5.3% for a 'Likely Case' to 16.8% for a 'Best Case' scenario as potential cost improvement by using PFPE as the gearbox lubricating fluid. It is important to note the largest portion of savings comes in Levelized Replacement Cost, which is dictated by the assumption on gearb

Lutz, Glenn A.; Jungk, Manfred; Bryant, Jonathan J.; Lauer, Rebecca S.; Chobot, Anthony; Mayer, Tyler; Palmer, Shane; Kauffman, Robert E.

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

460

Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel in order to mix its respective portion of liquid water with the corresponding portion of the stream. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NY); Walsh, Michael M. (Fairfield, CT)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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461

Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NY); Walsh, Michael M. (Fairfield, CT)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Advanced Heat Transfer and Thermal Storage Fluids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The design of the next generation solar parabolic trough systems for power production will require the development of new thermal energy storage options with improved economics or operational characteristics. Current heat-transfer fluids such as VP-1?, which consists of a eutectic mixture of biphenyl and diphenyl oxide, allow a maximum operating temperature of ca. 300 C, a limit above which the vapor pressure would become too high and would require pressure-rated tanks. The use of VP-1? also suffers from a freezing point around 13 C that requires heating during cold periods. One of the goals for future trough systems is the use of heat-transfer fluids that can act as thermal storage media and that allow operating temperatures around 425 C combined with lower limits around 0 C. This paper presents an outline of our latest approach toward the development of such thermal storage fluids.

Moens, L.; Blake, D.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Geomechanical Simulation of Fluid-Driven Fractures  

SciTech Connect

The project supported graduate students working on experimental and numerical modeling of rock fracture, with the following objectives: (a) perform laboratory testing of fluid-saturated rock; (b) develop predictive models for simulation of fracture; and (c) establish educational frameworks for geologic sequestration issues related to rock fracture. These objectives were achieved through (i) using a novel apparatus to produce faulting in a fluid-saturated rock; (ii) modeling fracture with a boundary element method; and (iii) developing curricula for training geoengineers in experimental mechanics, numerical modeling of fracture, and poroelasticity.

Makhnenko, R.; Nikolskiy, D.; Mogilevskaya, S.; Labuz, J.

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

464

Corrosion tests in Hawaiian geothermal fluids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Exposure tests were conductd in binary geothermal brine on the island of Hawaii. The steam which flashes from the high pressure, high temperature water as it is brought to ambient pressure contains substantial amounts of H{sub 2}S. In the absence of oxygen this steam is only moderately aggressive but in the aerated state it is highly aggressive to carbon steels and copper alloys. The liquid after flasing is intermediately aggressive. The Hawaiian fluid is unique in chemistry and corrosion behavior; its corrosiveness is relatively mild for a geothermal fluid falling close to the Iceland-type resources. 24 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Larsen-Basse, J.; Lam, Kam-Fai

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Non-uniform Heat Generation in Micro Catalytic Combustor Takashi Okamasa*, Yuji Suzuki, and Nobuhide Kasagi  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in ceramic packages are already used in industry, ignition heaters are easily integrated into the plates@thtlab.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp Abstract We developed a micro catalytic combustor using high-precision ceramic tape-casting technology and nano-porous alumina catalyst layer. It is found that failure of the ceramic combustor occurs due

Kasagi, Nobuhide

466

Development of hollow-fiber catalytic-membrane reactors for high-temperature gas cleanup  

SciTech Connect

The project consist of the following main activities: (1) Design of catalytic hollow fiber membrane reactors. Single and multiple hollow-fiber membranes were studied in reactor/permeation cells made from stainless steel or quartz tubes. Modification of the hollow fiber membrane with catalysts was performed by aqueous impregnation, vapor deposition, and utilization of packed-bed reactors. (2) Investigation of gas separations and catalytic reactions in membrane reactors. Permeation of pure gases and gas mixtures was studied as a function of temperature. Pure component catalytic studies on the decomposition of H{sub 2}S was typically studied using 10% H{sub 2}S diluted in He. The H{sub 2}S and H{sub 2} concentrations were measured in both the tube and shell sides of the membrane reactor to determine the degree of chemical equilibrium shift. (3) Process development of the cleanup system using a simulated gas stream with a composition similar to that from an IGCC system. Catalytic studies using the IGCC gas composition will be performed according to the procedure used in the H{sub 2}S experiments. The conditions for optimum conversion in a gas mixture will be investigated.

Ma, Yi H.; Moser, M.R.; Pien, S.M.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Development of hollow-fiber catalytic-membrane reactors for high-temperature gas cleanup  

SciTech Connect

The project consist of the following main activities: (1) Design of catalytic hollow fiber membrane reactors. Single and multiple hollow-fiber membranes were studied in reactor/permeation cells made from stainless steel or quartz tubes. Modification of the hollow fiber membrane with catalysts was performed by aqueous impregnation, vapor deposition, and utilization of packed-bed reactors. (2) Investigation of gas separations and catalytic reactions in membrane reactors. Permeation of pure gases and gas mixtures was studied as a function of temperature. Pure component catalytic studies on the decomposition of H[sub 2]S was typically studied using 10% H[sub 2]S diluted in He. The H[sub 2]S and H[sub 2] concentrations were measured in both the tube and shell sides of the membrane reactor to determine the degree of chemical equilibrium shift. (3) Process development of the cleanup system using a simulated gas stream with a composition similar to that from an IGCC system. Catalytic studies using the IGCC gas composition will be performed according to the procedure used in the H[sub 2]S experiments. The conditions for optimum conversion in a gas mixture will be investigated.

Ma, Yi H.; Moser, M.R.; Pien, S.M.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Equilibrium Properties of A Monomer-Monomer Catalytic Reaction on A One-Dimensional Chain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the equilibrium properties of a lattice-gas model of an A + B ? 0 catalytic reaction on a one-dimensional chain in contact with a reservoir for the particles. The particles of species A and B are in thermal contact with their vapor phases acting as reservoirs, i.e., they may adsorb onto empty lattice sites and may desorb from the lattice. If adsorbed A and B particles appear at neighboring lattice sites they instantaneously react and both desorb. For this model of a catalytic reaction in the adsorption-controlled limit, we derive analytically the expression of the pressure and present exact results for the mean densities of particles and for the compressibilities of the adsorbate as function of the chemical potentials of the two species. During the two decades following the work of Ziff, Gulari, and Barshad (ZGB) [1] there has been a remarkable development in the theoretical analysis of catalytically activated reactions. The ZGB model, sometimes referred to as the “monomer-dimer ” model, has been introduced to describe the important process of oxidation of carbon monoxide on a catalytic surface [2].

G. Oshanin; M. N. Popescu; S. Dietrich

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Continuous Flow Oxidation of Alcohols and Aldehydes Utilizing Bleach and Catalytic Tetrabutylammonium Bromide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report a method for the oxidation of a range of alcohols and aldehydes utilizing a simple flow system of alcohols in EtOAc with a stream of 12.5% NaOCl and catalytic Bu[subscript 4]NBr. Secondary alcohols are oxidized ...

Leduc, Andrew B.

470