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1

Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains flyash and other particulate. The flyash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The flyash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured flyash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled.

Yang, Wen-Ching (Murrysville, PA); Newby, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lippert, Thomas E. (Murrysville, PA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains fly ash and other particulates. The fly ash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The fly ash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured fly ash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled. 11 figs.

Yang, W.C.; Newby, R.A.; Lippert, T.E.

1997-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

3

Final Flue Gas Cleaning (FFGC)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Final Flue Gas Cleaning (FFGC) Pilot Plant. The pilot plant (FFGC-PP) will be used to test and evaluate removal of air pollution constituents from the flue gas of a 160 MW, Houston-area power plant operating on 100% petcoke. The two-week long test.... TABLE III FLUE GAS COMPOSITION PETCOKE FIRED POWER PLANT H 2 O 3.2 % O 2 4.9 % CO 2 17.7 % HCl 10 ppm SO 2 6800 ppm SO 3 300 ppm H2SO4 mist 690 ppm NOx 260 ppm...

Stinger, D. H.; Romero, M. H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this research project is to formulate a mathematical model of flue gas conditioning. This model will be based on an understanding of why ask properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Such a model could serve as a component of the performance models of particulate control devices where flue gas conditioning is used. There are two specific objectives of this research project, which divide the planned research into two main parts. One part of the project is designed to determine how ash particles are modified by interactions with sorbent injection processes and to describe the mechanisms by which these interactions affect fine particle collection. The objective of the other part of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which conditioning agents, including chemically active compounds, modify the key properties of fine fly ash particles.

Bush, P.V.; Snyder, T.R.

1992-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

5

Mercury sorbent delivery system for flue gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention presents a device for the removal of elemental mercury from flue gas streams utilizing a layer of activated carbon particles contained within the filter fabric of a filter bag for use in a flue gas scrubbing system.

Klunder; ,Edgar B. (Bethel Park, PA)

2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

6

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

7

natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building energy efficiency+ industrial energy...

8

Control of scale in flue gas scrubbers  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a flue gas desulfurization system in which sulfur dioxide-containing flue gas is passed in countercurrent flow with an aqueous calcium-bearing scrubbing liquor whereby the sulfur dioxide is removed from the flue gas by being absorbed by the scrubbing liquor and converted to calcium sulfite and/or calcium sulfate. The improvement of minimizing the formation of calcium scale on the surfaces of the system comprises maintaining in the scrubbing liquor about 0.1-25 ppm of a 1:1 diisobutylene-maleic anhydride copolymer having an average molecular weight of 11000. The copolymer is incorporated in the scrubbing liquor as a 10-15% aqueous dispersion.

Thomas, P.A.; Dewitt-Dick, D.B.

1987-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

9

Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas - Energy Innovation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

those for selective catalytic reduction (SCR)), scrubbing liquors, flue gas or coal additives, combustion modifications, barrier discharges, and ultraviolet radiation....

10

Thief process for the removal of mercury from flue gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for removing mercury from the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant is described. Mercury removal is by adsorption onto a thermally activated sorbent produced in-situ at the power plant. To obtain the thermally activated sorbent, a lance (thief) is inserted into a location within the combustion zone of the combustion chamber and extracts a mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas. The semi-combusted coal has adsorptive properties suitable for the removal of elemental and oxidized mercury. The mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas is separated into a stream of gas and semi-combusted coal that has been converted to a stream of thermally activated sorbent. The separated stream of gas is recycled to the combustion chamber. The thermally activated sorbent is injected into the duct work of the power plant at a location downstream from the exit port of the combustion chamber. Mercury within the flue gas contacts and adsorbs onto the thermally activated sorbent. The sorbent-mercury combination is removed from the plant by a particulate collection system.

Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Freeman, Mark C. (South Park Township, PA); Hargis, Richard A. (Canonsburg, PA); O'Dowd, William J. (Charleroi, PA)

2003-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

11

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

RecoveRy of WateR fRom BoileR flue Gas RecoveRy of WateR fRom BoileR flue Gas Background Coal-fired power plants require large volumes of water for efficient operation, primarily for cooling purposes. Public concern over water use is increasing, particularly in water stressed areas of the country. Analyses conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory predict significant increases in power plant freshwater consumption over the coming years, encouraging the development of technologies to reduce this water loss. Power plant freshwater consumption refers to the quantity of water withdrawn from a water body that is not returned to the source but is lost to evaporation, while water withdrawal refers to the total quantity of water removed from a water source.

12

Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,776,780 entitled "Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas." Disclosed in this patent are catalysts for the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas. These novel catalysts include iridium (Ir), platinum/iridium (Pt/Ir), and Thief carbons. The catalyst materials will adsorb the oxidizing agents HCl, Cl 2 , and other halogen species in the flue gas stream that are produced when fuel is combusted. These adsorbed oxidizing agents can then react with elemental mercury in the stream, which is difficult to capture, and oxidize it to form Hg (II) species,

13

Multi-component Removal in Flue Gas by Aqua Ammonia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

component Removal in Flue Gas by Aqua Ammonia component Removal in Flue Gas by Aqua Ammonia Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,255,842 entitled "Multi-component Removal in Flue Gas by Aqua Ammonia." This patent discloses a method for the removal of potential environmental-impacting compounds from flue gas streams. The method oxidizes some or all of the acid precursors such as sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitric oxides (NO x ) into sulfur trioxide and nitrogen dioxide, respectively. Following this step, the gas stream is then treated with aqua ammonia or ammonium hydroxide to capture the compounds via chemical absorption through acid-base or neutralization reactions where a fertilizer is formed.

14

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, installation of a liquid flue gas conditioning system was completed at the American Electric Power Conesville Plant, Unit 3. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Two cohesivity-specific additive formulations, ADA-44C and ADA-51, will be evaluated. In addition, ammonia conditioning will also be compared.

Kenneth E. Baldrey

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Thief Process Removal of Mercury from Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Process for the Removal of Mercury from Flue Gas Process for the Removal of Mercury from Flue Gas Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 6,521,021 entitled "Thief Process for the Removal of Mercury from Flue Gas." Disclosed in this patent is a novel process in which partially combusted coal is removed from the combustion chamber of a power plant using a lance (called a "thief"). This partially combusted coal acts as a thermally activated adsorbent for mercury. When it is in- jected into the duct work of the power plant downstream from the exit port of the combustion chamber, mercury within the flue gas contacts and adsorbs onto the thermally activated sorbent. The sorbent-mercury

16

Flue gas desulfurization: Physicochemical and biotechnological approaches  

SciTech Connect

Various flue gas desulfurization processes - physicochemical, biological, and chemobiological - for the reduction of emission of SO{sub 2} with recovery of an economic by-product have been reviewed. The physicochemical processes have been categorized as 'once-through' and 'regenerable.' The prominent once-through technologies include wet and dry scrubbing. The wet scrubbing technologies include wet limestone, lime-inhibited oxidation, limestone forced oxidation, and magnesium-enhanced lime and sodium scrubbing. The dry scrubbing constitutes lime spray drying, furnace sorbent injection, economizer sorbent injection, duct sorbent injection, HYPAS sorbent injection, and circulating fluidized bed treatment process. The regenerable wet and dry processes include the Wellman Lord's process, citrate process, sodium carbonate eutectic process, magnesium oxide process, amine process, aqueous ammonia process, Berglau Forchung's process, and Shell's process. Besides these, the recently developed technologies such as the COBRA process, the OSCAR process, and the emerging biotechnological and chemobiological processes are also discussed. A detailed outline of the chemistry, the advantages and disadvantages, and the future research and development needs for each of these commercially viable processes is also discussed.

Pandey, R.A.; Biswas, R.; Chakrabarti, T.; Devotta, S. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Integrated flue gas treatment for simulataneous emission control and heat rate improvement - demonstration project at Ravenswood  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented for electric-utility, residual-oil fired, field demonstration testing of advanced-design, heat-recovery type, flue gas sub-coolers that incorporate sulfite-alkali-based wet scrubbing for efficient removal of volatile and semi-volatile trace elements, sub-micron solid particulate matter, SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. By innovative adaptation of wet collector system operation with methanol injection into the rear boiler cavity to convert flue-gas NO to No{sub 2}, simultaneous removal of NO{sub x} is also achieved. The focus of this integrated flue gas treatment (IFGT) technology development and demonstration-scale, continuous performance testing is an upward-gas-flow, indirectly water-cooled, condensing heat exchanger fitted with acid-proof, teflon-covered tubes and tubesheets and that provides a unique condensing (non-evaporative) wet-scrubbing mode to address air toxics control objectives of new Clean Air Act, Title III. Advantageous trace-metal condensation/nucleation/agglomeration along with substantially enhanced boiler efficiency is accomplished in the IFGT system by use of boiler makeup water as a heat sink in indirectly cooling boiler flue gas to a near-ambient-temperature, low-absolute-humidity, water-saturated state. Moreover, unique, innocuous, stack systems design encountered with conventional high-humidity, wet-scrubber operations. The mechanical design of this advanced flue-gas cooling/scrubbing equipment is based on more than ten years of commercial application of such units is downward-gas-flow design/operation for energy recovery, e.g. in preheating of makeup water, in residual-oil and natural-gas fired boiler operations.

Heaphy, J.; Carbonara, J.; Cressner, A. [Consolidated Edison Company, New York, NY (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Flue gas carbon dioxide sequestration during water softening with ion-exchange fibers  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the use of ion-exchange fibers (IX fibers) to permanently sequester carbon dioxide present in flue gas into an aqueous phase as calcium or magnesium alkalinity while concurrently softening hard water. The only process inputs besides carbon dioxide (or flue gas) are snowmelt (or rainwater); no other chemicals are required for the regeneration of the IX fibers. Importantly, the process is not energy intensive and carbon dioxide does not need to be compressed to excessive pressures (>150 psi) for efficient use. Sources of carbon dioxide do not require concentration and, therefore, the use of raw flue gas (similar to 17% CO{sub 2}) is feasible with the rate of sequestration governed only by the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. While valid for flue gas obtained from any combustion process (e.g., coal, oil, natural gas, etc.), emissions from oil or gas combustion may be more appropriate for use in the described process due to the absence of mercury and particulates. It should also be noted that the presence of sulfur dioxide in flue gas would not adversely affect the process and may even enhance regeneration efficiency. The only product of the proposed process is an environmentally benign regenerant stream containing calcium and/or magnesium alkalinity. The unique property of IX fibers that makes the proposed process both environmentally sustainable and economically feasible is amenability to efficient regeneration with carbon dioxide and harvested snowmelt. Low intraparticle diffusional resistance is the underlying reason why IX fibers are amenable to efficient regeneration using snowmelt sparged with carbon dioxide; 95% calcium recovery was attained at a CO{sub 2} partial pressure of 6.8 atm. The energy balance for a typical electric utility shows that up to 1% of carbon dioxide emitted during combustion would be sequestered in the softening process.

Greenleaf, J.E.; SenGupta, A.K. [Lafayette College, Easton, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

19

Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of simultaneously removing SO/sub 2/ and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO/sub 2/ and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled. 3 figs.

Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Wingender, R.J.

1985-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

20

Biomimetic Membrane for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

These Phase III experiments successfully addressed several issues needed to characterize a permeator system for application to a pulverized coal (PC) burning furnace/boiler assuming typical post-combustion cleanup devices in place. We completed key laboratory stage optimization and modeling efforts needed to move towards larger scale testing. The SOPO addressed six areas. Task 1--Post-Combustion Particle Cleanup--The first object was to determine if the Carbozyme permeator performance was likely to be reduced by particles (materials) in the flue gas stream that would either obstruct the mouth of the hollow fibers (HF) or stick to the HF bore wall surface. The second, based on the Acceptance Standards (see below), was to determine whether it would be preferable to clean the inlet gas stream (removing acid gases and particulates) or to develop methods to clean the Carbozyme permeator if performance declined due to HF block. We concluded that condensation of particle and particulate emissions, in the heat exchanger, could result in the formation of very sticky sulfate aerosols with a strong likelihood of obtruding the HF. These must be managed carefully and minimized to near-zero status before entering the permeator inlet stream. More extensive post-combustion cleanup is expected to be a necessary expense, independent of CO{sub 2} capture technology This finding is in agreement with views now emerging in the literature for a variety of CO{sub 2} capture methods. Task 2--Water Condensation--The key goal was to monitor and control temperature distributions within the permeator and between the permeator and its surroundings to determine whether water condensation in the pores or the HF bore would block flow, decreasing performance. A heat transfer fluid and delivery system were developed and employed. The result was near isothermal performance that avoided all instances of flow block. Direct thermocouple measurements provided the basis for developing a heat transfer model that supports prediction of heat transfer profiles for larger permeators Tasks 3. 4.1, 4.2--Temperature Range of Enzymes--The goal was to determine if the enzyme operating temperature would limit the range of thermal conditions available to the capture system. We demonstrated the ability of various isozymes (enzyme variants) to operate from 4-85 C. Consequently, the operating characteristics of the enzyme are not a controlling factor. Further, any isozyme whose upper temperature bound is at least 10 C greater than that of the planned inlet temperature will be stable under unanticipated, uncontrolled 'hiccups' in power plant operation. Task 4.4, 4.4--Examination of the Effects of SOx and NOx on Enzyme Activity (Development of Flue Gas Composition Acceptance Standards)--The purpose was to define the inlet gas profile boundaries. We examined the potential adverse effects of flue gas constituents including different acids from to develop an acceptance standard and compared these values to actual PC flue gas composition. Potential issues include changes in pH, accumulation of specific inhibitory anions and cations. A model was developed and validated by test with a SO{sub 2}-laden stream. The predicted and actual data very largely coincided. The model predicted feed stream requirements to allow continuous operation in excess of 2500 hours. We developed operational (physical and chemical) strategies to avoid or ameliorate these effects. Avoidance, the preferred strategy (noted above), is accomplished by more extensive cleanup of the flue gas stream. Task 5--Process Engineering Model--We developed a process-engineering model for two purposes. The first was to predict the physical and chemical status at each test point in the design as a basis for scale-up. The second was to model the capital and operating cost of the apparatus. These were accomplished and used to predict capex, opex and cost of energy. Task 6--Preliminary Commercialization Plan--We carried out analyses of the market and the competition by a variety of parameters. The conclusion was that there is a l

Michael C. Trachtenberg

2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sorbent InjectIon for Small eSP Sorbent InjectIon for Small eSP mercury control In low Sulfur eaStern bItumInouS coal flue GaS Background Full-scale field testing has demonstrated the effectiveness of activated carbon injection (ACI) as a mercury-specific control technology for certain coal-fired power plants, depending on the plant's coal feedstock and existing air pollution control device configuration. In a typical configuration, powdered activated carbon (PAC) is injected downstream of the plant's air heater and upstream of the existing particulate control device - either an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or a fabric filter (FF). The PAC adsorbs the mercury from the combustion flue gas and is subsequently captured along with the fly ash in the ESP or FF. ACI can have some negative side

22

Construction and testing of a flue-gas corrosion probe  

SciTech Connect

The selection of suitable materials for industrial, waste-heat- recovery systems requires assessment of corrosion of materials in various flue-gas environments. Such assessments involve exposing candidate materials to high-temperature flue gases and analyzing the effects of the exposure conditions. Because corrosion is related to flue-gas chemical composition and temperature, variations in temperature complicate the determination of corrosion rates and corrosion mechanisms. Conversely, a relatively constant temperature allows a more accurate determination of the effects of exposure conditions. For this reason, controlled-temperature flue-gas corrosion probes were constructed and tested for exposure tests of materials. A prototype probe consisted of a silicon carbide tube specimen, supporting hardware, and instrumentation for controlling temperature by internal heating and cooling. An advanced probe included other tubular specimens. Testing of the probes in an industrial-type furnace at a nominal flue-gas temperature of 1200{degree}C revealed that temperature control was inadequate. The cooling mode imposed a substantial axial-temperature gradient on the specimens; while the heating mode imposed a smaller gradient, the heating capacity was very limited. 10 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Federer, J.I.; McEvers, J.A.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Oxidation of No to No2 in Flue Gas Plumes of Power Stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The oxidation of NO to NO2 in flue gas plumes takes place after release in the ... function of the turbulent mixing rate of flue gas plume and atmospheric air. The effects of ... are illustrated with the measurin...

A. J. Elshout; Dr. S. Beilke

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Evaluation of the Energy Saving Potential from Flue Gas Pressurization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

details the impact of providing a can be recovered at .1 inch wc. The work of com 500 r----------------------, FLUE GAS TEMPERATURES 200 COUNTER FLOW 100 50 _~,,_ CO-FLOW RECUPERATORS 20 10 SPECIFIC ENERGY, Btu/IbM AIR rl'-h~A:--WORK OF 5... consideration for a convective heat flue gas is entrained, the two are mixed in a exchanger is l600?F for the convective portion of the mixing section, and pressure is then recovered in recuperation equipment. It is significant that for a a diffuser...

Stanton, E. H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building energy efficiency+ industrial energy efficiency+ power plant energy efficiency+ Home Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency Description: Increased natural gas energy efficiency = Reduced utility bills = Profit In 2011 the EIA reports that commercial buildings, industry and the power plants consumed approx. 17.5 Trillion cu.ft. of natural gas. How much of that energy was wasted, blown up chimneys across the country as HOT exhaust into the atmosphere? 40% ~ 60% ? At what temperature? Links: The technology of Condensing Flue Gas Heat Recovery natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building

26

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, performance testing of flue gas conditioning was underway at the PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. The product tested, ADA-43, was a combination resistivity modifier with cohesivity polymers. This represents the first long-term full-scale testing of this class of products. Modifications to the flue gas conditioning system at Jim Bridger, including development of alternate injection lances, was also undertaken to improve chemical spray distribution and to avoid spray deposition to duct interior surfaces. Also in this quarter, a firm commitment was received for another long-term test of the cohesivity additives. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning is employed here on one unit, but there is interest in liquid cohesivity additives as a safer alternative.

Kenneth E. Baldrey

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Workshop on sulfur chemistry in flue gas desulfurization  

SciTech Connect

The Flue Gas Desulfurization Workshop was held at Morgantown, West Virginia, June 7-8, 1979. The presentations dealt with the chemistry of sulfur and calcium compounds in scrubbers. DOE and EPRI programs in this area are described. Ten papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

Wallace, W.E. Jr.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Rubber linings as surface protection in flue gas desulfurization plants  

SciTech Connect

The manufacturers of the German rubber lining industry have executed the rubber lining of over 1 million m{sup 2} of steel surfaces in over 150 scrubbers of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) plants, thereby effectively protecting them against corrosion. The application of rubber linings as surface protection in FGD plants has proven effective.

Fenner, J.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Direct fired absorption machine flue gas recuperator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A recuperator which recovers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine. The recuperator includes a housing with liquid flowing therethrough, the liquid being in direct contact with the combustion gas for increasing the effectiveness of the heat transfer between the gas and the liquid.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

JV Task 124 - Understanding Multi-Interactions of SO3, Mercury, Selenium, and Arsenic in Illinois Coal Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

This project consisted of pilot-scale combustion testing with a representative Illinois basin coal to explore the multi-interactions of SO{sub 3}, mercury, selenium and arsenic. The parameters investigated for SO{sub 3} and mercury interactions included different flue gas conditions, i.e., temperature, moisture content, and particulate alkali content, both with and without activated carbon injection for mercury control. Measurements were also made to track the transformation of selenium and arsenic partitioning as a function of flue gas temperature through the system. The results from the mercury-SO{sub 3} testing support the concept that SO{sub 3} vapor is the predominant factor that impedes efficient mercury removal with activated carbon in an Illinois coal flue gas, while H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aerosol has less impact on activated carbon injection performance. Injection of a suitably mobile and reactive additives such as sodium- or calcium-based sorbents was the most effective strategy tested to mitigate the effect of SO{sub 3}. Transformation measurements indicate a significant fraction of selenium was associated with the vapor phase at the electrostatic precipitator inlet temperature. Arsenic was primarily particulate-bound and should be captured effectively with existing particulate control technology.

Ye Zhuang; Christopher Martin; John Pavlish

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

31

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, performance testing of flue gas conditioning was completed at the PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. The product tested, ADA-43, was a combination resistivity modifier with cohesivity polymers. The product was effective as a flue gas conditioner. However, ongoing problems with in-duct deposition resulting from the flue gas conditioning were not entirely resolved. Primarily these problems were the result of difficulties encountered with retrofit of an existing spray humidification system. Eventually it proved necessary to replace all of the original injection lances and to manually bypass the PLC-based air/liquid feed control. This yielded substantial improvement in spray atomization and system reliability. However, the plant opted not to install a permanent system. Also in this quarter, preparations continued for a test of the cohesivity additives at the American Electric Power Conesville Plant, Unit 3. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning is employed here on one unit, but there is interest in liquid cohesivity additives as a safer alternative.

Kenneth E. Baldrey

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research conducted between July 1, 2006 and September 30, 2006 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal combustion flue gas. Modifications to the integrated absorber/ sorbent regenerator/ sorbent cooler system were made to improve sorbent flow consistency and measurement reliability. Operation of the screw conveyor regenerator to achieve a sorbent temperature of at least 120 C at the regenerator outlet is necessary for satisfactory carbon dioxide capture efficiencies in succeeding absorption cycles. Carbon dioxide capture economics in new power plants can be improved by incorporating increased capacity boilers, efficient flue gas desulfurization systems and provisions for withdrawal of sorbent regeneration steam in the design.

David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box Raghubir P. Gupta

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

33

CO2 Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CO CO 2 Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas Background The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) Program is performing research to develop advanced technologies focusing on carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions control for existing pulverized coal-fired plants. This new focus on post-combustion and oxy-combustion CO 2 emissions control technology, CO 2 compression, and beneficial reuse is in response to the priority for advanced

34

Biominetic Membrane for Co2 Capture from Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biomimetic Membrane for CO Biomimetic Membrane for CO 2 Capture from Flue Gas Background Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) is a three-step process including capture, pipeline transport, and geologic storage of which the capture of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is the most costly and technically challenging. Current available methods impose significant energy burdens that severely impact their overall effectiveness as a significant deployment option. Of the available capture technologies for post

35

Alternative formulations of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The major source of man-made SO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is the burning of coal for electric power generation. Coal-fired utility plants are also large sources of NO{sub x} pollution. Regenerable flue gas desulfurization/NO{sub x} abatement catalysts provide one mechanism of simultaneously removing SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} species from flue gases released into the atmosphere. The purpose of this project is to examine routes of optimizing the adsorption efficiency, the adsorption capacity, and the ease of regeneration of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts. We are investigating two different mechanisms for accomplishing this goal. The first involves the use of different alkali and alkaline earth metals as promoters for the alumina sorbents to increase the surface basicity of the sorbent and thus adjust the number and distribution of adsorption sites. The second involves investigation of non-aqueous impregnation, as opposed to aqueous impregnation, as a method to obtain an evenly dispersed monolayer of the promoter on the surface.

Mitchell, M.B.; White, M.G.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced flue gas Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(WTERT) Collection: Renewable Energy 5 INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR THE CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION AT WASTE-TO-ENERGY Summary: -Beam process is applied to flue gas compositions...

37

Analysis of a pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system for flue gas desulfurization wastewater.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Coal-fired generation accounts for 45% of the United States electricity and generates harmful emissions, such as sulfur dioxide. With the implementation of Flue Gas Desulfurization… (more)

Talley, Mary Katherine

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Separation of Mercury from Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Produced Gypsum  

SciTech Connect

Frontier Geosciences (Frontier; FGS) proposed for DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER84669 that mercury control could be achieved in a wet scrubber by the addition of an amendment to the wet-FGD scrubber. To demonstrate this, a bench-scale scrubber and synthetic flue-gas supply was designed to simulate the limestone fed, wet-desulfurization units utilized by coal-fired power plants. Frontier maintains that the mercury released from these utilities can be controlled and reduced by modifying the existing equipment at installations where wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed. A key element of the proposal was FGS-PWN, a liquid-based mercury chelating agent, which can be employed as the amendment for removal of all mercury species which enter the wet-FGD scrubber. However, the equipment design presented in the proposal was inadequate to demonstrate these functions and no significant progress was made to substantiate these claims. As a result, funding for a Phase II continuation of this work will not be pursued. The key to implementing the technology as described in the proposal and report appears to be a high liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) between the flue-gas and the scrubber liquor, a requirement not currently implemented in existing wet-FGD designs. It may be that this constraint can be reduced through parametric studies, but that was not apparent in this work. Unfortunately, the bench-scale system constructed for this project did not function as intended and the funds and time requested were exhausted before the separation studies could occur.

Hensman, Carl, E., P.h.D; Baker, Trevor

2008-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

39

The Beckett System Recovery and Utilization of Low Grade Waste Heat From Flue Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. During low demand periods, the unit is gas-fired and produces 150 psi steam at high efficiency. In the fall, the heat exchanger is converted to accept flue gas from the large original water tube boilers. The flue gas heats water, which preheats make...

Henderson, W. R.; DeBiase, J. F.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Directed evolution of an ultrastable carbonic anhydrase for highly efficient carbon capture from flue gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...library generation, and high-throughput...year, coal-fired power plants are...natural-gas–fired power...1. Flue gas from a coal-fired power plant is piped...depleted flue gas is released into...strategy for the generation of very large...

Oscar Alvizo; Luan J. Nguyen; Christopher K. Savile; Jamie A. Bresson; Satish L. Lakhapatri; Earl O. P. Solis; Richard J. Fox; James M. Broering; Michael R. Benoit; Sabrina A. Zimmerman; Scott J. Novick; Jack Liang; James J. Lalonde

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Transport Membrane Condenser for Water and Energy Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

The new waste heat and water recovery technology based on a nanoporous ceramic membrane vapor separation mechanism has been developed for power plant flue gas application. The recovered water vapor and its latent heat from the flue gas can increase the power plant boiler efficiency and reduce water consumption. This report describes the development of the Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) technology in details for power plant flue gas application. The two-stage TMC design can achieve maximum heat and water recovery based on practical power plant flue gas and cooling water stream conditions. And the report includes: Two-stage TMC water and heat recovery system design based on potential host power plant coal fired flue gas conditions; Membrane performance optimization process based on the flue gas conditions, heat sink conditions, and water and heat transport rate requirement; Pilot-Scale Unit design, fabrication and performance validation test results. Laboratory test results showed the TMC system can exact significant amount of vapor and heat from the flue gases. The recovered water has been tested and proved of good quality, and the impact of SO{sub 2} in the flue gas on the membrane has been evaluated. The TMC pilot-scale system has been field tested with a slip stream of flue gas in a power plant to prove its long term real world operation performance. A TMC scale-up design approach has been investigated and an economic analysis of applying the technology has been performed.

Dexin Wang

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

42

Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involves both experimental and modeling efforts. The team is comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective is to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters to be studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. This report summarizes Year 2 results for the experimental and modeling tasks. Experiments in the mercury reactor are underway and interesting results suggested that a more comprehensive look at catalyzed surface reactions was needed. Therefore, much of the work has focused on the heterogeneous reactions. In addition, various chemical kinetic models have been explored in an attempt to explain some discrepancies between this modeling effort and others.

JoAnn S. Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Babcock and Wilcox`s (B and W) SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} process effectively removes SOx, NOx and particulate (Rox) from flue gas generated from coal-fired boilers in a single unit operation, a high temperature baghouse. The SNRB technology utilizes dry sorbent injection upstream of the baghouse for removal of SOx and ammonia injection upstream of a zeolitic selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst incorporated in the baghouse to reduce NOx emissions. Because the SOx and NOx removal processes require operation at elevated gas temperatures (800--900 F) for high removal efficiency, high-temperature fabric filter bags are used in the baghouse. The SNRB technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B and W tested the SNRB pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R.E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B and W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB process. The SNRB facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993. About 2,300 hours of high-temperature operation were achieved. The main emissions control performance goals of: greater than 70% SO{sub 2} removal using a calcium-based sorbent; greater than 90% NOx removal with minimal ammonia slip; and particulate emissions in compliance with the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) of 0.03 lb/million Btu were exceeded simultaneously in the demonstration program when the facility was operated at optimal conditions. Testing also showed significant reductions in emissions of some hazardous air pollutants.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

ENHANCED CONTROL OF MERCURY BY WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI co-funded this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project has investigated catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems, and to future FGD installations. Field tests were conducted to determine whether candidate catalyst materials remain active towards mercury oxidation after extended flue gas exposure. Catalyst life will have a large impact on the cost effectiveness of this potential process. A mobile catalyst test unit was used to test the activity of four different catalyst materials for a period of up to six months each at three utility sites. Catalyst testing was completed at the first site, which fires Texas lignite, in December 1998; at the second test site, which fires a Powder River Basin subbituminous coal, in November 1999; and at the third site, which fires a medium- to high-sulfur bituminous coal, in January 2001. Results of testing at each of the three sites were reported in previous technical notes. At Site 1, catalysts were tested only as powders dispersed in sand bed reactors. At Sites 2 and 3, catalysts were tested in two forms, including powders dispersed in sand and in commercially available forms such as extruded pellets and coated honeycomb structures. This final report summarizes and presents results from all three sites, for the various catalyst forms tested. Field testing was supported by laboratory tests to screen catalysts for activity at specific flue gas compositions, to investigate catalyst deactivation mechanisms and methods for regenerating spent catalysts. Laboratory results are also summarized and discussed in this report.

Unknown

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Near-zero Emissions Oxy-combustion Flue Gas Purification  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Near-zero Emissions Oxy-combustion Near-zero Emissions Oxy-combustion Flue Gas Purification Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) R&D Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. The EPEC R&D Program portfolio of post- and

46

Re-lining of scrubbers in flue gas desulfurization plants  

SciTech Connect

Rubber lining is used as corrosion protection material in scrubbers, tanks, pipe systems etc of European flue gas desulfurization plants. Although these rubber linings show in cases more than 15 years life, re-rubber lining is still necessary. Due to the expected higher availability of the power station units the time scale of such replacement must be kept to a minimum. As an efficient method for removal of the old lining the high pressure water systems has proven successful. Based on one such case of re-lining the working steps and time scale are demonstrated.

Fenner, J. [Keramchemie GmbH, Siershahn (Germany)

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Relining of scrubbers in flue gas desulfurization plants  

SciTech Connect

Rubber lining is used as a corrosion protection material in European flue gas desulfurization plants, for scrubbers, tanks, pipe systems, etc. Although these rubber linings can last more than 15 years, relining still is necessary. The difficulty of shutting down power station units requires that the time scale of this replacement be kept to a minimum. High-pressure water systems have proven successful as an efficient method for removal of the old lining. The working steps and time scale are demonstrated for one such relining case.

Fenner, J. [Keramchemie GmbH (Germany)

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Membrane-based carbon capture from flue gas: A review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract There has been an increasing interest in the application of membranes to flue gas separation, primarily driven by the need of carbon capture for significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Historically, there has not been general consensus about the advantage of membranes against other methods such as liquid solvents for carbon capture. However, recent research indicates that advances in materials and process designs could significantly improve the separation performance of membrane capture systems, which make membrane technology competitive with other technologies for carbon capture. This paper mainly reviews membrane separation for the application to post-combustion CO2 capture with a focus on the developments and breakthroughs in membrane material design, process engineering, and engineering economics.

Rajab Khalilpour; Kathryn Mumford; Haibo Zhai; Ali Abbas; Geoff Stevens; Edward S. Rubin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Separation of CO2 from flue gas using electrochemical cells  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT Past research with high temperature molten carbonate electrochemical cells has shown that carbon dioxide can be separated from flue gas streams produced by pulverized coal combustion for power generation, However, the presence of trace contaminants, i.e" sulfur dioxide and nitric oxides, will impact the electrolyte within the cell. If a lower temperature cell could be devised that would utilize the benefits of commercially-available, upstream desulfurization and denitrification in the power plant, then this CO2 separation technique can approach more viability in the carbon sequestration area, Recent work has led to the assembly and successful operation of a low temperature electrochemical cell. In the proof-of-concept testing with this cell, an anion exchange membrane was sandwiched between gas-diffusion electrodes consisting of nickel-based anode electrocatalysts on carbon paper. When a potential was applied across the cell and a mixture of oxygen and carbon dioxide was flowed over the wetted electrolyte on the cathode side, a stream of CO2 to O2 was produced on the anode side, suggesting that carbonate/ bicarbonate ions are the CO2 carrier in the membrane. Since a mixture of CO 2 and 02 is produced, the possibility exists to use this stream in oxy-firing of additional fuel. From this research, a novel concept for efficiently producing a carbon dioxide rich effiuent from combustion of a fossil fuel was proposed. Carbon dioxide and oxygen are captured from the flue gas of a fossilfuel combustor by one or more electrochemical cells or cell stacks. The separated stream is then transferred to an oxy-fired combustor which uses the gas stream for ancillary combustion, ultimately resulting in an effluent rich in carbon dioxide, A portion of the resulting flow produced by the oxy-fired combustor may be continuously recycled back into the oxy-fired combustor for temperature control and an optimal carbon dioxide rich effluent.

Pennline, H.W; Granite, E.J.; Luebke, D.R; Kitchin, J.R; Landon, J.; Weiland, L.M.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

OpenEI Community - natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Increase Natural Gas Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency http://en.openei.org/community/group/increase-natural-gas-energy-efficiency Description: Increased natural gas energy efficiency = Reduced utility bills = Profit In 2011 the EIA reports that commercial buildings, industry and the power plants consumed approx. 17.5 Trillion cu.ft. of natural gas.How much of that energy was wasted, blown up chimneys across the country as HOT exhaust into the atmosphere? 40% ~ 60% ? At what temperature?gas-energy-efficiency" target="_blank">read more natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat

51

Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work is to develop a novel system for regenerable SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on (1) a novel method for regenerating spent SO{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and (2) novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. In addition, high efficiency hollow fiber contactors (HFC) are proposed as the devices for scrubbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the flue gas. The system will be designed to remove more than 95% of the SO{sub 2} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost that is at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO{sub x} and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The process will generate only marketable by-products. Our approach is to reduce the capital cost by using high-efficiency hollow fiber devices for absorbing and desorbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. We will also introduce new process chemistry to minimize traditionally well-known problems with SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} absorption and desorption. Our novel chemistry for scrubbing NO{sub x} will consist of water-soluble phthalocyanine compounds invented by SRI as well as polymeric forms of Fe{sup ++} complexes similar to traditional NO{sub x} scrubbing media. The final novelty of our approach is the arrangement of the absorbers in cassette (stackable) form so that the NO{sub x} absorber can be on top of the SO{sub x} absorber. This arrangement is possible only because of the high efficiency of the hollow fiber scrubbing devices, as indicated by our preliminary laboratory data. This arrangement makes it possible for the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing chambers to be separate without incurring the large ducting and gas pressure drop costs necessary if a second conventional absorber vessel were used. Because we have separate scrubbers, we will have separate liquor loops and simplify the chemical complexity of simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} scrubbing.

Bhown, A.S.; Alvarado, D.; Pakala, N.; Ventura, S. [and others

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues  

SciTech Connect

The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup particulate samples and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract were designed to address problems with filter operation that have been linked to characteristics of the collected particulate matter. One objective of this work was to generate an interactive, computerized data bank of the key physical and chemical characteristics of ash and char collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these filters. The interactive data bank summarizes analyses of over 160 ash and char samples from fifteen pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities utilizing high-temperature, high pressure barrier filters.

Pontius, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

53

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents  

SciTech Connect

Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that includes a co-current downflow reactor system for adsorption of CO{sub 2} and a steam-heated, hollow-screw conveyor system for regeneration of the sorbent and release of a concentrated CO{sub 2} gas stream. An economic analysis of this process (based on the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory's [DOE/NETL's] 'Carbon Capture and Sequestration Systems Analysis Guidelines') was carried out. RTI's economic analyses indicate that installation of the Dry Carbonate Process in a 500 MW{sub e} (nominal) power plant could achieve 90% CO{sub 2} removal with an incremental capital cost of about $69 million and an increase in the cost of electricity (COE) of about 1.95 cents per kWh. This represents an increase of roughly 35.4% in the estimated COE - which compares very favorable versus MEA's COE increase of 58%. Both the incremental capital cost and the incremental COE were projected to be less than the comparable costs for an equally efficient CO{sub 2} removal system based on monoethanolamine (MEA).

Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

54

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, installation of a flue gas conditioning system was completed at PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. Performance testing was underway. Results will be detailed in the next quarterly and subsequent technical summary reports. Also in this quarter, discussions were initiated with a prospective long-term candidate plant. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning has been proposed here, but there is interest in liquid additives as a safer alternative.

Kenneth E. Baldrey

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. This quarterly report summarizes project activity for the period April-June, 2003. In this period there was limited activity and no active field trials. Results of ash analysis from the AEP Conesville demonstration were received. In addition, a site visit was made to We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant and a proposal extended for a flue gas conditioning trial with the ADA-51 cohesivity additive. It is expected that this will be the final full-scale evaluation on the project.

Kenneth E. Baldrey

2003-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

56

Biomimetric Membrane for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biomimetic memBrane for co Biomimetic memBrane for co 2 capture from flue Gas Background Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) is a three-step process including capture, pipeline transport and geologic storage of which the capture of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is the most costly and technically challenging. Current available methods impose significant energy burdens that severely impact their overall effectiveness as a significant deployment option. Of the available capture technologies for post combustion applications - absorption, adsorption, reaction and membranes chemically facilitated absorption promises to be the most cost-effective membrane solution for post combustion application. The Carbozyme technology extracts CO 2 from low concentration, low pressure sources by means of chemical facilitation of a polymer membrane. The chemical

57

Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 8 Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project A DOE Assessment August 2001 U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 880, 3610 Collins Ferry Road Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 and P.O. Box 10940, 626 Cochrans Mill Road Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 website: www.netl.doe.gov 2 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference

58

Hybrid heat exchange for the compression capture of CO2 from recirculated flue gas  

SciTech Connect

An approach proposed for removal of CO2 from flue gas cools and compresses a portion of a recirculated flue-gas stream, condensing its volatile materials for capture. Recirculating the flue gas concentrates SOx, H2O and CO2 while dramatically reducing N2 and NOx, enabling this approach, which uses readily available industrial components. A hybrid system of indirect and direct-contact heat exchange performs heat and mass transfer for pollutant removal and energy recovery. Computer modeling and experimentation combine to investigate the thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer, chemistry and engineering design of this integrated pollutant removal (IPR) system.

Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Ochs, Thomas L.; Summers, Cathy A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Multi-component removal in flue gas by aqua ammonia  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new method for the removal of environmental compounds from gaseous streams, in particular, flue gas streams. The new method involves first oxidizing some or all of the acid anhydrides contained in the gas stream such as sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) and nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N.sub.2O) to sulfur trioxide (SO.sub.3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2). The gas stream is subsequently treated with aqua ammonia or ammonium hydroxide which captures the compounds via chemical absorption through acid-base or neutralization reactions. The products of the reactions can be collected as slurries, dewatered, and dried for use as fertilizers, or once the slurries have been dewatered, used directly as fertilizers. The ammonium hydroxide can be regenerated and recycled for use via thermal decomposition of ammonium bicarbonate, one of the products formed. There are alternative embodiments which entail stoichiometric scrubbing of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides with subsequent separate scrubbing of carbon dioxide.

Yeh, James T. (Bethel Park, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA)

2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

60

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) has successfully completed a research and development program granted by the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to develop a family of non-toxic flue gas conditioning agents to provide utilities and industries with a cost-effective means of complying with environmental regulations on particulate emissions and opacity. An extensive laboratory screening of potential additives was completed followed by full-scale trials at four utility power plants. The developed cohesivity additives have been demonstrated on a 175 MW utility boiler that exhibited poor collection of unburned carbon in the electrostatic precipitator. With cohesivity conditioning, opacity spiking caused by rapping reentrainment was reduced and total particulate emissions were reduced by more than 30%. Ammonia conditioning was also successful in reducing reentrainment on the same unit. Conditioned fly ash from the process is expected to be suitable for dry or wet disposal and for concrete admixture.

C. Jean Bustard

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, two cohesivity-specific additive formulations, ADA-44C and ADA-51, were evaluated in a full-scale trial at the American Electric Power Conesville plant. Ammonia conditioning was also evaluated for comparison. ADA-51 and ammonia conditioning significantly reduced rapping and non-rapped particulate re-entrainment based on stack opacity monitor data. Based on the successful tests to date, ADA-51 will be evaluated in a long-term test.

Kenneth E. Baldrey

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Membrane Process to Sequester CO2 from Power Plant Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MeMbrane Process to sequester co MeMbrane Process to sequester co 2 froM Power Plant flue Gas Background Carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants are believed to contribute significantly to global warming climate change. The direct approach to address this problem is to capture the carbon dioxide in flue gas and sequester it underground. However, the high cost of separating and capturing CO 2 with conventional technologies prevents the adoption of this approach. This project investigates the technical and economic feasibility of a new membrane process to capture CO 2 from power plant flue gas. Description Direct CO 2 capture from power plant flue gas has been the subject of many studies. Currently, CO 2 capture with amine absorption seems to be the leading candidate technology-although membrane processes have been suggested. The principal

63

Flue gas desulfurization : cost and functional analysis of large-scale and proven plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flue Gas Desulfurization is a method of controlling the emission of sulfurs, which causes the acid rain. The following study is based on 26 utilities which burn coal, have a generating capacity of at least 50 Megawatts ...

Tilly, Jean

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Air and Flue Gas in the Alkylamine...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Air and Flue Gas in the Alkylamine-Appended Metal-Organic Framework mmen-Mg2(dobpdc) Previous Next List Thomas M. McDonald, Woo Ram Lee, Jarad A....

65

New Developments in Closed Loop Combustion Control Using Flue Gas Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New developments in closed loop combustion control are causing radical changes in the way combustion control systems are implemented. The recent availability of in line flue gas analyzers and microprocessor technology are teaming up to produce...

Nelson, R. L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Cost-Effective Abatement of Acidifying Emissions with Flue Gas Cleaning Vs. Fuel Switching in Finland  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Acidifying emissions from energy production and industry have decreased considerably during the...e.g. flue gas desulphurization. In this study the Finnish cost curves for SO2 and NOx...were first calculated to p...

N. Karvosenoja; P. Hillukkala; M. Johansson; S. Syril

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

removal from flue gas of coal-fired power plants. Environ.Speciation in a 100-MW Coal-Fired Boiler with Low-NOxControl Technologies for Coal-Fired Power Plants, DOE/NETL

Miller, Nai-Qiang Yan-Zan Qu Yao Chi Shao-Hua Qiao Ray Dod Shih-Ger Chang Charles

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

CO2 Capture from Flue Gas Using SOlid Molecular Basket Sorbents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

from Flue Gas Using Solid from Flue Gas Using Solid Molecular Basket Sorbents Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-

69

CO2 Removal from Flue Gas Using MIcroporous Metal Organic Frameworks  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Removal from Flue Gas Using Removal from Flue Gas Using Microporous Metal Organic Frameworks Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Existing Plants, Emissions, & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. The EPEC R&D

70

Analysis of Halogen-Mercury Reactions in Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

Oxidized mercury species may be formed in combustion systems through gas-phase reactions between elemental mercury and halogens, such as chorine or bromine. This study examines how bromine species affect mercury oxidation in the gas phase and examines the effects of mixtures of bromine and chlorine on extents of oxidation. Experiments were conducted in a bench-scale, laminar flow, methane-fired (300 W), quartz-lined reactor in which gas composition (HCl, HBr, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}) and temperature profile were varied. In the experiments, the post-combustion gases were quenched from flame temperatures to about 350 C, and then speciated mercury was measured using a wet conditioning system and continuous emissions monitor (CEM). Supporting kinetic calculations were performed and compared with measured levels of oxidation. A significant portion of this report is devoted to sample conditioning as part of the mercury analysis system. In combustion systems with significant amounts of Br{sub 2} in the flue gas, the impinger solutions used to speciate mercury may be biased and care must be taken in interpreting mercury oxidation results. The stannous chloride solution used in the CEM conditioning system to convert all mercury to total mercury did not provide complete conversion of oxidized mercury to elemental, when bromine was added to the combustion system, resulting in a low bias for the total mercury measurement. The use of a hydroxylamine hydrochloride and sodium hydroxide solution instead of stannous chloride showed a significant improvement in the measurement of total mercury. Bromine was shown to be much more effective in the post-flame, homogeneous oxidation of mercury than chlorine, on an equivalent molar basis. Addition of NO to the flame (up to 400 ppmv) had no impact on mercury oxidation by chlorine or bromine. Addition of SO{sub 2} had no effect on mercury oxidation by chlorine at SO{sub 2} concentrations below about 400 ppmv; some increase in mercury oxidation was observed at SO{sub 2} concentrations of 400 ppmv and higher. In contrast, SO{sub 2} concentrations as low as 50 ppmv significantly reduced mercury oxidation by bromine, this reduction could be due to both gas and liquid phase interactions between SO{sub 2} and oxidized mercury species. The simultaneous presence of chlorine and bromine in the flue gas resulted in a slight increase in mercury oxidation above that obtained with bromine alone, the extent of the observed increase is proportional to the chlorine concentration. The results of this study can be used to understand the relative importance of gas-phase mercury oxidation by bromine and chlorine in combustion systems. Two temperature profiles were tested: a low quench (210 K/s) and a high quench (440 K/s). For chlorine the effects of quench rate were slight and hard to characterize with confidence. Oxidation with bromine proved sensitive to quench rate with significantly more oxidation at the lower rate. The data generated in this program are the first homogeneous laboratory-scale data on bromine-induced oxidation of mercury in a combustion system. Five Hg-Cl and three Hg-Br mechanisms, some published and others under development, were evaluated and compared to the new data. The Hg-halogen mechanisms were combined with submechanisms from Reaction Engineering International for NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and hydrocarbons. The homogeneous kinetics under-predicted the levels of mercury oxidation observed in full-scale systems. This shortcoming can be corrected by including heterogeneous kinetics in the model calculations.

Paula Buitrago; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Brydger Van Otten

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Method for removing particulate matter from a gas stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Particulate matter is removed from a stream of pressurized gas by directing the stream of gas upwardly through a bed of porous material, the porous bed being held in an open ended container and at least partially submerged in liquid. The passage of the gas through the porous bed sets up a circulation in the liquid which cleans the particulate matter from the bed.

Postma, Arlin K. (Benton City, WA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

PRODUCTION OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATES FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE  

SciTech Connect

Through a cooperative agreement with DOE, the Research and Development Department of CONSOL Inc. (CONSOL R and D) is teaming with SynAggs, Inc. and Duquesne Light to design, construct, and operate a 500 lb/h continuous pilot plant to produce road construction aggregate from a mixture of wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, fly ash, and other components. The proposed project is divided into six tasks: (1) Project Management; (2) Mix Design Evaluation; (3) Process Design; (4) Construction; (5) Start-Up and Operation; and (6) Reporting. In this quarter, Tasks 1 and 2 were completed. A project management plan (Task 1) was issued to DOE on October 22, 1998 . The mix design evaluation (Task 2) with Duquesne Light Elrama Station FGD sludge and Allegheny Power Hatfields Ferry Station fly ash was completed. Eight semi-continuous bench-scale tests were conducted to examine the effects of mix formulation on aggregate properties. A suitable mix formulation was identified to produce aggregates that meet specifications of the American Association of State High Transport Officials (AASHTO) as Class A aggregate for use in highway construction. The mix formulation was used in designing the flow sheet of the pilot plant. The process design (Task 3) is approximately 80% completed. Equipment was evaluated to comply with design requirements. The design for the curing vessel was completed by an outside engineering firm. All major equipment items for the pilot plant, except the curing vessel, were ordered. Pilot plant construction (Task 4) was begun in October. The Hazardous Substance Plan was issued to DOE. The Allegheny County (PA) Heat Department determined that an air emission permit is not required for operation of the pilot plant.

NONE

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project were to carry out an experimental program to enable development and design of near zero emissions (NZE) CO{sub 2} processing unit (CPU) for oxy-combustion plants burning high and low sulfur coals and to perform commercial viability assessment. The NZE CPU was proposed to produce high purity CO{sub 2} from the oxycombustion flue gas, to achieve > 95% CO{sub 2} capture rate and to achieve near zero atmospheric emissions of criteria pollutants. Two SOx/NOx removal technologies were proposed depending on the SOx levels in the flue gas. The activated carbon process was proposed for power plants burning low sulfur coal and the sulfuric acid process was proposed for power plants burning high sulfur coal. For plants burning high sulfur coal, the sulfuric acid process would convert SOx and NOx in to commercial grade sulfuric and nitric acid by-products, thus reducing operating costs associated with SOx/NOx removal. For plants burning low sulfur coal, investment in separate FGD and SCR equipment for producing high purity CO{sub 2} would not be needed. To achieve high CO{sub 2} capture rates, a hybrid process that combines cold box and VPSA (vacuum pressure swing adsorption) was proposed. In the proposed hybrid process, up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in the cold box vent stream would be recovered by CO{sub 2} VPSA and then it would be recycled and mixed with the flue gas stream upstream of the compressor. The overall recovery from the process will be > 95%. The activated carbon process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx, thus exceeding the performance targets of >99% and >95%, respectively. The process was also found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. Sulfuric acid process did not meet the performance expectations. Although it could achieve high SOx (>99%) and NOx (>90%) removal efficiencies, it could not produce by-product sulfuric and nitric acids that meet the commercial product specifications. The sulfuric acid will have to be disposed of by neutralization, thus lowering the value of the technology to same level as that of the activated carbon process. Therefore, it was decided to discontinue any further efforts on sulfuric acid process. Because of encouraging results on the activated carbon process, it was decided to add a new subtask on testing this process in a dual bed continuous unit. A 40 days long continuous operation test confirmed the excellent SOx/NOx removal efficiencies achieved in the batch operation. This test also indicated the need for further efforts on optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level. The VPSA process was tested in a pilot unit. It achieved CO{sub 2} recovery of > 95% and CO{sub 2} purity of >80% (by vol.) from simulated cold box feed streams. The overall CO{sub 2} recovery from the cold box VPSA hybrid process was projected to be >99% for plants with low air ingress (2%) and >97% for plants with high air ingress (10%). Economic analysis was performed to assess value of the NZE CPU. The advantage of NZE CPU over conventional CPU is only apparent when CO{sub 2} capture and avoided costs are compared. For greenfield plants, cost of avoided CO{sub 2} and cost of captured CO{sub 2} are generally about 11-14% lower using the NZE CPU compared to using a conventional CPU. For older plants with high air intrusion, the cost of avoided CO{sub 2} and capture CO{sub 2} are about 18-24% lower using the NZE CPU. Lower capture costs for NZE CPU are due to lower capital investment in FGD/SCR and higher CO{sub 2} capture efficiency. In summary, as a result of this project, we now have developed one technology option for NZE CPU based on the activated carbon process and coldbox-VPSA hybrid process. This technology is projected to work for both low and high sulfur coal plants. The NZE CPU technology is projected to achieve near zero stack emissions

Minish Shah; Nich Degenstein; Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Ravi Kumar; Jennifer Bugayong; Ken Burgers

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

74

Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Topical report No. 2, Literature review and assembly of theories on the interactions of ash and conditioning agents  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this research project is to formulate a mathematical model of flue gas conditioning. This model will be based on an understanding of why ask properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Such a model could serve as a component of the performance models of particulate control devices where flue gas conditioning is used. There are two specific objectives of this research project, which divide the planned research into two main parts. One part of the project is designed to determine how ash particles are modified by interactions with sorbent injection processes and to describe the mechanisms by which these interactions affect fine particle collection. The objective of the other part of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which conditioning agents, including chemically active compounds, modify the key properties of fine fly ash particles.

Bush, P.V.; Snyder, T.R.

1992-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

75

Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector`s centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gas flow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel`s wall in the form of a ``wavy film,`` while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator. 4 figs.

Carl, D.E.

1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

76

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, further laboratory-screening tests of additive formulations were completed. For these tests, the electrostatic tensiometer method was used for determination of fly ash cohesivity. Resistivity was measured for each screening test with a multi-cell laboratory fly ash resistivity furnace constructed for this project. Also during this quarter chemical formulation testing was undertaken to identify stable and compatible resistivity/cohesivity liquid products.

Kenneth E. Baldrey

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector's centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gasflow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel's wall in the form of a "wavy film," while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator.

Carl, Daniel E. (Orchard Park, NY)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Dynamic Tests and Results in an Oxy-fuel Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor with Warm Flue Gas Recycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dynamic Tests and Results in an Oxy-fuel Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor with Warm Flue Gas Recycle ... Dynamic step change tests concerning the coal feed rate and coal type were conducted. ... In the dynamic tests, the oxygen concentration in the flue gas fluctuates in the form of a sinusoidal wave because of the fast volatile combustion and the delay in the char ignition. ...

Jian-xin Zhou; Zhuang Shao; Feng-qi Si; Zhi-gao Xu

2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

79

Effect of connate water on miscible displacement of reservoir oil by flue gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Average Reservoir Fluid Pro erties Before Break- Through Ultimate Economic Re cover Fraction OIP 1(a) (b) (c) 2(a) (b) (c) 3(a) (b) (c) (b) (c) (d) 5(*) (b) (c} 6(a) (b) (c) 3800 4200 4600 3800 4200 4600 3800 4ZOO 4600 3000...-through recovery of 75 per cent. Nitrogen resulted in an 81 per cent break- through recovery, after reaching miscibility at 4160 psi. Although nitrogen gave a higher break-through recovery than flue gas, flue gas 25 0. 80 4600 psi 4200 psi f4 0 0 0 'g 4...

Maxwell, H. D.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

80

Carbon dioxide absorber and regeneration assemblies useful for power plant flue gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are apparatus and method to treat large amounts of flue gas from a pulverized coal combustion power plant. The flue gas is contacted with solid sorbents to selectively absorb CO.sub.2, which is then released as a nearly pure CO.sub.2 gas stream upon regeneration at higher temperature. The method is capable of handling the necessary sorbent circulation rates of tens of millions of lbs/hr to separate CO.sub.2 from a power plant's flue gas stream. Because pressurizing large amounts of flue gas is cost prohibitive, the method of this invention minimizes the overall pressure drop in the absorption section to less than 25 inches of water column. The internal circulation of sorbent within the absorber assembly in the proposed method not only minimizes temperature increases in the absorber to less than 25.degree. F., but also increases the CO.sub.2 concentration in the sorbent to near saturation levels. Saturating the sorbent with CO.sub.2 in the absorber section minimizes the heat energy needed for sorbent regeneration. The commercial embodiments of the proposed method can be optimized for sorbents with slower or faster absorption kinetics, low or high heat release rates, low or high saturation capacities and slower or faster regeneration kinetics.

Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Transport Membrane Condenser for Water and Energy Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dexin Wang Dexin Wang Principal Investigator Gas Technology Institute 1700 South Mount Prospect Rd Des Plaines, Il 60018 847-768-0533 dexin.wang@gastechnology.org TransporT MeMbrane Condenser for WaTer and energy reCovery froM poWer planT flue gas proMIs/projeCT no.: nT0005350 Background One area of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Innovations for Existing Plants (IEP) Program's research is being performed to develop advanced technologies to reuse power plant cooling water and associated waste heat and to investigate methods to recover water from power plant flue gas. Considering the quantity of water withdrawn and consumed by power plants, any recovery or reuse of this water can significantly reduce the plant's water requirements. Coal occurs naturally with water present (3-60 weight %), and the combustion

82

MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEQUESTER CO2 FROM POWER PLANT FLUE GAS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of using a membrane process to capture CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. During this program, MTR developed a novel membrane (Polaris™) with a CO2 permeance tenfold higher than commercial CO2-selective membranes used in natural gas treatment. The Polaris™ membrane, combined with a process design that uses a portion of combustion air as a sweep stream to generate driving force for CO2 permeation, meets DOE post-combustion CO2 capture targets. Initial studies indicate a CO2 separation and liquefaction cost of $20 - $30/ton CO2 using about 15% of the plant energy at 90% CO2 capture from a coal-fired power plant. Production of the Polaris™ CO2 capture membrane was scaled up with MTR’s commercial casting and coating equipment. Parametric tests of cross-flow and countercurrent/sweep modules prepared from this membrane confirm their near-ideal performance under expected flue gas operating conditions. Commercial-scale, 8-inch diameter modules also show stable performance in field tests treating raw natural gas. These findings suggest that membranes are a viable option for flue gas CO2 capture. The next step will be to conduct a field demonstration treating a realworld power plant flue gas stream. The first such MTR field test will capture 1 ton CO2/day at Arizona Public Service’s Cholla coal-fired power plant, as part of a new DOE NETL funded program.

Tim Merkel; Karl Amo; Richard Baker; Ramin Daniels; Bilgen Friat; Zhenjie He; Haiqing Lin; Adrian Serbanescu

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

83

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers  

SciTech Connect

Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: (1) An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing high-moisture, low rank coals. (2) Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. (3) Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. (4) Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. (5) Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. (6) Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. (7) Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. (8) Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; John DuPoint

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

84

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers  

SciTech Connect

Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: • An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing highmoisture, low rank coals. • Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. • Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. • Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. • Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. • Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. • Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. • Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

Levy, Edward; Bilirgen, Harun; DuPont, John

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

85

Life cycle considerations of the flue gas desulphurization system at a lignite-fired power plant in Thailand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Flue Gas Desulphurization (FGD) system has been installed at the biggest lignite-fired power generation plant in Thailand to reduce the large...2...emission. In order to understand the costs and benefits, bot...

Sate Sampattagul; Seizo Kato…

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA as well as flue gas from coal combustion. This topical report covers Phase 2b, which is the construction phase of pilot demonstration subsystems that make up the integrated plant. The subsystems included are the mineralization subsystem, the Alkalinity Based on Low Energy (ABLE) subsystem, the waste calcium oxide processing subsystem, and the fiber cement board production subsystem. The fully integrated plant is now capable of capturing CO2 from various sources (gas and coal) and mineralizing into a reactive calcium carbonate binder and subsequently producing commercial size (4ftx8ft) fiber cement boards. The topical report provides a description of the “as built” design of these subsystems and the results of the commissioning activities that have taken place to confirm operability. At the end of Phase 2b, the CCMP pilot demonstration is fully ready for testing.

Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Flue Gas Purification Utilizing SOx/NOx Reactions During Compressin of CO2 Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Flue Gas Purification Flue Gas Purification Utilizing SO X /NO X Reactions During Compression of CO 2 Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion Background Oxy-combustion in a pulverized coal-fired power station produces a raw carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) product containing contaminants such as water vapor, oxygen, nitrogen, and argon from impurities in the oxygen used and any air leakage into the system. Acid gases are also produced as combustion products, such as sulfur oxides (SO

88

The Flakt-Hydro process: flue gas desulfurisation by use of seawater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ABB's seawater scrubbing process (the Flakt-Hydro process) for flue gas desulfurisation has recently triggered much interest among power producers because of its simple operating principle and high reliability. The process uses seawater to absorb and neutralise sulfur dioxide in flue gases. The absorbed gas is oxidised and returned to the ocean in the form it originated in the first place, namely as dissolved sulfate salts. The process uses the seawater downstream of the power plant condensers. This paper gives an introduction to the basic principle of the process and presents some of the recent power plant applications, namely at the Paiton Private Power Project, Phase 1 (2 ? 670 Mwe) in Indonesia and at the Shenzhen West Power Plant, Unit 2 (300 MWe) in China.

Wu Zhao Xia

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Membrane Process to Capture CO2 from Power Plant Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Membrane Process to Capture CO Membrane Process to Capture CO 2 from Power Plant Flue Gas Background The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Innovations for Existing Plants (IEP) Program is performing research to develop advanced technologies focusing on carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions control for existing pulverized coal-fired plants. This new focus on post-combustion and oxy-combustion CO 2 emissions control technology, CO 2 compression, and beneficial reuse is in response to the priority for advanced

90

Analysis of CO2 Separation from Flue Gas, Pipeline Transportation, and Sequestration in Coal  

SciTech Connect

This report was written to satisfy a milestone of the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration task of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration project. The report begins to assess the costs associated with separating the CO2 from flue gas and then injecting it into an unminable coal seam. The technical challenges and costs associated with CO2 separation from flue gas and transportation of the separated CO2 from the point source to an appropriate sequestration target was analyzed. The report includes the selection of a specific coal-fired power plant for the application of CO2 separation technology. An appropriate CO2 separation technology was identified from existing commercial technologies. The report also includes a process design for the chosen technology tailored to the selected power plant that used to obtain accurate costs of separating the CO2 from the flue gas. In addition, an analysis of the costs for compression and transportation of the CO2 from the point-source to an appropriate coal bed sequestration site was included in the report.

Eric P. Robertson

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Corrosion protection by means of rubber linings in a flue gas scrubber made of concrete  

SciTech Connect

Rubber linings have been applied as a corrosion protection measure for steel surfaces, particularly in the absorbers, in the flue gas desulfurization plants of a large number of power stations in Europe and have decidedly proven their effectiveness. The rubber linings applied consist of either precured and/or cold-curing rubber sheets. In the course of the past five to seven years, the eastern European states have also begun retro-fitting their existing power stations with flue gas desulfurization plants. As the first of its kind, a scrubber in the flue gas desulfurization plant of the Konin Power Station in Poland, which operates on the basis of the limestone-gypsum process, was constructed of concrete. In this case also, the corrosion protection measures implemented consisted in the application of a precured rubber lining on the basis of butyl rubber. A surface area measuring 1,500 m{sup 2} of the concrete absorber was protected by means of this corrosion protection system.

Fenner, J.; Matos, A.; Seiffert, W. [Keramchemie GmbH, Siershahn (Germany)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

92

Alternative formulations of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts. Progress report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The major source of man-made SO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is the burning of coal for electric power generation. Coal-fired utility plants are also large sources of NO{sub x} pollution. Regenerable flue gas desulfurization/NO{sub x} abatement catalysts provide one mechanism of simultaneously removing SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} species from flue gases released into the atmosphere. The purpose of this project is to examine routes of optimizing the adsorption efficiency, the adsorption capacity, and the ease of regeneration of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts. We are investigating two different mechanisms for accomplishing this goal. The first involves the use of different alkali and alkaline earth metals as promoters for the alumina sorbents to increase the surface basicity of the sorbent and thus adjust the number and distribution of adsorption sites. The second involves investigation of non-aqueous impregnation, as opposed to aqueous impregnation, as a method to obtain an evenly dispersed monolayer of the promoter on the surface.

Mitchell, M.B.; White, M.G.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

93

Industrial Plant for Flue Gas Treatment with High Power Electron Accelerators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fossil fuel combustion leads to acidic pollutants like SO2 NOx HCl emission. Different control technologies are proposed however the most popular method is combination of wet FGD (flue gas desulfurization) and SCR (selective catalytic reduction). First using lime or limestone slurry leads to SO2 capture and gypsum is a product. The second process where ammonia is used as reagent and nitrogen oxides are reduced over catalyst surface to gaseous nitrogen removes NOx. New advanced method using electron accelerators for simultaneous SO2 and NOx removal has been developed in Japan the USA Germany and Poland. Both pollutants are removed with high efficiency and byproduct can be applied as fertilizer. Two industrial plants have been already constructed. One in China and second in Poland third one is under construction in Japan. Information on the Polish plant is presented in the paper. Plant has been constructed at Power Station Pomorzany Szczecin (Dolna Odra Electropower Stations Group) and treats flue gases from two Benson boilers 60 MWe and 100 MWth each. Flow rate of the flue gas stream is equal to 270 000 Nm3/h. Four transformer accelerators 700 keV electron energy and 260 kW beam power each were applied. With its 1.05 MW total beam power installed it is a biggest radiation facility over the world nowadays. Description of the plant and results obtained has been presented in the paper.

Andrzej G. Chmielewski; Bogdan Tyminski; Zbigniew Zimek; Andrzej Pawelec; Janusz Licki

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Coagulation/Flocculation Treatments for Flue-Gas-Derived Water from Oxyfuel Power Production with CO2 Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coagulation/Flocculation Treatments for Flue-Gas-Derived Water from Oxyfuel Power Production with CO2 Capture ... The buffered solution is then sent back to the top of the tower, where it is sprayed into the upflowing oxyfuel gas stream, condensing and cleaning the ash-laden gas. ...

Sivaram Harendra; Danylo Oryshchyn; Thomas Ochs; Stephen Gerdemann; John Clark; Cathy Summers

2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

95

Compression Stripping of Flue Gas with Energy Recovery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of remediating and recovering energy from combustion products from a fossil fuel power plant having at least one fossil fuel combustion chamber, at least one compressor, at least one turbine, at least one heat exchanger and a source of oxygen. Combustion products including non-condensable gases such as oxygen and nitrogen and condensable vapors such as water vapor and acid gases such as SOX and NOX and CO2 and pollutants are produced and energy is recovered during the remediation which recycles combustion products and adds oxygen to support combustion. The temperature and/or pressure of the combustion products are changed by cooling through heat exchange with thermodynamic working fluids in the power generation cycle and/or compressing and/or heating and/or expanding the combustion products to a temperature/pressure combination below the dew point of at least some of the condensable vapors to condense liquid having some acid gases dissolved and/or entrained and/or directly condense acid gas vapors from the combustion products and to entrain and/or dissolve some of the pollutants while recovering sensible and/or latent heat from the combustion products through heat exchange between the combustion products and thermodynamic working fluids and/or cooling fluids used in the power generating cycle. Then the CO2, SO2, and H2O poor and oxygen enriched remediation stream is sent to an exhaust and/or an air separation unit and/or a turbine.

Ochs, Thomas L.; O'Connor, William K.

2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

96

Compression stripping of flue gas with energy recovery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of remediating and recovering energy from combustion products from a fossil fuel power plant having at least one fossil fuel combustion chamber, at least one compressor, at least one turbine, at least one heat exchanger and a source of oxygen. Combustion products including non-condensable gases such as oxygen and nitrogen and condensable vapors such as water vapor and acid gases such as SO.sub.X and NO.sub.X and CO.sub.2 and pollutants are produced and energy is recovered during the remediation which recycles combustion products and adds oxygen to support combustion. The temperature and/or pressure of the combustion products are changed by cooling through heat exchange with thermodynamic working fluids in the power generation cycle and/or compressing and/or heating and/or expanding the combustion products to a temperature/pressure combination below the dew point of at least some of the condensable vapors to condense liquid having some acid gases dissolved and/or entrained and/or directly condense acid gas vapors from the combustion products and to entrain and/or dissolve some of the pollutants while recovering sensible and/or latent heat from the combustion products through heat exchange between the combustion products and thermodynamic working fluids and/or cooling fluids used in the power generating cycle. Then the CO.sub.2, SO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O poor and oxygen enriched remediation stream is sent to an exhaust and/or an air separation unit and/or a turbine.

Ochs, Thomas L. (Albany, OR); O'Connor, William K. (Lebanon, OR)

2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

97

Flue-gas sulfur-recovery plant for a multifuel boiler  

SciTech Connect

In October 1991, a Finnish fluting mill brought on stream a flue-gas desulfurization plant with an SO{sub 2} reduction capacity of 99%. The desulfurization plant enabled the mill to discontinue the use of its sulfur burner for SO{sub 2} production. The required makeup sulfur is now obtained in the form of sulfuric acid used by the acetic acid plant, which operates in conjunction with the evaporating plant. The mill`s sulfur consumption has decreased by about 6,000 tons/year (13.2 million lb/year) because of sulfur recycling.

Miettunen, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland); Aitlahti, S. [Savon Sellu Oy, Kuopio (Finland)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 13, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The NOXSO process is a dry, post-combustion flue gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from the flue gas of a coal-fired utility boiler. In the process, the SO{sub 2} is converted to a sulfur by-product and the NO{sub x} is converted to nitrogen and oxygen. It is predicted that the process can economically remove 90% of the acid rain precursor gases from the flue gas stream in a retrofit or new facility. The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project is to design, construct, and operate a flue gas treatment system utilizing the NOXSO process. The effectiveness of the process will be demonstrated by achieving significant reductions in emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. In addition, sufficient operating data will be obtained to confirm the process economics and provide a basis to guarantee performance on a commercial scale. The project is presently in the project definition and preliminary design phase. Data obtained during pilot plant testing which was completed on July 30, 1993 is being incorporated in the design of the commercial size plant. A suitable host site to demonstrate the NOXSO process on a commercial scale is presently being sought. Preliminary engineering activities involved evaluating various design options for the major process vessels with the principal focus being on the sorbent heater vessel, which is operated at the highest temperature. Additionally, the impact of the NOXSO system on power plant particulate emissions and opacity was estimated. It is predicted that particulate emissions will decrease slightly while opacity will increase slightly. Neither change will be significant enough to have an impact on emissions compliance. Advertised performance of the proposed adsorber separator is being verified by laboratory testing. Process studies activities included POC equipment inspection and materials evaluations.

NONE

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

99

Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Quarterly technical report No. 8, [January--March 1994  

SciTech Connect

During the first quarter of 1994, we continued work on Tasks 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. We also began work on Task 7. In Task 2, we incorporated 4.5% O{sub 2} into our simulated flue gas stream during this quarter`s NO{sub x}-absorption experiments. We also ran experiments using Cobalt (II)-phthalocyanine as an absorbing agent We observed higher absorption capacities when using this solution with the simulated flue gas containing O{sub 2}. In Task 3, we synthesized a few EDTA polymer analogs. We also began scaled up synthesis of Co(II)-phthalocyanine for use in Task 5. In Task 4, we performed experiments for measuring distribution coefficients (m{sub i}) Of SO{sub 2} between aqueous and organic phases. This was done using the liquor regenerating apparatus described in Task 6. In Task 5, we began working with Co(II)-phthalocyanine in the 301 fiber hollow fiber contactor. We also calculated mass transfer coefficients (K{sub olm}) for these runs, and we observed that the gas side resistance dominates mass transfer. In Task 6, in the liquor regeneration apparatus, we observed 90% recovery of SO{sub 2} by DMA from water used as the scrubbing solution. We also calculated the distribution of coefficients (m{sub i}). In Task 7, we established and began implementing a methodology for completing this task.

Bhown, A.S.; Alvarado, D.; Pakala, N.; Ventura, S. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)] [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Sirkar, K.K.; Majumdar, S.; Bhaumick, D. [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States)] [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds  

SciTech Connect

Oxidation of Hg0 with any oxidant or converting it to a particle-bound form can facilitate its removal. Two sulfur-chlorine compounds, sulfur dichloride (SCl2) and sulfur monochloride (S2Cl2), were investigated as oxidants for Hg0 by gas phase reaction and by surface-involved reactions in the presence of flyash or activated carbon. The gas phase reaction rate constants between Hg0 and the sulfur/chlorine compounds were determined, and the effects of temperature and the main components in flue gases were studied. The gas phase reaction between Hg0 and SCl2 is shown to be more rapid than the gas phase reaction with chlorine, and the second order rate constant was 9.1(+-0.5) x 10-18 mL-molecules-1cdots-1 at 373oK. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibited the gas phase reaction of Hg0 with sulfur-chlorine compounds. The presence of flyash or powdered activated carbon in flue gas can substantially accelerate the reaction. The predicted Hg0 removal is about 90percent with 5 ppm SCl2 or S2Cl2 and 40 g/m3 of flyash in flue gas. The combination of activated carbon and sulfur-chlorine compounds is an effective alternative. We estimate that co-injection of 3-5 ppm of SCl2 (or S2Cl2) with 2-3 Lb/MMacf of untreated Darco-KB is comparable in efficiency to the injection of 2-3 Lb/MMacf Darco-Hg-LH. Extrapolation of kinetic results also indicates that 90percent of Hg0 can be removed if 3 Lb/MMacf of Darco-KB pretreated with 3percent of SCl2 or S2Cl2 is used. Unlike gas phase reactions, NO exhibited little effect on Hg0 reactions with SCl2 or S2Cl2 on flyash or activated carbon. Mercuric sulfide was identified as one of the principal products of the Hg0/SCl2 or Hg0/S2Cl2 reactions. Additionally, about 8percent of SCl2 or S2Cl2 in aqueous solutions is converted to sulfide ions, which would precipitate mercuric ion from FGD solution.

Chang, Shih-Ger; Yan, Nai-Qiang; Qu, Zan; Chi, Yao; Qiao, Shao-Hua; Dod, Ray; Chang, Shih-Ger; Miller, Charles

2008-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Carbon Dioxide Removal from Flue Gas Using Microporous Metal Organic Frameworks  

SciTech Connect

UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, in collaboration with Professor Douglas LeVan at Vanderbilt University (VU), Professor Adam Matzger at the University of Michigan (UM), Professor Randall Snurr at Northwestern University (NU), and Professor Stefano Brandani at the University of Edinburgh (UE), supported by Honeywell's Specialty Materials business unit and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), have completed a three-year project to develop novel microporous metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and an associated vacuum-pressure swing adsorption (vPSA) process for the removal of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas. The project leveraged the team's complementary capabilities: UOP's experience in materials development and manufacturing, adsorption process design and process commercialization; LeVan and Brandani's expertise in high-quality adsorption measurements; Matzger's experience in syntheis of MOFs and the organic components associated with MOFs; Snurr's expertise in molecular and other modeling; Honeywell's expertise in the manufacture of organic chemicals; and, EPRI's knowledge of power-generation technology and markets. The project was successful in that a selective CO{sub 2} adsorbent with good thermal stability and reasonable contaminant tolerance was discovered, and a low cost process for flue gas CO{sub 2} capture process ready to be evaluated further at the pilot scale was proposed. The team made significant progress toward the current DOE post-combustion research targets, as defined in a recent FOA issued by NETL: 90% CO{sub 2} removal with no more than a 35% increase in COE. The team discovered that favorable CO{sub 2} adsorption at more realistic flue gas conditions is dominated by one particular MOF structure type, M/DOBDC, where M designates Zn, Co, Ni, or Mg and DOBDC refers to the form of the organic linker in the resultant MOF structure, dioxybenzenedicarboxylate. The structure of the M/DOBDC MOFs consists of infinite-rod secondary building units bound by DOBDC resulting in 1D hexagonal pores about 11 angstroms in diameter. Surface areas range from 800 to 1500 sq m/g for the different MOFs. Mg/DOBDC outperformed all MOF and zeolite materials evaluated to date, with about 25 wt% CO{sub 2} captured by this MOF at flue gas conditions ({approx}0.13 atm CO{sub 2} pressure, 311K). In simulated flue gas without oxygen, the zero-length (ZLC) system was very useful in quickly simulating the effect of long term exposure to impurities on the MOFs. Detailed adsorption studies on MOF pellets have shown that water does not inhibit CO{sub 2} adsorption for MOFs as much as it does for typical zeolites. Moreover, some MOFs retain a substantial CO{sub 2} capacity even with a modest water loading at room temperature. Molecular modeling was a key activity in three areas of our earlier DOE/NETL-sponsored MOF-based research on CC. First, the team was able to effectively simulate CO{sub 2} and other gas adsorption isotherms for more than 20 MOFs, and the knowledge obtained was used to help predict new MOF structures that should be effective for CO{sub 2} adsorption at low pressure. The team also showed that molecular modeling could be utilized to predict the hydrothermal stability of a given MOF. Finally, the team showed that low moisture level exposure actually enhanced the CO{sub 2} adsorption performance of a particular MOF, HKUST-1.

David A Lesch

2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

102

Potential Agricultural Uses of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum in the Northern Great Plains  

SciTech Connect

Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a byproduct from the combustion of coal for electrical energy production. Currently, FGDG is being produced by 15 electrical generating stations in Alabama, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Ohio, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Wisconsin. Much of this byproduct is used in the manufacturing of wallboard. The National Network for Use of FGDG in Agriculture was initiated to explore alternative uses of this byproduct. In the northern Great Plains (North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana), FGDG has the potential to be used as a Ca or S fertilizer, as an acid soil ameliorant, and for reclaiming or mitigating sodium-affected soils. Greater than 1.4 million Mg of FGDG could initially be used in these states for these purposes. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum can be an agriculturally important resource for helping to increase the usefulness of problem soils and to increase crop and rangeland production. Conducting beneficial use audits would increase the public awareness of this product and help identify to coal combustion electrical generating stations the agriculturally beneficial outlets for this byproduct.

DeSutter, T.M.; Cihacek, L.J. [North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND (United States). Department of Soil Science

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

103

Flue gas cleaning with ammonia reduces SO{sub 2} emission  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the technical and commercial development and basis for application in North America for wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) of the AMASOX{reg_sign} (i.e. Ammonia Absorbs Sulfur Oxides) Process of Krupp Uhde (Germany) employing ammonia reagent. This process technology has been emerging slowly and stepwise over a twenty-year period in reaching the present stage of commercial applicability. The discussion herein considers the need for accommodating to and advantageously addressing the increasing number of applications with high and ultra-high flue-gas concentrations of SO{sub 2} at the boiler outlet accompanied by significant levels of other pollutants. Key measures in accomplishing this include use of important process innovations. This, as well, calls for the effective use, when applicable, of wet electrostatic precipitator mist-elimination means to gain low/minimum-opacity stack plume trailoff in wet scrubber use together with reduction of air toxics to low concentrations. With cost-effectiveness in electric utility service, detailed herein, superior to FGD processes commonly used to date in high-sulfur service, utilization of this technology is expanding. Important, potentially trend-setting types of powerplant applications of ammonia FGD are reviewed to identify foreseen market sectors and procurement trends that will at the same time serve to substantially broaden lowest-cost coal utilization.

Emish, G.J. [Krupp Wilputte Corp., Bridgeville, PA (United States); Schulte, W. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany); Ellison, W. [Ellison Consultants, Monrovia, MD (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

104

Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA. This topical report covers Subphase 2a which is the design phase of pilot demonstration subsystems. Materials of construction have been selected and proven in both lab scale and prototype testing to be acceptable for the reagent conditions of interest. The target application for the reactive carbonate material has been selected based upon small-scale feasibility studies and the design of a continuous fiber board production line has been completed. The electrochemical cell architecture and components have been selected based upon both lab scale and prototype testing. The appropriate quality control and diagnostic techniques have been developed and tested along with the required instrumentation and controls. Finally the demonstrate site infrastructure, NEPA categorical exclusion, and permitting is all ready for the construction and installation of the new units and upgrades.

Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Cooler and particulate separator for an off-gas stack  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This report describes an off-gas stack for a melter, furnace or reaction vessel comprising an air conduit leading to two sets of holes, one set injecting air into the off-gas stack near the melter plenum and the second set injecting air downstream of the first set. The first set injects air at a compound angle, having both downward and tangential components, to create a reverse vortex flow, counter to the direction of flow of gas through the stack and also along the periphery of the stack interior surface. Air from the first set of holes prevents recirculation zones from forming and the attendant accumulation of particulate deposits on the wall of the stack and will also return to the plenum any particulate swept up in the gas entering the stack. The second set of holes injects air in the same direction as the gas in the stack to compensate for the pressure drop and to prevent the concentration of condensate in the stack. A set of sprayers, receiving water from a second conduit, is located downstream of the second set of holes and sprays water into the gas to further cool it.

Wright, G.T.

1991-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

106

Cooler and particulate separator for an off-gas stack  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An off-gas stack for a melter comprising an air conduit leading to two sets of holes, one set injecting air into the off-gas stack near the melter plenum and the second set injecting air downstream of the first set. The first set injects air at a compound angle, having both downward and tangential components, to create a reverse vortex flow, counter to the direction of flow of gas through the stack and also along the periphery of the stack interior surface. Air from the first set of holes pervents recirculation zones from forming and the attendant accumulation of particulate deposits on the wall of the stack and will also return to the plenum any particulate swept up in the gas entering the stack. The second set of holes injects air in the same direction as the gas in the stack to compensate for the pressure drop and to prevent the concentration of condensate in the stack. A set of sprayers, receiving water from a second conduit, is located downstream of the second set of holes and sprays water into the gas to further cool it.

Wright, George T. (15 Cherry Hills Dr., Aiken, SC 29803)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES  

SciTech Connect

This is the fourth annual report describing the activities performed under Task 1 of Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This work is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. This report summarizes characterizations of ash and char samples from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities. Efforts are under way to develop a method for preserving fragile filter cakes formed on ceramic filter elements. The HGCU data base was formatted for Microsoft Access 97 ® . Plans for the remainder of the project include characterization of additional samples collected during site visits to the Department of Energy / Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility and completion and delivery of the HGCU data base.

None

1999-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

108

PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES  

SciTech Connect

This is the fourth annual report describing the activities performed under Task 1 of Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This work is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. This report summarizes characterizations of ash and char samples from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities. Efforts are under way to develop a method for preserving fragile filter cakes formed on ceramic filter elements. The HGCU data base was formatted for Microsoft Access 97{reg_sign}. Plans for the remainder of the project include characterization of additional samples collected during site visits to the Department of Energy/Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility and completion and delivery of the HGCU data base.

NONE

1999-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

109

PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES  

SciTech Connect

This is the fourth annual report describing the activities performed under Task 1 of Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This work is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. This report summarizes characterizations of ash and char samples from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities. Efforts are under way to develop a method for preserving fragile filter cakes formed on ceramic filter elements. The HGCU data base was formatted for Microsoft Access 97 ® . Plans for the remainder of the project include characterization of additional samples collected during site visits to the Department of Energy / Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility and completion and delivery of the HGCU data base.

NONE

1998-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

110

Management of dry flue gas dsulfurization by-products in underground mines - an update  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, the U.S. produced about 100 million tons of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) primarily from conventional coal-fired boilers. The requirement to reduce SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions to comply with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) force utilities to adopt advanced combustion and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies, such as wet scrubbers, fluidized bed combustion (FBC), dry sorbent duct or furnace injection. These technologies will double to triple the amount of FGD by-products while only slightly increasing the amounts of conventional combustion residues, such as fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag. This paper describes a program concerned with the underground disposal of combustion products in abandoned underground coal mines.

Chugh, Y.P.; Thomasson, E.M. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

The desulfurization of flue gas at the Mae Moh Power Plant Units 12 and 13  

SciTech Connect

As pollution of air, water and ground increasingly raises worldwide concern, the responsible national and international authorities establish and issue stringent regulations in order to maintain an acceptable air quality in the environment. In Thailand, the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) takes full responsibility in environmental protection matters as well as in generating the electricity needed to supply the country`s very rapid power demand growth. Due to the rapidly increasing electricity demand of the country, EGAT had decided to install two further lignite-fired units of 300 MW each (Units 12 and 13) at the Mae Moh power generation station and they are now under construction. The arrangement and the capacity of all the power plant units are as shown. In 1989, EGAT started the work on the flue gas desulfurization system of Mae Moh power plant units 12 and 13 as planned. A study has been conducted to select the most suitable and most economical process for flue gas desulfurization. The wet scrubbing limestone process was finally selected for the two new units. Local limestone will be utilized in the process, producing a by-product of gypsum. Unfortunately, natural gypsum is found in abundance in Thailand, so the produced gypsum will be treated as landfill by mixing it with ash from the boilers of the power plants and then carrying it to the ash dumping area. The water from the waste ash water lake is utilized in the process as much as possible to minimize the requirement of service water, which is a limited resource. The Mae Moh power generation station is situated in the northern region of Thailand, 600 km north of Bangkok and about 30 km east of the town of Lampang, close to the Mae Moh lignite mine. Three lignite-fired units (Units 1-3) of 75 MW each, four units (Units 4-7) of 150 MW each and four units (Units 8-11) of 300 MW each are in operation.

Haemapun, C.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

112

SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The SNRB{trademark} Flue Gas Cleanup Demonstration Project was cooperatively funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO), B&W, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Ohio Edison, Norton Chemical Process Products Company and the 3M Company. The SNRB{trademark} technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. Development of the SNRB{trademark} process at B&W began with pilot testing of high-temperature dry sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} removal in the 1960`s. Integration of NO{sub x} reduction was evaluated in the 1970`s. Pilot work in the 1980`s focused on evaluation of various NO{sub x} reduction catalysts, SO{sub 2} sorbents and integration of the catalyst with the baghouse. This early development work led to the issuance of two US process patents to B&W - No. 4,309,386 and No. 4,793,981. An additional patent application for improvements to the process is pending. The OCDO was instrumental in working with B&W to develop the process to the point where a larger scale demonstration of the technology was feasible. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B&W tested the SNRB{trademark} pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R. E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B&W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB{trademark} process. The SNRB{trademark} facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification - Power Plant Performance  

SciTech Connect

A technical feasibility assessment was performed for retrofitting oxy-fuel technology to an existing power plant burning low sulfur PRB fuel and high sulfur bituminous fuel. The focus of this study was on the boiler/power generation island of a subcritical steam cycle power plant. The power plant performance in air and oxy-firing modes was estimated and modifications required for oxy-firing capabilities were identified. A 460 MWe (gross) reference subcritical PC power plant was modeled. The reference air-fired plant has a boiler efficiency (PRB/Bituminous) of 86.7%/89.3% and a plant net efficiency of 35.8/36.7%. Net efficiency for oxy-fuel firing including ASU/CPU duty is 25.6%/26.6% (PRB/Bituminous). The oxy-fuel flue gas recirculation flow to the boiler is 68%/72% (PRB/bituminous) of the flue gas (average O{sub 2} in feed gas is 27.4%/26.4%v (PRB/bituminous)). Maximum increase in tube wall temperature is less than 10ºF for oxy-fuel firing. For oxy-fuel firing, ammonia injected to the SCR was shut-off and the FGD is applied to remove SOx from the recycled primary gas stream and a portion of the SOx from the secondary stream for the high sulfur bituminous coal. Based on CFD simulations it was determined that at the furnace outlet compared to air-firing, SO{sub 3}/SO{sub 2} mole ratio is about the same, NOx ppmv level is about the same for PRB-firing and 2.5 times for bituminous-firing due to shutting off the OFA, and CO mole fraction is approximately double. A conceptual level cost estimate was performed for the incremental equipment and installation cost of the oxyfuel retrofit in the boiler island and steam system. The cost of the retrofit is estimated to be approximately 81 M$ for PRB low sulfur fuel and 84 M$ for bituminous high sulfur fuel.

Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

CO2 separation from flue gas using hollow fiber membrane contactors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Research on CO Research on CO 2 Separation from Flue Gas Prof. Mengxiang Fang State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, China Global CO 2 Emissions Country CO 2 Emission (MtCO2) 1990 2003 2004 2010 USA 4,989 5,800 5,923 6,156 China 2,241 3,898 4,707 6,432 Russia 2,334 1,602 1,685 1,840 Japan 1,015 1,244 1,262 1,260 World 21,246 25,508 26,922 30,670 Source: Energy Information Administration/International Energy Outlook 2004 with High Oil Price Case CO 2 Emission in China Year Total Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Mt CO2 Mtc % Mtc % Mtc % 1990 2,241 1,886 84.2 325 14.5 30 1.34 2003 3,898 3,117 80.0 711 18.2 70 1.80 2004 4,707 3,809 80.9 816 17.3 83 1.76 2010 6,432 5,103 79.3 1,151 17.9 178 2.76 2015 7,376 5,946 80.6 1,184 16.1 246 3.33 Source: Energy Information Administration/International Energy Outlook 2004 with High Oil Price Case.

115

JV Task 5 - Evaluation of Residual Oil Fly Ash As A Mercury Sorbent For Coal Combustion Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

The mercury adsorption capacity of a residual oil fly ash (ROFA) sample collected form Florida Power and Light Company's Port Everglades Power Plant was evaluated using a bituminous coal combustion flue gas simulator and fixed-bed testing protocol. A size-segregated (>38 {micro}g) fraction of ROFA was ground to a fine powder and brominated to potentially enhance mercury capture. The ROFA and brominated-ROFA were ineffective in capturing or oxidizing the Hg{sup 0} present in a simulated bituminous coal combustion flue gas. In contrast, a commercially available DARCO{reg_sign} FGD initially adsorbed Hg{sup 0} for about an hour and then catalyzed Hg{sup 0} oxidation to produce Hg{sup 2+}. Apparently, the unburned carbon in ROFA needs to be more rigorously activated in order for it to effectively capture and/or oxidize Hg{sup 0}.

Robert Patton

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

116

Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration from Flue Gas Using an In-Duct Scrubber Coupled with Alkaline Clay Mineralization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration from Flue Gas Using an In-Duct Scrubber Coupled with Alkaline Clay Mineralization Background The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is leading an effort to find novel approaches to reduce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from industrial sources. The Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration (ICCS) program is funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) to encourage development of processes that

117

Separation of Fine Particles from Gases in Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization System Using a Cascade of Double Towers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Separation of Fine Particles from Gases in Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization System Using a Cascade of Double Towers ... The authors thank the High-Tech Research and Development Program of China (No. 2008AA05Z306), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (No. BK2008283), and the Scientific Research Foundation of Graduate School of Southeast University for their financial support. ... with high performance by cascading packed columns. ...

Jingjing Bao; Linjun Yang; Shijuan Song; Guilong Xiong

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

118

Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) System for Flue-Gas Derived Water From Oxy-Combustion Process  

SciTech Connect

Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) located in Albany, Oregon, have patented a process - Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO{sub 2} stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Capturing CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel combustion generates a significant water product which can be tapped for use in the power plant and its peripherals. Water condensed in the IPR{reg_sign} process may contain fly ash particles, sodium (from pH control), and sulfur species, as well as heavy metals, cations and anions. NETL is developing a treatment approach for zero liquid discharge while maximizing available heat from IPR. Current treatment-process steps being studied are flocculation/coagulation, for removal of cations and fine particles, and reverse osmosis, for anion removal as well as for scavenging the remaining cations. After reverse osmosis process steps, thermal evaporation and crystallization steps will be carried out in order to build the whole zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system for flue-gas condensed wastewater. Gypsum is the major product from crystallization process. Fast, in-line treatment of water for re-use in IPR seems to be one practical step for minimizing water treatment requirements for CO{sub 2} capture. The results obtained from above experiments are being used to build water treatment models.

Sivaram Harendra; Danylo Oryshchyn; Thomas Ochs; Stephen J. Gerdemann; John Clark

2011-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

119

Separation of the components of flue-gas scrubber sludge by froth flotation  

SciTech Connect

To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of. Currently, the major markets for scrubber sludge are for manufacture of gypsum products, such as wallboard and plaster, and for cement. However, the quality of the raw sludge is often not high enough or consistent enough to satisfy manufacturers, and so the material is difficult to sell. Other markets, such as paper manufacture and plastics fillers, have even more stringent quality requirements and will not accept raw sludge at all. In the work described in this paper, several reagents have been examined to determine their ability to selectively improve the flotation of the unreacted limestone contaminant away from the desirable products (calcium sulfite and gypsum). The most success has been achieved using a cationic collector, which shows a higher selectivity between calcium sulfite and calcium carbonate than do the anionic collectors that were studied.

Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

120

Heat exchanger design for thermoelectric electricity generation from low temperature flue gas streams .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??An air-to-oil heat exchanger was modeled and optimized for use in a system utilizing a thermoelectric generator to convert low grade waste heat in flue… (more)

Latcham, Jacob G. (Jacob Greco)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Using coke-battery flue gas to dry coal batch before coking  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The utilization of heat from coke-battery flue gases and other potential secondary energy resources in drying coal batch prior to coking is considered. The main factors that influence ... . The reduction in moist...

A. Ya. Eremin; V. G. Mishchikhin; S. G. Stakheev; R. R. Gilyazetdinov…

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Optical backscatter probe for sensing particulate in a combustion gas stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for sensing particulate in a combustion gas stream is disclosed. The system transmits light into a combustion gas stream, and thereafter detects a portion of the transmitted light as scattered light in an amount corresponding to the amount of particulates in the emissions. Purge gas may be supplied adjacent the light supply and the detector to reduce particles in the emissions from coating or otherwise compromising the transmission of light into the emissions and recovery of scattered light from the emissions.

Parks, James E; Partridge, William P

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

123

Next Generation Pressurized Oxy-Coal Combustion: High Efficiency and No Flue Gas Recirculation  

SciTech Connect

The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has developed a pressurized oxy-coal fired molten bed boiler (MBB) concept, in which coal and oxygen are fired directly into a bed of molten coal slag through burners located on the bottom of the boiler and fired upward. Circulation of heat by the molten slag eliminates the need for a flue gas recirculation loop and provides excellent heat transfer to steam tubes in the boiler walls. Advantages of the MBB technology over other boilers include higher efficiency (from eliminating flue gas recirculation), a smaller and less expensive boiler, modular design leading to direct scalability, decreased fines carryover and handling costs, smaller exhaust duct size, and smaller emissions control equipment sizes. The objective of this project was to conduct techno-economic analyses and an engineering design of the MBB project and to support this work with thermodynamic analyses and oxy-coal burner testing. Techno-economic analyses of GTI’s pressurized oxy-coal fired MBB technology found that the overall plant with compressed CO2 has an efficiency of 31.6%. This is a significant increase over calculated 29.2% efficiency of first generation oxy-coal plants. Cost of electricity (COE) for the pressurized MBB supercritical steam power plant with CO2 capture and compression was calculated to be 134% of the COE for an air-coal supercritical steam power plant with no CO2 capture. This compares positively with a calculated COE for first generation oxy-coal supercritical steam power plants with CO2 capture and compression of 164%. The COE for the MBB power plant is found to meet the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) target of 135%, before any plant optimization. The MBB power plant was also determined to be simpler than other oxy-coal power plants with a 17% lower capital cost. No other known combustion technology can produce higher efficiencies or lower COE when CO2 capture and compression are included. A thermodynamic enthalpy and exergy analysis found a number of modifications and adjustments that could provide higher efficiency and better use of available work. Conclusions from this analysis will help guide the analyses and CFD modeling in future process development. The MBB technology has the potential to be a disruptive technology that will enable coal combustion power plants to be built and operated in a cost effective way, cleanly with no carbon dioxide emissions. A large amount of work is needed to quantify and confirm the great promise of the MBB technology. A Phase 2 proposal was submitted to DOE and other sponsors to address the most critical MBB process technical gaps. The Phase 2 proposal was not accepted for current DOE support.

Rue, David

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

124

FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, AL). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{trademark}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{trademark} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{trademark} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{trademark} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury--elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{trademark}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{trademark} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{trademark} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2004-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

125

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2004-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

126

CO{sub 2} Capture from Flue Gas Using Solid Molecular Basket Sorbents  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a new generation of solid, regenerable polymeric molecular basket sorbent (MBS) for more cost-efficient capture and separation of CO{sub 2} from flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The primary goal is to develop a cost-effective MBS sorbent with better thermal stability. To improve the cost-effectiveness of MBS, we have explored commercially available and inexpensive support to replace the more expensive mesoporous molecular sieves like MCM-41 and SBA- 15. In addition, we have developed some advanced sorbent materials with 3D pore structure such as hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) to improve the CO{sub 2} working capacity of MBS, which can also reduce the cost for the whole CO{sub 2} capture process. During the project duration, the concern regarding the desorption rate of MBS sorbents has been raised, because lower desorption rate increases the desorption time for complete regeneration of the sorbent which in turn leads to a lower working capacity if the regeneration time is limited. Thus, the improvement in the thermal stability of MBS became a vital task for later part of this project. The improvement in the thermal stability was performed via increasing the polymer density either using higher molecular weight PEI or PEI cross-linking with an organic compound. Moreover, we have used the computational approach to estimate the interaction of CO{sub 2} with different MBSs for the fundamental understanding of CO{sub 2} sorption, which may benefit the development, design and modification of the sorbents and the process.

Fillerup, Eric; Zhang, Zhonghua; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Wang, Dongxiang; Guo, Jiahua; Ma, Xiaoliang; Wang, Xiaoxing; Song, Chunshan

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

127

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 2: SOx/Nox/Hg Removal for High Sulfur Coal  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxy-combustion technology. The objective of Task 2 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning high sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was not only to investigate a new method of flue gas purification but also to produce useful acid byproduct streams as an alternative to using a traditional FGD and SCR for flue gas processing. During the project two main constraints were identified that limit the ability of the process to achieve project goals. 1) Due to boiler island corrosion issues >60% of the sulfur must be removed in the boiler island with the use of an FGD. 2) A suitable method could not be found to remove NOx from the concentrated sulfuric acid product, which limits sale-ability of the acid, as well as the NOx removal efficiency of the process. Given the complexity and safety issues inherent in the cycle it is concluded that the acid product would not be directly saleable and, in this case, other flue gas purification schemes are better suited for SOx/NOx/Hg control when burning high sulfur coal, e.g. this project's Task 3 process or a traditional FGD and SCR.

Nick Degenstein; Minish Shah; Doughlas Louie

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Permitting and solid waste management issues for the Bailly Station wet limestone Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) system  

SciTech Connect

Pure Air (a general partnership between Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc.). is constructing a wet limestone co-current advanced flue gas desulfurization (AFGD) system that has technological and commercial advantages over conventional FGD systems in the United States. The AFGD system is being installed at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company's Bailly Generating Station near Gary, Indiana. The AFGD system is scheduled to be operational by the Summer, 1992. The AFGD system will remove at least 90 percent of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas from Boilers 7 and 8 at the Station while burning 3.2 percent sulfur coal. Also as part of testing the AFGD system, 95 percent removal of SO{sub 2} will be demonstrated on coals containing up to 4.5 percent sulfur. At the same time that SO{sub 2} is removed from the flue gas, a gypsum by-product will be produced which will be used for wallboard manufacturing. Since the AFGD system is a pollution control device, one would expect its installation to be received favorably by the public and regulatory agencies. Although the project was well received by regulatory agencies, on public group (Save the Dunes Council) was initially concerned since the project is located adjacent to the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. The purpose of this paper is to describe the project team's experiences in obtaining permits/approvals from regulatory agencies and in dealing with the public. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Bolinsky, F.T. (Pure Air, Allentown, PA (United States)); Ross, J. (Northern Indiana Public Service Co., Hammond, IN (United States)); Dennis, D.S. (United Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Denver, CO (United States). Stearns-Roger Div.); Huston, J.S. (Environmental Alternatives, Inc., Warren NJ (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Current status of MHI CO2 capture plant technology, large scale demonstration project and road map to commercialization for coal fired flue gas application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(1) It is becoming increasingly evident that the prolonged utilization of fossil fuels for primary energy production, especially coal which is relatively cheap and abundant, is inevitable and that Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology can significantly reduce CO2 emissions from this sector thus allowing the continued environmentally sustainable use of this important energy commodity on a global basis. (2) MHI has co-developed the Kansai Mitsubishi Carbon Dioxide Recovery Process (KM-CDR Process™) and KS-1™ absorbent, which has been deployed in seven CO2 capture plants, now under commercial operation operating at a CO2 capture capacity of 450 metric tons per day (tpd). In addition, a further two commercial plants are now under construction all of which capture CO2 from natural gas fired flue gas boilers and steam reformers. Accordingly this technology is now available for commercial scale CO2 capture for gas boiler and gas turbine application. (3) However before offering commercial CO2 capture plants for coal fired flue gas application, it is necessary to verify the influence of, and develop countermeasures for, related impurities contained in coal fired flue gas. This includes the influence on both the absorbent and the entire system of the CO2 capture plant to achieve high operational reliability and minimize maintenance requirements. (4) Preventing the accumulation of impurities, especially the build up of dust, is very important when treating coal fired flue gas and MHI has undertaken significant work to understand the impact of impurities in order to achieve reliable and stable operating conditions and to efficiently optimize integration between the CO2 capture plant, the coal fired power plant and the flue gas clean up equipment. (5) To achieve this purpose, MHI constructed a 10 tpd CO2 capture demonstration plant at the Matsushima 1000 MW Power Station and confirmed successful, long term demonstration following ?5000 hours of operation in 2006–07 with 50% financial support by RITE, as a joint program to promote technological development with the private sector, and cooperation from J-POWER. (6) Following successful demonstration testing at Matsushima, additional testing was undertaken in 2008 to examine the impact of entrainment of higher levels of flue gas impurities (primarily \\{SOx\\} and dust by bypassing the existing FGD) and to determine which components of the CO2 recovery process are responsible for the removal of these impurities. Following an additional 1000 demonstration hours, results indicated stable operational performance in relation to the following impurities; (1) SO2: Even at higher SO2 concentrations were almost completely removed from the flue gas before entering the CO2 absorber. (2) Dust: The accumulation of dust in the absorbent was higher, leading to an advanced understanding of the behavior of dust in the CO2 capture plant and the dust removal efficiency of each component within the CO2 recovery system. The data obtained is useful for the design of large-scale units and confirms the operating robustness of the CO2 capture plant accounting for wide fluctuations in impurity concentrations. (7) This important coal fired flue gas testing showed categorically that minimizing the accumulation of large concentrations of impurities, and to suppress dust concentrations below a prescribed level, is important to achieve long-term stable operation and to minimize maintenance work for the CO2 capture plant. To comply with the above requirement, various countermeasures have been developed which include the optimization of the impurity removal technology, flue gas pre treatment and improved optimization with the flue gas desulfurization facility. (8) In case of a commercial scale CO2 capture plant applied for coal fired flue gas, its respective size will be several thousand tpd which represents a considerable scale-up from the 10 tpd demonstration plant. In order to ensure the operational reliability and to accurately confirm the influence and the behavior of the impurities in coal fired fl

Takahiko Endo; Yoshinori Kajiya; Hiromitsu Nagayasu; Masaki Iijima; Tsuyoshi Ohishi; Hiroshi Tanaka; Ronald Mitchell

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Energy and Economic Analysis of the CO2 Capture from Flue Gas of Combined Cycle Power Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Carbon capture and storage is considered as one of the key strategies for reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide from power generation facilities. Although post-combustion capture via chemical absorption is now a mature technology, the separation of CO2 from flue gases shows many issues, including the solvent degradation and the high regeneration energy requirement, that in turn reduces the power plant performances. Focusing on a triple pressure and reheat combined cycle with exhaust gas recirculation, this paper aims to evaluate the potential impacts of integrating a post-combustion capture system, based on an absorption process with monoethanolamine solvent. Energy and economic performances of the integrated system are evaluated varying the exhaust gas recirculation fraction and the CO2 capture ratio. The different configurations examined are then compared in terms of efficiency and rated capacity of the integrated system, as well as considering the cost of electricity generated and the cost of CO2 avoided.

Maura Vaccarelli; Roberto Carapellucci; Lorena Giordano

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Air and Flue Gas in the Alkylamine-Appended Metal-Organic Framework mmen-Mg2(dobpdc)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Air and Flue Gas in the Alkylamine- Appended Metal-Organic Framework, stationary sources like coal-fired power plants, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has been proposed.4 viable absorbents for carbon capture under the aforementioned conditions, and they are presently used

132

Partitioning of mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride in a full-scale coal combustion process equipped with selective catalytic reduction, electrostatic precipitation, and flue gas desulfurization systems  

SciTech Connect

A full-scale field study was carried out at a 795 MWe coal-fired power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of selected trace elements (i.e., mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride) from coal, FGD reagent slurry, makeup water to flue gas, solid byproduct, and wastewater streams. Flue gases were collected from the SCR outlet, ESP inlet, FGD inlet, and stack. Concurrent with flue gas sampling, coal, bottom ash, economizer ash, and samples from the FGD process were also collected for elemental analysis. By combining plant operation parameters, the overall material balances of selected elements were established. The removal efficiencies of As, Se, Hg, and B by the ESP unit were 88, 56, 17, and 8%, respectively. Only about 2.5% of Cl was condensed and removed from flue gas by fly ash. The FGD process removed over 90% of Cl, 77% of B, 76% of Hg, 30% of Se, and 5% of As. About 90% and 99% of the FGD-removed Hg and Se were associated with gypsum. For B and Cl, over 99% were discharged from the coal combustion process with the wastewater. Mineral trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dehydrate, Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) was injected before the ESP unit to control the emission of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}). By comparing the trace elements compositions in the fly ash samples collected from the locations before and after the trona injection, the injection of trona did not show an observable effect on the partitioning behaviors of selenium and arsenic, but it significantly increased the adsorption of mercury onto fly ash. The stack emissions of mercury, boron, selenium, and chloride were for the most part in the gas phase. 47 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

Chin-Min Cheng; Pauline Hack; Paul Chu; Yung-Nan Chang; Ting-Yu Lin; Chih-Sheng Ko; Po-Han Chiang; Cheng-Chun He; Yuan-Min Lai; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

133

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers ProMIS/Project No.: DE-NT0005648  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Edward Levy Edward Levy Principal Investigator Director, Lehigh University Energy Research Center RecoveRy of WateR fRom BoileR flue Gas usinG condensinG Heat excHanGeRs PRomis/PRoject no.: de-nt0005648 Background As the United States' population grows and demand for electricity and water increases, power plants located in some parts of the country will find it increasingly difficult to obtain the large quantities of water needed to maintain operations. Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. Many coal-fired power plants operate with stack temperatures in the 300 °F range to minimize fouling and corrosion problems due to sulfuric acid condensation and to

134

Flue gas desulfurization sludge: establishment of vegetation on ponded and soil-applied waste. Final report January 1977-September 1981  

SciTech Connect

The report gives results of research to identify and evaluate forms of vegetation and methods of their establishment for reclaiming retired flue gas desulfurization sludge ponds. Also studied were the soil liming value of limestone scrubber sludge (LSS) and plant uptake and percolation losses of some chemical nutrients in the sludge. Several vegetation schemes were evaluated between 1977 and 1982 for covering and stabilizing LSS at Colbert Steam Plant, Cherokee, AL, and Shawnee Steam Plant, Paducah, KY. Eleven tree and 10 grass or legume species were tested for adaptability and survival when planted directly in LSS or in LSS amended with soil, municipal sewage sludge, or standard potting mix. Other studies indicated that LSS apparently has sufficient unreacted limestone to be a satisfactory soil liming agent.

Giordano, P.M.; Mays, D.A.; Soileau, J.M.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Recycling of Flue Gas Desulfurization residues in gneiss based hot mix asphalt: Materials characterization and performances evaluation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract On the one hand, huge amount of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) residues, produced during scrubbing flue gas, is discarded as solid waste. Such solid waste would cause serious environmental problems. One the other hand, high quality aggregates, such as limestone and basalt, are running out due to the rapid development of highway construction. Ungraded aggregates such as gneiss are therefore considered in China to replace the high quality aggregates. The application of FGD residues as a filler in gneiss based asphalt mixture has benefits both in environmental and economic sides. The main objective of this research was to visualize the raw materials characterization and evaluate the effect of FGD residues on the performance of gneiss based asphalt mixture. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetric & Thermal gravimetric (DSC–TG) were used to investigate the features of raw materials. The performance of gneiss based asphalt mixture including high-temperature deformation resistance, low-temperature crack resistance and moisture-induced damage resistance were evaluated. Dynamic creep test, three-point bending test, Retained Marshall Stability (RMS), Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR), Indirect Tensile (IDT) strength and Resilient Modulus (MR) test were conducted and analyzed. Dissipated Creep Strain Energy to fracture (DCSEf) ratio, fracture energy and model analysis were also used to evaluate moisture resistance, crack resistance and deformation resistance of asphalt mixture respectively. Research results indicate that FGD residues can partly improve the moisture resistance and crack resistance of gneiss asphalt mixture, while it might worse the high-temperature deformation resistance.

Zongwu Chen; Shaopeng Wu; Fuzhou Li; Juyong Chen; Zhehuan Qin; Ling Pang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Development of Fly Ash Derived Sorbents to Capture CO2 from Flue Gas of Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

This research program focused on the development of fly ash derived sorbents to capture CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas emissions. The fly ash derived sorbents developed represent an affordable alternative to existing methods using specialized activated carbons and molecular sieves, that tend to be very expensive and hinder the viability of the CO{sub 2} sorption process due to economic constraints. Under Task 1 'Procurement and characterization of a suite of fly ashes', 10 fly ash samples, named FAS-1 to -10, were collected from different combustors with different feedstocks, including bituminous coal, PRB coal and biomass. These samples presented a wide range of LOI value from 0.66-84.0%, and different burn-off profiles. The samples also spanned a wide range of total specific surface area and pore volume. These variations reflect the difference in the feedstock, types of combustors, collection hopper, and the beneficiation technologies the different fly ashes underwent. Under Task 2 'Preparation of fly ash derived sorbents', the fly ash samples were activated by steam. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms were used to characterize the resultant activated samples. The cost-saving one-step activation process applied was successfully used to increase the surface area and pore volume of all the fly ash samples. The activated samples present very different surface areas and pore volumes due to the range in physical and chemical properties of their precursors. Furthermore, one activated fly ash sample, FAS-4, was loaded with amine-containing chemicals (MEA, DEA, AMP, and MDEA). The impregnation significantly decreased the surface area and pore volume of the parent activated fly ash sample. Under Task 3 'Capture of CO{sub 2} by fly ash derived sorbents', sample FAS-10 and its deashed counterpart before and after impregnation of chemical PEI were used for the CO{sub 2} adsorption at different temperatures. The sample FAS-10 exhibited a CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 17.5mg/g at 30 C, and decreases to 10.25mg/g at 75 C, while those for de-ashed counterpart are 43.5mg/g and 22.0 mg/g at 30 C and 75 C, respectively. After loading PEI, the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increased to 93.6 mg/g at 75 C for de-ashed sample and 62.1 mg/g at 75 C for raw fly ash sample. The activated fly ash, FAS-4, and its chemical loaded counterparts were tested for CO{sub 2} capture capacity. The activated carbon exhibited a CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 40.3mg/g at 30 C that decreased to 18.5mg/g at 70 C and 7.7mg/g at 120 C. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity profiles changed significantly after impregnation. For the MEA loaded sample the capacity increased to 68.6mg/g at 30 C. The loading of MDEA and DEA initially decreased the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity at 30 C compared to the parent sample but increased to 40.6 and 37.1mg/g, respectively, when the temperature increased to 70 C. The loading of AMP decrease the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity compared to the parent sample under all the studied temperatures. Under Task 4 'Comparison of the CO{sub 2} capture by fly ash derived sorbents with commercial sorbents', the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities of selected activated fly ash carbons were compared to commercial activated carbons. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of fly ash derived activated carbon, FAS-4, and its chemical loaded counterpart presented CO{sub 2} capture capacities close to 7 wt%, which are comparable to, and even better than, the published values of 3-4%.

M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; John M. Andresen; Yinzhi Zhang; Zhe Lu

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

137

Apparatus for removal of particulate matter from gas streams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for the removal of particulate matter from the gaseous product stream of an entrained flow coal gasifier which apparatus includes an initial screen, an intermediate screen which is aligned with the direction of flow of the gaseous product stream and a final screen transversely disposed to the flow of gaseous product and which apparatus is capable of withstanding at least a pressure differential of about 10 psi (68.95 kPa) or greater at the temperatures of the gaseous product stream.

Smith, Peyton L. (Baton Rouge, LA); Morse, John C. (Baton Rouge, LA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Adsorption separation of CO2 from simulated flue gas mixtures by novel CO2 ''molecular basket'' adsorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Adsorption separation of CO2 from simulated flue gas mixtures containing CO2, O2, and N2 by using a novel CO2 ''molecular basket'' adsorbent was investigated in a flow adsorption separation system. The novel CO2 ''molecular basket'' adsorbents were developed by synthesising mesoporous molecular sieve MCM-41 and modifying it with polyethylenimine (PEI). The influence of operation conditions, including feed flow rate, temperature, feed CO2 concentration, and sweep gas flow rate, on the CO2 adsorption/desorption separation performance and CO2 breakthrough were examined. The CO2 adsorption capacity was 91.0 ml (STP)/g-PEI, which was 27 times higher than that of the MCM-41 alone. Further, the adsorbent showed separation selectivity of greater than 1000 for CO2/N2 ratio and approximately 180 for CO2/O2, which are significantly higher than those of the MCM-41, zeolites, and activated carbons. Cyclic adsorption/desorption measurements showed that the CO2 ''molecular basket'' adsorbent was stable at 75°C. However, the CO2 ''molecular basket'' adsorbent was not stable when the operation temperature was higher than 100°C.

Xiaochun Xu; Chunshan Song; John M. Andresen; Bruce G. Miller; Alan W. Scaroni

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Development and Demonstration of Waste Heat Integration with Solvent Process for More Efficient CO2 Removal from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

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and Demonstration of and Demonstration of Waste Heat Integration with Solvent Process for More Efficient CO 2 Removal from Coal-Fired Flue Gas Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) Existing Plants, Emissions, & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-

140

Experimental research on emission and removal of dioxins in flue gas from a co-combustion of MSW and coal incinerator  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the experimental study of dioxins removal from flue gas from a co-combustion municipal solid waste and coal incinerator by means of a fluidized absorption tower and a fabric filter. A test rig has been set up. The flow rate of flue gas of the test rig is 150-2000 m{sup 3}/h. The system was composed of a humidification and cooling system, an absorption tower, a demister, a slurry make-up tank, a desilter, a fabric filter and a measurement system. The total height of the absorption tower was 6.5 m, and the diameter of the reactor pool was 1.2 m. When the absorbent was 1% limestone slurry, the recirculation ratio was 3, the jet rate was 5-15 m/s and the submerged depth of the bubbling pipe under the slurry was 0.14 m, the removal efficiency for dioxins was 99.35%. The concentration of dioxins in the treated flue gas was 0.1573 x 10{sup -13} kg/Nm{sup 3} and the concentration of oxygen was 11%. This concentration is comparable to the emission standards of other developed countries.

Zhong Zhaoping [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)]. E-mail: zzhong@seu.edu.cn; Jin Baosheng [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Huang Yaji [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Zhou Hongcang [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Lan Jixiang [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

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141

Application of a low pressure economizer for waste heat recovery from the exhaust flue gas in a 600 MW power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a case study of recovering the waste heat of the exhaust flue gas before entering a flue gas desulphurizer (FGD) in a 600 MW power plant. This waste heat can be recovered by installing a low pressure economizer (LPE) to heat the condensed water which can save the steam extracted from the steam turbine for heating the condensed water and then extra work can be obtained. The energy and water savings and the reduction of CO2 emission resulted from the LPE installation are assessed for three cases in a 600 MW coal-fired power plant with wet stack. Serpentine pipes with quadrate finned extensions are selected for the LPE heat exchanger which has an overall coefficient of heat transfer of 37 W/m2·K and the static pressure loss of 781 Pa in the optimized case. Analysis results show that it is feasible to install \\{LPEs\\} in the exhaust flue gas system between the pressurizing fan and the FGD, which has little negative impacts on the unit. The benefits generated include saving of standard coal equivalent (SCE) at 2–4 g/(kW·h) and saving of water at 25–35 t/h under full load operation with corresponding reduction of CO2 emission.

Chaojun Wang; Boshu He; Shaoyang Sun; Ying Wu; Na Yan; Linbo Yan; Xiaohui Pei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Flue Gas Purification Utilizing SOx/NOx Reactions During Compression of CO{sub 2} Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion  

SciTech Connect

The United States wishes to decrease foreign energy dependence by utilizing the country’s significant coal reserves, while stemming the effects of global warming from greenhouse gases. In response to these needs, Air Products has developed a patented process for the compression and purification of the CO{sub 2} stream from oxyfuel combustion of pulverized coal. The purpose of this project was the development and performance of a comprehensive experimental and engineering evaluation to determine the feasibility of purifying CO{sub 2} derived from the flue gas generated in a tangentially fired coal combustion unit operated in the oxy-combustion mode. Following the design and construction of a 15 bar reactor system, Air Products conducted two test campaigns using the slip stream from the tangentially fired oxy-coal combustion unit. During the first test campaign, Air Products evaluated the reactor performance based on both the liquid and gaseous reactor effluents. The data obtained from the test run has enabled Air Products to determine the reaction and mass transfer rates, as well as the effectiveness of the reactor system. During the second test campaign, Air Products evaluated reactor performance based on effluents for different reactor pressures, as well as water recycle rates. Analysis of the reaction equations indicates that both pressure and water flow rate affect the process reaction rates, as well as the overall reactor performance.

Fogash, Kevin

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

143

Flue Gas Perification Utilizing SOx/NOx Reactions During Compression of CO2 Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion  

SciTech Connect

The United States wishes to decrease foreign energy dependence by utilizing the country’s significant coal reserves, while stemming the effects of global warming from greenhouse gases. In response to these needs, Air Products has developed a patented process for the compression and purification of the CO2 stream from oxyfuel combustion of pulverized coal. The purpose of this project was the development and performance of a comprehensive experimental and engineering evaluation to determine the feasibility of purifying CO2 derived from the flue gas generated in a tangentially fired coal combustion unit operated in the oxy-combustion mode. Following the design and construction of a 15 bar reactor system, Air Products conducted two test campaigns using the slip stream from the tangentially fired oxy-coal combustion unit. During the first test campaign, Air Products evaluated the reactor performance based on both the liquid and gaseous reactor effluents. The data obtained from the test run has enabled Air Products to determine the reaction and mass transfer rates, as well as the effectiveness of the reactor system. During the second test campaign, Air Products evaluated reactor performance based on effluents for different reactor pressures, as well as water recycle rates. Analysis of the reaction equations indicates that both pressure and water flow rate affect the process reaction rates, as well as the overall reactor performance.

Kevin Fogash

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

144

Impact of additives for enhanced sulfur dioxide removal on re-emissions of mercury in wet flue gas desulfurization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The wet flue gas desulfurization process (FGD) in fossil fired power plants offers the advantage of simultaneously removing SO2 and other water soluble pollutants, such as certain oxidized mercury compounds (Hg2+). In order to maximize SO2 removal efficiency of installed FGD units, organic additives can be utilized. In the context of multi-pollutant control by wet FGD, the effect of formic and adipic acid on redox reactions of dissolved mercury compounds is investigated with a continuously operated lab-scale test-rig. For sulfite ( SO 3 2 - ) concentrations above a certain critical value, their potential as reducing agent leads to rapidly increasing formation and re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg0). Increasing chloride concentration and decreasing pH and slurry temperature have been identified as key factors for depressing Hg0 re-emissions. Both organic additives have a negative impact on Hg-retention and cause increased Hg0 re-emissions in the wet FGD process, with formic acid being the significantly stronger reducing agent. Different pathways of Hg2+ reduction were identified by qualitative interpretation of the pH-dependence and by comparison of activation enthalpies and activation entropies. While the first mechanism proposed identifies SO 3 2 - as reducing agent and is therefore relevant for any FGD process, the second mechanism involves the formate anion, thus being exclusively relevant for \\{FGDs\\} utilizing formic acid as additive.

Barna Heidel; Melanie Hilber; Günter Scheffknecht

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Optimization and heat integration of hollow fiber based thermal swing adsorption process for CO2 capture from flue gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This work studies the optimization of a hollow fiber contactor operated in a rapid temperature swing adsorption (RTSA) mode for CO2 capture from flue gas. A hollow fiber contactor enables rapid heat and mass transfer and an efficient heat integration whereby parasitic loads on power plants can be reduced significantly compared to the traditional thermal swing adsorption processes. In this paper we employ a dynamic optimization strategy to predict the optimal operating conditions of a hollow fiber RTSA process for different process design objectives. The objective function considered was to maximize the feed throughput of the process with constraints for the required CO2 purity and recovery. Furthermore, the external heat and cold utilities must be minimized. The optimization requires a dynamic heat integration i.e. redistributing the hot and cold stream outlet between different parts of a cycle which is challenging and unconventional. This has been performed using a binary decision variable which switches the outlet water stream between hot and cold tanks. We also show that a multi- objective optimization approach can be employed to determine the optimal trade-off between heat duty and process throughput. Optimization was performed using a single discretization approach within gPROMS.

Subramanian Swernath; Fateme Rezaei; Jayashree Kalyanaraman; Ryan. P. Lively; Matthew J. Realff; Yoshiaki Kawajiri

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy - Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned underground coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of coal combustion by-products. The two technologies for the underground placement that will be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement, using virtually dry materials, and (2) hydraulic placement, using a {open_quotes}paste{close_quotes} mixture of materials with about 70% solids. Phase II of the overall program began April 1, 1996. The principal objective of Phase II is to develop and fabricate the equipment for placing the coal combustion by-products underground, and to conduct a demonstration of the technologies on the surface. Therefore, this quarter has been largely devoted to developing specifications for equipment components, visiting fabrication plants throughout Southern Illinois to determine their capability for building the equipment components in compliance with the specifications, and delivering the components in a timely manner.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Membrane loop process for separating carbon dioxide for use in gaseous form from flue gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process involving membrane-based gas separation for separating and recovering carbon dioxide emissions from combustion processes in partially concentrated form, and then transporting the carbon dioxide and using or storing it in a confined manner without concentrating it to high purity. The process of the invention involves building up the concentration of carbon dioxide in a gas flow loop between the combustion step and a membrane separation step. A portion of the carbon dioxide-enriched gas can then be withdrawn from this loop and transported, without the need to liquefy the gas or otherwise create a high-purity stream, to a destination where it is used or confined, preferably in an environmentally benign manner.

Wijmans, Johannes G; Baker, Richard W; Merkel, Timothy C

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

148

Advances of flue gas desulfurization technology for coal-fired boilers and strategies for sulfur dioxide pollution prevention in China  

SciTech Connect

Coal is one of the most important kinds of energy resources at the present time and in the immediate future in China. Sulfur dioxide resulting from combustion of coal is one of the principle pollutants in the air. Control of SO{sub 2} discharge is still a major challenge for environmental protection in developing China. In this paper, research, development and application of technology of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) for coal-fired boilers in China will be reviewed with emphasis on cost-effective technology, and the development trends of FGD technology, as well as the strategy for SO{sub 2} discharge control in China, will be analyzed. A practical technology for middle-small-sized boilers developed by the primary author and the field investigation results will also be presented. At present, there are four major kinds of FGD technologies that are practical to be applied in China for their cost-effectiveness and efficiency to middle-small-sized boilers. An important development trend of the FGD technology for middle-small-sized boilers for the next decade is improvement of the existing cost-effective wet-type FGD technology, and in the future it will be the development of dry-type FGD technology. For middle-sized generating boilers, the development direction of the FGD technology is the spraying and drying process. For large-sized generating boilers, the wet-type limestone-plaster process will still be applied in the immediate future, and dry-type FGD technologies, such as ammonia with electron beam irradiation, will be developed in the future. State strategies for the control of SO{sub 2} discharge will involve the development and popularization of efficient coal-fired devices, extension of gas coal and liquefied coal, spreading coal washing, and centralized heating systems.

Yang, C.; Zeng, G.; Li, G.; Qiu, J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Aminosilane-Grafted Polymer/Silica Hollow Fiber Adsorbents for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this approach, polymeric hollow fibers similar to those already prepared on commercial scales for membrane gas separations are prepared and loaded with large volumes of solid CO2 adsorbing materials. ... In this regard, the hollow fiber RTSA process is ideally suited for application of typical silica amine adsorbents, as it (i) allows for effective heat integration,(11) (ii) gives fast cycle times (expected to be on the order of 2–4 min),(8) and (iii) minimizes contact of aminosilica-adsorbents with high-temperature steam, which can degrade the adsorbent. ... The moles of CO2 adsorbed were calculated by integration of the area bounded by the CO2 breakthrough front and the He breakthrough front from the initial concentration to the final equilibration concentration. ...

Fateme Rezaei; Ryan P. Lively; Ying Labreche; Grace Chen; Yanfang Fan; William J. Koros; Christopher W. Jones

2013-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

150

Impact of Alternative Fuels on Emissions Characteristics of a Gas Turbine Engine – Part 1: Gaseous and Particulate Matter Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Impact of Alternative Fuels on Emissions Characteristics of a Gas Turbine Engine – Part 1: Gaseous and Particulate Matter Emissions ... † Center of Excellence for Aerospace Particulate Emissions Reduction Research, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65409, United States ... Growing concern over emissions from increased airport operations has resulted in a need to assess the impact of aviation related activities on local air quality in and around airports, and to develop strategies to mitigate these effects. ...

Prem Lobo; Lucas Rye; Paul I. Williams; Simon Christie; Ilona Uryga-Bugajska; Christopher W. Wilson; Donald E. Hagen; Philip D. Whitefield; Simon Blakey; Hugh Coe; David Raper; Mohamed Pourkashanian

2012-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

151

Effect of flue gas impurities on the process of injection and storage of carbon dioxide in depleted gas reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Previous experiments - injecting pure CO2 into carbonate cores - showed that the process is a win-win technology, sequestrating CO2 while recovering a significant amount of hitherto unrecoverable natural gas that could help defray the cost of CO2...

Nogueira de Mago, Marjorie Carolina

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Quarterly technical report, October 1--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The initial pilot-scale testing of two additives was completed at CONSOL`s research coal combustor. The results and conclusions from this test series and subsequent analysis of the data are presented in this report. Table 1 summarizes the conditions tested. During the tests, the research combustor was firing a medium-sulfur coal. The combustor had recently been retrofitted with low-NOx burners for a DOE Clean Coal test program. Operation of the low-NOx burners required a reduced flow rate in the combustor, resulting in lower flow and velocity in the ESP. A comprehensive baseline condition was tested, followed by initial screening runs for several additives. It was discovered that the flyash exhibited properties characteristic of a high-resistivity ash. In-situ measurements at the ESP inlet confirmed that the resistivity was in the 10{sup 10} -- 10{sup 12} ohm-cm range. In addition, the ESP plate rappers were not able to remove ash buildup on the first section during normal operation. Power off rapping was periodically required to fully clean the plates; this is a clear indication of high-resistivity conditions. Since the major benefit of ESP additives will be to reduce reentrainment at low to midrange resistivity, this operating condition was undesirable for performance testing. It was decided to continue the program with SO{sub 3} conditioning of the flue gas to reduce particle resistivity. It was also decided to operate with two rather than three electrical fields energized. By reducing the ESP collection area, it was hoped that it would be easier to measure changes in ESP performance and to see an immediate indication of the effectiveness Of SO{sub 3} conditioning. The ESP was reconfigured with two electrical sections energized and SO{sub 3} conditioning at a rate of approximately 20 ppM. An additional baseline was run, followed by extended tests with two additives referred to in this report as Additive ``C`` and Additive ``D.``

Durham, M.D.; Baldrey, K.E.

1994-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

153

Adsorption and desorption of sulfur dioxide on novel adsorbents for flue gas desulfurization. Final report, September 1, 1994--February 29, 1996  

SciTech Connect

A sol-gel granulation method was developed to prepare spherical {gamma}-alumina granular supports and supported CuO granular sorbents for flue gas desulfurization. The prepared {gamma}-alumina supported CuO sorbents exhibit desirable pore structure and excellent mechanical properties. The sorbents contain higher loading (30-40 wt. %) of CuO dispersed in the monolayer or sub-monolayer form, giving rise to a larger SO{sub 2} sorption capacity ({gt}20 wt.%) and a faster sorption rate as compared to similar sorbents reported in the literature. With these excellent sulfation and mechanical properties, the sol-gel derived {gamma}-alumina supported CuO granular sorbents offer great potential for use in the dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization process. Research efforts were also made to prepare DAY zeolite supported sorbents with various CuO contents by the microwave and conventional thermal dispersion methods at different conditions. Monolayer or sub-monolayer coating of Cu(NO{sub 3})sub 2 or CuO was achieved on several DAY supported sorbents by the microwave heating method but not by the conventional thermal dispersion method. The DAY zeolite supported CuO sorbents prepared by the microwave heating method can adsorb up to 15 wt.% of SO{sub 2}. The results obtained have demonstrated the feasibility of effective preparation of zeolite supported CuO sorbents by the microwave heating method.

Lin, Y.S.; Deng, S.G.

1996-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

154

Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Second year, second quarterly technical progress report, Quarter No. 6, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995  

SciTech Connect

To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of. This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}{sm_bullet}0.5H{sub 2}O), gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{sm_bullet}2H{sub 2}O), and unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}), with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides, silica, and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. These impurities prevent many sludges from being utilized as a replacement for natural gypsum, and as a result they must be disposed of in landfills, which presents a serious disposal problem. This project is studying the characteristics of flue-gas scrubber sludges from several sources, which is necessary for the development of purification technologies which will make it possible to directly utilize scrubber sludges rather than landfilling them. This purification will consist of minimal-reagent froth flotation, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified calcium sulfite/gypsum product.

KAwatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Evaluation of a Combined Cyclone and Gas Filtration System for Particulate Removal in the Gasification Process  

SciTech Connect

The Wabash gasification facility, owned and operated by sgSolutions LLC, is one of the largest single train solid fuel gasification facilities in the world capable of transforming 2,000 tons per day of petroleum coke or 2,600 tons per day of bituminous coal into synthetic gas for electrical power generation. The Wabash plant utilizes Phillips66 proprietary E-Gas (TM) Gasification Process to convert solid fuels such as petroleum coke or coal into synthetic gas that is fed to a combined cycle combustion turbine power generation facility. During plant startup in 1995, reliability issues were realized in the gas filtration portion of the gasification process. To address these issues, a slipstream test unit was constructed at the Wabash facility to test various filter designs, materials and process conditions for potential reliability improvement. The char filtration slipstream unit provided a way of testing new materials, maintenance procedures, and process changes without the risk of stopping commercial production in the facility. It also greatly reduced maintenance expenditures associated with full scale testing in the commercial plant. This char filtration slipstream unit was installed with assistance from the United States Department of Energy (built under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-97FT34158) and began initial testing in November of 1997. It has proven to be extremely beneficial in the advancement of the E-Gas (TM) char removal technology by accurately predicting filter behavior and potential failure mechanisms that would occur in the commercial process. After completing four (4) years of testing various filter types and configurations on numerous gasification feed stocks, a decision was made to investigate the economic and reliability effects of using a particulate removal gas cyclone upstream of the current gas filtration unit. A paper study had indicated that there was a real potential to lower both installed capital and operating costs by implementing a char cyclonefiltration hybrid unit in the E-Gas (TM) gasification process. These reductions would help to keep the E-Gas (TM) technology competitive among other coal-fired power generation technologies. The Wabash combined cyclone and gas filtration slipstream test program was developed to provide design information, equipment specification and process control parameters of a hybrid cyclone and candle filter particulate removal system in the E-Gas (TM) gasification process that would provide the optimum performance and reliability for future commercial use. The test program objectives were as follows: 1. Evaluate the use of various cyclone materials of construction; 2. Establish the optimal cyclone efficiency that provides stable long term gas filter operation; 3. Determine the particle size distribution of the char separated by both the cyclone and candle filters. This will provide insight into cyclone efficiency and potential future plant design; 4. Determine the optimum filter media size requirements for the cyclone-filtration hybrid unit; 5. Determine the appropriate char transfer rates for both the cyclone and filtration portions of the hybrid unit; 6. Develop operating procedures for the cyclone-filtration hybrid unit; and, 7. Compare the installed capital cost of a scaled-up commercial cyclone-filtration hybrid unit to the current gas filtration design without a cyclone unit, such as currently exists at the Wabash facility.

Rizzo, Jeffrey J. [Phillips66 Company, West Terre Haute, IN (United States)

2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

156

Measurement of particulate matter and trace elements from a coal-fired power plant with electrostatic precipitators equipped the low temperature economizer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The particulate matter and trace elements from a 660 MW coal-fired power plant boiler which equipped with a novel electrostatic precipitator were sampled and analyzed. To promote the thermal efficiency of power plants, a low temperature economizer was installed at the inlet of electrostatic precipitator to collect the heat generated from flue gas. The low temperature economizer can reduce flue gas temperature, and then affect the operation of electrostatic precipitator. Therefore, this experiment was carried out to investigate the collection characteristics of this novel electrostatic precipitator on particulate matter. In addition, the distribution of trace elements in solid combustion residues was also studied. The results indicate that the low temperature economizer can markedly decrease the amount of particulate matter at the outlet of electrostatic precipitator. The collection efficiency of electrostatic precipitator on particulate matter is significantly improved by the low temperature economizer, whereby the collection efficiencies of PM2.5 and PM1.0 can reach 99.7% and 99.2%, respectively. Most of the trace elements remain in the fly ash collected by the electrostatic precipitator, and less than 10% remain in the bottom ash, but very rare emit from the electrostatic precipitator. The low temperature economizer not only reduces the emission of particulate matter, but also diminishes the emissions of trace elements in flue gas. The enrichment characteristics of trace elements in submicron particles were also studied.

Chao Wang; Xiaowei Liu; Dong Li; Junping Si; Bo Zhao; Minghou Xu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 3: SOx/NOx/Hg Removal for Low Sulfur Coal  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxycombustion technology. The objective of Task 3 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning low sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was to conduct an experimental investigation and to develop a novel process for simultaneously removal of SOx and NOx from power plants that would operate on low sulfur coal without the need for wet-FGD & SCRs. A novel purification process operating at high pressures and ambient temperatures was developed. Activated carbonâ??s catalytic and adsorbent capabilities are used to oxidize the sulfur and nitrous oxides to SO{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} species, which are adsorbed on the activated carbon and removed from the gas phase. Activated carbon is regenerated by water wash followed by drying. The development effort commenced with the screening of commercially available activated carbon materials for their capability to remove SO{sub 2}. A bench-unit operating in batch mode was constructed to conduct an experimental investigation of simultaneous SOx and NOx removal from a simulated oxyfuel flue gas mixture. Optimal operating conditions and the capacity of the activated carbon to remove the contaminants were identified. The process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx. In the longevity tests performed on a batch unit, the retention capacity could be maintained at high level over 20 cycles. This process was able to effectively remove up to 4000 ppm SOx from the simulated feeds corresponding to oxyfuel flue gas from high sulfur coal plants. A dual bed continuous unit with five times the capacity of the batch unit was constructed to test continuous operation and longevity. Full-automation was implemented to enable continuous operation (24/7) with minimum operator supervision. Continuous run was carried out for 40 days. Very high SOx (>99.9%) and NOx (98%) removal efficiencies were also achieved in a continuous unit. However, the retention capacity of carbon beds for SOx and NOx was decreased from ~20 hours to ~10 hours over a 40 day period of operation, which was in contrast to the results obtained in a batch unit. These contradictory results indicate the need for optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level and thus minimize the capital cost of the system. In summary, the activated carbon process exceeded performance targets for SOx and NOx removal efficiencies and it was found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. More efforts are needed to optimize the system performance.

Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Minish Shah

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Direct Capillary Gas Chromatography of Filter-Borne Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Filter-Borne Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines R.D. Cuthbertson P.R. Shore...Filter-Borne Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines R.D. Cuthbertson and P.R...oil-derived material. Introduction Diesel engines emit particulate matter consisting......

R.D. Cuthbertson; P.R. Shore

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

The development of a cyclonic combustor for high particulate, low caloric value gas produced by a fluidized bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

methods, utilizing a biomass source, are: combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and bio-degradation processes. Direct combustion is envisioned as the most immediately available conversion technology. However, there is considerable interest... the combustion of a low caloric value (LCV) and high particulate gas. Performance tests were conducted to verify the cyclone combustor design flexibility by identifying satisfactory performance characteristics. The LCV gas was produced from the gasification...

Cardenas, Manuel Moises

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Packed-Bed Reactor Study of NETL Sample 196c for the Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Simulated Flue Gas Mixture  

SciTech Connect

An amine-based solid sorbent process to remove CO2 from flue gas has been investigated. The sorbent consists of polyethylenimine (PEI) immobilized onto silica (SiO2) support. Experiments were conducted in a packed-bed reactor and exit gas composition was monitored using mass spectrometry. The effects of feed gas composition (CO2 and H2O), temperature, and simulated steam regeneration were examined for both the silica support as well as the PEI-based sorbent. The artifact of the empty reactor was also quantified. Sorbent CO2 capacity loading was compared to thermogravimetric (TGA) results to further characterize adsorption isotherms and better define CO2 working capacity. Sorbent stability was monitored by periodically repeating baseline conditions throughout the parametric testing and replacing with fresh sorbent as needed. The concept of the Basic Immobilized Amine Sorbent (BIAS) Process using this sorbent within a system where sorbent continuously flows between the absorber and regenerator was introduced. The basic tenet is to manipulate or control the level of moisture on the sorbent as it travels around the sorbent circulation path between absorption and regeneration stages to minimize its effect on regeneration heat duty.

Hoffman, James S.; Hammache, Sonia; Gray, McMahan L.; Fauth Daniel J.; Pennline, Henry W.

2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Fuel saving, carbon dioxide emission avoidance, and syngas production by tri-reforming of flue gases from coal- and gas-fired power stations, and by the carbothermic reduction of iron oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flue gases from coal, gas, or oil-fired power stations, as well as from several heavy industries, such as the production of iron, lime and cement, are major anthropogenic sources of global CO2 emissions. The newly proposed process for syngas production based on the tri-reforming of such flue gases with natural gas could be an important route for CO2 emission avoidance. In addition, by combining the carbothermic reduction of iron oxide with the partial oxidation of the carbon source, an overall thermoneutral process can be designed for the co-production of iron and syngas rich in CO. Water-gas shift (WGS) of CO to H2 enables the production of useful syngas. The reaction process heat, or the conditions for thermoneutrality, are derived by thermochemical equilibrium calculations. The thermodynamic constraints are determined for the production of syngas suitable for methanol, hydrogen, or ammonia synthesis. The environmental and economic consequences are assessed for large-scale commercial production of these chemical commodities. Preliminary evaluations with natural gas, coke, or coal as carbon source indicate that such combined processes should be economically competitive, as well as promising significant fuel saving and CO2 emission avoidance. The production of ammonia in the above processes seems particularly attractive, as it consumes the nitrogen in the flue gases.

M. Halmann; A. Steinfeld

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Steam Reactivation and Separation of Limestone Sorbents for High Temperature Post-combustion CO2 Capture from Flue Gas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Increasing global population and demand for energy has raised concerns of excessive anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from consumption of fossil fuels. Coal, in particular,… (more)

Wang, Alan Yao

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Simulation study on lignite-fired power system integrated with flue gas drying and waste heat recovery – Performances under variable power loads coupled with off-design parameters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Lignite is a kind of low rank coal with high moisture content and low net heating value, which is mainly used for electric power generation. However, the thermal efficiency of power plants firing lignite directly is very low. Pre-drying is a proactive option, dehydrating raw lignite to raise its heating value, to improve the power plant thermal efficiency. A pre-dried lignite-fired power system integrated with boiler flue gas drying and waste heat recovery was proposed in this paper. The plant thermal efficiency could be improved by 1.51% at benchmark condition due to pre-drying and waste heat recovery. The main system performances under variable power loads were simulated and analyzed. Simulation results show that the improvement of plant thermal efficiency reduced to 1.36% at 50% full load. Moreover, the influences of drying system off-design parameters were simulated coupled with power loads. The variation tendencies of main system parameters were obtained. The influence of pre-drying degree (including moisture content of pre-dried lignite and raw lignite) on the plant thermal efficiency diminishes gradually with the decreasing power load. The dryer thermal efficiency and dryer exhaust temperature are also main factors and the influences on system parameters have been quantitatively analyzed.

Xiaoqu Han; Ming Liu; Jinshi Wang; Junjie Yan; Jiping Liu; Feng Xiao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

FASTCHEM/trademark/ (Fly Ash and Flue Gas Desulfurization Sludge Transport and Geochemistry) package: Volume 2, User's guide to the EFLOW groundwater flow code  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a two-dimensional finite element code, EFLOW, developed to simulate water flow in fully or variably saturated porous media. This code is one component in the FASTCHEM/trademark/ (Fly Ash and Flue Gas Desulfurization Sludge Transport and Geochemistry) package. The formulation of the governing equations and the numerical procedures used in the code are presented. The flow equation is approximated using the Galerkin finite element method. For variably saturated flow problems, nonlinearities caused by unsaturated soil properties, atmospheric boundary conditions (e.g., infiltration, evaporation and seepage faces), and water uptake by plant roots are treated using Picard or Newton-Raphson methods. For fully saturated unconfined flow problems, the governing equations are formulated in an areal plane, and nonlinear water-table boundary conditions are treated using the Picard method. Several test problems are presented to verify the code and demonstrate its utility. These problems range from simple one-dimensional to complex two-dimensional and axisymmetric problems. 24 refs., 39 figs., 27 tabs.

Not Available

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Chapter 26 - The Oxyfuel Baseline: Revamping Heaters and Boilers to Oxyfiring by Cryogenic Air Separation and Flue Gas Recycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This feasibility study involves the potential application of oxyfuel technology on a refinery-wide basis at the BP Grangemouth unit in Scotland. A total of seven boilers and 13 process heaters of various types, burning a mixture of refinery fuel gas and fuel oil resulting in the production of approximately 2.0 million tonnes per annum of CO2, form the basis of this study.

Rodney Allam; Vince White; Neil Ivens; Mark Simmonds

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Improved high efficiency third stage separator cyclones for separation of fines from fluid catalytic cracking flue gas  

SciTech Connect

Stairmand type small diameter (0.254 m) multicyclones were cold flow tested for fluid catalytic cracking third stage separator application. The gas discharge from the cyclone dust outlet into the common collection hopper was found to far exceed the hopper bleed rate (underflow). The excess gas reentrained dust from the hopper back into cyclones, which lowered collection efficiencies. Vortex {open_quotes}stabilization{close_quotes} using apex cones was unsuccessful whereas a Mobil proprietary cyclone modification was successful in minimizing excess gas discharge and dust reentrainment at the cyclone-hopper boundary. In tests at 700 {degrees}C, the modified cyclones captured all particles above 4 {mu}m. Mobil-Kellogg incorporated the modified cyclones in a new third stage separator design which is targeted for achieving lowest opacity and <50 mg/Nm{sup 3} emissions at the stack. The first such unit will be commercialized in Mobil`s newest catalytic cracker (M.W. Kellogg design) under construction in Altona, Australia in late 1996. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Chitnis, G.K.; Schatz, K.W. [Mobil Technology Co., Paulsboro, NJ (United States); Bussey, B.K. [M.W. Kellogg Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

167

Direct Capillary Gas Chromatography of Filter-Borne Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......core (13). The hydrocarbons, which typically...products of the diesel combustion process (49...from incomplete combustion of fuel. Techniques...particulate- bound hydrocarbons have most often...analysis in individual heat-sealed plastic...Chromatograms and associated data were obtained via......

R.D. Cuthbertson; P.R. Shore

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Novel technologies for SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} removal from flue gas; Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this research is to develop a low temperature deNO{sub x} catalyst with activity high enough for boiler retrofit applications. Cu-ZrO{sub 2} is a promising low temperature catalyst for the selective reduction of No by propene. At NO = 1000 ppm, propene (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}) = 1000 ppm and 0{sub 2} = 1% and a space velocity of 13,000 h{sup {minus}1}, the NO conversion to N{sub 2} is 64% at 265{degrees}C. The performance of the catalyst, however, does not fulfill the requirement when used for flue gas clean up where the feed is composed of 4% O{sub 2} and 10% H{sub 2}O, and the temperature is 150{degrees}C. Methods to improve the performance of the catalyst are being sought. These include modification of the preparation method such as varying the aging time of the gel after precipitation, and addition of promoters like Pd and Nd to increase the catalytic activity at lower temperatures and higher 0{sub 2} concentrations. Using ethanol (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH) instead of C{sub 3}H{sub 6} as a reductant improves the performance of the catalyst when H{sub 2}O is present. Interestingly, methanol is not an effective reductant. Some modified carbon catalysts are also tested. Results on Cu impregnated ASC whetlerite carbon catalyst show 100% N{sub 2} selectivity and 35 % NO conversion at 200{degrees}C. However, the catalyst is unstable and deactivates rapidly. Work planned for the next quarter is to continue to investigate methods to improve the catalytic activity.

Kung, M.; Yang, B. [Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Spivey, J.J.; Agarwal, S.K.; Jang, B.W. [Research Triangle Inst., Durham, NC (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

169

Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography or Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Semi-Volatile Compounds on Atmospheric Particulate Matters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A thermal desorption (TD) device was developed and coupled to gas chromatograph (GC) or gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of semi-volatile organic compounds on atmospheric particulate matters (PM). The TD was operated by direct heating and placed on the top of GC injector, leading to high heating rate and easy transfer of analytes to GC without re-focusing of analytes by cold trap. The materials used for supporting PM samples, desorption temperature and time, and types of sample injection were investigated for the detection of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nine n-alkanes. The limits of detection of the proposed TD-GC method were in the range of 0.014–0.094 ng for PAHs, and 0.016–0.026 ng for n-alkanes, with coefficients of correlation above 0.9975. The TD-GC method was applied to the determination of trace \\{PAHs\\} and n-alkanes on PM10 samples from three cities. The recoveries were in the range of 95%–135% (PAHs) and 95%–115% (n-alkanes). Finally, the TD was coupled to GC-MS for comparison of the contents of \\{PAHs\\} and n-alkanes on \\{PMx\\} with different particulate size (x = 10, 5, 2, 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.1).

Hu MENG; Jing-Hong ZHAO; Chun-Feng DUAN; Liang HAO; Ya-Feng GUAN

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Second quarterly technical progress report, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994 (Quarter No. 2)  

SciTech Connect

To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}{lg_bullet}0.5H{sub 2}0), gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{lg_bullet}2H{sub 2}0), and unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}), with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides; silica; and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. Currently, the only market for scrubber sludge is for manufacture of gypsum products, such as wallboard and plaster, and for cement. However, the quality of the raw sludge is often not high enough or consistent enough to satisfy manufacturers, and so the material is difficult to sell. This project is developing a process that can produce a high-quality calcium sulfite or gypsum product while keeping process costs low enough that the material produced will be competitive with that from other, more conventional sources. This purification will consist of minimal-reagent froth flotation, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified gypsum or calcium sulfite product. The separated limestone will be a useful by-product, as it can be recycled to the scrubber, thus boosting the limestone utilization and improving process efficiency. Calcium sulfite will then be oxidized to gypsum, or separated as a salable product in its own right from sludges where it is present in sufficient quantity. The main product of the process will be either gypsum or calcium sulfite, depending on the characteristics of the sludge being processed. These products will be sufficiently pure to be easily marketed, rather that being landfilled.

Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Gas-Phase OH Oxidation of Monoterpenes: Gaseous and Particulate Products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Smog chamber experiments have beenconducted in which cyclic monoterpenes were oxidisedin the gas phase by OH. The evolved secondary organicaerosol (SOA) was analysed by LC-MSn and thegas-phase products were analy...

Bo. R. Larsen; Dario Di Bella; Marianne Glasius…

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

This report provides results from the second year of this three-year project to develop dilution measurement technology for characterizing PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers) and precursor emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil, gas and power generation operation. Detailed emission rate and chemical speciation tests results for a gas turbine, a process heater, and a commercial oil/gas fired boiler are presented. Tests were performed using a research dilution sampling apparatus and traditional EPA methods. A series of pilot tests were conducted to identify the constraints to reduce the size of current research dilution sampler for future stack emission tests. Based on the test results, a bench prototype compact dilution sampler developed and characterized in GE EER in August 2002.

Glenn England; Oliver Chang; Stephanie Wien

2002-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

173

DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated new National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter, including for the first time particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers ({micro}m) referred to as PM2.5. PM2.5 in the atmosphere also contributes to reduced atmospheric visibility, which is the subject of existing rules for siting emission sources near Class 1 areas and new Regional Haze rules. There are few existing data regarding emissions and characteristics of fine aerosols from oil, gas and power generation industry combustion sources, and the information that is available is generally outdated and incomplete. Traditional stationary source air emission sampling methods tend to underestimate or overestimate the contribution of the source to ambient aerosols because they do not properly account for primary aerosol formation, which occurs after the gases leave the stack. Primary aerosol includes both filterable particles that are solid or liquid aerosols at stack temperature plus those that form as the stack gases cool through mixing and dilution processes in the plume downwind of the source. These deficiencies in the current methods can have significant impacts on regulatory decision-making. PM2.5 measurement issues were extensively reviewed by the American Petroleum Institute (API) (England et al., 1998), and it was concluded that dilution sampling techniques are more appropriate for obtaining a representative particulate matter sample from combustion systems for determining PM2.5 emission rate and chemical speciation. Dilution sampling is intended to collect aerosols including those that condense and/or react to form solid or liquid aerosols as the exhaust plume mixes and cools to near-ambient temperature immediately after the stack discharge. These techniques have been widely used in recent research studies. For example, Hildemann et al. (1994) and McDonald et al. (1998) used filtered ambient air to dilute the stack gas sample followed by 80-90 seconds residence time to allow aerosol formation and growth to stabilize prior to sample collection and analysis. More accurate and complete emissions data generated using the methods developed in this program will enable more accurate source-receptor and source apportionment analysis for PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) implementation and streamline the environmental assessment of oil, gas and power production facilities. The overall goals of this program were to: (1) Develop improved dilution sampling technology and test methods for PM2.5 mass emissions and speciation measurements, and compare results obtained with dilution and traditional stationary source sampling methods. (2) Develop emission factors and speciation profiles for emissions of fine particulate matter, especially organic aerosols, for use in source-receptor and source apportionment analyses. (3) Identify and characterize PM2.5 precursor compound emissions that can be used in source-receptor and source apportionment analyses.

Glenn C. England

2004-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

174

DEMONSTRATION OF A FULL-SCALE RETROFIT OF THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector (AHPC), developed in cooperation between W.L. Gore & Associates and the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), is an innovative approach to removing particulates from power plant flue gas. The AHPC combines the elements of a traditional baghouse and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) into one device to achieve increased particulate collection efficiency. As part of the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), this project was demonstrated under joint sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy and Otter Tail Power Company. The EERC is the patent holder for the technology, and W.L. Gore & Associates was the exclusive licensee for this project. The project objective was to demonstrate the improved particulate collection efficiency obtained by a full-scale retrofit of the AHPC to an existing electrostatic precipitator. The full-scale retrofit was installed on an electric power plant burning Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, Otter Tail Power Company's Big Stone Plant, in Big Stone City, South Dakota. The $13.4 million project was installed in October 2002. Project related testing concluded in December 2005. The following Final Technical Report has been prepared for the project entitled ''Demonstration of a Full-Scale Retrofit of the Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Technology'' as described in DOE Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41420. The report presents the operation and performance results of the system.

Tom Hrdlicka; William Swanson

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Selective catalytic reduction used at Scanraff to reduce NO{sub x}, particulate emissions from FCCU  

SciTech Connect

This article describes various studies conducted to identify how the Scanraff Refinery in Sweden could best comply with environmental legislation for NO{sub x} and particulate emissions. Initial work identified flue gas from the catalyst regenerator of the fluidized catalytic cracking unit as the largest single source of NO{sub x} emissions. A more detailed study identified process modifications to reduce emissions, including the addition of a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit and a ceramic hot-gas filter. For the SCR unit, subtopics discussed include design option selection, SCR size and performance, selection of catalyst, catalyst configuration and performance, contamination, and modification of the waste heat boiler. The description of the hot-gas filtration system includes a comparison with electrostatic precipitator systems, the Schumacher filter, filtration medium, design temperature, and handling.

Brook, P.; Hagger, B.; Wood, J. [Foster Wheeler Energy Limited, Reading (United Kingdom)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

176

Continuous particulate monitoring for emission control  

SciTech Connect

An optical continuous particle monitoring system has been developed to overcome common problems associated with emissions monitoring equipment. Opacity monitors generally use a single- or double-pass system to analyze the presence of dust particles in the flue gas stream. The particles scatter and absorb light as it passes through the stack. As the particle content in the gas stream increases due to bag failure or some other problem, the amount of light that is blocked also increases. The opacity monitor compares the amount of lost light energy to the total energy of the light available and translates the signal to percentage of opacity. Opacity monitors are typically installed to meet the requirements set forth by pollution control agencies. Most opacity monitors are designed to meet all of the requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 40 CFR, Part 60, Appendix B, Performance Specification. The new continuous particle monitor (CPM) increases the accuracy of emission monitoring and overcomes typical problems found in conventional emission monitoring devices. The CPM is an optically based, calibratible, continuous dust monitor that uses a microprocessor, transmitter head, and receiver head. When calibrated with an isokinetic sample, a continuous readout of particulate concentration (in mg/m[sup 3]) in the exhaust gas is provided. The system can be used as a filter bag failure system or a long-term emission trend analyzer. Formal testing was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the optically based CPM. The monitor was calibrated using particles of a range of compositions, size distributions, and concentrations. The feasibility of using the instrument to measure particle concentration as low as 10 mg/m[sup 3] was examined.

Bock, A.H. (BHA Group, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States))

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Particulate control for low rank coals  

SciTech Connect

The power generating system in Victoria currently comprises a total capacity of 6650 MW. Eighty percent of this capacity consists of base load stations in the Latrobe Valley using brown coal. The Latrobe Valley brown coals have unique characteristics with high moisture content ranging from 58 percent to 70 percent and an ash content which is relatively low but very variable in nature. These and other factors associated with the coal have caused special problems in handling and combustion of the coal and the de-dusting of the boiler flue gases. In recent years, this has been the basis for the design parameters adopted for all the plants in the system. With respect to flue gas de-dusting, the SECV has carried out extensive laboratory studies to characterize the different ashes obtained from the Latrobe Valley brown coals, including precipitability and aerodynamic tests. It also carried out full-scale tests on operating plants and pilot tests have been conducted on inertial collectors, precipitators and bag filters. The Environmental Protection Authority of Victoria has established a particulate emission level of 0.150 grams/m{sup 3} n.t.p. dry for recent Latrobe Valley boilers. However, the mandated emission level takes into account wide variations in operating conditions, and the plants normally achieve much lower emission levels. The Latrobe Valley plants presently in operation include Yallourn W (2x350 MW + 2x375 MW), Morwell (170 MW total and briquette factory), Hazelwood (8x200 MW) and Loy Yang (4x500 MW). The Yalloum W boilers are supplied with coal from the Yalloum Open Cut, the Morwell and Hazelwood boilers from the Morwell Open Cut and Loy Yang boilers from the Loy Yang Open Cut. All boilers are pulverized coal fired (PCF) and incorporate special firing equipment to enable the as-mined wet coal to be fired directly into the furnaces. All boilers are fitted with electrostatic precipitators. The locations of the stations and open cuts are shown.

Touzel, R.McD.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

178

NETL: Control Technology: Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Under DOE-NETL sponsorship, the University of North Dakota, Energy and Environmental Research Center (UND-EERC) has developed a new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). In addition to DOE and the EERC, the project team includes W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., Allied Environmental Technologies, Inc., and the Otter Tail Power Company. The AHPC utilizes both electrostatic collection and filtration in a unique geometric configuration that achieves ultrahigh particle collection with much less collection area than conventional particulate control devices. The primary technologies for state-of-the-art particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). A major limitation of ESPs is that the fractional penetration of 0.1- to 1.0-µm particles is typically at least an order of magnitude greater than for 10-µm particles, so a situation exists where the particles that are of greatest health concern are collected with the lowest efficiency. Fabric filters are currently considered to be the best available control technology for fine particles, but emissions are dependent on ash properties and typically increase if the air-to-cloth (A/C) ratio is increased. In addition, many fabrics cannot withstand the rigors of high-SO2 flue gases, which are typical for bituminous fuels. Fabric filters may also have problems with bag cleanability and high pressure drop, which has resulted in conservatively designed, large, costly baghouses.

179

Gas Turbine Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In a cycle process of a gas turbine, the compressor load, as well as ... from the expansion of the hot pressurized flue gas. Either turbine, compressor and driven assembly are joined by ... shaft is thus divided,...

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Advanced particulate matter control apparatus and methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and methods for collection and removal of particulate matter, including fine particulate matter, from a gas stream, comprising a unique combination of high collection efficiency and ultralow pressure drop across the filter. The apparatus and method utilize simultaneous electrostatic precipitation and membrane filtration of a particular pore size, wherein electrostatic collection and filtration occur on the same surface.

Miller, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, ND); Zhuang, Ye (Grand Forks, ND); Almlie, Jay C. (East Grand Forks, MN)

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash  

SciTech Connect

The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority`s newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective.

Not Available

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Recovery of CO2 from Flue Gases: Commercial Trends  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CO CO 2 from Flue Gases: Commercial Trends Originally presented at the Canadian Society of Chemical Engineers annual meeting October 4-6, 1999, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada Authors: Dan G. Chapel (dan.chapel@fluor.com; 949-349-7530) Carl L. Mariz (carl.mariz@fluor.com; 949-349-7530) FluorDaniel One Fluor Drive Aliso Viejo CA, 92698 John Ernest (john.ernest@minimed.com; 818-576-4293) Advanced Quality Services Inc 11024 Balboa Blvd. PMB154, Granada Hills, CA 91344-5007 1 Recovery of CO 2 from Flue Gases: Commercial Trends Originally presented at the Canadian Society of Chemical Engineers annual meeting October 4-6, 1999, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada Authors: Dan Chapel - Fluor Daniel Inc., Senior Vice President Technology; Oil, Gas & Power John Ernest - Advanced Quality Services Inc., Validation Engineer

183

Integrated capture of fossil fuel gas pollutants including CO.sub.2 with energy recovery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of reducing pollutants exhausted into the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuels. The disclosed process removes nitrogen from air for combustion, separates the solid combustion products from the gases and vapors and can capture the entire vapor/gas stream for sequestration leaving near-zero emissions. The invention produces up to three captured material streams. The first stream is contaminant-laden water containing SO.sub.x, residual NO.sub.x particulates and particulate-bound Hg and other trace contaminants. The second stream can be a low-volume flue gas stream containing N.sub.2 and O.sub.2 if CO2 purification is needed. The final product stream is a mixture comprising predominantly CO.sub.2 with smaller amounts of H.sub.2O, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, SO.sub.X, NO.sub.X, Hg, and other trace gases.

Ochs, Thomas L. (Albany, OR); Summers, Cathy A. (Albany, OR); Gerdemann, Steve (Albany, OR); Oryshchyn, Danylo B. (Philomath, OR); Turner, Paul (Independence, OR); Patrick, Brian R. (Chicago, IL)

2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

184

Investigation of the relationship between particulate-bound mercury and properties of fly ash in a full-scale 100 MWe pulverized coal combustion boiler  

SciTech Connect

The properties of fly ash in coal-fired boilers influence the emission of mercury from power plants into the environment. In this study, seven different bituminous coals were burned in a full-scale 100 MWe pulverized coal combustion boiler and the derived fly ash samples were collected from a mechanical hopper (MH) and an electrostatic precipitator hopper (ESP). The mercury content, specific surface area (SSA), unburned carbon, and elemental composition of the fly ash samples were analyzed to evaluate the correlation between the concentration of particulate-bound mercury and the properties of coal and fly ash. For a given coal, it was found that the mercury content in the fly ash collected from the ESP was greater than in the fly ash samples collected from the MHP. This phenomenon may be due to a lower temperature of flue gas at the ESP (about 135{sup o}C) compared to the temperature at the air preheater (about 350{sup o}C). Also, a significantly lower SSA observed in MH ash might also contribute to the observation. A comparison of the fly ash samples generated from seven different coals using statistical methods indicates that the mercury adsorbed on ESP fly ashes has a highly positive correlation with the unburned carbon content, manganese content, and SSA of the fly ash. Sulfur content in coal showed a significant negative correlation with the Hg adsorption. Manganese in fly ash is believed to participate in oxidizing volatile elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) to ionic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}). The oxidized mercury in flue gas can form a complex with the fly ash and then get removed before the flue gas leaves the stack of the boiler.

Sen Li; Chin-Min Cheng; Bobby Chen; Yan Cao; Jacob Vervynckt; Amanda Adebambo; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

185

Contaminant trap for gas-insulated apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A resinous body is placed in gas-insulated electrical apparatus to remove particulate material from the insulating gas.

Adcock, J.L.; Pace, M.O.; Christophorou, L.G.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Advanced Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Applications  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Specific designs and material properties have to be developed for gasoline particulate filters based on the different engine and exhaust gas characteristic of gasoline engines compared to diesel engines, e.g., generally lower levels of engine-out particulate emissions or higher GDI exhaust gas temperatures

187

Diesel particulate filters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Is the broad market introduction of diesel particulate filters throughout Europe wishful thinking or reality? The challenges facing the introduction of diesel particulate filters with a fuel-borne catalyst...

Pierre Macaudière; Laurent Rocher; Wolfgang Naschke

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Combustor for fine particulate coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

Carlson, L.W.

1988-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

189

Combustor for fine particulate coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Reduction of particulate matter and gaseous emission from marine diesel engines using a catalyzed particulate filter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Diesel engines are used widely as the power sources of coastal ships and international vessels primarily due to their high thermal efficiency, high fuel economy and durable performance. However, the gaseous and solid substances exhausted from diesel engines during the combustion process cause air pollution, in particular around harbor regions. In order to effectively reduce particulate matter and gaseous pollution emissions, a catalyzed particulate filter was equipped in the tail pipe of a marine diesel engine. The engine's performance and emission characteristics under various engine speeds and torques were measured using a computerized engine data control and acquisition system accompanied with an engine dynamometer. The effectiveness of installing a catalyzed particulate filter on the reduction of pollutant emissions was examined. The experimental results show that the exhaust gas temperature, carbon monoxide and smoke opacity were reduced significantly upon installation of the particulate filter. In particular, larger conversion of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide — and thus larger CO2 and lower CO emissions — were observed for the marine diesel engine equipped with a catalyzed particulate filter and operated at higher engine speeds. This is presumably due to enhancement of the catalytic oxidation reaction that results from an exhaust gas with stronger stirring motion passing through the filter. The absorption of partial heating energy from the exhaust gas by the physical structure of the particulate filter resulted in a reduction in the exhaust gas temperature. The particulate matter could be burnt to a greater extent due to the effect of the catalyst coated on the surface of the particulate filter. Moreover, the fuel consumption rate was increased slightly while the excess oxygen emission was somewhat decreased with the particulate filter.

Cherng-Yuan Lin

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

CO2 Separation from Low-Temperature Flue Gases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,842,126 entitled "Co 2 Separation from Low-Temperature Flue Gases." Disclosed in this patent are novel methods for processing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from combustion gas streams. Researchers at NETL are focused on the development of novel sorbent systems that can effectively remove CO 2 and other gases in an economically feasible manner with limited impact on energy production cost. The current invention will help in reducing greenhouse gas emissions by using an improved, regenerable aqueous amine and soluble potassium carbonate sorbent system. This novel solvent system may be capable of achieving CO 2 capture from larger emission streams at lower overall cost. Overview Sequestration of CO

192

Effect of V2O5 additive on simultaneous SO2 and NO removal from flue gas over a monolithic cordierite-based CuO/Al2O3 catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A monolithic cordierite-based CuO/Al2O3 catalyst showed industrial potential for simultaneous SO2 and NO removal from flue gases at 350–400 °C. However, it is still a challenge to prevent CuO from aggregation and to keep it in an active state during the removal and regeneration processes. This work shows that addition of V2O5 to the catalyst can significantly reduce CuO particle size and improve SO2 removal activity, and maintain a high selective catalytic reduction (SCR) activity for NO removal. Furthermore, V2O5 additive prevents aggregation of SiO2 in the cordierite with the coated Al2O3, and inhibits over reduction of the SO2 removal product, CuSO4, during the regeneration by NH3, which are important to the catalyst's stability. V2O5 additive changes the regeneration product from Cu3N to CuO and thus may avoid the temperature rise and \\{NOx\\} release in the subsequent removal process.

Qingya Liu; Zhenyu Liu; Weize Wu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - CO2 Capture from Flue  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

from Flue Gas by Phase Transitional Absorption from Flue Gas by Phase Transitional Absorption Project No.: FG26-05NT42488 Basic Illustration of the Phase Transitional Absorption Process. Basic Illustration of the Phase Transitional Absorption Process. Hampton University researched a novel carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption concept, phase transitional absorption, that utilizes a two-part proprietary absorbent consisting of an activated agent dissolved in a solvent. Phase separation of the activated agent from the chemical solvent occurs during CO2 absorption and physical separation of the two phases exiting the absorber reduces the volume of process liquid requiring thermal regeneration. This unique aspect of phase transitional absorption also decreases the amount of energy (i.e., steam) required to liberate the CO2. If the proper liquid

194

Size distribution of metals in particulate matter formed during combustion of residual fuel oil  

SciTech Connect

Between July 1992 and January 1993 three full-scale test programs were performed by Carnot for the Electric Power Research Institute and the Fuel Oil Users` Support (FOUS) Group, as part of a program for development and testing of various stack emissions models. One of the components of the program was determination of the concentrations of individual elements as a function of the size of particles suspended in flue gas. The size distributions of species are important because several aspects of system performance depend upon particulate matter size and composition: (1) the rate of ash deposition in the convection section, and activity of deposits for high temperature corrosion and SO{sub 3} formation, (2) the efficiency of precipitators for collection of individual elements, and (3) scattering of visible light and contribution of particles to stack plume opacity. Size distributions of major ash constituents were measured at the entrance and exit of the dust collectors during each of the field tests. To the authors` knowledge, these are the first reports of such measurements in residual oil-fired utility boilers. The focus, in the present paper, is on the composition of the particles entering the dust collectors.

Walsh, P. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Rovesti, W.C. [Electric Power Research Institute, Washington, DC (United States); Freeman, R.F. [Niagara Mohawk Power Corp., Oswego, NY (United States); Olen, K.R.; Washington, K.T.; Patrick, S.T.; Campbell, G.L.; Harper, D.S. [Florida Power & Light Co., West Palm Beach, FL (United States); Teetz, R.D.; Bennett, T.E. [Long Island Lighting Co., Glenwood Landing, NY (United States)] [and others

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Pitch based foam with particulate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermally conductive, pitch based foam composite having a particulate content. The particulate alters the mechanical characteristics of the foam without severely degrading the foam thermal conductivity. The composite is formed by mixing the particulate with pitch prior to foaming.

Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

FlueGen Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

FlueGen Inc FlueGen Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name FlueGen, Inc. Place Irvine, California Zip 92614 Product Irvine-based original equipment manufacturer (OEM) of air pollution control systems for the utility industry, including coal-fired power plants, in addition to financing client's projects, thereafter operating and maintaining the system for a fee. Coordinates 41.837752°, -79.268594° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.837752,"lon":-79.268594,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

197

Application of Modern Online Instrumentation for Chemical Analysis of Gas and Particulate Phases of Exhaust at the European Commission Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emission Laboratory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The total freight volume increased in the European Union (EU) by 35% between 1996 and 2006 (excluding Cyprus and Malta), with road and air freight volumes rising faster than other sectors. ... It is equipped with safety sensors for gaseous fuels and an air circulation system that provides sufficient air exchange to run tests on hydrogen (H2), liquefied H2, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), and compressed natural gas (CNG) besides diesel and gasoline. ... Compounds where no calibration gases are available were semiquantified by multiplying the measured signal by the ratio of the photoionization cross-section of the target compound and one of the calibrated species. ...

T. W. Adam; R. Chirico; M. Clairotte; M. Elsasser; U. Manfredi; G. Martini; M. Sklorz; T. Streibel; M. F. Heringa; P. F. DeCarlo; U. Baltensperger; G. De Santi; A. Krasenbrink; R. Zimmermann; A. S. H. Prevot; C. Astorga

2010-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

198

Advanced Technology for the Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technology for the Capture of Carbon Dioxide Technology for the Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gases by Shrikar Chakravarti (shrikar_chakravarti@praxair.com; 716-879-4760) Amitabh Gupta (ami_gupta@praxair.com; 716-879-2194) Balazs Hunek (balazs_hunek@praxair.com; 716-879-2250) Praxair, Inc. Process & Systems R&D, CO 2 Technology 175 East Park Drive, P.O. Box 44 Tonawanda, NY 14150 USA key words: flue gas, carbon dioxide, separation, amine absorption, oxygen tolerant process, amine blends First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration Washington, DC, May 15-17, 2001 Copyright 2001, Praxair Technology, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1 Abstract Cost effective carbon sequestration schemes have been identified as a key need for dealing with carbon dioxide's (CO 2 ) impact on global climate change. Two main

199

Optimal Gas Turbine Integration to the Process Industries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gas turbine integration can also help cut down flue gas emissions as a result of the improved efficiency of a cogeneration system. ... The aeroderivative turbines have higher efficiency than the industrial type, but they are more expensive. ...

Jussi Manninen; X. X. Zhu

1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

200

ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR  

SciTech Connect

A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a manner that has not been done before. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC is currently being tested at the 2.7-MW scale at the Big Stone power station.

Stanley Miller; Rich Gebert; William Swanson

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

JV Task 95-Particulate Control Consulting for Minnesota Ore Operations  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project was to assist U.S. Steel in the evaluation, selection, planning, design, and testing of potential approaches to help meet U.S. Steel's goal for low-particulate matter emissions and regulatory compliance. The energy-intensive process for producing iron pellets includes treating the pellets in high-temperature kilns in which the iron is converted from magnetite to hematite. The kilns can be fired with either natural gas or a combination of gas and coal or biomass fuel and are equipped with wet venturi scrubbers for particulate control. Particulate measurements at the inlet and outlet of the scrubbers and analysis of size-fractionated particulate samples led to an understanding of the effect of process variables on the measured emissions and an approach to meet regulatory compliance.

Stanley Miller

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

202

Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a "packed" bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport.

Even, Jr., William R. (Livermore, CA); Guthrie, Stephen E. (Livermore, CA); Raber, Thomas N. (Livermore, CA); Wally, Karl (Lafayette, CA); Whinnery, LeRoy L. (Livermore, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Substrate Studies of an Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration...

204

Table 11.6 Installed Nameplate Capacity of Fossil-Fuel Steam-Electric Generators With Environmental Equipment, 1985-2010 (Megawatts)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Installed Nameplate Capacity of Fossil-Fuel Steam-Electric Generators With Environmental Equipment," Installed Nameplate Capacity of Fossil-Fuel Steam-Electric Generators With Environmental Equipment," " 1985-2010 (Megawatts)" "Year","Coal",,,,"Petroleum and Natural Gas",,,,"Total 1" ,,,"Flue Gas","Total 2",,,"Flue Gas","Total 2",,,"Flue Gas","Total 2" ,"Particulate","Cooling","Desulfurization",,"Particulate","Cooling","Desulfurization",,"Particulate","Cooling","Desulfurization" ,"Collectors","Towers","(Scrubbers)",,"Collectors","Towers","(Scrubbers)",,"Collectors","Towers","(Scrubbers)"

205

Reducing the cost of CO{sub 2} capture from flue gases using membrane technology  

SciTech Connect

Studies of CO{sub 2} capture using membrane technology from coal-fired power-plant flue gas typically assume compression of the feed to achieve a driving force across the membrane. The high CO{sub 2} capture cost of these systems reflects the need to compress the low-pressure feed gas (1 bar) and the low CO{sub 2} purity of the product stream. This article investigates how costs for CO{sub 2} capture using membranes can be reduced by operating under vacuum conditions. The flue gas is pressurized to 1.5 bar, whereas the permeate stream is at 0.08 bar. Under these operating conditions, the capture cost is U.S. $54/tonne CO{sub 2} avoided compared to U.S. $82/tonne CO{sub 2} avoided using membrane processes with a pressurized feed. This is a. reduction of 35%. The article also investigates the effect on the capture cost of improvements in CO{sub 2} permeability and selectivity. The results show that the capture cost can be reduced to less than U.S. $25/tonne CO{sub 2} avoided when the CO{sub 2} permeability is 300 bar, CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity is 250, and the membrane cost is U.S. $10/m{sup 2}.

Ho, M.T.; Allinson, G.W.; Wiley, D.E. [University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW (Australia)

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

206

Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Particulate contamination removal from wafers is disclosed using plasmas and mechanical agitation. The present invention includes the use of plasmas with mechanical agitation for removing particulate matter from the surface of a wafer. The apparatus hereof comprises a mechanical activator, at least one conducting contact pin for transferring the vibration from the activator to the wafer, clamp fingers that maintain the wafer`s position, and means for generating a plasma in the vicinity of the surface of the wafer, all parts of the cleaning apparatus except the mechanical activator and part of the contact pin being contained inside the processing chamber. By exposing a wafer to a plasma and providing motion thereto in a direction perpendicular to its surface, the bonding between the particulate matter and the surface may be overcome. Once free of the wafer surface, the particulates become charged by electrons from the plasma and are drawn into the plasma by attractive forces which keep them from redepositing. The introduction of a flowing gas through the plasma sweeps the particulates away from the wafer and out of the plasma. The entire surface is cleaned during one cleaning step. The use of an rf plasma to accomplish the particulate removal was found to remove more than 90% of the particulates. 4 figs.

Selwyn, G.S.

1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

207

Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation. The present invention includes the use of plasmas with mechanical agitation for removing particulate matter from the surface of a wafer. The apparatus hereof comprises a mechanical activator, at least one conducting contact pin for transferring the vibration from the activator to the wafer, clamp fingers that maintain the wafer's position, and means for generating a plasma in the vicinity of the surface of the wafer, all parts of the cleaning apparatus except the mechanical activator and part of the contact pin being contained inside the processing chamber. By exposing a wafer to a plasma and providing motion thereto in a direction perpendicular to its surface, the bonding between the particulate matter and the surface may be overcome. Once free of the wafer surface, the particulates become charged by electrons from the plasma and are drawn into the plasma by attractive forces which keep them from redepositing. The introduction of a flowing gas through the plasma sweeps the particulates away from the wafer and out of the plasma. The entire surface is cleaned during one cleaning step. The use of an rf plasma to accomplish the particulate removal was found to remove more than 90% of the particulates.

Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Particulate matter dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A substantial fraction of the particulate matter released into the atmosphere by industrial or natural processes corresponds to particles whose aerodynamic diameters are greater than 50 mm. It has been shown that, for these particles, the classical description of Gaussian plume diffusion processes, is inadequate to describe the transport and deposition. In this paper we present new results concerning the dispersion of coarse particulate matter. The simulations are done with our own code that uses the Bulirsch Stoer numerical integrator to calculate threedimensional trajectories of particles released into the environment under very general conditions. Turbulent processes are simulated by the Langevin equation and weather conditions are modeled after stable (Monin-Obukhov length L> 0) and unstable conditions (L <0). We present several case studies based on Monte Carlo simulations and discusses the effect of weather on the final deposition of these particles.

Cionco, Rodolfo G; Caligaris, Marta G

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

PRODUCTION OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATES FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE  

SciTech Connect

The three main conclusions of this report are: (1) The pilot plant successfully demonstrated the continuous, fully-integrated, long-term process operation, including the mixing, pelletizing, and curing steps for aggregate production. The curing vessel, which was designed for the pilot plant test, was operated in a mass flow mode and performed well during pilot plant operation. (2) The pilot plant test demonstrated process flexibility. The same equipment was used to produce lightweight, medium-weight, and road aggregates. The only change was the mix formulation. Aggregates were produced from a variety of mix designs and from FGD sludge with solids concentrations between 45.0% and 56.7% and moisture contents between 55.0% and 43.3%. (3) The pilot plant provided operating data and experience to design and cost a commercial plant, which was not part of the cooperative agreement.

M.M. Wu; D.C. McCoy; R.O. Scandrol; M.L. Fenger; J.A. Withum; R.M. Statnick

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Combined Flue Gas Heat Recovery and Pollution Control Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the field of heat recovery now make it possible to recover a portion of the wasted heat and improve the working conditions of the air purification equipment. Proper design and selection of heat recovery and pollution control equipment as a combination...

Zbikowski, T.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

RETORT WATER PARTICULATES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

62 (from an inert gas run using Utah shale) produce a highfrom an inert gas run using Antrim shale) produced a highhot combustion gases may release spent shale fines which are

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

An Electrochemically-mediated Gas Separation Process for Carbon Abatement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work describes a promising alternative to conventional thermal processes for absorber/desorber processing of for removal of CO[subscript 2] from flue gas streams at fossil fuel fired power plants. Our electrochemica ...

Stern, Michael C.

213

Electrically heated particulate filter with reduced stress  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter comprising an inlet for receiving exhaust gas. A zoned heater is arranged in the inlet and comprises a resistive heater comprising N zones, where N is an integer greater than one. Each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates others of the N zones.

Gonze, Eugene V.

2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

214

Pleated Ceramic Fiber Diesel Particulate Filter | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Pleated Ceramic Fiber Diesel Particulate Filter Pleated Ceramic Fiber Diesel Particulate Filter 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters...

215

Particle Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on a 'Euro VI' Heavy-duty Engine using the PMP Methodologies Particle Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on a 'Euro...

216

Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems or GDI Engines Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems or GDI Engines 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

217

Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

218

Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Bourcier, William L. (Livermore, CA)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

219

Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and gasification technologies for heat and power . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.4 Waste incineration and waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.2 Flue gases and fuel gases: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, incineration and other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.3 Formation of sulphur compounds during combustion and gasification . 3-5 3.4 Emission

Laughlin, Robert B.

220

Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.2 Flue gases and fuel gases: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, incineration and other and gasification technologies for heat and power . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.4 Waste incineration and waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.3 Formation of sulphur compounds during combustion and gasification . . 3-5 3.4 Emission

Zevenhoven, Ron

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

High Efficiency Particulate Air Filters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters Home Standards DOE Workshops Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference Proceedings Qualified Filter List News Items Related Sites HEPA Related Lessons Learned Contact Us HSS Logo High Efficiency Particulate Air Filters The HEPA Filter web site provides a forum for informing and reporting department-wide activities related to filtration and ventilation issues with special reference to the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters' use, inspection, and testing. This site contains essentials of DOE HEPA filter test program, procedures, requirements and quality assurance aspects applicable to HEPA filters used in DOE facilities. This site contains information about the DOE-accepted Filter Test Facility and its management, operation and quality assuranceprogram.

222

Just the Basics: Particulate Matter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is Particulate is Particulate Matter? One of the major components of air pollution is particulate matter, or PM. PM refers to airborne particles that include dust, dirt, soot, smoke, and liquid droplets. These particles can range in size from microscopic to large enough to be seen. PM is characterized by its size, with fine particles of less than 2.5 micrometers in size designated as PM 2.5 and coarser particles between 2.5 and 10 micrometers in size designated as PM 10 . PM arises from many sources, including combustion occurring in factories, power plants, cars, trucks, buses, trains, or wood fires; or through simple agitation of existing particulates by tilling of land, quarrying and stone-crushing, and off- road vehicular movement. Of particular interest is PM generated during diesel

223

Particulate Contaminant Descriptions and Definitions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Particulate contaminants can be either solid or liquid. Many of these materials were originally suspended in air or in a process fluid; others derive from nearby sources, such as activities of personnel working i...

Alvin Lieberman

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Method for high temperature mercury capture from gas streams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process to facilitate mercury extraction from high temperature flue/fuel gas via the use of metal sorbents which capture mercury at ambient and high temperatures. The spent sorbents can be regenerated after exposure to mercury. The metal sorbents can be used as pure metals (or combinations of metals) or dispersed on an inert support to increase surface area per gram of metal sorbent. Iridium and ruthenium are effective for mercury removal from flue and smelter gases. Palladium and platinum are effective for mercury removal from fuel gas (syngas). An iridium-platinum alloy is suitable for metal capture in many industrial effluent gas streams including highly corrosive gas streams.

Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.

2006-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

225

Reducing nitrogen oxides emissions from the combustion of LCV gas staged firing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with cotton gin tr ash, one of the primary fuels under consider ation, r esulted in flue NO levels ranging from 650-B60 ng/J (1. 5-2. 0 lb/MBtu). The Texas Air Control Board (TACB) will issue a facility a permit to operate only if NOx emissions are within... NO Methods of NOx Control Methods of NOx control may be lumped into two cate- gories: flue gas treatment (FGT) and combustion modifica- tion. The different processes are described below. Flue Gas Tr eatment Most of the research on FGT to date has been...

Finch, Stanley Frank

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

226

High efficiency particulate removal with sintered metal filters  

SciTech Connect

Because of their particle removal efficiencies and durability, sintered metal filters have been chosen for high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter protection in the off-gas treatment system for the proposed Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility. Process evaluation of sintered metal filters indicated a lack of sufficient process design data to ensure trouble-free operation. Subsequence pilot scale testing was performed with flyash as the test particulate. The test results showed that the sintered metal filters can have an efficiency greater than 0.9999999 for the specific test conditions used. Stable pressure drop characteristics were observed in pulsed and reversed flow blowback modes of operation. Over 4900 hours of operation were obtained with operating conditions ranging up to approximately 90/sup 0/C and 24 vol % water vapor in the gas stream.

Kirstein, B.E.; Paplawsky, W.J.; Pence, D.T.; Hedahl, T.G.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Characterization of Particulate Matter Emissions from a Common-Rail Diesel Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy ... The preferred approach to control the emissions of diesel engines is the adoption of an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system followed by a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) in front of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). ... Some fundamental information on the particulate matter (PM) characteristics emitted by an automotive diesel engine was gathered in order to provide a precious tool for the knowledge-based design of a new generation of diesel particulate traps in the EURO VI regulation perspective. ...

D. Fino; N. Russo

2011-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

228

Process for particulate removal from coal liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Suspended solid particulates are removed from liquefied coal products by first subjecting such products to hydroclone action for removal in the underflow of the larger size particulates, and then subjecting the overflow from said hydroclone action, comprising the residual finer particulates, to an electrostatic field in an electrofilter wherein such finer particulates are deposited in the bed of beads of dielectric material on said filter. The beads are periodically cleaned by backwashing to remove the accumulated solids.

Rappe, Gerald C. (Macungie, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Preserving Diesel Exhaust Ultrafine (Nano-) Particulate Structure...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Preserving Diesel Exhaust Ultrafine (Nano-) Particulate Structure in Genotoxicity Studies to Support Engineering Development of Emission Controls Preserving Diesel Exhaust...

230

Durability of Diesel Particulate Filters - Bench Studies on Cordierite...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

& Publications Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design and Optimization Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems fundamental...

231

Evaluation of Gas Reburning and Low-NOx Burners on a Wall-Fired Boiler; a DOE Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The results from the GR-LNB technology demonstrated by EER at Cherokee Station approached, but did not meet, the CCT project's performance objectives. Acceptable unit operability was achieved with both the GR and the LNB components. The gas reburning component of the process appears to be broadly applicable for retrofit NO{sub x} control to most utility boilers and, in particular, to wet-bottom cyclone boilers, which are high NO{sub x} emitters and are difficult to control (LNB technology is not applicable to cyclone boilers). GR-LNB can reduce NO{sub x} to mandated emissions levels under Title IV of the CAAA without significant, adverse boiler impacts. The GR-LNB process may be applicable to boilers significantly larger than the demonstration unit, provided there is adequate dispersion and mixing of injected natural gas. Major results of the demonstration project are summarized as follows: NO{sub x}-emissions reductions averaging 64% were achieved with 12.5% gas heat input in long-term tests on a 158-MWe (net) wall-fired unit. The target reduction level of 70% was achieved only on a short-term basis with higher gas consumption. The thermal performance of coal-fired boilers is not significantly affected by GR-LNB. Convective section steam temperatures can be controlled within acceptable limits. Thermal efficiency is decreased by a small amount (about 0.8%), because of increased dry gas loss and higher moisture in the flue gas as a result of the GR process. Furnace slagging and convective section fouling can be adequately controlled. Because of the higher hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratio of natural gas compared with coal, use of the GR process results in a modest reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions. SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions are reduced in direct proportion to the fraction of heat supplied by natural gas.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2001-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

232

Reducing the cost of CO{sub 2} capture from flue gases using pressure swing adsorption  

SciTech Connect

Pressure swing adsorption (PSA) processes have been used extensively for gas separation, especially in the separation of hydrogen from CO{sub 2}, and in air purification. The objective of this paper is to examine the economic feasibility of pressure swing adsorption (PSA) for recovering CO{sub 2} from postcombustion power plant flue gas. The analysis considers both high-pressure feed and vacuum desorption using commercial adsorbent 13X, which has a working capacity of 2.2 mol/kg and CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity of 54. The results show that using vacuum desorption reduces the capture cost from US$57 to US$51 per ton of CO{sub 2} avoided and is comparable in cost to CO{sub 2} capture using conventional MEA absorption of US$49 per ton of CO{sub 2} avoided. In this paper, a sensitivity analysis is also presented showing the effect on the capture cost with changes in process cycle; feed pressure and evacuation pressure; improvements the adsorbent characteristics; and selectivity and working capacity. The results show that a hypothetical adsorbent with a working capacity of 4.3 mol/kg and a CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity of 150 can reduce the capture cost to US$30 per ton of CO{sub 2} avoided.

Ho, M.T.; Allinson, G.W.; Wiley, D.E. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

233

Method and apparatus for the separation of a gas-solids mixture in a circulating fluidized bed reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The system of the present invention includes a centripetal cyclone for separating particulate material from a particulate laden gas solids stream. The cyclone includes a housing defining a conduit extending between an upstream inlet and a downstream outlet. In operation, when a particulate laden gas-solids stream passes through the upstream housing inlet, the particulate laden gas-solids stream is directed through the conduit and at least a portion of the solids in the particulate laden gas-solids stream are subjected to a centripetal force within the conduit.

Vimalchand, Pannalal (Birmingham, AL); Liu, Guohai (Birmingham, AL); Peng, WanWang (Birmingham, AL)

2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

234

Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control  

SciTech Connect

Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic (i.e., man-made) CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2001, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) began a two-phase program to investigate the feasibility of various carbon capture technologies. This program was sponsored under a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE). The first phase entailed a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen cases, representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated. Seven cases represented coal combustion in CFB type equipment. Four cases represented Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Two cases represented advanced Chemical Looping Combined Cycle systems. Marion, et al. reported the details of this work in 2003. One of the thirteen cases studied utilized an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. In this concept, the fuel is fired with a mixture of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (mainly CO{sub 2}). This combustion process yields a flue gas containing over 80 percent (by volume) CO{sub 2}. This flue gas can be processed relatively easily to enrich the CO{sub 2} content to over 96 percent for use in enhanced oil or gas recovery (EOR or EGR) or simply dried for sequestration. The Phase I study identified the O{sub 2}-fired CFB as having a near term development potential, because it uses conventional commercial CFB technology and commercially available CO{sub 2} capture enabling technologies such as cryogenic air separation and simple rectification or distillation gas processing systems. In the long term, air separation technology advancements offer significant reductions in power requirements, which would improve plant efficiency and economics for the oxygen-fired technology. The second phase consisted of pilot-scale testing followed by a refined performance and economic evaluation of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. As a part of this workscope, ALSTOM modified its 3 MW{sub th} (9.9 MMBtu/hr) Multiuse Test Facility (MTF) pilot plant to operate with O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures of up to 70 percent O{sub 2} by volume. Tests were conducted with coal and petroleum coke. The test objectives were to determine the impacts of oxygen firing on heat transfer, bed dynamics, potential agglomeration, and gaseous and particulate emissions. The test data results were used to refine the design, performance, costs, and economic models developed in Phase-I for the O{sub 2}-fired CFB with CO{sub 2} capture. Nsakala, Liljedahl, and Turek reported results from this study in 2004. ALSTOM identified several items needing further investigation in preparation for large scale demonstration of the oxygen-fired CFB concept, namely: (1) Operation and performance of the moving bed heat exchanger (MBHE) to avoid recarbonation and also for cost savings compared to the standard bubbling fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHE); (2) Performance of the back-end flash dryer absorber (FDA) for sulfur capture under high CO{sub 2}/high moisture flue gas environment using calcined limestone in the fly ash and using fresh commercial lime directly in the FDA; (3) Determination of the effect of recarbonation on fouling in the convective pass; (4) Assessment of the impact of oxygen firing on the mercury, other trace elements, and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions; and (5) Develop a proposal-level oxygen-fired retrofit design for a relatively small existing CFB steam power plant in preparation for a large-scale demonstration of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. Hence, ALSTOM responded to a DOE Solicitation to address all these issues with further O{sub 2} fired MTF pilot testing and a subsequent retrofit design study of oxygen firing and CO{s

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

235

Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

236

Zone heated diesel particulate filter electrical connection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrical connection system for a particulate filter is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) disposed within an outer shell wherein the PF is segmented into a plurality of heating zones; an outer mat disposed between the particulate filter and the outer shell; an electrical connector coupled to the outer shell of the PF; and a plurality of printed circuit connections that extend along the outer surface of the PF from the electrical connector to the plurality of heating zones.

Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Paratore, Jr., Michael J. (Howell, MI)

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

237

Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Evaluation pm041lance2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration Substrate Studies of an Electrically-Assisted Diesel...

238

Electrically heated particulate filter embedded heater design  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine and wherein an upstream surface of the particulate filter includes machined grooves. A grid of electrically resistive material is inserted into the machined grooves of the exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

Gonze, Eugene V.; Chapman, Mark R.

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Electrically heated particulate filter using catalyst striping  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating is applied to the PF that increases a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; Ament, Frank

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

240

Methods of separating particulate residue streams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Christopher T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hess, J. Richard (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

GAS INJECTION/WELL STIMULATION PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

Driver Production proposes to conduct a gas repressurization/well stimulation project on a six well, 80-acre portion of the Dutcher Sand of the East Edna Field, Okmulgee County, Oklahoma. The site has been location of previous successful flue gas injection demonstration but due to changing economic and sales conditions, finds new opportunities to use associated natural gas that is currently being vented to the atmosphere to repressurize the reservoir to produce additional oil. The established infrastructure and known geological conditions should allow quick startup and much lower operating costs than flue gas. Lessons learned from the previous project, the lessons learned form cyclical oil prices and from other operators in the area will be applied. Technology transfer of the lessons learned from both projects could be applied by other small independent operators.

John K. Godwin

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 6 Installed Nameplate Capacity of Fossil-Fuel Steam-Electric Generators With Environmental Equipment By Fuel and Equipment Type, 2010 Total Units by Equipment Type, 1985-2010² Coal Units by Equipment Type, Petroleum and Natural Gas Units 1985-2010² by Equipment Type, 1985-2010² 318 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Coal Units Petroleum and Natural Gas Units Particulate Collectors Thousand Megawatts 329 165 185 26 75 1 Particulate Collectors Cooling Towers Flue Gas Particulate Collectors Cooling Towers Flue Gas 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 100 200 300 400 Thousand Megawatts Flue Gas Desulfurization¹ Particulate Collectors Cooling Towers Flue Gas Desulfurization¹ Particulate Collectors Desulfurization¹ Desulfurization¹ Cooling Towers

243

Edinburgh Research Explorer Pulmonary diesel particulate increases susceptibility to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Edinburgh Research Explorer Pulmonary diesel particulate increases susceptibility to myocardial, MR & Gray, GA 2014, 'Pulmonary diesel particulate increases susceptibility to myocardial ischemia. Pulmonary diesel particulate increases susceptibility to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury via

Millar, Andrew J.

244

Evaluation of a Cyclone and Hot Gas Filter System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a Cyclone and a Cyclone and Hot Gas Filter System Description The Wabash River Coal Gasification Plant uses an oxygen-blown E-Gas gasifier technology, owned by ConocoPhillips, which produces fuel gas containing significant amounts of fine particulates. Currently, particulates are cleaned from the fuel gas with metal candle filters. These filters require two costly plant shut-downs per year for cleaning or replacement. During the U.S Department of Energy-supported project

245

Detailed Assessment of Particulate Characteristics from Low-Temperatur...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Detailed Assessment of Particulate Characteristics from Low-Temperature Combustion Engines Detailed Assessment of Particulate Characteristics from Low-Temperature Combustion...

246

Wiremesh Substrates for Enhanced Particulate Oxidation and Efficient...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Wiremesh Substrates for Enhanced Particulate Oxidation and Efficient Urea SCR NOx Reduction Wiremesh Substrates for Enhanced Particulate Oxidation and Efficient Urea SCR NOx...

247

Development of SCR on Diesel Particulate Filter System for Heavy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SCR on Diesel Particulate Filter System for Heavy Duty Applications Development of SCR on Diesel Particulate Filter System for Heavy Duty Applications Evaluation of a system...

248

Update on 2007 Diesel Particulate Measurement Research | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

2007 Diesel Particulate Measurement Research Update on 2007 Diesel Particulate Measurement Research 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and...

249

Expanded Capacity Microwave-Cleaned Diesel Particulate Filter...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Expanded Capacity Microwave-Cleaned Diesel Particulate Filter Expanded Capacity Microwave-Cleaned Diesel Particulate Filter 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Industrial Ceramic...

250

Predicting Thermal Stress in Diesel Particulate Filters | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Thermal Stress in Diesel Particulate Filters Predicting Thermal Stress in Diesel Particulate Filters 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Corning...

251

The State of the Science in Diesel Particulate Control | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

The State of the Science in Diesel Particulate Control The State of the Science in Diesel Particulate Control 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations...

252

A New CFD Model for understanding and Managing Diesel Particulate...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

& Publications Substrate Studies of an Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Diesel Particulate Filter: A Success for Faurecia Exhaust Systems Vehicle Evaluation of...

253

Ultra-Lite Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge for Reduced Regeneratio...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Lite Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge for Reduced Regeneration Time and Fuel Consumption Ultra-Lite Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge for Reduced Regeneration Time and Fuel...

254

Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters Neutron computed tomography shows soot and ash loading in a cordierite diesel...

255

Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by Dynamic Neutron Radiography Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by...

256

Non-Destructive Neutron Imaging to Analyze Particulate Filters...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Neutron Imaging to Analyze Particulate Filters Non-Destructive Neutron Imaging to Analyze Particulate Filters Non-destructive, non-invasive imaging is being employed in the...

257

Durability of Diesel Engine Particulate Filters (Agreement ID...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Durability of Diesel Engine Particulate Filters (Agreement ID:10461) Durability of Diesel Engine Particulate Filters (Agreement ID:10461) 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program...

258

Improvement and Simplification of Diesel Particulate Filter System...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and Simplification of Diesel Particulate Filter System using a Ceria-Based Fuel-Borne Catalyst in Serial Applications Improvement and Simplification of Diesel Particulate Filter...

259

Reduction of Transient Particulate Matter Spikes with Decision...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Transient Particulate Matter Spikes with Decision Tree Based Control Reduction of Transient Particulate Matter Spikes with Decision Tree Based Control Using a non-parametric...

260

Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac River Generating Station, Alexandria, Virginia Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac River...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Particulate Emissions...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems for GDI Engines Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration...

262

Optical Backscatter Probe for Sensing Particulate Matter - Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

particulate concentration is then determined by measuring the amount of backscattered light transmitted by particulate matter contained in a sample of engine exhaust. The speed...

263

Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired Heating System  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This tip sheet discusses how the thermal efficiency of a process heating system can be improved significantly by using heat contained in furnace flue gases to preheat the furnace load.

264

Performance of a spark ignition, lean burn, natural gas internal combustion engine .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Relative to gasoline and diesel, use of natural gas as a transport fuel can produce significantly lower emissions of particulate matter and greenhouse gases. Future… (more)

ABBASI ATIBEH, PAYMAN

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Hydraulic Fracturing in Particulate Materials.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??For more than five decades, hydraulic fracturing has been widely used to enhance oil and gas production. Hydraulic fracturing in solid materials (e.g., rock) has… (more)

Chang, Hong

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Gas-Liquid Contact Area of Random and Structured Packing Ian David Wilson, B.S.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the gas or to avoid catalyst poisoning. It is becoming apparent that CO2 emissions may also play a mayor the flue gas and the liquid solvent. The gas exits from the top with a low concentration of CO2 while 1.1 CO2 removal by absorption/stripping Absorber Stripper Sweet Gas CO2 + H2O Sour Gas Rich Amine

Rochelle, Gary T.

267

Efficiency of Gas-to-Liquids Technology with Different Synthesis Gas Production Methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The design and optimization of a gas-to-liquids technology (GTL) is considered, mostly from the view of an optimal choice of a synthesis gas (syngas) production method. ... If the tail gas is not enough, an additional portion of the natural gas is burned. ... The temperature of the flue gases passing from the radiation chamber of the tubular furnace to the convection chamber is taken as equal to 1150 °C, which allows proper calculation of required amount of gas supplied to the burner. ...

Ilya S. Ermolaev; Vadim S. Ermolaev; Vladimir Z. Mordkovich

2014-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

268

Development of a Low-Cost Particulate Matter Monitor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Forward-looking infrared (FLIR) images taken as a singleforward-looking infrared (FLIR) instrumentation. Particulate

White, Richard M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Particulate matter in the south Atlantic Ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The particulate matter (PM) distribution in the south Atlantic Ocean and its relationship to water masses and currents were determined from optical and hydrographic data. Attenuation coefficients were obtained by interfacing a beam transmissometer...

Wood, Megan Maria

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

270

Investigation of Direct Injection Vehicle Particulate Matter...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Emissions This study focuses primarily on particulate matter mass analysis of a gasoline direct injection engine in a test cell with a chassis dynamometer. p-10gibbs.pdf...

271

The effect of porosity on the mechanical properties of cordierite diesel particulate filter substrates  

SciTech Connect

Diesel particulate filter (DPF) technology depends on porous ceramic structures that trap the particulate matter in the diesel engine exhaust gas stream. The design of DPFs requires balancing the functional requirement of soot filtration with the mechanical properties and both are influenced by the porosity of the substrate. In addition, increasing the porosity of the substrate can assist with the catalytic washcoating, engine back pressure and engine efficiency. The effect of porosity on the elastic and fracture mechanical properties of cordierite based ceramic particulate filters was examined and will be described. Elastic modulus of DPF substrates was determined using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy while fracture toughness was characterized using the double-torsion test method. The interrelationships among specimen thickness, wall orientation, porosity and mechanical properties of the filter substrates will be discussed. A materials selection procedure to obtain filters with high thermal shock resistance and optimal mechanical properties will be described.

Shyam, Amit [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

New configurations of a heat recovery absorption heat pump integrated with a natural gas boiler for boiler efficiency improvement  

SciTech Connect

Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150 200 C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50 60 C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural gas boilers for applications with process fluid return temperatures higher than or close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas.

Qu, Ming [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Yin, Hongxi [Southeast University, Nanjing, China

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Pilot-scale study of the effect of selective catalytic reduction catalyst on mercury speciation in Illinois and Powder River Basin coal combustion flue gases  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst on mercury (Hg) speciation in bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases. Three different Illinois Basin bituminous coals (from high to low sulfur (S) and chlorine (Cl)) and one Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal with very low S and very low Cl were tested in a pilot-scale combustor equipped with an SCR reactor for controlling nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The SCR catalyst induced high oxidation of elemental Hg (Hg{sup 0}), decreasing the percentage of Hg{sup 0} at the outlet of the SCR to values <12% for the three Illinois coal tests. The PRB coal test indicated a low oxidation of Hg{sup 0} by the SCR catalyst, with the percentage of Hg{sup 0} decreasing from {approximately} 96% at the inlet of the reactor to {approximately} 80% at the outlet. The low Cl content of the PRB coal and corresponding low level of available flue gas Cl species were believed to be responsible for low SCR Hg oxidation for this coal type. The test results indicated a strong effect of coal type on the extent of Hg oxidation. 16 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Lee, C.W.; Srivastava, R.K.; Ghorishi, S.B.; Karwowski, J.; Hastings, T.H.; Hirschi, J.C. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Triangle Park, NC (United States)

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

274

Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol. 3 figs.

Steinberg, M.; Grohse, E.W.

1995-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

275

Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol.

Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY); Grohse, Edward W. (Port Jefferson, NY)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Method of dispersing particulate aerosol tracer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A particulate aerosol tracer which comprises a particulate carrier of sheet silicate composition having a particle size up to one micron, and a cationic dopant chemically absorbed in solid solution in the carrier. The carrier is preferably selected from the group consisting of natural mineral clays such as bentonite, and the dopant is selected from the group consisting of rare earth elements and transition elements. The tracers are dispersed by forming an aqueous salt solution with the dopant present as cations, dispersing the carriers in the solution, and then atomizing the solution under heat sufficient to superheat the solution droplets at a level sufficient to prevent reagglomeration of the carrier particles.

O'Holleran, Thomas P. (Belleville, MI)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Method for improved gas-solids separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods are disclosed for the removal of particulate solids from a gas stream at high separation efficiency, including the removal of submicron size particles. The apparatus includes a cyclone separator type of device which contains an axially mounted perforated cylindrical hollow rotor. The rotor is rotated at high velocity in the same direction as the flow of an input particle-laden gas stream to thereby cause enhanced separation of particulate matter from the gas stream in the cylindrical annular space between the rotor and the sidewall of the cyclone vessel. Substantially particle-free gas passes through the perforated surface of the spinning rotor and into the hollow rotor, from where it is discharged out of the top of the apparatus. Separated particulates are removed from the bottom of the vessel. 4 figs.

Kusik, C.L.; He, B.X.

1990-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

278

Particulate Waste Product Combustion System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The introduction of fuels with high ash or silica content into burn.ers have produced problems of fly ash in the exhaust stream causing extensive darrage to boilers f1red by th gasification process. For exanple, the contlus ioo of the rice hull pre sents a... manner using underfire and overflre air to support fficient gasification of the by product, which results ln he pro:Juction of a c~ bustible gas mixture characteristic of organic sub- stances. Intro:Juction of the fuel stock into t cQ1mustion chamber...

King, D. R.; Chastain, C. E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

In Vitro Genotoxicity of Particulate and Semi-Volatile Organic...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Particulate and Semi-Volatile Organic Compound Exhaust Materails from a Set of Gasoline and a Set of Diesel Engine Vehicles Operated at 30F In Vitro Genotoxicity of Particulate...

280

Effects of Sampling Conditions on the Size Distribution of Fine Particulate Matter Emitted from a Pilot-Scale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of Sampling Conditions on the Size Distribution of Fine Particulate Matter Emitted from complex because the dilution ratio influences both the coagulation rate and gas-to- particle conversion because of their ability to scatter and absorb light and also because they act as cloud condensation

Stanier, Charlie

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Cross-flow, filter-sorbent catalyst for particulate, SO sub 2 and NO sub x control  

SciTech Connect

This synopsis describes a new concept for integrated pollutant control: a cross-flow filter comprised of layered, gas permeable membranes that act as a particulate filter, an SO{sub 2} sorbent, and a NO{sub x} reduction catalyst.

Not Available

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Oxyfuel CO2 compression: The gas phase reaction of elemental mercury and \\{NOx\\} at high pressure and absorption into nitric acid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Oxyfuel combustion is a technology which combusts coal in oxygen and recycled flue gas, producing a carbon dioxide rich flue gas for sequestration. Oxyfuel flue gas contains trace amounts of elemental mercury, which may corrode brazed aluminium heat exchangers used in the carbon dioxide purification system. International gas vendors have tested the use of the compression system to remove other flue gas impurities such as NOx; however, the reaction mechanism of mercury and its reaction products with \\{NOx\\} and nitric acid formed with condensed water vapour are unclear. This study used lab scale experiments to study the absorption of gaseous elemental mercury into nitric acid and the gas phase reaction between mercury and nitrogen dioxide formed from oxidised NO at pressures up to 25 bar. It was observed that mercury has limited absorption into nitric acid and may partially desorb out of solution after depressurisation. On the other hand, mercury reacted readily with nitrogen dioxide (formed from nitric oxide oxidation at high pressure) in the gas phase. These gas phase reactions from the oxidation of nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide to the subsequent oxidation of elemental mercury by nitrogen dioxide were predicted using existing global kinetic equations. The limited absorption of gaseous elemental mercury in nitric acid and significant oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury by nitrogen dioxide suggests that the primary removal step for elemental mercury is through the gas phase reaction. Oxyfuel compression circuits should therefore allow sufficient residence time for this gas phase reaction to occur.

Timothy Ting; Rohan Stanger; Terry Wall

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Electrically heated particulate filter preparation methods and systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a fuel control module that controls injection of fuel into exhaust that passes through the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to initiate regeneration after the fuel has been injected into the exhaust.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

284

Microscopy investigations of ash and particulate matter accumulation in diesel particulate filter surface pores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There has been increased focus on the environmental impact of automobile emissions in recent years. These environmental concerns have resulted in the creation of more stringent particulate matter emissions regulations in ...

Beauboeuf, Daniel P

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Capture of CO2 from flue gas by vacuum pressure swing adsorption using activated carbon beads  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) for CO2 capture has attracted much research effort with the...2...adsorbent materials. In this work, a new adsorbent, that is, pitch-based activated carbon bead (AC bead), ...

Chunzhi Shen; Jianguo Yu; Ping Li; Carlos A. Grande; Alirio E. Rodrigues

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

The utilization of flue gas desulfurization waste by-products in construction brick.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Millions of tons of waste by-products from Texas coal burning plants are produced each year. Two common byproducts are the fuel ashes and calcium sulfate… (more)

Berryman, Charles Wayne

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

III T; Murphy J T. DOE/NETL’s Phase II Mercury ControlFired Power Plants, DOE/NETL Mercury R&D Program Review,

Miller, Nai-Qiang Yan-Zan Qu Yao Chi Shao-Hua Qiao Ray Dod Shih-Ger Chang Charles

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Application of holographic neural networks for flue gas emissions prediction in the Burnaby incinerator  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the development of a parametric prediction system (PPS) for various emission species at the Burnaby incinerator. The continuous emissions monitoring system at the Burnaby incinerator is shared between three boilers and therefore actual results are only available 5 minutes out of every 15 minutes. The PPS was developed to fill in data for the 10 minutes when the Continuous Emission Monitor (CEM) is measuring the other boilers. It bases its prediction on the last few actual readings taken and parametrically predicts CO, SO2 and NOx. The Burnaby Incinerator is located in the commercial/industrial area of South Burnaby, British Columbia. It consists of three separate lines, each burning ten tonnes of garbage per hour and producing about three tonnes of steam for every tonne of garbage burned. The air pollution control system first cools the combustion products with water injection and then scrubs them with very fine hydrated lime. Carbon is added to the lime to enhance the scrubbing of the combustion products. The CEM monitors the levels of oxygen, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and opacity. In 1996, an expert system was installed on one of boilers at the Burnaby Incinerator plant to determine if it could improve the plant=s operations and reduce overall emission. As part of the expert system, the PPS was developed. Holographic Neural Technology (HNeT), developed by AND Corporation of Toronto, Ontario, is a novel neural network technology using complex numbers in its architecture. Compared to the traditional neural networks, HNeT has some significant advantage. It is more resilient against converging on local minima; is faster training and executing; less prone to over fitting; and, in most cases, has significantly lower error. Selection of independent variabs, training set preparation, testing neural nets and other related issue will be discussed.

Zheng, L.; Dockrill, P.; Clements, B. [Natural Resources Canada, Nepean, Ontario (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

289

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines  

SciTech Connect

Disposal of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) in an environmentally sound manner is a major issue facing the coal and utility industries in the US today. Disposal into abandoned sections of underground coal mines may overcome many of the surface disposal problems along with added benefits such as mitigation of subsidence and acid mine drainage. However, many of the abandoned underground coal mines are located far from power plants, requiring long distance hauling of by-products which will significantly contribute to the cost of disposal. For underground disposal to be economically competitive, the transportation and handling cost must be minimized. This requires careful selection of the system and optimal design for efficient operation. The materials handling and system economics research addresses these issues. Transportation and handling technologies for CCBs were investigated from technical, environmental and economic points of view. Five technologies were found promising: (1) Pneumatic Trucks, (2) Pressure Differential Rail Cars, (3) Collapsible Intermodal Containers, (4) Cylindrical Intermodal Tanks, and (5) Coal Hopper Cars with Automatic Retractable Tarping. The first two technologies are currently being utilized in transporting by-products from power plants to disposal sites, whereas the next three are either in development or in conceptualization phases. In this research project, engineering design and cost models were developed for the first four technologies. The engineering design models are in the form of spreadsheets and serve the purpose of determining efficient operating schedules and sizing of system components.

Sevim, H.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

DOE/FETC/TR--98-01 SORBENTS FOR MERCURY REMOVAL FROM FLUE GAS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

in the Analysis of Mercury in Air. Paper presented at the 66th Annual Meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association, June 1973. 45 Arizona Instrument Company, Manual for...

291

Exhaust gas clean up process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO.sub.x is removed as N.sub.2 or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a vaulable sulfate salt.

Walker, Richard J. (McMurray, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Methods for reducing emissions of dioxins and furans in flue gases at plants burning solid domestic waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Methods are discussed for reducing emissions of toxic chlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and dibenzo-furans in flue gases at plants which burn solid domestic waste. Results are presented from a study of ... number of th...

A. N. Tugov; V. F. Moskvichev; L. G. Fedorov…

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Generator powered electrically heated diesel particulate filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control circuit for a vehicle powertrain includes a switch that selectivity interrupts current flow between a first terminal and a second terminal. A first power source provides power to the first terminal and a second power source provides power to the second terminal and to a heater of a heated diesel particulate filter (DPF). The switch is opened during a DPF regeneration cycle to prevent the first power source from being loaded by the heater while the heater is energized.

Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

294

Measurement of particulate densities in air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Clean air is one of the most important issues that govern the health of all live forms. However presently there are not many quick and simple methods for measuring impurities like particulates in air. These impurities have an enormous diversity in their physical and chemical structure. They may be unburned carbon particles from a diesel engine exhaust and chimney pollen grains in the spring air or asbestos in a factory. This paper shows that changes in the composition of the air cause a change in the speed of sound. Therefore by measuring the change in the speed of sound it is possible to monitor the density of particulates in the air. Preliminary tests are conducted on various smoke–air mixtures. The results demonstrate that this methodology is very sensitive to any changes in the composition of the air. Its implementation is very simple and efficient and costs much less than the conventional method currently used in the auto industry. This technique will be used to calculate the mass density of the particulates resulting from a diesel engine and results thus obtained will be compared with those calculated using other methods.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Influence of different configurations of a catalyst and a trap on particulate emission of a diesel passenger car  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New particulate emission measurements performed on a diesel passenger car to see the influence of different configurations of after-treatment systems are reported. Five combinations of a particle trap and an oxidation catalyst are investigated. These configurations are discussed in view of particulate emission, measured by number and mass. All measurements were carried out at a chassis dynamometer of the EMPA. A diesel passenger car with an IDI engine was operated at four steady state conditions. Exhaust gas was diluted in a standard constant volume sampler (CVS) device (full flow dilution tunnel). Particulate size distributions were measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and gravimetric measurements were performed according to regulations. Furthermore, measurements without CVS tunnel were done by using external dilution units to see the influence of the sampling method. We used a thermo desorber to distinguish volatile and non-volatile aerosol fractions and we analysed filter samples for determination of organic soluble fraction, water-soluble fraction and sulphur content. Huge differences depending on the configuration of the after-treatment system and load were observed. In general it was found that a large reduction of particulate emission could be obtained by using a particle trap. A catalyst converter has minor effect on particulate emission. Nucleation of new particles was observed under certain conditions depending on configuration and sampling method.

Urs Lehmann; Martin Mohr

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Argonne TTRDC - Engines - Emissions Control - Advanced Diesel Particulate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration Systems Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration Systems The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations require that on-highway diesel vehicles have filtration systems to reduce tail-pipe soot emissions, known as particulate matter (PM). Diesel particulate filtration (DPF) systems are currently the most efficient at directly controlling PM. Argonne researchers, working with Corning, Inc., and Caterpillar, Inc., through a cooperative research and development agreement, are exploiting previously unavailable technology and research results on diesel PM filtration and regeneration processes, aiming to the technology transfer of advanced PM emission control to industry. Argonne's Research In operation of DPF systems, the filtration and regeneration of particulate emissions are the key processes to be controlled for high efficiency. Due to difficulties in accessing the micro-scaled structures of DPF membranes and monitoring particulate filtration and high-temperature thermal processes, however, research has been limited to macroscopic observation for the product.

297

Gas Separations using Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect

This project has been oriented toward the development of a commercially viable ceramic membrane for high temperature gas separations. A technically and commercially viable high temperature gas separation membrane and process has been developed under this project. The lab and field tests have demonstrated the operational stability, both performance and material, of the gas separation thin film, deposited upon the ceramic membrane developed. This performance reliability is built upon the ceramic membrane developed under this project as a substrate for elevated temperature operation. A comprehensive product development approach has been taken to produce an economically viable ceramic substrate, gas selective thin film and the module required to house the innovative membranes for the elevated temperature operation. Field tests have been performed to demonstrate the technical and commercial viability for (i) energy and water recovery from boiler flue gases, and (ii) hydrogen recovery from refinery waste streams using the membrane/module product developed under this project. Active commercializations effort teaming with key industrial OEMs and end users is currently underway for these applications. In addition, the gas separation membrane developed under this project has demonstrated its economical viability for the CO2 removal from subquality natural gas and landfill gas, although performance stability at the elevated temperature remains to be confirmed in the field.

Paul KT Liu

2005-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

298

Emission characteristics of GTL fuel as an alternative to conventional marine gas oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The study examine the gaseous, smoke and particulate matter emission characteristics of a turbocharged heavy-duty diesel engine operated on conventional marine gas oil and gas-to-liquid Fischer–Tropsch fuel under modes of propulsion and generator operation. The gas-to-liquid showed average reductions up to 19% in nitrogen oxides, 25% in carbon monoxide, 4% in carbon dioxide and 30% in smoke with slight increase in unburned hydrocarbon emissions. Particulate number concentrations for gas-to-liquid were up to 21% higher, whereas particulates mass showed a 16% decrease at medium and high loads, while increasing by 12–15% under lower load conditions. Very low aromatic content of gas-to-liquid fuel and nearly zero sulfur level are responsible for particulate reduction.

Sergey Ushakov; Nadine G.M. Halvorsen; Harald Valland; Dag H. Williksen; Vilmar Æsøy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

A Standard Soot Generator for Diesel Particulate Filter Testing  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CAMBUSTION A Standard Soot Generator for Diesel Particulate Filter Testing Poster - P10 Diesel Engine Emission Reduction Conference 2007 Chris Nickolaus ...

300

Occupational Medicine Implications of Engineered Nanoscale Particulate Matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Safety in Nanotechnology Research Occupational Medicinenanotechnology revolution promises dramatic advancements in science, technology, medicineMedicine Implications of Engineered Nanoscale Particulate Matter The emerging nanotechnology

Kelly, Richard J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Non-Destructive Neutron Imaging to Analyze Particulate Filters  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Non-destructive, non-invasive imaging is being employed in the laboratory to understand how soot, ash, and catalytic washcoat are deposited within a diesel particulate filter.

302

Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap (DCPT) Design and Optimization Tom Harris, Donna McConnell and Danan Dou Delphi Catalyst Tulsa, Oklahoma 2 Euro 45 Light Duty...

303

Failure Stress and Apparent Elastic Modulus of Diesel Particulate...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Elastic Modulus of Diesel Particulate Filter Ceramics Three established mechanical test specimen geometries and test methods for brittle materials are adapted to DPF...

304

The constitutive behaviour of strong cohesive particulate gels in compression  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A simple and popular constitutive model used to describe the compressional strength of a consolidating strongly cohesive particulate gel is tested further with new experimental data.

A. A. Aziz; R. Buscall; R. de Kretzer; M. Kristjansson; P. J. Scales; A. D. Stickland; H-E Teo; S. P. Usher

2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

305

Partitioning of Volatile Organics in Diesel Particulate and Exhaust...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Exhaust Partitioning of Volatile Organics in Diesel Particulate and Exhaust Evaluation of how sampling details affect the measurement of volatile organic compounds in...

306

Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion with Alcohol-blended Fuels Analysis showed that gasoline direct injection engine particulates from alcohol-blended fuels are significantly...

307

Diesel Particulate Oxidation Model: Combined Effects of Fixed...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Volatile Carbon Diesel Particulate Oxidation Model: Combined Effects of Fixed & Volatile Carbon Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research...

308

Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters  

SciTech Connect

This article presents nondestructive neutron computed tomography (nCT) measurements of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as a method to measure ash and soot loading in the filters. Uncatalyzed and unwashcoated 200cpsi cordierite DPFs exposed to 100% biodiesel (B100) exhaust and conventional ultra low sulfur 2007 certification diesel (ULSD) exhaust at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP) are compared to a brand new (never exposed) filter. Precise structural information about the substrate as well as an attempt to quantify soot and ash loading in the channel of the DPF illustrates the potential strength of the neutron imaging technique.

Strzelec, Andrea [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Foster, Prof. Dave [University of Wisconsin; Rutland, Prof. Christopher J. [University of Wisconsin; Schillinger, Burkhard [FRM-II, Technische Universitaet Munchen; Schulz, Michael [FRM-II, Technische Universitaet Munchen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Energy consumption analysis for CO2 separation from gas mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract CO2 separation is an energy intensive process, which plays an important role in both energy saving and CO2 capture and storage (CCS) implementation to deal with global warming. To quantitatively investigate the energy consumption of CO2 separation from different CO2 streams and analyze the effect of temperature, pressure and composition on energy consumption, in this work, the theoretical energy consumption of CO2 separation from flue gas, lime kiln gas, biogas and bio-syngas was calculated. The results show that the energy consumption of CO2 separation from flue gas is the highest and that from biogas is the lowest, and the concentration of CO2 is the most important factor affecting the energy consumption when the CO2 concentration is lower than 0.15 in mole fraction. Furthermore, if the CO2 captured from flue gases in CCS was replaced with that from biogases, i.e. bio-CO2, the energy saving would be equivalent to 7.31 million ton standard coal for China and 28.13 million ton standard coal globally, which corresponds to 0.30 billion US$ that can be saved for China and 1.36 billion US$ saved globally. This observation reveals the importance of trading fossil fuel-based CO2 with bio-CO2.

Yingying Zhang; Xiaoyan Ji; Xiaohua Lu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

NETL: Gasification Systems - Gas Cleaning  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cleaning Cleaning Chemicals from Coal Complex Chemicals from Coal Complex (Eastman Company) Novel gas cleaning and conditioning are crucial technologies for achieving near-zero emissions, while meeting gasification system performance and cost targets. DOE's Gasification Systems program supports technology development in the area of gas cleaning and conditioning, including advanced sorbents and solvents, particulate filters, and other novel gas-cleaning approaches that remove and convert gas contaminants into benign and marketable by-products. To avoid the cost and efficiency penalties associated with cooling the gas stream to temperatures at which conventional gas clean-up systems operate, novel processes are being developed that operate at mild to high temperatures and incorporate multi-contaminant control to

311

Modeling and interpreting the observed effects of ash on diesel particulate filter performance and regeneration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diesel particulate filters (DPF) are devices that physically capture diesel particulates to prevent their release to the atmosphere. Diesel particulate filters have seen widespread use in on- and off-road applications as ...

Wang, Yujun, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Cross-flow, filter-sorbent catalyst for particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control. First quarterly technical progress report, 1990  

SciTech Connect

This synopsis describes a new concept for integrated pollutant control: a cross-flow filter comprised of layered, gas permeable membranes that act as a particulate filter, an SO{sub 2} sorbent, and a NO{sub x} reduction catalyst.

Not Available

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac River  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac River Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac River Generating Station, Alexandria, Virginia Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac River Generating Station, Alexandria, Virginia Docket No. EO-05-01: TRC Environmental Corporation (TRC) of Lowell, Massachusetts was retained by Mirant Potomac River, LLC (Mirant) to provide sampling and analytical support in completing a Particulate Emission Test of Unit 1 of the Potomac River generating facility. The Test Program at the Potomac facility involved the completion of two series of emissions tests for particulate matter (PM), the first during normal unit operation and the second with the injection of TRONA upstream of hot side ESP fields. All tests were completed while Unit 1 was operating at 90% of full load (84MW)

314

Risks and Risk Governance in Unconventional Shale Gas Development  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The air pollutants associated with shale gas development include greenhouse gases (primarily methane), ozone precursors (volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides), air toxics, and particulate matter from flaring, compressors, and engines. ... Kiviat, E.Risks to biodiversity from hydraulic fracturing for natural gas in the Marcellus and Utica shales Annu. ...

Mitchell J. Small; Paul C. Stern; Elizabeth Bomberg; Susan M. Christopherson; Bernard D. Goldstein; Andrei L. Israel; Robert B. Jackson; Alan Krupnick; Meagan S. Mauter; Jennifer Nash; D. Warner North; Sheila M. Olmstead; Aseem Prakash; Barry Rabe; Nathan Richardson; Susan Tierney; Thomas Webler; Gabrielle Wong-Parodi; Barbara Zielinska

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient particulate matter Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ambient particulate matter Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Statistical Issues in the Study of Air Pollution Involving Airborne Particulate Matter Summary: Ambient Air Quality Standards...

316

E-Print Network 3.0 - air particulate analysis Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

air particulate analysis Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Statistical Issues in the Study of Air Pollution Involving Airborne Particulate Matter Summary: and the composition of...

317

E-Print Network 3.0 - air particulate samples Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

search results for: air particulate samples Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships: Diesel Engine Particulate Emission Reduction via...

318

E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient particulate matterpm10 Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

particulate matterpm10 Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Statistical Issues in the Study of Air Pollution Involving Airborne Particulate Matter Summary: Ambient Air Quality Standards...

319

E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient particulate matter-induced Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

particulate matter-induced Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Statistical Issues in the Study of Air Pollution Involving Airborne Particulate Matter Summary: Ambient Air Quality Standards...

320

Impact of Transportation on Cost, Energy and Particulate Emissions for Recycled Concrete Aggregate.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??IMPACT OF TRANSPORTATION ON COST, ENERGY AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FOR RECYCLED CONCRETE AGGREGATE Transportation distances can have a huge impact on cost, energy, and particulate… (more)

Hameed, Mohamed

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Emission abatement system utilizing particulate traps  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

Bromberg, Leslie (Sharon, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Rabinovich, Alexander (Swampscott, MA)

2004-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

322

Impact of Filtration Velocities and Particulate Matter Characteristics on Diesel Particulate Filter Wall Loading Performance  

SciTech Connect

The impact of different types of diesel particulate matter (PM) and different sampling conditions on the wall deposition and early soot cake build up within diesel particulate filters has been investigated. The measurements were made possible by a newly developed Diesel Exhaust Filtration Analysis (DEFA) system in which in-situ diesel exhaust filtration can be reproduced with in small cordierite wafer disks, which are essentially thin sections of a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) wall. The different types of PM were generated from selected engine operating conditions of a single-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. Two filtration velocities 4 and 8 cm/s were used to investigate PM deep-bed filtration processes. The loaded wafers were then analyzed in a thermal mass analyzer that measures the Soluble Organic Fraction (SOF) as well as soot and sulfate fractions of the PM. In addition, the soot residing in the wall of the wafer was examined under an optical microscope illuminated with Ultraviolet light and an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (E-SEM) to determine the bulk soot penetration depth for each loading condition. It was found that higher filtration velocity results in higher wall loading with approximately the same penetration depth into the wall. PM characteristics impacted both wall loading and soot cake layer characteristics. Results from imaging analysis indicate that soot the penetration depth into the wall was affected more by PM size (which changes with engine operating conditions) rather than filtration velocity.

Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Walker, Larry R [ORNL; Yapaulo, Renato A [ORNL; Orita, Tetsuo [ORNL; Wirojsakunchai, Ekathai [University of Wisconsin; Foster, David [University of Wisconsin; Akard, Michael [Horiba Instruments Inc.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Glass melter off-gas system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and method for melting glass in a glass melter in such a way as to reduce deposition of particulates in the off-gas duct. Deposit accumulation is reduced by achieving an off-gas velocity above approximately 15 meters/second and an off-gas temperature as close as possible to, but not higher than, the glass softening point. Because the deposits are largely water-soluble, those that do form on the interior surface of the duct can be readily removed by injecting water or steam directly into the off-gas duct from its entrance or exit.

Jantzen, Carol M. (Aiken, SC)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Liquid additives for particulate emissions control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention discloses a process for removing undesired particles from a gas stream including the steps of contacting a composition containing an adhesive with the gas stream; collecting the undesired particles and adhesive on a collection surface to form an aggregate comprising the adhesive and undesired particles on the collection surface; and removing the agglomerate from the collection zone. The composition may then be atomized and injected into the gas stream. The composition may include a liquid that vaporizes in the gas stream. After the liquid vaporizes, adhesive particles are entrained in the gas stream. The process may be applied to electrostatic precipitators and filtration systems to improve undesired particle collection efficiency. 11 figs.

Durham, M.D.; Schlager, R.J.; Ebner, T.G.; Stewart, R.M.; Hyatt, D.E.; Bustard, C.J.; Sjostrom, S.

1999-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

325

Results of Self-Absorption Study on the Versapor 3000 Filters for Radioactive Particulate Air Sampling  

SciTech Connect

Since the mid-1980s the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has used a value of 0.85 as a correction factor for the self absorption of activity of particulate radioactive air samples. More recently, an effort was made to evaluate the current particulate radioactive air sample filters (Versapor® 3000) used at PNNL for self absorption effects. There were two methods used in the study, 1) to compare the radioactivity concentration by direct gas-flow proportional counting of the filter to the results obtained after acid digestion of the filter and counting again by gas-flow proportional detection and 2) to evaluate sample filters by high resolution visual/infrared microscopy to determine the depth of material loading on or in the filter fiber material. Sixty samples were selected from the archive for acid digestion in the first method and about 30 samples were selected for high resolution visual/infrared microscopy. Mass loading effects were also considered. From the sample filter analysis, large error is associated with the average self absorption factor, however, when the data is compared directly one-to-one, statistically, there appears to be good correlation between the two analytical methods. The mass loading of filters evaluated was <0.2 mg cm-2 and was also compared against other published results. The microscopy analysis shows the sample material remains on the top of the filter paper and does not imbed into the filter media. Results of the microscopy evaluation lead to the conclusion that there is not a mechanism for significant self absorption. The overall conclusion is that self-absorption is not a significant factor in the analysis of filters used at PNNL for radioactive air stack sampling of radionuclide particulates and that an applied correction factor is conservative in determining overall sample activity. A new self absorption factor of 1.0 is recommended.

Barnett, J. M.

2008-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

326

Post-combustion Carbon Capture with a Gas Separation Membrane: Parametric Study, Capture Cost, and Exergy Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Post-combustion Carbon Capture with a Gas Separation Membrane: Parametric Study, Capture Cost, and Exergy Analysis ... (5) In a post-combustion CO2 capture process, the purity of the captured CO2 in the permeate stream mainly depends upon the selectivity of CO2 over the other gas species, such as N2 and O2. ... Capturing CO2 from flue gases in a power plant is not like traditional gas processing or purification, there are no strict requirements on the decarbonized sweet gas, which means no strict requirement on the CO2 concentration in the sweet gas or CO2 capture ratio. ...

Xiangping Zhang; Xuezhong He; Truls Gundersen

2013-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

327

Impacts of a Nanosized Ceria Additive on Diesel Engine Emissions of Particulate and Gaseous Pollutants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reductions of CO2, CO, total particulate mass, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and several polycyclic

Garfunkel, Eric

328

Li2O Particulate Flow Concept, APPLE APEX Interim Report November, 1999  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Li2O Particulate Flow Concept, APPLE APEX Interim Report November, 1999 9-1 CHAPTER 9: Li2O PARTICULATE FLOW CONCEPT ­ APPLE DESIGN Contributors Lead Author: Dai Kai Sze Dai Kai Sze, Zhanhe Wang (ANL Particulate Flow Concept, APPLE APEX Interim Report November, 1999 9-2 9. LI2O PARTICULATE FLOW CONCEPT

California at Los Angeles, University of

329

Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles. 2 figs.

Bauman, B.D.; Williams, M.A.; Bagheri, R.

1997-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

330

Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles.

Bauman, Bernard D. (Emmaus, PA); Williams, Mark A. (Souderton, PA); Bagheri, Reza (Bethlehem, PA)

1997-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

331

Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at the wall (exception: steam produced at hot tube wall!) Important is the slip velocity, liquid vs. gas hold at the bottom of the pipe RoNz 7 Gas Liquid 2 liquid water water liquid gasliquid airwater water-phase (G/L) flows Air-water, 2.5 cm diameter horizontal pipe RoNz 8 U is superficial velocity #12;Fluid

Zevenhoven, Ron

332

Engineering analysis of fugitive particulate matter emissions from cattle feedyards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An engineering analysis of the fugitive particulate matter emissions from a feedyard is not simple. The presence of an evening dust peak in concentration measurements downwind of a feedyard complicates the calculation of an average 24-h emission...

Hamm, Lee Bradford

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

333

REVIEW OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLING METHODS Supplemental Report # 2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Arnold University of Minnesota Department of Mechanical Engineering Center for Diesel Research aerosol. This report focuses on the fundamental chemical and physical processes that affect diesel aerosolREVIEW OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLING METHODS Supplemental Report # 2 AEROSOL DYMAMICS

Minnesota, University of

334

Automated particulate sampler field test model operations guide  

SciTech Connect

The Automated Particulate Sampler Field Test Model Operations Guide is a collection of documents which provides a complete picture of the Automated Particulate Sampler (APS) and the Field Test in which it was evaluated. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Automated Particulate Sampler was developed for the purpose of radionuclide particulate monitoring for use under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Its design was directed by anticipated requirements of small size, low power consumption, low noise level, fully automatic operation, and most predominantly the sensitivity requirements of the Conference on Disarmament Working Paper 224 (CDWP224). This guide is intended to serve as both a reference document for the APS and to provide detailed instructions on how to operate the sampler. This document provides a complete description of the APS Field Test Model and all the activity related to its evaluation and progression.

Bowyer, S.M.; Miley, H.S.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Diesel Particulate Filters and NO2 Emission Limits | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Filters and NO2 Emission Limits Diesel Particulate Filters and NO2 Emission Limits EPAs New air quality standards for NO2 will impact future DPF designs deer09ibrahim.pdf More...

336

Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter regeneration  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust; and a grid that includes electrically resistive material that is segmented by non-conductive material into a plurality of zones and wherein the grid is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

337

NO, Reduction in a Gas Fired Utility Boiler by Combustion Modifications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Data on the effect of several combustion modifications on the for-math of nitrogen oxides and on boiler efficiency were acquired and analyzed for a 110 MW gas fired utility boiler. The results from the study showed that decreasing the oxygen in the flue gas from 2.2% to 0.6 % reduced the NO, formation by 33 % and also gave better boiler efficiencies. Flue gas recirculation through the bottom of the fire4mx WBS founb to be Ineffective. Staged combustion was found to reduce the NO, emlssions by as much as 55 % while decreasing the efficiency by about 5%. Adjustment of the burner air registers reduced the NO, formation by about 20 ppm. The lowest NO, emisdons of 42 ppm (at about 3 % 02) in the stack was obtained for air only to one top burner and 0.5 % oxygen in the flue gas. The reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO,) emissions from steam boilers has been under study for several years. The NO, from boilers consist almost entirely of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (N02) with NO2 usually only l or 2 % of the total. After leaving the stack, the NO eventually combines with atmospheric oxygen to form NOp. The Environmental Protection Agency has sponsored several studies1-I0 on reducing NO, emissions while maintaining thermal efficiency of boilers. Other studies have been sponsored by The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) " and Argonne National

Jerry A. Bullin; Dan Wilkerson

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

PARTICULATE EMISSION ABATEMENT FOR KRAKOW BOILERHOUSES  

SciTech Connect

A U.S./Polish Bilateral Steering Committee (BSC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) selected LSR Technologies, Inc. as a contractor to participate in the Krakow Clean Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. The objective of this program was the formation of business ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and services to reduce air emissions in the city of Krakow. A cooperative agreement was entered into by DOE and LSR to begin work in April 1994 involving implementation of particulate control technology called a Core Separator{trademark} for coal-fueled boilerhouses in the city. The major work tasks included: (1) conducting a market analysis, (2) completion of a formal marketing plan, (3) obtaining patent protection within Poland, (4) selecting a manufacturing partner, and (5) completing a demonstration unit and commercial installations. In addition to work performed by LSR Technologies, key contributors to this project were (1) the Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE), a non-profit consulting organization specializing in energy and environmental-related technologies, and (2) EcoInstal, a privately held Polish company serving the air pollution control market. As the project concluded in late 1998, five (5) Core Separator{trademark} installations had been implemented in the city of Krakow, while about 40 others were completed in other regions of Poland.

Bruce H. Easom; Leo A, Smolensky; S. Ronald Wysk; Jan Surowka; Miroslaw Litke; Jacek Ginter

1998-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

339

NETL: Ambient Monitoring - Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project (SRI) Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project (SRI) Southern Research Institute (SRI), Birmingham, AL, is operating a research station in North Birmingham for monitoring fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that exists in that part of the Deep South. The station will be a core PM2.5 mass monitoring and chemical speciation station in the nationwide EPA PM2.5 network. As such, it will be a complement and supplement to DOE-NETL's other ongoing projects for monitoring fine particulate matter in the upper Ohio River valley. Locating additional monitoring equipment in the Deep South will fill an important gap in the national particulate monitoring effort. The region's topography, weather patterns, and variety of emission sources may affect the chemical make-up and airborne transport of fine particles in ways that are different than in other parts of the country. The project's results will support DOE's comprehensive program to evaluate ambient fine particulate matter through better understanding of the chemical and physical properties of these materials.

340

Cement kiln flue dust as a source of lime and potassium in four East Texas soils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the blight encountered the previous year. Forage sorghum (DeKalb SX-11) was planted 5/1/73, 4/26/74 and, 6/9/75) . Yield of corn grain, corn forage, and sorghum forage were determined for the three growing seasons. Leaf samples were also taken... by rate and source of lime, de th, and time. Treatment k /ha 0 mo. 3 mo. 8 mo. 11 mo. 17 mo. 0 to 15 cm depth 8000 flue dust 2000 5QQ II II S. 6 a s. s a 5. 6 a 6. 9 c 6. 1 ab 5. 7 a 7. 2 c 6. 5 bc 5. 9 ab 6. 5 bc 7. 0 c 6. 0 abc 6. 4 b 5. 6 a...

Poole, Warren David

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Comparison of thermoelectric and permeation dryers for sulfur dioxide removal during sample conditioning of wet gas streams  

SciTech Connect

Flue gas conditioning for moisture removal is commonly performed for criteria pollutant measurements, in particular for extractive CEM systems at combustion sources. An implicit assumption is that conditioning systems specifically remove moisture without affecting pollutant and diluent concentrations. Gas conditioning is usually performed by passing the flue gas through a cold trap (Peltier or thermoelectric dryer) to remove moisture by condensation, which is subsequently extracted by a peristaltic pump. Many air pollutants are water-soluble and potentially susceptible to removal in a condensation dryer from gas interaction with liquid water. An alternative technology for gas conditioning is the permeation dryer, where the flue gas passes through a selectively permeable membrane for moisture removal. In this case water is transferred through the membrane while other pollutants are excluded, and the gas does not contact condensed liquid. Laboratory experiments were performed to measure the relative removal of a water-soluble pollutant (sulfur dioxide, SO{sub 2}) by the two conditioning techniques. A wet gas generating system was used to create hot, wet gas streams of known composition (15% and 30% moisture, balance nitrogen) and flow rate. Pre-heated SO{sub 2} was dynamically spiked into the wet stream using mass flow meters to achieve concentrations of 20, 50, and 100 ppm. The spiked gas was directed through a heated sample line to either a thermoelectric or a permeation conditioning system. Two gas analyzers (Western Research UV gas monitor, KVB/Analect FTIR spectrometer) were used to measure the SO{sub 2} concentration after conditioning. Both analytic methods demonstrated that SO{sub 2} is removed to a significantly greater extent by the thermoelectric dryer. These results have important implications for SO{sub 2} monitoring and emissions trading.

Dunder, T.A. [Entropy, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Research Div.; Leighty, D.A. [Perma Pure, Inc., Toms River, NJ (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

342

Method for removing metal vapor from gas streams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for cleaning an inert gas contaminated with a metallic vapor, such as cadmium, involves withdrawing gas containing the metallic contaminant from a gas atmosphere of high purity argon; passing the gas containing the metallic contaminant to a mass transfer unit having a plurality of hot gas channels separated by a plurality of coolant gas channels; cooling the contaminated gas as it flows upward through the mass transfer unit to cause contaminated gas vapor to condense on the gas channel walls; regenerating the gas channels of the mass transfer unit; and, returning the cleaned gas to the gas atmosphere of high purity argon. The condensing of the contaminant-containing vapor occurs while suppressing contaminant particulate formation, and is promoted by providing a sufficient amount of surface area in the mass transfer unit to cause the vapor to condense and relieve supersaturation buildup such that contaminant particulates are not formed. Condensation of the contaminant is prevented on supply and return lines in which the contaminant containing gas is withdrawn and returned from and to the electrorefiner and mass transfer unit by heating and insulating the supply and return lines.

Ahluwalia, R. K. (6440 Hillcrest Dr., Burr Ridge, IL 60521); Im, K. H. (925 Lehigh Cir., Naperville, IL 60565)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

NETL: News Release - Projects Selected to Study Coal Plant Particulate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5, 2004 5, 2004 Projects Selected to Study Coal Plant Particulate Matter, Human Health PITTSBURGH, PA - The Department of Energy has selected three projects to help determine whether fine particulates emitted from coal-fired power plants affect human health, and which components of the particulates may be most problematic. Past studies have established that particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microns in diameter from all sources does affect human health, but there is scant information to provide a link between PM2.5 emitted specifically from coal plants and cardiac or respiratory health problems in humans. PM2.5 refers to particles-invisible to the eye-no more than 1/30th of the width of a human hair Coal plants emit only small quantities of "primary" PM2.5 (e.g., fly ash) because all plants have high-efficiency particulate-collection devices. However, coal plants are responsible for a great deal of "secondary" PM2.5, which forms in the atmosphere from emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Data collected in the new studies will be used to help design standards reviews and to devise strategies for controlling power plant emissions of PM2.5, SO2, and NOx.

344

Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A plastic article having a number of surfaces with at least one surface being modified by contacting that surface with a reactive gas atmosphere containing F.sub.2, Cl.sub.2, O.sub.2, Ozone, SO.sub.3, oxidative acids, or mixtures thereof, at a temperature and gas partial pressure sufficient to increase the surface energy of the at least one surface being modified to at least 40 dynes/cm at a temperature of 20.degree. C., to enhance bonding of non-slip polymer coatings to the modified surface, to which coatings elastomeric or rigid particles may be admixed for imparting a surface profile and increasing the coefficient of friction between the coated surface and the counter-surface.

Bauman, Bernard D. (Emmaus, PA); Williams, Mark A. (Souderton, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Non-thermal Aftertreatment of Particulates  

SciTech Connect

Modern diesel passenger vehicles employing common rail, high speed direct injection engines are capable of matching the drivability of gasoline powered vehicles with the additional benefit of providing high torque at low engine speed [1]. The diesel engine also offers considerable fuel economy and CO2 emissions advantages. However, future emissions standards [2,3] present a significant challenge for the diesel engine, as its lean exhaust precludes the use of aftertreatment strategies employing 3- way catalytic converters, which operate under stoichiometric conditions. In recent years significant developments by diesel engine manufacturers have greatly reduced emissions of both particulates (PM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) [4,5]. However to achieve compliance with future legislative limits it has been suggested that an integrated approach involving a combination of engine modifications and aftertreatment technology [1] will be required. A relatively new approach to exhaust aftertreatment is the application of non-thermal plasma (NTP) or plasma catalyst hybrid systems. These have the potential for treatment of both NOx and PM emissions [6- 8]. The primary focus of recent plasma aftertreatment studies [9-12] has concentrated on the removal of NOx. It has been shown that by combining plasmas with catalysts it is possible to chemically reduce NOx. The most common approach is to use a 2- stage system relying upon the plasma oxidation of hydrocarbons to promote NO to NO2 conversion as a precursor to NO2 reduction over a catalyst. However, relatively little work has yet been published on the oxidation of PM by plasma [ 8,13]. Previous investigations [8] have reported that a suitably designed NTP reactor containing a packing material designed to filter and retain PM can effect the oxidation of PM in diesel exhausts at low temperatures. It has been suggested that the retained PM competes with hydrocarbons for O, and possibly OH, radicals. This is an important consideration in plasma - catalyst hybrid schemes for the removal of NOx employing an NO2 selective catalyst, as the oxidation of PM may deplete the key radicals necessary for NO to NO2 conversion. It was also suggested that where simultaneous NOx and PM removal are required, alternative catalyst formulations may be needed which may be selective to NO rather than NO2.

Thomas, S.E.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

346

Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption of solar radiation Title Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption of solar radiation Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Kirchstetter, Thomas W., and Tracy L. Thatcher Journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Volume 12 Pagination 6067-6072 Abstract A spectroscopic analysis of 115 wintertime partic- ulate matter samples collected in rural California shows that wood smoke absorbs solar radiation with a strong spectral se- lectivity. This is consistent with prior work that has demon- strated that organic carbon (OC), in addition to black car- bon (BC), appreciably absorbs solar radiation in the visible and ultraviolet spectral regions. We apportion light absorp-

347

Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity  

SciTech Connect

Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Apparatus and method for void/particulate detection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and method for detecting voids and particulates in a fluid within a containing vessel. A diffuse ultrasonic signal is coupled into the fluid by a first transducer and the portion of the ultrasonic signal transmitted through the fluid is detected by a second transducer. The received signal is analyzed by a processor to determine the void fraction of the fluid responsive to the attenuation of the received ultrasonic signal. In addition, voids and particulates are detected by evaluating the increase in side-band energy of the received signal.

Claytor, Thomas N. (Woodridge, IL); Ockert, Carl E. (Vienna, VA); Randall, Richard (Canoga Park, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

A particulate non-specific alkaline phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Dennis J. Opheim A previously undefined alkaline phosphatase in yeast, which is particulate, has been found. This latter form has no mobil- ity on polyacrylamide gels and can be sedimented after centri- fugation at 200, 000 x g for one hour. Over 90X... of the enzyme activity can be solubilized from the particulate fraction with 100 mM sodium cholate. In the solubilized state this enzyme has been found to migrate in the same position on polyacrylamide gels as the already known soluble repressible alkaline...

Mitchell, James Kent

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Impact of Biodiesel Blending on Diesel Soot and the Regeneration of Particulate Filters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Diesel fuel production from renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats offers the potential of both reducing fossil carbon emissions and producing alternative ultraclean transportation fuels. ... For temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO) tests, bulk samples were collected in quartz filters from diluted exhaust gas via a mini-dilution tunnel (Sierra Instruments BG-1). ... In addition to PM mass measurement, particulate samples were extracted directly from the exhaust stream using a thermophoretic sampling approach patterned after the work of Megaridis15 and Koylu,16 and described previously by Song et al.17 The thermophoretic samples were collected on 3-mm-diameter grids, constructed of 1-?m-thick copper and coated on one side with silicon oxide, using a pneumatically controlled probe to inject the sampling grid into the undiluted exhaust near the location where the other emissions samples were obtained in the exhaust pipe. ...

André L. Boehman; Juhun Song; Mahabubul Alam

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, August 1--October 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mines, and to assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of CCB materials. The two technologies for the underground placement that were to be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement using virtually dry CCB products, and (2) hydraulic placement using a paste mixture of CCB products with about 70% solids. The period covered by this report is the second quarter of Phase 3 of the overall program. During this period over 8,000 tons of CCB mixtures was injected using the hydraulic paste technology. This amount of material virtually filled the underground opening around the injection well, and was deemed sufficient to demonstrate fully the hydraulic injection technology. By the end of this quarter about 2,000 tons of fly ash had been placed underground using the pneumatic placement technology. While the rate of injection of about 50 tons per hour met design criteria, problems were experienced in the delivery of fly ash to the pneumatic demonstration site. The source of the fly ash, the Archer Daniels Midland Company power plant at Decatur, Illinois is some distance from the demonstration site, and often sufficient tanker trucks are not available to haul enough fly ash to fully load the injection equipment. Further, on some occasions fly ash from the plant was not available. The injection well was plugged three times during the demonstration. This typically occurred due to cementation of the FBC ash in contact with water. After considerable deliberations and in consultation with the technical project officer, it was decided to stop further injection of CCB`s underground using the developed pneumatic technology.

Chugh, Y.P.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

352

Geological and Geotechnical Site Investigation for the Design of a CO2 Rich Flue Gas Direct Injection and Storage Facility  

SciTech Connect

With international efforts to limit anthropogenic carbon in the atmosphere, various CO{sub 2} sequestration methods have been studied by various facilities worldwide. Basalt rock in general has been referred to as potential host material for mineral carbonation by various authors, without much regard for compositional variations due to depositional environment, subsequent metamorphism, or hydrothermal alteration. Since mineral carbonation relies on the presence of certain magnesium, calcium, or iron silicates, it is necessary to study the texture, mineralogy, petrology, and geochemistry of specific basalts before implying potential for mineral carbonation. The development of a methodology for the characterization of basalts with respect to their susceptibility for mineral carbonation is proposed to be developed as part of this research. The methodology will be developed based on whole rock data, petrography and microprobe analyses for samples from the Caledonia Mine in Michigan, which is the site for a proposed small-scale demonstration project on mineral carbonation in basalt. Samples from the Keweenaw Peninsula will be used to determine general compositional trends using whole rock data and petrography. Basalts in the Keweenaw Peninsula have been subjected to zeolite and prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism with concurrent native copper deposition. Alteration was likely due to the circulation of CO{sub 2}-rich fluids at slightly elevated temperatures and pressures, which is the process that is attempted to be duplicated by mineral carbonation.

Metz, Paul; Bolz, Patricia

2013-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

353

Flue-Gas Carbon Capture on Carbonaceous Sorbents:? Toward a Low-Cost Multifunctional Carbon Filter for “Green” Energy Producers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mr. Ian Andrews and Mr. Nick Rahn (PacifiCorp Energy), Mr. Robert Matius and Mr. Eldon Lindt (Xcel Energy), Mr. George Farthing (Babcock & Wilcox Company), and anonymous journal reviewers contributed helpful comments that enhanced this work. ...

Maciej Radosz; Xudong Hu; Kaspars Krutkramelis; Youqing Shen

2008-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

354

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Topical report, October 1, 1993--March 31, 1998  

SciTech Connect

The DESEVAL-TRANS program is developed for the purpose of helping the engineer to design and economically evaluate coal combustion byproduct transportation systems that will operate between the power plant and the disposal site. The objective of the research project was to explore the technical, environmental and economic feasibility of disposing coal combustion byproducts in underground mines in Illinois. The DESEVAL-TRANS (short for Design and Evaluation of Transportation Systems) was developed in the Materials Handling and Systems Economics branch of the overall project. Four types of coal combustion byproducts were targeted for transportation and handling: Conventional fly ash; Scrubber sludge; Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) fly ash; and Spent-bed ash. Several transportation and handling systems that could handle these byproducts were examined. These technologies were classified under three general categories: Truck; Rail; and Container. The purpose of design models is to determine the proper number of transport units, silo capacity, loading and unloading rates, underground placement capacity, number of shifts, etc., for a given case, defined by a distance-tonnage combination. The cost computation models were developed for the determination of the operating and capital costs. An economic evaluation model, which is common to all categories, was also developed to establish the cost-per-ton of byproduct transported.

NONE

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Technical progress report, 1 January--31 March 1994  

SciTech Connect

Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the handling and transport of dry coal combustion residues and for the underground placement in abandoned coal mines and assess associated environmental impacts. Although parts of the Residue Characterization portion of the program were delayed because residue samples were not obtained, other parts of the program are proceeding on schedule. The delays in obtaining residue samples were primarily caused by adverse weather conditions, the shut-down of one unit at the City Water, Light, and Power Company Plant for routing maintenance and problems due to conflicting schedules of utility and program personnel. However, by the end of the quarter most residue samples had been obtained, and the residue characterization studies were under way. Progress is described for five studies: environmental assessment and geotechnical stability and subsidence impacts; residue characterization; physico-chemical characterization of residues; identification and assessment of handling/transportation systems for FGD residues; and residue handling and transport.

Chugh, Y.P.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Honaker, R.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Flue Gas Emissions from the Burning of Asphaltite and Lignite in a Rotating Head Combustor with Secondary Air Delivery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(1, 2) In this context, Turkey is rich in coal reserves, and it is among the biggest coal producers in the world with a production of about 76 million tons (Mt) in 2011, and a large portion of this production is lignite. ... (5) Turkey has also a high asphaltite reserve, which is mostly found in the southeastern part of Anatolia and used around the region for domestic heating. ... Modeling of NOx emissions from fluidized Bed combustion of high volatile lignites ...

Cengiz Öner; ?ehmus Altun

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters using a High-Flux Neutron...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters using a High-Flux Neutron Source Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters using a High-Flux Neutron Source Detailed images of deposits identified...

358

Radio Frequency Diesel Particulate Filter Sensor Reduces Fuel Consumption, Wins R&D 100 Award  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

Radio Frequency Diesel Particulate Filter Sensor (RF-DPF) is a sensor that uses radio frequencies to measure the amount and distribution of soot and ash in the filters that remove particulate matter from the exhaust of diesel engines.

359

Development of a Sub-Grid Model of a Diesel Particulate Filter...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Sub-Grid Model of a Diesel Particulate Filter: application of the lattice-Boltzmann technique Development of a Sub-Grid Model of a Diesel Particulate Filter: application of the...

360

The effect of lubricant derived ash on the catalytic activity of diesel particulate filters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A diesel particulate filter (DPF) is an aftertreatment device used to remove hazardous particulate matter (PM) from diesel engine exhaust. Modem emission restrictions have limited the acceptable amount of PM output by ...

Murray, Timothy Quinn

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Macrophage-Mediated Endothelial Inflammatory Responses to Airborne Particulates: Impact of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Fe/F-Al-Si). We have used these particulates, as well as coal fly ash (CFA) and diesel exhaust particulates (DEP remain unresolved. Using a microporous aluminosilicate zeolite Y as a manifold, we have synthesized 1 µm

Dutta, Prabir K.

362

Testing an Active Diesel Particulate Filter on a 2-Cycle Marine...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Testing an Active Diesel Particulate Filter on a 2-Cycle Marine Engine Testing an Active Diesel Particulate Filter on a 2-Cycle Marine Engine Presentation given at DEER 2006,...

363

NATURAL GAS FROM SHALE: Questions and Answers Shale Gas Development Challenges -  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air Air Key Points: * Air quality risks from shale oil and gas development are generally the result of: (1) dust and engine exhaust from increased truck traffic; (2) emissions from diesel-powered pumps used to power equipment; (3) intentional flaring or venting of gas for operational reasons; and, (4) unintentional emissions of pollutants from faulty equipment or impoundments. 1 * Natural gas is efficient and clean compared to other fossil fuels, emitting less nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide than coal and oil, no mercury and very few particulates. However, the drilling

364

Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion with Alcohol-blended Fuels  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Analysis showed that gasoline direct injection engine particulates from alcohol-blended fuels are significantly different in morphology and nanostructures

365

Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Advanced aerosol analysis methods were used to examine particulates from single cylinder test engines running on gasoline and ethanol blends.

366

Effect of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts on the Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration Process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effect of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts on the Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration Process ... A Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) regeneration process was investigated during aftertreatment exhaust of a simulated diesel engine under the influence of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC). ... Diesel particulate matter (PM) significantly contributes to urban air pollution and has often been associated with adverse health effects. ...

Leonardo Lizarraga; Stamatios Souentie; Antoinette Boreave; Christian George; Barbara D’Anna; Philippe Vernoux

2011-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

367

PII S0016-7037(99)00361-0 Dissolved and particulate carbohydrates in contrasting marine sediments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PII S0016-7037(99)00361-0 Dissolved and particulate carbohydrates in contrasting marine sediments D) and mid-Atlantic shelf/slope break (continental margin) sediments. Particulate carbohydrates (PCHOs) rep- resented 5­9% of the total sediment particulate organic carbon (POC), and PCHO remineralization appeared

Burdige, David

368

REVIEW OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLING METHODS Supplemental Report # 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.D. and Megan Arnold University of Minnesota Department of Mechanical Engineering Center for Diesel Research obtained from engine laboratory visits and present results from a diesel aerosol sampling questionnaireREVIEW OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLING METHODS Supplemental Report # 1 DIESEL EXHAUST

Minnesota, University of

369

Removal of residual particulate matter from filter media  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for removing residual filter cakes that remain adhered to a filter after typical particulate removal methodologies have been employed, such as pulse-jet filter element cleaning, for all cleanable filters used for air pollution control, dust control, or powder control.

Almlie, Jay C; Miller, Stanley J

2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

370

NUCLEATION PHENOMENON IN SiC PARTICULATE REINFORCED MAGNESIUM COMPOSITE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NUCLEATION PHENOMENON IN SiC PARTICULATE REINFORCED MAGNESIUM COMPOSITE Y. Cai, D. Taplin, M.J. Tan performance of matrix metals and alloys. Most magnesium alloy based MMCs are produced via a casting process into the last freezing interdendritic regions. For magnesium based composites, both particle pushing (or capture

Zhou, Wei

371

The distribution of particulate aluminum in the Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of runoff water in the oceans. Toyota and Okabe (1967) reported vertical distri- butions of particulate aluminum ranging from 1-50 ug Al/L in samples from the Western North Pacific, Indian and Antarctic Oceans. , Stefansson and Atkinson (1969) used...

Feely, Richard Alan

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Particulate matter as an amplifier for astronomical light pollution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......increased emission of particulate matter in the winter, mainly from coal-fired home heating systems (so-called low emission...Nielsen C. P., eds. Clearing the Air: The Health and Economic Damages of Air Pollution in China (2007) Cambridge, MA......

T. ?ci?zor; M. Kubala

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Processing and Protection of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Particulate for Bonded Magnet Applications  

SciTech Connect

Rapid solidification of novel mixed rare earth-iron-boron, MRE{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B (MRE = Nd, Y, Dy; currently), magnet alloys via high pressure gas atomization (HPGA) have produced similar properties and structures as closely related alloys produced by melt spinning (MS) at low wheel speeds. Recent additions of titanium carbide and zirconium to the permanent magnet (PM) alloy design in HPGA powder (using He atomization gas) have made it possible to achieve highly refined microstructures with magnetic properties approaching melt spun particulate at cooling rates of 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6}K/s. By producing HPGA powders with the desirable qualities of melt spun ribbon, the need for crushing ribbon was eliminated in bonded magnet fabrication. The spherical geometry of HPGA powders is more ideal for processing of bonded permanent magnets since higher loading fractions can be obtained during compression and injection molding. This increased volume loading of spherical PM powder can be predicted to yield a higher maximum energy product (BH){sub max} for bonded magnets in high performance applications. Passivation of RE-containing powder is warranted for the large-scale manufacturing of bonded magnets in applications with increased temperature and exposure to humidity. Irreversible magnetic losses due to oxidation and corrosion of particulates is a known drawback of RE-Fe-B based alloys during further processing, e.g. injection molding, as well as during use as a bonded magnet. To counteract these effects, a modified gas atomization chamber allowed for a novel approach to in situ passivation of solidified particle surfaces through injection of a reactive gas, nitrogen trifluoride (NF{sub 3}). The ability to control surface chemistry during atomization processing of fine spherical RE-Fe-B powders produced advantages over current processing methodologies. In particular, the capability to coat particles while 'in flight' may eliminate the need for post atomization treatment, otherwise a necessary step for oxidation and corrosion resistance. Stability of these thin films was attributed to the reduction of each RE's respective oxide during processing; recognizing that fluoride compounds exhibit a slightly higher (negative) free energy driving force for formation. Formation of RE-type fluorides on the surface was evidenced through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Concurrent research with auger electron spectroscopy has been attempted to accurately quantify the depth of fluoride formation in order to grasp the extent of fluorination reactions with spherical and flake particulate. Gas fusion analysis on coated powders (dia. <45 {micro}m) from an optimized experiment indicated an as-atomized oxygen concentration of 343ppm, where typical, nonpassivated RE atomized alloys exhibit an average of 1800ppm oxygen. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) on the same powder revealed a decreased rate of oxidation at elevated temperatures up to 300 C, compared to similar uncoated powder.

Peter Kelly Sokolowski

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Natural Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

30 May 1974 research-article Natural Gas C. P. Coppack This paper reviews the world's existing natural gas reserves and future expectations, together with natural gas consumption in 1972, by main geographic...

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Stable Carbon Isotope Ratios of Phenolic Compounds in Secondary Particulate Organic Matter Formed by Photooxidation of Toluene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Compound-specific stable carbon isotope ratios for phenolic compounds in secondary particulate organic matter (POM) formed by photooxidation of toluene were studied. Secondary POM generated by photooxidation of toluene using a continuous-flow reactor and an 8 cubic meter indoor smog chamber was collected, and then extracted with acetonitrile. Eight phenolic compounds were identified in the extracts by a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer, and their compound-specific stable carbon isotope ratios were determined by a gas chromatograph coupled with a combustion furnace followed by an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The majority of the products, including methylnitrophenols and methylnitrocatechols, were isotopically depleted by 5 to 6 permil compared to the initial isotope ratio for toluene, whereas the isotope ratio for 4_nitrophenol remained the same as the initial isotope ratio for toluene. Based on the reaction mechanisms postulated in literature, stable carbon isotope ratios of these produc...

Irei, Satoshi; Huang, Lin; Auld, Janeen; Collin, Fabrice; Hastie, Donald

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Engines - Particulate Studies - Revealing the True Nature of Diesel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Engine Nanoparticle Research: Revealing the True Nature of Diesel Particulates Engine Nanoparticle Research: Revealing the True Nature of Diesel Particulates Thermophoretic sampling device Argonne's test engine with the thermophoretic sampling device attached. Nanostructure of graphitic diesel soot under high engine load A transmission electron microscope reveals the nanostructures of graphitic diesel soot sampled under high engine loads. Morphology of particles collected from diesel combustion with iso-paraffin-enriched fuel. Morphology of particles collected from diesel combution with iso-paraffin-enriched fuel. Amorphous soot particle collected from biodiesel combustion undera low-temperature condition. Amorphous soot particle collected from biodiesel combustion under low temperature conditions. Researchers have many ideas about how to reduce the soot produced by diesel

377

Design characteristics for facilities which process hazardous particulate  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory is establishing a research and processing capability for beryllium. The unique properties of beryllium, including light weight, rigidity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and nuclear properties make it critical to a number of US defense and aerospace programs. Concomitant with the unique engineering properties are the health hazards associated with processing beryllium in a particulate form and the potential for worker inhalation of aerosolized beryllium. Beryllium has the lowest airborne standard for worker protection compared to all other nonradioactive metals by more than an order of magnitude. This paper describes the design characteristics of the new beryllium facility at Los Alamos as they relate to protection of the workforce. Design characteristics to be reviewed include; facility layout, support systems to minimize aerosol exposure and spread, and detailed review of the ventilation system design for general room air cleanliness and extraction of particulate at the source.

Abeln, S.P.; Creek, K.; Salisbury, S.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Fluidizable particulate materials and methods of making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides fluidizable, substantially spherical particulate material of improved attrition resistance having an average particle size from about 100 to about 400 microns useful as sorbents, catalysts, catalytic supports, specialty ceramics or the like. The particles are prepared by spray drying a slurry comprising inorganic starting materials and an organic binder. Exemplary inorganic starting materials include mixtures of zinc oxide with titanium dioxide, or with iron oxide, alumina or the like. Exemplary organic binders include polyvinyl alcohol, hydroxypropylemethyl cellulose, polyvinyl acetate and the like. The spray dried particles are heat treated at a first temperature wherein organic binder material is removed to thereby provide a porous structure to the particles, and thereafter the particles are calcined at a higher temperature to cause reaction of the inorganic starting materials and to thereby form the final inorganic particulate material.

Gupta, Raghubir P. (Durham, NC)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Advanced hybrid particulate collector and method of operation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device and method for controlling particulate air pollutants of the present invention combines filtration and electrostatic collection devices. The invention includes a chamber housing a plurality of rows of filter elements. Between the rows of filter elements are rows of high voltage discharge electrodes. Between the rows of discharge electrodes and the rows of filter elements are grounded perforated plates for creating electrostatic precipitation zones.

Miller, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, ND)

2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

380

Emissions Implications of Future Natural Gas Production and Use in the U.S. and in the Rocky Mountain Region  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Enhanced prospects for natural gas production raise questions about the balance of impacts on air quality, as increased emissions from production activities are considered alongside the reductions expected when natural gas is burned in place of other fossil fuels. ... dispersion model that has been widely used in the assessment of gaseous and particulate air pollution (ozone, fine [PM2.5], and coarse [PM10] particulate matter). ... Edwards, P.; Brown, S.; Roberts, J.; Ahmadov, R.; Banta, R.; deGouw, J.; Dubé, W.High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin Nature 2014, 10.1038/nature13767 ...

Jeffrey D. McLeod; Gregory L. Brinkman; Jana B. Milford

2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Source Apportionment of Airborne Particulate Matter using Inorganic and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Source Apportionment of Airborne Particulate Matter using Inorganic and Source Apportionment of Airborne Particulate Matter using Inorganic and Organic Species as Tracers Title Source Apportionment of Airborne Particulate Matter using Inorganic and Organic Species as Tracers Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Wang, Yungang, Philip K. Hopke, X. Xia, Oliver V. Rattigan, David C. Chalupa, and M. J. Source Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 55 Start Page 525 Pagination 525-532 Date Published 01/2012 Keywords source apportionment positive matrix factorization (pmf) particulate matter (pm) molecular markers (mm) aethalometer delta-c Abstract Source apportionment is typically performed on chemical composition data derived from particulate matter (PM) samples. However, many common sources no longer emit significant amounts of characteristic trace elements requiring the use of more comprehensive chemical characterization in order to fully resolve the PM sources. Positive matrix factorization (EPA PMF, version 4.1) was used to analyze 24-hr integrated molecular marker (MM), secondary inorganic ions, trace elements, carbonaceous species and light absorption data to investigate sources of PM2.5 in Rochester, New York between October 2009 and October 2010 to explore the role of specific MMs. An eight-factor solutionwas found for which the factors were identified as isoprene secondary organic aerosol (SOA), airborne soil, other SOA, diesel emissions, secondary sulfate, wood combustion, gasoline vehicle, and secondary nitrate contributing 6.9%, 12.8%, 3.7%, 7.8%, 45.5%, 9.1%, 7.9%, and 6.3% to the average PM2.5 concentration, respectively Concentrations of pentacosane, hexacosane, heptacosane, and octacosane in the gasoline vehicles factor were larger compared to diesel emissions. Aethalometer Delta-C was strongly associated with wood combustion. The compounds, n-heptacosanoic acid and n-octacosanoic acid, occasionally used in the past as tracers for road dust, were found to largely associate with SOA in this study. In comparison with a standard PMF analyses without MM, inclusion of themwas necessary to resolve SOA and wood combustion factors in urban areas.

384

Oxygen Reactivity of Devolatilized Diesel Engine Particulates from Conventional and Biodiesel Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oxygen Reactivity of Devolatilized Diesel Engine Particulates from Conventional and Biodiesel Fuels ... Abatement of diesel particulates has led to an overall decrease in the fuel efficiency of diesel engines, and overcoming these losses has been one of the more challenging problems in exhaust aftertreatment. ... (16-18) Establishing a general physical basis for modeling diesel particulate oxidation is especially challenging because of the large variations in microscopic structure that it can have. ...

Andrea Strzelec; Todd J. Toops; C. Stuart Daw

2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

385

Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion Project. Quarterly report, April--June 1996  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived as streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed Include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning, techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing, Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: 1 . Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating, Fluidized Bed Gas Source; 2. Hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams; 3. Combustion Gas Turbine; 4. Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The major emphasis during, this reporting period was continuing, the detailed design of the FW portion of the facility towards completion and integrating the balance-of-plant processes and particulate control devices (PCDS) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of the process structural steel is complete and the construction of steel for the coal preparation structure is complete.

NONE

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

386

On-Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Demonstration of an Electronic Particulate Matter Sensor for Both Engine-Out and Post-DPF Exhaust Monitoring Particle Sensor for Diesel Combustion Monitoring NOx sensor development...

387

On-Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Matter Sensor for Both Engine-Out and Post-DPF Exhaust Monitoring On-Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and Conventional Diesel Engines Vehicle...

388

Using rare earth elements to constrain particulate organic carbon flux in marginal seas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Fluxes of particulate organic carbon (POC) in the East China Sea (ECS) have been reported to decrease from the inner continental shelf towards the outer… (more)

Chen, Ya-Feng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Measuring PM Distribution in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter using a Terahertz Wave Scanner  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Terahertz scanning system produced 3-dimensional image of local PM density in catatalyzed particulate filters tested under loading and oxidizing conditions

390

E-Print Network 3.0 - airborne particulates european Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

de mathmatiques Collection: Mathematics 12 Statistical Issues in the Study of Air Pollution Involving Airborne Particulate Matter Summary: Statistical Issues in the Study of...

391

Real-Time Particulate Mass Measurements Pre and Post Diesel Particulat...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

2005deeranderson.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Radio Frequency-Based Sensors for Monitoring Diesel Particulate Filter Loading and Regeneration Real-Time...

392

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems for GDI Engines  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about particulate...

393

E-Print Network 3.0 - airborne particulates impact Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

public health threat of air pollution Summary: . Currently there are six "criteria pollutants" for air pollution: PM10 (defined as particulate matter... a more specific human...

394

E-Print Network 3.0 - airborne fine particulate Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

particulate matter otherwise known as aerosols. However health risks from these pollutants... Airborne Pollution In urban environments What are the real health effects of...

395

Development of particulate-based EPR oximetry for regional, temporal, and rapid measurements in tissue.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry is a useful research technique and a potential clinical tool. The goal of this dissertation was to establish particulate-based EPR… (more)

Vikram, Deepti S.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric fine particulate Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and characterizing the diversity of particulate matter produced from fossil fuel and biomass burn combustion... studies on the mixing state of atmospheric particles and their...

397

E-Print Network 3.0 - air pollution particulate Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: air pollution particulate Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Department of...

398

E-Print Network 3.0 - air particulate matter Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Collection: Engineering ; Renewable Energy 3 Statistical Issues in the Study of Air Pollution Involving Airborne Particulate Matter Summary: Statistical Issues in the...

399

E-Print Network 3.0 - assisted particulate filter Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

University of Nebraska-Lincoln Collection: Engineering 3 Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships: Diesel Engine Particulate Emission Reduction via Lube-Oil-Consumption...

400

Assessment of gas-side fouling in cement plants  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to provide an assessment of gas-side fouling in cement plants with special emphasis on heat recovery applications. Exhaust gases in the cement industry which are suitable for heat recovery range in temperature from about 400 to 1300 K, are generally dusty, may be highly abrasive, and are often heavily laden with alkalies, sulfates, and chlorides. Particulates in the exhaust streams range in size from molecular to about 100 ..mu..m in diameter and come from both the raw feed as well as the ash in the coal which is the primary fuel used in the cement industry. The major types of heat-transfer equipment used in the cement industry include preheaters, gas-to-air heat exchangers, waste heat boilers, and clinker coolers. The most important gas-side fouling mechanisms in the cement industry are those due to particulate, chemical reaction, and corrosion fouling. Particulate transport mechanisms which appear to be of greatest importance include laminar and turbulent mass transfer, thermophoresis, electrophoresis, and inertial impaction. Chemical reaction mechanisms of particular importance include the deposition of alkali sulfates, alkali chlorides, spurrite, calcium carbonate, and calcium sulfate. At sufficiently low temperatures, sulfuric acid and water can condense on heat exchanger surfaces which can cause corrosion and also attract particulates in the flow. The deleterious effects of gas-side fouling in cement plants are due to: (1) increased capital costs; (2) increased maintenance costs; (3) loss of production; and (4) energy losses. A conservative order-of-magnitude analysis shows that the cost of gas-side fouling in US cement plants is $0.24 billion annually.

Marner, W.J.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Gas Turbines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When the gas turbine generator was introduced to the power generation ... fossil-fueled power plant. Twenty years later, gas turbines were established as an important means of ... on utility systems. By the early...

Jeffrey M. Smith

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Gas Turbines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... the time to separate out the essentials and the irrelevancies in a text-book. The gas ...gasturbine ...

H. CONSTANT

1950-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

403

Exploring relationships between outdoor air particulate-associated  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Exploring relationships between outdoor air particulate-associated Exploring relationships between outdoor air particulate-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and PM2.5: A case study of benzo(a)pyrene in California metropolitan regions Title Exploring relationships between outdoor air particulate-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and PM2.5: A case study of benzo(a)pyrene in California metropolitan regions Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-514E Year of Publication 2008 Authors Lobscheid, Agnes B., Thomas E. McKone, and D. A. Valleroc Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 41 Start Page Chapter Pagination 5659-5672 Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particulate matter (PM) are co-pollutants emitted as by-products of combustion processes. Convincing evidence exists for PAHs as a primary toxic component of fine PM (PM2.5). Because PM2.5 is listed by the US EPA as a "Criteria Pollutant," it is monitored regularly at sites nationwide. In contrast, very limited data is available on measured ambient air concentrations of PAHs. However, between 1999-2001, ambient air concentrations of PM2.5 and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) are available for California locations. We use multivariate linear regression models (MLRMs) to predict ambient air levels of BaP in four air basins based on reported PM2.5 concentrations and spatial, temporal and meteorological variables as variates. We obtain an R2 ranging from 0.57-0.72 among these basins. Significant variables (p<0.05) include the average daily PM2.5 concentration, wind speed, temperature and relative humidity, and the coastal distance as well as season, and holiday or weekend. Combining the data from all sites and using only these variables to estimate ambient BaP levels, we obtain an R2 of 0.55. These R2-values, combined with analysis of the residual error and cross validation using the PRESS-statistic, demonstrate the potential of our method to estimate reported outdoor air PAH exposure levels in metropolitan regions. These MLRMs provide a first step towards relating outdoor ambient PM2.5 and PAH concentrations for epidemiological studies when PAH measurements are unavailable, or limited in spatial coverage, based on publicly available meteorological and PM2.5 data

404

Electrically heated particulate filter with zoned exhaust flow control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes X zones. An electrical heater includes Y heater segments that are associated with respective ones of the X zones. The electrical heater is arranged upstream from and proximate with the PM filter. A valve assembly includes Z sections that are associated with respective ones of the X zones. A control module adjusts flow through each of the Z sections during regeneration of the PM filter via control of the valve assembly. X, Y and Z are integers.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

405

Prospecting by sampling and analysis of airborne particulates and gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is claimed for prospecting by sampling airborne particulates or gases at a ground position and recording wind direction values at the time of sampling. The samples are subsequently analyzed to determine the concentrations of a desired material or the ratios of the desired material to other identifiable materials in the collected samples. By comparing the measured concentrations or ratios to expected background data in the vicinity sampled, one can select recorded wind directions indicative of the upwind position of the land-based source of the desired material.

Sehmel, G.A.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Physical and Chemical Characterization of Particulate and Gas phase Emissions from Biomass Burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the pile as waste. Waste burning is not permitted in manyagricultural residue/waste burning, residential wood

Hosseini, Seyedehsan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Physical and Chemical Characterization of Particulate and Gas phase Emissions from Biomass Burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pyrolysis of wood: Applications to thermochemical processing of newsprint and biomass.of pyrolysis of cellulose, is a well-established biomasspyrolysis products (such as levoglucosan). In contrast, laboratory combustion of biomass

Hosseini, Seyedehsan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Physical and Chemical Characterization of Particulate and Gas phase Emissions from Biomass Burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory, J.J. R. , and Veres, P. : Biomass burning in Siberia andOpen burning of agricultural biomass: Physical and chemical

Hosseini, Seyedehsan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Physical and Chemical Characterization of Particulate and Gas phase Emissions from Biomass Burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, and Utah) (NIFC, 2012). During the same period, wildfiresColorado, New Mexico, Nevada, and Utah) (NIFC, 2012). During the same period, wildfiresColorado, New Mexico, Nevada, and Utah) (NIFC, 2012). During the same period, wildfires

Hosseini, Seyedehsan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Physical and Chemical Characterization of Particulate and Gas phase Emissions from Biomass Burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory, J.from smoldering combustion of biomass measured by Open-Pathof levoglucosan in biomass combustion aerosol by high-

Hosseini, Seyedehsan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

2003-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

412

Colorado Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Colorado Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

413

California Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) California Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

414

Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

415

Michigan Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Michigan Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

416

Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

417

Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

418

Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

419

Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

420

Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Maryland Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Maryland Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

422

Illinois Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Illinois Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

423

Missouri Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Missouri Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

424

Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

425

Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

426

Diesel emission control: Catalytic filters for particulate removal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The European diesel engine industry represents a vital sector across the Continent, with more than 2 million direct work positions and a turnover of over 400 billion Euro. Diesel engines provide large paybacks to society since they are extensively used to transport goods, services and people. In recent years increasing attention has been paid to the emissions from diesel engines which, like gasoline engine emissions, include carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Diesel engines also produce significant levels of particulate matter (PM), which consists mostly of carbonaceous soot and a soluble organic fraction (SOF) of hydrocarbons that have condensed on the soot.Meeting the emission levels imposed for NOx and PM by legislation (Euro IV in 2005 and, in the 2008 perspective, Euro V) requires the development of a number of critical technologies to fulfill these very stringent emission limits (e.g. 0.005 g/km for PM). This review is focused on these innovative technologies with special reference to catalytic traps for diesel particulate removal.

Debora Fino

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Toward Distinguishing Woodsmoke and Diesel Exhaust in Ambient Particulate Matter  

SciTech Connect

Particulate matter (PM) from biomass burning and diesel exhaust has distinct X-ray spectroscopic, carbon specific signatures, which can be employed for source apportionment. Characterization of the functional groups of a wide selection of PM samples (woodsmoke, diesel soot, urban air PM) was carried out using the soft X-ray spectroscopy capabilities at the synchrotron radiation sources in Berkeley (ALS) and Brookhaven (NSLS). The spectra reveal that diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) matter is made up from a semigraphitic solid core and soluble organic matter, predominantly with carboxylic functional groups. Woodsmoke PM has no or a less prevalent, graphitic signature, instead it contains carbon-hydroxyl groups. Using these features to apportion the carbonaceous PM in ambient samples we estimate that the relative contribution of DEP to ambient PM in an urban area such as Lexington, KY and St. Louis, MO is 7% and 13.5%, respectively. These values are comparable to dispersion modeling data from nonurban and urban areas in California, and with elemental carbon measurements in urban locations such as Boston, MA, Rochester, NY, and Washington, DC.

Braun,A.; Huggins, F.; Kubatova, A.; Wirick, S.; Maricq, M.; Mun, B.; McDonald, J.; Kelly, K.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Characterization and modification of particulate properties to enhance filtration performance  

SciTech Connect

The specific objectives of this project are to characterize the particulate properties that determine the filtration performance of fabric filters, and to investigate methods for modifying these particulate properties to enhance filtration performance. Inherent in these objectives is the development of an experimental approach that will lead to full-scale implementation of beneficial conditioning processes identified during the project. The general approach has included a large number of laboratory evaluations to be followed by optional field tests of a new successful conditioning processes performed on a sidestream device. This project was divided into five tasks. The schedule followed for these tasks is shown in Figure 4. Tasks 2 and 3 each focus on one of the two complementary parts of the project. Task 2 Parametric Tests of Ashes and Fabrics, evaluates the degree to which ash properties and fabric design determine filtration performance. Task 3 Survey of Methods to Modify the Particle Filtration Properties, provides a literature review and laboratory study of techniques to modify ash properties. The results of these two tasks were used in Task 4 Proof-of-Concept Tests of Methods to Modify Particle Filtration Properties to demonstrate the effects on filtration performance of modifying ash properties. The findings of all the tasks are summarized in this Final Report. 13 refs.

Snyder, T.R.; Vann Bush, P.; Robinson, M.S.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Experimental investigation of the effect of combined hydrogen and diesel combustion on the particulate size distribution from a high speed direct injection diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effects of hydrogen addition and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels on the exhaust particulate matter size distribution in a diesel engine have been investigated. The experiments were performed on a 2.0 litre, 4-cylinder, direct injection engine equipped with a modern high-pressure common rail. A nano-Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (nano-MOUDI) was used in this work to study the particulate matter size distribution. All tests were conducted at the set operating point of 1,500 rpm. The experimental work showed that the particulate matter size distribution was not dramatically altered by the addition of EGR, but the main peak was shifted towards the nucleation mode with the addition of hydrogen. The addition of hydrogen increases the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), but reduces the emissions of unburnt hydrocarbons (THC). Conversely, the addition of EGR reduces NOx, but can increase THC. Hydrogen addition increases the peak cylinder pressure and the maximum rate of pressure rise.

L. McWilliam; A. Megaritis

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Ceramic hot-gas filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A ceramic hot-gas candle filter having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during backpulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

Connolly, Elizabeth Sokolinski (Wilmington, DE); Forsythe, George Daniel (Landenberg, PA); Domanski, Daniel Matthew (New Castle, DE); Chambers, Jeffrey Allen (Hockessin, DE); Rajendran, Govindasamy Paramasivam (Boothwyn, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Ceramic hot-gas filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A ceramic hot-gas candle filter is described having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during back pulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

Connolly, E.S.; Forsythe, G.D.; Domanski, D.M.; Chambers, J.A.; Rajendran, G.P.

1999-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

432

Enrichment and Association of Bacteria and Particulates in Salt Marsh Surface Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Bacteria and Particulates in Salt Marsh Surface Water R. W. Harvey L. Y. Young Environmental...Bacteria and Particulates in Salt Marsh Surface Water R. W. HARVEY AND L. Y. YOUNG...surface. (A) Sippewissett marsh, n = 23, r = 0.91. (B) Palo Alto marsh...

R. W. Harvey; L. Y. Young

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Seasonality and Interaction of Biogenic and Lithogenic Particulate Flux at the Panama Basin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...particulate flux at the Panama Basin Honjo Susumu Author Woods Hole...Particulate Flux at the Panama Basin Abstract. Time-series sediment...3860 meters) in the Panama Basin. The amount ofhorizontal and...to deep water in the Panama Bight. During January through March...

SUSUMU HONJO

1982-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

434

Probing into regional ozone and particulate matter pollution in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution and associated health effects have been one of the majorProbing into regional ozone and particulate matter pollution in the United States: 1. A 1 year CMAQ-term simulations using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and subsequent process analyses

Jacobson, Mark

435

Partial oxidation process for producing a stream of hot purified gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A partial oxidation process for the production of a stream of hot clean gas substantially free from particulate matter, ammonia, alkali metal compounds, halides and sulfur-containing gas for use as synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas. A hydrocarbonaceous fuel comprising a solid carbonaceous fuel with or without liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel or gaseous hydrocarbon fuel, wherein said hydrocarbonaceous fuel contains halides, alkali metal compounds, sulfur, nitrogen and inorganic ash containing components, is reacted in a gasifier by partial oxidation to produce a hot raw gas stream comprising H.sub.2, CO, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2 O, CH.sub.4, NH.sub.3, HCl, HF, H.sub.2 S, COS, N.sub.2, Ar, particulate matter, vapor phase alkali metal compounds, and molten slag. The hot raw gas stream from the gasifier is split into two streams which are separately deslagged, cleaned and recombined. Ammonia in the gas mixture is catalytically disproportionated into N.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The ammonia-free gas stream is then cooled and halides in the gas stream are reacted with a supplementary alkali metal compound to remove HCl and HF. Alkali metal halides, vaporized alkali metal compounds and residual fine particulate matter are removed from the gas stream by further cooling and filtering. The sulfur-containing gases in the process gas stream are then reacted at high temperature with a regenerable sulfur-reactive mixed metal oxide sulfur sorbent material to produce a sulfided sorbent material which is then separated from the hot clean purified gas stream having a temperature of at least 1000.degree. F.

Leininger, Thomas F. (Chino Hills, CA); Robin, Allen M. (Anaheim, CA); Wolfenbarger, James K. (Torrance, CA); Suggitt, Robert M. (Wappingers Falls, NY)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Apparatus and method for improving electrostatic precipitator performance by plasma reactor conversion of SO.sub.2 to SO.sub.3  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and process that utilize a low temperature nonequilibrium plasma reactor, for improving the particulate removal efficiency of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) are disclosed. A portion of the flue gas, that contains a low level of SO.sub.2 O.sub.2 H.sub.2 O, and particulate matter, is passed through a low temperature plasma reactor, which defines a plasma volume, thereby oxidizing a portion of the SO.sub.2 present in the flue gas into SO.sub.3. An SO.sub.2 rich flue gas is thereby generated. The SO.sub.3 rich flue gas is then returned to the primary flow of the flue gas in the exhaust treatment system prior to the ESP. This allows the SO.sub.3 to react with water to form H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 that is in turn is absorbed by fly ash in the gas stream in order to improve the removal efficiency of the EPS.

Huang, Hann-Sheng (Darien, IL); Gorski, Anthony J. (Woodridge, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Developing an accelerated aging system for gasoline particulate filters and an evaluation test for effects on engine performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stringent regulations worldwide will limit the level of particulate matter (PM) emitted from gasoline engines equipped with direct fuel injection. Gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) present one strategy for meeting PM ...

Jorgensen, James E. (James Eastman)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Evaluation of gas-reburning and low NO{sub x} burners on a wall fired boiler. Progress report, January 1--March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this Clean Coal Technology project is to evaluate the use of Gas Reburning and Low NO{sub x} Burners (GR-LNB) for NO{sub x} emission control from a wall fired boiler. This project is being conducted in three phases at the host site, a 172 MW{sub e} wall fired boiler of Public Service Company of Colorado, Cherokee Unit 3 in Denver, Colorado: Phase I, design and permitting has been completed on June 30, 1992; Phase II, construction and start-up has been completed on September 1991; and Phase III, operation, data collection, reporting and disposition. Phase III activities during this reporting period involved the following: compilation, analysis and assembly of the final report and initiation of restoration activities; restoration of the gas reburning system involving removal of the flue gas recirculation system (permanent Second Generation Gas Reburning); and participants meeting and reburning workshop. Long term testing of the equipment demonstrated an average NO{sub x} reduction of 65% using 18% gas heat input. After removing the flue gas recirculation system, (Second Generation GR), an average NO{sub x} of 64% was achieved using 13% gas heat input. The project goal of 70% reduction was achieved, but no on an average basis due to the load requirements of the utility.

NONE

1996-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

439

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE  

SciTech Connect

Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and delayed petroleum coke in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures. Firing rates in the pilot test facility ranged from 2.2 to 7.9 MM-Btu/hr. Pilot-scale testing was performed at ALSTOM's Multi-use Test Facility (MTF), located in Windsor, Connecticut.

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

2004-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

440

Substrate Studies of an Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Transient distributed DPF wall and gas temperature were simultaneously measured using the optical and thermocouple systems, on both electrically assisted and conventional fuel-only DPF regeneration cycles

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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441

THE SURFACE CHARGE OF PARTICULATE MATTER IN SEAWATER  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

surface on gas bubbles to become available as a nutrient for ..... strongly hydrated character. The bentonite and ..... bacteria on sand particles. J. Exp. Biol. 411:.

442

Substrate Studies of an Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

distributed DPF wall and gas temperature were simultaneously measured using the optical and thermocouple systems, on both electrically assisted and conventional fuel-only...

443

ARM - Field Campaign - 1999 Northeast Corridor Ozone & Particulate...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Order Data Hubbe Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Order Data Hubbe Infrared Thermometer Order Data Hubbe Nephelometer Order Data Hubbe Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer...

444

A field example of a gas orifice meter with debris-ridden liquid in mist flow  

SciTech Connect

A field example of debris-ridden liquids in an orifice meter is presented in this paper. Flow conditions in gas pipelines containing hydrocarbon liquids and particulate matter are discussed. Known effects on measurement of the presence of these materials in orifice meters is presented. By definition, gas measurement is accurate if performed on a clean and dry flow stream. This paper demonstrates the importance of removing as much liquid and debris as possible prior to measurement.

Chisholm, J.L.; Mooney, C.V. [Texas A and M Univ., Kingsville, TX (United States); Datta-Barua, L.; Feldmann, R.J.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

445

An Optical Backscatter Sensor for Particulate Matter Measurement  

SciTech Connect

Diesel engines are prone to emit particulate matter (PM) emissions under certain operation conditions. In-cylinder production of PM from diesel combustion control can occur under a wide variety of operating conditions, and in some cases, operation of a multi-cylinder engine can further complicate PM emissions due to variations in air or fuel charge due to manifold mixing effects. In this study, a probe for detecting PM in diesel exhaust was evaluated on a light-duty diesel engine. The probe is based on an optical backscattering effect. Due to the optical nature of the probe, PM sensing can occur at high rates. The feasibility of the probe for examining PM emissions in the exhaust manifold will be discussed.

Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Partridge Jr, William P [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Direct and quantitative photothermal absorption spectroscopy of individual particulates  

SciTech Connect

Photonic structures can exhibit significant absorption enhancement when an object's length scale is comparable to or smaller than the wavelength of light. This property has enabled photonic structures to be an integral component in many applications such as solar cells, light emitting diodes, and photothermal therapy. To characterize this enhancement at the single particulate level, conventional methods have consisted of indirect or qualitative approaches which are often limited to certain sample types. To overcome these limitations, we used a bilayer cantilever to directly and quantitatively measure the spectral absorption efficiency of a single silicon microwire in the visible wavelength range. We demonstrate an absorption enhancement on a per unit volume basis compared to a thin film, which shows good agreement with Mie theory calculations. This approach offers a quantitative approach for broadband absorption measurements on a wide range of photonic structures of different geometric and material compositions.

Tong, Jonathan K.; Hsu, Wei-Chun; Eon Han, Sang; Burg, Brian R.; Chen, Gang, E-mail: gchen2@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Zheng, Ruiting [Key Laboratory of Radiation Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Radiation Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Shen, Sheng [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

447

Mechanisms governing fine particulate emissions from coal flames  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this program was to provide a basic understanding of the principal processes that govern the formation of particulate matter in the 0.5--10 {mu}m size range in pulverized coal flames. The mechanism that produces ash particles in this size range is not clear. Particle sizes smaller than the 0.5--10 {mu}m size range are generally accepted to result from a vaporization/condensation mechanism while particles larger than this size result from the coalescence of ash in coal particles which may breakup as they burn. This program combined experimental and theoretical studies to understand the mechanisms which control the production of ash in the 0.5--10 {mu}m size range. (VC)

Newton, G.H.; Schieber, C.; Socha, R.G.; Kramlich, J.C.

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Mechanisms governing fine particulate emissions from coal flames. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this program was to provide a basic understanding of the principal processes that govern the formation of particulate matter in the 0.5--10 {mu}m size range in pulverized coal flames. The mechanism that produces ash particles in this size range is not clear. Particle sizes smaller than the 0.5--10 {mu}m size range are generally accepted to result from a vaporization/condensation mechanism while particles larger than this size result from the coalescence of ash in coal particles which may breakup as they burn. This program combined experimental and theoretical studies to understand the mechanisms which control the production of ash in the 0.5--10 {mu}m size range. (VC)

Newton, G.H.; Schieber, C.; Socha, R.G.; Kramlich, J.C.

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

,366 ,366 95,493 1.08 0 0.00 1 0.03 29,406 0.56 1,206 0.04 20,328 0.64 146,434 0.73 - Natural Gas 1996 Million Percent of Million Percent of Cu. Feet National Total Cu. Feet National Total Net Interstate Movements: Industrial: Marketed Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Electric Residential: Utilities: Commercial: Total: South Carolina South Carolina 88. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas South Carolina, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ...........................................

450

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0,216 0,216 50,022 0.56 135 0.00 49 1.67 85,533 1.63 8,455 0.31 45,842 1.45 189,901 0.95 - Natural Gas 1996 Million Percent of Million Percent of Cu. Feet National Total Cu. Feet National Total Net Interstate Movements: Industrial: Marketed Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Electric Residential: Utilities: Commercial: Total: M a r y l a n d Maryland 68. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Maryland, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... NA NA NA NA NA Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 9 7 7 7 8 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 33 28 26 22 135 From Oil Wells ...........................................

451

Nature of airborne particulates at tropic exposure sites. Final report, November 1982-September 1984  

SciTech Connect

Airborne particulates were collected at five exposure sites in Panama using cascade impactor air samplers. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, and culture identification techniques were used to analyze the particulates. Analysis revealed that the particulates consist of silicates, chlorides, and sulfur-rich and phosphorus-rich particles. Atmospheric particle levels were higher in the dry season than in the rainy season, and the predominant fungal species varied at each exposure site. The open direct exposure of culture plates served as a simple, appropriate method for monitoring atmospheric fungal spores.

Chen, F.; Dement, W.A.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Method for gas-metal arc deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for gas-metal arc deposition of metal, metal alloys, and metal matrix composites. The apparatus contains an arc chamber for confining a D.C. electrical arc discharge, the arc chamber containing an outlet orifice in fluid communication with a deposition chamber having a deposition opening in alignment wiht the orifice for depositing metal droplets on a coatable substrate. Metal wire is passed continuously into the arc chamber in alignment with the orifice. Electric arcing between the metal wire anode and the orifice cathode produces droplets of molten metal from the wire which pass through the orifice and into the deposition chamber for coating a substrate exposed at the deposition opening. When producing metal matrix composites, a suspension of particulates in an inert gas enters the deposition chamber via a plurality of feed openings below and around the orifice so that reinforcing particulates join the metal droplets to produce a uniform mixture which then coats the exposed substrate with a uniform metal matrix composite.

Buhrmaster, Carol L. (Corning, NY); Clark, Denis E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Smartt, Herschel B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Method for gas-metal arc deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for gas-metal arc deposition of metal, metal alloys, and metal matrix composites are disclosed. The apparatus contains an arc chamber for confining a D.C. electrical arc discharge, the arc chamber containing an outlet orifice in fluid communication with a deposition chamber having a deposition opening in alignment with the orifice for depositing metal droplets on a coatable substrate. Metal wire is passed continuously into the arc chamber in alignment with the orifice. Electric arcing between the metal wire anode and the orifice cathode produces droplets of molten metal from the wire which pass through the orifice and into the deposition chamber for coating a substrate exposed at the deposition opening. When producing metal matrix composites, a suspension of particulates in an inert gas enters the deposition chamber via a plurality of feed openings below and around the orifice so that reinforcing particulates join the metal droplets to produce a uniform mixture which then coats the exposed substrate with a uniform metal matrix composite. 1 fig.

Buhrmaster, C.L.; Clark, D.E.; Smartt, H.B.

1990-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

454

Apparatus for gas-metal arc deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for gas-metal arc deposition of metal, metal alloys, and metal matrix composites. The apparatus contains an arc chamber for confining a D.C. electrical arc discharge, the arc chamber containing an outlet orifice in fluid communication with a deposition chamber having a deposition opening in alignment with the orifice for depositing metal droplets on a coatable substrate. Metal wire is passed continuously into the arc chamber in alignment with the orifice. Electric arcing between the metal wire anode and the orifice cathode produces droplets of molten metal from the wire which pass through the orifice and into the deposition chamber for coating a substrate exposed at the deposition opening. When producing metal matrix composites, a suspenion of particulates in an inert gas enters the deposition chamber via a plurality of feed openings below and around the orifice so that reinforcing particulates join the metal droplets to produce a uniform mixture which then coats the exposed substrate with a uniform metal matrix composite.

Buhrmaster, Carol L. (Corning, NY); Clark, Denis E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Smartt, Herschel B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

,"Missouri Natural Gas Summary"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas Wells (MMcf)","Missouri Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Oil Wells (MMcf)","Missouri Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)","Missouri Natural...

456

High-Temperature Gas-Stream Cleanup Test Facility  

SciTech Connect

In support of METC`s hot-gas filter development program, the high- temperature, gas-stream cleanup test facility was designed to: investigate conventional and novel approaches to high-temperature filtration; conduct detailed parametric studies that characterize particulate control devices under well-controlled conditions; and screen new materials for other high-temperature applications, such as heat exchanger tubes. This new facility utilizes a natural gas-fueled combustor to produce high-temperature process gas, and a screw feeder to inject ash, or other fine media, into the gas stream. The vessel that surrounds the particulate control devices has an inside diameter of roughly 0.20 meters (8 inches) and is about 3 meters (10 feet) long. Three commercial-size filter elements can be tested simultaneously, and the facility is capable of operating over a wide range of conditions. Operating temperatures can vary from 540 to 870{degrees}C (1,000 to 1,600 {degrees}F), and the operating pressure can vary from 0 to 400 kPa (0 to 60 psig).

Straub, D.; Chiang, Ta-Kuan, Schultz, J.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

457

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

68,747 68,747 34,577 0.39 0 0.00 34 1.16 14,941 0.29 0 0.00 11,506 0.36 61,058 0.31 I d a h o Idaho 60. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Idaho, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation.......................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented

458

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 540 0.01 0 0.00 2,132 0.07 2,672 0.01 H a w a i i Hawaii 59. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Hawaii, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation.......................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared

459

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

483,052 483,052 136,722 1.54 6,006 0.03 88 3.00 16,293 0.31 283,557 10.38 41,810 1.32 478,471 2.39 F l o r i d a Florida 57. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Florida, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 47 50 98 92 96 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 7,584 8,011 8,468 7,133 6,706 Total.............................................................. 7,584 8,011 8,468 7,133 6,706 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ...............

460

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

291,898 291,898 113,995 1.29 0 0.00 4 0.14 88,078 1.68 3,491 0.13 54,571 1.73 260,140 1.30 I o w a Iowa 63. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Iowa, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation.......................... 0 0 0

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flue gas particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


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