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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas recirculation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Hybrid heat exchange for the compression capture of CO2 from recirculated flue gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An approach proposed for removal of CO2 from flue gas cools and compresses a portion of a recirculated flue-gas stream, condensing its volatile materials for capture. Recirculating the flue gas concentrates SOx, H2O and CO2 while dramatically reducing N2 and NOx, enabling this approach, which uses readily available industrial components. A hybrid system of indirect and direct-contact heat exchange performs heat and mass transfer for pollutant removal and energy recovery. Computer modeling and experimentation combine to investigate the thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer, chemistry and engineering design of this integrated pollutant removal (IPR) system.

Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Ochs, Thomas L.; Summers, Cathy A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Next Generation Pressurized Oxy-Coal Combustion: High Efficiency and No Flue Gas Recirculation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has developed a pressurized oxy-coal fired molten bed boiler (MBB) concept, in which coal and oxygen are fired directly into a bed of molten coal slag through burners located on the bottom of the boiler and fired upward. Circulation of heat by the molten slag eliminates the need for a flue gas recirculation loop and provides excellent heat transfer to steam tubes in the boiler walls. Advantages of the MBB technology over other boilers include higher efficiency (from eliminating flue gas recirculation), a smaller and less expensive boiler, modular design leading to direct scalability, decreased fines carryover and handling costs, smaller exhaust duct size, and smaller emissions control equipment sizes. The objective of this project was to conduct techno-economic analyses and an engineering design of the MBB project and to support this work with thermodynamic analyses and oxy-coal burner testing. Techno-economic analyses of GTI’s pressurized oxy-coal fired MBB technology found that the overall plant with compressed CO2 has an efficiency of 31.6%. This is a significant increase over calculated 29.2% efficiency of first generation oxy-coal plants. Cost of electricity (COE) for the pressurized MBB supercritical steam power plant with CO2 capture and compression was calculated to be 134% of the COE for an air-coal supercritical steam power plant with no CO2 capture. This compares positively with a calculated COE for first generation oxy-coal supercritical steam power plants with CO2 capture and compression of 164%. The COE for the MBB power plant is found to meet the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) target of 135%, before any plant optimization. The MBB power plant was also determined to be simpler than other oxy-coal power plants with a 17% lower capital cost. No other known combustion technology can produce higher efficiencies or lower COE when CO2 capture and compression are included. A thermodynamic enthalpy and exergy analysis found a number of modifications and adjustments that could provide higher efficiency and better use of available work. Conclusions from this analysis will help guide the analyses and CFD modeling in future process development. The MBB technology has the potential to be a disruptive technology that will enable coal combustion power plants to be built and operated in a cost effective way, cleanly with no carbon dioxide emissions. A large amount of work is needed to quantify and confirm the great promise of the MBB technology. A Phase 2 proposal was submitted to DOE and other sponsors to address the most critical MBB process technical gaps. The Phase 2 proposal was not accepted for current DOE support.

Rue, David

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

3

EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) COOLER TESTING Southwest Research Institute® #12;overnment environmental regulations for diesel engine emissions are becoming increas- ingly stringent, and are driving) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers is considered

Chapman, Clark R.

4

Recirculating rotary gas compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor is described which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing, where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor. 12 figs.

Weinbrecht, J.F.

1992-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

5

Recirculating rotary gas compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits (24 and 26) which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing (14), where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers (10 and 12) and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor.

Weinbrecht, John F. (601 Oakwood Loop, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Final Flue Gas Cleaning (FFGC)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Final Flue Gas Cleaning (FFGC) Pilot Plant. The pilot plant (FFGC-PP) will be used to test and evaluate removal of air pollution constituents from the flue gas of a 160 MW, Houston-area power plant operating on 100% petcoke. The two-week long test.... TABLE III FLUE GAS COMPOSITION PETCOKE FIRED POWER PLANT H 2 O 3.2 % O 2 4.9 % CO 2 17.7 % HCl 10 ppm SO 2 6800 ppm SO 3 300 ppm H2SO4 mist 690 ppm NOx 260 ppm...

Stinger, D. H.; Romero, M. H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Mercury sorbent delivery system for flue gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention presents a device for the removal of elemental mercury from flue gas streams utilizing a layer of activated carbon particles contained within the filter fabric of a filter bag for use in a flue gas scrubbing system.

Klunder; ,Edgar B. (Bethel Park, PA)

2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

8

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

9

natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building energy efficiency+ industrial energy...

10

Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on Diesel Engine Oil...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on Diesel Engine Oil - Impact on Wear Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on Diesel Engine Oil - Impact on Wear Results of completed study on...

11

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

Wu, Ko-Jen

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

12

Control of scale in flue gas scrubbers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a flue gas desulfurization system in which sulfur dioxide-containing flue gas is passed in countercurrent flow with an aqueous calcium-bearing scrubbing liquor whereby the sulfur dioxide is removed from the flue gas by being absorbed by the scrubbing liquor and converted to calcium sulfite and/or calcium sulfate. The improvement of minimizing the formation of calcium scale on the surfaces of the system comprises maintaining in the scrubbing liquor about 0.1-25 ppm of a 1:1 diisobutylene-maleic anhydride copolymer having an average molecular weight of 11000. The copolymer is incorporated in the scrubbing liquor as a 10-15% aqueous dispersion.

Thomas, P.A.; Dewitt-Dick, D.B.

1987-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

13

Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas - Energy Innovation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

those for selective catalytic reduction (SCR)), scrubbing liquors, flue gas or coal additives, combustion modifications, barrier discharges, and ultraviolet radiation....

14

Selective Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems Optimization A patented EGR-SCR approach was shown to readily meet the 2010 EPA requirments for NOx and PM emisisons...

15

High speed exhaust gas recirculation valve  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In order to minimize pollutants such as Nox, internal combustion engines typically include an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve that can be used to redirect a portion of exhaust gases to an intake conduit, such as an intake manifold, so that the redirected exhaust gases will be recycled. It is desirable to have an EGR valve with fast-acting capabilities, and it is also desirable to have the EGR valve take up as little space as possible. An exhaust gas recirculation valve is provided that includes an exhaust passage tube, a valve element pivotally mounted within the exhaust passage tube, a linear actuator; and a gear train. The gear train includes a rack gear operatively connected to the linear actuator, and at least one rotatable gear meshing with the rack gear and operatively connected to the valve element to cause rotation of the valve element upon actuation of the linear actuator. The apparatus provides a highly compact package having a high-speed valve actuation capability.

Fensom, Rod (Peterborough, GB); Kidder, David J. (Peterborough, GB)

2005-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

16

Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

Duffy, Kevin P. (Metamora, IL); Kieser, Andrew J. (Morton, IL); Rodman, Anthony (Chillicothe, IL); Liechty, Michael P. (Chillicothe, IL); Hergart, Carl-Anders (Peoria, IL); Hardy, William L. (Peoria, IL)

2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

17

Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of this research project is to formulate a mathematical model of flue gas conditioning. This model will be based on an understanding of why ask properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Such a model could serve as a component of the performance models of particulate control devices where flue gas conditioning is used. There are two specific objectives of this research project, which divide the planned research into two main parts. One part of the project is designed to determine how ash particles are modified by interactions with sorbent injection processes and to describe the mechanisms by which these interactions affect fine particle collection. The objective of the other part of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which conditioning agents, including chemically active compounds, modify the key properties of fine fly ash particles.

Bush, P.V.; Snyder, T.R.

1992-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

18

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

RecoveRy of WateR fRom BoileR flue Gas RecoveRy of WateR fRom BoileR flue Gas Background Coal-fired power plants require large volumes of water for efficient operation, primarily for cooling purposes. Public concern over water use is increasing, particularly in water stressed areas of the country. Analyses conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory predict significant increases in power plant freshwater consumption over the coming years, encouraging the development of technologies to reduce this water loss. Power plant freshwater consumption refers to the quantity of water withdrawn from a water body that is not returned to the source but is lost to evaporation, while water withdrawal refers to the total quantity of water removed from a water source.

19

Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,776,780 entitled "Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas." Disclosed in this patent are catalysts for the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas. These novel catalysts include iridium (Ir), platinum/iridium (Pt/Ir), and Thief carbons. The catalyst materials will adsorb the oxidizing agents HCl, Cl 2 , and other halogen species in the flue gas stream that are produced when fuel is combusted. These adsorbed oxidizing agents can then react with elemental mercury in the stream, which is difficult to capture, and oxidize it to form Hg (II) species,

20

Multi-component Removal in Flue Gas by Aqua Ammonia  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

component Removal in Flue Gas by Aqua Ammonia component Removal in Flue Gas by Aqua Ammonia Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,255,842 entitled "Multi-component Removal in Flue Gas by Aqua Ammonia." This patent discloses a method for the removal of potential environmental-impacting compounds from flue gas streams. The method oxidizes some or all of the acid precursors such as sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitric oxides (NO x ) into sulfur trioxide and nitrogen dioxide, respectively. Following this step, the gas stream is then treated with aqua ammonia or ammonium hydroxide to capture the compounds via chemical absorption through acid-base or neutralization reactions where a fertilizer is formed.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas recirculation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Thief Process Removal of Mercury from Flue Gas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Process for the Removal of Mercury from Flue Gas Process for the Removal of Mercury from Flue Gas Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 6,521,021 entitled "Thief Process for the Removal of Mercury from Flue Gas." Disclosed in this patent is a novel process in which partially combusted coal is removed from the combustion chamber of a power plant using a lance (called a "thief"). This partially combusted coal acts as a thermally activated adsorbent for mercury. When it is in- jected into the duct work of the power plant downstream from the exit port of the combustion chamber, mercury within the flue gas contacts and adsorbs onto the thermally activated sorbent. The sorbent-mercury

22

Flue gas desulfurization: Physicochemical and biotechnological approaches  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Various flue gas desulfurization processes - physicochemical, biological, and chemobiological - for the reduction of emission of SO{sub 2} with recovery of an economic by-product have been reviewed. The physicochemical processes have been categorized as 'once-through' and 'regenerable.' The prominent once-through technologies include wet and dry scrubbing. The wet scrubbing technologies include wet limestone, lime-inhibited oxidation, limestone forced oxidation, and magnesium-enhanced lime and sodium scrubbing. The dry scrubbing constitutes lime spray drying, furnace sorbent injection, economizer sorbent injection, duct sorbent injection, HYPAS sorbent injection, and circulating fluidized bed treatment process. The regenerable wet and dry processes include the Wellman Lord's process, citrate process, sodium carbonate eutectic process, magnesium oxide process, amine process, aqueous ammonia process, Berglau Forchung's process, and Shell's process. Besides these, the recently developed technologies such as the COBRA process, the OSCAR process, and the emerging biotechnological and chemobiological processes are also discussed. A detailed outline of the chemistry, the advantages and disadvantages, and the future research and development needs for each of these commercially viable processes is also discussed.

Pandey, R.A.; Biswas, R.; Chakrabarti, T.; Devotta, S. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of simultaneously removing SO/sub 2/ and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO/sub 2/ and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled. 3 figs.

Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Wingender, R.J.

1985-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

24

Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

25

Construction and testing of a flue-gas corrosion probe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The selection of suitable materials for industrial, waste-heat- recovery systems requires assessment of corrosion of materials in various flue-gas environments. Such assessments involve exposing candidate materials to high-temperature flue gases and analyzing the effects of the exposure conditions. Because corrosion is related to flue-gas chemical composition and temperature, variations in temperature complicate the determination of corrosion rates and corrosion mechanisms. Conversely, a relatively constant temperature allows a more accurate determination of the effects of exposure conditions. For this reason, controlled-temperature flue-gas corrosion probes were constructed and tested for exposure tests of materials. A prototype probe consisted of a silicon carbide tube specimen, supporting hardware, and instrumentation for controlling temperature by internal heating and cooling. An advanced probe included other tubular specimens. Testing of the probes in an industrial-type furnace at a nominal flue-gas temperature of 1200{degree}C revealed that temperature control was inadequate. The cooling mode imposed a substantial axial-temperature gradient on the specimens; while the heating mode imposed a smaller gradient, the heating capacity was very limited. 10 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Federer, J.I.; McEvers, J.A.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Oxidation of No to No2 in Flue Gas Plumes of Power Stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The oxidation of NO to NO2 in flue gas plumes takes place after release in the ... function of the turbulent mixing rate of flue gas plume and atmospheric air. The effects of ... are illustrated with the measurin...

A. J. Elshout; Dr. S. Beilke

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Evaluation of the Energy Saving Potential from Flue Gas Pressurization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

details the impact of providing a can be recovered at .1 inch wc. The work of com 500 r----------------------, FLUE GAS TEMPERATURES 200 COUNTER FLOW 100 50 _~,,_ CO-FLOW RECUPERATORS 20 10 SPECIFIC ENERGY, Btu/IbM AIR rl'-h~A:--WORK OF 5... consideration for a convective heat flue gas is entrained, the two are mixed in a exchanger is l600?F for the convective portion of the mixing section, and pressure is then recovered in recuperation equipment. It is significant that for a a diffuser...

Stanton, E. H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building energy efficiency+ industrial energy efficiency+ power plant energy efficiency+ Home Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency Description: Increased natural gas energy efficiency = Reduced utility bills = Profit In 2011 the EIA reports that commercial buildings, industry and the power plants consumed approx. 17.5 Trillion cu.ft. of natural gas. How much of that energy was wasted, blown up chimneys across the country as HOT exhaust into the atmosphere? 40% ~ 60% ? At what temperature? Links: The technology of Condensing Flue Gas Heat Recovery natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building

29

Workshop on sulfur chemistry in flue gas desulfurization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Flue Gas Desulfurization Workshop was held at Morgantown, West Virginia, June 7-8, 1979. The presentations dealt with the chemistry of sulfur and calcium compounds in scrubbers. DOE and EPRI programs in this area are described. Ten papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

Wallace, W.E. Jr.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Rubber linings as surface protection in flue gas desulfurization plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The manufacturers of the German rubber lining industry have executed the rubber lining of over 1 million m{sup 2} of steel surfaces in over 150 scrubbers of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) plants, thereby effectively protecting them against corrosion. The application of rubber linings as surface protection in FGD plants has proven effective.

Fenner, J.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Energy and Economic Analysis of the CO2 Capture from Flue Gas of Combined Cycle Power Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Carbon capture and storage is considered as one of the key strategies for reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide from power generation facilities. Although post-combustion capture via chemical absorption is now a mature technology, the separation of CO2 from flue gases shows many issues, including the solvent degradation and the high regeneration energy requirement, that in turn reduces the power plant performances. Focusing on a triple pressure and reheat combined cycle with exhaust gas recirculation, this paper aims to evaluate the potential impacts of integrating a post-combustion capture system, based on an absorption process with monoethanolamine solvent. Energy and economic performances of the integrated system are evaluated varying the exhaust gas recirculation fraction and the CO2 capture ratio. The different configurations examined are then compared in terms of efficiency and rated capacity of the integrated system, as well as considering the cost of electricity generated and the cost of CO2 avoided.

Maura Vaccarelli; Roberto Carapellucci; Lorena Giordano

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on Diesel Engine Oil- Impact on Wear  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Results of completed study on the effect of four exhaust gas recirculation levels on diesel engine oil during standard test with an API Cummins M-11 engine.

33

Direct fired absorption machine flue gas recuperator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A recuperator which recovers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine. The recuperator includes a housing with liquid flowing therethrough, the liquid being in direct contact with the combustion gas for increasing the effectiveness of the heat transfer between the gas and the liquid.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes research conducted between July 1, 2006 and September 30, 2006 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal combustion flue gas. Modifications to the integrated absorber/ sorbent regenerator/ sorbent cooler system were made to improve sorbent flow consistency and measurement reliability. Operation of the screw conveyor regenerator to achieve a sorbent temperature of at least 120 C at the regenerator outlet is necessary for satisfactory carbon dioxide capture efficiencies in succeeding absorption cycles. Carbon dioxide capture economics in new power plants can be improved by incorporating increased capacity boilers, efficient flue gas desulfurization systems and provisions for withdrawal of sorbent regeneration steam in the design.

David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box Raghubir P. Gupta

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

35

CO2 Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CO CO 2 Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas Background The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) Program is performing research to develop advanced technologies focusing on carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions control for existing pulverized coal-fired plants. This new focus on post-combustion and oxy-combustion CO 2 emissions control technology, CO 2 compression, and beneficial reuse is in response to the priority for advanced

36

Biominetic Membrane for Co2 Capture from Flue Gas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biomimetic Membrane for CO Biomimetic Membrane for CO 2 Capture from Flue Gas Background Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) is a three-step process including capture, pipeline transport, and geologic storage of which the capture of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is the most costly and technically challenging. Current available methods impose significant energy burdens that severely impact their overall effectiveness as a significant deployment option. Of the available capture technologies for post

37

Alternative formulations of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major source of man-made SO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is the burning of coal for electric power generation. Coal-fired utility plants are also large sources of NO{sub x} pollution. Regenerable flue gas desulfurization/NO{sub x} abatement catalysts provide one mechanism of simultaneously removing SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} species from flue gases released into the atmosphere. The purpose of this project is to examine routes of optimizing the adsorption efficiency, the adsorption capacity, and the ease of regeneration of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts. We are investigating two different mechanisms for accomplishing this goal. The first involves the use of different alkali and alkaline earth metals as promoters for the alumina sorbents to increase the surface basicity of the sorbent and thus adjust the number and distribution of adsorption sites. The second involves investigation of non-aqueous impregnation, as opposed to aqueous impregnation, as a method to obtain an evenly dispersed monolayer of the promoter on the surface.

Mitchell, M.B.; White, M.G.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Thief process for the removal of mercury from flue gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method for removing mercury from the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant is described. Mercury removal is by adsorption onto a thermally activated sorbent produced in-situ at the power plant. To obtain the thermally activated sorbent, a lance (thief) is inserted into a location within the combustion zone of the combustion chamber and extracts a mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas. The semi-combusted coal has adsorptive properties suitable for the removal of elemental and oxidized mercury. The mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas is separated into a stream of gas and semi-combusted coal that has been converted to a stream of thermally activated sorbent. The separated stream of gas is recycled to the combustion chamber. The thermally activated sorbent is injected into the duct work of the power plant at a location downstream from the exit port of the combustion chamber. Mercury within the flue gas contacts and adsorbs onto the thermally activated sorbent. The sorbent-mercury combination is removed from the plant by a particulate collection system.

Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Freeman, Mark C. (South Park Township, PA); Hargis, Richard A. (Canonsburg, PA); O'Dowd, William J. (Charleroi, PA)

2003-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

39

Practical delay modeling of externally recirculated burned gas fraction for Spark-Ignited Engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. INTRODUCTION AND COMPARISON WITH DIESEL EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION To prevent the malicious knock phenomenon. Scheme of the intake burned gas fraction dynamics. In the seemingly similar context of automotive Diesel

40

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced flue gas Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(WTERT) Collection: Renewable Energy 5 INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR THE CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION AT WASTE-TO-ENERGY Summary: -Beam process is applied to flue gas compositions...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas recirculation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Analysis of a pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system for flue gas desulfurization wastewater.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Coal-fired generation accounts for 45% of the United States electricity and generates harmful emissions, such as sulfur dioxide. With the implementation of Flue Gas Desulfurization… (more)

Talley, Mary Katherine

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Separation of Mercury from Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Produced Gypsum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Frontier Geosciences (Frontier; FGS) proposed for DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER84669 that mercury control could be achieved in a wet scrubber by the addition of an amendment to the wet-FGD scrubber. To demonstrate this, a bench-scale scrubber and synthetic flue-gas supply was designed to simulate the limestone fed, wet-desulfurization units utilized by coal-fired power plants. Frontier maintains that the mercury released from these utilities can be controlled and reduced by modifying the existing equipment at installations where wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed. A key element of the proposal was FGS-PWN, a liquid-based mercury chelating agent, which can be employed as the amendment for removal of all mercury species which enter the wet-FGD scrubber. However, the equipment design presented in the proposal was inadequate to demonstrate these functions and no significant progress was made to substantiate these claims. As a result, funding for a Phase II continuation of this work will not be pursued. The key to implementing the technology as described in the proposal and report appears to be a high liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) between the flue-gas and the scrubber liquor, a requirement not currently implemented in existing wet-FGD designs. It may be that this constraint can be reduced through parametric studies, but that was not apparent in this work. Unfortunately, the bench-scale system constructed for this project did not function as intended and the funds and time requested were exhausted before the separation studies could occur.

Hensman, Carl, E., P.h.D; Baker, Trevor

2008-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

43

The Beckett System Recovery and Utilization of Low Grade Waste Heat From Flue Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. During low demand periods, the unit is gas-fired and produces 150 psi steam at high efficiency. In the fall, the heat exchanger is converted to accept flue gas from the large original water tube boilers. The flue gas heats water, which preheats make...

Henderson, W. R.; DeBiase, J. F.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Directed evolution of an ultrastable carbonic anhydrase for highly efficient carbon capture from flue gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...library generation, and high-throughput...year, coal-fired power plants are...natural-gas–fired power...1. Flue gas from a coal-fired power plant is piped...depleted flue gas is released into...strategy for the generation of very large...

Oscar Alvizo; Luan J. Nguyen; Christopher K. Savile; Jamie A. Bresson; Satish L. Lakhapatri; Earl O. P. Solis; Richard J. Fox; James M. Broering; Michael R. Benoit; Sabrina A. Zimmerman; Scott J. Novick; Jack Liang; James J. Lalonde

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Transport Membrane Condenser for Water and Energy Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The new waste heat and water recovery technology based on a nanoporous ceramic membrane vapor separation mechanism has been developed for power plant flue gas application. The recovered water vapor and its latent heat from the flue gas can increase the power plant boiler efficiency and reduce water consumption. This report describes the development of the Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) technology in details for power plant flue gas application. The two-stage TMC design can achieve maximum heat and water recovery based on practical power plant flue gas and cooling water stream conditions. And the report includes: Two-stage TMC water and heat recovery system design based on potential host power plant coal fired flue gas conditions; Membrane performance optimization process based on the flue gas conditions, heat sink conditions, and water and heat transport rate requirement; Pilot-Scale Unit design, fabrication and performance validation test results. Laboratory test results showed the TMC system can exact significant amount of vapor and heat from the flue gases. The recovered water has been tested and proved of good quality, and the impact of SO{sub 2} in the flue gas on the membrane has been evaluated. The TMC pilot-scale system has been field tested with a slip stream of flue gas in a power plant to prove its long term real world operation performance. A TMC scale-up design approach has been investigated and an economic analysis of applying the technology has been performed.

Dexin Wang

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

46

Exhaust gas recirculation for advanced diesel combustion cycles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Modern diesel engines tend to utilize significantly large quantities of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and high intake pressures across the engine load range to meet \\{NOx\\} targets. At such high EGR rates, the combustion process and exhaust emissions tend to exhibit a marked sensitivity to small changes in the EGR quantity, resulting in unintended deviations from the desired engine performance characteristics (energy efficiency, emissions, stability). An accurate estimation of EGR and its effect on the intake dilution are, therefore, necessary to enable its application during transient engine operation or unstable combustion regimes. In this research, a detailed analysis that includes estimation of the transient (cycle-by-cycle) build-up of EGR and the time (engine cycles) required to reach the steady-state EGR operation has been carried out. One-step global equations to calculate the transient and steady-state gas concentrations in the intake and exhaust are proposed. The effects of engine load and intake pressure on EGR have been examined and explained in terms of intake charge dilution and in-cylinder excess-air ratio. The EGR analysis is validated against a wide range of empirical data that include low temperature combustion cycles, intake pressure and load sweeps. This research intends to not only formulate a clear understanding of EGR application for advanced diesel combustion but also to set forth guidelines for transient analysis of EGR.

Usman Asad; Ming Zheng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involves both experimental and modeling efforts. The team is comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective is to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters to be studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. This report summarizes Year 2 results for the experimental and modeling tasks. Experiments in the mercury reactor are underway and interesting results suggested that a more comprehensive look at catalyzed surface reactions was needed. Therefore, much of the work has focused on the heterogeneous reactions. In addition, various chemical kinetic models have been explored in an attempt to explain some discrepancies between this modeling effort and others.

JoAnn S. Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

ENHANCED CONTROL OF MERCURY BY WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI co-funded this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project has investigated catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems, and to future FGD installations. Field tests were conducted to determine whether candidate catalyst materials remain active towards mercury oxidation after extended flue gas exposure. Catalyst life will have a large impact on the cost effectiveness of this potential process. A mobile catalyst test unit was used to test the activity of four different catalyst materials for a period of up to six months each at three utility sites. Catalyst testing was completed at the first site, which fires Texas lignite, in December 1998; at the second test site, which fires a Powder River Basin subbituminous coal, in November 1999; and at the third site, which fires a medium- to high-sulfur bituminous coal, in January 2001. Results of testing at each of the three sites were reported in previous technical notes. At Site 1, catalysts were tested only as powders dispersed in sand bed reactors. At Sites 2 and 3, catalysts were tested in two forms, including powders dispersed in sand and in commercially available forms such as extruded pellets and coated honeycomb structures. This final report summarizes and presents results from all three sites, for the various catalyst forms tested. Field testing was supported by laboratory tests to screen catalysts for activity at specific flue gas compositions, to investigate catalyst deactivation mechanisms and methods for regenerating spent catalysts. Laboratory results are also summarized and discussed in this report.

Unknown

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Near-zero Emissions Oxy-combustion Flue Gas Purification  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Near-zero Emissions Oxy-combustion Near-zero Emissions Oxy-combustion Flue Gas Purification Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) R&D Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. The EPEC R&D Program portfolio of post- and

50

Re-lining of scrubbers in flue gas desulfurization plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rubber lining is used as corrosion protection material in scrubbers, tanks, pipe systems etc of European flue gas desulfurization plants. Although these rubber linings show in cases more than 15 years life, re-rubber lining is still necessary. Due to the expected higher availability of the power station units the time scale of such replacement must be kept to a minimum. As an efficient method for removal of the old lining the high pressure water systems has proven successful. Based on one such case of re-lining the working steps and time scale are demonstrated.

Fenner, J. [Keramchemie GmbH, Siershahn (Germany)

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Relining of scrubbers in flue gas desulfurization plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rubber lining is used as a corrosion protection material in European flue gas desulfurization plants, for scrubbers, tanks, pipe systems, etc. Although these rubber linings can last more than 15 years, relining still is necessary. The difficulty of shutting down power station units requires that the time scale of this replacement be kept to a minimum. High-pressure water systems have proven successful as an efficient method for removal of the old lining. The working steps and time scale are demonstrated for one such relining case.

Fenner, J. [Keramchemie GmbH (Germany)

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Membrane-based carbon capture from flue gas: A review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract There has been an increasing interest in the application of membranes to flue gas separation, primarily driven by the need of carbon capture for significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Historically, there has not been general consensus about the advantage of membranes against other methods such as liquid solvents for carbon capture. However, recent research indicates that advances in materials and process designs could significantly improve the separation performance of membrane capture systems, which make membrane technology competitive with other technologies for carbon capture. This paper mainly reviews membrane separation for the application to post-combustion CO2 capture with a focus on the developments and breakthroughs in membrane material design, process engineering, and engineering economics.

Rajab Khalilpour; Kathryn Mumford; Haibo Zhai; Ali Abbas; Geoff Stevens; Edward S. Rubin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Separation of CO2 from flue gas using electrochemical cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Past research with high temperature molten carbonate electrochemical cells has shown that carbon dioxide can be separated from flue gas streams produced by pulverized coal combustion for power generation, However, the presence of trace contaminants, i.e" sulfur dioxide and nitric oxides, will impact the electrolyte within the cell. If a lower temperature cell could be devised that would utilize the benefits of commercially-available, upstream desulfurization and denitrification in the power plant, then this CO2 separation technique can approach more viability in the carbon sequestration area, Recent work has led to the assembly and successful operation of a low temperature electrochemical cell. In the proof-of-concept testing with this cell, an anion exchange membrane was sandwiched between gas-diffusion electrodes consisting of nickel-based anode electrocatalysts on carbon paper. When a potential was applied across the cell and a mixture of oxygen and carbon dioxide was flowed over the wetted electrolyte on the cathode side, a stream of CO2 to O2 was produced on the anode side, suggesting that carbonate/ bicarbonate ions are the CO2 carrier in the membrane. Since a mixture of CO 2 and 02 is produced, the possibility exists to use this stream in oxy-firing of additional fuel. From this research, a novel concept for efficiently producing a carbon dioxide rich effiuent from combustion of a fossil fuel was proposed. Carbon dioxide and oxygen are captured from the flue gas of a fossilfuel combustor by one or more electrochemical cells or cell stacks. The separated stream is then transferred to an oxy-fired combustor which uses the gas stream for ancillary combustion, ultimately resulting in an effluent rich in carbon dioxide, A portion of the resulting flow produced by the oxy-fired combustor may be continuously recycled back into the oxy-fired combustor for temperature control and an optimal carbon dioxide rich effluent.

Pennline, H.W; Granite, E.J.; Luebke, D.R; Kitchin, J.R; Landon, J.; Weiland, L.M.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

OpenEI Community - natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Increase Natural Gas Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency http://en.openei.org/community/group/increase-natural-gas-energy-efficiency Description: Increased natural gas energy efficiency = Reduced utility bills = Profit In 2011 the EIA reports that commercial buildings, industry and the power plants consumed approx. 17.5 Trillion cu.ft. of natural gas.How much of that energy was wasted, blown up chimneys across the country as HOT exhaust into the atmosphere? 40% ~ 60% ? At what temperature?gas-energy-efficiency" target="_blank">read more natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat

55

Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Topical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to develop a novel system for regenerable SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on (1) a novel method for regenerating spent SO{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and (2) novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. In addition, high efficiency hollow fiber contactors (HFC) are proposed as the devices for scrubbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the flue gas. The system will be designed to remove more than 95% of the SO{sub 2} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost that is at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO{sub x} and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The process will generate only marketable by-products. Our approach is to reduce the capital cost by using high-efficiency hollow fiber devices for absorbing and desorbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. We will also introduce new process chemistry to minimize traditionally well-known problems with SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} absorption and desorption. Our novel chemistry for scrubbing NO{sub x} will consist of water-soluble phthalocyanine compounds invented by SRI as well as polymeric forms of Fe{sup ++} complexes similar to traditional NO{sub x} scrubbing media. The final novelty of our approach is the arrangement of the absorbers in cassette (stackable) form so that the NO{sub x} absorber can be on top of the SO{sub x} absorber. This arrangement is possible only because of the high efficiency of the hollow fiber scrubbing devices, as indicated by our preliminary laboratory data. This arrangement makes it possible for the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing chambers to be separate without incurring the large ducting and gas pressure drop costs necessary if a second conventional absorber vessel were used. Because we have separate scrubbers, we will have separate liquor loops and simplify the chemical complexity of simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} scrubbing.

Bhown, A.S.; Alvarado, D.; Pakala, N.; Ventura, S. [and others

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that includes a co-current downflow reactor system for adsorption of CO{sub 2} and a steam-heated, hollow-screw conveyor system for regeneration of the sorbent and release of a concentrated CO{sub 2} gas stream. An economic analysis of this process (based on the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory's [DOE/NETL's] 'Carbon Capture and Sequestration Systems Analysis Guidelines') was carried out. RTI's economic analyses indicate that installation of the Dry Carbonate Process in a 500 MW{sub e} (nominal) power plant could achieve 90% CO{sub 2} removal with an incremental capital cost of about $69 million and an increase in the cost of electricity (COE) of about 1.95 cents per kWh. This represents an increase of roughly 35.4% in the estimated COE - which compares very favorable versus MEA's COE increase of 58%. Both the incremental capital cost and the incremental COE were projected to be less than the comparable costs for an equally efficient CO{sub 2} removal system based on monoethanolamine (MEA).

Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

57

Biomimetric Membrane for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biomimetic memBrane for co Biomimetic memBrane for co 2 capture from flue Gas Background Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) is a three-step process including capture, pipeline transport and geologic storage of which the capture of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is the most costly and technically challenging. Current available methods impose significant energy burdens that severely impact their overall effectiveness as a significant deployment option. Of the available capture technologies for post combustion applications - absorption, adsorption, reaction and membranes chemically facilitated absorption promises to be the most cost-effective membrane solution for post combustion application. The Carbozyme technology extracts CO 2 from low concentration, low pressure sources by means of chemical facilitation of a polymer membrane. The chemical

58

Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

8 8 Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project A DOE Assessment August 2001 U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 880, 3610 Collins Ferry Road Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 and P.O. Box 10940, 626 Cochrans Mill Road Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 website: www.netl.doe.gov 2 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference

59

Original Research Article Influence of anodic gas recirculation on solid oxide fuel cells in a micro  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original Research Article Influence of anodic gas recirculation on solid oxide fuel cells utilization in the cell-stack should be reduced. Ã? 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Introduction Solid-oxide Anode off-gas recycle a b s t r a c t The recycle of anode depleted gas has been employed in solid oxide

Nielsen, Mads Pagh

60

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification - Power Plant Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A technical feasibility assessment was performed for retrofitting oxy-fuel technology to an existing power plant burning low sulfur PRB fuel and high sulfur bituminous fuel. The focus of this study was on the boiler/power generation island of a subcritical steam cycle power plant. The power plant performance in air and oxy-firing modes was estimated and modifications required for oxy-firing capabilities were identified. A 460 MWe (gross) reference subcritical PC power plant was modeled. The reference air-fired plant has a boiler efficiency (PRB/Bituminous) of 86.7%/89.3% and a plant net efficiency of 35.8/36.7%. Net efficiency for oxy-fuel firing including ASU/CPU duty is 25.6%/26.6% (PRB/Bituminous). The oxy-fuel flue gas recirculation flow to the boiler is 68%/72% (PRB/bituminous) of the flue gas (average O{sub 2} in feed gas is 27.4%/26.4%v (PRB/bituminous)). Maximum increase in tube wall temperature is less than 10ºF for oxy-fuel firing. For oxy-fuel firing, ammonia injected to the SCR was shut-off and the FGD is applied to remove SOx from the recycled primary gas stream and a portion of the SOx from the secondary stream for the high sulfur bituminous coal. Based on CFD simulations it was determined that at the furnace outlet compared to air-firing, SO{sub 3}/SO{sub 2} mole ratio is about the same, NOx ppmv level is about the same for PRB-firing and 2.5 times for bituminous-firing due to shutting off the OFA, and CO mole fraction is approximately double. A conceptual level cost estimate was performed for the incremental equipment and installation cost of the oxyfuel retrofit in the boiler island and steam system. The cost of the retrofit is estimated to be approximately 81 M$ for PRB low sulfur fuel and 84 M$ for bituminous high sulfur fuel.

Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas recirculation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Multi-component removal in flue gas by aqua ammonia  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new method for the removal of environmental compounds from gaseous streams, in particular, flue gas streams. The new method involves first oxidizing some or all of the acid anhydrides contained in the gas stream such as sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) and nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N.sub.2O) to sulfur trioxide (SO.sub.3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2). The gas stream is subsequently treated with aqua ammonia or ammonium hydroxide which captures the compounds via chemical absorption through acid-base or neutralization reactions. The products of the reactions can be collected as slurries, dewatered, and dried for use as fertilizers, or once the slurries have been dewatered, used directly as fertilizers. The ammonium hydroxide can be regenerated and recycled for use via thermal decomposition of ammonium bicarbonate, one of the products formed. There are alternative embodiments which entail stoichiometric scrubbing of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides with subsequent separate scrubbing of carbon dioxide.

Yeh, James T. (Bethel Park, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA)

2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

62

Biomimetic Membrane for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These Phase III experiments successfully addressed several issues needed to characterize a permeator system for application to a pulverized coal (PC) burning furnace/boiler assuming typical post-combustion cleanup devices in place. We completed key laboratory stage optimization and modeling efforts needed to move towards larger scale testing. The SOPO addressed six areas. Task 1--Post-Combustion Particle Cleanup--The first object was to determine if the Carbozyme permeator performance was likely to be reduced by particles (materials) in the flue gas stream that would either obstruct the mouth of the hollow fibers (HF) or stick to the HF bore wall surface. The second, based on the Acceptance Standards (see below), was to determine whether it would be preferable to clean the inlet gas stream (removing acid gases and particulates) or to develop methods to clean the Carbozyme permeator if performance declined due to HF block. We concluded that condensation of particle and particulate emissions, in the heat exchanger, could result in the formation of very sticky sulfate aerosols with a strong likelihood of obtruding the HF. These must be managed carefully and minimized to near-zero status before entering the permeator inlet stream. More extensive post-combustion cleanup is expected to be a necessary expense, independent of CO{sub 2} capture technology This finding is in agreement with views now emerging in the literature for a variety of CO{sub 2} capture methods. Task 2--Water Condensation--The key goal was to monitor and control temperature distributions within the permeator and between the permeator and its surroundings to determine whether water condensation in the pores or the HF bore would block flow, decreasing performance. A heat transfer fluid and delivery system were developed and employed. The result was near isothermal performance that avoided all instances of flow block. Direct thermocouple measurements provided the basis for developing a heat transfer model that supports prediction of heat transfer profiles for larger permeators Tasks 3. 4.1, 4.2--Temperature Range of Enzymes--The goal was to determine if the enzyme operating temperature would limit the range of thermal conditions available to the capture system. We demonstrated the ability of various isozymes (enzyme variants) to operate from 4-85 C. Consequently, the operating characteristics of the enzyme are not a controlling factor. Further, any isozyme whose upper temperature bound is at least 10 C greater than that of the planned inlet temperature will be stable under unanticipated, uncontrolled 'hiccups' in power plant operation. Task 4.4, 4.4--Examination of the Effects of SOx and NOx on Enzyme Activity (Development of Flue Gas Composition Acceptance Standards)--The purpose was to define the inlet gas profile boundaries. We examined the potential adverse effects of flue gas constituents including different acids from to develop an acceptance standard and compared these values to actual PC flue gas composition. Potential issues include changes in pH, accumulation of specific inhibitory anions and cations. A model was developed and validated by test with a SO{sub 2}-laden stream. The predicted and actual data very largely coincided. The model predicted feed stream requirements to allow continuous operation in excess of 2500 hours. We developed operational (physical and chemical) strategies to avoid or ameliorate these effects. Avoidance, the preferred strategy (noted above), is accomplished by more extensive cleanup of the flue gas stream. Task 5--Process Engineering Model--We developed a process-engineering model for two purposes. The first was to predict the physical and chemical status at each test point in the design as a basis for scale-up. The second was to model the capital and operating cost of the apparatus. These were accomplished and used to predict capex, opex and cost of energy. Task 6--Preliminary Commercialization Plan--We carried out analyses of the market and the competition by a variety of parameters. The conclusion was that there is a l

Michael C. Trachtenberg

2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

63

Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas concentration Title Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas concentration Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2007 Authors Lorenzetti, David M., Astrid H. Kristoffersen, and Ashok J. Gadgil Journal Indoor Air Pagination 7 Keywords recirculating ventilation, tracer decay rate Abstract Tracer gas measurements are used to estimate the flow rate of fresh air into a room or building. These methods commonly account for the decay of tracer gas concentration as the result of ventilation air supply and infiltration, using a well-mixed model of the space. Some researchers also have considered the effect of leakage in the ventilation ductwork. This paper considers the effect of recirculation through ventilation ducts on the calculated fresh air supply rate. Transport delay in the ducts can significantly alter the time evolution of tracer concentration, and hence alter the estimated air change rate.

64

Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas Title Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2004 Authors Kristoffersen, Astrid H., Ashok J. Gadgil, and David M. Lorenzetti Conference Name 9th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms - RoomVent 2004, Pagination pp 6 Date Published September 5-8, 2 Conference Location Coimbra, Portugal Abstract Tracer gas measurements are commonly used to estimate the fresh air exchange rate in a room or building. Published tracer decay methods account for fresh air supply, infiltration, and leaks in ductwork. However, the time delay associated with a ventilation system recirculating tracer back to the room also affects the decay rate. We present an analytical study of tracer gas decay in a well-mixed, mechanically-ventilated room with recirculation. The analysis shows that failing to account for delays can lead to under- or over-estimates of the fresh air supply, depending on whether the decay rate calculation includes the duct volume

65

Adaptive Air Charge Estimation for Turbocharged Diesel Engines without Exhaust Gas Recirculation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptive Air Charge Estimation for Turbocharged Diesel Engines without Exhaust Gas Recirculation an adaptive observer for in-cylinder air charge estimation for turbocharged diesel engines without exhaust gas (734) 764-4256 1 #12;Storset et al.- Adaptive Air Charge Est. for TC Diesel Engines 2 1 Introduction

Stefanopoulou, Anna

66

Membrane Process to Sequester CO2 from Power Plant Flue Gas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

MeMbrane Process to sequester co MeMbrane Process to sequester co 2 froM Power Plant flue Gas Background Carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants are believed to contribute significantly to global warming climate change. The direct approach to address this problem is to capture the carbon dioxide in flue gas and sequester it underground. However, the high cost of separating and capturing CO 2 with conventional technologies prevents the adoption of this approach. This project investigates the technical and economic feasibility of a new membrane process to capture CO 2 from power plant flue gas. Description Direct CO 2 capture from power plant flue gas has been the subject of many studies. Currently, CO 2 capture with amine absorption seems to be the leading candidate technology-although membrane processes have been suggested. The principal

67

Flue gas desulfurization : cost and functional analysis of large-scale and proven plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Flue Gas Desulfurization is a method of controlling the emission of sulfurs, which causes the acid rain. The following study is based on 26 utilities which burn coal, have a generating capacity of at least 50 Megawatts ...

Tilly, Jean

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Air and Flue Gas in the Alkylamine...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Air and Flue Gas in the Alkylamine-Appended Metal-Organic Framework mmen-Mg2(dobpdc) Previous Next List Thomas M. McDonald, Woo Ram Lee, Jarad A....

69

New Developments in Closed Loop Combustion Control Using Flue Gas Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New developments in closed loop combustion control are causing radical changes in the way combustion control systems are implemented. The recent availability of in line flue gas analyzers and microprocessor technology are teaming up to produce...

Nelson, R. L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Cost-Effective Abatement of Acidifying Emissions with Flue Gas Cleaning Vs. Fuel Switching in Finland  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Acidifying emissions from energy production and industry have decreased considerably during the...e.g. flue gas desulphurization. In this study the Finnish cost curves for SO2 and NOx...were first calculated to p...

N. Karvosenoja; P. Hillukkala; M. Johansson; S. Syril

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

removal from flue gas of coal-fired power plants. Environ.Speciation in a 100-MW Coal-Fired Boiler with Low-NOxControl Technologies for Coal-Fired Power Plants, DOE/NETL

Miller, Nai-Qiang Yan-Zan Qu Yao Chi Shao-Hua Qiao Ray Dod Shih-Ger Chang Charles

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

CO2 Capture from Flue Gas Using SOlid Molecular Basket Sorbents  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

from Flue Gas Using Solid from Flue Gas Using Solid Molecular Basket Sorbents Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-

73

CO2 Removal from Flue Gas Using MIcroporous Metal Organic Frameworks  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Removal from Flue Gas Using Removal from Flue Gas Using Microporous Metal Organic Frameworks Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Existing Plants, Emissions, & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. The EPEC R&D

74

Analysis of Halogen-Mercury Reactions in Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidized mercury species may be formed in combustion systems through gas-phase reactions between elemental mercury and halogens, such as chorine or bromine. This study examines how bromine species affect mercury oxidation in the gas phase and examines the effects of mixtures of bromine and chlorine on extents of oxidation. Experiments were conducted in a bench-scale, laminar flow, methane-fired (300 W), quartz-lined reactor in which gas composition (HCl, HBr, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}) and temperature profile were varied. In the experiments, the post-combustion gases were quenched from flame temperatures to about 350 C, and then speciated mercury was measured using a wet conditioning system and continuous emissions monitor (CEM). Supporting kinetic calculations were performed and compared with measured levels of oxidation. A significant portion of this report is devoted to sample conditioning as part of the mercury analysis system. In combustion systems with significant amounts of Br{sub 2} in the flue gas, the impinger solutions used to speciate mercury may be biased and care must be taken in interpreting mercury oxidation results. The stannous chloride solution used in the CEM conditioning system to convert all mercury to total mercury did not provide complete conversion of oxidized mercury to elemental, when bromine was added to the combustion system, resulting in a low bias for the total mercury measurement. The use of a hydroxylamine hydrochloride and sodium hydroxide solution instead of stannous chloride showed a significant improvement in the measurement of total mercury. Bromine was shown to be much more effective in the post-flame, homogeneous oxidation of mercury than chlorine, on an equivalent molar basis. Addition of NO to the flame (up to 400 ppmv) had no impact on mercury oxidation by chlorine or bromine. Addition of SO{sub 2} had no effect on mercury oxidation by chlorine at SO{sub 2} concentrations below about 400 ppmv; some increase in mercury oxidation was observed at SO{sub 2} concentrations of 400 ppmv and higher. In contrast, SO{sub 2} concentrations as low as 50 ppmv significantly reduced mercury oxidation by bromine, this reduction could be due to both gas and liquid phase interactions between SO{sub 2} and oxidized mercury species. The simultaneous presence of chlorine and bromine in the flue gas resulted in a slight increase in mercury oxidation above that obtained with bromine alone, the extent of the observed increase is proportional to the chlorine concentration. The results of this study can be used to understand the relative importance of gas-phase mercury oxidation by bromine and chlorine in combustion systems. Two temperature profiles were tested: a low quench (210 K/s) and a high quench (440 K/s). For chlorine the effects of quench rate were slight and hard to characterize with confidence. Oxidation with bromine proved sensitive to quench rate with significantly more oxidation at the lower rate. The data generated in this program are the first homogeneous laboratory-scale data on bromine-induced oxidation of mercury in a combustion system. Five Hg-Cl and three Hg-Br mechanisms, some published and others under development, were evaluated and compared to the new data. The Hg-halogen mechanisms were combined with submechanisms from Reaction Engineering International for NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and hydrocarbons. The homogeneous kinetics under-predicted the levels of mercury oxidation observed in full-scale systems. This shortcoming can be corrected by including heterogeneous kinetics in the model calculations.

Paula Buitrago; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Brydger Van Otten

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Air Charge Control for Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engines with Internal Exhaust Gas Recirculation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the turbocharger wastegate, and the Variable Valve Timing (VVT) system are three actuators in the air path systemAir Charge Control for Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engines with Internal Exhaust Gas Recirculation of transient cylin- der charge control, based on a cycle-averaged mean-value model for a turbocharged spark

Stefanopoulou, Anna

76

Experimental research on emission and removal of dioxins in flue gas from a co-combustion of MSW and coal incinerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the experimental study of dioxins removal from flue gas from a co-combustion municipal solid waste and coal incinerator by means of a fluidized absorption tower and a fabric filter. A test rig has been set up. The flow rate of flue gas of the test rig is 150-2000 m{sup 3}/h. The system was composed of a humidification and cooling system, an absorption tower, a demister, a slurry make-up tank, a desilter, a fabric filter and a measurement system. The total height of the absorption tower was 6.5 m, and the diameter of the reactor pool was 1.2 m. When the absorbent was 1% limestone slurry, the recirculation ratio was 3, the jet rate was 5-15 m/s and the submerged depth of the bubbling pipe under the slurry was 0.14 m, the removal efficiency for dioxins was 99.35%. The concentration of dioxins in the treated flue gas was 0.1573 x 10{sup -13} kg/Nm{sup 3} and the concentration of oxygen was 11%. This concentration is comparable to the emission standards of other developed countries.

Zhong Zhaoping [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)]. E-mail: zzhong@seu.edu.cn; Jin Baosheng [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Huang Yaji [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Zhou Hongcang [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Lan Jixiang [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

PRODUCTION OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATES FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Through a cooperative agreement with DOE, the Research and Development Department of CONSOL Inc. (CONSOL R and D) is teaming with SynAggs, Inc. and Duquesne Light to design, construct, and operate a 500 lb/h continuous pilot plant to produce road construction aggregate from a mixture of wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, fly ash, and other components. The proposed project is divided into six tasks: (1) Project Management; (2) Mix Design Evaluation; (3) Process Design; (4) Construction; (5) Start-Up and Operation; and (6) Reporting. In this quarter, Tasks 1 and 2 were completed. A project management plan (Task 1) was issued to DOE on October 22, 1998 . The mix design evaluation (Task 2) with Duquesne Light Elrama Station FGD sludge and Allegheny Power Hatfields Ferry Station fly ash was completed. Eight semi-continuous bench-scale tests were conducted to examine the effects of mix formulation on aggregate properties. A suitable mix formulation was identified to produce aggregates that meet specifications of the American Association of State High Transport Officials (AASHTO) as Class A aggregate for use in highway construction. The mix formulation was used in designing the flow sheet of the pilot plant. The process design (Task 3) is approximately 80% completed. Equipment was evaluated to comply with design requirements. The design for the curing vessel was completed by an outside engineering firm. All major equipment items for the pilot plant, except the curing vessel, were ordered. Pilot plant construction (Task 4) was begun in October. The Hazardous Substance Plan was issued to DOE. The Allegheny County (PA) Heat Department determined that an air emission permit is not required for operation of the pilot plant.

NONE

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this project were to carry out an experimental program to enable development and design of near zero emissions (NZE) CO{sub 2} processing unit (CPU) for oxy-combustion plants burning high and low sulfur coals and to perform commercial viability assessment. The NZE CPU was proposed to produce high purity CO{sub 2} from the oxycombustion flue gas, to achieve > 95% CO{sub 2} capture rate and to achieve near zero atmospheric emissions of criteria pollutants. Two SOx/NOx removal technologies were proposed depending on the SOx levels in the flue gas. The activated carbon process was proposed for power plants burning low sulfur coal and the sulfuric acid process was proposed for power plants burning high sulfur coal. For plants burning high sulfur coal, the sulfuric acid process would convert SOx and NOx in to commercial grade sulfuric and nitric acid by-products, thus reducing operating costs associated with SOx/NOx removal. For plants burning low sulfur coal, investment in separate FGD and SCR equipment for producing high purity CO{sub 2} would not be needed. To achieve high CO{sub 2} capture rates, a hybrid process that combines cold box and VPSA (vacuum pressure swing adsorption) was proposed. In the proposed hybrid process, up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in the cold box vent stream would be recovered by CO{sub 2} VPSA and then it would be recycled and mixed with the flue gas stream upstream of the compressor. The overall recovery from the process will be > 95%. The activated carbon process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx, thus exceeding the performance targets of >99% and >95%, respectively. The process was also found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. Sulfuric acid process did not meet the performance expectations. Although it could achieve high SOx (>99%) and NOx (>90%) removal efficiencies, it could not produce by-product sulfuric and nitric acids that meet the commercial product specifications. The sulfuric acid will have to be disposed of by neutralization, thus lowering the value of the technology to same level as that of the activated carbon process. Therefore, it was decided to discontinue any further efforts on sulfuric acid process. Because of encouraging results on the activated carbon process, it was decided to add a new subtask on testing this process in a dual bed continuous unit. A 40 days long continuous operation test confirmed the excellent SOx/NOx removal efficiencies achieved in the batch operation. This test also indicated the need for further efforts on optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level. The VPSA process was tested in a pilot unit. It achieved CO{sub 2} recovery of > 95% and CO{sub 2} purity of >80% (by vol.) from simulated cold box feed streams. The overall CO{sub 2} recovery from the cold box VPSA hybrid process was projected to be >99% for plants with low air ingress (2%) and >97% for plants with high air ingress (10%). Economic analysis was performed to assess value of the NZE CPU. The advantage of NZE CPU over conventional CPU is only apparent when CO{sub 2} capture and avoided costs are compared. For greenfield plants, cost of avoided CO{sub 2} and cost of captured CO{sub 2} are generally about 11-14% lower using the NZE CPU compared to using a conventional CPU. For older plants with high air intrusion, the cost of avoided CO{sub 2} and capture CO{sub 2} are about 18-24% lower using the NZE CPU. Lower capture costs for NZE CPU are due to lower capital investment in FGD/SCR and higher CO{sub 2} capture efficiency. In summary, as a result of this project, we now have developed one technology option for NZE CPU based on the activated carbon process and coldbox-VPSA hybrid process. This technology is projected to work for both low and high sulfur coal plants. The NZE CPU technology is projected to achieve near zero stack emissions

Minish Shah; Nich Degenstein; Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Ravi Kumar; Jennifer Bugayong; Ken Burgers

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

79

Dynamic Tests and Results in an Oxy-fuel Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor with Warm Flue Gas Recycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dynamic Tests and Results in an Oxy-fuel Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor with Warm Flue Gas Recycle ... Dynamic step change tests concerning the coal feed rate and coal type were conducted. ... In the dynamic tests, the oxygen concentration in the flue gas fluctuates in the form of a sinusoidal wave because of the fast volatile combustion and the delay in the char ignition. ...

Jian-xin Zhou; Zhuang Shao; Feng-qi Si; Zhi-gao Xu

2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

80

Effect of connate water on miscible displacement of reservoir oil by flue gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Average Reservoir Fluid Pro erties Before Break- Through Ultimate Economic Re cover Fraction OIP 1(a) (b) (c) 2(a) (b) (c) 3(a) (b) (c) (b) (c) (d) 5(*) (b) (c} 6(a) (b) (c) 3800 4200 4600 3800 4200 4600 3800 4ZOO 4600 3000...-through recovery of 75 per cent. Nitrogen resulted in an 81 per cent break- through recovery, after reaching miscibility at 4160 psi. Although nitrogen gave a higher break-through recovery than flue gas, flue gas 25 0. 80 4600 psi 4200 psi f4 0 0 0 'g 4...

Maxwell, H. D.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas recirculation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Integrated flue gas treatment for simulataneous emission control and heat rate improvement - demonstration project at Ravenswood  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results are presented for electric-utility, residual-oil fired, field demonstration testing of advanced-design, heat-recovery type, flue gas sub-coolers that incorporate sulfite-alkali-based wet scrubbing for efficient removal of volatile and semi-volatile trace elements, sub-micron solid particulate matter, SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. By innovative adaptation of wet collector system operation with methanol injection into the rear boiler cavity to convert flue-gas NO to No{sub 2}, simultaneous removal of NO{sub x} is also achieved. The focus of this integrated flue gas treatment (IFGT) technology development and demonstration-scale, continuous performance testing is an upward-gas-flow, indirectly water-cooled, condensing heat exchanger fitted with acid-proof, teflon-covered tubes and tubesheets and that provides a unique condensing (non-evaporative) wet-scrubbing mode to address air toxics control objectives of new Clean Air Act, Title III. Advantageous trace-metal condensation/nucleation/agglomeration along with substantially enhanced boiler efficiency is accomplished in the IFGT system by use of boiler makeup water as a heat sink in indirectly cooling boiler flue gas to a near-ambient-temperature, low-absolute-humidity, water-saturated state. Moreover, unique, innocuous, stack systems design encountered with conventional high-humidity, wet-scrubber operations. The mechanical design of this advanced flue-gas cooling/scrubbing equipment is based on more than ten years of commercial application of such units is downward-gas-flow design/operation for energy recovery, e.g. in preheating of makeup water, in residual-oil and natural-gas fired boiler operations.

Heaphy, J.; Carbonara, J.; Cressner, A. [Consolidated Edison Company, New York, NY (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Carbon dioxide absorber and regeneration assemblies useful for power plant flue gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are apparatus and method to treat large amounts of flue gas from a pulverized coal combustion power plant. The flue gas is contacted with solid sorbents to selectively absorb CO.sub.2, which is then released as a nearly pure CO.sub.2 gas stream upon regeneration at higher temperature. The method is capable of handling the necessary sorbent circulation rates of tens of millions of lbs/hr to separate CO.sub.2 from a power plant's flue gas stream. Because pressurizing large amounts of flue gas is cost prohibitive, the method of this invention minimizes the overall pressure drop in the absorption section to less than 25 inches of water column. The internal circulation of sorbent within the absorber assembly in the proposed method not only minimizes temperature increases in the absorber to less than 25.degree. F., but also increases the CO.sub.2 concentration in the sorbent to near saturation levels. Saturating the sorbent with CO.sub.2 in the absorber section minimizes the heat energy needed for sorbent regeneration. The commercial embodiments of the proposed method can be optimized for sorbents with slower or faster absorption kinetics, low or high heat release rates, low or high saturation capacities and slower or faster regeneration kinetics.

Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

83

Flue gas carbon dioxide sequestration during water softening with ion-exchange fibers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study examines the use of ion-exchange fibers (IX fibers) to permanently sequester carbon dioxide present in flue gas into an aqueous phase as calcium or magnesium alkalinity while concurrently softening hard water. The only process inputs besides carbon dioxide (or flue gas) are snowmelt (or rainwater); no other chemicals are required for the regeneration of the IX fibers. Importantly, the process is not energy intensive and carbon dioxide does not need to be compressed to excessive pressures (>150 psi) for efficient use. Sources of carbon dioxide do not require concentration and, therefore, the use of raw flue gas (similar to 17% CO{sub 2}) is feasible with the rate of sequestration governed only by the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. While valid for flue gas obtained from any combustion process (e.g., coal, oil, natural gas, etc.), emissions from oil or gas combustion may be more appropriate for use in the described process due to the absence of mercury and particulates. It should also be noted that the presence of sulfur dioxide in flue gas would not adversely affect the process and may even enhance regeneration efficiency. The only product of the proposed process is an environmentally benign regenerant stream containing calcium and/or magnesium alkalinity. The unique property of IX fibers that makes the proposed process both environmentally sustainable and economically feasible is amenability to efficient regeneration with carbon dioxide and harvested snowmelt. Low intraparticle diffusional resistance is the underlying reason why IX fibers are amenable to efficient regeneration using snowmelt sparged with carbon dioxide; 95% calcium recovery was attained at a CO{sub 2} partial pressure of 6.8 atm. The energy balance for a typical electric utility shows that up to 1% of carbon dioxide emitted during combustion would be sequestered in the softening process.

Greenleaf, J.E.; SenGupta, A.K. [Lafayette College, Easton, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

84

Transport Membrane Condenser for Water and Energy Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dexin Wang Dexin Wang Principal Investigator Gas Technology Institute 1700 South Mount Prospect Rd Des Plaines, Il 60018 847-768-0533 dexin.wang@gastechnology.org TransporT MeMbrane Condenser for WaTer and energy reCovery froM poWer planT flue gas proMIs/projeCT no.: nT0005350 Background One area of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Innovations for Existing Plants (IEP) Program's research is being performed to develop advanced technologies to reuse power plant cooling water and associated waste heat and to investigate methods to recover water from power plant flue gas. Considering the quantity of water withdrawn and consumed by power plants, any recovery or reuse of this water can significantly reduce the plant's water requirements. Coal occurs naturally with water present (3-60 weight %), and the combustion

85

MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEQUESTER CO2 FROM POWER PLANT FLUE GAS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of using a membrane process to capture CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. During this program, MTR developed a novel membrane (Polaris™) with a CO2 permeance tenfold higher than commercial CO2-selective membranes used in natural gas treatment. The Polaris™ membrane, combined with a process design that uses a portion of combustion air as a sweep stream to generate driving force for CO2 permeation, meets DOE post-combustion CO2 capture targets. Initial studies indicate a CO2 separation and liquefaction cost of $20 - $30/ton CO2 using about 15% of the plant energy at 90% CO2 capture from a coal-fired power plant. Production of the Polaris™ CO2 capture membrane was scaled up with MTR’s commercial casting and coating equipment. Parametric tests of cross-flow and countercurrent/sweep modules prepared from this membrane confirm their near-ideal performance under expected flue gas operating conditions. Commercial-scale, 8-inch diameter modules also show stable performance in field tests treating raw natural gas. These findings suggest that membranes are a viable option for flue gas CO2 capture. The next step will be to conduct a field demonstration treating a realworld power plant flue gas stream. The first such MTR field test will capture 1 ton CO2/day at Arizona Public Service’s Cholla coal-fired power plant, as part of a new DOE NETL funded program.

Tim Merkel; Karl Amo; Richard Baker; Ramin Daniels; Bilgen Friat; Zhenjie He; Haiqing Lin; Adrian Serbanescu

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

86

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: (1) An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing high-moisture, low rank coals. (2) Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. (3) Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. (4) Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. (5) Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. (6) Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. (7) Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. (8) Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; John DuPoint

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

87

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: • An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing highmoisture, low rank coals. • Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. • Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. • Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. • Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. • Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. • Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. • Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

Levy, Edward; Bilirgen, Harun; DuPont, John

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

88

Life cycle considerations of the flue gas desulphurization system at a lignite-fired power plant in Thailand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Flue Gas Desulphurization (FGD) system has been installed at the biggest lignite-fired power generation plant in Thailand to reduce the large...2...emission. In order to understand the costs and benefits, bot...

Sate Sampattagul; Seizo Kato…

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA as well as flue gas from coal combustion. This topical report covers Phase 2b, which is the construction phase of pilot demonstration subsystems that make up the integrated plant. The subsystems included are the mineralization subsystem, the Alkalinity Based on Low Energy (ABLE) subsystem, the waste calcium oxide processing subsystem, and the fiber cement board production subsystem. The fully integrated plant is now capable of capturing CO2 from various sources (gas and coal) and mineralizing into a reactive calcium carbonate binder and subsequently producing commercial size (4ftx8ft) fiber cement boards. The topical report provides a description of the “as built” design of these subsystems and the results of the commissioning activities that have taken place to confirm operability. At the end of Phase 2b, the CCMP pilot demonstration is fully ready for testing.

Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Flue Gas Purification Utilizing SOx/NOx Reactions During Compressin of CO2 Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Flue Gas Purification Flue Gas Purification Utilizing SO X /NO X Reactions During Compression of CO 2 Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion Background Oxy-combustion in a pulverized coal-fired power station produces a raw carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) product containing contaminants such as water vapor, oxygen, nitrogen, and argon from impurities in the oxygen used and any air leakage into the system. Acid gases are also produced as combustion products, such as sulfur oxides (SO

91

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sorbent InjectIon for Small eSP Sorbent InjectIon for Small eSP mercury control In low Sulfur eaStern bItumInouS coal flue GaS Background Full-scale field testing has demonstrated the effectiveness of activated carbon injection (ACI) as a mercury-specific control technology for certain coal-fired power plants, depending on the plant's coal feedstock and existing air pollution control device configuration. In a typical configuration, powdered activated carbon (PAC) is injected downstream of the plant's air heater and upstream of the existing particulate control device - either an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or a fabric filter (FF). The PAC adsorbs the mercury from the combustion flue gas and is subsequently captured along with the fly ash in the ESP or FF. ACI can have some negative side

92

The Flakt-Hydro process: flue gas desulfurisation by use of seawater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ABB's seawater scrubbing process (the Flakt-Hydro process) for flue gas desulfurisation has recently triggered much interest among power producers because of its simple operating principle and high reliability. The process uses seawater to absorb and neutralise sulfur dioxide in flue gases. The absorbed gas is oxidised and returned to the ocean in the form it originated in the first place, namely as dissolved sulfate salts. The process uses the seawater downstream of the power plant condensers. This paper gives an introduction to the basic principle of the process and presents some of the recent power plant applications, namely at the Paiton Private Power Project, Phase 1 (2 ? 670 Mwe) in Indonesia and at the Shenzhen West Power Plant, Unit 2 (300 MWe) in China.

Wu Zhao Xia

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Membrane Process to Capture CO2 from Power Plant Flue Gas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Membrane Process to Capture CO Membrane Process to Capture CO 2 from Power Plant Flue Gas Background The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Innovations for Existing Plants (IEP) Program is performing research to develop advanced technologies focusing on carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions control for existing pulverized coal-fired plants. This new focus on post-combustion and oxy-combustion CO 2 emissions control technology, CO 2 compression, and beneficial reuse is in response to the priority for advanced

94

Analysis of CO2 Separation from Flue Gas, Pipeline Transportation, and Sequestration in Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report was written to satisfy a milestone of the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration task of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration project. The report begins to assess the costs associated with separating the CO2 from flue gas and then injecting it into an unminable coal seam. The technical challenges and costs associated with CO2 separation from flue gas and transportation of the separated CO2 from the point source to an appropriate sequestration target was analyzed. The report includes the selection of a specific coal-fired power plant for the application of CO2 separation technology. An appropriate CO2 separation technology was identified from existing commercial technologies. The report also includes a process design for the chosen technology tailored to the selected power plant that used to obtain accurate costs of separating the CO2 from the flue gas. In addition, an analysis of the costs for compression and transportation of the CO2 from the point-source to an appropriate coal bed sequestration site was included in the report.

Eric P. Robertson

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Corrosion protection by means of rubber linings in a flue gas scrubber made of concrete  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rubber linings have been applied as a corrosion protection measure for steel surfaces, particularly in the absorbers, in the flue gas desulfurization plants of a large number of power stations in Europe and have decidedly proven their effectiveness. The rubber linings applied consist of either precured and/or cold-curing rubber sheets. In the course of the past five to seven years, the eastern European states have also begun retro-fitting their existing power stations with flue gas desulfurization plants. As the first of its kind, a scrubber in the flue gas desulfurization plant of the Konin Power Station in Poland, which operates on the basis of the limestone-gypsum process, was constructed of concrete. In this case also, the corrosion protection measures implemented consisted in the application of a precured rubber lining on the basis of butyl rubber. A surface area measuring 1,500 m{sup 2} of the concrete absorber was protected by means of this corrosion protection system.

Fenner, J.; Matos, A.; Seiffert, W. [Keramchemie GmbH, Siershahn (Germany)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

96

Cyclone reactor with internal separation and axial recirculation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cyclone combustor apparatus contains a circular partition plate containing a central circular aperture. The partition plate divides the apparatus into a cylindrical precombustor chamber and a combustor chamber. A coal-water slurry is passed axially into the inlet end of the precombustor chamber, and primary air is passed tangentially into said chamber to establish a cyclonic air flow. Combustion products pass through the partition plate aperture and into the combustor chamber. Secondary air may also be passed tangentially into the combustor chamber adjacent the partition plate to maintain the cyclonic flow. Flue gas is passed axially out of the combustor chamber at the outlet end and ash is withdrawn tangentially from the combuston chamber at the outlet end. A first mixture of flue gas and ash may be tangentially withdrawn from the combustor chamber at the outlet end and recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber with the coal-water slurry. A second mixture of flue gas and ash may be tangentially withdrawn from the outlet end of the combustor chamber and passed to a heat exchanger for cooling. Cooled second mixture is then recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber. In another embodiment a single cyclone combustor chamber is provided with both the recirculation streams of the first mixture and the second mixture.

Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Alternative formulations of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts. Progress report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major source of man-made SO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is the burning of coal for electric power generation. Coal-fired utility plants are also large sources of NO{sub x} pollution. Regenerable flue gas desulfurization/NO{sub x} abatement catalysts provide one mechanism of simultaneously removing SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} species from flue gases released into the atmosphere. The purpose of this project is to examine routes of optimizing the adsorption efficiency, the adsorption capacity, and the ease of regeneration of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts. We are investigating two different mechanisms for accomplishing this goal. The first involves the use of different alkali and alkaline earth metals as promoters for the alumina sorbents to increase the surface basicity of the sorbent and thus adjust the number and distribution of adsorption sites. The second involves investigation of non-aqueous impregnation, as opposed to aqueous impregnation, as a method to obtain an evenly dispersed monolayer of the promoter on the surface.

Mitchell, M.B.; White, M.G.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

98

Industrial Plant for Flue Gas Treatment with High Power Electron Accelerators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fossil fuel combustion leads to acidic pollutants like SO2 NOx HCl emission. Different control technologies are proposed however the most popular method is combination of wet FGD (flue gas desulfurization) and SCR (selective catalytic reduction). First using lime or limestone slurry leads to SO2 capture and gypsum is a product. The second process where ammonia is used as reagent and nitrogen oxides are reduced over catalyst surface to gaseous nitrogen removes NOx. New advanced method using electron accelerators for simultaneous SO2 and NOx removal has been developed in Japan the USA Germany and Poland. Both pollutants are removed with high efficiency and byproduct can be applied as fertilizer. Two industrial plants have been already constructed. One in China and second in Poland third one is under construction in Japan. Information on the Polish plant is presented in the paper. Plant has been constructed at Power Station Pomorzany Szczecin (Dolna Odra Electropower Stations Group) and treats flue gases from two Benson boilers 60 MWe and 100 MWth each. Flow rate of the flue gas stream is equal to 270 000 Nm3/h. Four transformer accelerators 700 keV electron energy and 260 kW beam power each were applied. With its 1.05 MW total beam power installed it is a biggest radiation facility over the world nowadays. Description of the plant and results obtained has been presented in the paper.

Andrzej G. Chmielewski; Bogdan Tyminski; Zbigniew Zimek; Andrzej Pawelec; Janusz Licki

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Coagulation/Flocculation Treatments for Flue-Gas-Derived Water from Oxyfuel Power Production with CO2 Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coagulation/Flocculation Treatments for Flue-Gas-Derived Water from Oxyfuel Power Production with CO2 Capture ... The buffered solution is then sent back to the top of the tower, where it is sprayed into the upflowing oxyfuel gas stream, condensing and cleaning the ash-laden gas. ...

Sivaram Harendra; Danylo Oryshchyn; Thomas Ochs; Stephen Gerdemann; John Clark; Cathy Summers

2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

100

Impact of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the oxidative reactivity of diesel engine soot  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper expands the consideration of the factors affecting the nanostructure and oxidative reactivity of diesel soot to include the impact of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Past work showed that soot derived from oxygenated fuels such as biodiesel carries some surface oxygen functionality and thereby possesses higher reactivity than soot from conventional diesel fuel. In this work, results show that EGR exerts a strong influence on the physical properties of the soot which leads to enhanced oxidation rate. HRTEM images showed a dramatic difference between the burning modes of the soot generated under 0 and 20% EGR. The soot produced under 0% EGR strictly followed an external burning mode with no evidence of internal burning. In contrast, soot generated under 20% EGR exhibited dual burning modes: slow external burning and rapid internal burning. The results demonstrate clearly that highly reactive soot can be achieved by manipulating the physical properties of the soot via EGR. (author)

Al-Qurashi, Khalid; Boehman, Andre L. [The EMS Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, 405 Academic Activities Bldg., University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

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101

Compression Stripping of Flue Gas with Energy Recovery  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of remediating and recovering energy from combustion products from a fossil fuel power plant having at least one fossil fuel combustion chamber, at least one compressor, at least one turbine, at least one heat exchanger and a source of oxygen. Combustion products including non-condensable gases such as oxygen and nitrogen and condensable vapors such as water vapor and acid gases such as SOX and NOX and CO2 and pollutants are produced and energy is recovered during the remediation which recycles combustion products and adds oxygen to support combustion. The temperature and/or pressure of the combustion products are changed by cooling through heat exchange with thermodynamic working fluids in the power generation cycle and/or compressing and/or heating and/or expanding the combustion products to a temperature/pressure combination below the dew point of at least some of the condensable vapors to condense liquid having some acid gases dissolved and/or entrained and/or directly condense acid gas vapors from the combustion products and to entrain and/or dissolve some of the pollutants while recovering sensible and/or latent heat from the combustion products through heat exchange between the combustion products and thermodynamic working fluids and/or cooling fluids used in the power generating cycle. Then the CO2, SO2, and H2O poor and oxygen enriched remediation stream is sent to an exhaust and/or an air separation unit and/or a turbine.

Ochs, Thomas L.; O'Connor, William K.

2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

102

Compression stripping of flue gas with energy recovery  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of remediating and recovering energy from combustion products from a fossil fuel power plant having at least one fossil fuel combustion chamber, at least one compressor, at least one turbine, at least one heat exchanger and a source of oxygen. Combustion products including non-condensable gases such as oxygen and nitrogen and condensable vapors such as water vapor and acid gases such as SO.sub.X and NO.sub.X and CO.sub.2 and pollutants are produced and energy is recovered during the remediation which recycles combustion products and adds oxygen to support combustion. The temperature and/or pressure of the combustion products are changed by cooling through heat exchange with thermodynamic working fluids in the power generation cycle and/or compressing and/or heating and/or expanding the combustion products to a temperature/pressure combination below the dew point of at least some of the condensable vapors to condense liquid having some acid gases dissolved and/or entrained and/or directly condense acid gas vapors from the combustion products and to entrain and/or dissolve some of the pollutants while recovering sensible and/or latent heat from the combustion products through heat exchange between the combustion products and thermodynamic working fluids and/or cooling fluids used in the power generating cycle. Then the CO.sub.2, SO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O poor and oxygen enriched remediation stream is sent to an exhaust and/or an air separation unit and/or a turbine.

Ochs, Thomas L. (Albany, OR); O'Connor, William K. (Lebanon, OR)

2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

103

Flue-gas sulfur-recovery plant for a multifuel boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In October 1991, a Finnish fluting mill brought on stream a flue-gas desulfurization plant with an SO{sub 2} reduction capacity of 99%. The desulfurization plant enabled the mill to discontinue the use of its sulfur burner for SO{sub 2} production. The required makeup sulfur is now obtained in the form of sulfuric acid used by the acetic acid plant, which operates in conjunction with the evaporating plant. The mill`s sulfur consumption has decreased by about 6,000 tons/year (13.2 million lb/year) because of sulfur recycling.

Miettunen, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland); Aitlahti, S. [Savon Sellu Oy, Kuopio (Finland)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Quarterly technical report No. 8, [January--March 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the first quarter of 1994, we continued work on Tasks 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. We also began work on Task 7. In Task 2, we incorporated 4.5% O{sub 2} into our simulated flue gas stream during this quarter`s NO{sub x}-absorption experiments. We also ran experiments using Cobalt (II)-phthalocyanine as an absorbing agent We observed higher absorption capacities when using this solution with the simulated flue gas containing O{sub 2}. In Task 3, we synthesized a few EDTA polymer analogs. We also began scaled up synthesis of Co(II)-phthalocyanine for use in Task 5. In Task 4, we performed experiments for measuring distribution coefficients (m{sub i}) Of SO{sub 2} between aqueous and organic phases. This was done using the liquor regenerating apparatus described in Task 6. In Task 5, we began working with Co(II)-phthalocyanine in the 301 fiber hollow fiber contactor. We also calculated mass transfer coefficients (K{sub olm}) for these runs, and we observed that the gas side resistance dominates mass transfer. In Task 6, in the liquor regeneration apparatus, we observed 90% recovery of SO{sub 2} by DMA from water used as the scrubbing solution. We also calculated the distribution of coefficients (m{sub i}). In Task 7, we established and began implementing a methodology for completing this task.

Bhown, A.S.; Alvarado, D.; Pakala, N.; Ventura, S. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)] [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Sirkar, K.K.; Majumdar, S.; Bhaumick, D. [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States)] [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidation of Hg0 with any oxidant or converting it to a particle-bound form can facilitate its removal. Two sulfur-chlorine compounds, sulfur dichloride (SCl2) and sulfur monochloride (S2Cl2), were investigated as oxidants for Hg0 by gas phase reaction and by surface-involved reactions in the presence of flyash or activated carbon. The gas phase reaction rate constants between Hg0 and the sulfur/chlorine compounds were determined, and the effects of temperature and the main components in flue gases were studied. The gas phase reaction between Hg0 and SCl2 is shown to be more rapid than the gas phase reaction with chlorine, and the second order rate constant was 9.1(+-0.5) x 10-18 mL-molecules-1cdots-1 at 373oK. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibited the gas phase reaction of Hg0 with sulfur-chlorine compounds. The presence of flyash or powdered activated carbon in flue gas can substantially accelerate the reaction. The predicted Hg0 removal is about 90percent with 5 ppm SCl2 or S2Cl2 and 40 g/m3 of flyash in flue gas. The combination of activated carbon and sulfur-chlorine compounds is an effective alternative. We estimate that co-injection of 3-5 ppm of SCl2 (or S2Cl2) with 2-3 Lb/MMacf of untreated Darco-KB is comparable in efficiency to the injection of 2-3 Lb/MMacf Darco-Hg-LH. Extrapolation of kinetic results also indicates that 90percent of Hg0 can be removed if 3 Lb/MMacf of Darco-KB pretreated with 3percent of SCl2 or S2Cl2 is used. Unlike gas phase reactions, NO exhibited little effect on Hg0 reactions with SCl2 or S2Cl2 on flyash or activated carbon. Mercuric sulfide was identified as one of the principal products of the Hg0/SCl2 or Hg0/S2Cl2 reactions. Additionally, about 8percent of SCl2 or S2Cl2 in aqueous solutions is converted to sulfide ions, which would precipitate mercuric ion from FGD solution.

Chang, Shih-Ger; Yan, Nai-Qiang; Qu, Zan; Chi, Yao; Qiao, Shao-Hua; Dod, Ray; Chang, Shih-Ger; Miller, Charles

2008-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

106

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, installation of a liquid flue gas conditioning system was completed at the American Electric Power Conesville Plant, Unit 3. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Two cohesivity-specific additive formulations, ADA-44C and ADA-51, will be evaluated. In addition, ammonia conditioning will also be compared.

Kenneth E. Baldrey

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Carbon Dioxide Removal from Flue Gas Using Microporous Metal Organic Frameworks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, in collaboration with Professor Douglas LeVan at Vanderbilt University (VU), Professor Adam Matzger at the University of Michigan (UM), Professor Randall Snurr at Northwestern University (NU), and Professor Stefano Brandani at the University of Edinburgh (UE), supported by Honeywell's Specialty Materials business unit and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), have completed a three-year project to develop novel microporous metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and an associated vacuum-pressure swing adsorption (vPSA) process for the removal of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas. The project leveraged the team's complementary capabilities: UOP's experience in materials development and manufacturing, adsorption process design and process commercialization; LeVan and Brandani's expertise in high-quality adsorption measurements; Matzger's experience in syntheis of MOFs and the organic components associated with MOFs; Snurr's expertise in molecular and other modeling; Honeywell's expertise in the manufacture of organic chemicals; and, EPRI's knowledge of power-generation technology and markets. The project was successful in that a selective CO{sub 2} adsorbent with good thermal stability and reasonable contaminant tolerance was discovered, and a low cost process for flue gas CO{sub 2} capture process ready to be evaluated further at the pilot scale was proposed. The team made significant progress toward the current DOE post-combustion research targets, as defined in a recent FOA issued by NETL: 90% CO{sub 2} removal with no more than a 35% increase in COE. The team discovered that favorable CO{sub 2} adsorption at more realistic flue gas conditions is dominated by one particular MOF structure type, M/DOBDC, where M designates Zn, Co, Ni, or Mg and DOBDC refers to the form of the organic linker in the resultant MOF structure, dioxybenzenedicarboxylate. The structure of the M/DOBDC MOFs consists of infinite-rod secondary building units bound by DOBDC resulting in 1D hexagonal pores about 11 angstroms in diameter. Surface areas range from 800 to 1500 sq m/g for the different MOFs. Mg/DOBDC outperformed all MOF and zeolite materials evaluated to date, with about 25 wt% CO{sub 2} captured by this MOF at flue gas conditions ({approx}0.13 atm CO{sub 2} pressure, 311K). In simulated flue gas without oxygen, the zero-length (ZLC) system was very useful in quickly simulating the effect of long term exposure to impurities on the MOFs. Detailed adsorption studies on MOF pellets have shown that water does not inhibit CO{sub 2} adsorption for MOFs as much as it does for typical zeolites. Moreover, some MOFs retain a substantial CO{sub 2} capacity even with a modest water loading at room temperature. Molecular modeling was a key activity in three areas of our earlier DOE/NETL-sponsored MOF-based research on CC. First, the team was able to effectively simulate CO{sub 2} and other gas adsorption isotherms for more than 20 MOFs, and the knowledge obtained was used to help predict new MOF structures that should be effective for CO{sub 2} adsorption at low pressure. The team also showed that molecular modeling could be utilized to predict the hydrothermal stability of a given MOF. Finally, the team showed that low moisture level exposure actually enhanced the CO{sub 2} adsorption performance of a particular MOF, HKUST-1.

David A Lesch

2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

108

Potential Agricultural Uses of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum in the Northern Great Plains  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a byproduct from the combustion of coal for electrical energy production. Currently, FGDG is being produced by 15 electrical generating stations in Alabama, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Ohio, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Wisconsin. Much of this byproduct is used in the manufacturing of wallboard. The National Network for Use of FGDG in Agriculture was initiated to explore alternative uses of this byproduct. In the northern Great Plains (North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana), FGDG has the potential to be used as a Ca or S fertilizer, as an acid soil ameliorant, and for reclaiming or mitigating sodium-affected soils. Greater than 1.4 million Mg of FGDG could initially be used in these states for these purposes. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum can be an agriculturally important resource for helping to increase the usefulness of problem soils and to increase crop and rangeland production. Conducting beneficial use audits would increase the public awareness of this product and help identify to coal combustion electrical generating stations the agriculturally beneficial outlets for this byproduct.

DeSutter, T.M.; Cihacek, L.J. [North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND (United States). Department of Soil Science

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

109

Flue gas cleaning with ammonia reduces SO{sub 2} emission  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the technical and commercial development and basis for application in North America for wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) of the AMASOX{reg_sign} (i.e. Ammonia Absorbs Sulfur Oxides) Process of Krupp Uhde (Germany) employing ammonia reagent. This process technology has been emerging slowly and stepwise over a twenty-year period in reaching the present stage of commercial applicability. The discussion herein considers the need for accommodating to and advantageously addressing the increasing number of applications with high and ultra-high flue-gas concentrations of SO{sub 2} at the boiler outlet accompanied by significant levels of other pollutants. Key measures in accomplishing this include use of important process innovations. This, as well, calls for the effective use, when applicable, of wet electrostatic precipitator mist-elimination means to gain low/minimum-opacity stack plume trailoff in wet scrubber use together with reduction of air toxics to low concentrations. With cost-effectiveness in electric utility service, detailed herein, superior to FGD processes commonly used to date in high-sulfur service, utilization of this technology is expanding. Important, potentially trend-setting types of powerplant applications of ammonia FGD are reviewed to identify foreseen market sectors and procurement trends that will at the same time serve to substantially broaden lowest-cost coal utilization.

Emish, G.J. [Krupp Wilputte Corp., Bridgeville, PA (United States); Schulte, W. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany); Ellison, W. [Ellison Consultants, Monrovia, MD (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

110

Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA. This topical report covers Subphase 2a which is the design phase of pilot demonstration subsystems. Materials of construction have been selected and proven in both lab scale and prototype testing to be acceptable for the reagent conditions of interest. The target application for the reactive carbonate material has been selected based upon small-scale feasibility studies and the design of a continuous fiber board production line has been completed. The electrochemical cell architecture and components have been selected based upon both lab scale and prototype testing. The appropriate quality control and diagnostic techniques have been developed and tested along with the required instrumentation and controls. Finally the demonstrate site infrastructure, NEPA categorical exclusion, and permitting is all ready for the construction and installation of the new units and upgrades.

Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Effect of exhaust gas recirculation on diesel knock intensity and its mechanism  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents an experimental study of the effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on diesel knock intensity, which is defined and discussed. In a previous paper, it was reported that particulate emission can be decreased by applying EGR under certain operating conditions; and the possible mechanism of the effect of EGR was presented. In the present study, the effect of EGR on diesel knock is examined under a variety of operating conditions. Diesel knock intensity is decreased considerably by EGR under the same operating conditions as when the particulate emission is decreased. A quantitative relationship between the diesel knock intensity and the maximum rate of cylinder pressure rise is obtained. The effect of EGR on diesel knock intensity is determined by both the chemical reaction rate of the initial premixed combustion (spontaneous ignition) and the fuel mass fraction prepared and burned in this stage. This is verified by measuring the ignition lag and classifying it into chemical and physical lags by a statistical technique.

Shiga, S.; Ehara, H.; Karasawa, T.; Kurabayashi, T.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Babcock and Wilcox`s (B and W) SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} process effectively removes SOx, NOx and particulate (Rox) from flue gas generated from coal-fired boilers in a single unit operation, a high temperature baghouse. The SNRB technology utilizes dry sorbent injection upstream of the baghouse for removal of SOx and ammonia injection upstream of a zeolitic selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst incorporated in the baghouse to reduce NOx emissions. Because the SOx and NOx removal processes require operation at elevated gas temperatures (800--900 F) for high removal efficiency, high-temperature fabric filter bags are used in the baghouse. The SNRB technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B and W tested the SNRB pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R.E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B and W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB process. The SNRB facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993. About 2,300 hours of high-temperature operation were achieved. The main emissions control performance goals of: greater than 70% SO{sub 2} removal using a calcium-based sorbent; greater than 90% NOx removal with minimal ammonia slip; and particulate emissions in compliance with the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) of 0.03 lb/million Btu were exceeded simultaneously in the demonstration program when the facility was operated at optimal conditions. Testing also showed significant reductions in emissions of some hazardous air pollutants.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, performance testing of flue gas conditioning was underway at the PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. The product tested, ADA-43, was a combination resistivity modifier with cohesivity polymers. This represents the first long-term full-scale testing of this class of products. Modifications to the flue gas conditioning system at Jim Bridger, including development of alternate injection lances, was also undertaken to improve chemical spray distribution and to avoid spray deposition to duct interior surfaces. Also in this quarter, a firm commitment was received for another long-term test of the cohesivity additives. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning is employed here on one unit, but there is interest in liquid cohesivity additives as a safer alternative.

Kenneth E. Baldrey

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, performance testing of flue gas conditioning was completed at the PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. The product tested, ADA-43, was a combination resistivity modifier with cohesivity polymers. The product was effective as a flue gas conditioner. However, ongoing problems with in-duct deposition resulting from the flue gas conditioning were not entirely resolved. Primarily these problems were the result of difficulties encountered with retrofit of an existing spray humidification system. Eventually it proved necessary to replace all of the original injection lances and to manually bypass the PLC-based air/liquid feed control. This yielded substantial improvement in spray atomization and system reliability. However, the plant opted not to install a permanent system. Also in this quarter, preparations continued for a test of the cohesivity additives at the American Electric Power Conesville Plant, Unit 3. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning is employed here on one unit, but there is interest in liquid cohesivity additives as a safer alternative.

Kenneth E. Baldrey

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Management of dry flue gas dsulfurization by-products in underground mines - an update  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1993, the U.S. produced about 100 million tons of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) primarily from conventional coal-fired boilers. The requirement to reduce SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions to comply with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) force utilities to adopt advanced combustion and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies, such as wet scrubbers, fluidized bed combustion (FBC), dry sorbent duct or furnace injection. These technologies will double to triple the amount of FGD by-products while only slightly increasing the amounts of conventional combustion residues, such as fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag. This paper describes a program concerned with the underground disposal of combustion products in abandoned underground coal mines.

Chugh, Y.P.; Thomasson, E.M. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

The desulfurization of flue gas at the Mae Moh Power Plant Units 12 and 13  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As pollution of air, water and ground increasingly raises worldwide concern, the responsible national and international authorities establish and issue stringent regulations in order to maintain an acceptable air quality in the environment. In Thailand, the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) takes full responsibility in environmental protection matters as well as in generating the electricity needed to supply the country`s very rapid power demand growth. Due to the rapidly increasing electricity demand of the country, EGAT had decided to install two further lignite-fired units of 300 MW each (Units 12 and 13) at the Mae Moh power generation station and they are now under construction. The arrangement and the capacity of all the power plant units are as shown. In 1989, EGAT started the work on the flue gas desulfurization system of Mae Moh power plant units 12 and 13 as planned. A study has been conducted to select the most suitable and most economical process for flue gas desulfurization. The wet scrubbing limestone process was finally selected for the two new units. Local limestone will be utilized in the process, producing a by-product of gypsum. Unfortunately, natural gypsum is found in abundance in Thailand, so the produced gypsum will be treated as landfill by mixing it with ash from the boilers of the power plants and then carrying it to the ash dumping area. The water from the waste ash water lake is utilized in the process as much as possible to minimize the requirement of service water, which is a limited resource. The Mae Moh power generation station is situated in the northern region of Thailand, 600 km north of Bangkok and about 30 km east of the town of Lampang, close to the Mae Moh lignite mine. Three lignite-fired units (Units 1-3) of 75 MW each, four units (Units 4-7) of 150 MW each and four units (Units 8-11) of 300 MW each are in operation.

Haemapun, C.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

117

SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The SNRB{trademark} Flue Gas Cleanup Demonstration Project was cooperatively funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO), B&W, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Ohio Edison, Norton Chemical Process Products Company and the 3M Company. The SNRB{trademark} technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. Development of the SNRB{trademark} process at B&W began with pilot testing of high-temperature dry sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} removal in the 1960`s. Integration of NO{sub x} reduction was evaluated in the 1970`s. Pilot work in the 1980`s focused on evaluation of various NO{sub x} reduction catalysts, SO{sub 2} sorbents and integration of the catalyst with the baghouse. This early development work led to the issuance of two US process patents to B&W - No. 4,309,386 and No. 4,793,981. An additional patent application for improvements to the process is pending. The OCDO was instrumental in working with B&W to develop the process to the point where a larger scale demonstration of the technology was feasible. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B&W tested the SNRB{trademark} pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R. E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B&W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB{trademark} process. The SNRB{trademark} facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains flyash and other particulate. The flyash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The flyash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured flyash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled.

Yang, Wen-Ching (Murrysville, PA); Newby, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lippert, Thomas E. (Murrysville, PA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains fly ash and other particulates. The fly ash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The fly ash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured fly ash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled. 11 figs.

Yang, W.C.; Newby, R.A.; Lippert, T.E.

1997-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

120

CO2 separation from flue gas using hollow fiber membrane contactors  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Research on CO Research on CO 2 Separation from Flue Gas Prof. Mengxiang Fang State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, China Global CO 2 Emissions Country CO 2 Emission (MtCO2) 1990 2003 2004 2010 USA 4,989 5,800 5,923 6,156 China 2,241 3,898 4,707 6,432 Russia 2,334 1,602 1,685 1,840 Japan 1,015 1,244 1,262 1,260 World 21,246 25,508 26,922 30,670 Source: Energy Information Administration/International Energy Outlook 2004 with High Oil Price Case CO 2 Emission in China Year Total Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Mt CO2 Mtc % Mtc % Mtc % 1990 2,241 1,886 84.2 325 14.5 30 1.34 2003 3,898 3,117 80.0 711 18.2 70 1.80 2004 4,707 3,809 80.9 816 17.3 83 1.76 2010 6,432 5,103 79.3 1,151 17.9 178 2.76 2015 7,376 5,946 80.6 1,184 16.1 246 3.33 Source: Energy Information Administration/International Energy Outlook 2004 with High Oil Price Case.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas recirculation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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121

JV Task 5 - Evaluation of Residual Oil Fly Ash As A Mercury Sorbent For Coal Combustion Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mercury adsorption capacity of a residual oil fly ash (ROFA) sample collected form Florida Power and Light Company's Port Everglades Power Plant was evaluated using a bituminous coal combustion flue gas simulator and fixed-bed testing protocol. A size-segregated (>38 {micro}g) fraction of ROFA was ground to a fine powder and brominated to potentially enhance mercury capture. The ROFA and brominated-ROFA were ineffective in capturing or oxidizing the Hg{sup 0} present in a simulated bituminous coal combustion flue gas. In contrast, a commercially available DARCO{reg_sign} FGD initially adsorbed Hg{sup 0} for about an hour and then catalyzed Hg{sup 0} oxidation to produce Hg{sup 2+}. Apparently, the unburned carbon in ROFA needs to be more rigorously activated in order for it to effectively capture and/or oxidize Hg{sup 0}.

Robert Patton

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

122

Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration from Flue Gas Using an In-Duct Scrubber Coupled with Alkaline Clay Mineralization  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration from Flue Gas Using an In-Duct Scrubber Coupled with Alkaline Clay Mineralization Background The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is leading an effort to find novel approaches to reduce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from industrial sources. The Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration (ICCS) program is funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) to encourage development of processes that

123

Separation of Fine Particles from Gases in Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization System Using a Cascade of Double Towers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Separation of Fine Particles from Gases in Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization System Using a Cascade of Double Towers ... The authors thank the High-Tech Research and Development Program of China (No. 2008AA05Z306), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (No. BK2008283), and the Scientific Research Foundation of Graduate School of Southeast University for their financial support. ... with high performance by cascading packed columns. ...

Jingjing Bao; Linjun Yang; Shijuan Song; Guilong Xiong

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

124

JV Task 124 - Understanding Multi-Interactions of SO3, Mercury, Selenium, and Arsenic in Illinois Coal Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project consisted of pilot-scale combustion testing with a representative Illinois basin coal to explore the multi-interactions of SO{sub 3}, mercury, selenium and arsenic. The parameters investigated for SO{sub 3} and mercury interactions included different flue gas conditions, i.e., temperature, moisture content, and particulate alkali content, both with and without activated carbon injection for mercury control. Measurements were also made to track the transformation of selenium and arsenic partitioning as a function of flue gas temperature through the system. The results from the mercury-SO{sub 3} testing support the concept that SO{sub 3} vapor is the predominant factor that impedes efficient mercury removal with activated carbon in an Illinois coal flue gas, while H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aerosol has less impact on activated carbon injection performance. Injection of a suitably mobile and reactive additives such as sodium- or calcium-based sorbents was the most effective strategy tested to mitigate the effect of SO{sub 3}. Transformation measurements indicate a significant fraction of selenium was associated with the vapor phase at the electrostatic precipitator inlet temperature. Arsenic was primarily particulate-bound and should be captured effectively with existing particulate control technology.

Ye Zhuang; Christopher Martin; John Pavlish

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

125

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, installation of a flue gas conditioning system was completed at PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. Performance testing was underway. Results will be detailed in the next quarterly and subsequent technical summary reports. Also in this quarter, discussions were initiated with a prospective long-term candidate plant. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning has been proposed here, but there is interest in liquid additives as a safer alternative.

Kenneth E. Baldrey

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. This quarterly report summarizes project activity for the period April-June, 2003. In this period there was limited activity and no active field trials. Results of ash analysis from the AEP Conesville demonstration were received. In addition, a site visit was made to We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant and a proposal extended for a flue gas conditioning trial with the ADA-51 cohesivity additive. It is expected that this will be the final full-scale evaluation on the project.

Kenneth E. Baldrey

2003-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

127

Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) System for Flue-Gas Derived Water From Oxy-Combustion Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) located in Albany, Oregon, have patented a process - Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO{sub 2} stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Capturing CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel combustion generates a significant water product which can be tapped for use in the power plant and its peripherals. Water condensed in the IPR{reg_sign} process may contain fly ash particles, sodium (from pH control), and sulfur species, as well as heavy metals, cations and anions. NETL is developing a treatment approach for zero liquid discharge while maximizing available heat from IPR. Current treatment-process steps being studied are flocculation/coagulation, for removal of cations and fine particles, and reverse osmosis, for anion removal as well as for scavenging the remaining cations. After reverse osmosis process steps, thermal evaporation and crystallization steps will be carried out in order to build the whole zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system for flue-gas condensed wastewater. Gypsum is the major product from crystallization process. Fast, in-line treatment of water for re-use in IPR seems to be one practical step for minimizing water treatment requirements for CO{sub 2} capture. The results obtained from above experiments are being used to build water treatment models.

Sivaram Harendra; Danylo Oryshchyn; Thomas Ochs; Stephen J. Gerdemann; John Clark

2011-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

128

Separation of the components of flue-gas scrubber sludge by froth flotation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of. Currently, the major markets for scrubber sludge are for manufacture of gypsum products, such as wallboard and plaster, and for cement. However, the quality of the raw sludge is often not high enough or consistent enough to satisfy manufacturers, and so the material is difficult to sell. Other markets, such as paper manufacture and plastics fillers, have even more stringent quality requirements and will not accept raw sludge at all. In the work described in this paper, several reagents have been examined to determine their ability to selectively improve the flotation of the unreacted limestone contaminant away from the desirable products (calcium sulfite and gypsum). The most success has been achieved using a cationic collector, which shows a higher selectivity between calcium sulfite and calcium carbonate than do the anionic collectors that were studied.

Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

129

Heat exchanger design for thermoelectric electricity generation from low temperature flue gas streams .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??An air-to-oil heat exchanger was modeled and optimized for use in a system utilizing a thermoelectric generator to convert low grade waste heat in flue… (more)

Latcham, Jacob G. (Jacob Greco)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Using coke-battery flue gas to dry coal batch before coking  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The utilization of heat from coke-battery flue gases and other potential secondary energy resources in drying coal batch prior to coking is considered. The main factors that influence ... . The reduction in moist...

A. Ya. Eremin; V. G. Mishchikhin; S. G. Stakheev; R. R. Gilyazetdinov…

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

CO{sub 2} Capture from Flue Gas Using Solid Molecular Basket Sorbents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop a new generation of solid, regenerable polymeric molecular basket sorbent (MBS) for more cost-efficient capture and separation of CO{sub 2} from flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The primary goal is to develop a cost-effective MBS sorbent with better thermal stability. To improve the cost-effectiveness of MBS, we have explored commercially available and inexpensive support to replace the more expensive mesoporous molecular sieves like MCM-41 and SBA- 15. In addition, we have developed some advanced sorbent materials with 3D pore structure such as hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) to improve the CO{sub 2} working capacity of MBS, which can also reduce the cost for the whole CO{sub 2} capture process. During the project duration, the concern regarding the desorption rate of MBS sorbents has been raised, because lower desorption rate increases the desorption time for complete regeneration of the sorbent which in turn leads to a lower working capacity if the regeneration time is limited. Thus, the improvement in the thermal stability of MBS became a vital task for later part of this project. The improvement in the thermal stability was performed via increasing the polymer density either using higher molecular weight PEI or PEI cross-linking with an organic compound. Moreover, we have used the computational approach to estimate the interaction of CO{sub 2} with different MBSs for the fundamental understanding of CO{sub 2} sorption, which may benefit the development, design and modification of the sorbents and the process.

Fillerup, Eric; Zhang, Zhonghua; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Wang, Dongxiang; Guo, Jiahua; Ma, Xiaoliang; Wang, Xiaoxing; Song, Chunshan

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

132

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 2: SOx/Nox/Hg Removal for High Sulfur Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxy-combustion technology. The objective of Task 2 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning high sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was not only to investigate a new method of flue gas purification but also to produce useful acid byproduct streams as an alternative to using a traditional FGD and SCR for flue gas processing. During the project two main constraints were identified that limit the ability of the process to achieve project goals. 1) Due to boiler island corrosion issues >60% of the sulfur must be removed in the boiler island with the use of an FGD. 2) A suitable method could not be found to remove NOx from the concentrated sulfuric acid product, which limits sale-ability of the acid, as well as the NOx removal efficiency of the process. Given the complexity and safety issues inherent in the cycle it is concluded that the acid product would not be directly saleable and, in this case, other flue gas purification schemes are better suited for SOx/NOx/Hg control when burning high sulfur coal, e.g. this project's Task 3 process or a traditional FGD and SCR.

Nick Degenstein; Minish Shah; Doughlas Louie

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Permitting and solid waste management issues for the Bailly Station wet limestone Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pure Air (a general partnership between Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc.). is constructing a wet limestone co-current advanced flue gas desulfurization (AFGD) system that has technological and commercial advantages over conventional FGD systems in the United States. The AFGD system is being installed at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company's Bailly Generating Station near Gary, Indiana. The AFGD system is scheduled to be operational by the Summer, 1992. The AFGD system will remove at least 90 percent of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas from Boilers 7 and 8 at the Station while burning 3.2 percent sulfur coal. Also as part of testing the AFGD system, 95 percent removal of SO{sub 2} will be demonstrated on coals containing up to 4.5 percent sulfur. At the same time that SO{sub 2} is removed from the flue gas, a gypsum by-product will be produced which will be used for wallboard manufacturing. Since the AFGD system is a pollution control device, one would expect its installation to be received favorably by the public and regulatory agencies. Although the project was well received by regulatory agencies, on public group (Save the Dunes Council) was initially concerned since the project is located adjacent to the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. The purpose of this paper is to describe the project team's experiences in obtaining permits/approvals from regulatory agencies and in dealing with the public. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Bolinsky, F.T. (Pure Air, Allentown, PA (United States)); Ross, J. (Northern Indiana Public Service Co., Hammond, IN (United States)); Dennis, D.S. (United Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Denver, CO (United States). Stearns-Roger Div.); Huston, J.S. (Environmental Alternatives, Inc., Warren NJ (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Current status of MHI CO2 capture plant technology, large scale demonstration project and road map to commercialization for coal fired flue gas application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(1) It is becoming increasingly evident that the prolonged utilization of fossil fuels for primary energy production, especially coal which is relatively cheap and abundant, is inevitable and that Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology can significantly reduce CO2 emissions from this sector thus allowing the continued environmentally sustainable use of this important energy commodity on a global basis. (2) MHI has co-developed the Kansai Mitsubishi Carbon Dioxide Recovery Process (KM-CDR Process™) and KS-1™ absorbent, which has been deployed in seven CO2 capture plants, now under commercial operation operating at a CO2 capture capacity of 450 metric tons per day (tpd). In addition, a further two commercial plants are now under construction all of which capture CO2 from natural gas fired flue gas boilers and steam reformers. Accordingly this technology is now available for commercial scale CO2 capture for gas boiler and gas turbine application. (3) However before offering commercial CO2 capture plants for coal fired flue gas application, it is necessary to verify the influence of, and develop countermeasures for, related impurities contained in coal fired flue gas. This includes the influence on both the absorbent and the entire system of the CO2 capture plant to achieve high operational reliability and minimize maintenance requirements. (4) Preventing the accumulation of impurities, especially the build up of dust, is very important when treating coal fired flue gas and MHI has undertaken significant work to understand the impact of impurities in order to achieve reliable and stable operating conditions and to efficiently optimize integration between the CO2 capture plant, the coal fired power plant and the flue gas clean up equipment. (5) To achieve this purpose, MHI constructed a 10 tpd CO2 capture demonstration plant at the Matsushima 1000 MW Power Station and confirmed successful, long term demonstration following ?5000 hours of operation in 2006–07 with 50% financial support by RITE, as a joint program to promote technological development with the private sector, and cooperation from J-POWER. (6) Following successful demonstration testing at Matsushima, additional testing was undertaken in 2008 to examine the impact of entrainment of higher levels of flue gas impurities (primarily \\{SOx\\} and dust by bypassing the existing FGD) and to determine which components of the CO2 recovery process are responsible for the removal of these impurities. Following an additional 1000 demonstration hours, results indicated stable operational performance in relation to the following impurities; (1) SO2: Even at higher SO2 concentrations were almost completely removed from the flue gas before entering the CO2 absorber. (2) Dust: The accumulation of dust in the absorbent was higher, leading to an advanced understanding of the behavior of dust in the CO2 capture plant and the dust removal efficiency of each component within the CO2 recovery system. The data obtained is useful for the design of large-scale units and confirms the operating robustness of the CO2 capture plant accounting for wide fluctuations in impurity concentrations. (7) This important coal fired flue gas testing showed categorically that minimizing the accumulation of large concentrations of impurities, and to suppress dust concentrations below a prescribed level, is important to achieve long-term stable operation and to minimize maintenance work for the CO2 capture plant. To comply with the above requirement, various countermeasures have been developed which include the optimization of the impurity removal technology, flue gas pre treatment and improved optimization with the flue gas desulfurization facility. (8) In case of a commercial scale CO2 capture plant applied for coal fired flue gas, its respective size will be several thousand tpd which represents a considerable scale-up from the 10 tpd demonstration plant. In order to ensure the operational reliability and to accurately confirm the influence and the behavior of the impurities in coal fired fl

Takahiko Endo; Yoshinori Kajiya; Hiromitsu Nagayasu; Masaki Iijima; Tsuyoshi Ohishi; Hiroshi Tanaka; Ronald Mitchell

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, further laboratory-screening tests of additive formulations were completed. For these tests, the electrostatic tensiometer method was used for determination of fly ash cohesivity. Resistivity was measured for each screening test with a multi-cell laboratory fly ash resistivity furnace constructed for this project. Also during this quarter chemical formulation testing was undertaken to identify stable and compatible resistivity/cohesivity liquid products.

Kenneth E. Baldrey

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, two cohesivity-specific additive formulations, ADA-44C and ADA-51, were evaluated in a full-scale trial at the American Electric Power Conesville plant. Ammonia conditioning was also evaluated for comparison. ADA-51 and ammonia conditioning significantly reduced rapping and non-rapped particulate re-entrainment based on stack opacity monitor data. Based on the successful tests to date, ADA-51 will be evaluated in a long-term test.

Kenneth E. Baldrey

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Exhaust gas recirculation trials with high-speed marine and rail diesel engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

On diesel engines in particular, series production in both passenger and commercial vehicle sectors has long incorporated systems which introduce cooled exhaust gas into the charge air in order to lower peak c...

Dirk Bergmann; Christian Philipp; Helmut Rall; Rolf Traub

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Performance and emission evaluation of biodiesel fueled diesel engine abetted with exhaust gas recirculation and Ni coated catalytic converter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article summarizes the results of a laboratory exertion to evaluate the performance and emission parameters of a single cylinder water cooled direct injection diesel engine with and without the aid of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) as well as with and without the assistance of nickel coated catalytic converter. Neat diesel ethyl esters of waste frying oil (B100) and its diesel blends (B20 and B40) were used as test fuels to assess the various engine operating parameters. Conjointly in this work the effects of emission characteristics by incorporating nickel coated catalytic converter along with 0% 15% and 20% of HOT EGR technique are elaborately discussed. Experimental results proved that the diesel engine operated up to B40 blends assisted by catalytic converter and 15% EGR level showed an adequate reduction in oxides of nitrogen in the exhaust pipe. Also EGR level up to 15% proved reasonable brake thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption when the test engine operated up to B40 biodiesel-diesel blends.

D. Subramaniam; A. Murugesan; A. Avinash

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Air and Flue Gas in the Alkylamine-Appended Metal-Organic Framework mmen-Mg2(dobpdc)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Air and Flue Gas in the Alkylamine- Appended Metal-Organic Framework, stationary sources like coal-fired power plants, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has been proposed.4 viable absorbents for carbon capture under the aforementioned conditions, and they are presently used

140

Partitioning of mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride in a full-scale coal combustion process equipped with selective catalytic reduction, electrostatic precipitation, and flue gas desulfurization systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A full-scale field study was carried out at a 795 MWe coal-fired power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of selected trace elements (i.e., mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride) from coal, FGD reagent slurry, makeup water to flue gas, solid byproduct, and wastewater streams. Flue gases were collected from the SCR outlet, ESP inlet, FGD inlet, and stack. Concurrent with flue gas sampling, coal, bottom ash, economizer ash, and samples from the FGD process were also collected for elemental analysis. By combining plant operation parameters, the overall material balances of selected elements were established. The removal efficiencies of As, Se, Hg, and B by the ESP unit were 88, 56, 17, and 8%, respectively. Only about 2.5% of Cl was condensed and removed from flue gas by fly ash. The FGD process removed over 90% of Cl, 77% of B, 76% of Hg, 30% of Se, and 5% of As. About 90% and 99% of the FGD-removed Hg and Se were associated with gypsum. For B and Cl, over 99% were discharged from the coal combustion process with the wastewater. Mineral trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dehydrate, Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) was injected before the ESP unit to control the emission of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}). By comparing the trace elements compositions in the fly ash samples collected from the locations before and after the trona injection, the injection of trona did not show an observable effect on the partitioning behaviors of selenium and arsenic, but it significantly increased the adsorption of mercury onto fly ash. The stack emissions of mercury, boron, selenium, and chloride were for the most part in the gas phase. 47 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

Chin-Min Cheng; Pauline Hack; Paul Chu; Yung-Nan Chang; Ting-Yu Lin; Chih-Sheng Ko; Po-Han Chiang; Cheng-Chun He; Yuan-Min Lai; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas recirculation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers ProMIS/Project No.: DE-NT0005648  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Edward Levy Edward Levy Principal Investigator Director, Lehigh University Energy Research Center RecoveRy of WateR fRom BoileR flue Gas usinG condensinG Heat excHanGeRs PRomis/PRoject no.: de-nt0005648 Background As the United States' population grows and demand for electricity and water increases, power plants located in some parts of the country will find it increasingly difficult to obtain the large quantities of water needed to maintain operations. Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. Many coal-fired power plants operate with stack temperatures in the 300 °F range to minimize fouling and corrosion problems due to sulfuric acid condensation and to

142

Flue gas desulfurization sludge: establishment of vegetation on ponded and soil-applied waste. Final report January 1977-September 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report gives results of research to identify and evaluate forms of vegetation and methods of their establishment for reclaiming retired flue gas desulfurization sludge ponds. Also studied were the soil liming value of limestone scrubber sludge (LSS) and plant uptake and percolation losses of some chemical nutrients in the sludge. Several vegetation schemes were evaluated between 1977 and 1982 for covering and stabilizing LSS at Colbert Steam Plant, Cherokee, AL, and Shawnee Steam Plant, Paducah, KY. Eleven tree and 10 grass or legume species were tested for adaptability and survival when planted directly in LSS or in LSS amended with soil, municipal sewage sludge, or standard potting mix. Other studies indicated that LSS apparently has sufficient unreacted limestone to be a satisfactory soil liming agent.

Giordano, P.M.; Mays, D.A.; Soileau, J.M.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) has successfully completed a research and development program granted by the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to develop a family of non-toxic flue gas conditioning agents to provide utilities and industries with a cost-effective means of complying with environmental regulations on particulate emissions and opacity. An extensive laboratory screening of potential additives was completed followed by full-scale trials at four utility power plants. The developed cohesivity additives have been demonstrated on a 175 MW utility boiler that exhibited poor collection of unburned carbon in the electrostatic precipitator. With cohesivity conditioning, opacity spiking caused by rapping reentrainment was reduced and total particulate emissions were reduced by more than 30%. Ammonia conditioning was also successful in reducing reentrainment on the same unit. Conditioned fly ash from the process is expected to be suitable for dry or wet disposal and for concrete admixture.

C. Jean Bustard

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Recycling of Flue Gas Desulfurization residues in gneiss based hot mix asphalt: Materials characterization and performances evaluation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract On the one hand, huge amount of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) residues, produced during scrubbing flue gas, is discarded as solid waste. Such solid waste would cause serious environmental problems. One the other hand, high quality aggregates, such as limestone and basalt, are running out due to the rapid development of highway construction. Ungraded aggregates such as gneiss are therefore considered in China to replace the high quality aggregates. The application of FGD residues as a filler in gneiss based asphalt mixture has benefits both in environmental and economic sides. The main objective of this research was to visualize the raw materials characterization and evaluate the effect of FGD residues on the performance of gneiss based asphalt mixture. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetric & Thermal gravimetric (DSC–TG) were used to investigate the features of raw materials. The performance of gneiss based asphalt mixture including high-temperature deformation resistance, low-temperature crack resistance and moisture-induced damage resistance were evaluated. Dynamic creep test, three-point bending test, Retained Marshall Stability (RMS), Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR), Indirect Tensile (IDT) strength and Resilient Modulus (MR) test were conducted and analyzed. Dissipated Creep Strain Energy to fracture (DCSEf) ratio, fracture energy and model analysis were also used to evaluate moisture resistance, crack resistance and deformation resistance of asphalt mixture respectively. Research results indicate that FGD residues can partly improve the moisture resistance and crack resistance of gneiss asphalt mixture, while it might worse the high-temperature deformation resistance.

Zongwu Chen; Shaopeng Wu; Fuzhou Li; Juyong Chen; Zhehuan Qin; Ling Pang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Evaluation of the residual gas tolerance of homogeneous combustion processes with high exhaust-gas recirculation rates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The development of concepts with low emissions and fuel consumption for gasoline engines requires an early knowledge of the combustion process’ residual gas tolerance. At the Institute...

Dipl.-Ing. Dr. techn. Thomas Lauer…

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Development of Fly Ash Derived Sorbents to Capture CO2 from Flue Gas of Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research program focused on the development of fly ash derived sorbents to capture CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas emissions. The fly ash derived sorbents developed represent an affordable alternative to existing methods using specialized activated carbons and molecular sieves, that tend to be very expensive and hinder the viability of the CO{sub 2} sorption process due to economic constraints. Under Task 1 'Procurement and characterization of a suite of fly ashes', 10 fly ash samples, named FAS-1 to -10, were collected from different combustors with different feedstocks, including bituminous coal, PRB coal and biomass. These samples presented a wide range of LOI value from 0.66-84.0%, and different burn-off profiles. The samples also spanned a wide range of total specific surface area and pore volume. These variations reflect the difference in the feedstock, types of combustors, collection hopper, and the beneficiation technologies the different fly ashes underwent. Under Task 2 'Preparation of fly ash derived sorbents', the fly ash samples were activated by steam. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms were used to characterize the resultant activated samples. The cost-saving one-step activation process applied was successfully used to increase the surface area and pore volume of all the fly ash samples. The activated samples present very different surface areas and pore volumes due to the range in physical and chemical properties of their precursors. Furthermore, one activated fly ash sample, FAS-4, was loaded with amine-containing chemicals (MEA, DEA, AMP, and MDEA). The impregnation significantly decreased the surface area and pore volume of the parent activated fly ash sample. Under Task 3 'Capture of CO{sub 2} by fly ash derived sorbents', sample FAS-10 and its deashed counterpart before and after impregnation of chemical PEI were used for the CO{sub 2} adsorption at different temperatures. The sample FAS-10 exhibited a CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 17.5mg/g at 30 C, and decreases to 10.25mg/g at 75 C, while those for de-ashed counterpart are 43.5mg/g and 22.0 mg/g at 30 C and 75 C, respectively. After loading PEI, the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increased to 93.6 mg/g at 75 C for de-ashed sample and 62.1 mg/g at 75 C for raw fly ash sample. The activated fly ash, FAS-4, and its chemical loaded counterparts were tested for CO{sub 2} capture capacity. The activated carbon exhibited a CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 40.3mg/g at 30 C that decreased to 18.5mg/g at 70 C and 7.7mg/g at 120 C. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity profiles changed significantly after impregnation. For the MEA loaded sample the capacity increased to 68.6mg/g at 30 C. The loading of MDEA and DEA initially decreased the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity at 30 C compared to the parent sample but increased to 40.6 and 37.1mg/g, respectively, when the temperature increased to 70 C. The loading of AMP decrease the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity compared to the parent sample under all the studied temperatures. Under Task 4 'Comparison of the CO{sub 2} capture by fly ash derived sorbents with commercial sorbents', the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities of selected activated fly ash carbons were compared to commercial activated carbons. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of fly ash derived activated carbon, FAS-4, and its chemical loaded counterpart presented CO{sub 2} capture capacities close to 7 wt%, which are comparable to, and even better than, the published values of 3-4%.

M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; John M. Andresen; Yinzhi Zhang; Zhe Lu

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

147

The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emission in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes activities conducted for the project “The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimized Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-07NT43271, which are as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated March 2007 and in the supplemental SOPO dated October 2010. The project objective was to develop and demonstrate an internal combustion engine that is optimized for E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel operation to achieve substantially improved fuel economy while operating with E85 fuel and that is also production viable in the near- to medium-term. The key engine technology selected for research and development was turbocharging, which is known to improve fuel economy thru downsizing and is in particular capable of exploiting ethanol fuel’s characteristics of high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. The engine further integrated synergistic efficiency improving technologies of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), direct fuel injection and dual continuously variable intake and exhaust cam phasers. On the vehicle level, fuel economy was furthered thru powertrain system optimization by mating a state-of-the-art six-speed automatic transmission to the engine. In order to achieve the project’s objective of near- to medium-term production viability, it was essential to develop the engine to be flex-fuel capable of operating with fuels ranging from E0 (0% ethanol and 100% gasoline) to E85 and to use three-way type of catalyst technology for exhaust aftertreatment. Within these scopes, various technologies were developed through systems approach to focus on ways to help accelerate catalyst light-off. Significant amount of development took place during the course of the project within General Motors, LLC. Many prototype flex-fuel engines were designed, built and developed with various hardware configurations selected to achieve the project goals. Several flex-fuel demonstration vehicles were designed and built for carrying out calibration development and final testing to quantify the technology merits. Based on the extensive test results collected from dynamometer and vehicle testing, the fuel economy benefits of cooled EGR from the intended level of turbocharger technology were quantified. When combined with turbo downsizing, the FE benefits are considered large enough for E0 fuel as well as for E85 fuel to warrant further development of the technology beyond the current proof-of-concept level to a level that can meet production driveability quality and durability requirements in order to meet customers’ expectations. Cold-start cart test results from the emissions segment of the project were positive, confirming the assumption of faster thermal response of turbo exhaust system for emissions reductions for both E0 and E85 fuels. Vehicle emissions test results directionally correlated to the cold-start cart findings. The limited number of test runs did demonstrate the potentials of meeting stringent emission standards, however, they did not comprehend the factors such as hardware variability and long-term durability, 3 which are essential for mass production to satisfy customers’ expectations. It is therefore recommended, moving forward, durability concerns over turbocharger, EGR system and aftertreatment system, which would likely impact production viability, should be addressed. The data moreover suggested that further FE increase is likely with turbocharger technology advancement.

Wu, Ko-Jen

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

148

Adsorption separation of CO2 from simulated flue gas mixtures by novel CO2 ''molecular basket'' adsorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Adsorption separation of CO2 from simulated flue gas mixtures containing CO2, O2, and N2 by using a novel CO2 ''molecular basket'' adsorbent was investigated in a flow adsorption separation system. The novel CO2 ''molecular basket'' adsorbents were developed by synthesising mesoporous molecular sieve MCM-41 and modifying it with polyethylenimine (PEI). The influence of operation conditions, including feed flow rate, temperature, feed CO2 concentration, and sweep gas flow rate, on the CO2 adsorption/desorption separation performance and CO2 breakthrough were examined. The CO2 adsorption capacity was 91.0 ml (STP)/g-PEI, which was 27 times higher than that of the MCM-41 alone. Further, the adsorbent showed separation selectivity of greater than 1000 for CO2/N2 ratio and approximately 180 for CO2/O2, which are significantly higher than those of the MCM-41, zeolites, and activated carbons. Cyclic adsorption/desorption measurements showed that the CO2 ''molecular basket'' adsorbent was stable at 75°C. However, the CO2 ''molecular basket'' adsorbent was not stable when the operation temperature was higher than 100°C.

Xiaochun Xu; Chunshan Song; John M. Andresen; Bruce G. Miller; Alan W. Scaroni

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Topical report No. 2, Literature review and assembly of theories on the interactions of ash and conditioning agents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of this research project is to formulate a mathematical model of flue gas conditioning. This model will be based on an understanding of why ask properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Such a model could serve as a component of the performance models of particulate control devices where flue gas conditioning is used. There are two specific objectives of this research project, which divide the planned research into two main parts. One part of the project is designed to determine how ash particles are modified by interactions with sorbent injection processes and to describe the mechanisms by which these interactions affect fine particle collection. The objective of the other part of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which conditioning agents, including chemically active compounds, modify the key properties of fine fly ash particles.

Bush, P.V.; Snyder, T.R.

1992-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

150

Development and Demonstration of Waste Heat Integration with Solvent Process for More Efficient CO2 Removal from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Demonstration of and Demonstration of Waste Heat Integration with Solvent Process for More Efficient CO 2 Removal from Coal-Fired Flue Gas Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) Existing Plants, Emissions, & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-

151

Application of a low pressure economizer for waste heat recovery from the exhaust flue gas in a 600 MW power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a case study of recovering the waste heat of the exhaust flue gas before entering a flue gas desulphurizer (FGD) in a 600 MW power plant. This waste heat can be recovered by installing a low pressure economizer (LPE) to heat the condensed water which can save the steam extracted from the steam turbine for heating the condensed water and then extra work can be obtained. The energy and water savings and the reduction of CO2 emission resulted from the LPE installation are assessed for three cases in a 600 MW coal-fired power plant with wet stack. Serpentine pipes with quadrate finned extensions are selected for the LPE heat exchanger which has an overall coefficient of heat transfer of 37 W/m2·K and the static pressure loss of 781 Pa in the optimized case. Analysis results show that it is feasible to install \\{LPEs\\} in the exhaust flue gas system between the pressurizing fan and the FGD, which has little negative impacts on the unit. The benefits generated include saving of standard coal equivalent (SCE) at 2–4 g/(kW·h) and saving of water at 25–35 t/h under full load operation with corresponding reduction of CO2 emission.

Chaojun Wang; Boshu He; Shaoyang Sun; Ying Wu; Na Yan; Linbo Yan; Xiaohui Pei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Flue Gas Purification Utilizing SOx/NOx Reactions During Compression of CO{sub 2} Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States wishes to decrease foreign energy dependence by utilizing the country’s significant coal reserves, while stemming the effects of global warming from greenhouse gases. In response to these needs, Air Products has developed a patented process for the compression and purification of the CO{sub 2} stream from oxyfuel combustion of pulverized coal. The purpose of this project was the development and performance of a comprehensive experimental and engineering evaluation to determine the feasibility of purifying CO{sub 2} derived from the flue gas generated in a tangentially fired coal combustion unit operated in the oxy-combustion mode. Following the design and construction of a 15 bar reactor system, Air Products conducted two test campaigns using the slip stream from the tangentially fired oxy-coal combustion unit. During the first test campaign, Air Products evaluated the reactor performance based on both the liquid and gaseous reactor effluents. The data obtained from the test run has enabled Air Products to determine the reaction and mass transfer rates, as well as the effectiveness of the reactor system. During the second test campaign, Air Products evaluated reactor performance based on effluents for different reactor pressures, as well as water recycle rates. Analysis of the reaction equations indicates that both pressure and water flow rate affect the process reaction rates, as well as the overall reactor performance.

Fogash, Kevin

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

153

Flue Gas Perification Utilizing SOx/NOx Reactions During Compression of CO2 Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States wishes to decrease foreign energy dependence by utilizing the country’s significant coal reserves, while stemming the effects of global warming from greenhouse gases. In response to these needs, Air Products has developed a patented process for the compression and purification of the CO2 stream from oxyfuel combustion of pulverized coal. The purpose of this project was the development and performance of a comprehensive experimental and engineering evaluation to determine the feasibility of purifying CO2 derived from the flue gas generated in a tangentially fired coal combustion unit operated in the oxy-combustion mode. Following the design and construction of a 15 bar reactor system, Air Products conducted two test campaigns using the slip stream from the tangentially fired oxy-coal combustion unit. During the first test campaign, Air Products evaluated the reactor performance based on both the liquid and gaseous reactor effluents. The data obtained from the test run has enabled Air Products to determine the reaction and mass transfer rates, as well as the effectiveness of the reactor system. During the second test campaign, Air Products evaluated reactor performance based on effluents for different reactor pressures, as well as water recycle rates. Analysis of the reaction equations indicates that both pressure and water flow rate affect the process reaction rates, as well as the overall reactor performance.

Kevin Fogash

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

154

Impact of additives for enhanced sulfur dioxide removal on re-emissions of mercury in wet flue gas desulfurization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The wet flue gas desulfurization process (FGD) in fossil fired power plants offers the advantage of simultaneously removing SO2 and other water soluble pollutants, such as certain oxidized mercury compounds (Hg2+). In order to maximize SO2 removal efficiency of installed FGD units, organic additives can be utilized. In the context of multi-pollutant control by wet FGD, the effect of formic and adipic acid on redox reactions of dissolved mercury compounds is investigated with a continuously operated lab-scale test-rig. For sulfite ( SO 3 2 - ) concentrations above a certain critical value, their potential as reducing agent leads to rapidly increasing formation and re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg0). Increasing chloride concentration and decreasing pH and slurry temperature have been identified as key factors for depressing Hg0 re-emissions. Both organic additives have a negative impact on Hg-retention and cause increased Hg0 re-emissions in the wet FGD process, with formic acid being the significantly stronger reducing agent. Different pathways of Hg2+ reduction were identified by qualitative interpretation of the pH-dependence and by comparison of activation enthalpies and activation entropies. While the first mechanism proposed identifies SO 3 2 - as reducing agent and is therefore relevant for any FGD process, the second mechanism involves the formate anion, thus being exclusively relevant for \\{FGDs\\} utilizing formic acid as additive.

Barna Heidel; Melanie Hilber; Günter Scheffknecht

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Optimization and heat integration of hollow fiber based thermal swing adsorption process for CO2 capture from flue gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This work studies the optimization of a hollow fiber contactor operated in a rapid temperature swing adsorption (RTSA) mode for CO2 capture from flue gas. A hollow fiber contactor enables rapid heat and mass transfer and an efficient heat integration whereby parasitic loads on power plants can be reduced significantly compared to the traditional thermal swing adsorption processes. In this paper we employ a dynamic optimization strategy to predict the optimal operating conditions of a hollow fiber RTSA process for different process design objectives. The objective function considered was to maximize the feed throughput of the process with constraints for the required CO2 purity and recovery. Furthermore, the external heat and cold utilities must be minimized. The optimization requires a dynamic heat integration i.e. redistributing the hot and cold stream outlet between different parts of a cycle which is challenging and unconventional. This has been performed using a binary decision variable which switches the outlet water stream between hot and cold tanks. We also show that a multi- objective optimization approach can be employed to determine the optimal trade-off between heat duty and process throughput. Optimization was performed using a single discretization approach within gPROMS.

Subramanian Swernath; Fateme Rezaei; Jayashree Kalyanaraman; Ryan. P. Lively; Matthew J. Realff; Yoshiaki Kawajiri

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy - Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned underground coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of coal combustion by-products. The two technologies for the underground placement that will be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement, using virtually dry materials, and (2) hydraulic placement, using a {open_quotes}paste{close_quotes} mixture of materials with about 70% solids. Phase II of the overall program began April 1, 1996. The principal objective of Phase II is to develop and fabricate the equipment for placing the coal combustion by-products underground, and to conduct a demonstration of the technologies on the surface. Therefore, this quarter has been largely devoted to developing specifications for equipment components, visiting fabrication plants throughout Southern Illinois to determine their capability for building the equipment components in compliance with the specifications, and delivering the components in a timely manner.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Membrane loop process for separating carbon dioxide for use in gaseous form from flue gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a process involving membrane-based gas separation for separating and recovering carbon dioxide emissions from combustion processes in partially concentrated form, and then transporting the carbon dioxide and using or storing it in a confined manner without concentrating it to high purity. The process of the invention involves building up the concentration of carbon dioxide in a gas flow loop between the combustion step and a membrane separation step. A portion of the carbon dioxide-enriched gas can then be withdrawn from this loop and transported, without the need to liquefy the gas or otherwise create a high-purity stream, to a destination where it is used or confined, preferably in an environmentally benign manner.

Wijmans, Johannes G; Baker, Richard W; Merkel, Timothy C

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

158

Advances of flue gas desulfurization technology for coal-fired boilers and strategies for sulfur dioxide pollution prevention in China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal is one of the most important kinds of energy resources at the present time and in the immediate future in China. Sulfur dioxide resulting from combustion of coal is one of the principle pollutants in the air. Control of SO{sub 2} discharge is still a major challenge for environmental protection in developing China. In this paper, research, development and application of technology of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) for coal-fired boilers in China will be reviewed with emphasis on cost-effective technology, and the development trends of FGD technology, as well as the strategy for SO{sub 2} discharge control in China, will be analyzed. A practical technology for middle-small-sized boilers developed by the primary author and the field investigation results will also be presented. At present, there are four major kinds of FGD technologies that are practical to be applied in China for their cost-effectiveness and efficiency to middle-small-sized boilers. An important development trend of the FGD technology for middle-small-sized boilers for the next decade is improvement of the existing cost-effective wet-type FGD technology, and in the future it will be the development of dry-type FGD technology. For middle-sized generating boilers, the development direction of the FGD technology is the spraying and drying process. For large-sized generating boilers, the wet-type limestone-plaster process will still be applied in the immediate future, and dry-type FGD technologies, such as ammonia with electron beam irradiation, will be developed in the future. State strategies for the control of SO{sub 2} discharge will involve the development and popularization of efficient coal-fired devices, extension of gas coal and liquefied coal, spreading coal washing, and centralized heating systems.

Yang, C.; Zeng, G.; Li, G.; Qiu, J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Aminosilane-Grafted Polymer/Silica Hollow Fiber Adsorbents for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this approach, polymeric hollow fibers similar to those already prepared on commercial scales for membrane gas separations are prepared and loaded with large volumes of solid CO2 adsorbing materials. ... In this regard, the hollow fiber RTSA process is ideally suited for application of typical silica amine adsorbents, as it (i) allows for effective heat integration,(11) (ii) gives fast cycle times (expected to be on the order of 2–4 min),(8) and (iii) minimizes contact of aminosilica-adsorbents with high-temperature steam, which can degrade the adsorbent. ... The moles of CO2 adsorbed were calculated by integration of the area bounded by the CO2 breakthrough front and the He breakthrough front from the initial concentration to the final equilibration concentration. ...

Fateme Rezaei; Ryan P. Lively; Ying Labreche; Grace Chen; Yanfang Fan; William J. Koros; Christopher W. Jones

2013-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

160

Effect of flue gas impurities on the process of injection and storage of carbon dioxide in depleted gas reservoirs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Previous experiments - injecting pure CO2 into carbonate cores - showed that the process is a win-win technology, sequestrating CO2 while recovering a significant amount of hitherto unrecoverable natural gas that could help defray the cost of CO2...

Nogueira de Mago, Marjorie Carolina

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas recirculation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Quarterly technical report, October 1--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The initial pilot-scale testing of two additives was completed at CONSOL`s research coal combustor. The results and conclusions from this test series and subsequent analysis of the data are presented in this report. Table 1 summarizes the conditions tested. During the tests, the research combustor was firing a medium-sulfur coal. The combustor had recently been retrofitted with low-NOx burners for a DOE Clean Coal test program. Operation of the low-NOx burners required a reduced flow rate in the combustor, resulting in lower flow and velocity in the ESP. A comprehensive baseline condition was tested, followed by initial screening runs for several additives. It was discovered that the flyash exhibited properties characteristic of a high-resistivity ash. In-situ measurements at the ESP inlet confirmed that the resistivity was in the 10{sup 10} -- 10{sup 12} ohm-cm range. In addition, the ESP plate rappers were not able to remove ash buildup on the first section during normal operation. Power off rapping was periodically required to fully clean the plates; this is a clear indication of high-resistivity conditions. Since the major benefit of ESP additives will be to reduce reentrainment at low to midrange resistivity, this operating condition was undesirable for performance testing. It was decided to continue the program with SO{sub 3} conditioning of the flue gas to reduce particle resistivity. It was also decided to operate with two rather than three electrical fields energized. By reducing the ESP collection area, it was hoped that it would be easier to measure changes in ESP performance and to see an immediate indication of the effectiveness Of SO{sub 3} conditioning. The ESP was reconfigured with two electrical sections energized and SO{sub 3} conditioning at a rate of approximately 20 ppM. An additional baseline was run, followed by extended tests with two additives referred to in this report as Additive ``C`` and Additive ``D.``

Durham, M.D.; Baldrey, K.E.

1994-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

162

Adsorption and desorption of sulfur dioxide on novel adsorbents for flue gas desulfurization. Final report, September 1, 1994--February 29, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sol-gel granulation method was developed to prepare spherical {gamma}-alumina granular supports and supported CuO granular sorbents for flue gas desulfurization. The prepared {gamma}-alumina supported CuO sorbents exhibit desirable pore structure and excellent mechanical properties. The sorbents contain higher loading (30-40 wt. %) of CuO dispersed in the monolayer or sub-monolayer form, giving rise to a larger SO{sub 2} sorption capacity ({gt}20 wt.%) and a faster sorption rate as compared to similar sorbents reported in the literature. With these excellent sulfation and mechanical properties, the sol-gel derived {gamma}-alumina supported CuO granular sorbents offer great potential for use in the dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization process. Research efforts were also made to prepare DAY zeolite supported sorbents with various CuO contents by the microwave and conventional thermal dispersion methods at different conditions. Monolayer or sub-monolayer coating of Cu(NO{sub 3})sub 2 or CuO was achieved on several DAY supported sorbents by the microwave heating method but not by the conventional thermal dispersion method. The DAY zeolite supported CuO sorbents prepared by the microwave heating method can adsorb up to 15 wt.% of SO{sub 2}. The results obtained have demonstrated the feasibility of effective preparation of zeolite supported CuO sorbents by the microwave heating method.

Lin, Y.S.; Deng, S.G.

1996-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

163

Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Second year, second quarterly technical progress report, Quarter No. 6, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of. This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}{sm_bullet}0.5H{sub 2}O), gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{sm_bullet}2H{sub 2}O), and unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}), with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides, silica, and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. These impurities prevent many sludges from being utilized as a replacement for natural gypsum, and as a result they must be disposed of in landfills, which presents a serious disposal problem. This project is studying the characteristics of flue-gas scrubber sludges from several sources, which is necessary for the development of purification technologies which will make it possible to directly utilize scrubber sludges rather than landfilling them. This purification will consist of minimal-reagent froth flotation, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified calcium sulfite/gypsum product.

KAwatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Coke-free dry reforming of model diesel fuel by a pulsed spark plasma at low temperatures using an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dry reforming of diesel fuel, an endothermic reaction, is an attractive process for on-board hydrogen/syngas production to increase energy efficiency. For operating this dry reforming process in a vehicle, we can use the exhaust gas from an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system as a source of carbon dioxide. Catalytic dry reforming of heavy hydrocarbon is a very difficult reaction due to the high accumulation of carbon on the catalyst. Therefore, we attempted to use a non-equilibrium pulsed plasma for the dry reforming of model diesel fuel without a catalyst. We investigated dry reforming of model diesel fuel (n-dodecane) with a low-energy pulsed spark plasma, which is a kind of non-equilibrium plasma at a low temperature of 523?K. Through the reaction, we were able to obtain syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) and a small amount of C2 hydrocarbon without coke formation at a ratio of CO2/Cfuel = 1.5 or higher. The reaction can be conducted at very low temperatures such as 523?K. Therefore, it is anticipated as a novel and effective process for on-board syngas production from diesel fuel using an EGR system.

Yasushi Sekine; Naotsugu Furukawa; Masahiko Matsukata; Eiichi Kikuchi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 3: SOx/NOx/Hg Removal for Low Sulfur Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project was to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxycombustion technology. The objective of Task 3 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning low sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was to conduct an experimental investigation and to develop a novel process for simultaneously removal of SOx and NOx from power plants that would operate on low sulfur coal without the need for wet-FGD & SCRs. A novel purification process operating at high pressures and ambient temperatures was developed. Activated carbonâ??s catalytic and adsorbent capabilities are used to oxidize the sulfur and nitrous oxides to SO{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} species, which are adsorbed on the activated carbon and removed from the gas phase. Activated carbon is regenerated by water wash followed by drying. The development effort commenced with the screening of commercially available activated carbon materials for their capability to remove SO{sub 2}. A bench-unit operating in batch mode was constructed to conduct an experimental investigation of simultaneous SOx and NOx removal from a simulated oxyfuel flue gas mixture. Optimal operating conditions and the capacity of the activated carbon to remove the contaminants were identified. The process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx. In the longevity tests performed on a batch unit, the retention capacity could be maintained at high level over 20 cycles. This process was able to effectively remove up to 4000 ppm SOx from the simulated feeds corresponding to oxyfuel flue gas from high sulfur coal plants. A dual bed continuous unit with five times the capacity of the batch unit was constructed to test continuous operation and longevity. Full-automation was implemented to enable continuous operation (24/7) with minimum operator supervision. Continuous run was carried out for 40 days. Very high SOx (>99.9%) and NOx (98%) removal efficiencies were also achieved in a continuous unit. However, the retention capacity of carbon beds for SOx and NOx was decreased from ~20 hours to ~10 hours over a 40 day period of operation, which was in contrast to the results obtained in a batch unit. These contradictory results indicate the need for optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level and thus minimize the capital cost of the system. In summary, the activated carbon process exceeded performance targets for SOx and NOx removal efficiencies and it was found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. More efforts are needed to optimize the system performance.

Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Minish Shah

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Packed-Bed Reactor Study of NETL Sample 196c for the Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Simulated Flue Gas Mixture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An amine-based solid sorbent process to remove CO2 from flue gas has been investigated. The sorbent consists of polyethylenimine (PEI) immobilized onto silica (SiO2) support. Experiments were conducted in a packed-bed reactor and exit gas composition was monitored using mass spectrometry. The effects of feed gas composition (CO2 and H2O), temperature, and simulated steam regeneration were examined for both the silica support as well as the PEI-based sorbent. The artifact of the empty reactor was also quantified. Sorbent CO2 capacity loading was compared to thermogravimetric (TGA) results to further characterize adsorption isotherms and better define CO2 working capacity. Sorbent stability was monitored by periodically repeating baseline conditions throughout the parametric testing and replacing with fresh sorbent as needed. The concept of the Basic Immobilized Amine Sorbent (BIAS) Process using this sorbent within a system where sorbent continuously flows between the absorber and regenerator was introduced. The basic tenet is to manipulate or control the level of moisture on the sorbent as it travels around the sorbent circulation path between absorption and regeneration stages to minimize its effect on regeneration heat duty.

Hoffman, James S.; Hammache, Sonia; Gray, McMahan L.; Fauth Daniel J.; Pennline, Henry W.

2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

167

FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, AL). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{trademark}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{trademark} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{trademark} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{trademark} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury--elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{trademark}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{trademark} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{trademark} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2004-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

168

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2004-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

169

Fuel saving, carbon dioxide emission avoidance, and syngas production by tri-reforming of flue gases from coal- and gas-fired power stations, and by the carbothermic reduction of iron oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flue gases from coal, gas, or oil-fired power stations, as well as from several heavy industries, such as the production of iron, lime and cement, are major anthropogenic sources of global CO2 emissions. The newly proposed process for syngas production based on the tri-reforming of such flue gases with natural gas could be an important route for CO2 emission avoidance. In addition, by combining the carbothermic reduction of iron oxide with the partial oxidation of the carbon source, an overall thermoneutral process can be designed for the co-production of iron and syngas rich in CO. Water-gas shift (WGS) of CO to H2 enables the production of useful syngas. The reaction process heat, or the conditions for thermoneutrality, are derived by thermochemical equilibrium calculations. The thermodynamic constraints are determined for the production of syngas suitable for methanol, hydrogen, or ammonia synthesis. The environmental and economic consequences are assessed for large-scale commercial production of these chemical commodities. Preliminary evaluations with natural gas, coke, or coal as carbon source indicate that such combined processes should be economically competitive, as well as promising significant fuel saving and CO2 emission avoidance. The production of ammonia in the above processes seems particularly attractive, as it consumes the nitrogen in the flue gases.

M. Halmann; A. Steinfeld

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

NGL recovery being hiked by natural-gasoline recirculation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Construction will be completed later this year at two compression plants operated by Lagoven, S.A., to install natural-gasoline recirculation to improve NGL recovery. The project is the result of a study of condensate-stream recirculation and absorber operations at the compression plants Tia Juana 2 (PCTJ-2) and Tia Juana 3 (PCTJ-3), offshore Lake Maracaibo in western Venezuela. The PCTJ-2 and PCTJ-3 gas compression plants have two systems: gas compression and NGL extraction. Previous analysis of the NGL extraction and fractionation processes of Lagoven determined that there are two practical and attractive alternatives for the recirculation of the condensate streams in PCTJ-2 and 3: recirculation of natural gasoline from the Ule LPG plant; recirculation of a conditioned condensate from the de-ethanizer tower of each plant. Both alternatives are discussed. Also described are fractionation capacity, and modifications for adding absorption and fractionation.

Rivas M, M.; Bracho, J.L. [Lagoven S.A., Maracaibo (Venezuela); Murray, J.E. [Murray (James E.), Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

1997-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

171

Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 13, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The NOXSO process is a dry, post-combustion flue gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from the flue gas of a coal-fired utility boiler. In the process, the SO{sub 2} is converted to a sulfur by-product and the NO{sub x} is converted to nitrogen and oxygen. It is predicted that the process can economically remove 90% of the acid rain precursor gases from the flue gas stream in a retrofit or new facility. The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project is to design, construct, and operate a flue gas treatment system utilizing the NOXSO process. The effectiveness of the process will be demonstrated by achieving significant reductions in emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. In addition, sufficient operating data will be obtained to confirm the process economics and provide a basis to guarantee performance on a commercial scale. The project is presently in the project definition and preliminary design phase. Data obtained during pilot plant testing which was completed on July 30, 1993 is being incorporated in the design of the commercial size plant. A suitable host site to demonstrate the NOXSO process on a commercial scale is presently being sought. Preliminary engineering activities involved evaluating various design options for the major process vessels with the principal focus being on the sorbent heater vessel, which is operated at the highest temperature. Additionally, the impact of the NOXSO system on power plant particulate emissions and opacity was estimated. It is predicted that particulate emissions will decrease slightly while opacity will increase slightly. Neither change will be significant enough to have an impact on emissions compliance. Advertised performance of the proposed adsorber separator is being verified by laboratory testing. Process studies activities included POC equipment inspection and materials evaluations.

NONE

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

172

Steam Reactivation and Separation of Limestone Sorbents for High Temperature Post-combustion CO2 Capture from Flue Gas.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Increasing global population and demand for energy has raised concerns of excessive anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from consumption of fossil fuels. Coal, in particular,… (more)

Wang, Alan Yao

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Gas-phase and catalytic combustion in heat-recirculating burners Jeongmin Ahn, Craig Eastwood, Lars Sitzki* and Paul D. Ronney  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

title: Extinction limits in excess enthalpy burners To be published in Proceedings of the Combustion that hydrocarbon fuels contain 100 times more energy per unit mass than lithium-ion batteries, thus devices engines may be impractical. Consequently, many groups have considered heat-recirculating, or "excess

174

Simulation study on lignite-fired power system integrated with flue gas drying and waste heat recovery – Performances under variable power loads coupled with off-design parameters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Lignite is a kind of low rank coal with high moisture content and low net heating value, which is mainly used for electric power generation. However, the thermal efficiency of power plants firing lignite directly is very low. Pre-drying is a proactive option, dehydrating raw lignite to raise its heating value, to improve the power plant thermal efficiency. A pre-dried lignite-fired power system integrated with boiler flue gas drying and waste heat recovery was proposed in this paper. The plant thermal efficiency could be improved by 1.51% at benchmark condition due to pre-drying and waste heat recovery. The main system performances under variable power loads were simulated and analyzed. Simulation results show that the improvement of plant thermal efficiency reduced to 1.36% at 50% full load. Moreover, the influences of drying system off-design parameters were simulated coupled with power loads. The variation tendencies of main system parameters were obtained. The influence of pre-drying degree (including moisture content of pre-dried lignite and raw lignite) on the plant thermal efficiency diminishes gradually with the decreasing power load. The dryer thermal efficiency and dryer exhaust temperature are also main factors and the influences on system parameters have been quantitatively analyzed.

Xiaoqu Han; Ming Liu; Jinshi Wang; Junjie Yan; Jiping Liu; Feng Xiao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

FASTCHEM/trademark/ (Fly Ash and Flue Gas Desulfurization Sludge Transport and Geochemistry) package: Volume 2, User's guide to the EFLOW groundwater flow code  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents a two-dimensional finite element code, EFLOW, developed to simulate water flow in fully or variably saturated porous media. This code is one component in the FASTCHEM/trademark/ (Fly Ash and Flue Gas Desulfurization Sludge Transport and Geochemistry) package. The formulation of the governing equations and the numerical procedures used in the code are presented. The flow equation is approximated using the Galerkin finite element method. For variably saturated flow problems, nonlinearities caused by unsaturated soil properties, atmospheric boundary conditions (e.g., infiltration, evaporation and seepage faces), and water uptake by plant roots are treated using Picard or Newton-Raphson methods. For fully saturated unconfined flow problems, the governing equations are formulated in an areal plane, and nonlinear water-table boundary conditions are treated using the Picard method. Several test problems are presented to verify the code and demonstrate its utility. These problems range from simple one-dimensional to complex two-dimensional and axisymmetric problems. 24 refs., 39 figs., 27 tabs.

Not Available

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Chapter 26 - The Oxyfuel Baseline: Revamping Heaters and Boilers to Oxyfiring by Cryogenic Air Separation and Flue Gas Recycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This feasibility study involves the potential application of oxyfuel technology on a refinery-wide basis at the BP Grangemouth unit in Scotland. A total of seven boilers and 13 process heaters of various types, burning a mixture of refinery fuel gas and fuel oil resulting in the production of approximately 2.0 million tonnes per annum of CO2, form the basis of this study.

Rodney Allam; Vince White; Neil Ivens; Mark Simmonds

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Improved high efficiency third stage separator cyclones for separation of fines from fluid catalytic cracking flue gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stairmand type small diameter (0.254 m) multicyclones were cold flow tested for fluid catalytic cracking third stage separator application. The gas discharge from the cyclone dust outlet into the common collection hopper was found to far exceed the hopper bleed rate (underflow). The excess gas reentrained dust from the hopper back into cyclones, which lowered collection efficiencies. Vortex {open_quotes}stabilization{close_quotes} using apex cones was unsuccessful whereas a Mobil proprietary cyclone modification was successful in minimizing excess gas discharge and dust reentrainment at the cyclone-hopper boundary. In tests at 700 {degrees}C, the modified cyclones captured all particles above 4 {mu}m. Mobil-Kellogg incorporated the modified cyclones in a new third stage separator design which is targeted for achieving lowest opacity and <50 mg/Nm{sup 3} emissions at the stack. The first such unit will be commercialized in Mobil`s newest catalytic cracker (M.W. Kellogg design) under construction in Altona, Australia in late 1996. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Chitnis, G.K.; Schatz, K.W. [Mobil Technology Co., Paulsboro, NJ (United States); Bussey, B.K. [M.W. Kellogg Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

178

Novel technologies for SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} removal from flue gas; Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this research is to develop a low temperature deNO{sub x} catalyst with activity high enough for boiler retrofit applications. Cu-ZrO{sub 2} is a promising low temperature catalyst for the selective reduction of No by propene. At NO = 1000 ppm, propene (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}) = 1000 ppm and 0{sub 2} = 1% and a space velocity of 13,000 h{sup {minus}1}, the NO conversion to N{sub 2} is 64% at 265{degrees}C. The performance of the catalyst, however, does not fulfill the requirement when used for flue gas clean up where the feed is composed of 4% O{sub 2} and 10% H{sub 2}O, and the temperature is 150{degrees}C. Methods to improve the performance of the catalyst are being sought. These include modification of the preparation method such as varying the aging time of the gel after precipitation, and addition of promoters like Pd and Nd to increase the catalytic activity at lower temperatures and higher 0{sub 2} concentrations. Using ethanol (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH) instead of C{sub 3}H{sub 6} as a reductant improves the performance of the catalyst when H{sub 2}O is present. Interestingly, methanol is not an effective reductant. Some modified carbon catalysts are also tested. Results on Cu impregnated ASC whetlerite carbon catalyst show 100% N{sub 2} selectivity and 35 % NO conversion at 200{degrees}C. However, the catalyst is unstable and deactivates rapidly. Work planned for the next quarter is to continue to investigate methods to improve the catalytic activity.

Kung, M.; Yang, B. [Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Spivey, J.J.; Agarwal, S.K.; Jang, B.W. [Research Triangle Inst., Durham, NC (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

179

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and delayed petroleum coke in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures. Firing rates in the pilot test facility ranged from 2.2 to 7.9 MM-Btu/hr. Pilot-scale testing was performed at ALSTOM's Multi-use Test Facility (MTF), located in Windsor, Connecticut.

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

2004-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

180

Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Second quarterly technical progress report, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994 (Quarter No. 2)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}{lg_bullet}0.5H{sub 2}0), gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{lg_bullet}2H{sub 2}0), and unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}), with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides; silica; and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. Currently, the only market for scrubber sludge is for manufacture of gypsum products, such as wallboard and plaster, and for cement. However, the quality of the raw sludge is often not high enough or consistent enough to satisfy manufacturers, and so the material is difficult to sell. This project is developing a process that can produce a high-quality calcium sulfite or gypsum product while keeping process costs low enough that the material produced will be competitive with that from other, more conventional sources. This purification will consist of minimal-reagent froth flotation, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified gypsum or calcium sulfite product. The separated limestone will be a useful by-product, as it can be recycled to the scrubber, thus boosting the limestone utilization and improving process efficiency. Calcium sulfite will then be oxidized to gypsum, or separated as a salable product in its own right from sludges where it is present in sufficient quantity. The main product of the process will be either gypsum or calcium sulfite, depending on the characteristics of the sludge being processed. These products will be sufficiently pure to be easily marketed, rather that being landfilled.

Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas recirculation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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181

Investigations on emission characteristics of the pongamia biodiesel–diesel blend fuelled twin cylinder compression ignition direct injection engine using exhaust gas recirculation methodology and dimethyl carbonate as additive  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experiments were carried out on a twin cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine using pongamia biodiesel–diesel blend as fuel with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as additive. The experimental results showed that pongamia biodiesel–diesel blend fuelled engine with EGR and DMC can simultaneously reduce smoke and nitric oxide ( NO x ) emission. The NO x emission was reduced by about 17.68% for 10% of EGR introduction and about 13.55% increase in smoke emission. When dimethyl carbonate was added with EGR the engine emits lower smoke with lesser NO x emission and it showed that the smoke reduction rate had a linear relationship with DMC percentage. The carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions also decreased when DMC was added. However the addition of DMC with EGR caused an increase in both BSEC and BTE.

M. Pandian; S. P. Sivapirakasam; M. Udayakumar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Use of low temperature blowers for recirculation of hot gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus is described for maintaining motors at low operating temperatures during recirculation of hot gases in fuel cell operations and chemical processes such as fluidized bed coal gasification. The apparatus includes a means for separating the hot process gas from the motor using a secondary lower temperature gas, thereby minimizing the temperature increase of the motor and associated accessories.

Maru, H.C.; Forooque, M.

1982-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

183

Recirculation of municipal landfill leachate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RECIRCULATION OF MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LEACHATE A Thesis by BRIAN JUDE PINKO4ISKI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1987 Major Subject...: Civil Engineering RECIRCULATION OF MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LEACHATE A Thesis by BRIAN JUDE PINKOWSKI Approved as to style and content by: Charles P. Giammona (Chair of Committee) Roy . Harm, (Member) Kirk W. Brown (Member) Donald A. Maxwel...

Pinkowski, Brian Jude

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

184

Evaluation of gas-reburning and low NO{sub x} burners on a wall fired boiler. Progress report, January 1--March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this Clean Coal Technology project is to evaluate the use of Gas Reburning and Low NO{sub x} Burners (GR-LNB) for NO{sub x} emission control from a wall fired boiler. This project is being conducted in three phases at the host site, a 172 MW{sub e} wall fired boiler of Public Service Company of Colorado, Cherokee Unit 3 in Denver, Colorado: Phase I, design and permitting has been completed on June 30, 1992; Phase II, construction and start-up has been completed on September 1991; and Phase III, operation, data collection, reporting and disposition. Phase III activities during this reporting period involved the following: compilation, analysis and assembly of the final report and initiation of restoration activities; restoration of the gas reburning system involving removal of the flue gas recirculation system (permanent Second Generation Gas Reburning); and participants meeting and reburning workshop. Long term testing of the equipment demonstrated an average NO{sub x} reduction of 65% using 18% gas heat input. After removing the flue gas recirculation system, (Second Generation GR), an average NO{sub x} of 64% was achieved using 13% gas heat input. The project goal of 70% reduction was achieved, but no on an average basis due to the load requirements of the utility.

NONE

1996-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

185

Noise of cleanroom recirculation systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recirculation air systems are used by the microelectronics industry as the primary source of unidirectional air flow in cleanrooms. The commonly used recirculation systems include: (1) packaged air handlers which include centrifugal or plug (plenum) fans generally located at fan deck level above the cleanroom; (2) fan?tower recirculation systems consisting most often of vertically mounted vaneaxial fans arranged along the cleanroom perimeter; (3) individual fan?filter units in which the HEPA or ULPA filters are combined with small direct drive blowers supported by the ceiling suspension system; and (4) minienvironments which create superclean conditions around individual tools within a less clean ‘‘ballroom.’’ In this paper the commonly used recirculation systems will be described typical sound power levels and spectrum characteristics of the systems will be presented the natural noise attenuation along the air flow paths will be listed the theoretical models for predicting noise levels in a cleanroom will be introduced and noise mitigation means which can be integrated into different systems will be discussed. Also presented will be the typical noise levels measured in operating cleanrooms.

Mei Q. Wu; Colin G. Gordon

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

2003-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

NO, Reduction in a Gas Fired Utility Boiler by Combustion Modifications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Data on the effect of several combustion modifications on the for-math of nitrogen oxides and on boiler efficiency were acquired and analyzed for a 110 MW gas fired utility boiler. The results from the study showed that decreasing the oxygen in the flue gas from 2.2% to 0.6 % reduced the NO, formation by 33 % and also gave better boiler efficiencies. Flue gas recirculation through the bottom of the fire4mx WBS founb to be Ineffective. Staged combustion was found to reduce the NO, emlssions by as much as 55 % while decreasing the efficiency by about 5%. Adjustment of the burner air registers reduced the NO, formation by about 20 ppm. The lowest NO, emisdons of 42 ppm (at about 3 % 02) in the stack was obtained for air only to one top burner and 0.5 % oxygen in the flue gas. The reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO,) emissions from steam boilers has been under study for several years. The NO, from boilers consist almost entirely of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (N02) with NO2 usually only l or 2 % of the total. After leaving the stack, the NO eventually combines with atmospheric oxygen to form NOp. The Environmental Protection Agency has sponsored several studies1-I0 on reducing NO, emissions while maintaining thermal efficiency of boilers. Other studies have been sponsored by The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) " and Argonne National

Jerry A. Bullin; Dan Wilkerson

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Industrial Energy Conservation, Forced Internal Recirculation Burner  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this research project is to develop and evaluate an industrial low NOx burner for existing and new gas-fired combustion systems for intermediate temperature (1400 degree to 2000 degree F) industrial heating devices such as watertube boilers and process fluid heaters. A multi-phase effort is being pursued with decision points to determine advisability of continuance. The current contract over Phases II and III of this work. The objectives of each phase are as follows. Phase II - to design, fabricate, and evaluate prototype burners based on the Forced Internal Recirculation (FIR) concept. Phase III - to evaluate the performance of an FIR burner under actual operating conditions in a full-scale field test and establish the performance necessary for subsequent commercialization

Joseph Rabovitser

2003-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

189

Plugging of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Coolers  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

EGR coolers donated by industry and analyzed at ORNL contained lacquer-like deposits, which can be prevented by maintaining the cooler above the dew point of the hydrocarbons.

190

Recirculation in multiple wave conversions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A one-dimensional multiple wave-conversion model is constructed that allows energy recirculation in ray phase space. Using a modular eikonal approach, the connection coefficients for this model are calculated by ray phase-space methods. Analytical results (confirmed numerically) show that all connection coefficients exhibit interference effects that depend on an interference phase, calculated from the coupling constants and the area enclosed by the intersecting rays. This conceptual model, which focuses on the topology of intersecting rays in phase space, is used to investigate how mode conversion between primary and secondary waves is modified by the presence of a tertiary wave.

Kaufman, A. N.; Brizard, A.J.; Kaufman, A.N.; Tracy, E.R.

2008-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

191

TANK MIXING STUDY WITH FLOW RECIRCULATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this work is to quantify the mixing time when two miscible fluids are mixed by one recirculation pump and to evaluate adequacy of 2.5 hours of pump recirculation to be considered well mixed in SRS tanks, JT-71/72. The work scope described here consists of two modeling analyses. They are the steady state flow pattern analysis during pump recirculation operation of the tank liquid and transient species transport calculations based on the initial steady state flow patterns. The modeling calculations for the mixing time are performed by using the 99% homogeneity criterion for the entire domain of the tank contents.

Lee, S.

2014-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

192

The effects of unburned hydrocarbon recirculation on ignition and combustion during diesel engine cold starts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The exhaust gases contain large amounts of unburned hydrocarbons during cranking without combustion. The effects of unburned hydrocarbon recirculation on ignition and combustion during diesel engine cold starts were investigated using both experiments and simulations. Experiments were conducted on a single-cylinder DI (direct injection) diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system. The amount of unburned hydrocarbon recirculation was jointly controlled by an EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) valve and a back pressure valve. The investigation showed that optimal opening of recirculation control valves allowed the first firing cycle to be advanced from 19 to 6 and reduced the duration of heavy smoke emission (opacity > 50%) by 77%. However, the enhancement to the in-cylinder LTR (low temperature reaction) decreased gradually as the amount of unburned hydrocarbon recirculation increased. An analysis of the chemical kinetics showed that the reaction intermediates present in unburned hydrocarbons, such as ketohydroperoxides, were the most significant factor in enhancing the LTR during non-firing cycles. At the same time, the substantial heat capacity of unburned hydrocarbons suppressed the LTR for higher recirculation rates.

Yi Cui; Haiyong Peng; Kangyao Deng; Lei Shi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Property:Recirculating | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Recirculating Recirculating Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Recirculating Property Type String Pages using the property "Recirculating" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 1 1.5-ft Wave Flume Facility + No + 10-ft Wave Flume Facility + No + 5 5-ft Wave Flume Facility + No + 6 6-ft Wave Flume Facility + No + A Alden Large Flume + Yes + Alden Small Flume + No + B Bucknell Hydraulic Flume + Yes + C Carderock 2-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel + Yes + Carderock 3-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel + Yes + Carderock Large Cavitation Tunnel + Yes + Carderock Subsonic Wind Tunnel + Yes + Conte Large Flume + No + Conte Small Flume + No + D DeFrees Flume 1 + No + DeFrees Flume 2 + No + DeFrees Flume 3 + No +

194

Gas Turbine Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In a cycle process of a gas turbine, the compressor load, as well as ... from the expansion of the hot pressurized flue gas. Either turbine, compressor and driven assembly are joined by ... shaft is thus divided,...

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority`s newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective.

Not Available

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Recovery of CO2 from Flue Gases: Commercial Trends  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CO CO 2 from Flue Gases: Commercial Trends Originally presented at the Canadian Society of Chemical Engineers annual meeting October 4-6, 1999, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada Authors: Dan G. Chapel (dan.chapel@fluor.com; 949-349-7530) Carl L. Mariz (carl.mariz@fluor.com; 949-349-7530) FluorDaniel One Fluor Drive Aliso Viejo CA, 92698 John Ernest (john.ernest@minimed.com; 818-576-4293) Advanced Quality Services Inc 11024 Balboa Blvd. PMB154, Granada Hills, CA 91344-5007 1 Recovery of CO 2 from Flue Gases: Commercial Trends Originally presented at the Canadian Society of Chemical Engineers annual meeting October 4-6, 1999, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada Authors: Dan Chapel - Fluor Daniel Inc., Senior Vice President Technology; Oil, Gas & Power John Ernest - Advanced Quality Services Inc., Validation Engineer

197

CO2 Separation from Low-Temperature Flue Gases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,842,126 entitled "Co 2 Separation from Low-Temperature Flue Gases." Disclosed in this patent are novel methods for processing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from combustion gas streams. Researchers at NETL are focused on the development of novel sorbent systems that can effectively remove CO 2 and other gases in an economically feasible manner with limited impact on energy production cost. The current invention will help in reducing greenhouse gas emissions by using an improved, regenerable aqueous amine and soluble potassium carbonate sorbent system. This novel solvent system may be capable of achieving CO 2 capture from larger emission streams at lower overall cost. Overview Sequestration of CO

198

In-tank recirculating arsenic treatment system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low-cost, water treatment system and method for reducing arsenic contamination in small community water storage tanks. Arsenic is removed by using a submersible pump, sitting at the bottom of the tank, which continuously recirculates (at a low flow rate) arsenic-contaminated water through an attached and enclosed filter bed containing arsenic-sorbing media. The pump and treatment column can be either placed inside the tank (In-Tank) by manually-lowering through an access hole, or attached to the outside of the tank (Out-of-Tank), for easy replacement of the sorption media.

Brady, Patrick V. (Albuquerque, NM); Dwyer, Brian P. (Albuquerque, NM); Krumhansl, James L. (Albuquerque, NM); Chwirka, Joseph D. (Tijeras, NM)

2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

199

Effect of V2O5 additive on simultaneous SO2 and NO removal from flue gas over a monolithic cordierite-based CuO/Al2O3 catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A monolithic cordierite-based CuO/Al2O3 catalyst showed industrial potential for simultaneous SO2 and NO removal from flue gases at 350–400 °C. However, it is still a challenge to prevent CuO from aggregation and to keep it in an active state during the removal and regeneration processes. This work shows that addition of V2O5 to the catalyst can significantly reduce CuO particle size and improve SO2 removal activity, and maintain a high selective catalytic reduction (SCR) activity for NO removal. Furthermore, V2O5 additive prevents aggregation of SiO2 in the cordierite with the coated Al2O3, and inhibits over reduction of the SO2 removal product, CuSO4, during the regeneration by NH3, which are important to the catalyst's stability. V2O5 additive changes the regeneration product from Cu3N to CuO and thus may avoid the temperature rise and \\{NOx\\} release in the subsequent removal process.

Qingya Liu; Zhenyu Liu; Weize Wu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Numerical Modeling of Non-adiabatic Heat-Recirculating Combustors C. H. Kuo and P. D. Ronney  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of temperature-dependent gas and solid properties, viscous flow, surface-to-surface radiative heat transfer, heat affect the performance of heat-recirculating combustors, but the relative importance of such effects, however, heat and friction losses become more significant, thus fuel-to-electricity conversion devices

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas recirculation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

US10 Capable Prototype Volvo MG11 Natural Gas Engine Development: Final Report, December 16, 2003 - July 31, 2006  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report discusses a project to develop a low-emissions natural gas engine with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a three-way catalyst (TWC).

Tai, C.; Reppert, T.; Chiu, J.; Christensen, L.; Knoll, K.; Stewart, J.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Recirculating Linac Accelerators For Future Muon Facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Neutrino Factories (NF) and Muon Colliders (MC) require rapid acceleration of shortlived muons to multi-GeV and TeV energies. A Recirculating Linear Accelerator (RLA) that uses superconducting RF structures can provide exceptionally fast and economical acceleration to the extent that the focusing range of the RLA quadrupoles allows each muon to pass several times through each high-gradient cavity. A new concept of rapidly changing the strength of the RLA focusing quadrupoles as the muons gain energy is being developed to increase the number of passes that each muon will make in the RF cavities, leading to greater cost effectiveness. We discuss the optics and technical requirements for RLA designs, using RF cavities capable of simultaneous acceleration of both m+ and m- species. The design will include the optics for the multi-pass linac and droplet-shaped return arcs.

Yves Roblin, Alex Bogacz, Vasiliy Morozov, Kevin Beard

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - CO2 Capture from Flue  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

from Flue Gas by Phase Transitional Absorption from Flue Gas by Phase Transitional Absorption Project No.: FG26-05NT42488 Basic Illustration of the Phase Transitional Absorption Process. Basic Illustration of the Phase Transitional Absorption Process. Hampton University researched a novel carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption concept, phase transitional absorption, that utilizes a two-part proprietary absorbent consisting of an activated agent dissolved in a solvent. Phase separation of the activated agent from the chemical solvent occurs during CO2 absorption and physical separation of the two phases exiting the absorber reduces the volume of process liquid requiring thermal regeneration. This unique aspect of phase transitional absorption also decreases the amount of energy (i.e., steam) required to liberate the CO2. If the proper liquid

204

Selective Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems Optimization  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A patented EGR-SCR approach was shown to readily meet the 2010 EPA requirments for NOx and PM emisisons through independent testing programs.

205

The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. ft10wu.pdf More Documents &...

206

FlueGen Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

FlueGen Inc FlueGen Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name FlueGen, Inc. Place Irvine, California Zip 92614 Product Irvine-based original equipment manufacturer (OEM) of air pollution control systems for the utility industry, including coal-fired power plants, in addition to financing client's projects, thereafter operating and maintaining the system for a fee. Coordinates 41.837752°, -79.268594° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.837752,"lon":-79.268594,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

207

Gas reburning in tangentially-fired, wall-fired and cyclone-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas Reburning has been successfully demonstrated for over 4,428 hours on three coal fired utility boilers as of March 31, 1994. Typically, NO{sub x} reductions have been above 60% in long-term, load-following operation. The thermal performance of the boilers has been virtually unaffected by Gas Reburning. At Illinois Power`s Hennepin Station, Gas Reburning in a 71 MWe tangentially-fired boiler achieved an average NO{sub x} reduction of 67% from the original baseline NO{sub x} level of 0.75 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu over a one year period. The nominal natural gas input was 18% of total heat input. Even at 10% gas heat input, NO{sub x} reduction of 55% was achieved. At Public Service Company of Colorado`s Cherokee Station, a Gas Reburning-Low NO{sub x} Burner system on a 172 MWe wall-fired boiler has achieved overall NO{sub x} reductions of 60--73% in parametric and long-term testing, based on the original baseline NO{sub x} level of 0.73 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. NO{sub x} reduction is as high as 60--65% even at relatively low natural gas usage (5--10% of total heat input). The NO{sub x} reduction by Low NO{sub x} Burners alone is typically 30--40%. NO{sub x} reduction has been found to be insensitive to changes in recirculated flue gas (2--7% of total flue gas) injected with natural gas. At City Water, Light and Power Company`s Lakeside Station in Springfield, Illinois, Gas Reburning in a 33 MWe cyclone-fired boiler has achieved an average NO{sub x} reduction of 66% (range 52--77%) at gas heat inputs of 20--26% in long-term testing, based on a baseline NO{sub x} level of 1.0 lb/10{sup 6} Btu (430 mg/MJ). This paper presents a summary of the operating experience at each site and discusses the long term impacts of applying this technology to units with tangential, cyclone and wall-fired (with Low NO{sub x} Burner) configurations.

May, T.J. [Illinois Power Co., Decatur, IL (United States); Rindahl, E.G. [Public Service Co. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States); Booker, T. [City Water Light and Power, Springfield, IL (United States)] [and others

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

208

Advanced Technology for the Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Technology for the Capture of Carbon Dioxide Technology for the Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gases by Shrikar Chakravarti (shrikar_chakravarti@praxair.com; 716-879-4760) Amitabh Gupta (ami_gupta@praxair.com; 716-879-2194) Balazs Hunek (balazs_hunek@praxair.com; 716-879-2250) Praxair, Inc. Process & Systems R&D, CO 2 Technology 175 East Park Drive, P.O. Box 44 Tonawanda, NY 14150 USA key words: flue gas, carbon dioxide, separation, amine absorption, oxygen tolerant process, amine blends First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration Washington, DC, May 15-17, 2001 Copyright 2001, Praxair Technology, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1 Abstract Cost effective carbon sequestration schemes have been identified as a key need for dealing with carbon dioxide's (CO 2 ) impact on global climate change. Two main

209

Optimal Gas Turbine Integration to the Process Industries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gas turbine integration can also help cut down flue gas emissions as a result of the improved efficiency of a cogeneration system. ... The aeroderivative turbines have higher efficiency than the industrial type, but they are more expensive. ...

Jussi Manninen; X. X. Zhu

1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

210

Demonstration of a Low-NOx Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of a Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle engine research project: A Caterpillar C-12 natural gas engine with Clean Air Power Dual-Fuel technology and exhaust gas recirculation demonstrated low NOx and PM emissions.

Not Available

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Fish Health Management Considerations in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems -Part 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cooperating. Nick T. Place , Dean Introduction Recirculating aquaculture systems, also known as water reuse of the Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date August 2003. Revised May 2009. Reviewed

Watson, Craig A.

212

Reducing the cost of CO{sub 2} capture from flue gases using membrane technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies of CO{sub 2} capture using membrane technology from coal-fired power-plant flue gas typically assume compression of the feed to achieve a driving force across the membrane. The high CO{sub 2} capture cost of these systems reflects the need to compress the low-pressure feed gas (1 bar) and the low CO{sub 2} purity of the product stream. This article investigates how costs for CO{sub 2} capture using membranes can be reduced by operating under vacuum conditions. The flue gas is pressurized to 1.5 bar, whereas the permeate stream is at 0.08 bar. Under these operating conditions, the capture cost is U.S. $54/tonne CO{sub 2} avoided compared to U.S. $82/tonne CO{sub 2} avoided using membrane processes with a pressurized feed. This is a. reduction of 35%. The article also investigates the effect on the capture cost of improvements in CO{sub 2} permeability and selectivity. The results show that the capture cost can be reduced to less than U.S. $25/tonne CO{sub 2} avoided when the CO{sub 2} permeability is 300 bar, CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity is 250, and the membrane cost is U.S. $10/m{sup 2}.

Ho, M.T.; Allinson, G.W.; Wiley, D.E. [University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW (Australia)

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

213

Tritium Superpermeability: Experimental Investigation and Simulation of Tritium Recirculation in 'Prometheus' Setup  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The superpermeability phenomenon was suggested to use in fusion machines to separate the fuel mixture from helium ashes, to arrange in-vessel fuel recirculation contours and effective evacuation of fuel mixture out of machine exhaust. To develop this technology and to simulate tritium recirculation in RFNC-VNIIEF at the 'Prometheus' setup the experiments on superpermeation of hydrogen isotopes through metal membrane were realized.The results of experiments on superpermeation of hydrogen isotopes through cylindrical niobium membrane are presented. As the experiment has shown, membrane pumping rate is inversely proportional to square root of isotope mass and amount to 2.5 l/cm{sup 2}s for protium, 1.8 l/cm{sup 2}s for deuterium and 1.5 l/cm{sup 2}s for tritium. The possibility of effective pumping, separation of hydrogen isotopes from helium and residual gas, compression and recuperation of hydrogen isotopes by means of superpermeable membrane was demonstrated. It follows from results that the separation of D/T from He with employment of the techniques of superpermeable membranes might reduce the total amount of tritium in fuel cycle and substantially enhance the resource of cryogenic pumps evacuating helium.

Musyaev, R.K. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Lebedev, B.S. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Grishechkin, S.K. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Yukhimchuk, A.A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Busnyuk, A.A [St.-Peterburg State University of Telecommunications (Russian Federation); Notkin, M.E. [St.-Peterburg State University of Telecommunications (Russian Federation); Samartsev, A.A. [St.-Peterburg State University of Telecommunications (Russian Federation); Livshits, A.I. [St.-Peterburg State University of Telecommunications (Russian Federation)

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

214

PRODUCTION OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATES FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The three main conclusions of this report are: (1) The pilot plant successfully demonstrated the continuous, fully-integrated, long-term process operation, including the mixing, pelletizing, and curing steps for aggregate production. The curing vessel, which was designed for the pilot plant test, was operated in a mass flow mode and performed well during pilot plant operation. (2) The pilot plant test demonstrated process flexibility. The same equipment was used to produce lightweight, medium-weight, and road aggregates. The only change was the mix formulation. Aggregates were produced from a variety of mix designs and from FGD sludge with solids concentrations between 45.0% and 56.7% and moisture contents between 55.0% and 43.3%. (3) The pilot plant provided operating data and experience to design and cost a commercial plant, which was not part of the cooperative agreement.

M.M. Wu; D.C. McCoy; R.O. Scandrol; M.L. Fenger; J.A. Withum; R.M. Statnick

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Combined Flue Gas Heat Recovery and Pollution Control Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the field of heat recovery now make it possible to recover a portion of the wasted heat and improve the working conditions of the air purification equipment. Proper design and selection of heat recovery and pollution control equipment as a combination...

Zbikowski, T.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Evaluation of Gas Reburning and Low N0x Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, especially NOX. The project involved operating gas reburning technology combined with low NO, burner technology (GR-LNB) on a coal-fired utility boiler. Low NOX burners are designed to create less NOX than conventional burners. However, the NO, control achieved is in the range of 30-60-40, and typically 50%. At the higher NO, reduction levels, CO emissions tend to be higher than acceptable standards. Gas Reburning (GR) is designed to reduce the level of NO. in the flue gas by staged fuel combustion. When combined, GR and LNBs work in harmony to both minimize NOX emissions and maintain an acceptable level of CO emissions. The demonstration was performed at Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSCO) Cherokee Unit 3, located in Denver, Colorado. This unit is a 172 MW. wall-fired boiler that uses Colorado bituminous, low-sulfur coal and had a pre GR-LNB baseline NOX emission of 0.73 lb/1 Oe Btu. The target for the project was a reduction of 70 percent in NOX emissions. Project sponsors included the U.S. Department of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Public Service Company of Colorado, Colorado Interstate Gas, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER). EER conducted a comprehensive test demonstration program over a wide range of boiler conditions. Over 4,000 hours of operation were achieved. Intensive measurements were taken to quantify the reductions in NOX emissions, the impact on boiler equipment and operability, and all factors influencing costs. The results showed that GR-LNB technology achieved excellent emission reductions. Although the performance of the low NOX burners (supplied by others) was somewhat less than expected, a NOX reduction of 65% was achieved at an average gas heat input of 180A. The performance goal of 70% reduction was met on many test runs, but at higher gas heat inputs. The impact on boiler equipment was determined to be very minimal. Toward the end of the testing, the flue gas recirculation (used to enhance gas penetration into the furnace) system was removed and new high pressure gas injectors were installed. Further, the low NOX burners were modified and gave better NO. reduction performance. These modifications resulted in a similar NO, reduction performance (64%) at a reduced level of gas heat input (-13Yo). In addition, the OFA injectors were re-designed to provide for better control of CO emissions. Although not a part of this project, the use of natural gas as the primary fuel with gas reburning was also tested. The gas/gas reburning tests demonstrated a reduction in NOX emissions of 43% (0.30 lb/1 OG Btu reduced to 0.17 lb/1 OG Btu) using 7% gas heat input. Economics are a key issue affecting technology development. Application of GR-LNB requires modifications to existing power plant equipment and as a result, the capital and operating costs depend largely on site-specific factors such as: gas availability at the site, gas to coal delivered price differential, sulfur dioxide removal requirements, windbox pressure, existing burner throat diameters, and reburn zone residence time available. Based on the results of this CCT project, EER expects that most GR-LNB installations will achieve at least 60% NOX control when firing 10-15% gas. The capital cost estimate for installing a GR-LNB system on a 300 MW, unit is approximately $25/kW. plus the cost of a gas pipeline (if required). Operating costs are almost entirely related to the differential cost of the natural gas compared to coal.

None

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

An Electrochemically-mediated Gas Separation Process for Carbon Abatement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work describes a promising alternative to conventional thermal processes for absorber/desorber processing of for removal of CO[subscript 2] from flue gas streams at fossil fuel fired power plants. Our electrochemica ...

Stern, Michael C.

218

Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

219

Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Bourcier, William L. (Livermore, CA)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

220

Evaluation of gas-reburning and low NO{sub x} burners on a wall fired boiler. Technical progress report number 17, October 1--December 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this CCT project is to evaluate the use of Gas Reburning and Low NO{sub x} Burners (GR-LNB) for NO{sub x} emission control from a wall fired boiler. Low NO{sub x} burners are designed to delay the mixing of the coal fuel with combustion air to minimize the NO{sub x} formation. With GR, about 80--85% of the coal fuel is fired in the main combustion zone. The balance of the fuel is added downstream as natural gas to create a slightly fuel rich environment in which NO{sub x} is converted to N{sub 2}. The combustion process is completed by over fire air addition. SO{sub x} emissions are reduced to the extent that natural gas replaces sulfur-containing coal. The level of NO{sub x} reduction achievable with 15--20% natural gas is on the order of 50--60%. Thus the emission reduction target of the combination of these two developed technologies is about 70%. This project is being conducted in three phases at the host site, a 172 MW wall fired boiler of Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo), Cherokee Unit 3 in Denver, Colorado: Phase 1--Design and Permitting; Phase 2--Construction and Start-up; and Phase 3--Operation, Data Collection, Reporting and Disposition. Phase 3 activities during this reporting period involved initiation of the second generation gas reburning parametric testing. This technology utilizes enhanced natural gas and overfire air injectors with elimination of the flue gas recirculation system. The objective is to demonstrate NO{sub x} reductions similar to that of long term testing but with a reduced capital cost requirement through elimination of the FGR system.

NONE

1994-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas recirculation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and gasification technologies for heat and power . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.4 Waste incineration and waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.2 Flue gases and fuel gases: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, incineration and other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.3 Formation of sulphur compounds during combustion and gasification . 3-5 3.4 Emission

Laughlin, Robert B.

222

Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.2 Flue gases and fuel gases: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, incineration and other and gasification technologies for heat and power . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.4 Waste incineration and waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.3 Formation of sulphur compounds during combustion and gasification . . 3-5 3.4 Emission

Zevenhoven, Ron

223

Passive mode control in the recirculating planar magnetron  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Preliminary experiments of the recirculating planar magnetron microwave source have demonstrated that the device oscillates but is susceptible to intense mode competition due, in part, to poor coupling of RF fields between the two planar oscillators. A novel method of improving the cross-oscillator coupling has been simulated in the periodically slotted mode control cathode (MCC). The MCC, as opposed to a solid conductor, is designed to electromagnetically couple both planar oscillators by allowing for the propagation of RF fields and electrons through resonantly tuned gaps in the cathode. Using the MCC, a 12-cavity anode block with a simulated 1 GHz and 0.26 c phase velocity (where c is the speed of light) was able to achieve in-phase oscillations between the two sides of the device in as little as 30 ns. An analytic study of the modified resonant structure predicts the MCC's ability to direct the RF fields to provide tunable mode separation in the recirculating planar magnetron. The self-consistent solution is presented for both the degenerate even (in phase) and odd (180 Degree-Sign out of phase) modes that exist due to the twofold symmetry of the planar magnetrons.

Franzi, Matthew; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Lau, Y. Y.; Greening, Geoff; Zhang, Peng [Plasma, Pulsed Power, and Microwave Laboratory, Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2104 (United States); Hoff, Brad [Air Force Research Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 (United States)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

224

NITROGEN REMOVAL FOR ON-SITE SEWAGE DISPOSAL: A RECIRCULATING SAND FILTER/ROCK TANK DESIGN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NITROGEN REMOVAL FOR ON-SITE SEWAGE DISPOSAL: A RECIRCULATING SAND FILTER/ROCK TANK DESIGN, C. G. McKiel ABSTRACT: The nitrogen removal abilities of recirculating sand filter/rock tank (RSF) systems and conventional septic tank/soil absorption trench systems were compared in a field laboratory

Gold, Art

225

"Self Cooled Recirculating Liquid Metal Plasma Facing Wall System"  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Self Cooled Recirculating Liquid Metal Plasma Facing Wall System" Self Cooled Recirculating Liquid Metal Plasma Facing Wall System" Inventor ..--.. Richard P. Majeski Disclosed is a design for a fully axisymmetric, fast flowing liquid lithium plasma facing "wall" or surface which, in its present form, is intended for implementation in a tokamak. The design employs JxB forces to form a free-surface flow along a guide wall at the outer boundary of the plasma. The implementation of the disclosure design includes a system for recirculating the liquid metal within the volume of the toroidal field coils using inductive pumping, an approach wich allows independent energizing of the wall-forming and recirculating pumping systems, cooling of the recirculating liquid using fluid heat exchange with a molten salt,

226

Method for high temperature mercury capture from gas streams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process to facilitate mercury extraction from high temperature flue/fuel gas via the use of metal sorbents which capture mercury at ambient and high temperatures. The spent sorbents can be regenerated after exposure to mercury. The metal sorbents can be used as pure metals (or combinations of metals) or dispersed on an inert support to increase surface area per gram of metal sorbent. Iridium and ruthenium are effective for mercury removal from flue and smelter gases. Palladium and platinum are effective for mercury removal from fuel gas (syngas). An iridium-platinum alloy is suitable for metal capture in many industrial effluent gas streams including highly corrosive gas streams.

Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.

2006-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

227

RECENT PROGRESS TOWARD A MUON RECIRCULATING LINEAR ACCELERATOR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Both Neutrino Factories (NF) and Muon Colliders (MC) require very rapid acceleration due to the short lifetime of muons. After a capture and bunching section, a linac raises the energy to about 900 MeV, and is followed by one or more Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA), possibly followed by a Rapid Cycling Synchnotron (RCS) or Fixed-Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) ring. A RLA reuses the expensive RF linac section for a number of passes at the price of having to deal with different energies within the same linac. Various techniques including pulsed focusing quadruopoles, beta frequency beating, and multipass arcs have been investigated via simulations to improve the performance and reduce the cost of such RLAs.

Slawomir Bogacz, Vasiliy Morozov, Yves Roblin, Kevin Beard

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Multipass Arc Lattice Design for Recirculating Linac Muon Accelerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recirculating linear accelerators (RLA) are the most likely means to achieve rapid acceleration of short-lived muons to multi-GeV energies required for Neutrino Factories and TeV energies required for Muon Colliders. A drawback of this scheme is that a separate return arc is required for each passage of the muons through the linac. In the work described here, a novel arc optics based on a Non-Scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (NSFFAG) lattice is developed, which would provide sufficient momentum acceptance to allow multiple passes (two or more consecutive energies) to be transported in one string of magnets. An RLA with significantly fewer arcs will reduce the cost. We will develop the optics and technical requirements to allow the maximum number of passes by using an adjustable path length to accurately control the returned beam to synchronize with the linac RF phase.

G.M. Wang, R.P. Johnson, S.A. Bogacz, D. Trbojevic

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic (i.e., man-made) CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2001, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) began a two-phase program to investigate the feasibility of various carbon capture technologies. This program was sponsored under a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE). The first phase entailed a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen cases, representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated. Seven cases represented coal combustion in CFB type equipment. Four cases represented Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Two cases represented advanced Chemical Looping Combined Cycle systems. Marion, et al. reported the details of this work in 2003. One of the thirteen cases studied utilized an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. In this concept, the fuel is fired with a mixture of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (mainly CO{sub 2}). This combustion process yields a flue gas containing over 80 percent (by volume) CO{sub 2}. This flue gas can be processed relatively easily to enrich the CO{sub 2} content to over 96 percent for use in enhanced oil or gas recovery (EOR or EGR) or simply dried for sequestration. The Phase I study identified the O{sub 2}-fired CFB as having a near term development potential, because it uses conventional commercial CFB technology and commercially available CO{sub 2} capture enabling technologies such as cryogenic air separation and simple rectification or distillation gas processing systems. In the long term, air separation technology advancements offer significant reductions in power requirements, which would improve plant efficiency and economics for the oxygen-fired technology. The second phase consisted of pilot-scale testing followed by a refined performance and economic evaluation of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. As a part of this workscope, ALSTOM modified its 3 MW{sub th} (9.9 MMBtu/hr) Multiuse Test Facility (MTF) pilot plant to operate with O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures of up to 70 percent O{sub 2} by volume. Tests were conducted with coal and petroleum coke. The test objectives were to determine the impacts of oxygen firing on heat transfer, bed dynamics, potential agglomeration, and gaseous and particulate emissions. The test data results were used to refine the design, performance, costs, and economic models developed in Phase-I for the O{sub 2}-fired CFB with CO{sub 2} capture. Nsakala, Liljedahl, and Turek reported results from this study in 2004. ALSTOM identified several items needing further investigation in preparation for large scale demonstration of the oxygen-fired CFB concept, namely: (1) Operation and performance of the moving bed heat exchanger (MBHE) to avoid recarbonation and also for cost savings compared to the standard bubbling fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHE); (2) Performance of the back-end flash dryer absorber (FDA) for sulfur capture under high CO{sub 2}/high moisture flue gas environment using calcined limestone in the fly ash and using fresh commercial lime directly in the FDA; (3) Determination of the effect of recarbonation on fouling in the convective pass; (4) Assessment of the impact of oxygen firing on the mercury, other trace elements, and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions; and (5) Develop a proposal-level oxygen-fired retrofit design for a relatively small existing CFB steam power plant in preparation for a large-scale demonstration of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. Hence, ALSTOM responded to a DOE Solicitation to address all these issues with further O{sub 2} fired MTF pilot testing and a subsequent retrofit design study of oxygen firing and CO{s

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

230

Oxy-combustion Boiler Material Development  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxy-combustion Boiler Material Oxy-combustion Boiler Material Development Background In an oxy-combustion system, combustion air (79 percent nitrogen, 21 percent oxygen) is replaced by oxygen and recycled flue gas (carbon dioxide [CO 2 ] and water), eliminating nitrogen in the flue gas stream. When applied to an existing boiler, the flue gas recirculation rate is adjusted to enable the boiler to maintain its original air-fired heat absorption performance, eliminating the need to derate the boiler

231

Reducing nitrogen oxides emissions from the combustion of LCV gas staged firing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with cotton gin tr ash, one of the primary fuels under consider ation, r esulted in flue NO levels ranging from 650-B60 ng/J (1. 5-2. 0 lb/MBtu). The Texas Air Control Board (TACB) will issue a facility a permit to operate only if NOx emissions are within... NO Methods of NOx Control Methods of NOx control may be lumped into two cate- gories: flue gas treatment (FGT) and combustion modifica- tion. The different processes are described below. Flue Gas Tr eatment Most of the research on FGT to date has been...

Finch, Stanley Frank

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

232

Zevenhoven & Kilpinen List of Abbreviations 13.4.2002 Abb.-1 List of abbreviations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chlorofluorocarbon CRT Continuously Regenerating Trap CSTR Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor DBDPE Decabromo diphenyl and electronic equipment EOR Enhanced oil recovery EPA Environmental Protection Agency (USA) EPRI Electric Power Fluidised Bed FGD Flue gas desulphurisation FGR Flue gas recirculation GBF Granular bed filter GHG

Zevenhoven, Ron

233

Use of Multipass Recirculation and Energy Recovery In CW SRF X-FEL Driver Accelerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We discuss the use of multipass recirculation and energy recovery in CW SRF drivers for short wavelength FELs. Benefits include cost management (through reduced system footprint, required RF and SRF hardware, and associated infrastructure - including high power beam dumps and cryogenic systems), ease in radiation control (low drive beam exhaust energy), ability to accelerate and deliver multiple beams of differing energy to multiple FELs, and opportunity for seamless integration of multistage bunch length compression into the longitudinal matching scenario. Issues include all those associated with ERLs compounded by the challenge of generating and preserving the CW electron drive beam brightness required by short wavelength FELs. We thus consider the impact of space charge, BBU and other environmental wakes and impedances, ISR and CSR, potential for microbunching, intra-beam and beam-residual gas scattering, ion effects, RF transients, and halo, as well as the effect of traditional design, fabrication, installation and operational errors (lattice aberrations, alignment, powering, field quality). Context for the discussion is provided by JLAMP, the proposed VUV/X-ray upgrade to the existing Jefferson Lab FEL.

Douglas, David; Akers, Walt; Benson, Stephen V.; Biallas, George; Blackburn, Keith; Boyce, James; Bullard, Donald; Coleman, James; Dickover, Cody; Ellingsworth, Forrest; Evtushenko, Pavel; Fisk, Sally; Gould, Christopher; Gubeli, Joseph; Hannon, Fay; Hardy, David; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Jordan, Kevin; Klopf, John; Kortze, J.; Legg, Robert; Li, Rui; Marchlik, Matthew; Moore, Steven W.; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas; Sexton, Daniel; Shin, Ilkyoung; Shinn, Michelle D.; Tennant, Christopher; Terzic, Balsa; Walker, Richard; Williams, Gwyn P.; Wilson, G.; Zhang, Shukui

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Energy balance of ethanol production with a gas-solid fluidized bed fermenter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper delivers the theoretical results achieved the production of ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a fluidized bed ... recirculation of the fluidizing gas and coolers for ethanol recovery. The influenc...

Dipl.-Ing. M. Beck; Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Bauer

235

Analysis of non-adiabatic heat-recirculating combustors Paul D. Ronney  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

combustion are discussed. #12;1 Introduction Recently interest in heat-recirculating "excess enthalpy times more energy per unit mass than lithium-ion batteries, thus devices converting of fuel

236

High-Power Laser Pulse Recirculation for Inverse Compton Scattering-Produced Gamma-Rays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inverse Compton scattering of high-power laser pulses on relativistic electron bunches represents an attractive method for high-brightness, quasi-monoenergetic {gamma}-ray production. The efficiency of {gamma}-ray generation via inverse Compton scattering is severely constrained by the small Thomson scattering cross section. Furthermore, repetition rates of high-energy short-pulse lasers are poorly matched with those available from electron accelerators, resulting in low repetition rates for generated {gamma}-rays. Laser recirculation has been proposed as a method to address those limitations, but has been limited to only small pulse energies and peak powers. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate an alternative method for laser pulse recirculation that is uniquely capable of recirculating short pulses with energies exceeding 1 J. Inverse Compton scattering of recirculated Joule-level laser pulses has a potential to produce unprecedented peak and average {gamma}-ray brightness in the next generation of sources.

Jovanovic, I; Shverdin, M; Gibson, D; Brown, C

2007-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

237

In situ treatment of VOCs by recirculation technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project described herein was conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify processes and technologies developed in Germany that appeared to have near-term potential for enhancing the cleanup of volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminated soil and groundwater at DOE sites. Members of the ORNL research team identified and evaluated selected German technologies developed at or in association with the University of Karlsruhe (UoK) for in situ treatment of VOC contaminated soils and groundwater. Project activities included contacts with researchers within three departments of the UoK (i.e., Applied Geology, Hydromechanics, and Soil and Foundation Engineering) during fall 1991 and subsequent visits to UoK and private industry collaborators during February 1992. Subsequent analyses consisted of engineering computations, groundwater flow modeling, and treatment process modeling. As a result of these project efforts, two processes were identified as having near-term potential for DOE: (1) the vacuum vaporizer well/groundwater recirculation well and (2) the porous pipe/horizontal well. This document was prepared to summarize the methods and results of the assessment activities completed during the initial year of the project. The project is still ongoing, so not all facets of the effort are completely described in this document. Recommendations for laboratory and field experiments are provided.

Siegrist, R.L.; Webb, O.F.; Ally, M.R.; Sanford, W.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US); Kearl, P.M.; Zutman, J.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (US)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Reducing the cost of CO{sub 2} capture from flue gases using pressure swing adsorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pressure swing adsorption (PSA) processes have been used extensively for gas separation, especially in the separation of hydrogen from CO{sub 2}, and in air purification. The objective of this paper is to examine the economic feasibility of pressure swing adsorption (PSA) for recovering CO{sub 2} from postcombustion power plant flue gas. The analysis considers both high-pressure feed and vacuum desorption using commercial adsorbent 13X, which has a working capacity of 2.2 mol/kg and CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity of 54. The results show that using vacuum desorption reduces the capture cost from US$57 to US$51 per ton of CO{sub 2} avoided and is comparable in cost to CO{sub 2} capture using conventional MEA absorption of US$49 per ton of CO{sub 2} avoided. In this paper, a sensitivity analysis is also presented showing the effect on the capture cost with changes in process cycle; feed pressure and evacuation pressure; improvements the adsorbent characteristics; and selectivity and working capacity. The results show that a hypothetical adsorbent with a working capacity of 4.3 mol/kg and a CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity of 150 can reduce the capture cost to US$30 per ton of CO{sub 2} avoided.

Ho, M.T.; Allinson, G.W.; Wiley, D.E. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

239

Wind Effect, Recirculation and Thermal Flow Field of a Direct Air?cooled Condenser for a Large Power Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The thermal effect experiments were carried out of a direct air?cooled system in the low speed wind tunnel. The influence of effect factors on recirculation is also discussion after that the relationship between the thermal flow field structure and recirculation ratio under the cooling tower is analyzed. At last the engineering measures to reduce or avoid recirculation are proposed. For certain conditions the experimental measurement shows close agreement with numerical values.

W. L. Zhao; P. Q. Liu; H. S. Duan; J. Y. Zhu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

The design and construction of an open channel recirculating water tank for the study of biological hydrocarbons .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This project chronicles the design and construction of a small scale recirculating water tank for the purpose of studying biological hydrodynamics. Currently available systems were… (more)

Hennessey, Thomas V. (Thomas Vincent), III

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas recirculation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

GAS INJECTION/WELL STIMULATION PROJECT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Driver Production proposes to conduct a gas repressurization/well stimulation project on a six well, 80-acre portion of the Dutcher Sand of the East Edna Field, Okmulgee County, Oklahoma. The site has been location of previous successful flue gas injection demonstration but due to changing economic and sales conditions, finds new opportunities to use associated natural gas that is currently being vented to the atmosphere to repressurize the reservoir to produce additional oil. The established infrastructure and known geological conditions should allow quick startup and much lower operating costs than flue gas. Lessons learned from the previous project, the lessons learned form cyclical oil prices and from other operators in the area will be applied. Technology transfer of the lessons learned from both projects could be applied by other small independent operators.

John K. Godwin

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Estimated Costs and Returns for Catfish Farms with Recirculating Ponds Along the Upper Texas Coast.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

_TDOC ' Z TA24S.7 8873 NO.1704 - . , ., TEXAS A&M UNIVERSHY LIBRARY for Catfish Farms ' with Recirculating Ponds Along ? . . the Upper Texas Coast ~7'!K~fi~~~ation ? J. Charles Lee: Interim Director? The Texas A&M University System ? C...~J1ege Station, Texas :,. .,: (Blank Page in OrigiBal BuBetiol ' 1iJ. ~ ; :; . : . . / I Estimated Costs and Returns for Catfish Farms with Recirculating Ponds Along the Upper Texas Coast J.A.D. Lambregts, Marketing Manager for Niaid...

Lambregts, J.A.D.; Griffin, W.L.; Lacewell R.D.; Davis, J.T.; Clary, G.M.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired Heating System  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet discusses how the thermal efficiency of a process heating system can be improved significantly by using heat contained in furnace flue gases to preheat the furnace load.

244

Gas-Liquid Contact Area of Random and Structured Packing Ian David Wilson, B.S.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the gas or to avoid catalyst poisoning. It is becoming apparent that CO2 emissions may also play a mayor the flue gas and the liquid solvent. The gas exits from the top with a low concentration of CO2 while 1.1 CO2 removal by absorption/stripping Absorber Stripper Sweet Gas CO2 + H2O Sour Gas Rich Amine

Rochelle, Gary T.

245

Efficiency of Gas-to-Liquids Technology with Different Synthesis Gas Production Methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The design and optimization of a gas-to-liquids technology (GTL) is considered, mostly from the view of an optimal choice of a synthesis gas (syngas) production method. ... If the tail gas is not enough, an additional portion of the natural gas is burned. ... The temperature of the flue gases passing from the radiation chamber of the tubular furnace to the convection chamber is taken as equal to 1150 °C, which allows proper calculation of required amount of gas supplied to the burner. ...

Ilya S. Ermolaev; Vadim S. Ermolaev; Vladimir Z. Mordkovich

2014-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

246

Fish Health Management Considerations in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems -Part 2: Pathogens1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introduction Recirculating aquaculture systems, also known as water reuse systems, have become more and more Sciences Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date August 2003. Revised August 2009. Reviewed October 2012

Watson, Craig A.

247

A Numerical Model for the Dynamic Simulation of a Recirculation Single-Effect Absorption Chiller  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Numerical Model for the Dynamic Simulation of a Recirculation Single- Effect Absorption Chiller A dynamic model for the simulation of a new single-effect water/lithium bromide absorption chiller. Keywords: absorption; chiller; modelling; transient; water-lithium bromide; falling film hal-00713904

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

248

On thermoelectric power conversion from heat re-circulating combustion systems F. J. Weinberg  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On thermoelectric power conversion from heat re-circulating combustion systems F. J. Weinberg for the Second Law heat engine cycles the maximum power that can be extracted is independent of layout Fax: 4420 7594 5604 Word count: 3750 Diags. equivalent: 1600 5350 #12;On thermoelectric power

249

Suction-recirculation device for stabilizing particle flows within a solar powered solid particle receiver  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A suction-recirculation device for stabilizing the flow of a curtain of blackened heat absorption particles falling inside of a solar receiver with an open aperture. The curtain of particles absorbs the concentrated heat from a solar mirror array reflected up to the receiver on a solar power tower. External winds entering the receiver at an oblique angle can destabilize the particle curtain and eject particles. A fan and ductwork is located behind the back wall of the receiver and sucks air out through an array of small holes in the back wall. Any entrained particles are separated out by a conventional cyclone device. Then, the air is recirculated back to the top of the receiver by injecting the recycled air through an array of small holes in the receiver's ceiling and upper aperture front wall. Since internal air is recirculated, heat losses are minimized and high receiver efficiency is maintained. Suction-recirculation velocities in the range of 1-5 m/s are sufficient to stabilize the particle curtain against external wind speeds in excess of 10 m/s.

Kolb, Gregory J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

250

Wind tunnel simulation of exhaust recirculation in an air-cooling system at a large power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The recirculation of hot exhaust air and its dependence on wind direction was investigated as a cause of reduced efficiency in an air-cooled condenser (ACC). A method of simulating exhaust air recirculation at an ACC platform using a wind tunnel is presented, and applied to a proposed ACC addition at an existing power plant. It was found that wind speed and the height of an ACC platform have a significant impact on recirculation. Wind direction was also found to be significant, due to the interference of the buildings adjacent to the ACC platform. The mechanisms that cause recirculation are presented and analyzed, and the characteristics of the recirculating flow are described. It was found that when considering additions to existing power plants, the distance of the new ACC and power plant from the original buildings and structures has only a minor effect on the recirculation of the added ACC platform. Wind tunnel simulation is recommended in the initial design stage of new or renovated power plants with ACC systems to minimize exhaust recirculation.

Zhifu Gu; Xuerei Chen; William Lubitz; Yan Li; Wenlin Luo

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Results of initial operation of the Jupiter Oxygen Corporation oxy-fuel 15 MWth burner test facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Jupiter Oxygen Corporation (JOC), in cooperation with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), constructed a 15 MWth oxy-fuel burner test facility with Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPRTM) to test high flame temperature oxy-fuel combustion and advanced carbon capture. Combustion protocols include baseline air firing with natural gas, oxygen and natural gas firing with and without flue gas recirculation, and oxygen and pulverized coal firing with flue gas recirculation. Testing focuses on characterizing burner performance, determining heat transfer characteristics, optimizing CO2 capture, and maximizing heat recovery, with an emphasis on data traceability to address retrofit of existing boilers by directly transforming burner systems to oxy-fuel firing.

Thomas Ochs, Danylo Oryshchyn, Rigel Woodside, Cathy Summers, Brian Patrick, Dietrich Gross, Mark Schoenfield, Thomas Weber and Dan O'Brien

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

New configurations of a heat recovery absorption heat pump integrated with a natural gas boiler for boiler efficiency improvement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150 200 C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50 60 C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural gas boilers for applications with process fluid return temperatures higher than or close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas.

Qu, Ming [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Yin, Hongxi [Southeast University, Nanjing, China

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Recirculating induction accelerator as a low-cost driver for heavy ion fusion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a fusion driver, a heavy ion accelerator offers the advantages of efficient target coupling, high reliability, and long stand-off focusing. While the projected cost of conventional heavy ion fusion (HIF) drivers based on multiple beam induction linacs are quite competitive with other inertial driver options, a driver solution which reduces the cost by a factor of two or more will make the case for HIF truly compelling. The recirculating induction accelerator has the potential of large cost reductions. For this reason, an intensive study of the recirculator concept was performed by a team from LLNL and LBL over the past year. We have constructed a concrete point design example of a 4 MJ driver with a projected efficiency of 35% and projected cost of less than 500 million dollars. A detailed report of our findings during this year of intensive studies has been recently completed. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Barnard, J.J.; Newton, M.A.; Reginato, L.L.; Sharp, W.M.; Shay, H.D.; Yu, S.S.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

High gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal via upwardly directed recirculating fluidization  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to an improved device and method for the high gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal, for the purpose of removing sulfur and ash from the coal whereby the product is a dry environmentally acceptable, low-sulfur fuel. The process involves upwardly directed recirculating air fluidization of selectively sized powdered coal in a separator having sections of increasing diameters in the direction of air flow, with magnetic field and flow rates chosen for optimum separations depending upon particulate size.

Eissenberg, David M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Liu, Yin-An (Opelika, AL)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Pilot-scale study of the effect of selective catalytic reduction catalyst on mercury speciation in Illinois and Powder River Basin coal combustion flue gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst on mercury (Hg) speciation in bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases. Three different Illinois Basin bituminous coals (from high to low sulfur (S) and chlorine (Cl)) and one Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal with very low S and very low Cl were tested in a pilot-scale combustor equipped with an SCR reactor for controlling nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The SCR catalyst induced high oxidation of elemental Hg (Hg{sup 0}), decreasing the percentage of Hg{sup 0} at the outlet of the SCR to values <12% for the three Illinois coal tests. The PRB coal test indicated a low oxidation of Hg{sup 0} by the SCR catalyst, with the percentage of Hg{sup 0} decreasing from {approximately} 96% at the inlet of the reactor to {approximately} 80% at the outlet. The low Cl content of the PRB coal and corresponding low level of available flue gas Cl species were believed to be responsible for low SCR Hg oxidation for this coal type. The test results indicated a strong effect of coal type on the extent of Hg oxidation. 16 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Lee, C.W.; Srivastava, R.K.; Ghorishi, S.B.; Karwowski, J.; Hastings, T.H.; Hirschi, J.C. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Triangle Park, NC (United States)

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

256

Oxyfuel CO2 compression: The gas phase reaction of elemental mercury and \\{NOx\\} at high pressure and absorption into nitric acid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Oxyfuel combustion is a technology which combusts coal in oxygen and recycled flue gas, producing a carbon dioxide rich flue gas for sequestration. Oxyfuel flue gas contains trace amounts of elemental mercury, which may corrode brazed aluminium heat exchangers used in the carbon dioxide purification system. International gas vendors have tested the use of the compression system to remove other flue gas impurities such as NOx; however, the reaction mechanism of mercury and its reaction products with \\{NOx\\} and nitric acid formed with condensed water vapour are unclear. This study used lab scale experiments to study the absorption of gaseous elemental mercury into nitric acid and the gas phase reaction between mercury and nitrogen dioxide formed from oxidised NO at pressures up to 25 bar. It was observed that mercury has limited absorption into nitric acid and may partially desorb out of solution after depressurisation. On the other hand, mercury reacted readily with nitrogen dioxide (formed from nitric oxide oxidation at high pressure) in the gas phase. These gas phase reactions from the oxidation of nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide to the subsequent oxidation of elemental mercury by nitrogen dioxide were predicted using existing global kinetic equations. The limited absorption of gaseous elemental mercury in nitric acid and significant oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury by nitrogen dioxide suggests that the primary removal step for elemental mercury is through the gas phase reaction. Oxyfuel compression circuits should therefore allow sufficient residence time for this gas phase reaction to occur.

Timothy Ting; Rohan Stanger; Terry Wall

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Capture of CO2 from flue gas by vacuum pressure swing adsorption using activated carbon beads  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) for CO2 capture has attracted much research effort with the...2...adsorbent materials. In this work, a new adsorbent, that is, pitch-based activated carbon bead (AC bead), ...

Chunzhi Shen; Jianguo Yu; Ping Li; Carlos A. Grande; Alirio E. Rodrigues

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

The utilization of flue gas desulfurization waste by-products in construction brick.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Millions of tons of waste by-products from Texas coal burning plants are produced each year. Two common byproducts are the fuel ashes and calcium sulfate… (more)

Berryman, Charles Wayne

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

III T; Murphy J T. DOE/NETL’s Phase II Mercury ControlFired Power Plants, DOE/NETL Mercury R&D Program Review,

Miller, Nai-Qiang Yan-Zan Qu Yao Chi Shao-Hua Qiao Ray Dod Shih-Ger Chang Charles

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Application of holographic neural networks for flue gas emissions prediction in the Burnaby incinerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article describes the development of a parametric prediction system (PPS) for various emission species at the Burnaby incinerator. The continuous emissions monitoring system at the Burnaby incinerator is shared between three boilers and therefore actual results are only available 5 minutes out of every 15 minutes. The PPS was developed to fill in data for the 10 minutes when the Continuous Emission Monitor (CEM) is measuring the other boilers. It bases its prediction on the last few actual readings taken and parametrically predicts CO, SO2 and NOx. The Burnaby Incinerator is located in the commercial/industrial area of South Burnaby, British Columbia. It consists of three separate lines, each burning ten tonnes of garbage per hour and producing about three tonnes of steam for every tonne of garbage burned. The air pollution control system first cools the combustion products with water injection and then scrubs them with very fine hydrated lime. Carbon is added to the lime to enhance the scrubbing of the combustion products. The CEM monitors the levels of oxygen, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and opacity. In 1996, an expert system was installed on one of boilers at the Burnaby Incinerator plant to determine if it could improve the plant=s operations and reduce overall emission. As part of the expert system, the PPS was developed. Holographic Neural Technology (HNeT), developed by AND Corporation of Toronto, Ontario, is a novel neural network technology using complex numbers in its architecture. Compared to the traditional neural networks, HNeT has some significant advantage. It is more resilient against converging on local minima; is faster training and executing; less prone to over fitting; and, in most cases, has significantly lower error. Selection of independent variabs, training set preparation, testing neural nets and other related issue will be discussed.

Zheng, L.; Dockrill, P.; Clements, B. [Natural Resources Canada, Nepean, Ontario (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas recirculation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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261

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Disposal of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) in an environmentally sound manner is a major issue facing the coal and utility industries in the US today. Disposal into abandoned sections of underground coal mines may overcome many of the surface disposal problems along with added benefits such as mitigation of subsidence and acid mine drainage. However, many of the abandoned underground coal mines are located far from power plants, requiring long distance hauling of by-products which will significantly contribute to the cost of disposal. For underground disposal to be economically competitive, the transportation and handling cost must be minimized. This requires careful selection of the system and optimal design for efficient operation. The materials handling and system economics research addresses these issues. Transportation and handling technologies for CCBs were investigated from technical, environmental and economic points of view. Five technologies were found promising: (1) Pneumatic Trucks, (2) Pressure Differential Rail Cars, (3) Collapsible Intermodal Containers, (4) Cylindrical Intermodal Tanks, and (5) Coal Hopper Cars with Automatic Retractable Tarping. The first two technologies are currently being utilized in transporting by-products from power plants to disposal sites, whereas the next three are either in development or in conceptualization phases. In this research project, engineering design and cost models were developed for the first four technologies. The engineering design models are in the form of spreadsheets and serve the purpose of determining efficient operating schedules and sizing of system components.

Sevim, H.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

DOE/FETC/TR--98-01 SORBENTS FOR MERCURY REMOVAL FROM FLUE GAS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

in the Analysis of Mercury in Air. Paper presented at the 66th Annual Meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association, June 1973. 45 Arizona Instrument Company, Manual for...

263

Experimental Study of the Circulation Air Volume of Recirculation Evaporative Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency, Vol. IV-11-3 Experimental Study of the Circulation Air Volume of Recirculation Evaporative Cooling 1 Jun Xiong ZeHua Liu Chao Wang GuoJie Chen Bachelor Senior.... Pre-design and design tools for evapora- tive cooling[J]. ASHRAE Transaction: Symposia. 2001.Vol. 107 part1: 501-510. [5] LiangShi Ding, JianJun Wang, MingJian Jiang. Investigations of the thermal performance of in- direct evaporative plate heat...

Xiong, J.; Liu, Z.; Wang, C.; Chen, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Culture of selected organisms in recirculating and flow-through systems using thermal effluent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

&M University; Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Kirk Strawn Twenty species were cultured in tanks on flow-through and recirculating systems. Water source was the thermal effluent from the discharge can 1 of Houston Lighting a Power Company's Cedar Bayou..., pH and Turbidity Levels for Monitored Tanks Table Al Daily Temperature i Conductivity i Di s- solved Oxygen, pH and Turbidity Levels for Monitored Tanks Figures Al through A72 80 86 vu APPENDIX B ? Summary of Monthly Survival, L ngth...

Berry, Terri Layne

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Linear Fixed-Field Multi-Pass Arcs for Recirculating Linear Accelerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA's) provide a compact and efficient way of accelerating particle beams to medium and high energies by reusing the same linac for multiple passes. In the conventional scheme, after each pass, the different energy beams coming out of the linac are separated and directed into appropriate arcs for recirculation, with each pass requiring a separate fixed-energy arc. In this paper we present a concept of an RLA return arc based on linear combined-function magnets, in which two and potentially more consecutive passes with very different energies are transported through the same string of magnets. By adjusting the dipole and quadrupole components of the constituting linear combined-function magnets, the arc is designed to be achromatic and to have zero initial and final reference orbit offsets for all transported beam energies. We demonstrate the concept by developing a design for a droplet-shaped return arc for a dog-bone RLA capable of transporting two beam passes with momenta different by a factor of two. We present the results of tracking simulations of the two passes and lay out the path to end-to-end design and simulation of a complete dog-bone RLA.

V.S. Morozov, S.A. Bogacz, Y.R. Roblin, K.B. Beard

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Methods for reducing emissions of dioxins and furans in flue gases at plants burning solid domestic waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Methods are discussed for reducing emissions of toxic chlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and dibenzo-furans in flue gases at plants which burn solid domestic waste. Results are presented from a study of ... number of th...

A. N. Tugov; V. F. Moskvichev; L. G. Fedorov…

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Gas turbine topping combustor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A combustor for burning a mixture of fuel and air in a rich combustion zone, in which the fuel bound nitrogen in converted to molecular nitrogen. The fuel rich combustion is followed by lean combustion. The products of combustion from the lean combustion are rapidly quenched so as to convert the fuel bound nitrogen to molecular nitrogen without forming NOx. The combustor has an air radial swirler that directs the air radially inward while swirling it in the circumferential direction and a radial fuel swirler that directs the fuel radially outward while swirling it in the same circumferential direction, thereby promoting vigorous mixing of the fuel and air. The air inlet has a variable flow area that is responsive to variations in the heating value of the fuel, which may be a coal-derived fuel gas. A diverging passage in the combustor in front of a bluff body causes the fuel/air mixture to recirculate with the rich combustion zone.

Beer, Janos (Winchester, MA); Dowdy, Thomas E. (Orlando, FL); Bachovchin, Dennis M. (Delmont, PA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Gas Separations using Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project has been oriented toward the development of a commercially viable ceramic membrane for high temperature gas separations. A technically and commercially viable high temperature gas separation membrane and process has been developed under this project. The lab and field tests have demonstrated the operational stability, both performance and material, of the gas separation thin film, deposited upon the ceramic membrane developed. This performance reliability is built upon the ceramic membrane developed under this project as a substrate for elevated temperature operation. A comprehensive product development approach has been taken to produce an economically viable ceramic substrate, gas selective thin film and the module required to house the innovative membranes for the elevated temperature operation. Field tests have been performed to demonstrate the technical and commercial viability for (i) energy and water recovery from boiler flue gases, and (ii) hydrogen recovery from refinery waste streams using the membrane/module product developed under this project. Active commercializations effort teaming with key industrial OEMs and end users is currently underway for these applications. In addition, the gas separation membrane developed under this project has demonstrated its economical viability for the CO2 removal from subquality natural gas and landfill gas, although performance stability at the elevated temperature remains to be confirmed in the field.

Paul KT Liu

2005-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

269

Economizer recirculation for low-load stability in heat recovery steam generator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An economizer system is described for heating feedwater in a heat recovery steam generator which consists of: at least first and second economizer tube planes; each of the economizer tube planes including a plurality of generally parallel tubes; the tubes being generally vertically disposed; each of the economizer tube planes including a top header and a bottom header; all of the plurality of tubes in each economizer tube plane being connected in parallel to their top and bottom headers whereby parallel feedwater flow through the plurality of tubes between the top and bottom headers is enabled; one of the top and bottom headers being an inlet header; a second of the top and bottom headers being an outlet header; a boiler feed pump; the boiler feed pump being effective for applying a flow of feedwater to the inlet header; means for serially interconnecting the economizer tube planes; the means for serially interconnecting including means for flowing the feedwater upward and downward in tubes of alternating ones of the economizer tube planes between the inlet header and the outlet header; means for conveying heated feedwater from the outlet header to a using process; means for recirculating at least a portion of the heated feedwater from the outlet header to an inlet of the boiler feed pump; and the means for recirculating including means for relating the portion to a steam load in the using process whereby an increased flow is produced through all of the economizer tube planes at values of the steam load below a predetermined value and a condition permitting initiation of reverse flow in any of the tubes is substantially reduced.

Cuscino, R.T.; Shade, R.L. Jr.

1986-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

270

Energy consumption analysis for CO2 separation from gas mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract CO2 separation is an energy intensive process, which plays an important role in both energy saving and CO2 capture and storage (CCS) implementation to deal with global warming. To quantitatively investigate the energy consumption of CO2 separation from different CO2 streams and analyze the effect of temperature, pressure and composition on energy consumption, in this work, the theoretical energy consumption of CO2 separation from flue gas, lime kiln gas, biogas and bio-syngas was calculated. The results show that the energy consumption of CO2 separation from flue gas is the highest and that from biogas is the lowest, and the concentration of CO2 is the most important factor affecting the energy consumption when the CO2 concentration is lower than 0.15 in mole fraction. Furthermore, if the CO2 captured from flue gases in CCS was replaced with that from biogases, i.e. bio-CO2, the energy saving would be equivalent to 7.31 million ton standard coal for China and 28.13 million ton standard coal globally, which corresponds to 0.30 billion US$ that can be saved for China and 1.36 billion US$ saved globally. This observation reveals the importance of trading fossil fuel-based CO2 with bio-CO2.

Yingying Zhang; Xiaoyan Ji; Xiaohua Lu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Spark gap switch system with condensable dielectric gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A spark gap switch system is disclosed which is capable of operating at a high pulse rate comprising an insulated switch housing having a purging gas entrance port and a gas exit port, a pair of spaced apart electrodes each having one end thereof within the housing and defining a spark gap therebetween, an easily condensable and preferably low molecular weight insulating gas flowing through the switch housing from the housing, a heat exchanger/condenser for condensing the insulating gas after it exits from the housing, a pump for recirculating the condensed insulating gas as a liquid back to the housing, and a heater exchanger/evaporator to vaporize at least a portion of the condensed insulating gas back into a vapor prior to flowing the insulating gas back into the housing.

Thayer, III, William J. (Kent, WA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Measurement and simulation of pollutant emissions from marine diesel combustion engine and their reduction by exhaust gas recirculation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Taking into account the complexity and cost of a direct experimental approach, the recourse to simulation, which can also predict inaccessible information by measurement, offers an effective and fast alternative ...

Nader Larbi; Jamel Bessrour

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland.

274

The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

275

Municipal solid waste degradation and landfill gas resources characteristics in self-recirculating sequencing batch bioreactor landfill  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Based on the degradation characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW) in China, the traditional anaerobic sequencing batch bioreactor landfill (ASBRL) was optimized, and an improved anaerobic sequencing batch b...

Xiao-zhi Zhou ???; Shu-xun Sang ???; Li-wen Cao ???

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Case study of landfill leachate recirculation using small-diameter vertical wells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A case study of landfill liquids addition using small diameter (5 cm) vertical wells is reported. More than 25,000 m3 of leachate was added via 134 vertical wells installed 3 m, 12 m, and 18 m deep over five years in a landfill in Florida, US. Liquids addition performance (flow rate per unit screen length per unit liquid head) ranged from 5.6 × 10?8 to 3.6 × 10?6 m3 s?1 per m screen length per m liquid head. The estimated radial hydraulic conductivity ranged from 3.5 × 10?6 to 4.2 × 10?4 m s?1. The extent of lateral moisture movement ranged from 8 to 10 m based on the responses of moisture sensors installed around vertical well clusters, and surface seeps were found to limit the achievable liquids addition rates, despite the use of concrete collars under a pressurized liquids addition scenario. The average moisture content before (51 samples) and after (272 samples) the recirculation experiments were 23% (wet weight basis) and 45% (wet weight basis), respectively, and biochemical methane potential measurements of excavated waste indicated significant (p < 0.025) decomposition.

Pradeep Jain; Jae Hac Ko; Dinesh Kumar; Jon Powell; Hwidong Kim; Lizmarie Maldonado; Timothy Townsend; Debra R. Reinhart

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Effect of heat recirculation on the self-sustained catalytic combustion of propane/air mixtures in a quartz reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The self-sustained catalytic combustion of propane is experimentally studied in a two-pass, quartz heat-recirculation reactor (HRR) and compared to that in a no (heat) recirculation reactor (NRR). Structured monolithic reactors with Pt/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, LaMnO{sub 3}/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Pt doped perovskite catalysts have been compared in the HRR and NRR configurations. Heat recirculation enhances combustion stability, by widening the operating window of self-sustained operation, and changes the mode of stability loss from blowout to extinction. It is found that thermal shields (upstream and downstream of the monolith) play no role in the stability of a HRR but increase the stability of a NRR. The stability of a HRR follows this trend: Pt/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} > doped perovskite > LaMnO{sub 3}/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Finally, a higher cell density monolith enlarges the operating window of self-sustained combustion, and allows further increase of the power density of the process. (author)

Scarpa, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli ''Federico II'', P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Department of Chemical Engineering, Center for Catalytic Science and Technology (CCST), and Center for Composite Materials (CCM), University of Delaware, 150 Academy Street, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Pirone, R. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione-CNR, P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Russo, G. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli ''Federico II'', P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Vlachos, D.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Center for Catalytic Science and Technology (CCST), and Center for Composite Materials (CCM), University of Delaware, 150 Academy Street, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

278

Post-combustion Carbon Capture with a Gas Separation Membrane: Parametric Study, Capture Cost, and Exergy Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Post-combustion Carbon Capture with a Gas Separation Membrane: Parametric Study, Capture Cost, and Exergy Analysis ... (5) In a post-combustion CO2 capture process, the purity of the captured CO2 in the permeate stream mainly depends upon the selectivity of CO2 over the other gas species, such as N2 and O2. ... Capturing CO2 from flue gases in a power plant is not like traditional gas processing or purification, there are no strict requirements on the decarbonized sweet gas, which means no strict requirement on the CO2 concentration in the sweet gas or CO2 capture ratio. ...

Xiangping Zhang; Xuezhong He; Truls Gundersen

2013-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

279

Feasibility study for a recirculating linac-based facility for femtosecond dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

LBNL is pursuing design studies and the scientific program for a facility dedicated to the production of x-ray pulses with ultra-short time duration, for application in dynamical studies of processes in physics, biology, and chemistry. The proposed x-ray facility has the short x-ray pulse length ({approx}60 fs FWHM) necessary to study very fast dynamics, high flux (up to approximately 10E11 photons/sec/0.1 percentBW) to study weakly scattering systems, and tuneability over 1-12 keV photon energy. The hard x-ray photon production section of the machine accommodates seven 2-m long undulators. Design studies for longer wavelength sources, using high-gain harmonic generation, are in progress. The x-ray pulse repetition rate of 10 kHz is matched to studies of dynamical processes (initiated by ultra-short laser pulses) that typically have a long recovery time or are not generally cyclic or reversible and need time to allow relaxation, replacement, or flow of the sample. The technique for producing ultra-short x-ray pulses uses relatively long electron bunches to minimize high-peak-current collective effects, and the ultimate x-ray duration is achieved by a combination of bunch manipulation and optical compression. Synchronization of x-ray pulses to sample excitation signals is expected to be of order 50 - 100 fs. Techniques for making use of the recirculating geometry to provide beam-based signals from early passes through the machine are being studied.

Corlett, J.N.; Barry, W.; Barletta, W.A.; Byrd, J.M.; DeSantis, S.; Doolittle, L.; Fawley, W.; Green, M.A.; Hartman, N.; Heimann, P.; Kairan, D.; Kujawski, E.; Li, D.; Lidia, S.; Luft, P.; McClure, R.; Parmigiani, F.; Petroff, Y.; Pirkl, W.; Placidi, M.; Reavill, D.; Reichel, I.; Rimmer, R.A.; Ratti, A.; Robinson, K.E.; Sannibale, F.; Schoenlein, R.; Staples, J.; Tanabe, J.; Truchlikova, D.; Wan, W.; Wang, S.; Wells, R.; Wolski, A.; Zholents, A.

2002-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

280

Cement kiln flue dust as a source of lime and potassium in four East Texas soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the blight encountered the previous year. Forage sorghum (DeKalb SX-11) was planted 5/1/73, 4/26/74 and, 6/9/75) . Yield of corn grain, corn forage, and sorghum forage were determined for the three growing seasons. Leaf samples were also taken... by rate and source of lime, de th, and time. Treatment k /ha 0 mo. 3 mo. 8 mo. 11 mo. 17 mo. 0 to 15 cm depth 8000 flue dust 2000 5QQ II II S. 6 a s. s a 5. 6 a 6. 9 c 6. 1 ab 5. 7 a 7. 2 c 6. 5 bc 5. 9 ab 6. 5 bc 7. 0 c 6. 0 abc 6. 4 b 5. 6 a...

Poole, Warren David

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas recirculation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Comparison of thermoelectric and permeation dryers for sulfur dioxide removal during sample conditioning of wet gas streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flue gas conditioning for moisture removal is commonly performed for criteria pollutant measurements, in particular for extractive CEM systems at combustion sources. An implicit assumption is that conditioning systems specifically remove moisture without affecting pollutant and diluent concentrations. Gas conditioning is usually performed by passing the flue gas through a cold trap (Peltier or thermoelectric dryer) to remove moisture by condensation, which is subsequently extracted by a peristaltic pump. Many air pollutants are water-soluble and potentially susceptible to removal in a condensation dryer from gas interaction with liquid water. An alternative technology for gas conditioning is the permeation dryer, where the flue gas passes through a selectively permeable membrane for moisture removal. In this case water is transferred through the membrane while other pollutants are excluded, and the gas does not contact condensed liquid. Laboratory experiments were performed to measure the relative removal of a water-soluble pollutant (sulfur dioxide, SO{sub 2}) by the two conditioning techniques. A wet gas generating system was used to create hot, wet gas streams of known composition (15% and 30% moisture, balance nitrogen) and flow rate. Pre-heated SO{sub 2} was dynamically spiked into the wet stream using mass flow meters to achieve concentrations of 20, 50, and 100 ppm. The spiked gas was directed through a heated sample line to either a thermoelectric or a permeation conditioning system. Two gas analyzers (Western Research UV gas monitor, KVB/Analect FTIR spectrometer) were used to measure the SO{sub 2} concentration after conditioning. Both analytic methods demonstrated that SO{sub 2} is removed to a significantly greater extent by the thermoelectric dryer. These results have important implications for SO{sub 2} monitoring and emissions trading.

Dunder, T.A. [Entropy, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Research Div.; Leighty, D.A. [Perma Pure, Inc., Toms River, NJ (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

282

Air- and Oxy-Fired Fireside Corrosion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary goal of this work was to examine the corrosion effects from flue gas composition changes arising from oxy?combustion. At 700°C, increased SO{sub X}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O contents in the gas phase arising from various oxy?combustion flue gas recirculation scenarios, while maintaining constant ash deposit chemistry, do not increase corrosion in superheater or reheater tubing. At 400°C, for both oxidative and reducing conditions, the corrosion rates were lower than at 700°C.

Holcomb, G. R.; Tylczak, J.; Carney, C.; Laughlin, D.; Zhu, J.; Wise, A.

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

283

Gas turbine topping combustor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A combustor is described for burning a mixture of fuel and air in a rich combustion zone, in which the fuel bound nitrogen in converted to molecular nitrogen. The fuel rich combustion is followed by lean combustion. The products of combustion from the lean combustion are rapidly quenched so as to convert the fuel bound nitrogen to molecular nitrogen without forming NOx. The combustor has an air radial swirler that directs the air radially inward while swirling it in the circumferential direction and a radial fuel swirler that directs the fuel radially outward while swirling it in the same circumferential direction, thereby promoting vigorous mixing of the fuel and air. The air inlet has a variable flow area that is responsive to variations in the heating value of the fuel, which may be a coal-derived fuel gas. A diverging passage in the combustor in front of a bluff body causes the fuel/air mixture to recirculate with the rich combustion zone. 14 figs.

Beer, J.; Dowdy, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.M.

1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

284

Systems and methods for reactive distillation with recirculation of light components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Systems and methods for producing gas-to-liquids products using reactive distillation are provided. The method for producing gas-to-liquids products can include reacting a feedstock in a column having a distillation zone and a reaction zone to provide a bottoms stream and an overhead stream. A first portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the top of the reaction zone and second portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the bottom of the reaction zone.

Stickney, Michael J. (Nassau Bay, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

285

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, August 1--October 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mines, and to assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of CCB materials. The two technologies for the underground placement that were to be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement using virtually dry CCB products, and (2) hydraulic placement using a paste mixture of CCB products with about 70% solids. The period covered by this report is the second quarter of Phase 3 of the overall program. During this period over 8,000 tons of CCB mixtures was injected using the hydraulic paste technology. This amount of material virtually filled the underground opening around the injection well, and was deemed sufficient to demonstrate fully the hydraulic injection technology. By the end of this quarter about 2,000 tons of fly ash had been placed underground using the pneumatic placement technology. While the rate of injection of about 50 tons per hour met design criteria, problems were experienced in the delivery of fly ash to the pneumatic demonstration site. The source of the fly ash, the Archer Daniels Midland Company power plant at Decatur, Illinois is some distance from the demonstration site, and often sufficient tanker trucks are not available to haul enough fly ash to fully load the injection equipment. Further, on some occasions fly ash from the plant was not available. The injection well was plugged three times during the demonstration. This typically occurred due to cementation of the FBC ash in contact with water. After considerable deliberations and in consultation with the technical project officer, it was decided to stop further injection of CCB`s underground using the developed pneumatic technology.

Chugh, Y.P.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

286

Geological and Geotechnical Site Investigation for the Design of a CO2 Rich Flue Gas Direct Injection and Storage Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With international efforts to limit anthropogenic carbon in the atmosphere, various CO{sub 2} sequestration methods have been studied by various facilities worldwide. Basalt rock in general has been referred to as potential host material for mineral carbonation by various authors, without much regard for compositional variations due to depositional environment, subsequent metamorphism, or hydrothermal alteration. Since mineral carbonation relies on the presence of certain magnesium, calcium, or iron silicates, it is necessary to study the texture, mineralogy, petrology, and geochemistry of specific basalts before implying potential for mineral carbonation. The development of a methodology for the characterization of basalts with respect to their susceptibility for mineral carbonation is proposed to be developed as part of this research. The methodology will be developed based on whole rock data, petrography and microprobe analyses for samples from the Caledonia Mine in Michigan, which is the site for a proposed small-scale demonstration project on mineral carbonation in basalt. Samples from the Keweenaw Peninsula will be used to determine general compositional trends using whole rock data and petrography. Basalts in the Keweenaw Peninsula have been subjected to zeolite and prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism with concurrent native copper deposition. Alteration was likely due to the circulation of CO{sub 2}-rich fluids at slightly elevated temperatures and pressures, which is the process that is attempted to be duplicated by mineral carbonation.

Metz, Paul; Bolz, Patricia

2013-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

287

Flue-Gas Carbon Capture on Carbonaceous Sorbents:? Toward a Low-Cost Multifunctional Carbon Filter for “Green” Energy Producers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mr. Ian Andrews and Mr. Nick Rahn (PacifiCorp Energy), Mr. Robert Matius and Mr. Eldon Lindt (Xcel Energy), Mr. George Farthing (Babcock & Wilcox Company), and anonymous journal reviewers contributed helpful comments that enhanced this work. ...

Maciej Radosz; Xudong Hu; Kaspars Krutkramelis; Youqing Shen

2008-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

288

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Topical report, October 1, 1993--March 31, 1998  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The DESEVAL-TRANS program is developed for the purpose of helping the engineer to design and economically evaluate coal combustion byproduct transportation systems that will operate between the power plant and the disposal site. The objective of the research project was to explore the technical, environmental and economic feasibility of disposing coal combustion byproducts in underground mines in Illinois. The DESEVAL-TRANS (short for Design and Evaluation of Transportation Systems) was developed in the Materials Handling and Systems Economics branch of the overall project. Four types of coal combustion byproducts were targeted for transportation and handling: Conventional fly ash; Scrubber sludge; Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) fly ash; and Spent-bed ash. Several transportation and handling systems that could handle these byproducts were examined. These technologies were classified under three general categories: Truck; Rail; and Container. The purpose of design models is to determine the proper number of transport units, silo capacity, loading and unloading rates, underground placement capacity, number of shifts, etc., for a given case, defined by a distance-tonnage combination. The cost computation models were developed for the determination of the operating and capital costs. An economic evaluation model, which is common to all categories, was also developed to establish the cost-per-ton of byproduct transported.

NONE

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Technical progress report, 1 January--31 March 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the handling and transport of dry coal combustion residues and for the underground placement in abandoned coal mines and assess associated environmental impacts. Although parts of the Residue Characterization portion of the program were delayed because residue samples were not obtained, other parts of the program are proceeding on schedule. The delays in obtaining residue samples were primarily caused by adverse weather conditions, the shut-down of one unit at the City Water, Light, and Power Company Plant for routing maintenance and problems due to conflicting schedules of utility and program personnel. However, by the end of the quarter most residue samples had been obtained, and the residue characterization studies were under way. Progress is described for five studies: environmental assessment and geotechnical stability and subsidence impacts; residue characterization; physico-chemical characterization of residues; identification and assessment of handling/transportation systems for FGD residues; and residue handling and transport.

Chugh, Y.P.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Honaker, R.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Flue Gas Emissions from the Burning of Asphaltite and Lignite in a Rotating Head Combustor with Secondary Air Delivery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(1, 2) In this context, Turkey is rich in coal reserves, and it is among the biggest coal producers in the world with a production of about 76 million tons (Mt) in 2011, and a large portion of this production is lignite. ... (5) Turkey has also a high asphaltite reserve, which is mostly found in the southeastern part of Anatolia and used around the region for domestic heating. ... Modeling of NOx emissions from fluidized Bed combustion of high volatile lignites ...

Cengiz Öner; ?ehmus Altun

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS 26, 197-217 (1978) The Calculation of Turbulent Recirculating Flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is more suited to the calculation of the flow in gas-turbine com- bustion chambers of varying radius Flows in General Orthogonal Coordinates s. B. POPE' Imperial College of Science and Technology in Cartesian coordinates. A calculation procedure is developed by representing the conservation equations

292

Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery System development. Semiannual report, 1 August 1982-31 January 1983  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery (FBWHR) System is designed to preheat this combustion air using the heat available in dirty flue gas streams. In this system, a recirculating medium is heated by the flue gas in a fluidized bed. The hot medium is then removed from the bed and placed in a second fluidized bed where it is fluidized by the combustion air. Through this process, the combustion air is heated. The cooled medium is then returned to the first bed. Initial development of this concept is for the aluminum smelting industry.

Cole, W.E.; DeSaro, R.; Joshi, C.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery System development. Semiannual report, February 1-July 31, 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery (FBWHR) System is designed to preheat this combustion air using the heat available in dirty flue gas streams. In this system, a recirculating medium is heated by the flue gas in a fluidized bed. The hot medium is then removed from the bed and placed in a second fluidized bed where it is fluidized by the combustion air. Through this process, the combustion air is heated. The cooled medium is then returned to the first bed. Initial development of this concept is for the aluminum smelting industry.

Cole, W. E.; DeSaro, R.; Griffith, J.; Joshi, C.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery System development. Semiannual report, 1 August 1981-31 January 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery (FBWHR) System is designed to preheat this combustion air using the heat available in dirty flue gas streams. In this system, a recirculating medium is heated by the flue gas in a fluidized bed. The hot medium is then removed from the bed and placed in a second fluidized bed where it is fluidized by the combustion air. Through this process, the combustion air is heated. The cooled medium is then returned to the first bed. Initial development of this concept is for the aluminum smelting industry.

Cole, W. E.; DeSaro, R.; Joshi, C.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Natural Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

30 May 1974 research-article Natural Gas C. P. Coppack This paper reviews the world's existing natural gas reserves and future expectations, together with natural gas consumption in 1972, by main geographic...

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Study of Gas-steam Combined Cycle Power Plants Integrated with MCFC for Carbon Dioxide Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In the field of fossil-fuel based technologies, natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants are currently the best option for electricity generation, having an efficiency close to 60%. However, they produce significant CO2 emissions, amounting to around 0.4 tonne/MWh for new installations. Among the carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies, the process based on chemical absorption is a well-established technology, but markedly reduces the NGCC performances. On the other side, the integration of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) is recognized as an attractive option to overcome the main drawbacks of traditional CCS technologies. If the cathode side is fed by NGCC exhaust gases, the MCFC operates as a CO2 concentrator, beside providing an additional generating capacity. In this paper the integration of MCFC into a two pressure levels combined cycle is investigated through an energy analysis. To improve the efficiency of MCFC and its integration within the NGCC, plant configurations based on two different gas recirculation options are analyzed. The first is a traditional recirculation of exhaust gases at the compressor inlet; the second, mainly involving the MCFC stack, is based on recirculating a fraction of anode exhaust gases at the cathode inlet. Effects of MCFC operating conditions on energy and environmental performances of the integrated system are evaluated.

Roberto Carapellucci; Roberto Saia; Lorena Giordano

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Deliverable 1 presents a general assessment of produced water generation in the San Juan Basin in Four Corners Area of New Mexico. Oil and gas production, produced water handling and disposal, and produced water quantities and chemistry are discussed. Legislative efforts to enable the use of this water at SJGS are also described.

Michael N. DiFilippo

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Use of Produced Water in Recirculated Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tree ring studies indicate that, for the greater part of the last three decades, New Mexico has been relatively 'wet' compared to the long-term historical norm. However, during the last several years, New Mexico has experienced a severe drought. Some researchers are predicting a return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters to supplement current fresh water supplies for power plant operation and cooling and other uses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored three related assessments of water supplies in the San Juan Basin area of the four-corner intersection of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. These were (1) an assessment of using water produced with oil and gas as a supplemental supply for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS); (2) a field evaluation of the wet-surface air cooling (WSAC) system at SJGS; and (3) the development of a ZeroNet systems analysis module and an application of the Watershed Risk Management Framework (WARMF) to evaluate a range of water shortage management plans. The study of the possible use of produced water at SJGS showed that produce water must be treated to justify its use in any reasonable quantity at SJGS. The study identified produced water volume and quality, the infrastructure needed to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements, and delivery and treatment economics. A number of produced water treatment alternatives that use off-the-shelf technology were evaluated along with the equipment needed for water treatment at SJGS. Wet surface air-cooling (WSAC) technology was tested at the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) to determine its capacity to cool power plant circulating water using degraded water. WSAC is a commercial cooling technology and has been used for many years to cool and/or condense process fluids. The purpose of the pilot test was to determine if WSAC technology could cool process water at cycles of concentration considered highly scale forming for mechanical draft cooling towers. At the completion of testing, there was no visible scale on the heat transfer surfaces and cooling was sustained throughout the test period. The application of the WARMF decision framework to the San Juan Basis showed that drought and increased temperature impact water availability for all sectors (agriculture, energy, municipal, industry) and lead to critical shortages. WARMF-ZeroNet, as part of the integrated ZeroNet decision support system, offers stakeholders an integrated approach to long-term water management that balances competing needs of existing water users and economic growth under the constraints of limited supply and potential climate change.

C. McGowin; M. DiFilippo; L. Weintraub

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

299

Gas Turbines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When the gas turbine generator was introduced to the power generation ... fossil-fueled power plant. Twenty years later, gas turbines were established as an important means of ... on utility systems. By the early...

Jeffrey M. Smith

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Gas Turbines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... the time to separate out the essentials and the irrelevancies in a text-book. The gas ...gasturbine ...

H. CONSTANT

1950-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas recirculation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Colorado Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Colorado Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

302

California Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) California Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

303

Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

304

Michigan Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Michigan Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

305

Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

306

Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

307

Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

308

Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

309

Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

310

Maryland Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Maryland Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

311

Illinois Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Illinois Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

312

Missouri Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Missouri Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

313

Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

314

Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

315

Performance of the Gas Gain Monitoring system of the CMS RPC muon detector and effective working point fine tuning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Gas Gain Monitoring (GGM) system of the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) muon detector in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment provides fast and accurate determination of the stability in the working point conditions due to gas mixture changes in the closed loop recirculation system. In 2011 the GGM began to operate using a feedback algorithm to control the applied voltage, in order to keep the GGM response insensitive to environmental temperature and atmospheric pressure variations. Recent results are presented on the feedback method used and on alternative algorithms.

S. Colafranceschi; L. Benussi; S. Bianco; L. Passamonti; D. Piccolo; D. Pierluigi; A. Russo; G. Saviano; C. Vendittozzi; M. Abbrescia; A. Aleksandrov; U. Berzano; C. Calabria; C. Carrillo; A. Colaleo; V. Genchev; P. Iaydjiev; M. Kang; K. S. Lee; F. Loddo; S. K. Park; G. Pugliese; M. Maggi; S. Shin; M. Rodozov; M. Shopova; G. Sultanov; P. Verwillingen

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

316

Compatibility of Space Nuclear Power Plant Materials in an Inert He/Xe Working Gas Containing Reactive Impurities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major materials selection and qualification issue identified in the Space Materials Plan is the potential for creating materials compatibility problems by combining dissimilar reactor core, Brayton Unit and other power conversion plant materials in a recirculating, inert He/Xe gas loop containing reactive impurity gases. Reported here are results of equilibrium thermochemical analyses that address the compatibility of space nuclear power plant (SNPP) materials in high temperature impure He gas environments. These studies provide early information regarding the constraints that exist for SNPP materials selection and provide guidance for establishing test objectives and environments for SNPP materials qualification testing.

MM Hall

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

317

CO2 abatement by co-firing of natural gas and biomass-derived gas in a gas turbine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, a possible way for partial CO2 emissions reduction from gas turbine exhausts by co-firing with biomass is investigated. The basic principle is the recirculation of a fraction of the exhausts (still rich in oxygen) to a gasifier, in order to produce syngas to mix with natural gas fuel. As biomass is a CO2 neutral fuel, the fraction of replaced natural gas is a measure of CO2 removal potential of the powerplant. The investigated solution considers the conversion of solid fuel to a gaseous fuel into an atmospheric gasifier, which is blown with a recirculated fraction of hot gas turbine exhausts, typically still rich in air. In this way, the heat content of the exhausts may be exploited to partially sustain the gasification section. The produced syngas, after the tar removal into the high temperature cracker, is thus sent to the cooling section, consisting of three main components: (I) gas turbine recuperator, (II) heat recovery steam generator and (III) condensing heat exchanger to cool down the syngas close to the environmental temperature before the subsequent recompression and mixing with natural gas fuel into the combustion chamber. The water stream produced within the condensing heat exchanger upstream the syngas compression is vaporised and sent back to the gasifier. If very limited modification to the existing gas turbine has to be applied in order to keep the additional costs limited, only a relatively reduced fraction of the low calorific value syngas may be mixed with natural gas. The analysis at different levels of co-firing has shown that no appreciable redesign has to be applied to the target GE5 machine up to 25–30% (heat rate based) renewable fraction. With an accurate heat recovery from the cooling/cleaning system of the syngas, the same levels of efficiency of the original machine have been achieved, in spite of the relatively large power consumption of the syngas recompression. Very interesting results have been obtained within the 10–30% range of biomass co-firing, with CO2 removal levels between 30% and 50% with reference to the values of the base GE5 gas turbine powerplant. The economic analysis has shown that, in spite of the high investment required for the syngas fuel production chain (gasifier, coolers, cleaners and fuel compressor), approximately at the same level of gas turbine itself, there is an interesting attractiveness due to the possibility of selling high-value green certificates and CO2 allowances, which reduce the payback time to 2–4 years. The uncertainty on the calculated economic parameters are greatly influenced by the uncertainty on actual biomass availability and yearly working time of powerplant, whereas off design operation, which affects mainly the uncertainty of compressor and turbine efficiency, is mainly reflected on the uncertainty of electric power output and efficiency.

Daniele Fiaschi; Riccardo Carta

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Cooler and particulate separator for an off-gas stack  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This report describes an off-gas stack for a melter, furnace or reaction vessel comprising an air conduit leading to two sets of holes, one set injecting air into the off-gas stack near the melter plenum and the second set injecting air downstream of the first set. The first set injects air at a compound angle, having both downward and tangential components, to create a reverse vortex flow, counter to the direction of flow of gas through the stack and also along the periphery of the stack interior surface. Air from the first set of holes prevents recirculation zones from forming and the attendant accumulation of particulate deposits on the wall of the stack and will also return to the plenum any particulate swept up in the gas entering the stack. The second set of holes injects air in the same direction as the gas in the stack to compensate for the pressure drop and to prevent the concentration of condensate in the stack. A set of sprayers, receiving water from a second conduit, is located downstream of the second set of holes and sprays water into the gas to further cool it.

Wright, G.T.

1991-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

319

Proper design hikes gas-lift system efficiency  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proper design of gas-lift pumping systems, used for pumping corrosive or erosive fluids, involves the correct selection of submergence ratio, flow regime, pipe diameter, and physical properties of the fluid. Correlations for maximum lifting efficiency on a friction-free basis vs. submergence ratio have been developed based on experimental data. The Oshinowo and Charles flow map for vertical upward flow has been chosen for determining the two-phase flow regimes. For large-diameter gas-lifting systems, the effects of fluid physical properties on the maximum lifting efficiency become diminished. Gas-lift pumping systems are widely used in the process industry as well as in oil and gas production. In an ethylene dichloride/vinyl chloride monomer (EDC/VCM) plant, quench column bottoms are recirculated back to the column by gas lift of the EDC/VCM stream from the EDC pyrolysis furnace. Gas lift is utilized instead of pumps to alleviate the plugging and erosion problems caused by the presence of coke/tar particulates. Other process applications include those where pumps suffer severe corrosion from the fluids pumped.

Tsai, T.C.

1986-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

320

Cooler and particulate separator for an off-gas stack  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An off-gas stack for a melter comprising an air conduit leading to two sets of holes, one set injecting air into the off-gas stack near the melter plenum and the second set injecting air downstream of the first set. The first set injects air at a compound angle, having both downward and tangential components, to create a reverse vortex flow, counter to the direction of flow of gas through the stack and also along the periphery of the stack interior surface. Air from the first set of holes pervents recirculation zones from forming and the attendant accumulation of particulate deposits on the wall of the stack and will also return to the plenum any particulate swept up in the gas entering the stack. The second set of holes injects air in the same direction as the gas in the stack to compensate for the pressure drop and to prevent the concentration of condensate in the stack. A set of sprayers, receiving water from a second conduit, is located downstream of the second set of holes and sprays water into the gas to further cool it.

Wright, George T. (15 Cherry Hills Dr., Aiken, SC 29803)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas recirculation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Combustion Characteristics, Emissions and Heat Release Rate Analysis of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation Fuelled with Diesel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The EGR, a very well-known method for NOx reduction in diesel engines, is also a method in HCCI combustion mode, when fuelled with commercial fuel, to improve engine power, mainly because of the increase of the ignition delay. ... Heywood, J. B. “Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals”, Ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Singapur (Singapur), 1988. ... (Mechanical Engineering Laboratory MITI) “Chemical Kinetic Study of a Cetane Number Enhancing Additive for an LGP DI Diesel Engine,” ...

Miguel Torres García; Francisco J. Jiménez-Espadafor Aguilar; Tomás Sánchez Lencero

2009-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

322

Implications of Exhaust Gas, CO2, and N2 Recirculation on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Performance, Soot, and NO Emissions: A Comparative Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Marine Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory, Section of Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering, Hellenic Naval Academy, End of Hatzikiriakou Ave., 18539 Piraeus, Greece ... (1-3) Hence, under certain conditions, the successful implementation of various internal measures in HD diesel engines may lead to their compliance with current and near-future emission standards, thus diminishing the need for complex and costly technologies of after-engine pollution control. ... (16, 17) Ladommatos et al.(11-14) in their fundamental work successfully managed to isolate the three aforementioned major effects of EGR on diesel engine combustion characteristics and NOx emissions, revealing that, under constant inlet pressure, dilution of the charge mixture is the most influential mechanism on the reduction of engine-out NOx. ...

Dimitrios T. Hountalas; Spiridon I. Raptotasios; Theodoros C. Zannis

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

323

Extending Exhaust Gas Recirculation Limits in Diesel Engines Robert M. Wagner, Johney B. Green, Jr., John M. Storey, and C. Stuart Daw  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was used to acquire time-averaged emissions and particulate data as well as time-resolved combustion parameters such as heat release and work. Analysis of the time-resolved data is ongoing. INTRODUCTION Exhaust that combustion becomes incomplete and unacceptable levels of particulate matter (PM) and hydrocarbons (HC

Tennessee, University of

324

Effects of Bioethanol-Blended Diesel Fuel on Combustion and Emission Reduction Characteristics in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Sungdong-gu, Seoul 133-791, Korea ... As a fuel for compression engines, bioethanol-blended diesel fuels have some different trends on the exhaust emission characteristics according to the engine load. ... The paper begins with an introduction of general information on the nature of emissions of exhaust gases, including the toxicity and causes of emissions for both spark-ignition and diesel engines. ...

Su Han Park; Junepyo Cha; Chang Sik Lee

2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

325

Recirculating cryogenic hydrogen maser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on the design and initial testing of a new type of hydrogen maser, operated at dilution refrigerator temperatures, in which H atoms circulate back and forth between a microwave-pumped state selector and the maser cavity. Other novel design features include liquid-4He-coated walls, He-cooled electronics, and the use of microscopic magnetic particles to relax the two lowest hyperfine levels in the state selector. Stabilities at least as good as that of a Rb clock and a high-stability quartz oscillator are observed for measuring times between 1 and 300 s.

M. D. Hürlimann; W. N. Hardy; A. J. Berlinsky; R. W. Cline

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Recirculating electric air filter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

Bergman, W.

1985-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

327

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

,366 ,366 95,493 1.08 0 0.00 1 0.03 29,406 0.56 1,206 0.04 20,328 0.64 146,434 0.73 - Natural Gas 1996 Million Percent of Million Percent of Cu. Feet National Total Cu. Feet National Total Net Interstate Movements: Industrial: Marketed Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Electric Residential: Utilities: Commercial: Total: South Carolina South Carolina 88. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas South Carolina, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ...........................................

328

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0,216 0,216 50,022 0.56 135 0.00 49 1.67 85,533 1.63 8,455 0.31 45,842 1.45 189,901 0.95 - Natural Gas 1996 Million Percent of Million Percent of Cu. Feet National Total Cu. Feet National Total Net Interstate Movements: Industrial: Marketed Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Electric Residential: Utilities: Commercial: Total: M a r y l a n d Maryland 68. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Maryland, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... NA NA NA NA NA Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 9 7 7 7 8 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 33 28 26 22 135 From Oil Wells ...........................................

329

Improving gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine efficiency and emissions with hydrogen from exhaust gas fuel reforming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Exhaust gas fuel reforming has been identified as a thermochemical energy recovery technology with potential to improve gasoline engine efficiency, and thereby reduce CO2 in addition to other gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions. The principle relies on achieving energy recovery from the hot exhaust stream by endothermic catalytic reforming of gasoline and a fraction of the engine exhaust gas. The hydrogen-rich reformate has higher enthalpy than the gasoline fed to the reformer and is recirculated to the intake manifold, i.e. reformed exhaust gas recirculation (REGR). The REGR system was simulated by supplying hydrogen and carbon monoxide (CO) into a conventional EGR system. The hydrogen and CO concentrations in the REGR stream were selected to be achievable in practice at typical gasoline exhaust temperatures. Emphasis was placed on comparing REGR to the baseline gasoline engine, and also to conventional EGR. The results demonstrate the potential of REGR to simultaneously increase thermal efficiency, reduce gaseous emissions and decrease PM formation.

Daniel Fennell; Jose Herreros; Athanasios Tsolakis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

,"Missouri Natural Gas Summary"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas Wells (MMcf)","Missouri Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Oil Wells (MMcf)","Missouri Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)","Missouri Natural...

331

Design/installation and structural integrity assessment of Bethel Valley low-level waste collection and transfer system upgrade for Building 3092 (Central Off-Gas Scrubber Facility) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes and assesses planned modifications to be made to the Building 3092 Central Off-Gas Scrubber Facility of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The modifications are made in responsible to the requirements of 40CFR264 Subpart J, relating to environmental protection requirements for buried tank systems. The modifications include the provision of a new scrubber recirculation tank in a new, below ground, lines concrete vault, replacing and existing recirculation sump that does not provide double containment. A new buried, double contained pipeline is provided to permit discharge of spent scrubber recirculation fluid to the Central Waste Collection Header. The new vault, tank, and discharge line are provided with leak detection and provisions to remove accumulated liquid. New scrubber recirculation pumps, piping, and accessories are also provided. This assessment concludes that the planned modifications comply with applicable requirements of 40CFR264 Subpart J, as set forth in Appendix F to the Federal Facility Agreement, Docket No. 89-04-FF, covering the Oak Ridge Reservation.

NONE

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Hydrogen-Enhanced Natural Gas Vehicle Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of HCNG fuel (30 to 50% hydrogen by volume and the remainder natural gas) to reduce emissions from light-duty on-road vehicles with no loss in performance or efficiency. The City of Las Vegas has an interest in alternative fuels and already has an existing hydrogen refueling station. Collier Technologies Inc (CT) supplied the latest design retrofit kits capable of converting nine compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled, light-duty vehicles powered by the Ford 5.4L Triton engine. CT installed the kits on the first two vehicles in Las Vegas, trained personnel at the City of Las Vegas (the City) to perform the additional seven retrofits, and developed materials for allowing other entities to perform these retrofits as well. These vehicles were used in normal service by the City while driver impressions, reliability, fuel efficiency and emissions were documented for a minimum of one year after conversion. This project has shown the efficacy of operating vehicles originally designed to operate on compressed natural gas with HCNG fuel incorporating large quantities of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). There were no safety issues experienced with these vehicles. The only maintenance issue in the project was some rough idling due to problems with the EGR valve and piping parts. Once the rough idling was corrected no further maintenance issues with these vehicles were experienced. Fuel economy data showed no significant changes after conversion even with the added power provided by the superchargers that were part of the conversions. Driver feedback for the conversions was very favorable. The additional power provided by the HCNG vehicles was greatly appreciated, especially in traffic. The drivability of the HCNG vehicles was considered to be superior by the drivers. Most of the converted vehicles showed zero oxides of nitrogen throughout the life of the project using the State of Nevada emissions station.

Hyde, Dan; Collier, Kirk

2009-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

333

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

68,747 68,747 34,577 0.39 0 0.00 34 1.16 14,941 0.29 0 0.00 11,506 0.36 61,058 0.31 I d a h o Idaho 60. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Idaho, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation.......................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented

334

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 540 0.01 0 0.00 2,132 0.07 2,672 0.01 H a w a i i Hawaii 59. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Hawaii, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation.......................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared

335

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

483,052 483,052 136,722 1.54 6,006 0.03 88 3.00 16,293 0.31 283,557 10.38 41,810 1.32 478,471 2.39 F l o r i d a Florida 57. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Florida, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 47 50 98 92 96 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 7,584 8,011 8,468 7,133 6,706 Total.............................................................. 7,584 8,011 8,468 7,133 6,706 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ...............

336

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

291,898 291,898 113,995 1.29 0 0.00 4 0.14 88,078 1.68 3,491 0.13 54,571 1.73 260,140 1.30 I o w a Iowa 63. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Iowa, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation.......................... 0 0 0

337

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Vehicle Fuel: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Electric Residential: Utilities: Commercial: Total: New England New England 36. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas New England, 1992-1996 Table 691,089 167,354 1.89 0 0.00 40 1.36 187,469 3.58 80,592 2.95 160,761 5.09 596,215 2.98 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................

338

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

29,693 29,693 0 0.00 0 0.00 6 0.20 17,290 0.33 0 0.00 16,347 0.52 33,644 0.17 District of Columbia District of Columbia 56. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas District of Columbia, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

339

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

42,980 42,980 14,164 0.16 0 0.00 1 0.03 9,791 0.19 23,370 0.86 6,694 0.21 54,020 0.27 D e l a w a r e Delaware 55. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Delaware, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

340

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-49,536 -49,536 7,911 0.09 49,674 0.25 15 0.51 12,591 0.24 3 0.00 12,150 0.38 32,670 0.16 North Dakota North Dakota 82. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas North Dakota, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 496 525 507 463 462 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 104 101 104 99 108 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 12,461 18,892 19,592 16,914 16,810 From Oil Wells ........................................... 47,518 46,059 43,640 39,760 38,906 Total.............................................................. 59,979 64,951 63,232 56,674 55,716 Repressuring ................................................

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas recirculation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

21,547 21,547 4,916 0.06 0 0.00 0 0.00 7,012 0.13 3 0.00 7,099 0.22 19,031 0.10 N e w H a m p s h i r e New Hampshire 77. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas New Hampshire, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

342

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

139,881 139,881 26,979 0.30 463 0.00 115 3.92 27,709 0.53 19,248 0.70 28,987 0.92 103,037 0.52 A r i z o n a Arizona 50. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Arizona, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... NA NA NA NA NA Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 6 6 6 7 7 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 721 508 711 470 417 From Oil Wells ........................................... 72 110 48 88 47 Total.............................................................. 794 618 759 558 464 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease

343

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Middle Middle Atlantic Middle Atlantic 37. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Middle Atlantic, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 1,857 1,981 2,042 1,679 1,928 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 36,906 36,857 26,180 37,159 38,000 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 161,372 152,717 140,444 128,677 152,494 From Oil Wells ........................................... 824 610 539 723 641 Total.............................................................. 162,196 153,327 140,982 129,400 153,134 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed

344

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

386,690 386,690 102,471 1.16 0 0.00 43 1.47 142,319 2.72 5,301 0.19 98,537 3.12 348,671 1.74 M i n n e s o t a Minnesota 71. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Minnesota, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

345

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,108,583 1,108,583 322,275 3.63 298 0.00 32 1.09 538,749 10.28 25,863 0.95 218,054 6.90 1,104,972 5.52 I l l i n o i s Illinois 61. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Illinois, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... NA NA NA NA NA Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 382 385 390 372 370 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 337 330 323 325 289 From Oil Wells ........................................... 10 10 10 10 9 Total.............................................................. 347 340 333 335 298 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ...............

346

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

286,485 286,485 71,533 0.81 25 0.00 31 1.06 137,225 2.62 5,223 0.19 72,802 2.31 286,814 1.43 M i s s o u r i Missouri 73. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Missouri, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... NA NA NA NA NA Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 5 8 12 15 24 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 27 14 8 16 25 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 27 14 8 16 25 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

347

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

411,951 411,951 100,015 1.13 0 0.00 5 0.17 114,365 2.18 45,037 1.65 96,187 3.05 355,609 1.78 Massachusetts Massachusetts 69. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Massachusetts, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

348

Gas vesicles.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...in the suspending water, of concentration...MPa and balances the atmospheric pressure. Note that...versely, liquid water could not form by condensation inside the gas vesicle...presumably surrounded by water on all sides. At...

A E Walsby

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

226,798 226,798 104,124 1.17 0 0.00 0 0.00 58,812 1.12 2,381 0.09 40,467 1.28 205,783 1.03 North Carolina North Carolina 81. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas North Carolina, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

350

SEPARATION OF CO2 FROM FLUE GASES BY CARBON-MULTIWALL CARBON NANOTUBE MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were found to be an effective separation media for removing CO{sub 2} from N{sub 2}. The separation mechanism favors the selective condensation of CO{sub 2} from the flowing gas stream. Significant uptakes of CO{sub 2} were measured at 30 C and 150 C over the pressure range 0.5 to 5 bar. No measurable uptake of nitrogen was found for this range of conditions. The mass uptake of CO{sub 2} by MWNT was found to increase with increasing temperature. A packed bed of MWNT completely removed CO{sub 2} from a flowing stream of CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, and exhibited rapid uptake kinetics for CO{sub 2}.

Rodney Andrews

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF NATURAL GAS-SWIRL BURNER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A numerical simulation of a turbulent natural gas jet diffusion flame at a Reynolds number of 9000 in a swirling air stream is presented. The numerical computations were carried out using the commercially available software package CFDRC. The instantaneous chemistry model was used as the reaction model. The thermal, composition, flow (velocity), as well as stream function fields for both the baseline and air-swirling flames were numerically simulated in the near-burner region, where most of the mixing and reactions occur. The results were useful to interpret the effects of swirl in enhancing the mixing rates in the combustion zone as well as in stabilizing the flame. The results showed the generation of two recirculating regimes induced by the swirling air stream, which account for such effects. The present investigation will be used as a benchmark study of swirl flow combustion analysis as a step in developing an enhanced swirl-cascade burner technology.

Ala Qubbaj

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Mercury Capture on Fly Ash and Sorbents: The Effects of Coal Properties and Combustion Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The control of mercury from coal combustion is very dependent upon the flue gas chemistry. The flue gas chemistry is a function of the time–temperature ... duct, etc. However, the flue gas chemistry, and thus mer...

Nick D. Hutson

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Ground Gas Handbook  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...pathways of least resistance to gas transport, and applications are discussed, such as migrating landfill gas emissions, also from leaking landfill gas collection systems, as well as natural gas and oil-field gas leakage from abandoned production...

Allen W Hatheway

354

Gas Delivered  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

. Average . Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential Consumers, 1980-1996 Figure 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet Dollars per Thousand Cubic Meters Nominal Dollars Constant Dollars Sources: Nominal dollars: Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-176, "Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition." Constant dollars: Prices were converted to 1995 dollars using the chain-type price indexes for Gross Domestic Product (1992 = 1.0) as published by the U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis. Residential: Prices in this publication for the residential sector cover nearly all of the volumes of gas delivered. Commercial and Industrial: Prices for the commercial and industrial sectors are often associated with

355

Wastewater Renovation in Buried and Recirculating Sand Filters A.J. Gold,* B.E. Lamb,G.W.Loomis, J.R. Boyd, V.J. Cabelli, and C.G. McKiel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wastewater Renovation in Buried and Recirculating Sand Filters A.J. Gold,* B.E. Lamb,G.W.Loomis, JF phagewereassociatedwithlowereffluent pHfor bothsandfilters. ON-SITEDISPOSALof household wastewater is a potential threat to public conditions mayimpede wastewater treatment (Kristiansen, 1981a; Pell and Nyberg, 1989a) or where

Gold, Art

356

Water and Energy Savings using Demand Hot Water Recirculating Systems in Residential Homes: A Case Study of Five Homes in Palo Alto, California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes a preliminary study aimed at estimating the potential of saving potable water, (and the electrical energy used to heat it), that is presently lost directly to the drain while occupants wait for hot water to arrive at the faucet (point of use). Data were collected from five single-family homes in Palo Alto, California. Despite the small sample size in this study, the results make a compelling case for retrofitting homes with hot water recirculation systems to eliminate unnecessary wastage of water at the point of use. Technical as well as behavioral and attitudinal changes towards water conservation are necessary for a fulfilling and successful conservation effort. This report focuses on the technical issues, but behavioral issues are also noted, which may be factored into future studies involving local and state governments and utility companies.

Ally, M.R.

2002-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

357

A 1-D gas dynamics code for subsonic and supersonic flows applied to predict EGR levels in a heavy-duty diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The development of a 1-D gas dynamics code for unsteady flow in internal combustion (IC) engines as well as its validation and application for predicting residual gas fraction are introduced in this paper. Some new approaches are presented for modelling flows in diverging ducts and for treating boundary conditions. These include the use of flow resistance correlation to describe separated flows and flows in bends. Excellent agreement with analytical solutions and test results has been obtained when the code was validated with fundamental gas dynamic problems, including converging-diverging nozzle flows with and without shocks; Fanno and Rayleigh flows; the Riemann shock tube problem; and engine rig experiments for modelling flow with different property gases. The code has been applied satisfactorily to predict the gas exchange process of a spark ignition (SI) engine following exhaust blow-down and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels in a heavy-duty diesel engine.

Yuhua Zhu; R.D. Reitz

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

73,669 73,669 141,300 1.59 221,822 1.12 3 0.10 46,289 0.88 33,988 1.24 31,006 0.98 252,585 1.26 A r k a n s a s Arkansas 51. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Arkansas, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 1,750 1,552 1,607 1,563 1,470 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 3,500 3,500 3,500 3,988 4,020 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 171,543 166,273 161,967 161,390 182,895 From Oil Wells ........................................... 39,364 38,279 33,446 33,979 41,551 Total.............................................................. 210,906 204,552 195,413 195,369 224,446 Repressuring ................................................

359

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-1,080,240 -1,080,240 201,024 2.27 1,734,887 8.78 133 4.54 76,629 1.46 136,436 4.99 46,152 1.46 460,373 2.30 O k l a h o m a Oklahoma 84. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Oklahoma, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 13,926 13,289 13,487 13,438 13,074 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 28,902 29,118 29,121 29,733 29,733 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 1,674,405 1,732,997 1,626,858 1,521,857 1,467,695 From Oil Wells ........................................... 342,950 316,945 308,006 289,877 267,192 Total.............................................................. 2,017,356 2,049,942 1,934,864

360

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7,038,115 7,038,115 3,528,911 39.78 13,646,477 69.09 183 6.24 408,861 7.80 1,461,718 53.49 281,452 8.91 5,681,125 28.40 West South Central West South Central 42. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas West South Central, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 87,198 84,777 88,034 88,734 62,357 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 92,212 95,288 94,233 102,525 102,864 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 11,599,913 11,749,649 11,959,444 11,824,788 12,116,665 From Oil Wells ........................................... 2,313,831 2,368,395 2,308,634 2,217,752 2,151,247 Total..............................................................

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas recirculation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

77,379 77,379 94,481 1.07 81,435 0.41 8 0.27 70,232 1.34 1,836 0.07 40,972 1.30 207,529 1.04 K e n t u c k y Kentucky 65. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Kentucky, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 1,084 1,003 969 1,044 983 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 12,483 12,836 13,036 13,311 13,501 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 79,690 86,966 73,081 74,754 81,435 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 79,690 86,966 73,081 74,754 81,435 Repressuring ................................................

362

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-67,648 -67,648 75,616 0.85 480,828 2.43 0 0.00 16,720 0.32 31,767 1.16 29,447 0.93 153,549 0.77 Pacific Noncontiguous Pacific Noncontiguous 45. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Pacific Noncontiguous, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 9,638 9,907 9,733 9,497 9,294 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 112 113 104 100 102 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 198,603 190,139 180,639 179,470 183,747 From Oil Wells ........................................... 2,427,110 2,588,202 2,905,261 3,190,433 3,189,837 Total.............................................................. 2,625,713 2,778,341

363

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-310,913 -310,913 110,294 1.24 712,796 3.61 2 0.07 85,376 1.63 22,607 0.83 57,229 1.81 275,508 1.38 K a n s a s Kansas 64. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Kansas, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 9,681 9,348 9,156 8,571 7,694 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 18,400 19,472 19,365 22,020 21,388 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 580,572 605,578 628,900 636,582 629,755 From Oil Wells ........................................... 79,169 82,579 85,759 86,807 85,876 Total.............................................................. 659,741 688,157 714,659 723,389 715,631 Repressuring ................................................

364

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

819,046 819,046 347,043 3.91 245,740 1.24 40 1.36 399,522 7.62 32,559 1.19 201,390 6.38 980,555 4.90 M i c h i g a n Michigan 70. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Michigan, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 1,223 1,160 1,323 1,294 2,061 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 3,257 5,500 6,000 5,258 5,826 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 120,287 126,179 136,989 146,320 201,123 From Oil Wells ........................................... 80,192 84,119 91,332 97,547 50,281 Total.............................................................. 200,479 210,299 228,321 243,867 251,404 Repressuring ................................................

365

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

W W y o m i n g -775,410 50,253 0.57 666,036 3.37 14 0.48 13,534 0.26 87 0.00 9,721 0.31 73,609 0.37 Wyoming 98. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Wyoming, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 10,826 10,933 10,879 12,166 12,320 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 3,111 3,615 3,942 4,196 4,510 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 751,693 880,596 949,343 988,671 981,115 From Oil Wells ........................................... 285,125 142,006 121,519 111,442 109,434 Total.............................................................. 1,036,817 1,022,602 1,070,862 1,100,113 1,090,549 Repressuring

366

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-67,648 -67,648 75,616 0.85 480,828 2.43 0 0.00 16,179 0.31 31,767 1.16 27,315 0.86 150,877 0.75 A l a s k a Alaska 49. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Alaska, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 9,638 9,907 9,733 9,497 9,294 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 112 113 104 100 102 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 198,603 190,139 180,639 179,470 183,747 From Oil Wells ........................................... 2,427,110 2,588,202 2,905,261 3,190,433 3,189,837 Total.............................................................. 2,625,713 2,778,341 3,085,900 3,369,904 3,373,584 Repressuring

367

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

628,189 628,189 449,511 5.07 765,699 3.88 100 3.41 528,662 10.09 39,700 1.45 347,721 11.01 1,365,694 6.83 West North Central West North Central 39. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas West North Central, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 10,177 9,873 9,663 9,034 8,156 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 18,569 19,687 19,623 22,277 21,669 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 594,551 626,728 651,594 655,917 648,822 From Oil Wells ........................................... 133,335 135,565 136,468 134,776 133,390 Total.............................................................. 727,886 762,293

368

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,048,760 1,048,760 322,661 3.64 18,131 0.09 54 1.84 403,264 7.69 142,688 5.22 253,075 8.01 1,121,742 5.61 N e w Y o r k New York 80. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas New York, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 329 264 242 197 232 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 5,906 5,757 5,884 6,134 6,208 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 22,697 20,587 19,937 17,677 17,494 From Oil Wells ........................................... 824 610 539 723 641 Total.............................................................. 23,521 21,197 20,476 18,400 18,134 Repressuring ................................................

369

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,554,530 1,554,530 311,229 3.51 3,094,431 15.67 442 15.08 299,923 5.72 105,479 3.86 210,381 6.66 927,454 4.64 Mountain Mountain 43. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Mountain, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 38,711 38,987 37,366 39,275 38,944 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 30,965 34,975 38,539 38,775 41,236 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 2,352,729 2,723,393 3,046,159 3,131,205 3,166,689 From Oil Wells ........................................... 677,771 535,884 472,397 503,986 505,903 Total.............................................................. 3,030,499 3,259,277 3,518,556

370

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,592,465 1,592,465 716,648 8.08 239,415 1.21 182 6.21 457,792 8.73 334,123 12.23 320,153 10.14 1,828,898 9.14 South Atlantic South Atlantic 40. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas South Atlantic, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 3,307 3,811 4,496 4,427 4,729 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 39,412 35,149 41,307 37,822 36,827 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 206,766 208,892 234,058 236,072 233,409 From Oil Wells ........................................... 7,584 8,011 8,468 7,133 6,706 Total.............................................................. 214,349 216,903 242,526 243,204 240,115

371

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,999,161 1,999,161 895,529 10.10 287,933 1.46 1,402 47.82 569,235 10.86 338,640 12.39 308,804 9.78 2,113,610 10.57 Pacific Contiguous Pacific Contiguous 44. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Pacific Contiguous, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 3,896 3,781 3,572 3,508 2,082 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 1,142 1,110 1,280 1,014 996 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 156,635 124,207 117,725 96,329 88,173 From Oil Wells ........................................... 294,800 285,162 282,227 289,430 313,581 Total.............................................................. 451,435 409,370

372

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-122,394 -122,394 49,997 0.56 178,984 0.91 5 0.17 37,390 0.71 205 0.01 28,025 0.89 115,622 0.58 West Virginia West Virginia 96. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas West Virginia, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 2,356 2,439 2,565 2,499 2,703 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 38,250 33,716 39,830 36,144 35,148 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... E 182,000 171,024 183,773 186,231 178,984 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. E 182,000 171,024 183,773 186,231 178,984 Repressuring ................................................

373

Gas vesicles.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the gas vesicles simply reduce their sinking rates and...remaining suspended in the water column. A microorganism...phenomena as stratification, water- bloom formation, and...the many proteins that make up the phycobilisome (73...flagellate bacteria in natural waters. The natural selection...

A E Walsby

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Gas vesicles.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...these costs can be compared is in units of energy expenditure per time (joules per second...requires 7.24 x 10-18 kg of Gvp. The energy cost of making this protein, Eg, is...Eg = 2.84 x 101- o J. The rate of energy expenditure in gas vesicle synthesis then...

A E Walsby

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Gas sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

376

Cogeneration system with low NO sub x combustion of fuel gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a cogeneration system for the production of electricity and refrigeration with low NO{sub x} combustion of fuel gas supplied at a high pressure. It comprises a heat exchanger to heat the fuel gas at high pressure; a turbo-expander connected to receive and expand the heated fuel gas from the heat exchanger; a centrifugal compressor driven by the turbo-expander the compressor being the refrigerant compressor of a refrigeration system; a porous fiber burner connected to receive the expanded fuel gas from the turbo-expander together with the requisite combustion air; a high-pressure steam boiler heated by the combustion of the expanded fuel gas on the outer surface of the porous fiber burner, the boiler being connected to pass the resulting flue gas with low NO{sub x} content through the heat exchanger to heat the fuel gas at high pressure; a steam turbine connected to receive and expand highpressure steam from the boiler and to return expanded and condensed steam to the boiler; and an electric generator driven by the steam turbine.

Garbo, P.W.

1991-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

377

COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT APPROACHES FOR THE SIMULATION OF BOILERS USING OIL, GAS, PELLETS OR WOOD CHIPS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A detailed model for the simulation of boilers using oil, gas, pellets or wood chips has been developed and compared with measurements. Approaches of different complexity for the simulation of steady state flue gas losses were tested. The more physical approaches are able to reproduce measured data better than the simpler empirical models, but they also require more model parameters to be determined and a higher simulation effort. Cycling behaviour of the simple one-node thermal mass approach of the model was compared with measured cycling behaviour of a pellet boiler. With the proper values for the relevant boiler parameters, cycling behaviour is reproduced well. With the implementation in a FORTRAN-dll that can be called from TRNSYS, a tool is now available that suits the needs of scientists as well as planners and product developers that use energy systems simulation tools.

Michel Haller; Lars Konersmann; Robert Haberl; Angela Dröscher; Elimar Frank

378

Integrated capture of fossil fuel gas pollutants including CO.sub.2 with energy recovery  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of reducing pollutants exhausted into the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuels. The disclosed process removes nitrogen from air for combustion, separates the solid combustion products from the gases and vapors and can capture the entire vapor/gas stream for sequestration leaving near-zero emissions. The invention produces up to three captured material streams. The first stream is contaminant-laden water containing SO.sub.x, residual NO.sub.x particulates and particulate-bound Hg and other trace contaminants. The second stream can be a low-volume flue gas stream containing N.sub.2 and O.sub.2 if CO2 purification is needed. The final product stream is a mixture comprising predominantly CO.sub.2 with smaller amounts of H.sub.2O, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, SO.sub.X, NO.sub.X, Hg, and other trace gases.

Ochs, Thomas L. (Albany, OR); Summers, Cathy A. (Albany, OR); Gerdemann, Steve (Albany, OR); Oryshchyn, Danylo B. (Philomath, OR); Turner, Paul (Independence, OR); Patrick, Brian R. (Chicago, IL)

2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

379

Liquid Natural Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Liquid Natural Gas ... IN A new technique for storing natural gas at the East Ohio Gas Co. plant, Cleveland, Ohio, the gas is liquefied before passing to the gas holders. ... Natural gas contains moisture and carbon dioxide, both of which liquefy before the natural gas and are somewhat of a nuisance because upon solidification they clog the pipes. ...

W. F. SCHAPHORST

1941-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

380

DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL CERAMIC NANOFILM-FIBER INTEGRATED OPTICAL SENSORS FOR RAPID DETECTION OF COAL DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of this project is to conduct fundamental studies on advanced ceramic materials and fiber optic devices for developing new types of high temperature (>500{degree}C) fiber optic chemical sensors (FOCS) for monitoring fossil (mainly coal) and biomass derived gases in power plants. The primary technical objective is to investigate and demonstrate the nanocrystalline doped-ceramic thin film enabled FOCS that possess desired stability, sensitivity and selectivity for in-situ, rapid gas detection in the syngas streams from gasification and combustion flue gases. This report summarizes research works of two integrated parts: (1) development of metal oxide solid thin films as sensing materials for detection and measurement of important gas components relevant to the coal- and biomass-derived syngas and combustion gas streams at high temperatures; and (2) development of fiber optic devices that are potentially useful for constructing FOCS in combination with the solid oxide thin films identified in this program.

Junhang Dong; Hai Xiao; Xiling Tang; Hongmin Jiang; Kurtis Remmel; Amardeep Kaur

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas recirculation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Design and Application of the Dry-FGD Process in Sanming Steel No. 2 Sintering Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, it summarizes the characteristics of sinter flue gas, and study the application of dry-type-FGD (flue gas desulphurization) process for...

Yu Zhijie; Li Qiyong; Xu Haijun; Lin Chunyuan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT PRELIMINARY RESULTS In Support.................................................................................... 6 Chapter 2: Natural Gas Demand.................................................................................................. 10 Chapter 3: Natural Gas Supply

383

,"Missouri Natural Gas Summary"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas Sold to Commercial Consumers (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Missouri Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Missouri Natural Gas Price Sold to...

384

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

natural gas production output. Rigs Natural Gas Transportation Update Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company yesterday (August 4) said it is mobilizing equipment and manpower for...

385

High-volume, high-value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by- products in underground mines: Phase 1, Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, April--June 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics study which is investigating hydration reactions of the ADM by-product (Subtask 2.2) was continued this quarter. This study further aided in gaining information on mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions during hydration of the ADM materials. The information is of importance for a comprehensive understanding of the factors that control strength and long-term stability during aging of FGD materials. The decision was made by Addington, Inc., DOE, and the University of Kentucky that the originally selected mine site for the emplacement demonstration must be changed, mainly for safety reasons. Mine selection will be a priority for the next quarter (Jul--Sep, 1995). Another activity during this reporting period was related to Subtask 4.3, the selection and testing of the transport system for the FGD material. A laboratory-scale pneumatic emplacement test unit (ETU) for dry FGD materials was built at the CAER to generate data so that a final selection of the field demonstration technology can be made. A dry pneumatic system was chosen for laboratory testing because the equipment and expertise available at the CAER matched this sort of technology best. While the design of the laboratory system was based on shotcrete technology, the physical properties of the emplaced FGD material is expected to be similar for other transport techniques, either pneumatic or hydraulic. In other words, the selection of a dry pneumatic transport system for laboratory testing does not necessarily imply that a scaled-up version will be used for the field demonstration. The ETU is a convenient means of producing samples for subsequent chemical and physical testing by a representative emplacement technology. Ultimately, the field demonstration technology will be chosen based on the laboratory data and the suitability of locally available equipment.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Lead Isotopic Composition of Fly Ash and Flue Gas Residues from Municipal Solid Waste Combustors in France: Implications for Atmospheric Lead Source Tracing.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

types contain hundreds to thousands of micrograms of metals per gram. Leaching experiments showed that metals are present in condensed phases, probably as sulfates and chlorides, and suggest that Cd, Pb and Zn are highly fractionated from one another during volatilization/condensation processes occurring

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

387

Carbon Filter Process for Flue-Gas Carbon Capture on Carbonaceous Sorbents: Field Tests of Steam-Aided Vacuum Swing Adsorption  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The final 30 cycles are performed at Pawnee Station, owned by Xcel Energy, in Brush, CO. ... This work was funded by Wyoming’s Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute, Supercritical Fluids LLC, the state of Wyoming’s Clean Coal Program administered by the University of Wyoming’s School of Energy Resources, the Electric Power Research Institute, Pacificorp Energy, Xcel Energy, and a discretionary fund of one of the authors (Maciej Radosz). ... The authors also thank Mr. Ryan Taucher, Pacificorp Energy’s Jim Bridger Power Plant, WY, Mr. Barry Andrews, Xcel Energy’s Pawnee Station, CO, and Dr. Xin Hu, who characterized the sorbents. ...

Bryce Dutcher; Kaspars Krutkramelis; Hertanto Adidharma; Maciej Radosz

2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

388

Amine-Tethered Adsorbents Based on Three-Dimensional Macroporous Silica for CO2 Capture from Simulated Flue Gas and Air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Danon, A.; Stair, P. C.; Weitz, E.FTIR Study of CO2 Adsorption on Amine-Grafted SBA-15: Elucidation of Adsorbed Species J. Phys. ... Danon, Alon; Stair, Peter C.; Weitz, Eric ...

Fa-Qian Liu; Lei Wang; Zhao-Ge Huang; Chao-Qin Li; Wei Li; Rong-Xun Li; Wei-Hua Li

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

389

Important Roles of Enthalpic and Entropic Contributions to CO2 Capture from Simulated Flue Gas and Ambient Air Using Mesoporous Silica Grafted Amines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The measurement of isosteric heats of adsorption of silica supported amine materials in the low pressure range (0–0.1 bar) is critical for understanding the interactions between CO2 and amine sites at low coverage and hence to the development of efficient ...

Mustafa A. Alkhabbaz; Praveen Bollini; Guo Shiou Foo; Carsten Sievers; Christopher W. Jones

2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

390

Solid-Fueled Pressurized Chemical Looping with Flue-Gas Turbine Combined Cycle for Improved Plant Efficiency and CO{sub 2} Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this document is to report the final result of techno-economic analysis for the proposed 550MWe integrated pressurized chemical looping combustion combined cycle process. An Aspen Plus based model is delivered in this report along with the results from three sensitivity scenarios including the operating pressure, excess air ratio and oxygen carrier performance. A process flow diagram and detailed stream table for the base case are also provided with the overall plant energy balance, carbon balance, sulfur balance and water balance. The approach to the process and key component simulation are explained. The economic analysis (OPEX and CAPX) on four study cases via DOE NETL Reference Case 12 are presented and explained.

Liu, Kunlei; Chen, Liangyong; Zhang, Yi; Richburg, Lisa; Simpson, James; White, Jay; Rossi, Gianalfredo

2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

391

Study of Flue Gas Desulfurization Absorbent Prepared from Coal Fly Ash:? Effects of the Composition of the Absorbent on the Activity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The formation of calcium silicate is suggested to be predominant in a high concentration of silica, while the formation of ettringite was observed by the XRD only for the absorbent containing silica below 30%. ... ettringite ... With sample 1 containing no silica, the formation of ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12) was obvious. ...

Hiroaki Tsuchiai; Tomohiro Ishizuka; Hideki Nakamura; Tsutomu Ueno; Hideshi Hattori

1996-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

392

Conversion of the greenhouse gas CO2 to the fuel gas CO via the Boudouard reaction: A review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The remediation of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere has become the topic of the day due to the enormous contribution of CO2 to the devastating global warming. The Boudouard reaction, in which solid carbon (char) reacts with CO2 to produce carbon monoxide (CO2 (g)+C(s)?CO (g)), is a straightforward route for the CO2 emission mitigation. Through this reaction, the CO2 coming from variety of combustion plants, including exhaust/flue gas and synthesis gas, can be upgraded to the fuel gas, CO. This work presents a review on the CO2 gasification of char, from coal, biomass, municipal solid wastes, sewage sludge or any co-utilized blend of them, to produce CO through the Boudouard reaction. An outline of the most effective parameters on the char gasification rate is presented. The parameters which affect the char reactivity are reviewed as those related to the char and its structural features (surface area and porosity, active sites, mineral content, structural evolution of char during gasification, pyrolysis condition and carbon source) and operation parameters (use of catalyst, gasification temperature, gasification pressure and CO2 partial pressure, char particle size and gasification heat source). The kinetics of the char gasification reaction is studied and several theoretical or semi-empirical kinetic models used to interpret the reaction rate data and calculation of kinetic parameters, specifically activation energy, are reviewed and discussed.

Pooya Lahijani; Zainal Alimuddin Zainal; Maedeh Mohammadi; Abdul Rahman Mohamed

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside formations of shale - fine grained sedimentary rocks that can be rich sources of petroleum and natural gas. Just a few years ago, much of...

394

Tri-reforming of Natural Gas Using CO2 in Flue Gas of Power Plants without CO2 Pre-separation for Production of Synthesis Gas with Desired H2/CO Ratios  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most existing CO2 conversion processes use pure CO2 that comes from CO2 recovery, separation and subsequent purification, which are all energy- consuming steps that add up the cost and can lead to additional CO2 ...

Chunshan Song; Wei Pan; Srinivas T. Srimat

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Gas Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Researchers from the University of Missouri and ICx Nomadics have reported on the use of a optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) sensor for on-column detection ?. ... Although substantial differences were noted between fresh and aged (or oxidized) oils, many of the compounds in the oxidized oil went unidentified due to lack of library mass spectral data. ... A high resolution MEMS based gas chromatography column for the analysis of benzene and toluene gaseous mixtures ...

Frank L. Dorman; Joshua J. Whiting; Jack W. Cochran; Jorge Gardea-Torresdey

2010-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

396

A Silicon-Based Micro Gas Turbine Engine for Power Generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper reports on our research in developing a micro power generation system based on gas turbine engine and piezoelectric converter. The micro gas turbine engine consists of a micro combustor, a turbine and a centrifugal compressor. Comprehensive simulation has been implemented to optimal the component design. We have successfully demonstrated a silicon-based micro combustor, which consists of seven layers of silicon structures. A hairpin-shaped design is applied to the fuel/air recirculation channel. The micro combustor can sustain a stable combustion with an exit temperature as high as 1600 K. We have also successfully developed a micro turbine device, which is equipped with enhanced micro air-bearings and driven by compressed air. A rotation speed of 15,000 rpm has been demonstrated during lab test. In this paper, we will introduce our research results major in the development of micro combustor and micro turbine test device.

Shan, X -C; Maeda, R; Sun, Y F; Wu, M; Hua, J S

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery system development: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major energy loss in industry is the heat content of the flue gases from industrial process heaters. One effective way to utilize the energy, which is applicable to all processes, is to preheat the combustion air for the process heater. Although recuperators are available to preheat this air when the flue gases are clean, recuperators to recover the heat from dirty and corrosive flue gases do not exist. The Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery (FBWHR) system is designed to preheat this combustion air using the heat available in dirty flue gas streams. In this system, recirculating alumina particles are heated by the flue gas in a raining bed. The hot particles are then removed from the bed and placed in a fluidized bed where they are fluidized by the combustion air. Through this process, the combustion air is preheated. The cooled particles are then returned to the raining bed. Initial development of this concept is for the aluminum smelting industry. In this final report, the design, development, fabrication, and installation of a full-scale FBWHR system is detailed.

Patch, K.D.; Cole, W.E.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery system development. Semiannual report, February 1, 1983-July 31, 1983  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major energy loss in industry is the heat content of the flue gases from industrial process heaters. One effective way to utilize this energy, which is applicable to all processes, is to preheat the combustion air from the process heater. Although recuperators are available to preheat this air when the flue gases are clean, recuperators to recover the heat from dirty and corrosive flue gases do not exist. The Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery (FBWHR) System is designed to preheat this combustion air using the heat available in dirty flue gas streams. In this system, a recirculating medium is heated by the flue gas in a fluidized bed. The hot medium is then removed from the bed and placed in a second fluidized bed where it is fluidized by the combustion air. Through this process, the combustion air is heated. The cooled medium is then returned to the first bed. Initial development of this concept is for the aluminum smelting industry. In this report, the accomplishments of the proceeding six-month period are described.

Cole, W. E.; De Saro, R.; Joshi, C.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

NETL: News Release - Novel Coal-Fired Heating System Proves Successful at  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

December 20, 2005 December 20, 2005 Novel Coal-Fired Heating System Proves Successful at Ohio Greenhouse Cost Savings and State EPA Standards Achieved in First Commercial Demonstration WASHINGTON, DC - Using a Department of Energy - funded coal-fired technology, a greenhouse in northeast Ohio is saving more than $1,000 a day in heating costs. The efficient fluidized-bed combustion unit provides an alternative to natural gas systems and, using locally available coal and limestone, surpasses state EPA standards for sulfur capture and stack emissions. "The promise of the unit lies in its novel design," said Donald Bonk, a senior technical advisor for the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), which manages the project for the Energy Department. "The fluidized-bed combustion system features flue-gas recirculation, replacing conventional, more expensive boiler tubes. By recycling the flue gas, the system better controls internal temperatures to burn fuel, reducing the formation of pollutants."

400

Gas Sampling Considerations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gas sampling is carried out to measure the quality of a gas. Gas samples are sometimes acquired by in situ observation within the main gas body by using remote or visual observation for specific properties. A mor...

Alvin Lieberman

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas recirculation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas Safety Program March 2011 #12;Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas Safety.......................................................................................................... 5 6. DANGEROUS GAS USAGE REQUIREMENTS................................................. 7 6.1. RESTRICTED PURCHASE/ACQUISITION RULES: ................................................ 7 7. FLAMMABLE GAS

Sherrill, David

402

Evaluation of Gas Reburning and Low N0x Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler NOX emissions and to a lesser degree, due to coal replacement, SO2 emissions. The project involved combining Gas Reburning with Low NOX Burners (GR-LNB) on a coal-fired electric utility boiler to determine if high levels of NO, reduction (70VO) could be achieved. Sponsors of the project included the U.S. Depatiment of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Public Service Company of Colorado, Colorado Interstate Gas, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The GR-LNB demonstration was petformed on Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSCO) Cherokee Unit #3, located in Denver, Colorado. This unit is a 172 MW~ wall-fired boiler that uses Colorado bituminous, low-sulfur coal. It had a baseline NO, emission level of 0.73 lb/1 OG Btu using conventional burners. Low NOX burners are designed to yield lower NOX emissions than conventional burners. However, the NOX control achieved with this technique is limited to 30-50Y0. Also, with LNBs, CO emissions can increase to above acceptable standards. Gas Reburning (GR) is designed to reduce NO, in the flue gas by staged fuel combustion. This technology involves the introduction of' natural gas into the hot furnace flue gas stream. When combined, GR and LNBs minimize NOX emissions and maintain acceptable levels of CO emissions. A comprehensive test program was completed, operating over a wide range of boiler conditions. Over 4,000 hours of operation were achieved, providing substantial data. Measurements were taken to quantify reductions in NOX emissions, the impact on boiler equipment and operability and factors influencing costs. The GR-LNB technology achieved good NO, emission reductions and the goals of the project were achieved. Although the performance of the low NOX burners (supplied by others) was less than expected, a NOX reduction of 65% was achieved at an average gas heat input of 18%. The performance goal of 70/40 reduction was met on many test runs, but at a higher reburn gas heat input. S02 emissions, based on coal replacement, were reduced by 18%.

None

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Market Digest: Natural Gas  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Energy Information Administration's Natural Gas Market Digest provides information and analyses on all aspects of natural gas markets.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Gas Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

He received his B.S. degree in 1970 from Rhodes College in Memphis, TN, his M.S. degree in 1973 from the University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, and his Ph.D. degree in 1975 from Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. ... A review (with 145 references) on the role of carrier gases on the separation process (A4) demonstrates that carrier gas interactions are integral to the chromatographic process. ... In another report, activity coefficients for refrigerants were evaluated with a polyol ester oil stationary phase (C22). ...

Gary A. Eiceman; Herbert H. Hill, Jr.; Jorge Gardea-Torresdey

2000-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

405

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NANO-STRUCTURED CHELATING ADSORBENTS FOR THE DIRECT REMOVAL OF MERCURY VAPOR FROM FLUE-GASES.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Coal-Fired utility boilers are currently the largest single-known source of anthropogenic mercury emissions in the United States. In this research, the potential of gas-phase chelating… (more)

ABU-DAABES, MALYUBA ALI

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Low NO.sub.x multistage combustor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high efficiency, Vortex Inertial Staged Air (VIStA) combustor provides ultra-low NO.sub.X production of about 20 ppmvd or less with CO emissions of less than 50 ppmvd, both at 3% O.sub.2. Prompt NO.sub.X production is reduced by partially reforming the fuel in a first combustion stage to CO and H.sub.2. This is achieved in the first stage by operating with a fuel rich mixture, and by recirculating partially oxidized combustion products, with control over stoichiometry, recirculation rate and residence time. Thermal NO.sub.X production is reduced in the first stage by reducing the occurrence of high temperature combustion gas regions. This is achieved by providing the first stage burner with a thoroughly pre-mixed fuel/oxidant composition, and by recirculating part of the combustion products to further mix the gases and provide a more uniform temperature in the first stage. In a second stage combustor thermal NO.sub.X production is controlled by inducing a large flow of flue gas recirculation in the second stage combustion zone to minimize the ultimate temperature of the flame. One or both of the first and second stage burners can be cooled to further reduce the combustion temperature and to improve the recirculation efficiency. Both of these factors tend to reduce production of NO.sub.X.

Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Breault, Ronald W. (Newington, NH); Litka, Anthony F. (Hanover, MA); McClaine, Andrew W. (Lexington, MA); Shukla, Kailash (Boxborough, MA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Reducing NO[sub x] emissions from magnesium sulfite liquor boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Current design of liquor-combustion boilers is reviewed, along with options for lowering exhaust-gas emissions, particularly NOx. In many cases, modern boilers are being operated at or near optimal conditions for minimum NOx emissions. Possible upgrades to further reduce NOx emissions include addition of a selective noncatalytic reduction step, design modifications to lower the sectional load, a flue-gas recirculation system, and air staging. Calculated and experimental results show that these applications can lower NOx emissions by 40% or more.

Bobik, M. (Austrian Energy and Environment, Graz (Austria))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Carbon capture with low energy penalty: Supplementary fired natural gas combined cycles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Enhancing CO2 concentration in exhaust gas has been considered as a potentially effective method to reduce the penalty of electrical efficiency caused by CO2 chemical absorption in post-combustion carbon capture systems. Supplementary firing is an option that inherently has an increased CO2 concentration in the exhaust gas, albeit a relatively low electrical efficiency due to its increased mass flow of exhaust gas to treat and large temperature difference in heat recovery steam generator. This paper focuses on the methods that can improve the electrical efficiency of the supplementary fired combined cycles (SFCs) integrated with MEA-based CO2 capture. Three modifications have been evaluated: (I) integration of exhaust gas reheating, (II) integration of exhaust gas recirculation, and (III) integration of supercritical bottoming cycle. It is further showed that combining all three modifications results in a significant increase in electrical efficiency which is raised from 43.3% to 54.1% based on Lower Heating Value (LHV) of natural gas when compared to the original SFC. Compared with a conventional combined cycle with a subcritical bottoming cycle and without CO2 capture (56.7% of LHV), the efficiency penalty caused by CO2 capture is only 2.6% of LHV.

Hailong Li; Mario Ditaranto; Jinyue Yan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Bubble retention in synthetic sludge: Testing of alternative gas retention apparatus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several of the underground storage tanks currently used to store waste at Hanford have been placed on the Flammable Gas Watch List, because the waste is either known or suspected to generate, store, and episodically release flammable gases. The objective of this experimental study is to develop a method to measure gas bubble retention in simulated tank waste and in diluted simulant. The method and apparatus should (1) allow for reasonably rapid experiments, (2) minimize sample disturbance, and (3) provide realistic bubble nucleation and growth. The scope of this experimental study is to build an apparatus for measuring gas retention in simulated waste and to design the apparatus to be compatible with future testing on actual waste. The approach employed for creating bubbles in sludge involves dissolving a soluble gas into the supernatant liquid at an elevated pressure, recirculating the liquid containing the dissolved gas through the sludge, then reducing the pressure to allow bubbles to nucleate and grow. Results have been obtained for ammonia as the soluble gas and SY1-SIM-91A, a chemically representative simulated tank waste. In addition, proof-of-principle experiments were conducted with both ammonia and CO{sub 2} as soluble gases and sludge composed of 90-micron glass beads. Results are described.

Rassat, S.D.; Gauglitz, P.A.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Enahancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection Volume 5 - Guideline Manual  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (S02). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved demonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit W, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOX. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOX to diatomic nitrogen (N,). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (S1) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot flue gas to achieve S02 capture. At each site where the techno!o@es were to be demonstrated, petiormance goals were set to achieve air emission reductions of 60 percent for NO. and 50 percent for SO2. These performance goals were exceeded during long term demonstration testing. For the tangentially fired unit, NOX emissions were reduced by 67.2% and S02 emissions by 52.6%. For the cyclone-fired unit, NOX emissions were reduced by 62.9% and SOZ emissions by 57.9%.

None

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Enhancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection Volume 5 - Guideline Manual  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (S02). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved d,emonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit #1, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOX. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOX to diatomic nitrogen (N,). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (S1) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot flue gas to achieve S02 capture. `At each site where the technologies were to be demonstrated, performance goals were set to achieve air emission reductions of 60 percent for NOX and 50 percent for S02. These performance goals were exceeded during long term demonstration testing. For the tangentially fired unit, NO, emissions were reduced by 67.2?40 and SOZ emissions by 52.6Y0. For the cyclone-fired unit, NO, emissions were reduced by 62.9% and SOZ emissions by 57.9Y0.

None

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Fuel gas conditioning process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Capturing and Sequestering CO2 from a Coal-Fired Power Plant - Assessing the Net Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Capturing and Sequestering CO Capturing and Sequestering CO 2 from a Coal-fired Power Plant - Assessing the Net Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Pamela L. Spath (pamela_spath @nrel.gov; (303) 275-4460) Margaret K. Mann (margaret_mann @nrel.gov; (303) 275-2921) National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, CO 80401 INTRODUCTION It is technically feasible to capture CO 2 from the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant and various researchers are working to understand the fate of sequestered CO 2 and its long term environmental effects. Sequestering CO 2 significantly reduces the CO 2 emissions from the power plant itself, but this is not the total picture. CO 2 capture and sequestration consumes additional energy, thus lowering the plant's fuel to electricity efficiency. To compensate for this, more fossil fuel must be

414

Energy exploitation of acid gas with high H2S content by means of a chemical looping combustion system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In gas and petroleum industry, the waste gas stream from the sweetening process of a sour natural gas stream is commonly referred as acid gas. Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) technology has the potential to exploit the combustible fraction of acid gas, H2S, to produce energy obtaining a flue gas highly concentrated on CO2 and SO2, which can be cost-effectively separated for subsequent applications, such as sulfuric acid production. At the same time, a concentrated CO2 stream ready for storage is obtained. The resistance of oxygen carriers to sulfur becomes crucial when an acid gas is subjected to a CLC process since the H2S content can be very high. In this work, a total of 41 h of continuous operation with acid gas and H2S concentrations up to 20 vol.% has been carried out in a 500 Wth CLC unit with two oxygen carriers based on Cu (Cu14?Al) and Fe (Fe20?Al). The formation of copper sulfides and the SO2 emissions in the air reactor made the Cu14?Al material not adequate for the process. In contrast, excellent results were obtained during acid gas combustion with the Fe20?Al oxygen carrier. H2S was fully burnt to SO2 in the fuel reactor at all operating conditions, SO2 was never detected in the gas outlet stream of the air reactor, and iron sulfides were never formed even at H2S concentrations as high as 20 vol.%. Furthermore, it was found that a H2S content of 20 vol.% in the acid gas was high enough to turn the CLC process into an auto-thermal process. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the Fe-based materials prepared by impregnation are very adequate to exploit the energy potential of acid gas mixtures with CO2 capture.

F. García-Labiano; L.F. de Diego; P. Gayán; A. Abad; A. Cabello; J. Adánez; G. Sprachmann

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Neutron Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We assume that the neutron-neutron potential is well-behaved and velocity-dependent. We can then apply perturbation theory to find the energy per particle of a neutron gas, in the range of Fermi wave numbers 0.5

J. S. Levinger and L. M. Simmons

1961-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Investigations of swirl flames in a gas turbine model combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermochemical states of three swirling CH{sub 4}/air diffusion flames, stabilized in a gas turbine model combustor, were investigated using laser Raman scattering. The flames were operated at different thermal powers and air/fuel ratios and exhibited different flame behavior with respect to flame instabilities. They had previously been characterized with respect to their flame structures, velocity fields, and mean values of temperature, major species concentrations, and mixture fraction. The single-pulse multispecies measurements presented in this article revealed very rapid mixing of fuel and air, accompanied by strong effects of turbulence-chemistry interactions in the form of local flame extinction and ignition delay. Flame stabilization is accomplished mainly by hot and relatively fuel-rich combustion products, which are transported back to the flame root within an inner recirculation zone. The flames are not attached to the fuel nozzle, and are stabilized approximately 10 mm above the fuel nozzle, where fuel and air are partially premixed before ignition. The mixing and reaction progress in this area are discussed in detail. The flames are short (<50 mm), especially that exhibiting thermoacoustic oscillations, and reach a thermochemical state close to adiabatic equilibrium at the flame tip. The main goals of this article are to outline results that yield deeper insight into the combustion of gas turbine flames and to establish an experimental database for the validation of numerical models.

Meier, W.; Duan, X.R.; Weigand, P. [Institut fuer Verbrennungstechnik, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Pfaffenwaldring 38, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Natural Gas Hydrates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Natural Gas Hydrates ... Formation Characteristics of Synthesized Natural Gas Hydrates in Meso- and Macroporous Silica Gels ... Formation Characteristics of Synthesized Natural Gas Hydrates in Meso- and Macroporous Silica Gels ...

Willard I. Wilcox; D. B. Carson; D. L. Katz

1941-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Gas Kick Mechanistic Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas kicks occur during drilling when the formation pressure is greater than the wellbore pressure causing influx of gas into the wellbore. Uncontrolled gas kicks could result in blowout of the rig causing major financial loss and possible injury...

Zubairy, Raheel

2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

419

Historical Natural Gas Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

420

Historical Natural Gas Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas recirculation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Historical Natural Gas Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

422

Future of Natural Gas  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

technology is improving - Producers are drilling in liquids rich gas and crude oil shale plays due to lower returns on dry gas production - Improved well completion time...

423

Natural Gas Industrial Price  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells...

424

CHEMICAL PROCESS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM. Chapter from the Energy and Environment Division Annual Report 1980  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

removal is flue- gas desulfurization, Under investigation are fundamental chemistry and transport mechanisms underlying reagent additive

Authors, Various

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Measurement of gas species, temperatures, coal burnout, and wall heat fluxes in a 200 MWe lignite-fired boiler with different overfire air damper openings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements were performed on a 200 MWe, wall-fired, lignite utility boiler. For different overfire air (OFA) damper openings, the gas temperature, gas species concentration, coal burnout, release rates of components (C, H, and N), furnace temperature, and heat flux and boiler efficiency were measured. Cold air experiments for a single burner were conducted in the laboratory. The double-swirl flow pulverized-coal burner has two ring recirculation zones starting in the secondary air region in the burner. As the secondary air flow increases, the axial velocity of air flow increases, the maxima of radial velocity, tangential velocity and turbulence intensity all increase, and the swirl intensity of air flow and the size of recirculation zones increase slightly. In the central region of the burner, as the OFA damper opening widens, the gas temperature and CO concentration increase, while the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and coal particles ignite earlier. In the secondary air region of the burner, the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and the gas temperature and CO concentration vary slightly. In the sidewall region, the gas temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, and NOx concentration decrease, while the CO concentration increases and the gas temperature varies slightly. The furnace temperature and heat flux in the main burning region decrease appreciably, but increase slightly in the burnout region. The NOx emission decreases from 1203.6 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 0% to 511.7 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 80% and the boiler efficiency decreases from 92.59 to 91.9%. 15 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

Jianping Jing; Zhengqi Li; Guangkui Liu; Zhichao Chen; Chunlong Liu [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). School of Energy Science and Engineering

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

426

Raman gas analyzer for determining the composition of natural gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We describe a prototype of a Raman gas analyzer designed for measuring the composition of natural gas. Operation of the gas analyzer was tested on a real natural gas. We show that our Raman gas analyzer prototype...

M. A. Buldakov; B. V. Korolev; I. I. Matrosov…

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Noble gas magnetic resonator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.

Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

428

OIL & GAS INSTITUTE Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OIL & GAS INSTITUTE CONTENTS Introduction Asset Integrity Underpinning Capabilities 2 4 4 6 8 9 10 COMPETITIVENESS UNIVERSITY of STRATHCLYDE OIL & GAS INSTITUTE OIL & GAS EXPERTISE AND PARTNERSHIPS #12;1 The launch of the Strathclyde Oil & Gas Institute represents an important step forward for the University

Mottram, Nigel

429

Oxy-fuel combustion systems for pollution free coal fired power generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Jupiter Oxygen's patented oxy-fuel combustion systems1 are capable of economically generating power from coal with ultra-low emissions and increased boiler efficiency. Jupiter's system uses pure oxygen as the combustion agent, excluding air and thus nitrogen, concentrating CO2 and pollutants for efficient capture with near zero NOx production, reducing exhaust mass flow, and increasing radiant heat transfer. Flue-gas recirculation rates can be varied to add flexibility to new boiler designs using this technology. Computer modeling and thermal analysis have identified important design considerations in retrofit applications.

Ochs, Thomas L.; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Gross, Dietrich (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.); Patrick, Brian (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.); Gross, Alex (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.); Dogan, Cindy; Summers, Cathy A.; Simmons, William (CoalTeck LLC); Schoenfeld, Mark (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.)

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Natural Gas: Dry Wells Yield Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THE Gas Council and Home Oil of Canada have announced plans for developing two ... Council and Home Oil of Canada have announced plans for developing two natural ...

1969-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

431

Alabama Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Alabama Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

432

South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

433

Oregon Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Oregon Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

434

Montana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Montana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

435

Arizona Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Arizona Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

436

Texas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Texas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

437

New York Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) New York Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

438

West Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) West Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

439

North Dakota Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) North Dakota Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

440

Wyoming Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Wyoming Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas recirculation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

U.S. Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) U.S. Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

442

Utah Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Utah Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

443

Alaska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Alaska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

444

Nevada Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Nevada Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

445

Indiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Indiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

446

Kansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Kansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

447

Ohio Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Ohio Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...