Sample records for flue door vent

  1. Vented Capacitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brubaker, Michael Allen; Hosking, Terry Alan

    2006-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique of increasing the corona inception voltage (CIV), and thereby increasing the operating voltage, of film/foil capacitors is described. Intentional venting of the capacitor encapsulation improves the corona inception voltage by allowing internal voids to equilibrate with the ambient environment.

  2. Gas venting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, Amjad; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; White, Erik James

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A system to vent a moist gas stream is disclosed. The system includes an enclosure and an electrochemical cell disposed within the enclosure, the electrochemical cell productive of the moist gas stream. A first vent is in fluid communication with the electrochemical cell for venting the moist gas stream to an exterior of the enclosure, and a second vent is in fluid communication with an interior of the enclosure and in thermal communication with the first vent for discharging heated air to the exterior of the enclosure. At least a portion of the discharging heated air is for preventing freezing of the moist gas stream within the first vent.

  3. High speed door assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shapiro, C.

    1993-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A high speed door assembly is described, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

  4. High speed door assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Carolyn (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high speed door assembly, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

  5. Battery venting system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casale, T.J.; Ching, L.K.W.; Baer, J.T.; Swan, D.H.

    1999-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve. 8 figs.

  6. Battery venting system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casale, Thomas J. (Aurora, CO); Ching, Larry K. W. (Littleton, CO); Baer, Jose T. (Gaviota, CA); Swan, David H. (Monrovia, CA)

    1999-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  7. Battery Vent Mechanism And Method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ching, Larry K. W. (Littleton, CO)

    2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  8. Electronic door locking mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, G.L.; Kirby, P.G.

    1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a motorized linkage for engaging a thumb piece in a door mechanism. The device has an exterior lock assembly with a small battery cell and combination lock. Proper entry by a user of a security code allows the battery to operate a small motor within the exterior lock assembly. The small motor manipulates a cam-plunger which moves an actuator pin into a thumb piece. The user applies a force on to the thumb piece. This force is transmitted by the thumb piece to a latch engagement mechanism by the actuator pin. The latch engagement mechanism operates the door latch. 6 figs.

  9. Doors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A Potential MicrohydroDistrict ofDongjin Semichem Co JumpDongyingDoors Jump

  10. Mercury sorbent delivery system for flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klunder; ,Edgar B. (Bethel Park, PA)

    2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention presents a device for the removal of elemental mercury from flue gas streams utilizing a layer of activated carbon particles contained within the filter fabric of a filter bag for use in a flue gas scrubbing system.

  11. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

  12. Door latching recognition apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eakle, Jr., Robert F. (New Ellenton, SC)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An acoustic door latch detector is provided in which a sound recognition sensor is integrated into a door or door lock mechanism. The programmable sound recognition sensor can be trained to recognize the acoustic signature of the door and door lock mechanism being properly engaged and secured. The acoustic sensor will signal a first indicator indicating that proper closure was detected or sound an alarm condition if the proper acoustic signature is not detected within a predetermined time interval.

  13. Final Flue Gas Cleaning (FFGC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stinger, D. H.; Romero, M. H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the surrounding area but can also be carried thousands of miles by trade winds before falling to ground level to pollute soil, vegetation and water resources. An obvious question is: why doesn’t industry cool the flue gas; condense out the pollutants... of handling and disposing of these pollutants at the plant site. 2. Oxides of sulfur and nitrogen can condense out as an acid, including carbonic acid that attacks materials of construction. By keeping temperatures elevated, carbon steel construction can...

  14. Final Flue Gas Cleaning (FFGC) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stinger, D. H.; Romero, M. H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .F., Blythe, OG.M., Carey, T.R., Radian International & Rhudy, R.G., EPRI & Brown, T.D., Federal Energy Technology Center-DOE, ”Enhanced Control of Mercury by Wet FGD Systems, 1999 f Gramite. Evan J. and Pennline, Henry W., “Photochemical Removal of Mercury... from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). The pilot plant (FFGC-PP) will be used to test and evaluate removal of air pollution constituents from the flue gas of a power plant to determine the optimum emission reduction system...

  15. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawabe, James K. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell.

  16. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  17. Battic Door | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in Carbon CaptureAtriaPower SystemsRhode Island:BatteryBattic Door

  18. Commercial Refrigerator Door: Order (2013-CE-5351)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Commercial Refrigerator Door Company, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Commercial Refrigerator Door had failed to certify that a variety of models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  19. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawabe, J.K.

    1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell. 6 figures.

  20. The Gonzaga desulfurization flue gas process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelleher, R.L.; O'Leary, T.J.; Shirk, I.A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gonzaga desulfurization flue gas process removes sulfur dioxide from a flue by cold water scrubbing. Sulfur dioxide is significantly more soluable in cold water (35/sup 0/F to 60/sup 0/F) than in warm water (100/sup 0/F). Sulfur dioxide reacts in water similarly as carbon dioxide reacts in water, in that both gasses are released from the water as the temperature of the water increases. The researchers at the Gonzaga University developed this process from the observations and techniques used in studying the acid and aldehyde concentrations in flue gasses with varying of fuel to air ratios. The apparatus was fixed to a stationary engine and a gas/oil fired boiler. The flue gas was cooled to the dew point temperature of the air entering the combustion chamber on the pre-air heater. The system is described in two parts: the energies required for cooling in the scrubbing section and the energies required in the treatment section. The cold flue gas is utilized in cooling the scrubber section.

  1. Filtered-vented containment systems. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin, A.S.; Walling, H.C.; Cybulskis, P.; DiSalvo, R.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential benefits of filtered-vented containment systems as a means for mitigating the effects of severe accidents are analyzed. Studies so far have focused upon two operating reactor plants in the United States, a large-containment pressurized water reactor and a Mark I containment boiling water reactor. Design options that could be retrofitted to these plants are described including single-component once-through venting systems, multiple-component systems with vent and recirculation capabilities, and totally contained venting systems. A variety of venting strategies are also described which include simple low-volume containment pressure relief strategies and more complicated, high-volume venting strategies that require anticipatory actions. The latter type of strategy is intended for accidents that produce containment-threatening pressure spikes.

  2. Evaluation of the Energy Saving Potential from Flue Gas Pressurization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanton, E. H.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential for recovering energy from low pressure furnace flue products is limited when standard heat recovery equipment is utilized. Efficient energy recovery can be accomplished by providing a flue gas side pressure drop across a heat...

  3. Evaluation of the Energy Saving Potential from Flue Gas Pressurization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanton, E. H.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential for recovering energy from low pressure furnace flue products is limited when standard heat recovery equipment is utilized. Efficient energy recovery can be accomplished by providing a flue gas side pressure drop across a heat...

  4. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A. (Canfield, OH); Farthing, George A. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

    1998-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse.

  5. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A. (Canfield, OH); Farthing, George A. (Washington Township, OH)

    1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse.

  6. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, D.A.; Farthing, G.A.

    1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse. 5 figs.

  7. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, D.A.; Farthing, G.A.

    1998-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse. 5 figs.

  8. FlueGen Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489Information Hydro IncEnergy InformationFlue GasFlueGen Inc

  9. Flue gas cleanup with hydroxyl radical reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Y.J.; Pennline, H.W.; Markussen, J.M.

    1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric discharge processes have been intensively tested for application to flue gas cleanup. Among the several means of OH- radical generation grouped as electric discharge, E-Beam irradiation is the one that has been most thoroughly studied. Corona glow discharge, especially pulsed corona glow discharge, on the other hand, has attracted attention recently, and several active research projects are being conducted in the United States, Japan, West Germany, and Italy. Other promising approaches for generating OH radicals efficiently are based on thermal or catalytic decomposition of OH-radical precursors. If mixing problems can be overcome to achieve homogeneous distribution of OH radicals in the flue gas stream, these methods may be applicable to flue gas cleanup. Because of their high OH-radical generation rates and potentially low capital costs, the following three approaches are recommended to be tested for their potential capability to remove SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}: (1) H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} combustion in a hydrogen torch, (2) thermal decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and (3) catalytic decomposition of H{sub 2}O. Ideally, the OH radicals will convert SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} to sulfuric acid and nitric acid. These acids or acid precursors would easily be removed from the flue gas by conventional technology, such as spray drying and wet limestone scrubbing. 67 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Fundamental mechanisms in flue-gas conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlin, R.S.; Vann Bush, P.; Snyder, T.R.

    1992-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of this research project is to formulate a mathematical model of flue gas conditioning. This model will be based on an understanding of why ash properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Such a model could serve as a component of the performance models of particulate control devices where flue gas conditioning is used. There are two specific objectives of this research project, which divide the planned research into two main parts. One part of the project is designed to determine how ash particles are modified by interactions with sorbent injection processes and to describe the mechanisms by which these interactions affect fine particle collection. The objective of the other part of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which conditioning agents, including chemically active compounds, modify the key properties of fine fly ash particles.

  11. natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building energy efficiency+ industrial energy...

  12. Unloading Procedures OPENING DOOR: Make sure that gauge is at 0 PSIG before opening door. Wearing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yan

    in polypropylene, polycarbonate or stainless steel secondary container. Close door tightly. Autoclave Cycles of the autoclave to avoid others from using the machine. Spore Testing: Conduct sterility testing on a regular

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced flue gas Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    flue gas losses and minimized in... generated from flue gas condensation for district heating. Twence is another example, where a high degree... into a reusable ash and that...

  14. Design and Control of a Fully Automated Vehicle door

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Kyung-Min

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the research was to develop a fully automated vehicle car door that can detect any object obstructing its path during operation. A fully automated door concept has not yet been implemented in the car industry. The door, operated via...

  15. Nuclear storage overpack door actuator and alignment apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andreyko, Gregory M. (North Huntingdon, PA)

    2005-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a door actuator and alignment apparatus for opening and closing the 15,000-pound horizontally sliding door of a storage overpack. The door actuator includes a ball screw mounted horizontally on a rigid frame including a pair of door panel support rails. An electrically powered ball nut moves along the ball screw. The ball nut rotating device is attached to a carriage. The carriage attachment to the sliding door is horizontally pivoting. Additional alignment features include precision cam followers attached to the rails and rail guides attached to the carriage.

  16. Nuclear Storage Overpack Door Actuator and Alignment Apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andreyko, Gregory M.

    2005-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a door actuator and alignment apparatus for opening and closing the 15,000-pound horizontally sliding door of a storage overpack. The door actuator includes a ball screw mounted horizontally on a rigid frame including a pair of door panel support rails. An electrically powered ball nut moves along the ball screw. The ball nut rotating device is attached to a carriage. The carriage attachment to the sliding door is horizontally pivoting. Additional alignment features include precision cam followers attached to the rails and rail guides attached to the carriage.

  17. Vented Cavity Radiant Barrier Assembly And Method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Piedmont, CA); Jackaway, Adam D. (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A vented cavity radiant barrier assembly (2) includes a barrier (12), typically a PV module, having inner and outer surfaces (18, 22). A support assembly (14) is secured to the barrier and extends inwardly from the inner surface of the barrier to a building surface (14) creating a vented cavity (24) between the building surface and the barrier inner surface. A low emissivity element (20) is mounted at or between the building surface and the barrier inner surface. At least part of the cavity exit (30) is higher than the cavity entrance (28) to promote cooling air flow through the cavity.

  18. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems V.H. Rapp, B.C. Singer., Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems. LBNL-5798E 3 ABSTRACT In many by concerns about related impacts on the safety of naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter housing

  19. Electrochemical cell having improved pressure vent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dean, Kevin (Pontiac, MI); Holland, Arthur (Troy, MI); Fillmore, Donn (Waterford, MI)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrochemical cell of the instant invention includes a case having a gas outlet, one or more positive electrodes positioned within the case, one or more negative electrodes positioned within the case electrode separators positioned between the positive and negative electrodes, electrolyte positioned within the case, and a pressure vent for releasing internal pressure occurring in the case to the surrounding atmosphere. The pressure vent is affixed to the case covering the gas outlet, the pressure vent includes a vent housing having a hollow interior area in gaseous communication with the surrounding atmosphere and the interior of the case via the gas outlet, a pressure release piston positioned within the hollow interior area, the pressure release piston sized to surround the gas outlet and having a seal groove configured to encapsulate all but one surface of a seal mounted within the seal groove, leaving the non-encapsulated surface of the seal exposed, and a compression spring positioned to urge the pressure release piston to compress the seal in the seal groove and block the gas outlet in the case.

  20. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minish Shah; Nich Degenstein; Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Ravi Kumar; Jennifer Bugayong; Ken Burgers

    2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project were to carry out an experimental program to enable development and design of near zero emissions (NZE) CO{sub 2} processing unit (CPU) for oxy-combustion plants burning high and low sulfur coals and to perform commercial viability assessment. The NZE CPU was proposed to produce high purity CO{sub 2} from the oxycombustion flue gas, to achieve > 95% CO{sub 2} capture rate and to achieve near zero atmospheric emissions of criteria pollutants. Two SOx/NOx removal technologies were proposed depending on the SOx levels in the flue gas. The activated carbon process was proposed for power plants burning low sulfur coal and the sulfuric acid process was proposed for power plants burning high sulfur coal. For plants burning high sulfur coal, the sulfuric acid process would convert SOx and NOx in to commercial grade sulfuric and nitric acid by-products, thus reducing operating costs associated with SOx/NOx removal. For plants burning low sulfur coal, investment in separate FGD and SCR equipment for producing high purity CO{sub 2} would not be needed. To achieve high CO{sub 2} capture rates, a hybrid process that combines cold box and VPSA (vacuum pressure swing adsorption) was proposed. In the proposed hybrid process, up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in the cold box vent stream would be recovered by CO{sub 2} VPSA and then it would be recycled and mixed with the flue gas stream upstream of the compressor. The overall recovery from the process will be > 95%. The activated carbon process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx, thus exceeding the performance targets of >99% and >95%, respectively. The process was also found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. Sulfuric acid process did not meet the performance expectations. Although it could achieve high SOx (>99%) and NOx (>90%) removal efficiencies, it could not produce by-product sulfuric and nitric acids that meet the commercial product specifications. The sulfuric acid will have to be disposed of by neutralization, thus lowering the value of the technology to same level as that of the activated carbon process. Therefore, it was decided to discontinue any further efforts on sulfuric acid process. Because of encouraging results on the activated carbon process, it was decided to add a new subtask on testing this process in a dual bed continuous unit. A 40 days long continuous operation test confirmed the excellent SOx/NOx removal efficiencies achieved in the batch operation. This test also indicated the need for further efforts on optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level. The VPSA process was tested in a pilot unit. It achieved CO{sub 2} recovery of > 95% and CO{sub 2} purity of >80% (by vol.) from simulated cold box feed streams. The overall CO{sub 2} recovery from the cold box VPSA hybrid process was projected to be >99% for plants with low air ingress (2%) and >97% for plants with high air ingress (10%). Economic analysis was performed to assess value of the NZE CPU. The advantage of NZE CPU over conventional CPU is only apparent when CO{sub 2} capture and avoided costs are compared. For greenfield plants, cost of avoided CO{sub 2} and cost of captured CO{sub 2} are generally about 11-14% lower using the NZE CPU compared to using a conventional CPU. For older plants with high air intrusion, the cost of avoided CO{sub 2} and capture CO{sub 2} are about 18-24% lower using the NZE CPU. Lower capture costs for NZE CPU are due to lower capital investment in FGD/SCR and higher CO{sub 2} capture efficiency. In summary, as a result of this project, we now have developed one technology option for NZE CPU based on the activated carbon process and coldbox-VPSA hybrid process. This technology is projected to work for both low and high sulfur coal plants. The NZE CPU technology is projected to achieve near zero stack emissions

  1. List of Doors Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano,LakefrontLighthouse SolarIListsource HistoryListDoors

  2. Blower Door Tests | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China U.S. Department ofJune 2,The Big Green BusNews andMay 30, 2013July 20,Blower door

  3. Noble metal catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Presto, A.A.; Granite, E.J.

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of precious metals and platinum group metals as catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas is an active area of study. To date, field studies have recently focused on gold and palladium catalysts installed at pilot-scale. In this work, we introduce bench-scale results for gold, platinum, and palladium catalysts tested in realistic simulated flue gas. Initial results reveal intriguing characteristics of catalytic mercury oxidation and provide insight for future research.

  4. Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, John B. L. (Naperville, IL); Doctor, Richard D. (Glen Ellyn, IL); Wingender, Ronald J. (Deerfield, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO.sub.2 and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled.

  5. Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Wingender, R.J.

    1985-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of simultaneously removing SO/sub 2/ and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO/sub 2/ and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled. 3 figs.

  6. Comparative Study of Vented vs. Unvented Crawlspaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been a significant amount of research in the area of building energy efficiency and durability. However, well-documented quantitative information on the impact of crawlspaces on the performance of residential structures is lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of two crawlspace strategies on the whole-house performance of a pair of houses in a mixed humid climate. These houses were built with advanced envelope systems to provide energy savings of 50% or more compared to traditional 2010 new construction. One crawlspace contains insulated walls and is sealed and semi-conditioned. The other is a traditional vented crawlspace with insulation in the crawlspace ceiling. The vented (traditional) crawlspace contains fiberglass batts installed in the floor chase cavities above the crawl, while the sealed and insulated crawlspace contains foil-faced polyisocyanurate foam insulation on the interior side of the masonry walls. Various sensors to measure temperatures, heat flux through crawlspace walls and ceiling, and relative humidity were installed in the two crawlspaces. Data from these sensors have been analyzed to compare the performance of the two crawlspace designs. The analysis results indicated that the sealed and insulated crawlspace design is better than the traditional vented crawlspace in the mixed humid climate.

  7. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, T.R.; Robinson, M.S.; Bush, P.V.

    1992-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is divided into four tasks. The Management Plan was developed in task 1. Task 2, Evaluation of Mechanisms in FGD Sorbent and Ash Interactions, focuses on the characteristics of binary mixtures of these distinct powders. Task 3, Evaluation of Mechanisms in Conditioning Agents and Ash, is designed to examine the effects of various conditioning agents on fine ash particles to determine the mechanisms by which these agents alter the physical properties of the ash. Tasks 2 and 3 began with an extensive literature search and the assembly of existing theories. This phase of the project is now complete. During the past quarter, initial preparations of laboratory equipment for laboratory testing have been made. A plan for initial laboratory tests has been submitted to the Project Manager for review. Laboratory testing will commence once these laboratory plans have been formally approved. The results of the work performed under task 2 and 3 will be included in a Flue Gas Conditioning Model that will be issued under task 4. The Final Report for the project will also be prepared under task 4.

  8. If a fire should occur... CLOSE the doors to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    from a student's house couldn't do its job because it didn't have a battery. Doors...any door can help. Others may be connected together, such as in a two-story house, and they will all sound an alarm can do its job if it is disabled. Whatever you do... · LEAVE the batteries in the detector · LEAVE

  9. Construction and testing of a flue-gas corrosion probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Federer, J.I.; McEvers, J.A.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The selection of suitable materials for industrial, waste-heat- recovery systems requires assessment of corrosion of materials in various flue-gas environments. Such assessments involve exposing candidate materials to high-temperature flue gases and analyzing the effects of the exposure conditions. Because corrosion is related to flue-gas chemical composition and temperature, variations in temperature complicate the determination of corrosion rates and corrosion mechanisms. Conversely, a relatively constant temperature allows a more accurate determination of the effects of exposure conditions. For this reason, controlled-temperature flue-gas corrosion probes were constructed and tested for exposure tests of materials. A prototype probe consisted of a silicon carbide tube specimen, supporting hardware, and instrumentation for controlling temperature by internal heating and cooling. An advanced probe included other tubular specimens. Testing of the probes in an industrial-type furnace at a nominal flue-gas temperature of 1200{degree}C revealed that temperature control was inadequate. The cooling mode imposed a substantial axial-temperature gradient on the specimens; while the heating mode imposed a smaller gradient, the heating capacity was very limited. 10 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Structure and Stratigraphy Beneath a Young Phreatic Vent: South...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Caldera, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Structure and Stratigraphy Beneath a Young Phreatic Vent: South Inyo Crater,...

  11. Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Anderson, Howard L., Jr.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection of CO{sub 2}-laden flue gas can decrease the potential for silica and calcite scale formation in cooling tower blowdown by lowering solution pH to decrease equilibrium calcite solubility and kinetic rates of silica polymerization. Flue gas injection might best inhibit scale formation in power plant cooling towers that use impaired makeup waters - for example, groundwaters that contain relatively high levels of calcium, alkalinity, and silica. Groundwaters brought to the surface for cooling will degas CO{sub 2} and increase their pH by 1-2 units, possibly precipitating calcite in the process. Recarbonation with flue gas can lower the pHs of these fluids back to roughly their initial pH. Flue gas carbonation probably cannot lower pHs to much below pH 6 because the pHs of impaired waters, once outgassed at the surface, are likely to be relatively alkaline. Silica polymerization to form scale occurs most rapidly at pH {approx} 8.3 at 25 C; polymerization is slower at higher and lower pH. pH 7 fluids containing {approx}220 ppm SiO{sub 2} require > 180 hours equilibration to begin forming scale whereas at pH 8.3 scale formation is complete within 36 hours. Flue gas injection that lowers pHs to {approx} 7 should allow substantially higher concentration factors. Periodic cycling to lower recoveries - hence lower silica concentrations - might be required though. Higher concentration factors enabled by flue gas injection should decrease concentrate volumes and disposal costs by roughly half.

  12. Morphology and dynamics of explosive vents through cohesive rock formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galland, Olivier

    to test the effects of these parameters. The experiments were used to test the effect of 2 on vent simulations were used to test the effect of 3 on vent morphology and dynamics. In the numerical models we see to underground explosions that blast the overlaying rock formations [e.g., Gisler, 2009]. This phenomenon occurs

  13. ETSU College of Medicine Onity Door Access Authorization Form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karsai, Istvan

    ETSU College of Medicine Onity Door Access Authorization Form Please grant access to: 6 access. ____ ALL AREAS (ETSU Service Personnel Only) Medical School Research & Training, VA Bldg. #119-Mail: johnsodl@etsu.edu #12;

  14. Commercial Refrigerator Door: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5351)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Commercial Refrigerator Door Company, Inc. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  15. Staged venting of fuel cell system during rapid shutdown

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clingerman, Bruce J. (Palmyra, NY); Doan, Tien M. (Columbia, MD); Keskula, Donald H. (Webster, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A venting methodology and system for rapid shutdown of a fuel cell apparatus of the type used in a vehicle propulsion system. H.sub.2 and air flows to the fuel cell stack are slowly bypassed to the combustor upon receipt of a rapid shutdown command. The bypass occurs over a period of time (for example one to five seconds) using conveniently-sized bypass valves. Upon receipt of the rapid shutdown command, the anode inlet of the fuel cell stack is instantaneously vented to a remote vent to remove all H.sub.2 from the stack. Airflow to the cathode inlet of the fuel cell stack gradually diminishes over the bypass period, and when the airflow bypass is complete the cathode inlet is also instantaneously vented to a remote vent to eliminate pressure differentials across the stack.

  16. Staged venting of fuel cell system during rapid shutdown

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keskula, Donald H.; Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A venting methodology and system for rapid shutdown of a fuel cell apparatus of the type used in a vehicle propulsion system. H.sub.2 and air flows to the fuel cell stack are slowly bypassed to the combustor upon receipt of a rapid shutdown command. The bypass occurs over a period of time (for example one to five seconds) using conveniently-sized bypass valves. Upon receipt of the rapid shutdown command, the anode inlet of the fuel cell stack is instantaneously vented to a remote vent to remove all H.sub.2 from the stack. Airflow to the cathode inlet of the fuel cell stack gradually diminishes over the bypass period, and when the airflow bypass is complete the cathode inlet is also instantaneously vented to a remote vent to eliminate pressure differentials across the stack.

  17. Selecting the right pumps and valves for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, D.; Ahluwalia, H. [ITT Engineered Valves, Lancaster, PA (United States)

    2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Limestone slurry needs to move efficiently through a complex process, meaning that selecting the right pumps and valves is critical. The article discusses factors to consider in selecting pumps and values for flue gas desulfurization process in coal-fired power plants. 2 photos.

  18. Flue-Cured Tobacco Curing Efficiency Research Tour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    Flue-Cured Tobacco Curing Efficiency Research Tour Wednesday, October 23, 2013 Topics to be discussed: Tobacco curing efficiency New barn evaluations New curing barn technology Evaluation of single-barn hot water boiler systems Remedial barn pad insulation Utilization of solar energy

  19. Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.2 Flue gases and fuel gases: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, incineration and other and gasification technologies for heat and power . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.4 Waste incineration and waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.3 Formation of sulphur compounds during combustion and gasification . 3-5 3.4 Emission

  20. Environmental sustainability comparison of a hypothetical pneumatic waste collection system and a door-to-door system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Punkkinen, Henna, E-mail: henna.punkkinen@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Merta, Elina, E-mail: elina.merta@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Teerioja, Nea, E-mail: nea.teerioja@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, Department of Economics and Management, Latokartanonkaari 9, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 HY (Finland); Moliis, Katja, E-mail: katja.moliis@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, Department of Economics and Management, Latokartanonkaari 9, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 HY (Finland); Kuvaja, Eveliina, E-mail: eveliina.kuvaja@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, Department of Economics and Management, Latokartanonkaari 9, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 HY (Finland)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compare the environmental sustainability of two MSW collection systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluate pneumatic and door-to-door collection systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The greenhouse gas emissions of pneumatic collection are around three times higher. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System components are decisive but assumptions on electricity use are also important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pneumatic collection could provide other benefits over door-to-door system. - Abstract: Waste collection is one of the life cycle phases that influence the environmental sustainability of waste management. Pneumatic waste collection systems represent a new way of arranging waste collection in densely populated urban areas. However, limited information is available on the environmental impacts of this system. In this study, we compare the environmental sustainability of conventional door-to-door waste collection with its hypothetical pneumatic alternative. Furthermore, we analyse whether the size of the hypothetical pneumatic system, or the number of waste fractions included, have an impact on the results. Environmental loads are calculated for a hypothetical pneumatic waste collection system modelled on an existing dense urban area in Helsinki, Finland, and the results are compared to those of the prevailing, container-based, door-to-door waste collection system. The evaluation method used is the life-cycle inventory (LCI). In this study, we report the atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. The results indicate that replacing the prevailing system with stationary pneumatic waste collection in an existing urban infrastructure would increase total air emissions. Locally, in the waste collection area, emissions would nonetheless diminish, as collection traffic decreases. While the electricity consumption of the hypothetical pneumatic system and the origin of electricity have a significant bearing on the results, emissions due to manufacturing the system's components prove decisive.

  1. Observations and models of heat and salt transport at a deepwater Gulf of Mexico vent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    Observations and models of heat and salt transport at a deepwater Gulf of Mexico vent Andrew Smith salinity and temperature anomalies at a deepwater Gulf of Mexico vent in lease blocks MC852/853. In our method for estimating gas and water flux from vents. Our model indicates that vents in the Gulf of Mexico

  2. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research conducted between January 1, 2006, and March 31, 2006, on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal combustion flue gas. An integrated system composed of a downflow co-current contact absorber and two hollow screw conveyors (regenerator and cooler) was assembled, instrumented, debugged, and calibrated. A new batch of supported sorbent containing 15% sodium carbonate was prepared and subjected to surface area and compact bulk density determination.

  3. Dry scrubber reduces SO sub 2 in calciner flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, G.W. (Refining Consulting Services, Englewood, CO (US)); Roderick, D. (Western Slope Refining Co., Fruita, CO (US)); Nastri, A. (NATEC Resources Inc., Dallas, TX (US))

    1991-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the installation of a dry sulfur dioxide scrubber for an existing petroleum coke calciner at its Fruita, Colo., refinery. The dry scrubbing process was developed by the power industry to help cope with the acid rain problem. It is the first application of the process in an oil refinery. The process could also remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas of a fluid catalytic cracker, fluid coker, or other refinery sources.

  4. Alternative formulations of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, M.B.; White, M.G.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The major source of man-made SO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is the burning of coal for electric power generation. Coal-fired utility plants are also large sources of NO{sub x} pollution. Regenerable flue gas desulfurization/NO{sub x} abatement catalysts provide one mechanism of simultaneously removing SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} species from flue gases released into the atmosphere. The purpose of this project is to examine routes of optimizing the adsorption efficiency, the adsorption capacity, and the ease of regeneration of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts. We are investigating two different mechanisms for accomplishing this goal. The first involves the use of different alkali and alkaline earth metals as promoters for the alumina sorbents to increase the surface basicity of the sorbent and thus adjust the number and distribution of adsorption sites. The second involves investigation of non-aqueous impregnation, as opposed to aqueous impregnation, as a method to obtain an evenly dispersed monolayer of the promoter on the surface.

  5. Activation of flue gas nitrogen oxides by transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, M.E.; Finseth, D.H.; Pennline, H.W.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur and nitrogen oxides are major flue gas pollutants released by coal-fired electric power plants. In the atmosphere these oxides are converted to sulfuric and nitric acids, which contribute to the acid rain problem. Most of the nitrogen oxides present in coal-derived flue gas exist as the relatively inert and water-insoluble nitric oxide (NO), thus presenting a difficult removal problem. We present preliminary studies intended to establish basic homogeneous chemistry of transition metal complexes with nitrogen oxides. The transition metals considered in this work are volatile carbonyl complexes. The metal carbonyls took up nitric oxide homogeneously in the gas phase. Iron required uv light for reaction with NO, but the same result is expected with the application of heat. Metal carbonyls also reacted with nitrogen dioxide but produced polynuclear metal species. Oxygen did not attack the carbonyl or nitrosyl complexes. Results indicate high potential for NO/sub x/ removal from stack gases by sorption onto supported metal carbonyl complexes. The solid form allows ease in separation from the flue gas. Regeneration of the sorbent might be achieved by treating with CO to liberate NO/sub x/ by displacement or by heating to decompose and drive off NO/sub x/.

  6. The thief process for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, E.J.; Freeman, M.C.; Hargis, R.A.; O'Dowd, W.J.; Pennline, H.W.

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Thief Process is a cost-effective variation to activated carbon injection (ACI) for removal of mercury from flue gas. In this scheme, partially combusted coal from the furnace of a pulverized coal power generation plant is extracted by a lance and then re-injected into the ductwork downstream of the air preheater. Recent results on a 500-lb/h pilot-scale combustion facility show similar removals of mercury for both the Thief Process and ACI. The tests conducted to date at laboratory, bench, and pilot-scales demonstrate that the Thief sorbents exhibit capacities for mercury from flue gas streams that are comparable to those exhibited by commercially available activated carbons. A patent for the process was issued in February 2003. The Thief sorbents are cheaper than commercially-available activated carbons; exhibit excellent capacities for mercury; and the overall process holds great potential for reducing the cost of mercury removal from flue gas. The Thief Process was licensed to Mobotec USA, Inc. in May of 2005.

  7. Activation of flue gas nitrogen oxides by transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, M.E.; Finseth, D.H.; Pennline, H.W.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur and nitrogen oxides are major flue gas pollutants released by coal-fired electric power plants. In the atmosphere these oxides are converted to sulfuric and nitric acids, which contribute to the acid rain problem. Most of the nitrogen oxides (90%-95%) present in coal-derived flue gas exist as the relatively inert and water-insoluble nitric oxide (NO), thus presenting a difficult removal problem. A practical strategy for nitrogen oxides removal might utilize a solid support that has been impregnated with an active transition metal complex. Some supported transition metals are expected to remove NO/sub x/ by sorption, with regeneration of the sorbent being a necessary property. Others catalyze NO oxidation to the more soluble NO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/O/sub 5/, which has been demonstrated for certain transition metal species. These activated nitrogen oxides can be more efficiently removed along with SO/sub 2/ in conventional scrubbing or spray-drying processes, in which an aqueous slurry of sorbent, such as hydrated lime, is injected into the hot flue gas. We present here preliminary studies intended to establish basic homogeneous chemistry of transition metal complexes with nitrogen oxides. The transition metals considered in this work are volatile carbonyl complexes. This work is the first step in the development of supported metal species for enhanced nitrogen oxides removal.

  8. Cement kiln flue dust as a source of lime and potassium in four East Texas soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, Warren David

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    design on both sites. Yield, soil pH, plant and soil concentrations of K, Ca, and Mg were determined. Soil pH and extractable Ca increased with increasing rate of flue dust or calcite. Under field conditions, flue dust compared favorably with calcite... was similar to plant uptake from corresponding calcite + KC1 treatments. Soil pH and extractable soil K, Ca, and Mg increased with increased rate of flue dust treatment equally as well as from the corresponding calcite treatments. The flue dust was equal...

  9. Transport Membrane Condenser for Water and Energy Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dexin Wang

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The new waste heat and water recovery technology based on a nanoporous ceramic membrane vapor separation mechanism has been developed for power plant flue gas application. The recovered water vapor and its latent heat from the flue gas can increase the power plant boiler efficiency and reduce water consumption. This report describes the development of the Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) technology in details for power plant flue gas application. The two-stage TMC design can achieve maximum heat and water recovery based on practical power plant flue gas and cooling water stream conditions. And the report includes: Two-stage TMC water and heat recovery system design based on potential host power plant coal fired flue gas conditions; Membrane performance optimization process based on the flue gas conditions, heat sink conditions, and water and heat transport rate requirement; Pilot-Scale Unit design, fabrication and performance validation test results. Laboratory test results showed the TMC system can exact significant amount of vapor and heat from the flue gases. The recovered water has been tested and proved of good quality, and the impact of SO{sub 2} in the flue gas on the membrane has been evaluated. The TMC pilot-scale system has been field tested with a slip stream of flue gas in a power plant to prove its long term real world operation performance. A TMC scale-up design approach has been investigated and an economic analysis of applying the technology has been performed.

  10. ETSU College of Medicine CBORD Door Access Authorization Form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karsai, Istvan

    ETSU College of Medicine CBORD Door Access Authorization Form 6/13/2011 Please grant access to: This access will remain in effect until the individual is no longer an active ETSU faculty list areas this individual will need access to: ____ ALL AREAS - ETSU Service Personnel Only ­ (i

  11. Covered Product Category: Residential Windows, Doors, and Skylights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential windows, doors, and skylights, which are an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  12. Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2013 Shallow-Opening Camaro Door

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    The open door wingspan of the Camaro coupe was reduced by 3'-4" General Motors would be able model or any General Motors vehicle #12;PENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2013 Shallow-Opening Camaro Door Overview

  13. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or adjustment. Water produced from this process should require little processing for use, depending on the end application. Test Series II water quality was not as good as that obtained in Test Series I; however, this was believed to be due to a system upset that contaminated the product water system during Test Series II. The amount of water that can be recovered from flue gas with the LDDS is a function of several variables, including desiccant temperature, L/G in the absorber, flash drum pressure, liquid-gas contact method, and desiccant concentration. Corrosion will be an issue with the use of calcium chloride as expected but can be largely mitigated through proper material selection. Integration of the LDDS with either low-grade waste heat and or ground-source heating and cooling can affect the parasitic power draw the LDDS will have on a power plant. Depending on the amount of water to be removed from the flue gas, the system can be designed with no parasitic power draw on the power plant other than pumping loads. This can be accomplished in one scenario by taking advantage of the heat of absorption and the heat of vaporization to provide the necessary temperature changes in the desiccant with the flue gas and precipitates that may form and how to handle them. These questions must be addressed in subsequent testing before scale-up of the process can be confidently completed.

  14. Separation of Mercury from Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Produced Gypsum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hensman, Carl, E., P.h.D; Baker, Trevor

    2008-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Frontier Geosciences (Frontier; FGS) proposed for DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER84669 that mercury control could be achieved in a wet scrubber by the addition of an amendment to the wet-FGD scrubber. To demonstrate this, a bench-scale scrubber and synthetic flue-gas supply was designed to simulate the limestone fed, wet-desulfurization units utilized by coal-fired power plants. Frontier maintains that the mercury released from these utilities can be controlled and reduced by modifying the existing equipment at installations where wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed. A key element of the proposal was FGS-PWN, a liquid-based mercury chelating agent, which can be employed as the amendment for removal of all mercury species which enter the wet-FGD scrubber. However, the equipment design presented in the proposal was inadequate to demonstrate these functions and no significant progress was made to substantiate these claims. As a result, funding for a Phase II continuation of this work will not be pursued. The key to implementing the technology as described in the proposal and report appears to be a high liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) between the flue-gas and the scrubber liquor, a requirement not currently implemented in existing wet-FGD designs. It may be that this constraint can be reduced through parametric studies, but that was not apparent in this work. Unfortunately, the bench-scale system constructed for this project did not function as intended and the funds and time requested were exhausted before the separation studies could occur.

  15. The Beckett System Recovery and Utilization of Low Grade Waste Heat From Flue Gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, W. R.; DeBiase, J. F.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Beckett Heat Recovery is a series of techniques for recovering low-grade waste heat from flue gas. Until the cost of fossil fuels began rising rapidly, flue gas below 600 F was considered economically unworthy of reclaim. This paper...

  16. The Beckett System Recovery and Utilization of Low Grade Waste Heat From Flue Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, W. R.; DeBiase, J. F.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . During low demand periods, the unit is gas-fired and produces 150 psi steam at high efficiency. In the fall, the heat exchanger is converted to accept flue gas from the large original water tube boilers. The flue gas heats water, which preheats make...

  17. Florida Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYear Jan Feb Mar AprVented and FlaredVented

  18. Ohio Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul9 20102009Vented and FlaredVented

  19. Oklahoma Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunFeet)TotalVented and FlaredVented

  20. Geochemistry of deep-sea hydrothermal vent fluids from the Mid-Cayman Rise, Caribbean Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDermott, Jill Marie

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis examines the controls on organic, inorganic, and volatile species distributions in hydrothermal fluids venting at Von Damm and Piccard, two recently discovered vent fields at the ultra slow spreading Mid-Cayman ...

  1. Predicting Backdrafting and Spillage for Natural-Draft Gas Combustion Appliances: Validating VENT-II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Predicting Backdrafting and Spillage for Natural-Draft Gas Combustion Appliances: Validating VENT. "Predicting Backdrafting and Spillage for Natural-Draft Gas Combustion Appliances: A Validation of VENT

  2. Gas venting system | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    venting system Re-direct Destination: A system to vent a moist gas stream is disclosed. The system includes an enclosure and an electrochemical cell disposed within the enclosure,...

  3. Upgrade Your Lighting & Open the Door to Energy Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houcek, J. K.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Upgrade Your Lighting & Open the Door to Energy Savings John K. Houcek, Energy Monitoring & Analysis Services The purpose of this paper is to convince the reader that the time has come to take a close look at the lighting energy usage... savings as well as payback periods. There is no single lighting upgrade solution that covers such a wide variety of facility types. Next, a methodology is presented that describes the lighting audit process from the initial survey to the final report...

  4. Thief process for the removal of mercury from flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Freeman, Mark C. (South Park Township, PA); Hargis, Richard A. (Canonsburg, PA); O'Dowd, William J. (Charleroi, PA)

    2003-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for removing mercury from the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant is described. Mercury removal is by adsorption onto a thermally activated sorbent produced in-situ at the power plant. To obtain the thermally activated sorbent, a lance (thief) is inserted into a location within the combustion zone of the combustion chamber and extracts a mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas. The semi-combusted coal has adsorptive properties suitable for the removal of elemental and oxidized mercury. The mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas is separated into a stream of gas and semi-combusted coal that has been converted to a stream of thermally activated sorbent. The separated stream of gas is recycled to the combustion chamber. The thermally activated sorbent is injected into the duct work of the power plant at a location downstream from the exit port of the combustion chamber. Mercury within the flue gas contacts and adsorbs onto the thermally activated sorbent. The sorbent-mercury combination is removed from the plant by a particulate collection system.

  5. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box; Andreas Weber; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research conducted between October 1, 2005, and December 31, 2005, on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from flue gas from coal combustion. A field test was conducted to examine the extent to which RTI's supported sorbent can be regenerated in a heated, hollow screw conveyor. This field test was conducted at the facilities of a screw conveyor manufacturer. The sorbent was essentially completely regenerated during this test, as confirmed by thermal desorption and mass spectroscopy analysis of the regenerated sorbent. Little or no sorbent attrition was observed during 24 passes through the heated screw conveyor system. Three downflow contactor absorption tests were conducted using calcined sodium bicarbonate as the absorbent. Maximum carbon dioxide removals of 57 and 91% from simulated flue gas were observed at near ambient temperatures with water-saturated gas. These tests demonstrated that calcined sodium carbonate is not as effective at removing CO{sub 2} as are supported sorbents containing 10 to 15% sodium carbonate. Delivery of the hollow screw conveyor for the laboratory-scale sorbent regeneration system was delayed; however, construction of other components of this system continued during the quarter.

  6. Halophilic Archaea determined from geothermal steam vent aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelley, Scott

    Halophilic Archaea determined from geothermal steam vent aerosols Dean G. Ellis, Richard W. Bizzoco of fumaroles largely because of the difficulty in collect- ing sufficient numbers of cells from boiling steam analysis and isolation of microbes from fumarole steam waters in Russia (Kamchatka) and the USA (Hawaii

  7. INSTALLATIONAND OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS FOR AQ-1 POWER VENT KIT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    HEATERS AQUASTAR 125B WATER HEATERS INCLUDING AQUASTAR MODELS: 125HX · 125BS · 125X · 125BL TABLE supplied with the water heater. 2. Before mounting water heater to wall, check its minimum clearance requirements. 3. When using an AQ-1 the maximum horizontal distance from the water heater to the power vent

  8. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nolan, Paul S. (North Canton, OH); Downs, William (Alliance, OH); Bailey, Ralph T. (Uniontown, OH); Vecci, Stanley J. (Alliance, OH)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  9. System and method for monitoring wet bulb temperature in a flue gas stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glover, R.L.; Bland, V.V.

    1990-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes in a system for monitoring wet bulb temperature in a flue gas stream means for extracting a sample of the gas from the flue, means for heating the sample to maintain the sample at substantially the same temperature as the gas in the flue, a sensor for measuring the wet bulb temperature of the sample, a reservoir of liquid, a liquid absorbent wick surrounding the sensor and extending into the liquid in the reservoir, and means for maintaining the liquid in the reservoir at a substantially constant level.

  10. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2006-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  11. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that includes a co-current downflow reactor system for adsorption of CO{sub 2} and a steam-heated, hollow-screw conveyor system for regeneration of the sorbent and release of a concentrated CO{sub 2} gas stream. An economic analysis of this process (based on the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory's [DOE/NETL's] 'Carbon Capture and Sequestration Systems Analysis Guidelines') was carried out. RTI's economic analyses indicate that installation of the Dry Carbonate Process in a 500 MW{sub e} (nominal) power plant could achieve 90% CO{sub 2} removal with an incremental capital cost of about $69 million and an increase in the cost of electricity (COE) of about 1.95 cents per kWh. This represents an increase of roughly 35.4% in the estimated COE - which compares very favorable versus MEA's COE increase of 58%. Both the incremental capital cost and the incremental COE were projected to be less than the comparable costs for an equally efficient CO{sub 2} removal system based on monoethanolamine (MEA).

  12. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four grades of sodium bicarbonate and two grades of trona were characterized in terms of particle size distribution, surface area, pore size distribution, and attrition. Surface area and pore size distribution determinations were conducted after calcination of the materials. The sorbent materials were subjected to thermogravimetric testing to determine comparative rates and extent of calcination (in inert gas) and sorption (in a simulated coal combustion flue gas mixture). Selected materials were exposed to five calcination/sorption cycles and showed no decrease in either sorption capacity or sorption rate. Process simulations were conducted involving different heat recovery schemes. The process is thermodynamically feasible. The sodium-based materials appear to have suitable physical properties for use as regenerable sorbents and, based on thermogravimetric testing, are likely to have sorption and calcination rates that are rapid enough to be of interest in full-scale carbon sequestration processes.

  13. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrobalance studies of calcination and carbonation of sodium bicarbonate materials were conducted at Louisiana State University. Calcination in an inert atmosphere was rapid and complete at 120 C. Carbonation was temperature dependent, and both the initial rate and the extent of reaction were found to decrease as temperature was increased between 60 and 80 C. A fluidization test apparatus was constructed at RTI and two sodium bicarbonate materials were fluidized in dry nitrogen at 22 C. The bed was completely fluidized at between 9 and 11 in. of water pressure drop. Kinetic rate expression derivations and thermodynamic calculations were conducted at RTI. Based on literature data, a simple reaction rate expression, which is zero order in carbon dioxide and water, was found to provide the best fit against reciprocal temperature. Simulations based on process thermodynamics suggested that approximately 26 percent of the carbon dioxide in flue gas could be recovered using waste heat available at 240 C.

  14. Advanced environmental control technology for flue gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennline, H.W.; Drummond, C.J.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) oversees a substantial research and development effort to develop advanced environmental control technology for coal-fired sources. This Flue Gas Cleanup Program is currently divided into five areas: combined SO/sub 2//NO/sub x/ control, SO/sub 2/ control, particulate control, NO/sub x/ control, and small-scale boiler emission control. Projects in these areas range from basic research studies to proof-of-concept-scale evaluations. Projects in the DOE program are conducted by universities, national laboratories, industrial organizations, and in-house research at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. An overview of the program, together with brief descriptions of the status of individual projects are given.

  15. Supported polyethylenimine adsorbents for CO2 capture from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fauth, D.J.; Gray, M.L.; Pennline, H.W.

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anthropogenic CO2 emissions produced from fossil fuel combustion are believed to contribute to undesired consequences in global climate. Major contributors towards CO2 emissions are fossil fuel-fired power plants for electricity production. For this reason, CO2 capture from flue gas streams together with permanent sequestration in geologic formations is being considered a viable solution towards mitigation of the major greenhouse gas1. Technologies based on chemical absorption with alkanolamines have been assessed for first generation CO2 post-combustion capture primarily due to its advanced stage of development. However, limitations associated with these chemical solvents (i.e., low CO2 loadings, amine degradation by oxygen, equipment corrosion) manifest themselves in high capital and operating costs with reduced thermal efficiencies. Therefore, necessary design and development of alternative, lower cost approaches for CO2 capture from coal-fired combustion streams are warranted.

  16. Separation of carbon dioxide from flue emissions using Endex principles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ball, R

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an Endex reactor endothermic and exothermic reactions are directly thermally coupled and kinetically matched to achieve intrinsic thermal stability, efficient conversion, autothermal operation, and minimal heat losses. Applied to the problem of in-line carbon dioxide separation from flue gas, Endex principles hold out the promise of effecting a carbon dioxide capture technology of unprecedented economic viability. In this work we describe an Endex Calcium Looping reactor, in which heat released by chemisorption of carbon dioxide onto calcium oxide is used directly to drive the reverse reaction, yielding a pure stream of carbon dioxide for compression and geosequestration. In this initial study we model the proposed reactor as a continuous-flow dynamical system in the well-stirred limit, compute the steady states and analyse their stability properties over the operating parameter space, flag potential design and operational challenges, and suggest an optimum regime for effective operation.

  17. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2004 and June 30, 2004 on the preparation and use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Support materials and supported sorbents were prepared by spray drying. Sorbents consisting of 20 to 50% sodium carbonate on a ceramic support were prepared by spray drying in batches of approximately 300 grams. The supported sorbents exhibited greater carbon dioxide capture rates than unsupported calcined sodium bicarbonate in laboratory tests. Preliminary process design and cost estimation for a retrofit application suggested that costs of a dry regenerable sodium carbonate-based process could be lower than those of a monoethanolamine absorption system. In both cases, the greatest part of the process costs come from power plant output reductions due to parasitic consumption of steam for recovery of carbon dioxide from the capture medium.

  18. Separation of CO2 from flue gas using electrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennline, H.W; Granite, E.J.; Luebke, D.R; Kitchin, J.R; Landon, J.; Weiland, L.M.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT Past research with high temperature molten carbonate electrochemical cells has shown that carbon dioxide can be separated from flue gas streams produced by pulverized coal combustion for power generation, However, the presence of trace contaminants, i.e" sulfur dioxide and nitric oxides, will impact the electrolyte within the cell. If a lower temperature cell could be devised that would utilize the benefits of commercially-available, upstream desulfurization and denitrification in the power plant, then this CO2 separation technique can approach more viability in the carbon sequestration area, Recent work has led to the assembly and successful operation of a low temperature electrochemical cell. In the proof-of-concept testing with this cell, an anion exchange membrane was sandwiched between gas-diffusion electrodes consisting of nickel-based anode electrocatalysts on carbon paper. When a potential was applied across the cell and a mixture of oxygen and carbon dioxide was flowed over the wetted electrolyte on the cathode side, a stream of CO2 to O2 was produced on the anode side, suggesting that carbonate/ bicarbonate ions are the CO2 carrier in the membrane. Since a mixture of CO 2 and 02 is produced, the possibility exists to use this stream in oxy-firing of additional fuel. From this research, a novel concept for efficiently producing a carbon dioxide rich effiuent from combustion of a fossil fuel was proposed. Carbon dioxide and oxygen are captured from the flue gas of a fossilfuel combustor by one or more electrochemical cells or cell stacks. The separated stream is then transferred to an oxy-fired combustor which uses the gas stream for ancillary combustion, ultimately resulting in an effluent rich in carbon dioxide, A portion of the resulting flow produced by the oxy-fired combustor may be continuously recycled back into the oxy-fired combustor for temperature control and an optimal carbon dioxide rich effluent.

  19. Coke oven doors: Historical methods of emission control and evaluation of current designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pettrey, J.O.; Greene, D.E. (Armco Steel Co., Middletown, OH (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The containment of oven door leakage has presented challenges to coke producers for many years as the requirements of environmental regulatory agencies have become increasingly stringent. A description and evaluation of past door modifications, leakage control methodologies and luting practices on Armco Steel Company, L.P.'s Ashland No. 4 Battery is detailed to provide a background for recent work, and to expand the industry's technology base. The strict door leakage standards of the 1990 amendments to the USA Clean Air Act has prompted additional technical studies. Both a joint Armco committee's evaluation of successful systems world wide and test door installations at Ashland were incorporated to determine compliance strategy. The eventual installation of Ikio Model II coke oven doors, along with modifications to ancillary equipment, has resulted in door leakage rates approaching zero. Associated methods, problems, results and evaluations are discussed.

  20. Container lid gasket protective strip for double door transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Jr., Burgess M

    2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and a process for forming a protective barrier seal along a "ring of concern" of a transfer container used with double door systems is provided. A protective substrate is supplied between a "ring of concern" and a safety cover in which an adhesive layer of the substrate engages the "ring of concern". A compressive foam strip along an opposite side of the substrate engages a safety cover such that a compressive force is maintained between the "ring of concern" and the adhesive layer of the substrate.

  1. Retrofitting Doors on Open Refrigerated Cases | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin ofEnergy at Waste-to-Energy usingofRetrofitting Doors on Open Refrigerated Cases

  2. Door County, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale, Michigan:EmerlingDoor County, Wisconsin: Energy Resources

  3. Window, Door, and Skylight Products and Services | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: SinceDevelopment | Department ofPartnerships ToolkitWasteWho WillWind ProgramofWindow, Door, and

  4. Colorado School of Mines Nov-12 Cylindrical or mortise lock aluminum, wood or steel door

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado School of Mines Nov-12 Cylindrical or mortise lock aluminum, wood or steel door Hinges 4 cylindrical or mortise lock aluminum, wood or steel door Hinges 4.5"x4.5" Ives 5BB1HW El Hinge 4.5"x4 FS18S OR FS444 #12;Colorado School of Mines Nov-12 Aluminum, wood or steel door with panic bar Hinges

  5. Heat exchanger design for thermoelectric electricity generation from low temperature flue gas streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latcham, Jacob G. (Jacob Greco)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air-to-oil heat exchanger was modeled and optimized for use in a system utilizing a thermoelectric generator to convert low grade waste heat in flue gas streams to electricity. The NTU-effectiveness method, exergy, and ...

  6. New Developments in Closed Loop Combustion Control Using Flue Gas Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, R. L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New developments in closed loop combustion control are causing radical changes in the way combustion control systems are implemented. The recent availability of in line flue gas analyzers and microprocessor technology are teaming up to produce...

  7. Flue Gas Conditioning to Reduce Particulate Emissions in Industrial Coal-Fired Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, B.; Keon, E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical technology has been used successfully to solve many of the operational and emissions problems that result from burning coal. This paper describes the use of blended chemical flue gas conditioners to significantly reduce particulate...

  8. Evaluating energy dissipation during expansion in a refrigeration cycle using flue pipe acoustic resonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luckyanova, Maria N. (Maria Nickolayevna)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research evaluates the feasibility of using a flue pipe acoustic resonator to dissipate energy from a refrigerant stream in order to achieve greater cooling power from a cryorefrigeration cycle. Two models of the ...

  9. Integration of a high efficiency flue gas cleanup process into advanced power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, J.S.; Pennline, H.W.; Yeh, J.T.; Ratafia-Brown, J.A.; Gorokhov, V.A.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process, a dry, regenerable flue gas cleanup technology, can simultaneously remove sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from the flue gases generated by coal combustion. While this advanced air pollution abatement process technology has only been previously considered for conventional utility system applications, its unique design characteristics make it quite advantageous for use in advanced power systems, such as those pulverized-coal-fired systems defined in the US Department of Energy`s Combustion 2000 Initiative. Integration of this flue gas cleanup process into the advanced power systems is technically and economically assessed and compared with several commercially available flue gas cleanup processes. An update on the status of the Moving-Bed Copper oxide Process development is also presented.

  10. Flue gas desulfurization : cost and functional analysis of large-scale and proven plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilly, Jean

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flue Gas Desulfurization is a method of controlling the emission of sulfurs, which causes the acid rain. The following study is based on 26 utilities which burn coal, have a generating capacity of at least 50 Megawatts ...

  11. Noble Metal Catalysts for Mercury Oxidation in Utility Flue Gas: Gold, Palladium and Platinum Formulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Presto, A.A.; Granite, E.J

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of noble metals as catalysts for mercury oxidation in flue gas remains an area of active study. To date, field studies have focused on gold and palladium catalysts installed at pilot scale. In this article, we introduce bench-scale experimental results for gold, palladium and platinum catalysts tested in realistic simulated flue gas. Our initial results reveal some intriguing characteristics of catalytic mercury oxidation and provide insight for future research into this potentially important process.

  12. TRANSPORT OF WASTE SIMULANTS IN PJM VENT LINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qureshi, Z

    2007-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The experimental work was conducted to determine whether there is a potential for waste simulant to transport or 'creep' up the air link line and contaminate the pulse jet vent system, and possibly cause long term restriction of the air link line. Additionally, if simulant creep occurred, establish operating parameters for washing down the line. The amount of the addition of flush fluids and mixer downtime must be quantified.

  13. Biomimetic Membrane for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael C. Trachtenberg

    2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    These Phase III experiments successfully addressed several issues needed to characterize a permeator system for application to a pulverized coal (PC) burning furnace/boiler assuming typical post-combustion cleanup devices in place. We completed key laboratory stage optimization and modeling efforts needed to move towards larger scale testing. The SOPO addressed six areas. Task 1--Post-Combustion Particle Cleanup--The first object was to determine if the Carbozyme permeator performance was likely to be reduced by particles (materials) in the flue gas stream that would either obstruct the mouth of the hollow fibers (HF) or stick to the HF bore wall surface. The second, based on the Acceptance Standards (see below), was to determine whether it would be preferable to clean the inlet gas stream (removing acid gases and particulates) or to develop methods to clean the Carbozyme permeator if performance declined due to HF block. We concluded that condensation of particle and particulate emissions, in the heat exchanger, could result in the formation of very sticky sulfate aerosols with a strong likelihood of obtruding the HF. These must be managed carefully and minimized to near-zero status before entering the permeator inlet stream. More extensive post-combustion cleanup is expected to be a necessary expense, independent of CO{sub 2} capture technology This finding is in agreement with views now emerging in the literature for a variety of CO{sub 2} capture methods. Task 2--Water Condensation--The key goal was to monitor and control temperature distributions within the permeator and between the permeator and its surroundings to determine whether water condensation in the pores or the HF bore would block flow, decreasing performance. A heat transfer fluid and delivery system were developed and employed. The result was near isothermal performance that avoided all instances of flow block. Direct thermocouple measurements provided the basis for developing a heat transfer model that supports prediction of heat transfer profiles for larger permeators Tasks 3. 4.1, 4.2--Temperature Range of Enzymes--The goal was to determine if the enzyme operating temperature would limit the range of thermal conditions available to the capture system. We demonstrated the ability of various isozymes (enzyme variants) to operate from 4-85 C. Consequently, the operating characteristics of the enzyme are not a controlling factor. Further, any isozyme whose upper temperature bound is at least 10 C greater than that of the planned inlet temperature will be stable under unanticipated, uncontrolled 'hiccups' in power plant operation. Task 4.4, 4.4--Examination of the Effects of SOx and NOx on Enzyme Activity (Development of Flue Gas Composition Acceptance Standards)--The purpose was to define the inlet gas profile boundaries. We examined the potential adverse effects of flue gas constituents including different acids from to develop an acceptance standard and compared these values to actual PC flue gas composition. Potential issues include changes in pH, accumulation of specific inhibitory anions and cations. A model was developed and validated by test with a SO{sub 2}-laden stream. The predicted and actual data very largely coincided. The model predicted feed stream requirements to allow continuous operation in excess of 2500 hours. We developed operational (physical and chemical) strategies to avoid or ameliorate these effects. Avoidance, the preferred strategy (noted above), is accomplished by more extensive cleanup of the flue gas stream. Task 5--Process Engineering Model--We developed a process-engineering model for two purposes. The first was to predict the physical and chemical status at each test point in the design as a basis for scale-up. The second was to model the capital and operating cost of the apparatus. These were accomplished and used to predict capex, opex and cost of energy. Task 6--Preliminary Commercialization Plan--We carried out analyses of the market and the competition by a variety of parameters. The conclusion was that there is a l

  14. Potential VOC Deflagrations in a Vented TRU Drum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukesh, GUPTA

    2005-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the analysis is to examine the potential for lid ejection from a vented transuranic (TRU) waste drum due to pressure buildup caused by the deflagration of hydrogen and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) inside the drum. In this analysis, the AICC pressure for a stoichiometric mixture of VOCs is calculated and then compared against the experimental peak pressure of stoichiometric combustion of propane and hexane in a combustion chamber. The experimental peak pressures of propane and hexane are about 12 percent lower than the calculated AICC pressure. Additional losses in the drum are calculated due to venting of the gases, drum bulging, waste compaction, and heat losses from the presence of waste in the drum. After accounting for these losses, the final pressures are compared to the minimum observed pressure that ejects the lid from a TRU drum. The ejection pressure of 105 psig is derived from data that was recorded for a series of tests where hydrogen-air mixtures were ignited inside sealed TRU drums. Since the calculated pressures are below the minimum lid ejection pressure, none of the VOCs and the hydrogen (up to 4 percent) mixtures present in the TRU waste drum is expected to cause lid ejection if ignited. The analysis of potential VOC deflagrations in a vented TRU drum can be applied across the DOE-Complex since TRU waste is stored in drums throughout the complex.

  15. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbent being used in this project is sodium carbonate which is converted to sodium bicarbonate, ''baking soda,'' through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Sodium bicarbonate is regenerated to sodium carbonate when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. Testing conducted previously confirmed that the reaction rate and achievable CO{sub 2} capacity of sodium carbonate decreased with increasing temperature, and that the global rate of reaction of sodium carbonate to sodium bicarbonate increased with an increase in both CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O concentrations. Energy balance calculations indicated that the rate of heat removal from the particle surface may determine the reaction rate for a particular particle system. This quarter, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted which indicated that calcination of sodium bicarbonate at temperatures as high as 200 C did not cause a significant decrease in activity in subsequent carbonation testing. When sodium bicarbonate was subjected to a five cycle calcination/carbonation test, activity declined slightly over the first two cycles but was constant thereafter. TGA tests were also conducted with two other potential sorbents. Potassium carbonate was found to be less active than sodium carbonate, at conditions of interest in preliminary TGA tests. Sodium carbonate monohydrate showed negligible activity. Testing was also conducted in a 2-inch internal diameter quartz fluidized-bed reactor system. A five cycle test demonstrated that initial removals of 10 to 15 percent of the carbon dioxide in a simulated flue gas could be achieved. The carbonation reaction proceeded at temperatures as low as 41 C. Future work by TGA and in fixed-bed, fluidized-bed, and transport reactor systems is planned to demonstrate the feasibility of this process in large scale operations to separate carbon dioxide from flue gas.

  16. Process for separating carbon dioxide from flue gas using sweep-based membrane separation and absorption steps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G.; Baker, Richard W.; Merkel, Timothy C.

    2012-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas separation process for treating flue gases from combustion processes, and combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the flue gas stream to be treated to an absorption-based carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the flue gas across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas to the combustor.

  17. www.acicis.murdoch.edu.au Opening the door to universities in Indonesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    www.acicis.murdoch.edu.au Opening the door to universities in Indonesia ACICIS is a non-profit, international consortium of universities which provides access to high quality study options in Indonesia #12;www.acicis.murdoch.edu.au Opening the door to universities in Indonesia ACICIS 21 Member

  18. Investigating a Back Door Mechanism of Actin Phosphate Release by Steered Molecular Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wriggers, Willy

    Investigating a Back Door Mechanism of Actin Phosphate Release by Steered Molecular Dynamics Willy from actin. Arg177 remains attached to Pi along the putative back door pathway, suggesting a shuttle the subject of intense research (reviewed in Carlier6), but the basic structural mechanism of the chemi- cal

  19. Multi-component removal in flue gas by aqua ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, James T. (Bethel Park, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA)

    2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method for the removal of environmental compounds from gaseous streams, in particular, flue gas streams. The new method involves first oxidizing some or all of the acid anhydrides contained in the gas stream such as sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) and nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N.sub.2O) to sulfur trioxide (SO.sub.3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2). The gas stream is subsequently treated with aqua ammonia or ammonium hydroxide which captures the compounds via chemical absorption through acid-base or neutralization reactions. The products of the reactions can be collected as slurries, dewatered, and dried for use as fertilizers, or once the slurries have been dewatered, used directly as fertilizers. The ammonium hydroxide can be regenerated and recycled for use via thermal decomposition of ammonium bicarbonate, one of the products formed. There are alternative embodiments which entail stoichiometric scrubbing of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides with subsequent separate scrubbing of carbon dioxide.

  20. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The AFGD process as demonstrated by Pure Air at the Bailly Station offers a reliable and cost-effective means of achieving a high degree of SO{sub 2} emissions reduction when burning high-sulfur coals. Many innovative features have been successfully incorporated in this process, and it is ready for widespread commercial use. The system uses a single-loop cocurrent scrubbing process with in-situ oxidation to produce wallboard-grade gypsum instead of wet sludge. A novel wastewater evaporation system minimizes effluents. The advanced scrubbing process uses a common absorber to serve multiple boilers, thereby saving on capital through economies of scale. Major results of the project are: (1) SO{sub 2} removal of over 94 percent was achieved over the three-year demonstration period, with a system availability exceeding 99.5 percent; (2) a large, single absorber handled the combined flue gas of boilers generating 528 MWe of power, and no spares were required; (3) direct injection of pulverized limestone into the absorber was successful; (4) Wastewater evaporation eliminated the need for liquid waste disposal; and (5) the gypsum by-product was used directly for wallboard manufacture, eliminating the need to dispose of waste sludge.

  1. In the field. Pilot project uses innovative process to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot project at We Energies' Pleasant Prairie Power Plant uses chilled ammonia to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas. 3 photos.

  2. Comment on the “Role of SO2 for Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal Combustion Flue Gas by Activated Carbon”

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, E.J.; Presto, A.A.

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A communication in response to the excellent and timely paper entitled “Role of SO2 for Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal Combustion Flue Gas by Activated Carbon”.

  3. Metatranscriptomics reveal differences in in situ energy and nitrogen metabolism among hydrothermal vent snail symbionts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, J. G.

    Despite the ubiquity of chemoautotrophic symbioses at hydrothermal vents, our understanding of the influence of environmental chemistry on symbiont metabolism is limited. Transcriptomic analyses are useful for linking ...

  4. ARM - Campaign Instrument - cm22-pmod-vent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearchSOLICITATIONIMODIgovInstrumentsasticryo Comments? We would love topmod-vent

  5. Kentucky Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) Kenai,Feet)Year JanVented and Flared

  6. MHK ISDB/Sensors/Vented Tide Sensor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:LandownersLuther, Oklahoma: EnergyMAREC Jump to:2MHKMHK ISDB/Sensors/Vented

  7. MHK ISDB/Sensors/Vented Wave Sensor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:LandownersLuther, Oklahoma: EnergyMAREC Jump to:2MHKMHK ISDB/Sensors/VentedMHK

  8. Tennessee Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousandCubic Feet)4. U.S.DecadeFuel2009Year Jan FebVented

  9. Arizona Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1Year Jan FebRepressuringYearVented

  10. Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year JanDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Vented and Flared

  11. Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year JanDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Vented and

  12. Florida Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYear Jan Feb Mar AprVented and Flared

  13. Illinois Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 TableTotal Consumption (MillionTotalVented and Flared

  14. Ohio Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul9 20102009Vented and Flared

  15. Oklahoma Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunFeet)TotalVented and Flared

  16. Other States Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYear Jan FebYearThousandRepressuringVented

  17. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun JulYear JanVented

  18. Analysis of Halogen-Mercury Reactions in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paula Buitrago; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Brydger Van Otten

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidized mercury species may be formed in combustion systems through gas-phase reactions between elemental mercury and halogens, such as chorine or bromine. This study examines how bromine species affect mercury oxidation in the gas phase and examines the effects of mixtures of bromine and chlorine on extents of oxidation. Experiments were conducted in a bench-scale, laminar flow, methane-fired (300 W), quartz-lined reactor in which gas composition (HCl, HBr, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}) and temperature profile were varied. In the experiments, the post-combustion gases were quenched from flame temperatures to about 350 C, and then speciated mercury was measured using a wet conditioning system and continuous emissions monitor (CEM). Supporting kinetic calculations were performed and compared with measured levels of oxidation. A significant portion of this report is devoted to sample conditioning as part of the mercury analysis system. In combustion systems with significant amounts of Br{sub 2} in the flue gas, the impinger solutions used to speciate mercury may be biased and care must be taken in interpreting mercury oxidation results. The stannous chloride solution used in the CEM conditioning system to convert all mercury to total mercury did not provide complete conversion of oxidized mercury to elemental, when bromine was added to the combustion system, resulting in a low bias for the total mercury measurement. The use of a hydroxylamine hydrochloride and sodium hydroxide solution instead of stannous chloride showed a significant improvement in the measurement of total mercury. Bromine was shown to be much more effective in the post-flame, homogeneous oxidation of mercury than chlorine, on an equivalent molar basis. Addition of NO to the flame (up to 400 ppmv) had no impact on mercury oxidation by chlorine or bromine. Addition of SO{sub 2} had no effect on mercury oxidation by chlorine at SO{sub 2} concentrations below about 400 ppmv; some increase in mercury oxidation was observed at SO{sub 2} concentrations of 400 ppmv and higher. In contrast, SO{sub 2} concentrations as low as 50 ppmv significantly reduced mercury oxidation by bromine, this reduction could be due to both gas and liquid phase interactions between SO{sub 2} and oxidized mercury species. The simultaneous presence of chlorine and bromine in the flue gas resulted in a slight increase in mercury oxidation above that obtained with bromine alone, the extent of the observed increase is proportional to the chlorine concentration. The results of this study can be used to understand the relative importance of gas-phase mercury oxidation by bromine and chlorine in combustion systems. Two temperature profiles were tested: a low quench (210 K/s) and a high quench (440 K/s). For chlorine the effects of quench rate were slight and hard to characterize with confidence. Oxidation with bromine proved sensitive to quench rate with significantly more oxidation at the lower rate. The data generated in this program are the first homogeneous laboratory-scale data on bromine-induced oxidation of mercury in a combustion system. Five Hg-Cl and three Hg-Br mechanisms, some published and others under development, were evaluated and compared to the new data. The Hg-halogen mechanisms were combined with submechanisms from Reaction Engineering International for NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and hydrocarbons. The homogeneous kinetics under-predicted the levels of mercury oxidation observed in full-scale systems. This shortcoming can be corrected by including heterogeneous kinetics in the model calculations.

  19. A mathematical model for the estimation of flue temperature in a coke oven

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, K.I.; Kim, S.Y.; Suo, J.S.; Hur, N.S.; Kang, I.S.; Lee, W.J.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The coke plants at the Kwangyang works has adopted an Automatic Battery Control (ABC) system which consists of four main parts, battery heating control, underfiring heat and waste gas oxygen control, pushing and charging schedule and Autotherm-S that measures heating wall temperature during pushing. The measured heating wall temperature is used for calculating Mean Battery Temperature (MBT) which is average temperature of flues for a battery, but the Autotherm-S system can not provide the flue temperatures of an oven. This work attempted to develop mathematical models for the estimation of the flue temperature using the measured heating wall temperature and to examine fitness of the mathematical model for the coke plant operation by analysis of raw gas temperature at the stand pipe. Through this work it is possible to reflect heating wall temperature in calculating MBT for battery heating control without the interruption caused by a maintenance break.

  20. Proof-of concept testing of the advanced NOXSO flue gas cleanup process. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The NOXSO Process uses a regenerable sorbent that removes SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} simultaneously from flue gas. The sorbent is a stabilized {gamma}-alumina bed impregnated with sodium carbonate. The process was successfully tested at three different scales, equivalent to 0.017, 0.06 and 0.75 MW of flue gas generated from a coal-fired power plant. The Proof-of-Concept (POC) Test is the last test prior to a full-scale demonstration. A slip stream of flue gas equivalent to a 5 MW coal-fired power plant was used for the POC test. This paper summarizes the NOXSO POC plant and its test results.

  1. Experimental analysis and model-based optimization of microalgae growth in photo-bioreactors using flue gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    great potential for converting flue gas to biomass. Microalgae can capture solar energy more efficientlyExperimental analysis and model-based optimization of microalgae growth in photo-bioreactors using flue gas Lian He, Venkat R. Subramanian, Yinjie J. Tang* Department of Energy, Environmental

  2. Siberian gas venting and the end-Permian environmental crisis Henrik Svensen a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podladchikov, Yuri

    Siberian gas venting and the end-Permian environmental crisis Henrik Svensen a, , Sverre Planke a of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119017 xxxx Editor: Dr. R.W. Carlson Keywords: end-Permian Siberian Traps Tunguska Basin gas venting The end

  3. Siberian gas venting and the end-Permian environmental crisis Henrik Svensen a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svensen, Henrik

    Siberian gas venting and the end-Permian environmental crisis Henrik Svensen a, , Sverre Planke a of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119017.W. Carlson Keywords: end-Permian Siberian Traps Tunguska Basin gas venting The end of the Permian period

  4. Spatial and temporal population genetics at deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the East Pacific Rise and Galápagos Rift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fusaro, Abigail Jean

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ecological processes at deep-sea hydrothermal vents on fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges are punctuated by frequent physical disturbance. Larval dispersal among disjunct vent sites facilitates the persistence of sessile ...

  5. Diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite used as granular sorbents for the removal of sodium chloride vapor from hot flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.; Johnson, I.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite were tested as granular sorbents for use as filter media in granular-bed filters for the removal of gaseous alkali metal compounds from the hot (800/sup 0/C) flue gas of PFBC. Tests were performed at atmospheric pressure, using NaCl vapor transported in relatively dry simulated flue gas of PFBC. Either a fixed-bed combustor or a high-temperature sorption test rig was used. The effects of sorbent bed temperature, superficial gas velocity, gas hourly space velocity, and NaCl-vapor concentration in flue gas on the sorption behavior of these two sorbents and their ultimate sorption capacities were determined. Both diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite were found to be very effective in removing NaCl vapor from flue gas. Preliminary cost evaluations showed that they are economically attractive as granular sorbents for cleaning alkali vapor from simulated flue gas.

  6. Effect of connate water on miscible displacement of reservoir oil by flue gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, H. D.

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECT OF CONNATE WATER ON MISCIBLE DISPLACEMENT OF RESERVOIR OIL BY FLUE GAS A Thesis By H. D. MAXWELL, JR. Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Au gus t, 19 60 Major Subject: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING EFFECT OF CONNATE WATER ON MISCIBLE DISPLACEMENT OF RESERVOIR OIL BY FLUE GAS A Thesis H. D. MAXWELL, JR. Approved as to style and content by: haxrman of ommitte...

  7. A cement kiln flue-dust evaluated as a soil liming material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stacha, Raimund

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A CEMENT KILN FLUE-DUST EVALUATED AS A SOIl LIMING MATERIAL A Thesis by RAIMUND STACHA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE 1973 NJSbj t...:~StlCh tt A CEMENT KILN FLUE-DUST EVALUATED AS A SOIL I IMING MATERIAL A Thesis by RAIMUND STACHA Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Me er) (Member) (Member) (Member) (Member) 1973 ABSTRACT A...

  8. Department of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2012 Improved hinge system for coupe doors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    prototype and install on 2013 Chevrolet Camaro Approach Gathered customer needs from General Motors ReviewPENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2012 Improved hinge system for coupe doors

  9. New optics technology opens door to high-resolution atomic-level...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    optics technology opens door to high-resolution atomic-level hard X-ray studies June 8, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint An international collaboration involving two U.S. Department of Energy...

  10. Genome Data from DOOR: a Database for prOkaryotic OpeRons

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    DOOR provides an Organism View for browsing, a gene search tool, an operon search tool, and the operon prediction interface.[Text taken and edited from http://csbl1.bmb.uga.edu/OperonDB/tutorial.php

  11. Carbon dioxide absorber and regeneration assemblies useful for power plant flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

    2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are apparatus and method to treat large amounts of flue gas from a pulverized coal combustion power plant. The flue gas is contacted with solid sorbents to selectively absorb CO.sub.2, which is then released as a nearly pure CO.sub.2 gas stream upon regeneration at higher temperature. The method is capable of handling the necessary sorbent circulation rates of tens of millions of lbs/hr to separate CO.sub.2 from a power plant's flue gas stream. Because pressurizing large amounts of flue gas is cost prohibitive, the method of this invention minimizes the overall pressure drop in the absorption section to less than 25 inches of water column. The internal circulation of sorbent within the absorber assembly in the proposed method not only minimizes temperature increases in the absorber to less than 25.degree. F., but also increases the CO.sub.2 concentration in the sorbent to near saturation levels. Saturating the sorbent with CO.sub.2 in the absorber section minimizes the heat energy needed for sorbent regeneration. The commercial embodiments of the proposed method can be optimized for sorbents with slower or faster absorption kinetics, low or high heat release rates, low or high saturation capacities and slower or faster regeneration kinetics.

  12. Synthetic aggregates prepared from flue gas desulfurization by-products using various binder materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellucci, J.; Graham, U.M.; Hower, J.C.; Robl, T.L. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) by-products can be converted into environmentally safe and structurally stable aggregates. One type of synthetic aggregate was prepared using an optimum mixture of (FGD) by-products, fly ash, and water. Mineral reactions have been examined using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope.

  13. Separation of Carbon Dioxide from Nitrogen and Water in Flue Gas Streams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mera, Hilda 1989-

    2012-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    are determined by the mean-square displacement method derived by Albert Einstein. The diffusion coefficients of each component in the flue gas are analyzed to examine the effect of temperature in diffusion coefficients and study the motion of the gases in the MOF...

  14. High Temperature Flue Gas Desulfurization In Moving Beds With Regenerable Copper Based Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cengiz, P.A.; Ho, K.K.; Abbasian, J.; Lau, F.S.

    2002-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to develop new and improved regenerable copper based sorbent for high temperature flue gas desulfurization in a moving bed application. The targeted areas of sorbent improvement included higher effective capacity, strength and long-term durability for improved process control and economic utilization of the sorbent.

  15. Implementation of vented fuel assemblies in the supercritical CO?-cooled fast reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKee, Stephanie A

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis has been undertaken to investigate the utilization of fuel assembly venting in the reference design of the gas-cooled fast reactor under study as part of the larger research effort at MIT under Gen-IV NERI Project ...

  16. Deep-sea vent -proteobacterial genomes provide insights into emergence of pathogens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reysenbach, Anna-Louise

    % of the human population is infected by Helicobacter pylori, which causes gastric ulcer and cancer (12, Helicobacter and Campylobacter species. The deep-sea vent -proteobacterial genomes encode for multiple systems

  17. Vented target elements for use in an isotope-production reactor. [LMFBR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cawley, W.E.; Omberg, R.P.

    1982-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for producing tritium gas in a fast breeder reactor cooled with liquid metal. Lithium target material is placed in pins equipped with vents, and tritium gas is recovered from the coolant.

  18. Reproductive traits of pioneer gastropod species colonizing deep-see hydrothermal vents after an eruption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bayer, Skylar (Skylar Rae)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The colonization dynamics and life histories of pioneer species are vital components in understanding the early succession of nascent hydrothermal vents. The reproductive ecology of pioneer species at deep-sea hydrothermal ...

  19. Improving the System Life of Basic Oxygen and Electric Arc Furnace Hoods, Roofs, and Side Vents

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes the benefits of a high-performance aluminum bronze alloy to basic oxygen furnace and electric arc furnace components such as hoods, roofs, and side vents.

  20. Income Tax Deduction for Solar-Powered Roof Vents or Fans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Indiana allows taxpayers to take a deduction on solar-powered roof fans (or vent, also sometimes called an attic fan) installed in a home that the taxpayer owns or leases. The deduction is for 50%...

  1. Radiant Barrier Insulation Performance in Full Scale Attics with Soffit and Ridge Venting 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ober, D. G.; Volckhausen, T. W.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with soffit and ridge venting to measure attic performance. The unique features of these experiments are accurate and extensive instrumentation with heat flow meters, field verification of HFM calibration, extensive characterization of the installed ceiling...

  2. Reactor pressure vessel head vents and methods of using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gels, John L; Keck, David J; Deaver, Gerald A

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Internal head vents are usable in nuclear reactors and include piping inside of the reactor pressure vessel with a vent in the reactor upper head. Piping extends downward from the upper head and passes outside of the reactor to permit the gas to escape or be forcibly vented outside of the reactor without external piping on the upper head. The piping may include upper and lowers section that removably mate where the upper head joins to the reactor pressure vessel. The removable mating may include a compressible bellows and corresponding funnel. The piping is fabricated of nuclear-reactor-safe materials, including carbon steel, stainless steel, and/or a Ni--Cr--Fe alloy. Methods install an internal head vent in a nuclear reactor by securing piping to an internal surface of an upper head of the nuclear reactor and/or securing piping to an internal surface of a reactor pressure vessel.

  3. Effect of flue gas impurities on the process of injection and storage of carbon dioxide in depleted gas reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nogueira de Mago, Marjorie Carolina

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sequestration. In this thesis, I report my findings on the effect of flue gas ??impurities?? on the displacement of natural gas during CO2 sequestration, and results on unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests to carbonate samples. In displacement experiments...

  4. DIII-D Dust Particulate Characterization (June 1998 Vent)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmack, William Jonathan

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dust is a key component of fusion power device accident source term. Understanding the amount of dust expected in fusion power devices and its physical and chemical characteristics is needed to verify assumptions currently used in safety analyses. An important part of this safety research and development work is to characterize dust from existing experimental tokamaks. In this report, we present the collection, data analysis methods used, and the characterization of dust particulate collected from various locations inside the General Atomics DIII-D vacuum vessel following the June 1998 vent. The collected particulate was analyzed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Two methods were used to collect particulate with the goal of preserving the particle size distribution and physical characteristics of the particulate. Choice of collection technique is important because the sampling method used can bias the particle size distribution collected. Vacuum collection on substrates and adhesion removal with metallurgical replicating tape were chosen as non-intrusive sampling methods. Seventeen samples were collected including plasma facing surfaces in lower, upper, and horizontal locations, surfaces behind floor tiles, surfaces behind divertor tiles, and surfaces behind ceiling tiles. The results of the analysis are presented.

  5. DIII-D dust particulate characterization (June 1998 Vent)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmack, W.J.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dust is a key component of fusion power device accident source term. Understanding the amount of dust expected in fusion power devices and its physical and chemical characteristics is needed to verify assumptions currently used in safety analyses. An important part of this safety research and development work is to characterize dust from existing experimental tokamaks. In this report, the authors present the collection, data analysis methods used, and the characterization of dust particulate collected from various locations inside the General Atomics DIII-D vacuum vessel following the June 1998 vent. The collected particulate was analyzed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Two methods were used to collect particulate with the goal of preserving the particle size distribution and physical characteristics of the particulate. Choice of collection technique is important because the sampling method used can bias the particle size distribution collected. Vacuum collection on substrates and adhesion removal with metallurgical replicating tape were chosen as non-intrusive sampling methods. Seventeen samples were collected including plasma facing surfaces in lower, upper, and horizontal locations, surfaces behind floor tiles, surfaces behind divert or tiles, and surfaces behind ceiling tiles. The results of the analysis are presented.

  6. Self-testing security sensor for monitoring closure of vault doors and the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cawthorne, D.C.

    1997-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-testing device is provided for a monitoring system for monitoring whether a closure member such as a door or window is closed. The monitoring system includes a switch unit mounted on the frame of the closure member being monitored and including magnetically biased switches connected in one or more electrical monitoring circuits, and a door magnet unit mounted on the closure member being monitored. The door magnet includes one or more permanent magnets that produce a magnetic field which, when the closure member is closed, cause said switches to assume a first state. When the closure member is opened, the switches switch to a second, alarm state. The self-testing device is electrically controllable from a remote location and produces a canceling or diverting magnetic field which simulates the effect of movement of the closure member from the closed position thereof without any actual movement of the member. 5 figs.

  7. Calculation of shielding door thicknesses for radiation therapy facilities using the ITS Monte Carlo program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, P.J. (Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States))

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Shielding calculations for door thicknesses for megavoltage radiotherapy facilities with mazes are generally straightforward. To simplify the calculations, the standard formalism adopts several approximations relating to the average beam path, scattering coefficients, and the mean energy of the spectrum of scattered radiation. To test the accuracy of these calculations, the Monte Carlo program, ITS, was applied to this problem by determining the dose and energy spectrum of the radiation at the door for 4- and 10-MV bremsstrahlung beams incident on a phantom at isocenter. This was performed for mazes, one termed 'standard' and the other a shorter maze where the primary beam is incident on the wall adjacent to the door. The peak of the photon-energy spectrum at the door was found to be the same for both types of maze, independent of primary beam energy, and also, in the case of the conventional maze, of the primary beam orientation. The spectrum was harder for the short maze and for 10 MV vs. 4 MV. The thickness of the lead door for a short maze configuration was 1.5 cm for 10 MV and 1.2 cm for 4 MV vs. approximately less than 1 mm for a conventional maze. For the conventional maze, the Monte Carlo calculation predicts the dose at the door to be lower than given by NCRP 49 and NCRP 51 by about a factor of 2 at 4 MV but to be the same at 10 MV. For the short maze, the Monte Carlo predicts the dose to be a factor of 3 lower for 4 MV and about a factor of 1.5 lower for 10 MV. Experimental results support the Monte Carlo findings for the short maze.

  8. Microalgae Production from Power Plant Flue Gas: Environmental Implications on a Life Cycle Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadam, K. L.

    2001-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Power-plant flue gas can serve as a source of CO{sub 2} for microalgae cultivation, and the algae can be cofired with coal. This life cycle assessment (LCA) compared the environmental impacts of electricity production via coal firing versus coal/algae cofiring. The LCA results demonstrated lower net values for the algae cofiring scenario for the following using the direct injection process (in which the flue gas is directly transported to the algae ponds): SOx, NOx, particulates, carbon dioxide, methane, and fossil energy consumption. Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons emissions were statistically unchanged. Lower values for the algae cofiring scenario, when compared to the burning scenario, were observed for greenhouse potential and air acidification potential. However, impact assessment for depletion of natural resources and eutrophication potential showed much higher values. This LCA gives us an overall picture of impacts across different environmental boundaries, and hence, can help in the decision-making process for implementation of the algae scenario.

  9. Environmental performance of air staged combustor with flue gas recirculation to burn coal/biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anuar, S.H.; Keener, H.M.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The environmental and thermal performance of a 1.07 m diameter, 440 kW atmospheric fluidized bed combustor operated at 700{degrees}C-920{degrees}C and burning coal was studied. Flue gas recirculation was incorporated to enhance the thermal performance and air staging was used to control emissions of SO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O. Studies focused on the effect of excess air, firing rate, and use of sorbent on system performance. The recirculation-staging mode with limestone had the highest thermal efficiency (0.67) using the firing equation. Emission data showed that flue gas recirculation (ratio of 0.7) significantly reduced NO{sub x} emissions; and that use of limestone sorbent at a Ca/S ratio of 3 reduced SO{sub 2} emissions by 64% to approximately 0.310 g/MJ.

  10. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, Edward; Bilirgen, Harun; DuPont, John

    2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: • An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing highmoisture, low rank coals. • Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. • Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. • Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. • Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. • Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. • Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. • Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  11. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; John DuPoint

    2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: (1) An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing high-moisture, low rank coals. (2) Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. (3) Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. (4) Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. (5) Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. (6) Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. (7) Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. (8) Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  12. Effect of connate water on miscible displacement of reservoir oil by flue gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, H. D.

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Au gus t, 19 60 Major Subject: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING EFFECT OF CONNATE WATER ON MISCIBLE DISPLACEMENT OF RESERVOIR OIL BY FLUE GAS A Thesis H. D. MAXWELL, JR. Approved as to style and content by: haxrman of ommitte... of the petroleum industry there has been a continually increasing search for more economical and more efficient methods for increasing the primary recovery from an oil reservoir. Better production practices, including pressure maintenance programs using both...

  13. Flue Gas Conditioning to Reduce Particulate Emissions in Industrial Coal-Fired Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, B.; Keon, E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FLUE GAS CONDITIONING TO REDUCE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN INDUSTRIAL COAL-FIRED BOILERS Barry Miller and Ed Keon Apollo Technologies, Inc. Whippany, New Jersey ABSTRACT Chemical technology has been used successfully to solve many... inspection of the ESP, careful observation of ESP controls to determine spark rate and voltage drop during sparking, in-situ resistivity mea surements, rapper on-off observations, and a re view of records to investigate the relationship of boiler...

  14. MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEQUESTER CO2 FROM POWER PLANT FLUE GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tim Merkel; Karl Amo; Richard Baker; Ramin Daniels; Bilgen Friat; Zhenjie He; Haiqing Lin; Adrian Serbanescu

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of using a membrane process to capture CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. During this program, MTR developed a novel membrane (Polaris™) with a CO2 permeance tenfold higher than commercial CO2-selective membranes used in natural gas treatment. The Polaris™ membrane, combined with a process design that uses a portion of combustion air as a sweep stream to generate driving force for CO2 permeation, meets DOE post-combustion CO2 capture targets. Initial studies indicate a CO2 separation and liquefaction cost of $20 - $30/ton CO2 using about 15% of the plant energy at 90% CO2 capture from a coal-fired power plant. Production of the Polaris™ CO2 capture membrane was scaled up with MTR’s commercial casting and coating equipment. Parametric tests of cross-flow and countercurrent/sweep modules prepared from this membrane confirm their near-ideal performance under expected flue gas operating conditions. Commercial-scale, 8-inch diameter modules also show stable performance in field tests treating raw natural gas. These findings suggest that membranes are a viable option for flue gas CO2 capture. The next step will be to conduct a field demonstration treating a realworld power plant flue gas stream. The first such MTR field test will capture 1 ton CO2/day at Arizona Public Service’s Cholla coal-fired power plant, as part of a new DOE NETL funded program.

  15. New Developments in Closed Loop Combustion Control Using Flue Gas Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, R. L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN CLOSED LOOP COMBUSTION CONTROL USING FLUE GAS ANALYSIS Robert L. Nelson Westinghouse Computer &Instrumentation Div. Orrville, Ohio Introduction New developments in closed loop combustion control are causing radical changes... the Third Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 26-29, 1981 i The Westinghouse Model 215 analyzer, shown in j Figure 8, has a very short sampling path and has be~n used on many high temperature applications befor~ a high temperature...

  16. Alternative formulations of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts. Progress report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, M.B.; White, M.G.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The major source of man-made SO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is the burning of coal for electric power generation. Coal-fired utility plants are also large sources of NO{sub x} pollution. Regenerable flue gas desulfurization/NO{sub x} abatement catalysts provide one mechanism of simultaneously removing SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} species from flue gases released into the atmosphere. The purpose of this project is to examine routes of optimizing the adsorption efficiency, the adsorption capacity, and the ease of regeneration of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts. We are investigating two different mechanisms for accomplishing this goal. The first involves the use of different alkali and alkaline earth metals as promoters for the alumina sorbents to increase the surface basicity of the sorbent and thus adjust the number and distribution of adsorption sites. The second involves investigation of non-aqueous impregnation, as opposed to aqueous impregnation, as a method to obtain an evenly dispersed monolayer of the promoter on the surface.

  17. Investigation of the moving-bed copper oxide process for flue gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennline, H.W.; Hoffman, J.S.; Yeh, J.T. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center; Resnik, K.P.; Vore, P.A. [Parsons Power Group, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process is a dry, regenerable sorbent technique that uses supported copper oxide sorbent to simultaneously remove SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions from flue gas generated by coal combustion. The process can be integrated into the design of advanced power systems, such as the Low-Emission Boiler System (LEBS) or the High-Performance Power System (HIPPS). This flue gas cleanup technique is currently being evaluated in a life-cycle test system (LCTS) with a moving-bed flue gas contactor at DOE`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. An experimental data base being established will be used to verify reported technical and economic advantages, optimize process conditions, provide scaleup information, and validate absorber and regenerator mathematical models. In this communication, the results from several process parametric test series with the LCTS are discussed. The effects of various absorber and regenerator parameters on sorbent performance (e.g., SO{sub 2} removal) were investigated. Sorbent spheres of 1/8-in diameter were used as compared to 1/16-in sized sorbent of a previous study. Also discussed are modifications to the absorber to improve the operability of the LCTS when fly ash is present during coal combustion.

  18. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Quarterly report No. 10, February 17--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The CZD process involves injecting a finely atomized slurry of reactive lime into the flue gas duct work of a coal-fired utility boiler. The principle of the confined zone is to form a wet zone of slurry droplets in the middle of the duct walls. The lime slurry reacts with part of the SO{sub 2} in the gas, and the reaction products dry to form solid particles. A solids collector, typically an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) downstream from the point of injection, captures the reaction products along with the fly ash entrained in the flue gas. The demonstration is being conducted at Penelec`s Seward Station, Unit No. 15. This boiler is a 147 MWe coal-fired unit, which utilizes Pennsylvania bituminous coal (approximately 1.2 to 2.5% sulfur). One of the two flue gas ducts leading from the boiler has been retrofitted with the CZD technology. The first existing ESP installed in the station is immediately behind the air preheater. The second ESP, installed about 15 years ago, is about 80 feet away from the first ESP. The goal of this demonstration is to prove the technical and economic feasibility of the CZD technology on a commercial scale. The process is expected to achieve 50% SO{sub 2}

  19. Analysis of CO2 Separation from Flue Gas, Pipeline Transportation, and Sequestration in Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was written to satisfy a milestone of the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration task of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration project. The report begins to assess the costs associated with separating the CO2 from flue gas and then injecting it into an unminable coal seam. The technical challenges and costs associated with CO2 separation from flue gas and transportation of the separated CO2 from the point source to an appropriate sequestration target was analyzed. The report includes the selection of a specific coal-fired power plant for the application of CO2 separation technology. An appropriate CO2 separation technology was identified from existing commercial technologies. The report also includes a process design for the chosen technology tailored to the selected power plant that used to obtain accurate costs of separating the CO2 from the flue gas. In addition, an analysis of the costs for compression and transportation of the CO2 from the point-source to an appropriate coal bed sequestration site was included in the report.

  20. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA as well as flue gas from coal combustion. This topical report covers Phase 2b, which is the construction phase of pilot demonstration subsystems that make up the integrated plant. The subsystems included are the mineralization subsystem, the Alkalinity Based on Low Energy (ABLE) subsystem, the waste calcium oxide processing subsystem, and the fiber cement board production subsystem. The fully integrated plant is now capable of capturing CO2 from various sources (gas and coal) and mineralizing into a reactive calcium carbonate binder and subsequently producing commercial size (4ftx8ft) fiber cement boards. The topical report provides a description of the “as built” design of these subsystems and the results of the commissioning activities that have taken place to confirm operability. At the end of Phase 2b, the CCMP pilot demonstration is fully ready for testing.

  1. Energy efficiency improvements for refrigerator/freezers using prototype doors containing gas-filled panel insulating systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, B.; Arasteh, D.; Tuerler, D.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy efficiency improvements in domestic refrigerator/freezers, are directly influenced by the overall thermal performance of the cabinet and doors. An advanced system for reducing heat gain is Gas-Filled Panel thermal insulation technology. Gas-Filled Panels contain a low-conductivity, inert gas at atmospheric pressure and employ a reflective baffle to suppress radiation and convection within the gas. This paper presents energy use test results for a 1993 model 500 liter top mount refrigerator/freezer operated with its original doors and with a series of alternative prototype doors. Gas-Filled Panel technology was used in two types of prototype refrigerator/freezer doors. In one design, panels were used in composite with foam in standard metal door pans; this design yielded no measurable energy savings. In the other design, special polymer door pans were fitted with panels that fill nearly all of the available insulation volume; this design yielded a 6.5% increase in energy efficiency for the entire refrigerator/freezer. The EPA Refrigerator Analysis computer program has been used to predict the change in daily energy consumption with the alternative doors. The computer model also projects a 25% energy efficiency improvement for a refrigerator/freezer that would use Gas-Filled Panel insulation throughout the cabinet as well as the doors.

  2. Using Flue Gas Huff 'n Puff Technology and Surfactants to Increase Oil Production from the Antelope Shale Formation of the Railroad Gap Oil Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWilliams, Michael

    2001-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was designed to test cyclic injection of exhaust flue gas from compressors located in the field to stimulate production from Antelope Shale zone producers. Approximately 17,000 m{sup 3} ({+-}600 MCF) of flue gas was to be injected into each of three wells over a three-week period, followed by close monitoring of production for response. Flue gas injection on one of the wells would be supplemented with a surfactant.

  3. Investigation of mercury transformation by HBr addition in a slipstream facility with real flue gas atmospheres of bituminous coal and Powder River Basin Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan Cao; Quanhai Wang; Chien-wei Chen; Bobby Chen; Martin Cohron; Yi-chuan Tseng; Cheng-chung Chiu; Paul Chu; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation of speciated mercury transformation with the addition of hydrogen bromide (HBr) at elevated temperatures was conducted in a slipstream reactor with real flue gas atmospheres. Test results indicated that adding HBr into the flue gas at several parts per million strongly impacted the mercury oxidation and adsorption, which were dependent upon temperature ranges. Higher temperatures (in the range of 300-350 C) promoted mercury oxidation by HBr addition but did not promote mercury adsorption. Lower temperatures (in a range of 150-200 C) enhanced mercury adsorption on the fly ash by adding HBr. Test results also verified effects of flue gas atmospheres on the mercury oxidation by the addition of HBr, which included concentrations of chlorine and sulfur in the flue gas. Chlorine species seemed to be involved in the competition with bromine species in the mercury oxidation process. With the addition of HBr at 3 ppm at a temperature of about 330 C, the additional mercury oxidation could be reached by about 55% in a flue gas atmosphere by burning PRB coal in the flue gas and by about 20% in a flue gas by burning bituminous coal. These are both greater than the maximum gaseous HgBr2 percentage in the flue gas (35% for PRB coal and 5% for bituminous coal) by thermodynamic equilibrium analysis predictions under the same conditions. This disagreement may indicate a greater complexity of mercury oxidation mechanisms by the addition of HBr. It is possible that bromine species promote activated chlorine species generation in the flue gas, where the kinetics of elemental mercury oxidation were enhanced. However, SO{sub 2} in the flue gas may involve the consumption of the available activated chlorine species. Thus, the higher mercury oxidation rate by adding bromine under the flue gas by burning PRB coal may be associated with its lower SO{sub 2} concentration in the flue gas. 39 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Migrating data from TcSE to DOORS : an evaluation of the T-Plan Integrator software application.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, Debra S. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Manzanares, David A.; Taylor, Jeffrey L.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes our evaluation of the T-Plan Integrator software application as it was used to transfer a real data set from the Teamcenter for Systems Engineering (TcSE) software application to the DOORS software application. The T-Plan Integrator was evaluated to determine if it would meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories to migrate our existing data sets from TcSE to DOORS. This report presents the struggles of migrating data and focuses on how the Integrator can be used to map a data set and its data architecture from TcSE to DOORS. Finally, this report describes how the bulk of the migration can take place using the Integrator; however, about 20-30% of the data would need to be transferred from TcSE to DOORS manually. This report does not evaluate the transfer of data from DOORS to TcSE.

  5. A Low Cost and High Efficient Facility for Removal of $\\SO_{2}$ and $\\NO_{x}$ in the Flue Gas from Coal Fire Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pei, Y J; Dong, X; Feng, G Y; Fu, S; Gao, H; Hong, Y; Li, G; Li, Y X; Shang, L; Sheng, L S; Tian, Y C; Wang, X Q; Wang, Y; Wei, W; Zhang, Y W; Zhou, H J

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Low Cost and High Efficient Facility for Removal of $\\SO_{2}$ and $\\NO_{x}$ in the Flue Gas from Coal Fire Power Plant

  6. Mira, the ALCF's 10-petaflops supercomputer, opens the door for researchers and industry to analyze

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemner, Ken

    Mira, the ALCF's 10-petaflops supercomputer, opens the door for researchers and industry to analyze transporting data across long distances. Mira's water-cooling system uses copper tubes to pipe cold water direct access to Mira-generated results. TUKEY NETWORKING The ALCF's data storage system is used

  7. PRESS RELEASE Charles University in Prague opens its doors wide to the world -computer science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    PRESS RELEASE Charles University in Prague opens its doors wide to the world - computer science course in computer science in English. In 1952, when the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles's and master's study programs in computer science with English as the language of instruction. Attention

  8. Sensor-based Dynamic Trajectory Planning for Smooth Door Passing of Intelligent Wheelchairs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Huosheng

    for elderly and disabled people to control a wheelchair passing a narrow doorway manually. This paper presents environment. The wheelchair users are normally el- derly and disabled, who may suffer some types wheelchairs that are able to provide automatic door passing functionality so that wheelchair users can easily

  9. Learning to Open New Doors Ellen Klingbeil, Ashutosh Saxena, Andrew Y. Ng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Andrew Y.

    , such as opening a door, the robot end- effector must move through a series of way-points in cartesian space, while Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 {ellenrk,asaxena,ang}cs.stanford.edu Abstract-- As robots successfully. However, to be practically deployed, robots should be able to manipulate their environment

  10. ClimateChangeCorp.com | Policy Illegal timber: Europe's doors still wide open

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ClimateChangeCorp.com | Policy Illegal timber: Europe's doors still wide open 7 Aug 2008 | Author: Rikki Stancich The EU is a massive importer of illegally logged wood. Is there the political will to move beyond a voluntary approach and adopt tough legal measures? The illegal timber trade is thriving

  11. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no degradation in Polaris membrane performance during two months of continuous operation in a simulated flue gas environment containing up to 1,000 ppm SO{sub 2}. A successful slipstream field test at the APS Cholla power plant was conducted with commercialsize Polaris modules during this project. This field test is the first demonstration of stable performance by commercial-sized membrane modules treating actual coal-fired power plant flue gas. Process design studies show that selective recycle of CO{sub 2} using a countercurrent membrane module with air as a sweep stream can double the concentration of CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas with little energy input. This pre-concentration of CO{sub 2} by the sweep membrane reduces the minimum energy of CO{sub 2} separation in the capture unit by up to 40% for coal flue gas. Variations of this design may be even more promising for CO{sub 2} capture from NGCC flue gas, in which the CO{sub 2} concentration can be increased from 4% to 20% by selective sweep recycle. EPRI and WP conducted a systems and cost analysis of a base case MTR membrane CO{sub 2} capture system retrofitted to the AEP Conesville Unit 5 boiler. Some of the key findings from this study and a sensitivity analysis performed by MTR include: The MTR membrane process can capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas and produce high-purity CO{sub 2} (>99%) ready for sequestration. CO{sub 2} recycle to the boiler appears feasible with minimal impact on boiler performance; however, further study by a boiler OEM is recommended. For a membrane process built today using a combination of slight feed compression, permeate vacuum, and current compression equipment costs, the membrane capture process can be competitive with the base case MEA process at 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a coal-fired power plant. The incremental LCOE for the base case membrane process is about equal to that of a base case MEA process, within the uncertainty in the analysis. With advanced membranes (5,000 gpu for CO{sub 2} and 50 for CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}), operating with no feed compression and l

  12. The potential for photosynthesis in hydrothermal vents: a new avenue for life in the Universe?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Noel; Martin, Osmel; Leiva-Mora, Michel

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform a quantitative assessment for the potential for photosynthesis in hydrothermal vents in the deep ocean. The photosynthetically active radiation in this case is from geothermal origin: the infrared thermal radiation emitted by hot water, at temperatures ranging from 473 up to 673 K. We find that at these temperatures the photosynthetic potential is rather low in these ecosystems for most known species. However, species which a very high efficiency in the use of light and which could use infrared photons till 1300nm, could achieve good rates of photosynthesis in hydrothermal vents. These organisms might also thrive in deep hydrothermal vents in other planetary bodies, such as one of the more astrobiologically promising Jupiter satellites: Europa.

  13. Developments in flue gas cleanup research at the Federal Energy Technology Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennline, H.W.; Hargis, R.A.; Hedges, S.W.; Hoffman, J.S.; O`Dowd, W.J.; Warzinski, R.P.; Yeh, J.T.; Scierka, S.J.; Granite, E.J. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Federal Energy Technology Center

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A major research effort in the cleanup of flue gas, which is produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, is being conducted by the in-house research program at the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Novel technologies being developed can abate sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), hazardous air pollutants (also referred to as air toxics), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from flue gas. Laws within the US mandate the control of some of these pollutants and the initial characterization of others, while potential new regulations impact the status of others. Techniques that can control one or more of the targeted pollutants in an environmentally and economically acceptable manner are of prime interest. Past efforts have included low-temperature dry scrubbing SO{sub 2} removal techniques that typically use a calcium or sodium-based disposable sorbent either in a spray drying mode or in a duct injection mode of operation; novel techniques for enhancing sorbent utilization in conventional wet or dry scrubbing processes; and control of emissions produced from small-scale combustors (residential or commercial-size) that burn coal or coal/sorbent briquettes. Recent research at FETC has focused on investigations of air toxics produced by burning various coals, with a particular emphasis on the speciation of mercury and the control of the various mercury species; dry, regenerable sorbent processes that use a metal oxide sorbent to simultaneously remove SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}; catalysts for selective catalytic reduction (SCR)-type NO{sub x} control; and the utilization and sequestering of CO{sub 2} removed from flue gas produced by fossil fuel combustion. The research projects range from laboratory-scale work to testing with the combustion products of coal at a scale equivalent to about 0.75 megawatt of electric power generation. An overview and status of the in-house flue gas cleanup projects at FETC are reported.

  14. Cement kiln flue dust as a source of lime and potassium in four East Texas soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, Warren David

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (18) a 5. 3 (84) a 4. 8 (76) a 4. 2 (66) a 3. 8 (61) a 5. 2 (82) a 4. 1 (64) a 5. 0 (80) a *Duncan's Multiple Range Test. ? = . 05. Differences in yield due to rate of applied lime material followed by the same letter are not significantly...CEMENT KILN FLUE DUST AS A SOURCE OF LIME AND POTASSIUM IN FOUR EAST TEXAS SOILS A Thesis by WARREN DAVID POOLE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER...

  15. EPA reports advances in scrubber technology at Flue Gas Desulfurization symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smock, R.

    1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall message of the recent Symposium on Flue Gas Desulfurization was that the technology for sulfur dioxide scrubbing has matured enough for discussions to focus on future improvements rather than whether scrubbers work at all. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations will not change in the near future, however, unless there are changes in the Clean air Act to deal with acid rain, despite the improvements in performance data. The symposium covered reports on dual-alkali scrubbing, organic buffer additives, the probability that scrubber wastes will not be classified as hazardous, simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide, and continuous monitoring programs. 3 figures, 4 tables. (DCK)

  16. Flue Gas Desulfurization Market Research Report 2018 | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489Information Hydro IncEnergy InformationFlue Gas

  17. Environ. Scl. Technol. 1994, 28, 277-283 Effects of Salts on Preparation and Use of Calcium Silicates for Flue Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Silicates for Flue Gas Desulfurization Kurt K. Klnd, Phlllp D. Wasserman, and Gary 1.Rochelle' Department is a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technology developed for existingcoal to remove sulfur dioxide. High surface area calcium silicate hydrates are made by slurrying Ca(0H

  18. Lead Isotopic Composition of Fly Ash and Flue Gas Residues from Municipal Solid Waste Combustors in France: Implications for Atmospheric Lead Source Tracing.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Lead Isotopic Composition of Fly Ash and Flue Gas Residues from Municipal Solid Waste Combustors@crpg.cnrs-nancy.fr _______________________________________________________________________________________ Fly ash and flue gas residues from eight municipal solid waste combusters (MSWC) in France (1992 of "industrial Pb" is not an easy task because of its possible extreme heterogeneity. Municipal solid waste

  19. Final report to US Department of Energy: Cyclotron autoresonance accelerator for electron beam dry scrubbing of flue gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, J.L.

    2001-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Several designs have been built and operated of microwave cyclotron autoresonance accelerators (CARA's) with electron beam parameters suitable for remediation of pollutants in flue gas emissions from coal-burning power plants. CARA designs have also been developed with a TW-level 10.6 micron laser driver for electron acceleration from 50 to 100 MeV, and with UHF drivers for proton acceleration to over 500 MeV. Dose requirements for reducing SO2, NOx, and particulates in flue gas emissions to acceptable levels have been surveyed, and used to optimize the design of an electron beam source to deliver this dose.

  20. Measurements of NH3 and CO2 with distributed-feedback diode lasers near 2.0 m in bioreactor vent gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Measurements of NH3 and CO2 with distributed-feedback diode lasers near 2.0 m in bioreactor vent K. Hanson Measurements of NH3 and CO2 were made in bioreactor vent gases with distributed3 and CO2 concentration in bioreactor vent gases that were recorded at NASA Johnson Space Center

  1. Compact fluorescent lamp using horizontal and vertical insulating septums and convective venting geometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, M.

    1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel design is described for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment. 9 figs.

  2. Bonded carbon or ceramic fiber composite filter vent for radioactive waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brassell, Gilbert W. (13237 W. 8th Ave., Golden, CO 80401); Brugger, Ronald P. (Lafayette, CO)

    1985-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon bonded carbon fiber composites as well as ceramic or carbon bonded ceramic fiber composites are very useful as filters which can separate particulate matter from gas streams entraining the same. These filters have particular application to the filtering of radioactive particles, e.g., they can act as vents for containers of radioactive waste material.

  3. Development of a model for predicting transient hydrogen venting in 55-gallon drums

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apperson, Jason W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clemmons, James S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Michael D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sur, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhang, Duan Z [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romero, Michael J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Remote drum venting was performed on a population of unvented high activity drums (HAD) in the range of 63 to 435 plutonium equivalent Curies (PEC). These 55-gallon Transuranic (TRU) drums will eventually be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As a part of this process, the development of a calculational model was required to predict the transient hydrogen concentration response of the head space and polyethylene liner (if present) within the 55-gallon drum. The drum and liner were vented using a Remote Drum Venting System (RDVS) that provided a vent sampling path for measuring flammable hydrogen vapor concentrations and allow hydrogen to diffuse below lower flammability limit (LFL) concentrations. One key application of the model was to determine the transient behavior of hydrogen in the head space, within the liner, and the sensitivity to the number of holes made in the liner or number of filters. First-order differential mass transport equations were solved using Laplace transformations and numerically to verify the results. the Mathematica 6.0 computing tool was also used as a validation tool and for examining larger than two chamber systems. Results will be shown for a variety of configurations, including 85-gallon and 110-gallon overpack drums. The model was also validated against hydrogen vapor concentration assay measurements.

  4. Mantle helium reveals Southern Ocean hydrothermal venting Gisela Winckler,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winckler, Gisela

    Click Here for Full Article Mantle helium reveals Southern Ocean hydrothermal venting Gisela the distribution of helium isotopes along an oceanic transect at 67°S to identify previously unobserved provided by the helium isotope anomaly with independent hydrographic information from the Southern Ocean

  5. Passive soil venting at the Chemical Waste Landfill Site at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phelan, J.M.; Reavis, B.; Cheng, W.C.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Passive Soil Vapor Extraction was tested at the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) site at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNLIW). Data collected included ambient pressures, differential pressures between soil gas and ambient air, gas flow rates into and out of the soil and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in vented soil gas. From the differential pressure and flow rate data, estimates of permeability were arrived at and compared with estimates from other studies. Flow, differential pressure, and ambient pressure data were collected for nearly 30 days. VOC data were collected for two six-hour periods during this time. Total VOC emissions were calculated and found to be under the limit set by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Although a complete process evaluation is not possible with the data gathered, some of the necessary information for designing a passive venting process was determined and the important parameters for designing the process were indicated. More study is required to evaluate long-term VOC removal using passive venting and to establish total remediation costs when passive venting is used as a polishing process following active soil vapor extraction.

  6. Senate Vent Tent Faculty, Staff, and Student Responses to CSU Budget Cuts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    Senate Vent Tent Faculty, Staff, and Student Responses to CSU Budget Cuts In late July, the CSU Board of Trustees adopted a strategy to deal with a budget shortfall of $584 million (relative to the state budget enacted in January), or nearly 20% of the CSU budget. To give a perspective on the size

  7. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  8. Mercury Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas-Experimental Studies and Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radisav Vidic; Joseph Flora; Eric Borguet

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reactions that are promoted by solid surfaces present in coal combustion systems and develop a mathematical model that described key phenomena responsible for the fate of mercury in coal-combustion systems. This objective was achieved by carefully combining laboratory studies under realistic process conditions using simulated flue gas with mathematical modeling efforts. Laboratory-scale studies were performed to understand the fundamental aspects of chemical reactions between flue gas constituents and solid surfaces present in the fly ash and their impact on mercury speciation. Process models were developed to account for heterogeneous reactions because of the presence of fly ash as well as the deliberate addition of particles to promote Hg oxidation and adsorption. Quantum modeling was used to obtain estimates of the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions. Based on the initial findings of this study, additional work was performed to ascertain the potential of using inexpensive inorganic sorbents to control mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants without adverse impact on the salability fly ash, which is one of the major drawbacks of current control technologies based on activated carbon.

  9. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA. This topical report covers Subphase 2a which is the design phase of pilot demonstration subsystems. Materials of construction have been selected and proven in both lab scale and prototype testing to be acceptable for the reagent conditions of interest. The target application for the reactive carbonate material has been selected based upon small-scale feasibility studies and the design of a continuous fiber board production line has been completed. The electrochemical cell architecture and components have been selected based upon both lab scale and prototype testing. The appropriate quality control and diagnostic techniques have been developed and tested along with the required instrumentation and controls. Finally the demonstrate site infrastructure, NEPA categorical exclusion, and permitting is all ready for the construction and installation of the new units and upgrades.

  10. Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Quarterly technical report No. 8, [January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhown, A.S.; Alvarado, D.; Pakala, N.; Ventura, S. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)] [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Sirkar, K.K.; Majumdar, S.; Bhaumick, D. [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States)] [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the first quarter of 1994, we continued work on Tasks 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. We also began work on Task 7. In Task 2, we incorporated 4.5% O{sub 2} into our simulated flue gas stream during this quarter`s NO{sub x}-absorption experiments. We also ran experiments using Cobalt (II)-phthalocyanine as an absorbing agent We observed higher absorption capacities when using this solution with the simulated flue gas containing O{sub 2}. In Task 3, we synthesized a few EDTA polymer analogs. We also began scaled up synthesis of Co(II)-phthalocyanine for use in Task 5. In Task 4, we performed experiments for measuring distribution coefficients (m{sub i}) Of SO{sub 2} between aqueous and organic phases. This was done using the liquor regenerating apparatus described in Task 6. In Task 5, we began working with Co(II)-phthalocyanine in the 301 fiber hollow fiber contactor. We also calculated mass transfer coefficients (K{sub olm}) for these runs, and we observed that the gas side resistance dominates mass transfer. In Task 6, in the liquor regeneration apparatus, we observed 90% recovery of SO{sub 2} by DMA from water used as the scrubbing solution. We also calculated the distribution of coefficients (m{sub i}). In Task 7, we established and began implementing a methodology for completing this task.

  11. Cesium and heavy metal removal from flue dusts and other matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soderstrom, D.J.; May, R.; Spaulding, S. [Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Co., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Technology Applications Div.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A problem exists in the steel industry because of the generation of radioactive waste that is caused by the accidental destruction of nuclear detection instruments. The flue dust from electric Arc Furnaces (EAF) becomes contaminated with the radionuclide used. Typically the radionuclide is cesium 137. The problem is a concern to the industry since the contamination results in the generation of a mixed waste which is costly to dispose of properly. In the interest of providing a viable solution to the problem, Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies has developed a process for removal of cesium from flue dust. While removing the cesium from the treatment residue, the process also isolates the other major elements of concern and renders them innocuous, saleable, or readily disposable. However, several innovative techniques have been applied which make the process far more economical, and in addition, the changes simplify the operation and render it controllable. The process involves the dissolution of the various metallic and non-metallic constituents through the use of a mild mineral acid leach. This treatment solubilizes the majority of the constituents including the cesium.

  12. Desulfurization of flue gas by the confined zone dispersion process - Proof-of-concept tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abrams, J.Z.; Blake, J.H.; Pennline, H.W.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of a program to develop more cost-effective approaches to the control of acid rain precursors, the Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting proof-of-concept tests of the Confined Zone Dispersion (CZD) process proposed by Bechtel. This process removes SO/sub 2/ from flue gas by injecting a finely atomized slurry of highly reactive pressure hydrated dolomitic lime into the duct of a utility boiler. A slipstream of flue gas at 300/sup 0/F will be withdrawn from the plant ductwork and will pass through a 130-ft run of 3-ft diameter test duct. A two-fluid atomizer will inject the lime slurry into the upstream end of the test duct. A pilot scale electrostatic precipitator (ESP) will remove reaction products and fly ash before the gas is discharged back into the utility's ESP. An 11-month test program will optimize controllable variables, acquire design data, and demonstrate reliability by a long duration run. Measurements taken will include SO/sub 2/ removal, lime utilization, ESP performance, and characterization of waste solids.

  13. JV Task 125-Mercury Measurement in Combustion Flue Gases Short Course

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Laudal

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The short course, designed to train personnel who have an interest in measuring mercury in combustion flue gases, was held twice at the Drury Inn in Marion, Illinois. The short course helped to provide attendees with the knowledge necessary to avoid the many pitfalls that can and do occur when measuring mercury in combustion flue gases. The first short course, May 5-8, 2008, included both a classroom-type session and hands-on demonstration of mercury-sampling equipment. The hands-on demonstration of equipment was staged at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative. Not including the Illinois Clean Coal Institute and the U.S. Department of Energy project managers, there were 12 attendees. The second short course was conducted September 16-17, 2008, but only included the classroom portion of the course; 14 people attended. In both cases, lectures were provided on the various mercury measurement methods, and interaction between attendees and EERC research personnel to discuss specific mercury measurement problems was promoted. Overall, the response to the course was excellent.

  14. Carbon Dioxide Removal from Flue Gas Using Microporous Metal Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A Lesch

    2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, in collaboration with Professor Douglas LeVan at Vanderbilt University (VU), Professor Adam Matzger at the University of Michigan (UM), Professor Randall Snurr at Northwestern University (NU), and Professor Stefano Brandani at the University of Edinburgh (UE), supported by Honeywell's Specialty Materials business unit and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), have completed a three-year project to develop novel microporous metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and an associated vacuum-pressure swing adsorption (vPSA) process for the removal of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas. The project leveraged the team's complementary capabilities: UOP's experience in materials development and manufacturing, adsorption process design and process commercialization; LeVan and Brandani's expertise in high-quality adsorption measurements; Matzger's experience in syntheis of MOFs and the organic components associated with MOFs; Snurr's expertise in molecular and other modeling; Honeywell's expertise in the manufacture of organic chemicals; and, EPRI's knowledge of power-generation technology and markets. The project was successful in that a selective CO{sub 2} adsorbent with good thermal stability and reasonable contaminant tolerance was discovered, and a low cost process for flue gas CO{sub 2} capture process ready to be evaluated further at the pilot scale was proposed. The team made significant progress toward the current DOE post-combustion research targets, as defined in a recent FOA issued by NETL: 90% CO{sub 2} removal with no more than a 35% increase in COE. The team discovered that favorable CO{sub 2} adsorption at more realistic flue gas conditions is dominated by one particular MOF structure type, M/DOBDC, where M designates Zn, Co, Ni, or Mg and DOBDC refers to the form of the organic linker in the resultant MOF structure, dioxybenzenedicarboxylate. The structure of the M/DOBDC MOFs consists of infinite-rod secondary building units bound by DOBDC resulting in 1D hexagonal pores about 11 angstroms in diameter. Surface areas range from 800 to 1500 sq m/g for the different MOFs. Mg/DOBDC outperformed all MOF and zeolite materials evaluated to date, with about 25 wt% CO{sub 2} captured by this MOF at flue gas conditions ({approx}0.13 atm CO{sub 2} pressure, 311K). In simulated flue gas without oxygen, the zero-length (ZLC) system was very useful in quickly simulating the effect of long term exposure to impurities on the MOFs. Detailed adsorption studies on MOF pellets have shown that water does not inhibit CO{sub 2} adsorption for MOFs as much as it does for typical zeolites. Moreover, some MOFs retain a substantial CO{sub 2} capacity even with a modest water loading at room temperature. Molecular modeling was a key activity in three areas of our earlier DOE/NETL-sponsored MOF-based research on CC. First, the team was able to effectively simulate CO{sub 2} and other gas adsorption isotherms for more than 20 MOFs, and the knowledge obtained was used to help predict new MOF structures that should be effective for CO{sub 2} adsorption at low pressure. The team also showed that molecular modeling could be utilized to predict the hydrothermal stability of a given MOF. Finally, the team showed that low moisture level exposure actually enhanced the CO{sub 2} adsorption performance of a particular MOF, HKUST-1.

  15. Assessment of the Flue Gas Recycle Strategies on Oxy-Coal Power Plants using an Exergy-based Methodology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Assessment of the Flue Gas Recycle Strategies on Oxy- Coal Power Plants using an Exergy to be competitive with post-combustion for carbon capture on coal-fired power plants. In order to achieve is produced from coal (IEA 2012b), the development of CO2 capture technology on coal-fired power plants

  16. Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Yan, Nai-Qiang; Qu, Zan; Chi, Yao; Qiao, Shao-Hua; Dod, Ray; Chang, Shih-Ger; Miller, Charles

    2008-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidation of Hg0 with any oxidant or converting it to a particle-bound form can facilitate its removal. Two sulfur-chlorine compounds, sulfur dichloride (SCl2) and sulfur monochloride (S2Cl2), were investigated as oxidants for Hg0 by gas phase reaction and by surface-involved reactions in the presence of flyash or activated carbon. The gas phase reaction rate constants between Hg0 and the sulfur/chlorine compounds were determined, and the effects of temperature and the main components in flue gases were studied. The gas phase reaction between Hg0 and SCl2 is shown to be more rapid than the gas phase reaction with chlorine, and the second order rate constant was 9.1(+-0.5) x 10-18 mL-molecules-1cdots-1 at 373oK. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibited the gas phase reaction of Hg0 with sulfur-chlorine compounds. The presence of flyash or powdered activated carbon in flue gas can substantially accelerate the reaction. The predicted Hg0 removal is about 90percent with 5 ppm SCl2 or S2Cl2 and 40 g/m3 of flyash in flue gas. The combination of activated carbon and sulfur-chlorine compounds is an effective alternative. We estimate that co-injection of 3-5 ppm of SCl2 (or S2Cl2) with 2-3 Lb/MMacf of untreated Darco-KB is comparable in efficiency to the injection of 2-3 Lb/MMacf Darco-Hg-LH. Extrapolation of kinetic results also indicates that 90percent of Hg0 can be removed if 3 Lb/MMacf of Darco-KB pretreated with 3percent of SCl2 or S2Cl2 is used. Unlike gas phase reactions, NO exhibited little effect on Hg0 reactions with SCl2 or S2Cl2 on flyash or activated carbon. Mercuric sulfide was identified as one of the principal products of the Hg0/SCl2 or Hg0/S2Cl2 reactions. Additionally, about 8percent of SCl2 or S2Cl2 in aqueous solutions is converted to sulfide ions, which would precipitate mercuric ion from FGD solution.

  17. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

  18. Flue gas cleanup using the Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennline, Henry W.; Hoffman, James S.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of copper oxide on a support had been envisioned as a gas cleanup technique to remove sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitric oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation. In general, dry, regenerable flue gas cleanup techniques that use a sorbent can have various advantages, such as simultaneous removal of pollutants, production of a salable by-product, and low costs when compared to commercially available wet scrubbing technology. Due to the temperature of reaction, the placement of the process into an advanced power system could actually increase the thermal efficiency of the plant. The Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process is capable of simultaneously removing sulfur oxides and nitric oxides within the reactor system. In this regenerable sorbent technique, the use of the copper oxide sorbent was originally in a fluidized bed, but the more recent effort developed the use of the sorbent in a moving-bed reactor design. A pilot facility or life-cycle test system was constructed so that an integrated testing of the sorbent over absorption/regeneration cycles could be conducted. A parametric study of the total process was then performed where all process steps, including absorption and regeneration, were continuously operated and experimentally evaluated. The parametric effects, including absorption temperature, sorbent and gas residence times, inlet SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} concentration, and flyash loadings, on removal efficiencies and overall operational performance were determined. Although some of the research results have not been previously published because of previous collaborative restrictions, a summary of these past findings is presented in this communication. Additionally, the potential use of the process for criteria pollutant removal in oxy-firing of fossil fuel for carbon sequestration purposes is discussed.

  19. Speciation, characterization, and mobility of As, Se, and Hg in flue gas desulphurization residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souhail R. Al-Abed; Gautham Jegadeesan; Kirk G. Scheckel; Thabet Tolaymat [United States Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States). National Risk Management Research Laboratory

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile toxic trace elements such as arsenic (As), selenium (Se), and mercury (Hg). The capture of these elements in the flue gas desulphurization (FGD) scrubber unit has resulted in generation of a metal-laden residue. With increasing reuse of the FGD residues in beneficial applications, it is important to determine metal speciation and mobility to understand the environmental impact of its reuse. In this paper, we report the solid phase speciation of As, Se, and Hg in FGD residues using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and sequential chemical extraction (SCE) techniques. The SCE results combined with XRF data indicated a strong possibility of As association with iron oxides, whereas Se was distributed among all geochemical phases. Hg appeared to be mainly distributed in the strong-complexed phase. XRF images also suggested a strong association of Hg with Fe oxide materials within FGD residues. XAS analysis indicated that As existed in its oxidized state (As(V)), whereas Se and Hg was observed in primarily reduced states as selenite (Se(IV)) and Hg(I), respectively. The results from the SCE and variable pH leaching tests indicated that the labile fractions of As, Se, and Hg were fairly low and thus suggestive of their stability in the FGD residues. However, the presence of a fine fraction enriched in metal content in the FGD residue suggested that size fractionation is important in assessing the environmental risks associated with their reuse. 34 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The SNRB{trademark} Flue Gas Cleanup Demonstration Project was cooperatively funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO), B&W, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Ohio Edison, Norton Chemical Process Products Company and the 3M Company. The SNRB{trademark} technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. Development of the SNRB{trademark} process at B&W began with pilot testing of high-temperature dry sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} removal in the 1960`s. Integration of NO{sub x} reduction was evaluated in the 1970`s. Pilot work in the 1980`s focused on evaluation of various NO{sub x} reduction catalysts, SO{sub 2} sorbents and integration of the catalyst with the baghouse. This early development work led to the issuance of two US process patents to B&W - No. 4,309,386 and No. 4,793,981. An additional patent application for improvements to the process is pending. The OCDO was instrumental in working with B&W to develop the process to the point where a larger scale demonstration of the technology was feasible. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B&W tested the SNRB{trademark} pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R. E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B&W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB{trademark} process. The SNRB{trademark} facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993.

  1. SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Babcock and Wilcox`s (B and W) SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} process effectively removes SOx, NOx and particulate (Rox) from flue gas generated from coal-fired boilers in a single unit operation, a high temperature baghouse. The SNRB technology utilizes dry sorbent injection upstream of the baghouse for removal of SOx and ammonia injection upstream of a zeolitic selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst incorporated in the baghouse to reduce NOx emissions. Because the SOx and NOx removal processes require operation at elevated gas temperatures (800--900 F) for high removal efficiency, high-temperature fabric filter bags are used in the baghouse. The SNRB technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B and W tested the SNRB pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R.E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B and W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB process. The SNRB facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993. About 2,300 hours of high-temperature operation were achieved. The main emissions control performance goals of: greater than 70% SO{sub 2} removal using a calcium-based sorbent; greater than 90% NOx removal with minimal ammonia slip; and particulate emissions in compliance with the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) of 0.03 lb/million Btu were exceeded simultaneously in the demonstration program when the facility was operated at optimal conditions. Testing also showed significant reductions in emissions of some hazardous air pollutants.

  2. Biotic and abiotic interactions of deep-sea hydrothermal vent-endemic fish on the East Pacific Rise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buckman, Kate Lynn

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the ecology of fish endemic to hydrothermal vents on the East Pacific Rise was undertaken utilizing a variety of techniques, focusing on the bythitid Thermichthys hollisi. Stable isotope and gut content analyses ...

  3. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Jean Bustard; Kenneth E. Baldrey; Richard Schlager

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. Preliminary testing has identified a class of common deliquescent salts that effectively control flyash resistivity on a variety of coals. A method to evaluate cohesive properties of flyash in the laboratory has been selected and construction of an electrostatic tensiometer test fixture is underway. Preliminary selection of a variety of chemicals that will be screened for effect on flyash cohesion has been completed.

  4. Flue-gas carbon capture on carbonaceous sorbents: Toward a low-cost multifunctional Carbon Filter for 'Green' energy producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radosz, M.; Hu, X.D.; Krutkramelis, K.; Shen, Y.Q. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-pressure Carbon Filter Process (patent pending) is proposed to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from flue gas. This filter is filled with a low-cost carbonaceous sorbent, such as activated carbon or charcoal, which has a high affinity (and, hence, high capacity) to CO{sub 2} but not to nitrogen (N{sub 2}). This, in turn, leads to a high CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity, especially at low pressures. The Carbon Filter Process proposed in this work can recover at least 90% of flue-gas CO{sub 2} of 90%+ purity at a fraction of the cost normally associated with the conventional amine absorption process. The Carbon Filter Process requires neither expensive materials nor flue-gas compression or refrigeration, and it is easy to heat integrate with an existing or grassroots power plant without affecting the cost of the produced electricity too much. An abundant supply of low-cost CO{sub 2} from electricity producers is good news for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced coal-bed methane recovery (ECBMR) operators, because it will lead to higher oil and gas recovery rates in an environmentally sensitive manner. A CO{sub 2}-rich mixture that contains some nitrogen is much less expensive to separate from flue-gas than pure CO{sub 2}; therefore, mixed CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}-EOR and CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}-ECBMR methods are proposed to maximize the overall carbon capture and utilization efficiency.

  5. Development of a real-time monitor of mercury in combustor flues based on Active Nitrogen Energy Transfer (ANET)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piper, L.G.; Fraser, M.E.; Davis, S.J. [Physical Sciences, Inc., Andover, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports preliminary results from a development program to design and field test a prototype instrument for real-time mercury detection in combustor flue gases. This system has sub parts-per-billion sensitivity for Hg detection, can differentiate elemental mercury from mercuric chloride, and has a high tolerance toward particulates. The five major systems (sampling, discharge, detection, calibration, and data acquisition and control) which comprise the instrument are described, and design and preliminary test results are outlined.

  6. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification - Power Plant Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technical feasibility assessment was performed for retrofitting oxy-fuel technology to an existing power plant burning low sulfur PRB fuel and high sulfur bituminous fuel. The focus of this study was on the boiler/power generation island of a subcritical steam cycle power plant. The power plant performance in air and oxy-firing modes was estimated and modifications required for oxy-firing capabilities were identified. A 460 MWe (gross) reference subcritical PC power plant was modeled. The reference air-fired plant has a boiler efficiency (PRB/Bituminous) of 86.7%/89.3% and a plant net efficiency of 35.8/36.7%. Net efficiency for oxy-fuel firing including ASU/CPU duty is 25.6%/26.6% (PRB/Bituminous). The oxy-fuel flue gas recirculation flow to the boiler is 68%/72% (PRB/bituminous) of the flue gas (average O{sub 2} in feed gas is 27.4%/26.4%v (PRB/bituminous)). Maximum increase in tube wall temperature is less than 10ºF for oxy-fuel firing. For oxy-fuel firing, ammonia injected to the SCR was shut-off and the FGD is applied to remove SOx from the recycled primary gas stream and a portion of the SOx from the secondary stream for the high sulfur bituminous coal. Based on CFD simulations it was determined that at the furnace outlet compared to air-firing, SO{sub 3}/SO{sub 2} mole ratio is about the same, NOx ppmv level is about the same for PRB-firing and 2.5 times for bituminous-firing due to shutting off the OFA, and CO mole fraction is approximately double. A conceptual level cost estimate was performed for the incremental equipment and installation cost of the oxyfuel retrofit in the boiler island and steam system. The cost of the retrofit is estimated to be approximately 81 M$ for PRB low sulfur fuel and 84 M$ for bituminous high sulfur fuel.

  7. Generalized Information Architecture for Managing Requirements in IBM?s Rational DOORS(r) Application.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aragon, Kathryn M.; Eaton, Shelley M.; McCornack, Marjorie T.; Shannon, Sharon A.

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When a requirements engineering effort fails to meet expectations, often times the requirements management tool is blamed. Working with numerous project teams at Sandia National Laboratories over the last fifteen years has shown us that the tool is rarely the culprit; usually it is the lack of a viable information architecture with well- designed processes to support requirements engineering. This document illustrates design concepts with rationale, as well as a proven information architecture to structure and manage information in support of requirements engineering activities for any size or type of project. This generalized information architecture is specific to IBM's Rational DOORS (Dynamic Object Oriented Requirements System) software application, which is the requirements management tool in Sandia's CEE (Common Engineering Environment). This generalized information architecture can be used as presented or as a foundation for designing a tailored information architecture for project-specific needs. It may also be tailored for another software tool. Version 1.0 4 November 201

  8. Evaluation of BOC'S Lotox Process for the Oxidation of Elemental Mercury in Flue Gas from a Coal-Fired Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalid Omar

    2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Linde's Low Temperature Oxidation (LoTOx{trademark}) process has been demonstrated successfully to remove more than 90% of the NOx emitted from coal-fired boilers. Preliminary findings have shown that the LoTOx{trademark} process can be as effective for mercury emissions control as well. In the LoTOx{trademark} system, ozone is injected into a reaction duct, where NO and NO{sub 2} in the flue gas are selectively oxidized at relatively low temperatures and converted to higher nitrogen oxides, which are highly water soluble. Elemental mercury in the flue gas also reacts with ozone to form oxidized mercury, which unlike elemental mercury is water-soluble. Nitrogen oxides and oxidized mercury in the reaction duct and residual ozone, if any, are effectively removed in a wet scrubber. Thus, LoTOx{trademark} appears to be a viable technology for multi-pollutant emission control. To prove the feasibility of mercury oxidation with ozone in support of marketing LoTOx{trademark} for multi-pollutant emission control, Linde has performed a series of bench-scale tests with simulated flue gas streams. However, in order to enable Linde to evaluate the performance of the process with a flue gas stream that is more representative of a coal-fired boiler; one of Linde's bench-scale LoTOx{trademark} units was installed at WRI's combustion test facility (CTF), where a slipstream of flue gas from the CTF was treated. The degree of mercury and NOx oxidation taking place in the LoTOx{trademark} unit was quantified as a function of ozone injection rates, reactor temperatures, residence time, and ranks of coals. The overall conclusions from these tests are: (1) over 80% reduction in elemental mercury and over 90% reduction of NOx can be achieved with an O{sub 3}/NO{sub X} molar ratio of less than two, (2) in most of the cases, a lower reactor temperature is preferred over a higher temperature due to ozone dissociation, however, the combination of both low residence time and high temperature proved to be effective in the oxidation of both NOx and elemental mercury, and (3) higher residence time, lower temperature, and higher molar ratio of O{sub 3}/NOx contributed to the highest elemental mercury and NOx reductions.

  9. CO.sub.2 separation from low-temperature flue gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dilmore, Robert (Irwin, PA); Allen, Douglas (Salem, MA); Soong, Yee (Monroeville, PA); Hedges, Sheila (Bethel Park, PA)

    2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Two methods are provide for the separation of carbon dioxide from the flue gases. The first method utilizes a phase-separating moiety dissolved in an aqueous solution of a basic moiety to capture carbon dioxide. The second method utilizes a phase-separating moiety as a suspended solid in an aqueous solution of a basic moiety to capture carbon dioxide. The first method takes advantage of the surface-independent nature of the CO.sub.2 absorption reactions in a homogeneous aqueous system. The second method also provides permanent sequestration of the carbon dioxide. Both methods incorporate the kinetic rate enhancements of amine-based scrubbing while eliminating the need to heat the entire amine solution (80% water) in order to regenerate and release CO.sub.2. Both methods also take advantage of the low-regeneration temperatures of CO.sub.2-bearing mineral systems such as Na.sub.2CO.sub.3/NaHCO.sub.3 and K.sub.2CO.sub.3/KHCO.sub.3.

  10. New strategy to decompose nitrogen oxides from regenerable flue gas cleanup processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, J.T.; Ekmann, J.M.; Pennline, H.W.; Drummond, C.J.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulated NO/sub x/ recycle tests were recently conducted at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC), US Department of Energy, with excellent results. However, the NO/sub x/-recycle technique needs improvement if steady-state removal of 90% of the NO/sub x/ produced from the combustor is required. This paper reports experimental results for two new techniques to improve the destruction of externally injected NO/sub x/ into a combustor. The first technique involves doping the NO/sub x/ gas stream to the combustor with methane (other reductants might also be effective). The second technique is injecting the recycled NO/sub x/ stream at the optimum location (with and without methane doping) for maximum reduction. Test data showed 100% reduction of injected NO/sub x/ is possible with this technique. A third approach is proposed using a low-NO/sub x/ burner in combination with the NO/sub x/ recycle technique to achieve a steady-state 90% NO/sub x/ removal in the flue gas. The projected results of the third process scheme are based on material balance computations and reasonable expectations of the performance of each component of the process.

  11. A technique to control mercury from flue gas: The Thief Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Dowd, W.J.; Pennline, H.W.; Freeman, M.C.; Granite, E.J.; Hargis, R.A.; Lacher, C.J.; Karash, A.

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Thief Process is a mercury removal process that may be applicable to a broad range of pulverized coal-fired combustion systems. This is one of several sorbent injection technologies under development by the U.S. Department of Energy for capturing mercury from coal-fired electric utility boilers. A unique feature of the Thief Process involves the production of a thermally activated sorbent in situ at the power plant. The sorbent is obtained by inserting a lance, or thief, into the combustor, in or near the flame, and extracting a mixture of partially combusted coal and gas. The partially combusted coal or sorbent has adsorptive properties suitable for the removal of vapor-phase mercury at flue gas temperatures that are typical downstream of a power plant preheater. One proposed scenario, similar to activated carbon injection (ACI), involves injecting the extracted sorbent into the downstream ductwork between the air preheater and the particulate collection device of the power plant. Initial laboratory-scale and pilot-scale testing, using an eastern bituminous coal, focused on the concept validation. Subsequent pilot-scale testing, using a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, focused on the process development and optimization. The results of the experimental studies, as well as an independent experimental assessment, are detailed. In addition, the results of a preliminary economic analysis that documents the costs and the potential economic advantages of the Thief Process for mercury control are discussed.

  12. A kinetic approach to the catalytic oxidation of mercury in flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert A. Presto; Evan J. Granite; Andrew Karash; Richard A. Hargis; William J. O'Dowd; Henry W. Pennline [U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Four mercury oxidation catalysts were tested in a packed bed reactor in the presence of flue gas generated by the NETL 500 lb/h coal combustor. The four catalysts tested were Ir, Ir/HCl, Darco FGD activated carbon, and Thief/HCl. The Thief/HCl and Darco converted the highest percentage of the inlet mercury; however, the high conversion in these experiments was aided by larger catalyst loadings than in the Ir and Ir/HCl experiments. We propose a method for analyzing mercury oxidation catalyst results in a kinetic framework using the bulk reaction rate for oxidized mercury formation normalized by either the catalyst mass or surface area. Results reported for fractional mercury oxidation are strongly influenced by the specific experimental conditions and are therefore difficult to translate from experiment to experiment. The catalyst-normalized results allow for more quantitative analysis of mercury oxidation catalyst data and are the first step in creating a predictive model that will allow for efficient scaling up from laboratory-scale to larger-scale studies. 34 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Quarterly report, January 1992--March 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, T.R.; Robinson, M.S.; Bush, P.V.

    1992-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is divided into four tasks. The Management Plan was developed in task 1. Task 2, Evaluation of Mechanisms in FGD Sorbent and Ash Interactions, focuses on the characteristics of binary mixtures of these distinct powders. Task 3, Evaluation of Mechanisms in Conditioning Agents and Ash, is designed to examine the effects of various conditioning agents on fine ash particles to determine the mechanisms by which these agents alter the physical properties of the ash. Tasks 2 and 3 began with an extensive literature search and the assembly of existing theories. This phase of the project is now complete. During the past quarter, initial preparations of laboratory equipment for laboratory testing have been made. A plan for initial laboratory tests has been submitted to the Project Manager for review. Laboratory testing will commence once these laboratory plans have been formally approved. The results of the work performed under task 2 and 3 will be included in a Flue Gas Conditioning Model that will be issued under task 4. The Final Report for the project will also be prepared under task 4.

  14. Investigation of a mercury speciation technique for flue gas desulfurization materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J.Y.; Cho K.; Cheng L.; Keener, T.C.; Jegadeesan G.; Al-Abed, S.R. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the synthetic gypsum generated from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers is currently being used for wallboard production. Because oxidized mercury is readily captured by the wet FGD scrubber, and coal-fired power plants equipped with wet scrubbers desire to benefit from the partial mercury control that these systems provide, some mercury is likely to be bound in with the FGD gypsum and wallboard. In this study, the feasibility of identifying mercury species in the FGD gypsum and wallboard samples was investigated using a large sample size thermal desorption method and samples from power plants in Pennsylvania. Potential candidates of pure mercury standards including mercuric chloride, mercurous chloride, mercury oxide, mercury sulfide, and mercuric sulfate were analyzed to compare their results with those obtained from FGD gypsum and dry wallboard samples. Although any of the thermal evolutionary curves obtained from these pure mercury standards did not exactly match with those of the FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, it was identified that Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and HgCl{sub 2} could be candidates. An additional chlorine analysis from the gypsum and wallboard samples indicated that the chlorine concentrations were approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than the mercury concentrations, suggesting possible chlorine association with mercury. 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: SinceDevelopment | Department of Energy $18UnrevisedCool Roof InfrastructureLow-Pressurea Vent

  16. SMITHSONIAN MAGAZINE MUSEUM DAY The Florida Agricultural Museum will open its doors free of charge on September 27, 2014, from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    SMITHSONIAN MAGAZINE MUSEUM DAY The Florida Agricultural Museum will open its doors free of charge on September 27, 2014, from 10 am - 3 pm, as part of Smithsonian magazine's 10th annual Museum Day Live! A nationwide event, Museum Day Live! offers free admission to visitors presenting a Museum Day Live! ticket

  17. Vent system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, H.R.

    1990-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a container for transporting or storing a molten liquid. It comprises: a body having a vapor inlet and an outlet for the liquid, wherein the vapor inlet comprises: a conduit adapted for connection to the container so as to provide a vapor pathway through the body into the container and a valve means adapted for connection to the conduit so that vapor will flow through the valve means into the container through the conduit only in one direction and only when a pressure differential across the valve means reaches some minimum value, wherein the conduit extends within the container a sufficient distance so that when there is molten liquid within the container, an opening at one end of the conduit extends below a free surface of the liquid and liquid level within the conduit remains sufficiently below the free surface of the liquid that material within the conduit remains molten during storage or transport due to heat transfer into the conduit from the molten liquid in the container; whereby clogging by material solidifying within the conduit is avoided, ensuring free passage of vapors into the container to replace any liquid removed.

  18. The Genome of Deep-Sea Vent Chemolithoautotroph Thiomicrospiracrunogena XCL-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Kathleen M.; Sievert, Stefan M.; Abril, Fereniki N.; Ball,Lois A.; Barrett, Chantell J.; Blake, Rodrigo A.; Boller, Amanda J.; Chain, Patrick S.G.; Clark, Justine A.; Davis, Carisa R.; Detter, Chris; Do, Kimberly F.; Dobrinski, Kimberly P.; Faza, BrandonI.; Fitzpatrick,Kelly A.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; Harmer, Tara L.; Hauser, Loren J.; Hugler, Michael; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.; Klotz, Martin G.; Kong, William W.; Land, Miriam; Lapidus, Alla; Larimer, Frank W.; Longo, Dana L.; Lucas,Susan; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Massey, Steven E.; Martin, Darlene D.; McCuddin, Zoe; Meyer, Folker; Moore, Jessica L.; Ocampo, Luis H.; Paul,John H.; Paulsen, Ian T.; Reep, Douglas K.; Ren, Qinghu; Ross, Rachel L.; Sato, Priscila Y.; Thomas, Phaedra; Tinkham, Lance E.; Zeruth, Gary T.

    2006-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Presented here is the complete genome sequence ofThiomicrospira crunogena XCL-2, representative of ubiquitouschemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria isolated from deep-seahydrothermal vents. This gammaproteobacterium has a single chromosome(2,427,734 bp), and its genome illustrates many of the adaptations thathave enabled it to thrive at vents globally. It has 14 methyl-acceptingchemotaxis protein genes, including four that may assist in positioningit in the redoxcline. A relative abundance of CDSs encoding regulatoryproteins likely control the expression of genes encoding carboxysomes,multiple dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphate transporters, as wellas a phosphonate operon, which provide this species with a variety ofoptions for acquiring these substrates from the environment. T. crunogenaXCL-2 is unusual among obligate sulfur oxidizing bacteria in relying onthe Sox system for the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds. A 38 kbprophage is present, and a high level of prophage induction was observed,which may play a role in keeping competing populations of close relativesin check. The genome has characteristics consistent with an obligatelychemolithoautotrophic lifestyle, including few transporters predicted tohave organic allocrits, and Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle CDSs scatteredthroughout the genome.

  19. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 2: SOx/Nox/Hg Removal for High Sulfur Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Degenstein; Minish Shah; Doughlas Louie

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxy-combustion technology. The objective of Task 2 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning high sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was not only to investigate a new method of flue gas purification but also to produce useful acid byproduct streams as an alternative to using a traditional FGD and SCR for flue gas processing. During the project two main constraints were identified that limit the ability of the process to achieve project goals. 1) Due to boiler island corrosion issues >60% of the sulfur must be removed in the boiler island with the use of an FGD. 2) A suitable method could not be found to remove NOx from the concentrated sulfuric acid product, which limits sale-ability of the acid, as well as the NOx removal efficiency of the process. Given the complexity and safety issues inherent in the cycle it is concluded that the acid product would not be directly saleable and, in this case, other flue gas purification schemes are better suited for SOx/NOx/Hg control when burning high sulfur coal, e.g. this project's Task 3 process or a traditional FGD and SCR.

  20. CO{sub 2} Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lora Toy; Atish Kataria; Raghubir Gupta

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Because the fleet of coal-fired power plants is of such importance to the nationâ??s energy production while also being the single largest emitter of CO{sub 2}, the development of retrofit, post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture technologies for existing and new, upcoming coal power plants will allow coal to remain a major component of the U.S. energy mix while mitigating global warming. Post-combustion carbon capture technologies are an attractive option for coal-fired power plants as they do not require modification of major power-plant infrastructures, such as fuel processing, boiler, and steam-turbine subsystems. In this project, the overall objective was to develop an advanced, hollow-fiber, polymeric membrane process that could be cost-effectively retrofitted into current pulverized coal-fired power plants to capture at least 90% of the CO{sub 2} from plant flue gas with 95% captured CO{sub 2} purity. The approach for this project tackled the technology development on three different fronts in parallel: membrane materials R&D, hollow-fiber membrane module development, and process development and engineering. The project team consisted of RTI (prime) and two industrial partners, Arkema, Inc. and Generon IGS, Inc. Two CO{sub 2}-selective membrane polymer platforms were targeted for development in this project. For the near term, a next-generation, high-flux polycarbonate membrane platform was spun into hollow-fiber membranes that were fabricated into both lab-scale and larger prototype (~2,200 ft{sup 2}) membrane modules. For the long term, a new fluoropolymer membrane platform based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) [PVDF] chemistry was developed using a copolymer approach as improved capture membrane materials with superior chemical resistance to flue-gas contaminants (moisture, SO{sub 2}, NOx, etc.). Specific objectives were: ï?· Development of new, highly chemically resistant, fluorinated polymers as membrane materials with minimum selectivity of 30 for CO{sub 2} over N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} permeance greater than 300 gas permeation units (GPU) targeted; ï?· Development of next-generation polycarbonate hollow-fiber membranes and membrane modules with higher CO{sub 2} permeance than current commercial polycarbonate membranes; ï?· Development and fabrication of membrane hollow fibers and modules from candidate polymers; ï?· Development of a CO{sub 2} capture membrane process design and integration strategy suitable for end-of-pipe, retrofit installation; and ï?· Techno-economic evaluation of the "best" integrated CO{sub 2} capture membrane process design package In this report, the results of the project research and development efforts are discussed and include the post-combustion capture properties of the two membrane material platforms and the hollow-fiber membrane modules developed from them and the multi-stage process design and analysis developed for 90% CO{sub 2} capture with 95% captured CO{sub 2} purity.

  1. Next Generation Pressurized Oxy-Coal Combustion: High Efficiency and No Flue Gas Recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rue, David

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has developed a pressurized oxy-coal fired molten bed boiler (MBB) concept, in which coal and oxygen are fired directly into a bed of molten coal slag through burners located on the bottom of the boiler and fired upward. Circulation of heat by the molten slag eliminates the need for a flue gas recirculation loop and provides excellent heat transfer to steam tubes in the boiler walls. Advantages of the MBB technology over other boilers include higher efficiency (from eliminating flue gas recirculation), a smaller and less expensive boiler, modular design leading to direct scalability, decreased fines carryover and handling costs, smaller exhaust duct size, and smaller emissions control equipment sizes. The objective of this project was to conduct techno-economic analyses and an engineering design of the MBB project and to support this work with thermodynamic analyses and oxy-coal burner testing. Techno-economic analyses of GTI’s pressurized oxy-coal fired MBB technology found that the overall plant with compressed CO2 has an efficiency of 31.6%. This is a significant increase over calculated 29.2% efficiency of first generation oxy-coal plants. Cost of electricity (COE) for the pressurized MBB supercritical steam power plant with CO2 capture and compression was calculated to be 134% of the COE for an air-coal supercritical steam power plant with no CO2 capture. This compares positively with a calculated COE for first generation oxy-coal supercritical steam power plants with CO2 capture and compression of 164%. The COE for the MBB power plant is found to meet the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) target of 135%, before any plant optimization. The MBB power plant was also determined to be simpler than other oxy-coal power plants with a 17% lower capital cost. No other known combustion technology can produce higher efficiencies or lower COE when CO2 capture and compression are included. A thermodynamic enthalpy and exergy analysis found a number of modifications and adjustments that could provide higher efficiency and better use of available work. Conclusions from this analysis will help guide the analyses and CFD modeling in future process development. The MBB technology has the potential to be a disruptive technology that will enable coal combustion power plants to be built and operated in a cost effective way, cleanly with no carbon dioxide emissions. A large amount of work is needed to quantify and confirm the great promise of the MBB technology. A Phase 2 proposal was submitted to DOE and other sponsors to address the most critical MBB process technical gaps. The Phase 2 proposal was not accepted for current DOE support.

  2. Simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO separation from flue gas using HFCLM. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schimmel, K.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abatement technologies for oxides of sulfur and nitrogen present in flue and stack gases from coal fired boilers are becoming increasingly important. Scrubbing the gases with an aqueous limestone slurry to remove SO{sub 2} is a widely used treatment process. These scrubbing solutions are, however, not very effective in removing NO. In addition, the process is expensive and produces large volumes of sludge. The liquid membrane from a 0.01 M aqueous solution of Fe{sup 2+}EDTA has been found to have a very high selectivity for NO over N{sub 2}. Thus, SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} can be removed simultaneously using an aqueous Fe 3{sup 3+}EDTA solution in a hollow fiber contained liquid membrane (HFCLM) permeator with hydrophobic fibers. The HFCLM configuration has addressed previous concerns about liquid membrane stability for an application such as this. In this project, a flow apparatus was constructed that will allow simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO removal and recovery using two hollow fiber modules in series. Flowing the liquid membrane on the shell-side of the modules it is hypothesized will enhance the performance over that of HFCLMs without loss of stability. From the work completed in this exploratory project, it was concluded that to move the current state-of-the-art for this promising technology toward commercialization will require progress in the following areas: (1) sensitivity of the performance of the system to temperature changes, (2) validation of a mass transfer model to be used in scale-up calculations, (3) data on alternative flow schemes, and (4) overall process economics calculations.

  3. CO{sub 2} Capture from Flue Gas Using Solid Molecular Basket Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fillerup, Eric; Zhang, Zhonghua; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Wang, Dongxiang; Guo, Jiahua; Ma, Xiaoliang; Wang, Xiaoxing; Song, Chunshan

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop a new generation of solid, regenerable polymeric molecular basket sorbent (MBS) for more cost-efficient capture and separation of CO{sub 2} from flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The primary goal is to develop a cost-effective MBS sorbent with better thermal stability. To improve the cost-effectiveness of MBS, we have explored commercially available and inexpensive support to replace the more expensive mesoporous molecular sieves like MCM-41 and SBA- 15. In addition, we have developed some advanced sorbent materials with 3D pore structure such as hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) to improve the CO{sub 2} working capacity of MBS, which can also reduce the cost for the whole CO{sub 2} capture process. During the project duration, the concern regarding the desorption rate of MBS sorbents has been raised, because lower desorption rate increases the desorption time for complete regeneration of the sorbent which in turn leads to a lower working capacity if the regeneration time is limited. Thus, the improvement in the thermal stability of MBS became a vital task for later part of this project. The improvement in the thermal stability was performed via increasing the polymer density either using higher molecular weight PEI or PEI cross-linking with an organic compound. Moreover, we have used the computational approach to estimate the interaction of CO{sub 2} with different MBSs for the fundamental understanding of CO{sub 2} sorption, which may benefit the development, design and modification of the sorbents and the process.

  4. Combined homo- and heterogeneous model for mercury speciation in pulverized fuel combustion flue gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shishir P. Sable; Wiebren de Jong; Hartmut Spliethoff [Delft University Technology, Delft (Netherlands). Section Energy Technology, Department of Process and Energy

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new model is developed to predict Hg{sup 0}, Hg{sup +}, Hg{sup 2+}, and Hg{sub p} in the post-combustion zone upstream of a particulate control device (PCD) in pulverized coal-fired power plants. The model incorporates reactions of mercury with chlorinating agents (HCl) and other gaseous species and simultaneous adsorption of oxidized mercury (HgCl{sub 2}) on fly ash particles in the cooling of flue gases. The homogeneous kinetic model from the literature has been revised to understand the effect of the NO + OH + M {longleftrightarrow} HONO + M reaction on mercury oxidation. Because it is a pressure-dependent reaction, the choice of proper reaction rates was very critical. It was found that mercury oxidation reduces from 100 to 0% while going from high- to low-pressure limit rates with 100 ppmv NO. The heterogeneous model describes selective in-duct Langmuir-Hinshelwood adsorption of mercury chloride on ash particles. The heterogeneous model has been built using Fortran and linked to Chemkin 4.0. The final predictions of elemental, oxidized, and particulate mercury were compared to mercury speciation from power plant data. Information collection request (ICR) data were used for this comparison. The model results follow very similar trends compared to those of the plant data; however, quantitative deviation was considerable. These deviations are due to the errors in the measurement of mercury upstream of PCD, lack of adsorption kinetic data, accurate homogeneous reaction mechanisms, and certain modeling assumptions. The model definitely follows a new approach for the prediction of mercury speciation, and further refinement will improve the model significantly. 43 refs., 1 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. The effect of a paraffin screen on the neutron dose at the maze door of a 15 MV linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krmar, M.; Kuzmanovi?, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad 21000 (Serbia)] [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad 21000 (Serbia); Nikoli?, D. [National Institute for Nanotechnology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada)] [National Institute for Nanotechnology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Kuzmanovi?, Z. [International Medical Centers, Banja Luka 78000, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegowina)] [International Medical Centers, Banja Luka 78000, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Ganezer, K. [Physics Department, California State University Dominguez Hills, Carson, California 90747 (United States)] [Physics Department, California State University Dominguez Hills, Carson, California 90747 (United States)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a paraffin screen located at various positions in the maze on the neutron dose equivalent at the maze door.Methods: The neutron dose equivalent was measured at the maze door of a room containing a 15 MV linear accelerator for x-ray therapy. Measurements were performed for several positions of the paraffin screen covering only 27.5% of the cross-sectional area of the maze. The neutron dose equivalent was also measured at all screen positions. Two simple models of the neutron source were considered in which the first assumed that the source was the cross-sectional area at the inner entrance of the maze, radiating neutrons in an isotropic manner. In the second model the reduction in the neutron dose equivalent at the maze door due to the paraffin screen was considered to be a function of the mean values of the neutron fluence and energy at the screen.Results: The results of this study indicate that the equivalent dose at the maze door was reduced by a factor of 3 through the use of a paraffin screen that was placed inside the maze. It was also determined that the contributions to the dosage from areas that were not covered by the paraffin screen as viewed from the dosimeter, were 2.5 times higher than the contributions from the covered areas. This study also concluded that the contributions of the maze walls, ceiling, and floor to the total neutron dose equivalent were an order of magnitude lower than those from the surface at the far end of the maze.Conclusions: This study demonstrated that a paraffin screen could be used to reduce the neutron dose equivalent at the maze door by a factor of 3. This paper also found that the reduction of the neutron dose equivalent was a linear function of the area covered by the maze screen and that the decrease in the dose at the maze door could be modeled as an exponential function of the product ?·E at the screen.

  6. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 8): Anaconda Smelter site, (Operable Unit 11 - Flue Dust), Deer Lodge County, Anaconda, MT. (Second remedial action), September 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The 6,000-acre Anaconda Smelter site is a former copper and ore processing facility in Deer Lodge County, Montana. Land use in the area is predominantly residential. The site is bounded on the north and east, respectively, by the Warm Springs Creek and Mill Creek, both of which are potential sources of drinking water. From 1884 until 1980 when activities ceased, the site was used for ore processing and smelting operations. In 1988, EPA conducted an investigation to determine the nature and extent of the flue dust contamination. A 1988 ROD addressed the Mill Creek Operable Unit (OU15) and documented the relocation of residents from the community surrounding the smelter site as the selected remedial action. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses the Flue Dust Operable Unit (OU11). The primary contaminants of concern affecting this site from the flue dust materials are metals including arsenic, cadmium, and lead. The selected remedial action for the site is included.

  7. Development of Novel CO2 Adsorbents for Capture of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fauth, D.J.; Filburn, T.P. (University of Hartford, West Hartford, CT); Gray, M.L.; Hedges, S.W.; Hoffman, J.; Pennline, H.W.; Filburn, T.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Capturing CO2 emissions generated from fossil fuel-based power plants has received widespread attention and is considered a vital course of action for CO2 emission abatement. Efforts are underway at the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory to develop viable energy technologies enabling the CO2 capture from large stationary point sources. Solid, immobilized amine sorbents (IAS) formulated by impregnation of liquid amines within porous substrates are reactive towards CO2 and offer an alternative means for cyclic capture of CO2 eliminating, to some degree, inadequacies related to chemical absorption by aqueous alkanolamine solutions. This paper describes synthesis, characterization, and CO2 adsorption properties for IAS materials previously tested to bind and release CO2 and water vapor in a closed loop life support system. Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), acrylonitrile-modified tetraethylenepentamine (TEPAN), and a single formulation consisting of TEPAN and N, N’-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine (BED) were individually supported on a poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate and examined. CO2 adsorption profiles leading to reversible CO2 adsorption capacities were obtained using thermogravimetry. Under 10% CO2 in nitrogen at 25°C and 1 atm, TEPA supported on PMMA over 60 minutes adsorbed ~3.2 mmol/g{sorbent} whereas, TEPAN supported on PMMA along with TEPAN and BED supported on PMMA adsorbed ~1.7 mmol/g{sorbent} and ~2.3 mmol/g{sorbent} respectively. Cyclic experiments with a 1:1 weight ratio of TEPAN and BED supported on poly (methyl methacrylate) beads utilizing a fixed-bed flow system with 9% CO2, 3.5% O2, nitrogen balance with trace gas constituents were studied. CO2 adsorption capacity was ~ 3 mmols CO2/g{sorbent} at 40°C and 1.4 atm. No beneficial effect on IAS performance was found using a moisture-laden flue gas mixture. Tests with 750 ppmv NO in a humidified gas stream revealed negligible NO sorption onto the IAS. A high SO2 concentration resulted in incremental loss in IAS performance and revealed progressive degrees of “staining” upon testing. Adsorption of SO2 by the IAS necessitates upstream removal of SO2 prior to CO2 capture.

  8. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, further laboratory-screening tests of additive formulations were completed. For these tests, the electrostatic tensiometer method was used for determination of fly ash cohesivity. Resistivity was measured for each screening test with a multi-cell laboratory fly ash resistivity furnace constructed for this project. Also during this quarter chemical formulation testing was undertaken to identify stable and compatible resistivity/cohesivity liquid products.

  9. Design, construction, and operation of a life-cycle test system for the evaluation of flue gas cleanup processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennline, H.W.; Yeh, James T.; Hoffman, J.S. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States); Longton, E.J.; Vore, P.A.; Resnik, K.P.; Gromicko, F.N. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Library, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has designed, constructed, and operated a Life-Cycle Test Systems (LCTS) that will be used primarily for the investigation of dry, regenerable sorbent flue gas cleanup processes. Sorbent continuously cycles from an absorber reactor where the pollutants are removed from the flue gas, to a regenerator reactor where the activity of the spent sorbent is restored and a usable by-product stream of gas is produced. The LCTS will initially be used to evaluate the Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process by determining the effects of various process parameters on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removals. The purpose of this paper is to document the design rationale and details, the reactor/component/instrument installation, and the initial performance of the system. Although the Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process will be investigated initially, the design of the LCTS evolved to make the system a multipurpose, versatile research facility. Thus, the unit can be used to investigate various other processes for pollution abatement of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulates, air toxics, and/or other pollutants.

  10. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Quarterly report No. 8, August 17, 1992--November 16, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The CZD process involves injecting a finely atomized slurry of reactive lime into the flue gas duct work of a coal-fired utility boiler. The principle of the confined zone is to form a wet zone of slurry droplets in the middle of the duct confined in an envelope of hot gas between the wet zone and the duct walls. The lime slurry reacts with part of the SO{sub 2} in the gas, and the reaction products dry to form solid particles. A solids collector, typically an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) downstream from the point of injection, captures the reaction products along with the fly ash entrained in the flue gas. The goal of this demonstration is to prove the technical and economic feasibility of the CZD technology on a commercial scale. The process is expected to achieve 50% SO{sub 2} removal at lower capital and O&M costs than other systems. To achieve its objectives, the project is divided into the following three phases: Phase 1: Design and Permitting, Phase 2: Construction and Start-up, Phase 3: Operation and Disposition. Phase 1 activities were completed on January 31, 1991. Phase 2 activities were essentially concluded on July 31, 1991, and Phase 3a, Parametric Testing, was initiated on July 1, 1991. This Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers Phase 3b activities from August 17, 1992 through November 16, 1992.

  11. Selective CO2 Capture from Flue Gas Using Metal-Organic Frameworks?A Fixed Bed Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jian; Tian, Jian; Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2012-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    It is important to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas which is considered to be the main reason to cause global warming. CO2/N2 separation by novel adsorbents is a promising method to reduce CO2 emission but effect of water and CO2/N2 selectivity is critical to apply the adsorbents into practical applications. A very well known, Metal Organic Framework, NiDOBDC (Ni-MOF-74 or CPO-27-Ni) was synthesized through a solvothermal reaction and the sample (500 to 800 microns) was used in a fixed bed CO2/N2 breakthrough study with and without H2O. The Ni/DOBDC pellet has a high CO2 capacity of 3.74 mol/kg at 0.15 bar and a high CO2/N2 selectivity of 38, which is much higher than those of reported MOFs and zeolites under dry condition. Trace amount of water can impact CO2 adsorption capacity as well as CO2/N2 selectivity for the Ni/DOBDC. However, Ni/DOBDC can retain a significant CO2 capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity at 0.15 bar CO2 with 3% RH water. These results indicate a promising future to use the Ni/DOBDC in CO2 capture from flue gas.

  12. FLAME facility: The effect of obstacles and transverse venting on flame acceleration and transition on detonation for hydrogen-air mixtures at large scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, M.P.; Tieszen, S.R.; Benedick, W.B.

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research on flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) for hydrogen-air mixtures carried out in the FLAME facility, and describes its relevance to nuclear reactor safety. Flame acceleration and DDT can generate high peak pressures that may cause failure of containment. FLAME is a large rectangular channel 30.5 m long, 2.44 m high, and 1.83 m wide. It is closed on the ignition end and open on the far end. The three test variables were hydrogen mole fraction (12--30%), degree of transverse venting (by moving steel top plates---0%, 13%, and 50%), and the absence or presence of certain obstacles in the channel (zero or 33% blockage ratio). The most important variable was the hydrogen mole fraction. The presence of the obstacles tested greatly increased the flame speeds, overpressures, and tendency for DDT compared to similar tests without obstacles. Different obstacle configurations could have greater or lesser effects on flame acceleration and DDT. Large degrees of transverse venting reduced the flame speeds, overpressures, and possibility of DDT. For small degrees of transverse venting (13% top venting), the flame speeds and overpressures were higher than for no transverse venting with reactive mixtures (>18% H/sub 2/), but they were lower with leaner mixtures. The effect of the turbulence generated by the flow out the vents on increasing flame speed can be larger than the effect of venting gas out of the channel and hence reducing the overpressure. With no obstacles and 50% top venting, the flame speeds and overpressures were low, and there was no DDT. For all other cases, DDT was observed above some threshold hydrogen concentration. DDT was obtained at 15% H/sub 2/ with obstacles and no transverse venting. 67 refs., 62 figs.

  13. Expansion and user study of CoolVent : inclusion of thermal comfort models in an early-design natural ventilation tool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rich, Rebecca E. (Rebecca Eileen)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CoolVent, a software design tool for architects, has been improved. The work of Maria- Alejandra Menchaca-B. and colleagues has been improved to include a more robust and intuitive building and window dimensioning scheme, ...

  14. Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project evaluation of multi-canister overpack venting and monitoring options during staging of K basins fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiborg, J.C.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This engineering study recommends whether multi-canister overpacks containing spent nuclear fuel from the Hanford K Basins should be staged in vented or a sealed, but ventable, condition during staging at the Canister Storage Building prior to hot vacuum conditioning and interim storage. The integrally related issues of MCO monitoring, end point criteria, and assessing the practicality of avoiding venting and Hot Vacuum Conditioning for a portion of the spent fuel are also considered.

  15. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) has successfully completed a research and development program granted by the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to develop a family of non-toxic flue gas conditioning agents to provide utilities and industries with a cost-effective means of complying with environmental regulations on particulate emissions and opacity. An extensive laboratory screening of potential additives was completed followed by full-scale trials at four utility power plants. The developed cohesivity additives have been demonstrated on a 175 MW utility boiler that exhibited poor collection of unburned carbon in the electrostatic precipitator. With cohesivity conditioning, opacity spiking caused by rapping reentrainment was reduced and total particulate emissions were reduced by more than 30%. Ammonia conditioning was also successful in reducing reentrainment on the same unit. Conditioned fly ash from the process is expected to be suitable for dry or wet disposal and for concrete admixture.

  16. Status of flue-gas treatment technologies for combined SO[sub 2]/NO[sub x] reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livengood, C.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.); Markussen, J.M. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments and passage of state legislation leading to more stringent nitrogen oxides (NO.) regulations have fueled research and development efforts on the technologies for the combined control of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and NO[sub x]. The integrated removal of both SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] in a single system can offer significant advantages over the use of several separate processes, including such factors as reduced system complexity, better operability, and lower costs. This paper reviews the status of a number of integrated flue-gas-cleanup systems that have reached a significant stage of development, focusing on post-combustion processes that have been tested or are ready for testing at the pilot scale or larger. A brief process description, a summary of the development status and performance achieved to date, pending commercialization issues, and process economics (when available) are given for each technology.

  17. The Effects of Infrared-Blocking Pigments and Deck Venting on Stone-Coated Metal Residential Roofs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, William A [ORNL

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field data show that stone-coated metal shakes and S-mission tile, which exploit the use of infraredblocking color pigments (IrBCPs), along with underside venting reduce the heat flow penetrating the conditioned space of a residence by 70% compared with the amount of heat flow penetrating roofs with conventional asphalt shingles. Stone-coated metal roof products are typically placed on battens and counter-battens and nailed through the battens to the roof deck. The design provides venting on the underside of the metal roof that reduces the heat flow penetrating a home. The Metal Construction Association (MCA) and its affiliate members installed stone-coated metal roofs with shake and S-mission tile profiles and a painted metal shake roof on a fully instrumented attic test assembly at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Measurements of roof, deck, attic, and ceiling temperatures; heat flows; solar reflectance; thermal emittance; and ambient weather were recorded for each of the test roofs and also for an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventional pigmented and direct nailed asphalt shingle roof. All attic assemblies had ridge and soffit venting; the ridge was open to the underside of the stone-coated metal roofs. A control assembly with a conventional asphalt shingle roof was used for comparing deck and ceiling heat transfer rates.

  18. Assessment of Failure Mechanisms for GFR Vented Fuel Pins Using Hexoloy Cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jian Gan

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A near-term vented fuel pin concept as a back-up option for the gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) system was evaluated. This work explored the feasibility of using mixed carbide fuel (U0.85P0.15)C with off-the-shelf monolithic SiC clad in order to meet requirements for GFR fuel with an average burnup of 10%. The stress loading on the SiC cladding due to fuel swelling and thermal stress due to temperature gradient were estimated based on the data from the development of carbide fuels in the 1970’s-1980’s and the materials properties for SiC tubes. The fuel swelling at the goal burnup (10%) is expected to produce a hoop stress of approximately 32 MPa in cladding, approaching the estimated maximum allowable hoop stress (~33 MPa) for a SiC cladding reliability of 99.99%. The estimated tensile thermal stress component (~121 MPa) near the outer surface of a monolithic SiC cladding is likely to limit its application at high temperatures.

  19. Development of Fly Ash Derived Sorbents to Capture CO2 from Flue Gas of Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; John M. Andresen; Yinzhi Zhang; Zhe Lu

    2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This research program focused on the development of fly ash derived sorbents to capture CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas emissions. The fly ash derived sorbents developed represent an affordable alternative to existing methods using specialized activated carbons and molecular sieves, that tend to be very expensive and hinder the viability of the CO{sub 2} sorption process due to economic constraints. Under Task 1 'Procurement and characterization of a suite of fly ashes', 10 fly ash samples, named FAS-1 to -10, were collected from different combustors with different feedstocks, including bituminous coal, PRB coal and biomass. These samples presented a wide range of LOI value from 0.66-84.0%, and different burn-off profiles. The samples also spanned a wide range of total specific surface area and pore volume. These variations reflect the difference in the feedstock, types of combustors, collection hopper, and the beneficiation technologies the different fly ashes underwent. Under Task 2 'Preparation of fly ash derived sorbents', the fly ash samples were activated by steam. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms were used to characterize the resultant activated samples. The cost-saving one-step activation process applied was successfully used to increase the surface area and pore volume of all the fly ash samples. The activated samples present very different surface areas and pore volumes due to the range in physical and chemical properties of their precursors. Furthermore, one activated fly ash sample, FAS-4, was loaded with amine-containing chemicals (MEA, DEA, AMP, and MDEA). The impregnation significantly decreased the surface area and pore volume of the parent activated fly ash sample. Under Task 3 'Capture of CO{sub 2} by fly ash derived sorbents', sample FAS-10 and its deashed counterpart before and after impregnation of chemical PEI were used for the CO{sub 2} adsorption at different temperatures. The sample FAS-10 exhibited a CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 17.5mg/g at 30 C, and decreases to 10.25mg/g at 75 C, while those for de-ashed counterpart are 43.5mg/g and 22.0 mg/g at 30 C and 75 C, respectively. After loading PEI, the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increased to 93.6 mg/g at 75 C for de-ashed sample and 62.1 mg/g at 75 C for raw fly ash sample. The activated fly ash, FAS-4, and its chemical loaded counterparts were tested for CO{sub 2} capture capacity. The activated carbon exhibited a CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 40.3mg/g at 30 C that decreased to 18.5mg/g at 70 C and 7.7mg/g at 120 C. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity profiles changed significantly after impregnation. For the MEA loaded sample the capacity increased to 68.6mg/g at 30 C. The loading of MDEA and DEA initially decreased the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity at 30 C compared to the parent sample but increased to 40.6 and 37.1mg/g, respectively, when the temperature increased to 70 C. The loading of AMP decrease the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity compared to the parent sample under all the studied temperatures. Under Task 4 'Comparison of the CO{sub 2} capture by fly ash derived sorbents with commercial sorbents', the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities of selected activated fly ash carbons were compared to commercial activated carbons. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of fly ash derived activated carbon, FAS-4, and its chemical loaded counterpart presented CO{sub 2} capture capacities close to 7 wt%, which are comparable to, and even better than, the published values of 3-4%.

  20. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, March 11, 1993--June 11, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are two basic approaches to addressing the problem of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions: (1) desulfurize (and denitrogenate) the feedstock prior to or during combustion; or (2) scrub the resultant SO{sub 2} and oxides of nitrogen from the boiler flue gases. The flue gas processing alternative has been addressed in this project via microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} by sulfate-reducing bacteria

  1. Major transitions in evolution linked to thermal gradients above hydrothermal vents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anthonie W. J. Muller

    2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The emergence of the main divisions of today's life: (1) unicellular prokaryotes, (2) unicellular eukaryotes, (3) multicellular eukaryotes, and (4) metazoans, are examples of the--still unexplained--major transitions in evolution. Regarding the origin of life, I have proposed that primordial life functioned as heat engine (thermosynthesis) while thermally cycled in convecting volcanic hot springs. Here I argue for a role of thermal gradients above submarine hydrothermal vents (SHV) in several major transitions. The last decade has witnessed the emergence of phononics, a novel discipline in physics based on controlled heat transport in thermal gradients. It builds thermal analogs to electronic devices: the thermal diode, the thermal transistor, the thermal switch, the thermal amplifier, the thermal memory--the thermal computer has been proposed. Encouraged by (1) the many similarities between microtubules (MT) and carbon nanotubes, which have a very high thermal conductivity, and (2) the recent discovery of a silk protein which also has a very high thermal conductivity, I combine and extend the mentioned ideas, and propose the general conjecture that several major transitions of evolution were effected by thermal processes, with four additional partial conjectures: (1) The first organisms used heat engines during thermosynthesis in convection cells; (2) The first eukaryotic cells used MT during thermosynthesis in the thermal gradient above SHV; (3) The first metazoans used transport of water or in water during thermosynthesis above SHV under an ice-covered ocean during the Gaskiers Snowball Earth; and (4) The first mammalian brain used a thermal machinery based on thermal gradients in or across the cortex. When experimentally proven these conjectures, which are testable by the methods of synthetic biology, would significantly enhance our understanding of life.

  2. Fundamental mechanisms in flue-gas conditioning. Topical report No. 1, Literature review and assembly of theories on the interactions of ash and FGD sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlin, R.S.; Vann Bush, P.; Snyder, T.R.

    1992-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of this research project is to formulate a mathematical model of flue gas conditioning. This model will be based on an understanding of why ash properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Such a model could serve as a component of the performance models of particulate control devices where flue gas conditioning is used. There are two specific objectives of this research project, which divide the planned research into two main parts. One part of the project is designed to determine how ash particles are modified by interactions with sorbent injection processes and to describe the mechanisms by which these interactions affect fine particle collection. The objective of the other part of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which conditioning agents, including chemically active compounds, modify the key properties of fine fly ash particles.

  3. Efficient capture of CO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas by formation of TBAB or TBAF semiclathrate hydrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shuanshi Fan; Shifeng Li; Jingqu Wang; Xuemei Lang; Yanhong Wang [South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China). Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conversation

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Capturing CO{sub 2} by forming hydrate is an attractive technology for reducing the greenhouse effect. The most primary challenges are high energy consumption, low hydrate formation rate, and separation efficiency. This work presents efficient capture of CO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas (CO{sub 2} (16.60 mol %)/N{sub 2} binary mixtures) by formation of semiclathrate hydrates at 4.5 and 7.1{sup o}C and feed pressures ranging from 2.19 to 7.31 MPa. The effect of 0.293 mol % tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) and tetra-n-butyl ammonium fluoride (TBAF) on the hydrate formation rate, reactor space velocity, and CO{sub 2} separation efficiency was studied in a 1 L stirred reactor. The results showed the hydrate formation rate constant increased with increasing feed pressure and reached the maximum at 2.82 x 10{sup -7} mol{sup 2}/(s.J) with TBAB and 8.26 x 10{sup -7} mol{sup 2}/(s.J) with TBAF. The space velocity of the hydrate reactor increased with increasing feed pressure and reached a maximum of 13.46 h{sup -1} with TBAB and 25.96 h{sup -1} with TBAF. CO{sub 2} recovery was about 50%, and the optimum CO{sub 2} separation factor with TBAF was 36.98, which was about 4 times higher than that with TBAB in the range of feed pressure. CO{sub 2} could be enriched to 90.40 mol % from simulated flue gas under low feed pressure by two stages of hydrate separation with TBAF. The results demonstrated that TBAB, especially TBAF, could accelerate hydrate formation. The space velocity of the hydrate reactor with TBAB or TBAF was higher than that with THF. CO{sub 2} could be easily enriched in the hydrate phase by two stages of hydrate separation under gentle conditions. 27 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Experimental research on emission and removal of dioxins in flue gas from a co-combustion of MSW and coal incinerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong Zhaoping [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)]. E-mail: zzhong@seu.edu.cn; Jin Baosheng [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Huang Yaji [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Zhou Hongcang [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Lan Jixiang [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the experimental study of dioxins removal from flue gas from a co-combustion municipal solid waste and coal incinerator by means of a fluidized absorption tower and a fabric filter. A test rig has been set up. The flow rate of flue gas of the test rig is 150-2000 m{sup 3}/h. The system was composed of a humidification and cooling system, an absorption tower, a demister, a slurry make-up tank, a desilter, a fabric filter and a measurement system. The total height of the absorption tower was 6.5 m, and the diameter of the reactor pool was 1.2 m. When the absorbent was 1% limestone slurry, the recirculation ratio was 3, the jet rate was 5-15 m/s and the submerged depth of the bubbling pipe under the slurry was 0.14 m, the removal efficiency for dioxins was 99.35%. The concentration of dioxins in the treated flue gas was 0.1573 x 10{sup -13} kg/Nm{sup 3} and the concentration of oxygen was 11%. This concentration is comparable to the emission standards of other developed countries.

  5. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Topical report, April 1, 1996--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Brackebusch, F.; Carpenter, J. [and others

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report represents the Final Technical Progress Report for Phase II of the overall program for a cooperative research agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy - MORGANTOWN Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). Under the agreement, SIUC will develop and demonstrate technologies for the handling, transport, and placement in abandoned underground coal mines of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products, such as fly ash, scrubber sludge, fluidized bed combustion by-products, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground placement. The overall program is divided into three (3) phases. Phase II of the program is primarily concerned with developing and testing the hardware for the actual underground placement demonstrations. Two technologies have been identified and hardware procured for full-scale demonstrations: (1) hydraulic placement, where coal combustion by-products (CCBs) will be placed underground as a past-like mixture containing about 70 to 75 percent solids; and (2) pneumatic placement, where CCBs will be placed underground as a relatively dry material using compressed air. 42 refs., 36 figs., 36 tabs.

  6. Flue Gas Perification Utilizing SOx/NOx Reactions During Compression of CO2 Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Fogash

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States wishes to decrease foreign energy dependence by utilizing the country’s significant coal reserves, while stemming the effects of global warming from greenhouse gases. In response to these needs, Air Products has developed a patented process for the compression and purification of the CO2 stream from oxyfuel combustion of pulverized coal. The purpose of this project was the development and performance of a comprehensive experimental and engineering evaluation to determine the feasibility of purifying CO2 derived from the flue gas generated in a tangentially fired coal combustion unit operated in the oxy-combustion mode. Following the design and construction of a 15 bar reactor system, Air Products conducted two test campaigns using the slip stream from the tangentially fired oxy-coal combustion unit. During the first test campaign, Air Products evaluated the reactor performance based on both the liquid and gaseous reactor effluents. The data obtained from the test run has enabled Air Products to determine the reaction and mass transfer rates, as well as the effectiveness of the reactor system. During the second test campaign, Air Products evaluated reactor performance based on effluents for different reactor pressures, as well as water recycle rates. Analysis of the reaction equations indicates that both pressure and water flow rate affect the process reaction rates, as well as the overall reactor performance.

  7. Flue Gas Purification Utilizing SOx/NOx Reactions During Compression of CO{sub 2} Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fogash, Kevin

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States wishes to decrease foreign energy dependence by utilizing the country’s significant coal reserves, while stemming the effects of global warming from greenhouse gases. In response to these needs, Air Products has developed a patented process for the compression and purification of the CO{sub 2} stream from oxyfuel combustion of pulverized coal. The purpose of this project was the development and performance of a comprehensive experimental and engineering evaluation to determine the feasibility of purifying CO{sub 2} derived from the flue gas generated in a tangentially fired coal combustion unit operated in the oxy-combustion mode. Following the design and construction of a 15 bar reactor system, Air Products conducted two test campaigns using the slip stream from the tangentially fired oxy-coal combustion unit. During the first test campaign, Air Products evaluated the reactor performance based on both the liquid and gaseous reactor effluents. The data obtained from the test run has enabled Air Products to determine the reaction and mass transfer rates, as well as the effectiveness of the reactor system. During the second test campaign, Air Products evaluated reactor performance based on effluents for different reactor pressures, as well as water recycle rates. Analysis of the reaction equations indicates that both pressure and water flow rate affect the process reaction rates, as well as the overall reactor performance.

  8. Absorption, electrodialysis and additional regeneration in two flue gas SO/sub 2//NO/sub x/ cleanup processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, R.J.; Pennline, H.W.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Eleven potential adsorbents for use in the two processes were tested in a laboratory-scale bubble column. Best absorbent performance was obtained with iron EDTA in an ammonium sulfite/sulfate solution. Removals of greater than 95% were observed for SO/sub 2/, NO, and NO/sub 2/ from a simulated flue gas containing N/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, NO, and NO/sub 2/. Laboratory-scale electrodialysis tests of fresh scrubbing liquor revealed that iron EDTA tended to permeate through anion-selective membranes and thus deleteriously affected process performance. Screening tests with twelve types of anion-selective membranes showed that three had EDTA permeation rates that were acceptable for process operation. Two methods of regeneration with respect to the NO/sub x/-removal component were investigated. Thermal stripping did not appear successful for producing nitrogen oxides in the off-gas from the stripper. A thermal treatment of the spent liquor at 50/sup 0/C successfully regenerated iron EDTA. The mechanism is being investigated.

  9. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report. Volume 2. Appendices G, H, and I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final report, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluation, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as Appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  10. Alternative flue gas treatment technologies for integrated SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markussen, J.M. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States); Livengood, D.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Enactment of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, as well as passage of legislation at the state level has raised the prospect of more stringent nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emission regulations and has fueled research and development efforts on a number technologies for the combined control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and NO{sub x}. The integrated removal of both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in a single system can offer significant advantages over the use of several separate processes, including such factors as reduced system complexity, better operability, and lower costs. This paper reviews the status of a number of integrated flue gas cleanup systems that have reached a significant stage of development, focusing on post-combustion processes that have been tested or are ready for testing at the pilot scale or larger. A brief process description, a summary of the development status and performance achieved to date, pending commercialization issues, and process economics (when available) are given for each technology.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF SUPERIOR SORBENTS FOR SEPARATION OF CO2 FROM FLUE GAS AT A WIDE TEMPERATURE RANGE DURING COAL COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panagiotis G. Smirniotis

    2005-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    For this part of the project the studies focused on the development of novel sorbents for reducing the carbon dioxide emissions at high temperatures. Our studies focused on cesium doped CaO sorbents with respect to other major flue gas compounds in a wide temperature range. The thermo-gravimetric analysis of sorbents with loadings of CaO doped on 20 wt% cesium demonstrated high CO{sub 2} sorption uptakes (up to 66 wt% CO{sub 2}/sorbent). It is remarkable to note that zero adsorption affinity for N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and NO at temperatures as high as 600 C was observed. For water vapor and nitrogen oxide we observed a positive effect for CO{sub 2} adsorption. In the presence of steam, the CO{sub 2} adsorption increased to the highest adsorption capacity of 77 wt% CO{sub 2}/sorbent. In the presence of nitrogen oxide, the final CO{sub 2} uptake remained same, but the rate of adsorption was higher at the initial stages (10%) than the case where no nitrogen oxide was fed.

  12. The use of wet limestone systems for combined removal of SO sub 2 and NO sub x from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, G.C. (Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Shen, D.X.; Littlejohn, D.; Chang, S.G. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new approach by utilizing yellow phosphorus in conventional wet limestone systems for high efficiency control of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions from power plants has been developed. The addition of yellow phosphorus in the system induces the production of O{sub 3} which subsequently oxidizes NO to NO{sub 2}. The resulting NO{sub 2} dissolves readily and can be reduced to form ammonium ions by dissolved SO{sub 2} under appropriate conditions. Yellow phosphorus is oxidized to yield P{sub 2}O{sub 5} which picks up water to form H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} mists and can be collected as a valuable product. Proof of concept experiments have been performed using a 20 acfm bench-scale system. The results show that better than 90% of SO{sub 2} and NO in simulated flue gas can be removed. Stoichiometric ratios (P/NO) ranging between 0.6 and 1.5 were obtained. This ratio depends on operating conditions as well as the process configuration. A conceptual process flow diagram has been proposed. A preliminary cost evaluation of this approach appears to indicate great economic potential. 22 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Method of estimating maximum VOC concentration in void volume of vented waste drums using limited sampling data: Application in transuranic waste drums

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles as well as limited waste drum sampling data. The model consists of a series of material balance equations describing steady-state VOC transport from each distinct void volume in the drum. The primary model input is the measured drum headspace VOC concentration. Model parameters are determined or estimated based on available process knowledge. The model effectiveness in estimating VOC concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement was examined for vented waste drums containing different waste types and configurations. This paper summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions in vented transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste.

  14. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S. [and others

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC 30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. Previous quarterly Technical Progress Reports have set forth the specific objectives of the program, as well as the management plan and the test plan for the overall program, and a discussion of these will not be repeated here. Rather, this report, will set forth the technical progress made during the period January 1 through March 31, 1995. The demonstration of the SEEC, Inc. technology for the transporting of coal combustion residues was completed with the unloading and final disposition of the three Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC). The loading and transport by rail of the three CIC`s was quire successful; however some difficulties were encountered in the unloading of the containers. A full topical report on the entire SEEC demonstration is being prepared. As a result of the demonstration some modifications of the SEEC concept may be undertaken. Also during the quarter the location of the injection wells at the Peabody No. 10 mine demonstration site were selected. Peabody Coal Company has developed the specifications for the wells and sought bids for the actual drilling. It is expected that the wells will be drilled early in May.

  15. Scrubber strategy: the how and why of flue gas desulfurization. [Analysis of 20 US scrubbing systems in 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baviello, M.A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, INFORM provides facts that will help the non-technical decisionmakers in the US understand a technology that can significantly reduce the polluting effects of burning coal. Those decisionmakers include legislators, regulators and utility executives, public interest groups, concerned community organizations and environmentalists who have been involved in the debate over the broader use of our most abundant fossil fuel - coal. The use of this resource, especially in large industrial and utility plants, has created widespread and intense public controversy. For the past four years INFORM has turned its research capabilities to defining cleaner and more economical ways of using US coal supplies. We have focused on finding out what cleaning coal and using flue gas desulfurization systems (called scrubbers) can contribute to reducing the polluting effects of burning coal in utility plants. All in all, both scrubbers and coal cleaning offer exciting and important possibilities for putting more coal to work in generating power in this country more economically and still meeting critical air quality standards that have been set to protect public health. The need for accurate and clear information concerning these technologies is evident: 80% of the sulfur dioxide emissions in the US now come from utility power plant operations, and over 140 existing oil-fired power plants are candidates for conversion to coal use. We hope that this documentation of the technologies of scrubber systems along with INFORM's companion study of coal cleaning, may help government and business planners and concerned citizens chart intelligent future courses and set realistic goals for meeting our energy needs in an environmentally sound manner.

  16. Terr. Atmos. Ocean. Sci., Vol. 17, No. 4, 933-950, December 2006 Methane Venting in Gas Hydrate Potential Area Offshore of SW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Andrew Tien-Shun

    933 Terr. Atmos. Ocean. Sci., Vol. 17, No. 4, 933-950, December 2006 Methane Venting in Gas Hydrate-mail: tyyang@ntu.edu.tw Water column samples were collected systematically in several poten- tial gas hydrate are considered to have originated from dissociation of gas hydrates and/or a deeper gas reservoir. (Key words

  17. Inorganic hazardous air pollutants before and after a limestone flue gas desulfurization system as a function of <10 micrometer particle sizes and unit load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, D.P.; Williams, W.A.; Flora, H.B. II [Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Radian Corporation collected size-fractionated particulate samples from stack gas at a unit burning high sulfur coal with a venturi scrubber FGD system. Independent sample fractions were collected under high-load and low-load operating conditions and subjected to various techniques designed to measure the total composition and surface-extractable concentrations of selected trace elements. The relationships between unit load, particle-size distribution, total composition, and surface-extractable inorganic species are reported and compared to show the availability of trace elements relevant to potential health risks from flue gas particulate emissions.

  18. Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 15, September 1, 1994--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project (NDP), with cost-shared funding support from DOE, is to design, construct, and operate a commercial-scale flue gas cleanup system utilizing the NOXSO process. The NDP consists of the NOXSO plant and sulfur recovery unit, designed to remove SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gas and produce elemental sulfur by-product, and the liquid SO{sub 2} plant and air separation unit, designed to process the elemental sulfur into liquid SO{sub 2}. The NOXSO plant and sulfur recovery unit will be constructed at ALCOA Generating Corporation`s (AGC) Warrick Power Plant near Evansville, Indiana, and will treat all of the flue gas from the 150-MW Unit 2 boiler. The elemental sulfur produced will be shipped to the Olin Charleston Plant in Charleston, Tennessee, for conversion into liquid SO{sub 2}.

  19. Research and Education of CO{sub 2} Separation from Coal Combustion Flue Gases with Regenerable Magnesium Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Joo-Youp

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method using environment-friendly chemical magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}) solution to capture carbon dioxide from coal-fired power plants flue gas has been studied under this project in the post-combustion control area. The project utilizes the chemistry underlying the CO{sub 2}-Mg(OH){sub 2} system and proven and well-studied mass transfer devices for high levels of CO{sub 2} removal. The major goals of this research were to select and design an appropriate absorber which can absorb greater than 90% CO{sub 2} gas with low energy costs, and to find and optimize the operating conditions for the regeneration step. During the project period, we studied the physical and chemical characteristics of the scrubbing agent, the reaction taking place in the system, development and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gas absorber, desorption mechanism, and operation and optimization of continuous operation. Both batch and continuous operations were performed to examine the effects of various parameters including liquid-to-gas ratio, residence time, lean solvent concentration, pressure drop, bed height, CO{sub 2} partial pressure, bubble size, pH, and temperature on the absorption. The dissolution of Mg(OH){sub 2} particles, formation of magnesium carbonate (MgCO{sub 3}), and vapor-liquid-solid equilibrium (VLSE) of the system were also studied. The dissolution of Mg(OH){sub 2} particles and the steady release of magnesium ions into the solution was a crucial step to maintain a level of alkalinity in the CO{sub 2} absorption process. The dissolution process was modeled using a shrinking core model, and the dissolution reaction between proton ions and Mg(OH){sub 2} particles was found to be a rate-controlling step. The intrinsic surface reaction kinetics was found to be a strong function of temperature, and its kinetic expression was obtained. The kinetics of MgCO{sub 3} formation was also studied in terms of different pH values and temperatures, and was enhanced under high pH and temperatures.

  20. Pilot-scale study of the effect of selective catalytic reduction catalyst on mercury speciation in Illinois and Powder River Basin coal combustion flue gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.W.; Srivastava, R.K.; Ghorishi, S.B.; Karwowski, J.; Hastings, T.H.; Hirschi, J.C. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst on mercury (Hg) speciation in bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases. Three different Illinois Basin bituminous coals (from high to low sulfur (S) and chlorine (Cl)) and one Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal with very low S and very low Cl were tested in a pilot-scale combustor equipped with an SCR reactor for controlling nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The SCR catalyst induced high oxidation of elemental Hg (Hg{sup 0}), decreasing the percentage of Hg{sup 0} at the outlet of the SCR to values <12% for the three Illinois coal tests. The PRB coal test indicated a low oxidation of Hg{sup 0} by the SCR catalyst, with the percentage of Hg{sup 0} decreasing from {approximately} 96% at the inlet of the reactor to {approximately} 80% at the outlet. The low Cl content of the PRB coal and corresponding low level of available flue gas Cl species were believed to be responsible for low SCR Hg oxidation for this coal type. The test results indicated a strong effect of coal type on the extent of Hg oxidation. 16 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Flue gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention involves a combustion process in which combustion gas containing sulfur oxide is directed past a series of heat exchangers to a stack and in which a sodium compound is added to the combustion gas in a temparature zone of above about 1400 K to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Preferably, the temperature is above about 1800 K and the sodium compound is present as a vapor to provide a gas-gas reaction to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ as a liquid. Since liquid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ may cause fouling of heat exchanger surfaces downstream from the combustion zone, the process advantageously includes the step of injecting a cooling gas downstream of the injection of the sodium compound yet upstream of one or more heat exchangers to cool the combustion gas to below about 1150 K and form solid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The cooling gas is preferably a portion of the combustion gas downstream which may be recycled for cooling. It is further advantageous to utilize an electrostatic precipitator downstream of the heat exchangers to recover the Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. It is also advantageous in the process to remove a portion of the combustion gas cleaned in the electrostatic precipitator and recycle that portion upstream to use as the cooling gas. 3 figures.

  2. A Feasibility Study of H{sub 2}S Abatement by Incineration of Noncondensable Gases in Vented Steam Flow from Davies-State 5206-1 Geothermal Steam Well, Geysers Geothermal Steam Field, Lake County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2006-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Determine feasibility of using an incineration-type device to accomplish the required reduction in vent steam H{sub 2}S content to meet ICAPCO rules. This approach is to be the only method considered in this feasibility study.

  3. Doors | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPowerHome | Documents Memorandum from Secretary

  4. Doors | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 Federal Register / Vol. 73, No. 219Does Your City Have aDong Kwun Kim

  5. Fermilab | Science Next Door

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA)Budget » FYU.S.at500-mileFY Maps

  6. Aluminum Bronze Alloys to Improve the System Life of Basic Oxygen and Electric Arc Furnace Hoods, Roofs and Side Vents.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence C. Boyd Jr.; Dr. Vinod K. Sikka

    2006-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Industries of Ohio was the lead organization for a consortium that examined the current situation involving the service life of electric arc and basic oxygen furnace hoods, roofs and side vents. Republic Engineered Products (REP), one of the project partners, installed a full-scale Al-Bronze “skirt” in their BOF at their Lorain OH facility, believed to be the first such installation of this alloy in this service. In 24 months of operation, the Al-Bronze skirt has processed a total of 4,563 heats, requiring only 2 shutdowns for maintenance, both related to physical damage to the skirt from operational mishaps. Yearly energy savings related to the REP facility are projected to be ~ 10 billion Btu's with significant additional environmental and productivity benefits. In recognition of the excellent results, this project was selected as the winner of the Ohio’s 2006 Governor’s Award for Excellence in Energy, the state’s award for outstanding achievements in energy efficiency.

  7. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 3: SOx/NOx/Hg Removal for Low Sulfur Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Minish Shah

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project was to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxycombustion technology. The objective of Task 3 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning low sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was to conduct an experimental investigation and to develop a novel process for simultaneously removal of SOx and NOx from power plants that would operate on low sulfur coal without the need for wet-FGD & SCRs. A novel purification process operating at high pressures and ambient temperatures was developed. Activated carbonâ??s catalytic and adsorbent capabilities are used to oxidize the sulfur and nitrous oxides to SO{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} species, which are adsorbed on the activated carbon and removed from the gas phase. Activated carbon is regenerated by water wash followed by drying. The development effort commenced with the screening of commercially available activated carbon materials for their capability to remove SO{sub 2}. A bench-unit operating in batch mode was constructed to conduct an experimental investigation of simultaneous SOx and NOx removal from a simulated oxyfuel flue gas mixture. Optimal operating conditions and the capacity of the activated carbon to remove the contaminants were identified. The process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx. In the longevity tests performed on a batch unit, the retention capacity could be maintained at high level over 20 cycles. This process was able to effectively remove up to 4000 ppm SOx from the simulated feeds corresponding to oxyfuel flue gas from high sulfur coal plants. A dual bed continuous unit with five times the capacity of the batch unit was constructed to test continuous operation and longevity. Full-automation was implemented to enable continuous operation (24/7) with minimum operator supervision. Continuous run was carried out for 40 days. Very high SOx (>99.9%) and NOx (98%) removal efficiencies were also achieved in a continuous unit. However, the retention capacity of carbon beds for SOx and NOx was decreased from ~20 hours to ~10 hours over a 40 day period of operation, which was in contrast to the results obtained in a batch unit. These contradictory results indicate the need for optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level and thus minimize the capital cost of the system. In summary, the activated carbon process exceeded performance targets for SOx and NOx removal efficiencies and it was found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. More efforts are needed to optimize the system performance.

  8. Development of Superior Sorbents for Separation of CO2 from Flue Gas at a Wide Temperature Range During Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panagiotis G. Smirniotis

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In chapter 1, the studies focused on the development of novel sorbents for reducing the carbon dioxide emissions at high temperatures. Our studies focused on cesium doped CaO sorbents with respect to other major flue gas compounds in a wide temperature range. The thermo-gravimetric analysis of sorbents with loadings of CaO doped on 20 wt% cesium demonstrated high CO{sub 2} sorption uptakes (up to 66 wt% CO{sub 2}/sorbent). It is remarkable to note that zero adsorption affinity for N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and NO at temperatures as high as 600 C was observed. For water vapor and nitrogen oxide we observed a positive effect for CO{sub 2} adsorption. In the presence of steam, the CO{sub 2} adsorption increased to the highest adsorption capacity of 77 wt% CO{sub 2}/sorbent. In the presence of nitrogen oxide, the final CO{sub 2} uptake remained same, but the rate of adsorption was higher at the initial stages (10%) than the case where no nitrogen oxide was fed. In chapter 2, Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O, CaO, Ca(OH){sub 2}, CaCO{sub 3}, and Ca(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O were used as precursors for synthesis of CaO sorbents on this work. The sorbents prepared from calcium acetate (CaAc{sub 2}-CaO) resulted in the best uptake characteristics for CO{sub 2}. It possessed higher BET surface area and higher pore volume than the other sorbents. According to SEM images, this sorbent shows 'fluffy' structure, which probably contributes to its high surface area and pore volume. When temperatures were between 550 and 800 C, this sorbent could be carbonated almost completely. Moreover, the carbonation progressed dominantly at the initial short period. Under numerous adsorption-desorption cycles, the CaAc{sub 2}-CaO demonstrated the best reversibility, even under the existence of 10 vol % water vapor. In a 27 cyclic running, the sorbent sustained fairly high carbonation conversion of 62%. Pore size distributions indicate that their pore volume decreased when experimental cycles went on. Silica was doped on the CaAc{sub 2}-CaO in various weight percentages, but the resultant sorbent did not exhibit better performance under cyclic operation than those without dopant. In chapter 3, the Calcium-based carbon dioxide sorbents were made in the gas phase by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) and compared to the ones made by standard high temperature calcination (HTC) of selected calcium precursors. The FSP-made sorbents were solid nanostructured particles having twice as large specific surface area (40-60 m{sup 2}/g) as the HTC-made sorbents (i.e. from calcium acetate monohydrate). All FSP-made sorbents showed high capacity for CO{sub 2} uptake at high temperatures (773-1073 K) while the HTC-made ones from calcium acetate monohydrate (CaAc{sub 2} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O) demonstrated the best performance for CO{sub 2} uptake among all HTC-made sorbents. At carbonation temperatures less than 773 K, FSP-made sorbents demonstrated better performance for CO{sub 2} uptake than all HTC-made sorbents. Above that, both FSP-made, and HTC-made sorbents from CaAc{sub 2} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O exhibited comparable carbonation rates and maximum conversion. In multiple carbonation/decarbonation cycles, FSP-made sorbents demonstrated stable, reversible and high CO{sub 2} uptake capacity sustaining maximum molar conversion at about 50% even after 60 such cycles indicating their potential for CO{sub 2} uptake. In chapter 4 we investigated the performance of CaO sorbents with dopant by flame spray pyrolysis at higher temperature. The results show that the sorbent with zirconia gave best performance among sorbents having different dopants. The one having Zr to Ca of 3:10 by molar gave stable performance. The calcium conversion around 64% conversion during 102-cycle operations at 973 K. When carbonation was performance at 823 K, the Zr/Ca sorbent (3:10) exhibited stable performance of 56% by calcium molar conversion, or 27% by sorbent weight, both of which are less than those at 973 K as expected. In chapter 5 we investigated the perfor

  9. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, December 11, 1992--March 11, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the potential of sulfate reducing bacteria to fix sulfur derived from flue gas desulfurization. The first section reviews the problem, the second section reviews progress of this study to use desulfovibrio desulfuricans for this purpose. The final section related progress during the current reporting period. This latter section describes studies to immobilize the bacteria in co-culture with floc-forming anaerobes, use of sewage sludges in the culture media, and sulfate production from sulfur dioxide.

  10. Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip Sheet #13 (Fact Sheet), Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric Vehicle and03/02 TUE 08:59 FAXFact Sheet UraniumThrough the3 Use a Vent

  11. FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

    2004-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, AL). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{trademark}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{trademark} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{trademark} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{trademark} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury--elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{trademark}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{trademark} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{trademark} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

  12. wipp _vents.png

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron4 Self-Scrubbing:,, ,Development1U CO1) 1 Winter Fuels Updated0 1 Winter

  13. High-volume, high-value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines - Phase I: Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, October 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project proposes to use pneumatically or hydraulically emplaced dry-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products to backfill the adits left by highwall mining. Backfilling highwall mine adits with dry-FGD materials is technically attractive. The use of an active highwall mine would allow the dry-FGD material to be brought in using the same transportation network used to move the coal out, eliminating the need to recreated the transportation infrastructure, thereby saving costs. Activities during the period included the negotiations leading to the final cooperative agreement for the project and the implementation of the necessary instruments at the University of Kentucky to administer the project. Early in the negotiations, a final agreement on a task structure was reached and a milestone plan was filed. A review was initiated of the original laboratory plan as presented in the proposal, and tentative modifications were developed. Selection of a mine site was made early; the Pleasant Valley mine in Greenup County was chosen. Several visits were made to the mine site to begin work on the hydrologic monitoring plan. The investigation of the types of permits needed to conduct the project was initiated. Considerations concerning the acceptance and implementation of technologies led to the choice of circulating fluidized bed ash as the primary material for the study. Finally, the membership of a Technical Advisory Committee for the study was assembled.

  14. Catalytic hydrolysis of urea with fly ash for generation of ammonia in a batch reactor for flue gas conditioning and NOx reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahu, J.N.; Gangadharan, P.; Patwardhan, A.V.; Meikap, B.C. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ammonia is a highly volatile noxious material with adverse physiological effects, which become intolerable even at very low concentrations and present substantial environmental and operating hazards and risk. Yet ammonia has long been known to be used for feedstock of flue gas conditioning and NOx reduction. Urea as the source of ammonia for the production of ammonia has the obvious advantages that no ammonia shipping, handling, and storage is required. The process of this invention minimizes the risks and hazards associated with the transport, storage, and use of anhydrous and aqueous ammonia. Yet no such rapid urea conversion process is available as per requirement of high conversion in shorter time, so here we study the catalytic hydrolysis of urea for fast conversion in a batch reactor. The catalyst used in this study is fly ash, a waste material originating in great amounts in combustion processes. A number of experiments were carried out in a batch reactor at different catalytic doses, temperatures, times, and at a constant concentration of urea solution 10% by weight, and equilibrium and kinetic studies have been made.

  15. Packed-Bed Reactor Study of NETL Sample 196c for the Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Simulated Flue Gas Mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, James S.; Hammache, Sonia; Gray, McMahan L.; Fauth Daniel J.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An amine-based solid sorbent process to remove CO2 from flue gas has been investigated. The sorbent consists of polyethylenimine (PEI) immobilized onto silica (SiO2) support. Experiments were conducted in a packed-bed reactor and exit gas composition was monitored using mass spectrometry. The effects of feed gas composition (CO2 and H2O), temperature, and simulated steam regeneration were examined for both the silica support as well as the PEI-based sorbent. The artifact of the empty reactor was also quantified. Sorbent CO2 capacity loading was compared to thermogravimetric (TGA) results to further characterize adsorption isotherms and better define CO2 working capacity. Sorbent stability was monitored by periodically repeating baseline conditions throughout the parametric testing and replacing with fresh sorbent as needed. The concept of the Basic Immobilized Amine Sorbent (BIAS) Process using this sorbent within a system where sorbent continuously flows between the absorber and regenerator was introduced. The basic tenet is to manipulate or control the level of moisture on the sorbent as it travels around the sorbent circulation path between absorption and regeneration stages to minimize its effect on regeneration heat duty.

  16. Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a summary of the full-scale demonstration efforts involved in the project ''Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC{reg_sign} System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas''. The project took place at Alabama Power's Plant Gaston Unit 3 and involved the injection of sorbent between an existing particulate collector (hot-side electrostatic precipitators) and a COHPAC{reg_sign} fabric filter (baghouse) downstream. Although the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse was designed originally for polishing the flue gas, when activated carbon injection was added, the test was actually evaluating the EPRI TOXECON{reg_sign} configuration. The results from the baseline tests with no carbon injection showed that the cleaning frequency in the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit was much higher than expected, and was above the target maximum cleaning frequency of 1.5 pulses/bag/hour (p/b/h), which was used during the Phase I test in 2001. There were times when the baghouse was cleaning continuously at 4.4 p/b/h. In the 2001 tests, there was virtually no mercury removal at baseline conditions. In this second round of tests, mercury removal varied between 0 and 90%, and was dependent on inlet mass loading. There was a much higher amount of ash exiting the electrostatic precipitators (ESP), creating an inlet loading greater than the design conditions for the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Tests were performed to try to determine the cause of the high ash loading. The LOI of the ash in the 2001 baseline tests was 11%, while the second baseline tests showed an LOI of 17.4%. The LOI is an indication of the carbon content in the ash, which can affect the native mercury uptake, and can also adversely affect the performance of ESPs, allowing more ash particles to escape the unit. To overcome this, an injection scheme was implemented that balanced the need to decrease carbon injection during times when inlet loading to the baghouse was high and increase carbon injection when inlet loading and mercury removal were low. The resulting mercury removal varied between 50 and 98%, with an overall average of 85.6%, showing that the process was successful at removing high percentages of vapor-phase mercury even with a widely varying mass loading. In an effort to improve baghouse performance, high-permeability bags were tested. The new bags made a significant difference in the cleaning frequency of the baghouse. Before changing the bags, the baghouse was often in a continuous clean of 4.4 p/b/h, but with the new bags the cleaning frequency was very low, at less than 1 p/b/h. Alternative sorbent tests were also performed using these high-permeability bags. The results of these tests showed that most standard, high-quality activated carbon performed similarly at this site; low-cost sorbent and ash-based sorbents were not very effective at removing mercury; and chemically enhanced sorbents did not appear to offer any benefits over standard activated carbons at this site.

  17. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Second quarterly technical progress report, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994 (Quarter No. 2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}{lg_bullet}0.5H{sub 2}0), gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{lg_bullet}2H{sub 2}0), and unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}), with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides; silica; and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. Currently, the only market for scrubber sludge is for manufacture of gypsum products, such as wallboard and plaster, and for cement. However, the quality of the raw sludge is often not high enough or consistent enough to satisfy manufacturers, and so the material is difficult to sell. This project is developing a process that can produce a high-quality calcium sulfite or gypsum product while keeping process costs low enough that the material produced will be competitive with that from other, more conventional sources. This purification will consist of minimal-reagent froth flotation, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified gypsum or calcium sulfite product. The separated limestone will be a useful by-product, as it can be recycled to the scrubber, thus boosting the limestone utilization and improving process efficiency. Calcium sulfite will then be oxidized to gypsum, or separated as a salable product in its own right from sludges where it is present in sufficient quantity. The main product of the process will be either gypsum or calcium sulfite, depending on the characteristics of the sludge being processed. These products will be sufficiently pure to be easily marketed, rather that being landfilled.

  18. Novel technologies for SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} removal from flue gas. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kung, H.; Kung, M.; Yang, B.; Spivey, J.J.; Jang, B.W.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to develop a cost-effective low temperature deNO{sub x} catalyst to be used in the Research Triangle Institute-Waterloo SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} process for boiler retrofit applications. The performance goal of the catalyst is to convert over 80% of the NO in the flue gas at a temperature as low as 150{degrees}C in the presence of 4% O{sub 2}, and 10% water. Based on the results obtained in the previous quarter, which showed a La-Cu-ZrO{sub 2} catalyst to be a promising low temperature catalyst in the presence of 2% H{sub 2}O in the reduction of NO to N{sub 2} with isobutanol, research was conducted to investigate the variations in feed conditions on the performance of the catalyst. Specifically, the effect of increased H{sub 2}O concentration and the effect of NO{sub 2} in the feed were investigated. Although the activity of the catalyst declined when the H{sub 2}O concentration was increased from 2 to 10%, the decline was relatively mild compared with that when the water content was changed from 0 to 2%. The effect of NO{sub 2} was investigated because oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2}, a thermodynamically favorable process, proceeds at a finite rate even in the absence of a catalyst. It was found that, under the low temperature reaction conditions, replacement of NO{sub 2} with NO did not affect the catalytic performance of the La-Cu-ZrO{sub 2} catalyst. Besides studying the La-Cu-ZrO{sub 2} catalyst, effort has continued in screening other potential catalysts. A promising 5%Cu-2%Ag catalyst supported on active carbon was found that catalyzes NO reduction by acetone. At 150{degrees}C, 35% NO conversion was obtained in the presence of 4% O{sub 2} and 8% H{sub 2}O at a space velocity of 3000 h{sup {minus}1} after 5 h on stream.

  19. Decision Support System for integrated door-to-door delivery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ducatelle, Frederick

    , responsible for traffic infra- structure, while the demand side is constituted by production and trans on the demand side and support planning on the supply side. The objectives of the supply-oriented system, filtered and aggregated suitably to become information with added value. MOSCA Homepage - www

  20. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this research was to investigate microorganisms capable of fossil fuel flue gas desulfurization and denitrification. The study used municipal sewage sludge as a carbon and energy source for SO{sub 2}-reducing cultures. The individual tasks developed a consortium of sulfate-reducing bacteria, investigated the design parameters for a continuous process, preformed a cost analysis, and screened sulfate-reducing bacteria. In the investigation of microbial reduction of NO{sub x} to nitrogen, tasks included screening denitrifying bacteria for NO and NO{sub 2} activity, developing optimum NO-reducing cultures, and investigating design parameters for a continuous system. This final report reviews the work previous to the current project, describes project objectives and the specific work plan, and reports results from the work completed during the previous reporting periods.

  1. Natural Gas Vented and Flared

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1 Source: Office of(Millionthrough 1996)200971 andEIA1-2015

  2. Natural Gas Vented and Flared

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYear Janthrough2,869,9601. Natural5,1958 20098

  3. Experiment on Residential Ventilation System In Actual House

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiecheng, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Traced-gas was used in the experiment in order to evaluate the ventilation effect in different conditions in actual house. The influence of interior doors which opened or closed and vents position were considered in the experiment....

  4. STATE OF CALIFORNIA QUALITY INSULATION INSTALLATION FRAMING STAGE CHECKLIST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sole plate of the home. Yes No All gaps around windows and doors caulked or foamed. Low expanding foam meets conditions above)(NA if unvented attic) Yes No NA Net free-ventilation area of the eave vent

  5. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, September 11, 1992--December 11, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    With the continual increase in the utilization of high sulfur and high nitrogen containing fossil fuels, the release of airborne pollutants into the environment has become a critical problem. The fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 2} during combustion. Fuel nitrogen and a fraction of the nitrogen from the combustion air are converted to nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, NO{sub x}. For the past five years Combustion Engineering (now Asea Brown Boveri or ABB) and, since 1986, the University of Tulsa (TU) have been investigating the oxidation of H{sub 2}S by the facultatively anaerobic and autotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans and have developed a process, concept for the microbial removal of H{sub 2}S from a gas stream the simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO by D. desulfuricans and T. denitrificans co-cultures and cultures-in-series was demonstrated. These systems could not be sustained due to NO inhibition of D. desulfuricans. However, a preliminary economic analysis has shown that microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}S with subsequent conversion to elemental sulfur by the Claus process is both technically and economically feasible if a less expensive carbon and/or energy source can be found. It has also been demonstrated that T. denitrificans can be grown anaerobically on NO(g) as a terminal electron acceptor with reduction to elemental nitrogen. Microbial reduction of NO{sub x} is a viable process concept for the disposal of concentrated streams of NO{sub x} as may be produced by certain regenerable processes for the removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gas.

  6. This document is intended to be a "Guideline" which describes in simple terms a number of basic requirements which must be met before licensing honey processors. For further

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaplane, Keith S.

    License if they process and retail their own honey on their own premises, on a door-to-door retail route located on the premises of a food establishment shall be separated from rooms and areas used for food to walls and ceilings such as light fixtures, mechanical room ventilation system components, vent covers

  7. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the fifth quarterly report for this project. This project is divided into three phases. Phase 1, which has been completed, involved design, engineering, and procurement for the CZD system, duct and facility modifications, and supporting equipment. Phase 2, also completed, included equipment acquisition and installation, facility construction, startup, and operator training for parametric testing. Phase 3 broadly covers testing, operation and disposition, but only a portion of Phase 3 was included in Budget Period 1. That portion was concerned with parametric testing of the CZD system to establish the optimum conditions for an extended, one-year, continuous demonstration. As of December 31, 1991, the following goals have been achieved. (1) Nozzle Selection - A modified Spraying Systems Company (SSC) atomizing nozzle has been selected for the one-year continuous CZD demonstration. (2) SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] Reduction - Preliminary confirmation of 50% SO[sub 2] reduction has been achieved, but the NO[sub x] reduction target cannot be confirmed at this time. (3) Lime Selection - Testing indicated an injection rate of 40 to 50 gallons per minute with a lime slurry concentration of 8 to 10% to achieve 50% SO[sub 2] reduction. There has been no selection of the lime to be used in the one year demonstration. (4) ESP Optimization - Tests conducted to date have shown that lime injection has a very beneficial effect on ESP performance, and little adjustment may be necessary. (5) SO[sub 2] Removal Costs - Testing has not revealed any significant departure from the bases on which Bechtel's original cost estimates (capital and operating) were prepared. Therefore, SO[sub 2] removal costs are still expected to be in the range of $300/ton or less.

  8. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, T.R.; Bush, P.V.

    1993-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed a wide variety of laboratory analyses during the past quarter. As with most of the work we performed during the previous quarter, our recent efforts were primarily directed toward the determination of the effects of adsorbed water on the cohesivity and tensile strength of powders. We also continued our analyses of dust cake ashes that have had the soluble compounds leached from their particle surfaces by repeated washings with water. Our analyses of leached and unleached dust cake ashes continued to provide some interesting insights into effects that compounds adsorbed on surfaces of ash particles can have on bulk ash behavior. As suggested by our literature review, our data indicate that water adsorption depends on particle morphology and on surface chemistry. Our measurements of tensile strength show, that for many of the samples we have analyzed a relative minimum in tensile strength exists for samples conditioned and tested at about 30% relative humidity. In our examinations of the effects of water conditioning on sample cohesivity, we determined that in the absence of absorption of water into the interior of the particles, cohesivity usually increases sharply when environments having relative humidities above 75% are used to condition and test the samples. Plans are under way to condition selected samples with (NH[sub 4])[sub 2]SO[sub 4], NH[sub 4]HSO[sub 4], CaCl[sub 2], organosiloxane, and SO[sub 3]. Pending approval, we will begin these conditioning experiments, and subsequent analyses of the conditioned samples.

  9. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, T.R.; Vann Bush, P.

    1992-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    SEM pictures of the three mixtures of sorbent and ash from the DITF and the base line ESP hopper ash from Muskingum are shown in Figures 1 through 4. The effects of sorbent addition on particle morphology are evident in Figures 2 through 4 by the presence of irregularly shaped particles and deposits on the surfaces of the spherical fly ash particles. In contrast, the base Ene ash particles have the characteristic relatively smooth, spherical morphology normally associated with pulverized-coal (PC) fly ashes. Resistivity determinations made on these four ashes in ascending and descending temperature modes. These data are shown in Figures 5 and 6. Sorbent injection processes performed at the DITF lowered the duct temperature to around 165{degrees}F from about 350{degrees}F for base line operation. Consequently, during collection in the ESP, the particulate matter from the sorbent injection processes had a significantly lower resitivity (approximately 4 {times} 10{sup 7} {Omega}-cm) than the base line ash (approximately 3 {times} 10{sup 11} {Omega}-cm at 350{degrees}F). Specific surface areas and true particle densities have been measured for the four samples obtained from the DOE/PETC Duct Injection Test Facility. These data are summarized in Table 4. The primary difference indicated by these initial analyses of these four samples is the significant increase in specific surface area due to sorbent addition. The specific surface areas of the three sorbent and ash mixtures from the DITF are quite similar.

  10. Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JoAnn S. Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Andrew Fry; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

    2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involves both experimental and modeling efforts. The team is comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective is to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters to be studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. This report summarizes Year 3 results for the experimental and modeling tasks. Experiments have been completed on the effects of chlorine. However, the experiments with sulfur dioxide and NO, in the presence of water, suggest that the wet-chemistry analysis system, namely the impingers, is possibly giving erroneous results. Future work will investigate this further and determine the role of reactions in the impingers on the oxidation results. The solid-phase experiments have not been completed and it is anticipated that only preliminary work will be accomplished during this study.

  11. Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JoAnn Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

    2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involved both experimental and modeling efforts. The team was comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective was to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. The results suggested that homogeneous mercury oxidation is below 10% which is not consistent with previous data of others and work which was completed early in this research program. Previous data showed oxidation above 10% and up to 100%. However, the previous data are suspect due to apparent oxidation occurring within the sampling system where hypochlorite ion forms in the KCl impinger, which in turn oxidized mercury. Initial tests with entrained iron oxide particles injected into a flame reactor suggest that iron present on fly ash particle surfaces can promote heterogeneous oxidation of mercury in the presence of HCl under entrained flow conditions. Using the data generated above, with homogeneous reactions accounting for less than 10% of the oxidation, comparisons were made to pilot- and full-scale data. The results suggest that heterogeneous reactions, as with the case of iron oxide, and adsorption on solid carbon must be taking place in the full-scale system. Modeling of mercury oxidation using parameters from the literature was conducted to further study the contribution of homogeneous pathways to Hg oxidation in coal combustion systems. Calculations from the literature used rate parameters developed in different studies, in some cases using transition state theory with a range of approaches and basis sets, and in other cases using empirical approaches. To address this, rate constants for the entire 8-step homogeneous Hg oxidation sequence were developed using an internally consistent transition state approach. These rate constants when combined with the appropriate sub-mechanisms produced lower estimates of the overall extent of homogeneous oxidation, further suggesting that heterogeneous pathways play an important role in Hg oxidation in coal-fired systems.

  12. Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JoAnn S. Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involves both experimental and modeling efforts. The team is comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective is to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters to be studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. This report summarizes Year 2 results for the experimental and modeling tasks. Experiments in the mercury reactor are underway and interesting results suggested that a more comprehensive look at catalyzed surface reactions was needed. Therefore, much of the work has focused on the heterogeneous reactions. In addition, various chemical kinetic models have been explored in an attempt to explain some discrepancies between this modeling effort and others.

  13. agentschap voor Innovatie door Wetenschap en Technologie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gent, Universiteit

    ) · Focus on societal challenges facing EU society, e.g. health, clean energy and transport · Additional and inland water research and the bio-economy · Secure, clean and efficient energy · Smart, green Regional Development Fund (TRL 2 ­ 9) European Investment Bank (TRL 2 ­ 9) #12;Horizon 2020 Basics

  14. agentschap voor Innovatie door Wetenschap en Technologie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gent, Universiteit

    and integrated transport 5. Climate action, resource efficiency and raw materials 6. Inclusive, innovative for a safe and healthy diet Aquatic living resources Bio-based industries and bioeconomy Marine and maritime agriculture and forestry, marine and maritime and inland water research and the bioeconomy" - LEIT

  15. Fermilab | Science Next Door: Fermilab's Community Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMFormsGasReleaseSpeechesHall A This photophotoReleasesfeature photoJuly

  16. Blower Door Tests | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureCommentsEnergyandapproximately 10| DepartmentinMay5, 2015 AMay

  17. Windows, Doors, & Skylights | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPower 2010 1 TNews

  18. Retrofitting Doors on Open Refrigerated Cases

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin ofEnergy at Waste-to-Energy usingof

  19. Blower Door Tests | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 Russian NuclearandJune 17,Agenda AgendaDepartmentOregonApril 8, 2014

  20. Safety Concern: Roll-up Doors

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Site EnvironmentalEnergy Rights and BenefitsSOURCE SELECTIONSRSMR.SUN PeterSafeguards4-03

  1. Accelerate program opens doors for nontraditional students

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProducts (VAP) VAP7-0973 1 Introduction In the designAboutAsAcademicAccelerate

  2. Fermilab | Science Next Door | Subscription Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA)Budget » FYU.S.at500-mileFY Maps Facebook row spacer

  3. Storage and Diseases of the Sweet Potato in Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Youngblood, B. (Bonney)

    1919-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the building from rain or snow. The ,, ening into tlle cupoia is con- trolled by means of doors in the ceiling of tl~e house (Fig. 16). FLUE AND STOVE. Another distinct and important fcature of this house is the ~~LIIUU of heating and air circulation, which... ;s acacomplished by means of a stove and flue (Figs. 12, 15, 20, 33). This is rea!ly an adaptation from the modern system of heati~g schoolhouses. TLs features of this eys- tem of heating is an opening under the stove, throngh which the out- door...

  4. Generator stator core vent duct spacer posts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, John Wesley (Schenectady, NY); Tong, Wei (Clifton Park, NY)

    2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Generator stator cores are constructed by stacking many layers of magnetic laminations. Ventilation ducts may be inserted between these layers by inserting spacers into the core stack. The ventilation ducts allow for the passage of cooling gas through the core during operation. The spacers or spacer posts are positioned between groups of the magnetic laminations to define the ventilation ducts. The spacer posts are secured with longitudinal axes thereof substantially parallel to the core axis. With this structure, core tightness can be assured while maximizing ventilation duct cross section for gas flow and minimizing magnetic loss in the spacers.

  5. Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Summary)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1 Source: Office of(Millionthrough 1996)200971 andEIA1-2015NA NA NA NA

  6. Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Summary)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYear Janthrough2,869,9601. Natural5,1958 200988 2009

  7. Door Power! Place: Door Keys, Section 50 & A50 (Weinschenk and Elmore)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    Fisher Daniel Huang Gary Liku Matthew Murphy Adam Neu Paige Novie Ilya Polovets Kayla Rodriguez #12 Place: 0, Section 61 & A61 (Fellows and Brown) Steven Alfano Bem Dobkin Ryan Eckhoff Blake Haddad

  8. PMEL Science Review Aug.26-28, 2008 Vents Program The PMEL Vents Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and hydrothermal activity creates and sustains biological and mineral resources Volcanoes are an important natural to understand globally important biogeochemical processes Utilize acoustics to monitor and understand

  9. Shelter-in-Place Procedures What it means to "Shelter-in-Place"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escher, Christine

    instructed otherwise by local emergency personnel: 1. If you are inside, stay where you are. Collect any exterior doors. 4. Turn off air conditioners, heaters, and fans. 5. Close vents to ventilation systems as you are able. (University staff will turn off ventilation as quickly as possible.) 6. Make a list

  10. Sulfur Dioxide Treatment from Flue Gases Using a Biotrickling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ), and several episodes in London (1). All fuels used by humans such as coal, oil, natural gas, peat, wood of absorbing sulfur dioxide either in water or in aqueous slurries

  11. Novel sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.; Hargis, R.A.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laboratory-scale packed-bed reactor system is used to screen sorbents for their capability to remove elemental mercury from various carrier gases. When the carrier gas is argon, an on-line atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer (AFS), used in a continuous mode, monitors the elemental mercury concentration in the inlet and outlet streams of the packed-bed reactor. The mercury concentration in the reactor inlet gas and the reactor temperature are held constant during a test. For more complex carrier gases, capacity is determined off-line by analyzing the spent sorbent with either a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer (CVAAS) or an inductively coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer (ICP-AES). The capacities and breakthrough times of several commercially available activated carbons, as well as novel sorbents, were determined as a function of various parameters. The mechanisms of mercury removal by the sorbents are suggested by combining the results of the packed-bed testing with various analytical results.

  12. An investigation of sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.; Haddad, G.J.; Hargis, R.A. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Federal Energy Technology Center

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A laboratory-scale packed-bed reactor system is used to screen sorbents for their capability to remove elemental mercury from a carrier gas. An on-line atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer, used in a continuous mode, monitors the elemental mercury concentration in the inlet and outlet streams of the packed-bed reactor. The mercury concentration in the reactor inlet gas and the reactor temperature are held constant during a test. The capacities and breakthrough times of several commercially available activated carbons, as well as novel sorbents, were determined as a function of various parameters. The mechanisms of mercury removal by the sorbents are suggested by combining the results of the packed-bed testing with various analytical results.

  13. Novel sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.; Hargis, R.A.

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laboratory-scale packed-bed reactor system is used to screen sorbents for their capability to remove elemental mercury from various carrier gases. When the carrier gas is argon, an on-line atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer (AFS), used in a continuous mode, monitors the elemental mercury concentration in the inlet and outlet streams of the packed-bed reactor. The mercury concentration in the inlet and outlet streams of the packed-bed reactor. The mercury concentration in the reactor inlet gas and the reactor temperature are held constant during a test. For more complex carrier gases, the capacity is determined off-line by analyzing the spent sorbent with either a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer (CVAAS) or an inductively coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer (ICP-AES). The capacities and breakthrough times of several commercially available activated carbons as well as novel sorbents were determined as a function of various parameters. The mechanisms of mercury removal by the sorbents are suggested by combining the results of the packed-bed testing with various analytical results.

  14. Compression stripping of flue gas with energy recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ochs, Thomas L. (Albany, OR); O'Connor, William K. (Lebanon, OR)

    2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of remediating and recovering energy from combustion products from a fossil fuel power plant having at least one fossil fuel combustion chamber, at least one compressor, at least one turbine, at least one heat exchanger and a source of oxygen. Combustion products including non-condensable gases such as oxygen and nitrogen and condensable vapors such as water vapor and acid gases such as SO.sub.X and NO.sub.X and CO.sub.2 and pollutants are produced and energy is recovered during the remediation which recycles combustion products and adds oxygen to support combustion. The temperature and/or pressure of the combustion products are changed by cooling through heat exchange with thermodynamic working fluids in the power generation cycle and/or compressing and/or heating and/or expanding the combustion products to a temperature/pressure combination below the dew point of at least some of the condensable vapors to condense liquid having some acid gases dissolved and/or entrained and/or directly condense acid gas vapors from the combustion products and to entrain and/or dissolve some of the pollutants while recovering sensible and/or latent heat from the combustion products through heat exchange between the combustion products and thermodynamic working fluids and/or cooling fluids used in the power generating cycle. Then the CO.sub.2, SO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O poor and oxygen enriched remediation stream is sent to an exhaust and/or an air separation unit and/or a turbine.

  15. Catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA)

    2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Two new classes of catalysts for the removal of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg) from effluent gases. Both of these classes of catalysts are excellent absorbers of HCl and Cl.sub.2 present in effluent gases. This adsorption of oxidizing agents aids in the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants. The catalysts remove mercury by oxidizing the Hg into mercury (II) moieties. For one class of catalysts, the active component is selected from the group consisting of iridium (Ir) and iridum-platinum (Ir/Pt) alloys. The Ir and Ir/Pt alloy catalysts are especially corrosion resistant. For the other class of catalyst, the active component is partially combusted coal or "Thief" carbon impregnated with Cl.sub.2. Untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-activating in the presence of effluent gas streams. The Thief carbon catalyst is disposable by means of capture from the effluent gas stream in a particulate collection device (PCD).

  16. Compression Stripping of Flue Gas with Energy Recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ochs, Thomas L.; O'Connor, William K.

    2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of remediating and recovering energy from combustion products from a fossil fuel power plant having at least one fossil fuel combustion chamber, at least one compressor, at least one turbine, at least one heat exchanger and a source of oxygen. Combustion products including non-condensable gases such as oxygen and nitrogen and condensable vapors such as water vapor and acid gases such as SOX and NOX and CO2 and pollutants are produced and energy is recovered during the remediation which recycles combustion products and adds oxygen to support combustion. The temperature and/or pressure of the combustion products are changed by cooling through heat exchange with thermodynamic working fluids in the power generation cycle and/or compressing and/or heating and/or expanding the combustion products to a temperature/pressure combination below the dew point of at least some of the condensable vapors to condense liquid having some acid gases dissolved and/or entrained and/or directly condense acid gas vapors from the combustion products and to entrain and/or dissolve some of the pollutants while recovering sensible and/or latent heat from the combustion products through heat exchange between the combustion products and thermodynamic working fluids and/or cooling fluids used in the power generating cycle. Then the CO2, SO2, and H2O poor and oxygen enriched remediation stream is sent to an exhaust and/or an air separation unit and/or a turbine.

  17. Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    and gasification technologies for heat and power . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.4 Waste incineration and waste

  18. Combined Flue Gas Heat Recovery and Pollution Control Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zbikowski, T.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the field of heat recovery now make it possible to recover a portion of the wasted heat and improve the working conditions of the air purification equipment. Proper design and selection of heat recovery and pollution control equipment as a combination...

  19. Zevenhoven & Kilpinen FLUE GASES and FUEL GASES 19.6.2001 2-1 Chapter 2 Flue gases and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    .1 Introduction Combustion processes for heat and power generation and the incineration of household waste are actually unwanted by-products from a power plant or a waste incinerator, since the first has the objective to convert hydrocarbon fuels (CxHy) into CO2, H2O plus heat and power, whilst the second aims at reducing

  20. Crossing the Interspecies Barrier: Opening the Door to Zoonotic Pathogens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gortazar, Christian; Reoerant, Leslie A.; Kuiken, Thijs; Fuente, José de la; Boadella, Mariana; Martí nez-Lopez, Beatriz; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Estrada-Peñ a, Agustin; Dorsten, Christian; Medley, Graham; Ostfeld, Richard; Peterson, A. Townsend; VerCauteren, Kurt C.; Menge, Christian; Artois, Marc; Schultsz, Constance; Delahay, Richard; Serra-Cobo, Jordi; Poulin, Robert; Keck, Frederic; Aguirre, Alonso A.; Henttonen, Heikki; Dobson, Andrew P.; Kutz, Susan; Lubroth, Juan; Mysterud, Atle

    2014-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    pathogens with roles in the origin of chronic diseases, such as human T-lymphotropic viruses and Helicobacter pylori, as well as pathogens causing major crowd diseases, such as the smallpox and measles viruses and Bordetella pertussis [5,6]. Since prehistory...

  1. australian automotive door: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences Websites Summary: AUSTRALIAN UNIVERSITIES QUALITY AGENCY Report of an Audit of Swinburne; AUQA Audit Report Number 61 ISBN 978 1 877090 90 5 Australian...

  2. EECBG Success Story: Another Door Opens: Marion Invests in Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Marion Invests in Energy Efficiency July 30, 2010 - 4:51pm Addthis City Hall in Marion, Ohio is getting a much needed renovation with energy efficiency upgrades, thanks to an...

  3. New National Labs Pilot Opens Doors to Small Businesses | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Business Vouchers Pilot will connect clean energy innovators across the country with the top-notch scientists, engineers, and world-class facilities at National Laboratories. Goal...

  4. Covered Product Category: Residential Windows, Doors, and Skylights...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    required by ENERGY STAR, air leakage through fenestration can be a significant source of heat loss or gain in a building. The air infiltration of many fenestration products is...

  5. If a fire should occur... CLOSE the doors to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    · National Electrical Manufacturers Association · National Fire Sprinkler Association · NFPA International lighting in power outages, not candles. Keep plenty of fresh batteries on hand during thunderstorm seasons

  6. Syllabus Analyse B2 door T. H. Koornwinder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiegerinck, Jan

    , 1990. [5] W. Rudin, Principles of mathematical analysis, McGraw-Hill, Third ed., 1976. [6] W. Walter functierij (fn) n=1 convergeert puntsgewijs op X naar een limietfunctie f op X als voor elke x X geldt dat als er voor elke > 0 een natuurlijk getal N bestaat zo dat voor alle n N geldt dat |f(x) - fn

  7. Community Power Works' Success Opens Doors to its Future | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for the next phase of the program with support from the City of Seattle's Office of Sustainability and Environment (OSE) and Clean Energy Works, the Portland, Oregon-based...

  8. Binnenkort kernfusie? Door prof. dr. Niek Lopes Cardozo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    brandstoffen, als olie, kolen en gas. Vanwege uitputting van deze bronnen moeten deze op korte termijn worden

  9. Opening the Door: San Diego R&D Workshop Video

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    View the video from Jim Brodrick's opening presentation at the February 2011 DOE SSL R&D Workshop in San Diego, California.

  10. automotive door skins: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with Ttic5ms, Tcycle40ms. lic scheduling on automotive Navet, Nicolas 345 2001-01-0308 FMEA-based Design for Remanufacture using Automotive- Engineering Websites Summary: . The...

  11. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Open the Door to New...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovations Technology available for licensing: novel nanometer-sized metal oxide semiconductors that allow targeting, initiating and control of in vitro and in vivo chemical...

  12. SWiFT Turbines Full Dynamic Characterization Opens Doors for...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of gravity, moment of inertia, natural frequencies, and mode shapes of each main turbine component tested individually and throughout turbine assembly. The unique nature of...

  13. Energy Performance Ratings for Windows, Doors, and Skylights | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 FederalTexas Energy Incentive Programs,EnergyAugust 10,Installof Energy

  14. Updating the Doors and Windows | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group current C3EDepartment of Energy Office ofStephanie Price Communicator,

  15. EECBG Success Story: Another Door Opens: Marion Invests in Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China U.S.ContaminationJulySavannah River Site for UseConservationEvansville,|Efficiency |

  16. Microsoft Word - HLWShieldDoors_Rev6.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA / USACE SWPAURTeC:8CO6 Figure Fuel3S5HighRelease Date:

  17. Energy Performance Ratings for Windows, Doors, and Skylights | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPowerHome | DocumentsElements ofin Log HomesEnergyof

  18. Window, Door, and Skylight Products and Services | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you wantJoin us for|IdahotheWhat is the FOIA ? What isWhyofWindow,

  19. Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Sets Massive Protective Shield door in

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To:Department of Energy Completing the Office of RiverA team

  20. National Labs Open Doors to Displaced Japanese Researchers | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagement ofConverDyn NOPRNancy SutleyNational Labs Commission Phase

  1. Microsoft Word - VitPlant-finishes-setting-shield-doors.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA / USACE625 FINALOptimizationForArticle from4, 2011

  2. Covered Product Category: Residential Windows, Doors, and Skylights |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave theJuly 30, 2013DepartmentEnterpriseDepartmentof

  3. Sandia Energy - Caterpillar, Sandia CRADA Opens Door to Multiple Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand RequirementsCoatings Initiated at PNNL's Sequim BayCapture Home CarbonProjects

  4. Shutting the Door on Cold Weather | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Site EnvironmentalEnergy RightsAnnouncementSemiannualDOE Ultra-DeepwaterSherryShutting the

  5. Retrofitting Doors on Open Refrigerated Cases | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015 <Department of EnvironmentalRetiringWeatherizationRetrofitting

  6. Hydrogen Student Design Contest Inspires and Opens Doors | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe SolarContaminationCurrent Technology »

  7. Eagon Windown Door System Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergy OffshoreDeveloper - Q &EnergieEPC Jump

  8. Energy Performance Ratings for Windows, Doors, and Skylights | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisoryStandard |in STEMEnergyI.ofTrack 1shouldJuneContracting Energyof

  9. WENDI Opens the Door to Wind Information | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: SinceDevelopment | Department ofPartnerships Toolkit VoluntaryHURRICANE * FLASH FLOODDepartment

  10. Another Door Opens: Marion Invests in Energy Efficiency | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1Albuquerque, NMPerformanceofEnergy 51 Annual

  11. Hydrogen Student Design Contest Inspires and Opens Doors | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEND D eReview |Panel HydrogenM M aDesign

  12. Vinyl Kraft Windows and Doors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga,planningFlowmeterUtah: Energy Resources Jump to:Vinyl Kraft Windows

  13. Strategic Planning Opens Doors for Isolated Alaskan Village | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014,Zaleski -Blueprint | Department ofofCyber AwarenessFocus4 Volume

  14. Improving Door-to-balloon Time by Decreasing Door-to-ECG time for Walk-in STEMI Patients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. JAMA. 2010;of primary percutaneous coronary intervention treatmentcontributing to percutaneous coronary intervention time

  15. THE USE OF BLOWER-DOOR DATA March 13, 1998 LBL #35173 THE USE OF BLOWER-DOOR DATA*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .e., infiltration) rather than by whole-house mechanical ventilation systems, accurate understanding of the uses

  16. Convection venting lensed reflector-type compact fluorescent lamp system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pelton, B.A.; Siminovitch, M.

    1997-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a fluorescent lamp housing assembly capable of providing convection cooling to the lamp and the ballast. The lens of the present invention includes two distinct portions, a central portion and an apertured portion. The housing assembly further includes apertures so that air mass is able to freely move up through the assembly and out ventilation apertures. 12 figs.

  17. Convection venting lensed reflector-type compact fluorescent lamp system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pelton, Bruce A. (825 Manor Rd., El Sobrante, CA 94803); Siminovitch, Michael (829 Manor Rd., El Sobrante, CA 94803)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a fluorescent lamp housing assembly capable of providing convection cooling to the lamp and the ballast. The lens of the present invention includes two distinct portions, a central portion and an apertured portion. The housing assembly further includes apertures so that air mass is able to freely move up through the assembly and out ventilation apertures.

  18. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapp, Vi H.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    roll-out study for gas fired water heaters, NBSIR 88-3724.Fired Furnaces And Water Heaters, Technical Report 96/0266.an Orphaned Natural Draft Water Heater Converted to a Stand-

  19. An Experimental Study and Analysis on Vent Cap Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escatel, Daniel Santiago

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    . The evaluation method was used to confirm that the variation in the products is significantly larger than the uncertainty in the measurements, which were 0.0077 in. w.c. for the pressure loss and 0.06 in the loss coefficient. It was also shown that the loss...

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ultra-diffuse hydrothermal venting supports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2 Department of Earth Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3 Department of Oceanography, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA; 4 Department Baby Bare seamount on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge (Wheat and Mottl, 2000), Lost City

  1. air vents discharge: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article. 2010 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol Contact us My IOPscience 12;IOP PUBLISHING PLASMA SOURCES SCIENCE AND...

  2. Results from measurements on the PV-VENT systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    effi- cient PV-ventilation in retrofit housing", contract no. JOR3-CT97-0160 and partly by the Danish Østergaard Jensen. M.Sc., Solar Energy Centre Denmark Hossein Gohari, B.Sc., Heating Technology, Danish.Sc., Ventilation and Environment. Technological Institute of Denmark Anne Rasmussen, M.Sc., Cenergia Energy

  3. Numerical modeling of methane venting from lake sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scandella, Benjamin P. (Benjamin Paul)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of methane transport in lake sediments control the release of methane into the water column above, and the portion that reaches the atmosphere may contribute significantly to the greenhouse effect. The observed ...

  4. acid vent condenser: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the vapor (steam) phase versus the liquid... Jenkins, B. V. 1983-01-01 20 Squeezed Condensates Quantum Physics (arXiv) Summary: We analyse the atomic state obtained by...

  5. Kansas Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Building FloorspaceThousandWithdrawals0.0DecadeYear JanDecade Year-0Decade

  6. Kansas Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Building FloorspaceThousandWithdrawals0.0DecadeYear JanDecade Year-0DecadeYear

  7. Kentucky Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) Kenai,Feet)Year Jan

  8. Louisiana Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3 0 0 0 1569Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2

  9. Louisiana Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3 0 0 0 1569Decade Year-0 Year-1

  10. Maryland Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3 00.0 0.0 0.05.03 5.68Year JanDecade

  11. Maryland Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3 00.0 0.0 0.05.03 5.68Year JanDecadeYear

  12. Michigan Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3Exports (NoYearDecade Year-0 Year-1

  13. Michigan Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3Exports (NoYearDecade Year-0 Year-1Year

  14. Mississippi Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million CubicCubic Feet) PriceLiquids,35Feet)

  15. Mississippi Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million CubicCubic Feet) PriceLiquids,35Feet)Year Jan

  16. Missouri Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million CubicCubic Feet)SameThousandYear JanDecade Year-0

  17. Missouri Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million CubicCubic Feet)SameThousandYear JanDecade

  18. Montana Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million CubicCubic32,876 10,889Decade03 4.83Year

  19. Montana Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million CubicCubic32,876 10,889Decade03 4.83YearYear Jan Feb

  20. MHK ISDB/Sensors/Vented Pressure Sensor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:LandownersLuther, Oklahoma: EnergyMAREC Jump to:2MHK

  1. South Dakota Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousand CubicCubicIndiaFeet)6Feet) Vehicle Fuel

  2. South Dakota Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousand CubicCubicIndiaFeet)6Feet) Vehicle FuelYear Jan

  3. Tennessee Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousandCubic Feet)4. U.S.DecadeFuel2009Year Jan

  4. Explosive silicic eruptions in Iceland: from vent to peat bog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to an analytical model for tephra transportation and sedimentation (at distances of 20-200 km) that will allow be found in peat bogs and lake sediments across Scotland and the rest of Northern Europe (Figure 1; Larsen-range dispersal of tephra is the generation of fine (

  5. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators...

  6. apparent hydrothermal vents: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HYDROTHERMAL ENERGY Drilling for seawater An "ALL of the ABOVE" Approach to Ocean Thermal Energy Ted Jagusztyn - Cotherm of America Corp - Honolulu OTEC Symposium - September...

  7. alkaline hydrothermal vent: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  8. Surface Mercury Geochemistry As A Guide To Volcanic Vent Structure...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (contrast values > 1.5) occur within Novarupta Basin. High-magnitude, active Hg2 enrichment was found on the Turtle, a dome-like feature northeast of the Novarupta extrusive...

  9. California Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469 2,321 2,590FuelDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3

  10. California Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469 2,321 2,590FuelDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2

  11. Colorado Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469 2,321Spain (MillionFeet)2008Year Jan FebDecade

  12. Colorado Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469 2,321Spain (MillionFeet)2008Year Jan

  13. Alabama Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial andSeptember 25,9,1996Feet)4.32 4.46Feet)Decade

  14. Alabama Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial andSeptember 25,9,1996Feet)4.32

  15. Alaska Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4Year JanDecade

  16. Alaska Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4Year

  17. Arizona Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1Year Jan FebRepressuringYear

  18. Arkansas Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1Year%Underground Storage

  19. Arkansas Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1Year%Underground StorageYear Jan Feb

  20. West Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 (Million Cubic58(Million

  1. West Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 (Million Cubic58(MillionYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

  2. Wyoming Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 (MillionAdjustments (MillionYear Jan FebDecade Year-0

  3. Wyoming Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 (MillionAdjustments (MillionYear Jan FebDecade

  4. Texas Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep2009DecadeYearDecade

  5. Texas Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug

  6. Utah Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan FebIncreases (Billion CubicYearDecade

  7. Utah Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan FebIncreases (Billion CubicYearDecadeYear Jan Feb Mar

  8. Indiana Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 TableTotal2009 2010 2011 2012 2013Vehicle Fuel

  9. Indiana Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 TableTotal2009 2010 2011 2012 2013Vehicle FuelYear Jan

  10. Nebraska Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYearWithdrawals (Million CubicTotalDecadeYear

  11. Nebraska Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYearWithdrawals (Million CubicTotalDecadeYearYear Jan

  12. Nevada Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYearWithdrawalsYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun JulDecade

  13. Nevada Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYearWithdrawalsYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

  14. New Mexico Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) New Mexico NaturalDecadeDecadeDecade

  15. New Mexico Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) New Mexico NaturalDecadeDecadeDecadeYear

  16. Structure and Stratigraphy Beneath a Young Phreatic Vent: South Inyo

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <Maintained By Fault Propagation And Interaction | OpenCrater, Long

  17. New York Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthrough 1996) inThousandWithdrawals (Million CubicYear Jan FebDecade

  18. New York Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthrough 1996) inThousandWithdrawals (Million CubicYear Jan FebDecadeYear

  19. North Dakota Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov DecFeet)Decade

  20. North Dakota Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov

  1. Oregon Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYear Jan FebYear Jan Feb

  2. Oregon Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYear Jan FebYear Jan FebYear Jan Feb Mar

  3. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun JulYear

  4. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: SinceDevelopment | Department of Energy $18UnrevisedCool Roof InfrastructureLow-Pressure Steam

  5. Natural and industrial analogues for release of CO2 from storage reservoirs: Identification of features, events, and processes and lessons learned

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Birkholzer, Jens; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flue Flue Fuel oil Natural gas Natural gas Gas turbine Gasturbine Gas turbine Coal IGCC Flue Flue Flue Flue Fuel IEA,oil, natural gas, and gas turbine power plants. As shown,

  6. Dampers for Natural Draft Heaters: Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, James D.; Biermayer, Peter; King, Derek

    2008-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy required for water heating accounts for approximately 40percent of national residential natural gas consumption in California. With water heating contributing such a substantial portion of natural gas consumption, it is important to pay attention to water heater efficiencies. This paper reports on an investigation of a patented, buoyancy-operated flue damper. It is an add-on design to a standard atmospherically vented natural-draft gas-fired storage water heater. The flue damper was expected to reduce off-cycle standby losses, which would lead to improvements in the efficiency of the water heater. The test results showed that the Energy Factor of the baseline water heater was 0.576. The recovery efficiency was 0.768. The standby heat loss coefficient was 10.619 (BTU/hr-oF). After the damper was installed, the test results show an Energy Factor for the baseline water heater of 0.605. The recovery efficiency was 0.786. The standby heat loss coefficient was 9.135 (BTU/hr-oF). The recovery efficiency increased 2.3percent and the standby heat loss coefficient decreased 14percent. When the burner was on, the baseline water heater caused 28.0 CFM of air to flow from the room. During standby, the flow was 12.4 CFM. The addition of the damper reduced the flow when the burner was on to 23.5 CFM. During standby, flow with the damper was reduced to 11.1 CFM. The flue damper reduced off-cycle standby losses, and improved the efficiency of the water heater. The flue damper also improved the recovery efficiency of the water heater by restricting on-cycle air flows through the flue.With or without the flue damper, off-cycle air flow upthe stack is nearly half the air flow rate as when the burner is firing.

  7. GAS INJECTION/WELL STIMULATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John K. Godwin

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Driver Production proposes to conduct a gas repressurization/well stimulation project on a six well, 80-acre portion of the Dutcher Sand of the East Edna Field, Okmulgee County, Oklahoma. The site has been location of previous successful flue gas injection demonstration but due to changing economic and sales conditions, finds new opportunities to use associated natural gas that is currently being vented to the atmosphere to repressurize the reservoir to produce additional oil. The established infrastructure and known geological conditions should allow quick startup and much lower operating costs than flue gas. Lessons learned from the previous project, the lessons learned form cyclical oil prices and from other operators in the area will be applied. Technology transfer of the lessons learned from both projects could be applied by other small independent operators.

  8. MATERIALS AND MOLECULAR RESEARCH DIVISION. ANNUAL REPORT 1980

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Searcy, Alan W.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the reaction in flue gas desulphurization processes. TIEimportance in flue gas desulphurization proc­ esses carried

  9. On Flue-dust and its Composition as Obtained in Roasting Argentiferous Ores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welin, John Eric

    1904-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the, r o a s t i n g of ores f s necesoar e i t h e r In the smelting industry or f o r the purpose of gathering the gases f o r the manufacture of s u l f u r i c acid,' there i s always more or l e s s trouble derived from the loss of ore..., and of metals and t h e i r compounds that have been v o l a t i l i z e d i n the lower parts of the furnace and not condensed again In i t , but c a r r i e d along with the strong d r a f t Into the f l u e . The v o l a t i l i z e d metals or vapor...

  10. Membrane loop process for separating carbon dioxide for use in gaseous form from flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Baker, Richard W; Merkel, Timothy C

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process involving membrane-based gas separation for separating and recovering carbon dioxide emissions from combustion processes in partially concentrated form, and then transporting the carbon dioxide and using or storing it in a confined manner without concentrating it to high purity. The process of the invention involves building up the concentration of carbon dioxide in a gas flow loop between the combustion step and a membrane separation step. A portion of the carbon dioxide-enriched gas can then be withdrawn from this loop and transported, without the need to liquefy the gas or otherwise create a high-purity stream, to a destination where it is used or confined, preferably in an environmentally benign manner.

  11. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brent Constantz; Randy Seeker; Martin Devenney

    2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Calera's innovative Mineralization via Aqueous Precipitation (MAP) technology for the capture and conversion of CO{sub 2} to useful materials for use in the built environment was further developed and proven in the Phase 1 Department of Energy Grant. The process was scaled to 300 gallon batch reactors and subsequently to Pilot Plant scale for the continuous production of product with the production of reactive calcium carbonate material that was evaluated as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM). The Calera SCM{trademark} was evaluated as a 20% replacement for ordinary portland cement and demonstrated to meet the industry specification ASTM 1157 which is a standard performance specification for hydraulic cement. The performance of the 20% replacement material was comparable to the 100% ordinary portland cement control in terms of compressive strength and workability as measured by a variety of ASTM standard tests. In addition to the performance metrics, detailed characterization of the Calera SCM was performed using advanced analytical techniques to better understand the material interaction with the phases of ordinary portland cement. X-ray synchrotron diffraction studies at the Advanced Photon Source in Argonne National Lab confirmed the presence of an amorphous phase(s) in addition to the crystalline calcium carbonate phases in the reactive carbonate material. The presence of carboaluminate phases as a result of the interaction of the reactive carbonate materials with ordinary portland cement was also confirmed. A Life Cycle Assessment was completed for several cases based on different Calera process configurations and compared against the life cycle of ordinary portland cement. In addition to the materials development efforts, the Calera technology for the production of product using an innovative building materials demonstration plant was developed beyond conceptual engineering to a detailed design with a construction schedule and cost estimate.

  12. Predictive Modeling of Mercury Speciation in Combustion Flue Gases Using GMDH-Based Abductive Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

    activities are coal-fired electric utility boilers, where speciation depends on the operating conditions harmful emissions from coal-fired power plants and developing strategies to reduce them. First principle, and particulate) using a small data set containing six inputs parameters on the composition of the coal used

  13. Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Nai-Qiang Yan-Zan Qu Yao Chi Shao-Hua Qiao Ray Dod Shih-Ger Chang Charles

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal-fired power generating plants contribute approximatelynumber of coal-fired generating plants (1-3). The mercury is

  14. Experimental investigation of a molecular gate membrane for separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazama, S. (RITE, Kyoto, Japan); Kai, T. (RITE, Kyoto, Japan); Kouketsu, T. (RITE, Kyoto, Japan); Matsui, S. (RITE, Kyoto, Japan); Yamada, K. (RITE, Kyoto, Japan); Hoffman, J.S.; Pennline, H.W.

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial-sized modules of the PAMAM dendrimer composite membrane with high CO2/N2 selectivity and CO2 permeance were developed according to the In-situ Modification (IM) method. This method utilizes the interfacial precipitation of membrane materials on the surface of porous, commercially available polysulfone (PSF) ultrafiltration hollow fiber membrane substrates. A thin layer of amphiphilic chitosan, which has a potential affinity for both hydrophobic PSF substrates and hydrophilic PAMAM dendrimers, was employed as a gutter layer directly beneath the inner surface of the substrate by the IM method. PAMAM dendrimers were then impregnated into the chitosan gutter layer to form a hybrid active layer for CO2 separation. Permeation experiments of the PAMAM dendrimer composite membrane were carried out using a humidified mixed CO2 / N2 feed gas at a pressure difference up to 97 kPa at ambient temperature. When conducted with CO2 (5%) / N2 (95%) feed gas at a pressure difference of 97 kPa, the PAMAM composite membrane exhibited an excellent CO2/N2 selectivity of 150 and a CO2 permeance of 1.7×10-7 m3(STP) m-2 s-1 kPa-1. The impact of various process parameters on the permeability and selectivity was also examined.

  15. QUANTIFICATION OF MERCURY IN FLUE GAS EMISSION USING BORON-DOPED DIAMOND ELECTROCHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Manivannan; M.S. Seehra

    2003-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, we have attempted to develop a new technique utilizing Boron-doped diamond (BDD) films to electrochemically detect mercury dissolved in solution via the initial deposition of metallic mercury, followed by anodic linear sweep voltammetry in the range from 10-10{sup -10} M to 10{sup -5} M. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) techniques were employed. The extremely low background current for BDD electrodes compared to glassy carbon (GC) provides a strong advantage in trace metal detection. CV peak currents showed good linearity in the micromolar range. A detection level of 6.8 x 10{sup -10} M was achieved with DPV in 0.1 M KNO{sub 3} (pH = 1) for a deposition time of 20 minutes. Reproducible stripping peaks were obtained, even for the low concentration range. A comparison with GC shows that BDD is superior. Linear behavior was also obtained in the mercury concentration range from 10{sup -10} M to 10{sup -9} M.

  16. Recovering "Waste" from "WTEs"? Heat Attaching devices to flues and exhaust pipes could harvest waste heat-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    saving that would be especially relevant in hybrid petrol/electric devices where the battery is recharged

  17. A Critical Review on the Heterogeneous Catalytic Oxidation of Elemental Mercury in Flue Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    to tremors, inability to walk, convulsions, and death.1,2 Coal-fired utility boilers, which release more than), are the largest source of mercury pollution.3 However, on average only about 40% of the mercury entering a coal-fired toxic air pollution from coal and oil-fired power plants. The final rule established that the power

  18. Performance history over 10 years of super duplex stainless steel in flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bendall, K.C. [Langley Alloys Ltd., Maidenhead (United Kingdom)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    25 Cr duplex (austenitic/ferritic) stainless steel containing copper and nitrogen offers a cost effective solution to material selection for pollution control equipment. The properties of duplex stainless steel which make it suitable for this type of application are discussed and long term performance histories presented. It is concluded that high alloy duplex steel has an important role to play in the production of low maintenance reliable equipment for FGD and other pollution control systems.

  19. Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Wen-Ching (Murrysville, PA); Newby, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lippert, Thomas E. (Murrysville, PA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains flyash and other particulate. The flyash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The flyash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured flyash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled.

  20. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Quarterly report, April 1992--June 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, T.R.; Vann Bush, P.

    1992-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    SEM pictures of the three mixtures of sorbent and ash from the DITF and the base line ESP hopper ash from Muskingum are shown in Figures 1 through 4. The effects of sorbent addition on particle morphology are evident in Figures 2 through 4 by the presence of irregularly shaped particles and deposits on the surfaces of the spherical fly ash particles. In contrast, the base Ene ash particles have the characteristic relatively smooth, spherical morphology normally associated with pulverized-coal (PC) fly ashes. Resistivity determinations made on these four ashes in ascending and descending temperature modes. These data are shown in Figures 5 and 6. Sorbent injection processes performed at the DITF lowered the duct temperature to around 165{degrees}F from about 350{degrees}F for base line operation. Consequently, during collection in the ESP, the particulate matter from the sorbent injection processes had a significantly lower resitivity (approximately 4 {times} 10{sup 7} {Omega}-cm) than the base line ash (approximately 3 {times} 10{sup 11} {Omega}-cm at 350{degrees}F). Specific surface areas and true particle densities have been measured for the four samples obtained from the DOE/PETC Duct Injection Test Facility. These data are summarized in Table 4. The primary difference indicated by these initial analyses of these four samples is the significant increase in specific surface area due to sorbent addition. The specific surface areas of the three sorbent and ash mixtures from the DITF are quite similar.

  1. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Quarterly report, October 1992--December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, T.R.; Bush, P.V.

    1993-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed a wide variety of laboratory analyses during the past quarter. As with most of the work we performed during the previous quarter, our recent efforts were primarily directed toward the determination of the effects of adsorbed water on the cohesivity and tensile strength of powders. We also continued our analyses of dust cake ashes that have had the soluble compounds leached from their particle surfaces by repeated washings with water. Our analyses of leached and unleached dust cake ashes continued to provide some interesting insights into effects that compounds adsorbed on surfaces of ash particles can have on bulk ash behavior. As suggested by our literature review, our data indicate that water adsorption depends on particle morphology and on surface chemistry. Our measurements of tensile strength show, that for many of the samples we have analyzed a relative minimum in tensile strength exists for samples conditioned and tested at about 30% relative humidity. In our examinations of the effects of water conditioning on sample cohesivity, we determined that in the absence of absorption of water into the interior of the particles, cohesivity usually increases sharply when environments having relative humidities above 75% are used to condition and test the samples. Plans are under way to condition selected samples with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, NH{sub 4}HSO{sub 4}, CaCl{sub 2}, organosiloxane, and SO{sub 3}. Pending approval, we will begin these conditioning experiments, and subsequent analyses of the conditioned samples.

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced regenerable flue Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pollutants it contains Source: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Energy Laboratory, Carbon Sequestration Initiative Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 4 NOx...

  3. Recovery of non-ferrous metals from smelter flue dusts and sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartlett, R.W.

    1993-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for treating a smelter by-product so as to recover copper, nickel, zinc, an cobalt metal therefrom and convert any arsenic and sulfur in the smelter by-product into non-leachable forms of arsenic and sulfur, the method comprising: (a) mixing the smelter by-product with hydrated lime to form a paste; (b) forming the paste into agglomerates, (c) roasting the agglomerates in air at a temperature sufficient to oxidize the arsenic and sulfur therein and cause said oxidized arsenic and sulfur to react with the lime in the agglomerates to form non-leachable arsenic-containing and sulfur-containing calcium compounds within the roasted agglomerates; and (d) contacting the roasted agglomerates with a basic aqueous lixiviant solution comprising dissolved ammonia and an ammonium salt so as to dissolve copper, nickel, zinc and cobalt from the roasted agglomerates into the lixiviant solution, thereby converting the lixiviant solution to a pregnant liquor enriched in said copper, nickel, zinc and cobalt.

  4. SOx-NOx-Rox Box Flue Gas Cleanup Demonstration: A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2000-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The SNRB{trademark} test program demonstrated the feasibility of controlling multiple emissions from a coal-fired boiler in a single processing unit. The degree of emissions removals for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulates all exceeded the project goals. A high degree of removal for HAPs was also achieved. The SNRB system offers low space requirements, control of multiple pollutants, and operating flexibility. The pneumatic SO{sub 2} sorbent and ammonia injection systems are expected to have high reliability because of their mechanical simplicity. Despite these advantages, the SNRB process may not be an economic choice for applications involving SO{sub 2} removals above about 85%. For lower levels of SO{sub 2} removal, the projected economics for SNRB appear to be more favorable than those of existing processes which involve separate units for the same degree of control for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} , and particulates. Specific findings are summarized as follows: (1) SO{sub 2} removal of 85-90% was achieved at a calcium utilization of 40-45%, representing a significant improvement in performance over other dry lime injection processes. (2) When firing 3-4% sulfur coal, compliance with the 1990 CAAA Phase I SO{sub 2} emissions limit of 2.5 lb/10{sup 6} Btu was achieved with a Ca/S molar ratio of less than 1.0. For the Phase II SO{sub 2} emissions limit of 1.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu, compliance was achieved with a Ca/S molar ratio as low as 1.5. Phase II compliance is the more relevant emissions limit. (3) When using NaHCO{sub 3} as the sorbent, the Phase II SO{sub 2} emissions limit was achieved at a Na{sub 2}/S molar ratio of less than 2.0 (NSR < 1.0). (4) Compliance with the Phase I NO{sub x} emissions limit of 0.45 lb/10{sup 6} Btu for Group 1 boilers was achieved at an NH{sub 3}/NO{sub x} ratio of 0.85, with an ammonia slip of 5 ppm or less. (5) Particulate collection efficiency averaged 99.9%, corresponding to an average emissions rate of 0.018 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. This is significantly lower than the NSPS value of 0.03 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. The high-temperature baghouse design incorporating an SCR catalyst for NO{sub x} reduction was demonstrated successfully. The technology is ready for commercial application. The key feature of the technology is control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulates in a single process unit. However, this limits its commercial market to applications requiring control of all three components. Also, although the testing demonstrated greater than 90% SO{sub 2} capture, this was achieved at high sorbent/sulfur ratios. For applications requiring a high percentage of sulfur removal, a modern conventional FGD unit with LNBs for NO{sub x} control may be the preferred option.

  5. Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, W.C.; Newby, R.A.; Lippert, T.E.

    1997-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains fly ash and other particulates. The fly ash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The fly ash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured fly ash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled. 11 figs.

  6. The utilization of flue gas desulfurization waste by-products in construction brick 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berryman, Charles Wayne

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Unconfined Compressive Strength and Density Comparisons of Gypsum Hemihydrate with Various Inductions of Fly Ash 16 Unconfined Compressive Strength and Density Comparisons Using Various Types of Bottom Ashes 18 Optimum Temperature to Calcine Dihydrate... Gypsum to Hemihydrate Gypsum 21 Optimum Time to Calcine Dihydrate to Hemihydrate 22 Unconfined Compressive Strength and Density Comparisons for Hemihydrate Subjected to Various Size Sieves 25 Temperature of Hemihydrate during Hydration versus Time...

  7. The utilization of flue gas desulfurization waste by-products in construction brick

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berryman, Charles Wayne

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    APPENDIX D. TEST PROCEDURES APPENDIX E. CONVERSION TABLES VITA 85 90 93 96 99 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Model for FGD Waste By-Product Research Unconfined Compressive Strength for Fly Ash Mixed with Various Inductions of Portland Cement 15... properties such as weight, durability, strength, density, etc. Varying mixes of bottom ash, fly ash, portland cement, and sand will be tested for possible enhancement of the hemihydrate. Also, a mix design that best utilizes all the waste by...

  8. Field testing of a probe to measure fouling in an industrial flue gas stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sohal, M.S.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technology sponsors work in the area of measuring and mitigating fouling in heat exchangers. This report describes the design and fabrication of a gas-side fouling measuring device, and its testing in an industrial environment. The report gives details of the probe fabrication, material used, controllers, other instrumentation required for various measurements, and computer system needed for recording the data. The calibration constants for measuring the heat flux with the heat fluxmeter were determined. The report also describes the field test location, the tests performed, the data collected, and the data analysis. The conclusions of the tests performed were summarized. Although fouling deposits on the probe were minimal, the tests proved that the probe is capable of measuring the fouling in a harsh industrial environment. 17 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Global evaluation of mass transfer effects: In-duct injection flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, J.A.; Newton, G.H.; Kramlich, J.C.; Payne, R.

    1990-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Sorbent injection is a low capital cost, low operating cost approach to SO{sub 2} control targeted primarily at older boilers for which conventional fuel gas desulfurization is not economically viable. Duct injection is one variation of this concept in which the sorbent, either a dry powder or a slurry, is injected into the cooler regions of the boiler, generally downstream of the air heaters. The attractiveness of duct injection is tied to the fact that it avoids much of the boiler heat transfer equipment and thus has minimal impact of boiler performance. Both capital and operating cost are low. This program has as its objectives three performance related issues to address: (1) experimentally identify limits on sorbent performance. (2) identify and test sorbent performance enhancement strategies. (3) develop a compute model of the duct injection process. Two major tasks are described: a laboratory-scale global experiment and development of process model. Both are aimed at understanding and quantifying the rate-limiting processes which control SO{sub 2} capture by lime slurry during boiler duct injection. 29 refs., 35 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. A cement kiln flue-dust evaluated as a soil liming material 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stacha, Raimund

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    production. The present lime study includes several of the predominate acid soil types in Texas. They should aid in furnishing soil testing laboratories with information which would facilitate better lime recommendations to Texas farmers as well... not determined. The present studies which include several of the predominate acid soil types in Texas should evaluate the usefulness of this local material as well as to further lime research in Texas to benefit soil test recommendations. 14 MATERIALS...

  11. Metal-Organic Frameworks Capture CO2 From Coal Gasification Flue Gas |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > The EnergyCenter (LMI-EFRC)MaRIETechnologiesMesdiCenter for Gas

  12. pH Adjustment of Power Plant Cooling Water with Flue Gas/ Fly Ash - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron4 Self-Scrubbing:,, ,Development of NovelHigh( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (

  13. natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapersWindey Wind Home Rmckeel'slinked openreduction+ cool exhaust

  14. OpenEI Community - natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRoseConcernsCompany Oil and GasOff<div/0 en TheResult

  15. DOE/FETC/TR--98-01 SORBENTS FOR MERCURY REMOVAL FROM FLUE GAS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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  16. Development of Novel CO2 Adsorbents for Capture of CO2 from Flue Gas

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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  17. Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired Heating System |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil & Gas »ofMarketing | DepartmentComputing CenterLiz Doris

  18. Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C o . C lKieling ,Catalysis ScienceTheAdvanced

  19. Ab Initio Rational Design of New MOFs for Separations and Flue Gas Capture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  20. Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Air and Flue Gas in the Alkylamine-Appended

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms About Batteries BatteriesCAESMissionMetal-Organic Framework

  1. Using EMS Dispatch to Trigger STEMI Alerts Decreases Door-to-Balloon Times

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stowens, Justin C.; Sonnad, Seema S.; Rosenbaum, Robert A.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in DTB between the groups. Results: Eight hundred fifty-sixchange every eight hours and are part of a group consisting

  2. Through the [Image]inary Door: Lyotard, Baudrillard, Jameson and Postmodernism in Film 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forbey, Sarah Diane

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    , where prominent themes of postmodernism are traced throughout Rashomoji, Orlando and Playtime. Postmodernism entails more than a certain style of art, film, literature or architecture. What we call postmodernism is part of the larger system of global...

  3. Self-presentation and the door-in-the-face-strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lambers, Scott M.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    liance rates. No subject in the extremely large rejection- moderation conditions or in the moderate y la?ge rejection-moderation condstions consented to the initial request, Overall, the combined rej ecti on-moderation cordi+ions resulted in a...

  4. Through the [Image]inary Door: Lyotard, Baudrillard, Jameson and Postmodernism in Film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forbey, Sarah Diane

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    , where prominent themes of postmodernism are traced throughout Rashomoji, Orlando and Playtime. Postmodernism entails more than a certain style of art, film, literature or architecture. What we call postmodernism is part of the larger system of global...

  5. The UCSB Access ID Card Application for Department Use Door Access will be needed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    of the University and must be returned to the department access controller (DAC) upon demand or when affiliation signature below asserts your identification information is correct and acknowledges your responsibility this or their own department's form/system to document approvals and record authorized access levels. Retention: One

  6. Photo of the Week: How to Open the World's Heaviest Door | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Neutron Source-II (RTNS-II) -- the worlds most intense source of continuous fusion neutrons. Scientists from around the world used it to study the properties of metals...

  7. Detecting terrorist nuclear weapons at sea: The 10th door problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slaughter, D R

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    While screening commercial cargo containers for the possible presence of WMD is important and necessary smugglers have successfully exploited the many other vehicles transporting cargo into the US including medium and small vessels at sea. These vessels provide a venue that is currently not screened and widely used. Physics limits that make screening of large vessels prohibitive impractical do not prohibit effective screening of the smaller vessels. While passive radiation detection is probably ineffective at sea active interrogation may provide a successful approach. The physics limits of active interrogation of ships at sea from standoff platforms are discussed. Autonomous platforms that could carry interrogation systems at sea, both airborne and submersible, are summarized and their utilization discussed. An R&D program to investigate the limits of this approach to screening ships at sea is indicated and limitations estimated.

  8. Morocco 1995 Al Akhawayn University, located in Ifrane, Morocco, opened its doors in January, 1995 to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paxton, John

    is told that it is a simple matter of calling Royal Air Maroc (the Moroccan national airline) in New York, Delta does not know John from Adam! Back with Royal Air Maroc, John discovers that there is a prepaid. Perhaps Royal Air Maroc booked you with Northwest instead.'', the voice on the line states. ``That stupid

  9. Banging on the Door of the University: The Complexities of Progression from Apprenticeship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davies, Christopher

    ) and the extent to which participation from this potential pipeline is likely to increase. The paper also argues and independent review of the regulation, role, content and use of vocational qualifications. #12;Contents 1

  10. Emergency Department Activation of Interventional Cardiology to Reduce Door-to-Balloon Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahler, Simon A; Chan, Hoi Y; Carden, Donna L; Wolcott, Christopher; Conrad, Steven A

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    initiated primary percutaneous coronary intervention on meanTimely percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with balloon

  11. Single Cycle Thin Film Compressor Opening the door to Zeptosecond-Exawatt Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mourou, G; Khazanov, E; Sergeev, A

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article demonstrates a new compression scheme that has the potential to compress a high energy pulse as high as a few hundred Joules in a pulse as short as one optical cycle at 0.8{\\mu}m making a true ultra-relativistic {\\lambda}^3 pulse. This pulse could have a focused intensity of 10^24W/cm2 or a0 of 1000. It could form an efficient, 10%, relativistic mirror that could compress the pulse to the atto-zeptosecond regime, with an upshifted wavelength of 1-10keV. This technique could be a watershed making the entry of petawatt pulses into the exawatt and zeptosecond regime possible.

  12. Twelve of the World's Leading National R&E Networks Open Doors...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    disciplines from genomics to climate research, materials discovery, humanities and the social sciences. "Research and education networks have spent the past few years performing...

  13. Residents Learn to Open Their Doors to Energy Efficiency in Michigan...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Logo of BetterBuildings for Michigan. BetterBuildings for Michigan conducts neighborhood "sweeps" that have already marketed the program's offerings to more than 11,000 homeowners...

  14. A Stepping Stone In addition to opening doors to industry, the VI-A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Brian C.

    Devices, Booz Allen Hamilton, The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Linear Technology, Maxim, Microsoft

  15. A Stepping Stone In addition to opening doors to industry, the VI-A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Brian C.

    Devices, Booz Allen Hamilton, The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Intersil, Linear Technology, Maxim

  16. Spitsroeden lopen zit er door Nathalie's vlucht niet meer in voor Betty uit Big

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hitler naar boven: 36 %. En laat nu net het Vlaams Blok 33 % van de stemmen gehaald. Weliswaar allèèn

  17. A Generalized Framework for Opening Doors and Drawers in Kitchen Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cremers, Daniel

    ¨urgen Sturm2, Dejan Pangercic1, Michael Beetz1, Daniel Cremers2 Abstract-- In this paper, we present. Pangercic and M. Beetz are with the Intelligent Autonomous Systems group, Computer Science Department, Technische Universit¨at M¨unchen {ruehr, pangercic, beetz}@cs.tum.edu 2J. Sturm and D. Cremers

  18. New National Labs Pilot Opens Doors to Small Businesses | Department of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency VisitSilverNephelineNeuralNewIdeasofNewNew

  19. AHEM Lab Opens Doors to New Technology Test Bed at NREL (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL studies smart sensors and dynamic control systems to help homeowners conserve energy, save money, and live comfortably.

  20. New customizable phased array UT instrument opens door for furthering research and better industrial implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dao, Gavin [Advanced OEM Solutions, 8044 Montgomery Road 700, Cincinnati OH 45236 (United States); Ginzel, Robert [Eclipse Scientific, 97 Randall, Waterloo, Ontario N2V 1C5 (Canada)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Phased array UT as an inspection technique in itself continues to gain wide acceptance. However, there is much room for improvement in terms of implementation of Phased Array (PA) technology for every unique NDT application across several industries (e.g. oil and petroleum, nuclear and power generation, steel manufacturing, etc.). Having full control of the phased array instrument and customizing a software solution is necessary for more seamless and efficient inspections, from setting the PA parameters, collecting data and reporting, to the final analysis. NDT researchers and academics also need a flexible and open platform to be able to control various aspects of the phased array process. A high performance instrument with advanced PA features, faster data rates, a smaller form factor, and capability to adapt to specific applications, will be discussed.