Sample records for flow pressure rangepsi

  1. Property:Pressure Range(Psi) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  2. Pressure balanced drag turbine mass flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dacus, Michael W. (Gilbert, AR); Cole, Jack H. (Fayetteville, AR)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The density of the fluid flowing through a tubular member may be measured by a device comprising a rotor assembly suspended within the tubular member, a fluid bearing medium for the rotor assembly shaft, independent fluid flow lines to each bearing chamber, and a scheme for detection of any difference between the upstream and downstream bearing fluid pressures. The rotor assembly reacts to fluid flow both by rotation and axial displacement; therefore concurrent measurements may be made of the velocity of blade rotation and also bearing pressure changes, where the pressure changes may be equated to the fluid momentum flux imparted to the rotor blades. From these parameters the flow velocity and density of the fluid may be deduced.

  3. Pressure balanced drag turbine mass flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dacus, M.W.; Cole, J.H.

    1980-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The density of the fluid flowing through a tubular member may be measured by a device comprising a rotor assembly suspended within the tubular member, a fluid bearing medium for the rotor assembly shaft, independent fluid flow lines to each bearing chamber, and a scheme for detection of any difference between the upstream and downstream bearing fluid pressures. The rotor assembly reacts to fluid flow both by rotation and axial displacement; therefore concurrent measurements may be made of the velocity of blade rotation and also bearing pressure changes, where the pressure changes may be equated to the fluid momentum flux imparted to the rotor blades. From these parameters the flow velocity and density of the fluid may be deduced.

  4. Pressure-flow reducer for aerosol focusing devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gard, Eric (San Francisco, CA); Riot, Vincent (Oakland, CA); Coffee, Keith (Diablo Grande, CA); Woods, Bruce (Livermore, CA); Tobias, Herbert (Kensington, CA); Birch, Jim (Albany, CA); Weisgraber, Todd (Brentwood, CA)

    2008-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure-flow reducer, and an aerosol focusing system incorporating such a pressure-flow reducer, for performing high-flow, atmosphere-pressure sampling while delivering a tightly focused particle beam in vacuum via an aerodynamic focusing lens stack. The pressure-flow reducer has an inlet nozzle for adjusting the sampling flow rate, a pressure-flow reduction region with a skimmer and pumping ports for reducing the pressure and flow to enable interfacing with low pressure, low flow aerosol focusing devices, and a relaxation chamber for slowing or stopping aerosol particles. In this manner, the pressure-flow reducer decouples pressure from flow, and enables aerosol sampling at atmospheric pressure and at rates greater than 1 liter per minute.

  5. Modelling Flow through Porous Media under Large Pressure Gradients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Shriram

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The most interesting and technologically important problems in the study of flow through porous media involve very high pressures and pressure gradients in the flow do- main such as enhanced oil recovery and carbon dioxide sequestration. The popular...

  6. Pressure grouting of fractured basalt flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, P.; Weidner, J.; Phillips, S.; Alexander, J.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a field trial of pressure grouting in basalt and the results of subsequent coring and permeability measurement activities. The objective was to show that the hydraulic conductivity of fractured basalt bedrock can be significantly reduced by pressure injection of cementitious materials. The effectiveness of the pressure grout procedure was evaluated by measuring the change in the hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock. The extent of grout penetration was established by analyzing postgrout injection drilling chips for the presence of a tracer in the grout and also by examining cores of the treated basalt. Downhole radar mapping was used to establish major lava flow patterns and follow water movement during a surface infiltration test. A site called Box Canyon, which is located northwest of the INEL, was chosen for this study due to the similarity of this surface outcrop geology to that of the underlying bedrock fracture system found at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This study showed that hydraulic conductivity of basalt can be reduced through pressure grouting of cementitious material.

  7. System for measuring multiphase flow using multiple pressure differentials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method and system for measuring a multi-phase flow in a pressure flow meter. An extended throat venturi is used and pressure of the multi-phase flow is measured at three or more positions in the venturi, which define two or more pressure differentials in the flow conduit. The differential pressures are then used to calculate the mass flow of the gas phase, the total mass flow, and the liquid phase. The system for determining the mass flow of the high void fraction fluid flow and the gas flow includes taking into account a pressure drop experienced by the gas phase due to work performed by the gas phase in accelerating the liquid phase.

  8. Analysis of pressure drops under reversing flow conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krazinski, J.L.; Holtz, R.E.; Uherka, K.L.; Lottes, P.A.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines pressure-drop data from the Reversing Flow Test Facility (RFTF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The data comprise part of an initial series of measurements conducted with pressurized helium gas under reversing flow conditions. The characteristics of fluid pressure drops in compressible, reversing flows are discussed in the paper and compared with pressure-drop measurements for steady, incompressible flows. The methodology used to calculate instantaneous mass flows in the test section of the RFTF is summarized. The measured pressure drops are analyzed in terms of their frictional and inertial components. Pressure-drop data are presented for both tubes and wire mesh regenerators over a range of flow reversal frequencies. The results are discussed with reference to other experimental data and analytical models available in the literature. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Thomas W. (964 Cork Dr., Bethel Park, PA 15102); Hamill, Jr., Paul E. (R.D. #1, Box 173A1, Jeannette, PA 15644); Ozgu, Mustafa R. (790 Yorkshire Rd., Bethlehem, PA 18017); Padfield, Ralph C. (1918 Paul Ave., Bethlehem, PA 18018); Rego, Donovan N. (1703 W. Brown St., Allentown, PA 18104); Brita, Guido P. (3225 Edna Terrace Ave., Bethlehem, PA 18017)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressurized tundish for controlling a continous flow of molten metal characterized by having a pair of principal compartments, one being essentially unpressurized and receiving molten metal introduced thereto, and the other being adapted for maintaining a controlled gaseous pressure over the surface of the fluid metal therein, whereby, by controlling the pressure within the pressurized chamber, metal exiting from the tundish is made to flow continually and at a controlled rate.

  10. Development of Tools for Measuring Temperature, Flow, Pressure...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3 4.4.3 Development of Tools for Measuring Temperature, Flow, Pressure, and Seismicity of EGS Reservoirs - 300 C Capable Electronics Platform and Temperature Sensor System for...

  11. Effects of external pressure on the terminal lymphatic flow rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seale, James Lewis

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pressure applied to the skin of the canine cause the terminal lymphat- ic flow rate to increase until the external pressure reaches 60mm Hg. At an external pressure of 60mm Hg reduced lymphatic flow is observed in some of the test animals. At 75mm Hg... resulting from the external pressure begins to col- lapse the lymph vessels. External pressure between 60 and 75mm Hg restricts or completely occludes the terminal lymphatic flow rate. ACKNOWLEDGENENTS I would like to express my appreciation...

  12. Two-Phase Flow Pressure Drop of High Quality Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, J. M.; Coffield, R. D.

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-phase pressure drop across a straight test pipe was experimentally determined for high Reynolds (Re) number steam flow for a flow quality range of 0.995 to 1.0. The testing described has been performed in order to reduce uncertainties associated with the effects of two-phase flow on pressure drop. Two-phase flow develops in steam piping because a small fraction of the steam flow condenses due to heat loss to the surroundings. There has been very limited two-phase pressure drop data in open literature for the tested flow quality range. The two-phase pressure drop data obtained in this test has enabled development of a correlation between friction factor, Reynolds number, and flow quality.

  13. A study of boiling water flow regimes at low pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiori, Mario P.

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    "A comprehensive experimental program to examine flow regimes at pressures below 100 psia for boiling of water in tubes was carried out. An electrical probe, which measures the resistance of the fluid between the centerline ...

  14. Heat transfer and pressure drop in tape generated swirl flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopina, Robert F.

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of water in tape generated swirl flow were investigated. The test sections were electrically heated small diameter nickel tubes with tight fitting full length Inconel ...

  15. A new relation between pressure and fractional flow in two-phase flow in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henning Arendt Knudsen; Alex Hansen

    2002-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We study average flow properties in porous media using a two-dimensional network simulator. It models the dynamics of two-phase immiscible bulk flow where film flow can be neglected. The boundary conditions are biperiodic which provide a means of studying steady state flow where complex bubble dynamics dominate the flow picture. We find fractional flow curves and corresponding pressure curves for different capillary numbers. In particular, we study the case of the two phases having equal viscosity. In this case we find that the derivative of the fractional flow with respect to saturation is related to the global pressure drop. This result can also be expressed in terms of relative permeabilities or mobilities, resulting in an equation tying together the mobilities of the two phases.

  16. Experimental Investigation of Sphere Slamming to Quiescent Water Surface-Pressure Distribution and Jetting Flow Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Wan-Yi

    2014-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Sphere slamming pressures and corresponding jetting flow fields were studied in an experimental approach. Correlations between sphere impacting forces and jetting flow occurrences were explored. Pressure sensor was used to investigate the slamming...

  17. Energy-Saving Design for Pressure Difference Control in Variable Flow Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Y.; Zhang, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyzes energy-saving design for pressure-difference control in a variable flow air conditioning system, including the application of a pressure-difference control valve and the installation position of a pressure-difference transducer...

  18. Virtual Measurement in Pipes, Part 1: Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure Under Multi-Phase Flow and Inclined Wellbore Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    SPE 30975 Virtual Measurement in Pipes, Part 1: Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure Under Multi-Phase Flow, 163245 SPEUT. Abstract Pressure drop prediction in pipes is an old petroleum engineering problem. There is a long history of attempts to develop empirical correlations to predict the pressure drop in pipes. Some

  19. Flow Patterns, Void Fraction and Pressure Drop in Gas-Liquid Two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghajar, Afshin J.

    and simultaneous transportation of oil and natural gas from remote extraction locations to the processing units#12;Chapter 4 Flow Patterns, Void Fraction and Pressure Drop in Gas-Liquid Two Phase Flow in gas-liquid two phase flow. The flow structure of different flow patterns observed in gas-liquid two

  20. An evaluation of pressure and flow measurement in the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.; Briggs, Ronald J.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories has a unique test capability called the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system. MSTL allows customers and researchers to test components in flowing, molten nitrate salt at plant-like conditions for pressure, flow, and temperature. An important need in thermal storage systems that utilize molten salts is for accurate flow and pressure measurement at temperatures above 535%C2%B0C. Currently available flow and pressure instrumentation for molten salt is limited to 535%C2%B0C and even at this temperature the pressure measurement appears to have significant variability. It is the design practice in current Concentrating Solar Power plants to measure flow and pressure on the cold side of the process or in dead-legs where the salt can cool, but this practice won't be possible for high temperature salt systems. For this effort, a set of tests was conducted to evaluate the use of the pressure sensors for flow measurement across a device of known flow coefficient Cv. To perform this task, the pressure sensors performance was evaluated and was found to be lacking. The pressure indicators are severely affected by ambient conditions and were indicating pressure changes of nearly 200psi when there was no flow or pressure in the system. Several iterations of performance improvement were undertaken and the pressure changes were reduced to less than 15psi. The results of these pressure improvements were then tested for use as flow measurement. It was found that even with improved pressure sensors, this is not a reliable method of flow measurement. The need for improved flow and pressure measurement at high temperatures remains and will need to be solved before it will be possible to move to high temperature thermal storage systems with molten salts.

  1. Method and apparatus to measure vapor pressure in a flow system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Biblarz, Oscar (Swampscott, MA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method for determining, by a condensation method, the vapor pressure of a material with a known vapor pressure versus temperature characteristic, in a flow system particularly in a mercury isotope enrichment process.

  2. Method and system for measuring multiphase flow using multiple pressure differentials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method and system for measuring a multiphase flow in a pressure flow meter. An extended throat venturi is used and pressure of the multiphase flow is measured at three or more positions in the venturi, which define two or more pressure differentials in the flow conduit. The differential pressures are then used to calculate the mass flow of the gas phase, the total mass flow, and the liquid phase. The method for determining the mass flow of the high void fraction fluid flow and the gas flow includes certain steps. The first step is calculating a gas density for the gas flow. The next two steps are finding a normalized gas mass flow rate through the venturi and computing a gas mass flow rate. The following step is estimating the gas velocity in the venturi tube throat. The next step is calculating the pressure drop experienced by the gas-phase due to work performed by the gas phase in accelerating the liquid phase between the upstream pressure measuring point and the pressure measuring point in the venturi throat. Another step is estimating the liquid velocity in the venturi throat using the calculated pressure drop experienced by the gas-phase due to work performed by the gas phase. Then the friction is computed between the liquid phase and a wall in the venturi tube. Finally, the total mass flow rate based on measured pressure in the venturi throat is calculated, and the mass flow rate of the liquid phase is calculated from the difference of the total mass flow rate and the gas mass flow rate.

  3. Interpreting Horizontal Well Flow Profiles and Optimizing Well Performance by Downhole Temperature and Pressure Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhuoyi

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    be used to obtain downhole flow conditions, which is key information to control and optimize horizontal well production. However, the fluid flow in the reservoir is often multiphase and complex, which makes temperature and pressure interpretation very...

  4. Application of convolution and average pressure approximation for solving non-linear flow problems. constant pressure inner boundary condition for gas flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhakupov, Mansur

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    properties are specifically taken as implicit functions of pressure, temperature, and composition) are particularly challenging because the diffusivity equation for the "real gas" flow case is strongly non-linear. Whereas different methods exist which allow...

  5. Effects of non-Darcy flow on pressure buildup analysis of hydraulically fractured gas reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez Vera, Cesar

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -Darcy flow in the hydraulic fracture and its effects on pressure buildup analysis of hydraulically fractured gas reservoirs. A reservoir simulator was used to generate pressure drawdown and buildup data both with and without the effects of non-Darcy flow...

  6. KC-135 zero-gravity two-phase flow pressure drop experiments and modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lambert, Anne

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the nomenclature list . 13 f @=0 079(gD P. (ttt j The frictional pressure gradient calculated from the Fanning equation for the total flow liquid plus vapor) assumed to flow as liquid is: (dP j ~2f G dz ra D Finally, combining equation (4) and (5), the two... be integrated to obtain the frictional pressure drop: hpze=L( ? )ze or dP dz m 2f G2L 24 p D Annular Flow Model Colli r In the case of annular flow with no entrainment and a "smooth" interface, Collier [11] shows that the friction pressure gradient can...

  7. Blood Pressure and Blood Flow Variation during Postural Change from Sitting to Standing: Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Blood Pressure and Blood Flow Variation during Postural Change from Sitting to Standing: Model that regulates blood pressure, and cerebral autoregulation that maintains cerebral perfusion. We present a mathematical model that can predict dynamic changes observed in beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure and middle

  8. Modeling flow in a pressure-sensitive, heterogeneous medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasco, Donald W.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coupling Porous Flow and Geomechanics, Society of Petroleumlapse time shifts: A geomechanics case study from Franklin

  9. Analysis of a Darcy flow model with a dynamic pressure saturation relation \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hulshof, Joost

    equations modelling the flow. In the standard approach for two phase flows, such as oil­water or air­water mixtures, one combines the mass conservation equations and Darcy's law for the separate phasesAnalysis of a Darcy flow model with a dynamic pressure saturation relation \\Lambda Josephus Hulshof

  10. Study of flow fields induced by surface dielectric barrier discharge actuator in low-pressure air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Che, Xueke, E-mail: chedk@163.com, E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn; Nie, Wansheng; Tian, Xihui; Hou, Zhiyong; He, Haobo; Zhou, Penghui; Zhou, Siyin; Yang, Chao [Equipment Academy, Beijing 101416 (China)] [Equipment Academy, Beijing 101416 (China); Shao, Tao, E-mail: chedk@163.com, E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) is a promising method for a flow control. Flow fields induced by a SDBD actuator driven by the ac voltage in static air at low pressures varying from 1.0 to 27.7?kPa are measured by the particle image velocimetry method. The influence of the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude on the induced flow fields is studied. The results show that three different classes of flow fields (wall jet flow field, complex flow field, and vortex-shape flow field) can be induced by the SDBD actuator in the low-pressure air. Among them, the wall jet flow field is the same as the tangential jet at atmospheric pressure, which is, together with the vertical jet, the complex flow field. The vortex-shape flow field is composed of one vertical jet which points towards the wall and two opposite tangential jets. The complex and the vortex-shape flow fields can be transformed to the wall jet flow field when the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude are changed. It is found that the discharge power consumption increases initially, decreases, and then increases again at the same applied ac voltage magnitude when the air pressure decreases. The tangential velocity of the wall jet flow field increases when the air pressure decreases. It is however opposite for the complex flow field. The variation of the applied ac voltage frequency influences differently three different flow fields. When the applied ac voltage magnitude increases at the same applied ac voltage frequency, the maximal jet velocity increases, while the power efficiency increases only initially and then decreases again. The discharge power shows either linear or exponential dependences on the applied ac voltage magnitude.

  11. Low differential pressure and multiphase flow measurements by means of differential pressure devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Justo, Hernandez Ruiz,

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    performance in the gas mass flow rate estimation was exhibited by the slotted and standard plates for the air-water flow, while poor results were obtained for the air-oil and air-water oil flows. The performance of all the flow meter tested in the analysis...

  12. The Effect of Pressure Difference Control on Hydraulic Stability in a Variable Flow Air Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Z.; Fu, Y.; Chen, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyzes the effects of different pressure difference control methods on hydraulic stability in a variable flow air conditioning system when it is applied to different air conditioning water systems. According to control method and water...

  13. Experimental study of the effects of wakes on separation in low pressure turbine flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O?ztu?rk, Burak

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study, which is the first of a series of investigations dealing with specific issues of low pressure turbine (LPT) boundary layer aerodynamics, is aimed at providing a detailed unsteady boundary flow information to understand...

  14. Predicting pressure losses in two-phase flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietz, Frederic Henri

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    'le veloci ty versus duct station. Paramett ic variation of first term of equation of motion. 41 17 Theoret i ca I partlc'le veloci ty versus duct station. Parametric variation of second term of equa t i on of mot i on. , 18 Veioci ty prof i 'le through... at. the throat of the contraction PT section. F'igure 2 is a plot of ?. for typical test dynamic pressures. This dimensionless ratio is often used to show velocity var iance. DUCT STATIC PRESSURE CALI BRAT IDN Static pressure measurements were...

  15. A primary high-pressure air flow measurement standard in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiunn-Haur Shaw; Fong-Ruey Yang; Yao-Fu Chen [Industrial Technology Research Inst., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-pressure air-flow national measurement standard is constructed in Taiwan with a capacity of 8400 Nm{sup 3}/h and a projected measurement uncertainty of {plus_minus}0.2% in the pressure range of 1 {approximately} 84 bars. it is a blow-down type facility, and its main purpose is to serve as the primary standard of a larger-flowrate natural gas flow measurement facility to be built in the future by Chinese Petroleum Company (CPC). The system has a gyroscopic weighing platform suitable for high precision gravimetric measurements and several sonic nozzles with different throat diameters situated in a chamber to be the reference flow meters. A set of two turbine meters, 50mm and 100mm, are sued as the transfer standard. The facility has two test sections separated by the nozzle chamber and four different calibration modes could be arranged. To make calibration, the storage tank, the temperature control loop, and two sets of pressure regulating valve establish a pressurized air flow with stable temperature and pressure in the test section. The control of the air-flow diversion, connect-disconnect mechanism, sonic nozzle array is made through a hydraulic power unit operating at 200 bars. Real time measurements of temperature, pressure, flow signal, and time are collected through a Honeywell 9000-series PLC and a FIX DMAC data acquisition/control software. This paper describes the key components of the test facility and presents the preliminary results of performance assessment.

  16. Pressure and partial wetting effects on superhydrophobic friction reduction in microchannel flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hidrovo, Carlos H.

    Pressure and partial wetting effects on superhydrophobic friction reduction in microchannel flow://pof.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 24, 112003 (2012) Pressure and partial wetting effects on superhydrophobic- ing that can lead to a superhydrophobic Cassie-Baxter state. The Cassie-Baxter state is characterized

  17. Method and apparatus to measure vapor pressure in a flow system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; Biblarz, O.

    1991-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method for determining, by a condensation method, the vapor pressure of a material with a known vapor pressure versus temperature characteristic, in a flow system particularly in a mercury isotope enrichment process. 2 figures.

  18. Relation between plasma plume density and gas flow velocity in atmospheric pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Taka, Shogo; Ogura, Kazuo [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied atmospheric pressure plasma generated using a quartz tube, helium gas, and copper foil electrode by applying RF high voltage. The atmospheric pressure plasma in the form of a bullet is released as a plume into the atmosphere. To study the properties of the plasma plume, the plasma plume current is estimated from the difference in currents on the circuit, and the drift velocity is measured using a photodetector. The relation of the plasma plume density n{sub plu}, which is estimated from the current and the drift velocity, and the gas flow velocity v{sub gas} is examined. It is found that the dependence of the density on the gas flow velocity has relations of n{sub plu} ? log(v{sub gas}). However, the plasma plume density in the laminar flow is higher than that in the turbulent flow. Consequently, in the laminar flow, the density increases with increasing the gas flow velocity.

  19. Pressure loss of air flowing through 45 degree, wooden louvers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cobb, Phil Ross

    1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 Introduction . . ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ ~. . . o ~ 2 Susgsary ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Description Of Test Equipment ~ ~ ~ ~ Test Procedure ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ o i ~ o ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 5 9 Calculation Of Results... to detezmine the effect of this shape experimentally. The purpose of this thesis was to take such necessary experimental data~ analyse this data, and draw whatever conclusions are shown by this analysis. S L99tARY (1) Tld. s report concerns the pressure...

  20. Heat transfer and pressure drop for air flow through enhanced passages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obot, N.T.; Esen, E.B.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extensive experimental investigation was carried out to determine the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics for laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of air through a smooth passage and twenty-three enhanced passages. The internal surfaces of all enhanced passages had spirally shaped geometries; these included fluted, finned/ribbed and indented surfaces. The Reynolds number (Re) was varied between 400 and 50000. The effect of heat transfer (wall cooling or fluid heating) on pressure drop is most significant within the transition region; the recorded pressure drop with heat transfer is much higher than that without heat transfer. The magnitude of this effect depends markedly on the average surface temperature and, to a lesser extent, on the geometric characteristics of the enhanced surfaces. When the pressure drop data are reduced as values of the Fanning friction factor(f), the results are about the same with and without heat transfer for turbulent flow, with moderate differences in the laminar and transition regions.

  1. Heat transfer and pressure drop for air flow through enhanced passages. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obot, N.T.; Esen, E.B.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extensive experimental investigation was carried out to determine the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics for laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of air through a smooth passage and twenty-three enhanced passages. The internal surfaces of all enhanced passages had spirally shaped geometries; these included fluted, finned/ribbed and indented surfaces. The Reynolds number (Re) was varied between 400 and 50000. The effect of heat transfer (wall cooling or fluid heating) on pressure drop is most significant within the transition region; the recorded pressure drop with heat transfer is much higher than that without heat transfer. The magnitude of this effect depends markedly on the average surface temperature and, to a lesser extent, on the geometric characteristics of the enhanced surfaces. When the pressure drop data are reduced as values of the Fanning friction factor(f), the results are about the same with and without heat transfer for turbulent flow, with moderate differences in the laminar and transition regions.

  2. Development and verification of a numerical simulator to calculate the bottom hole flowing pressures in multiphase systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasool, Syed Ahmed

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vast amount of research has been conducted on the subject of pressure drop in muldphase flow systems. The simulator developed for this research incorporates the Beggs and Brill model for pressure drop prediction with an equation of state...

  3. Aerodynamic pressure and flow-visualization measurement from a rotating wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butterfield, C.P.

    1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerodynamic, load, flow-visualization, and inflow measurements have been made on a 10-m, three-bladed, downwind, horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT). A video camera mounted on the rotor was used to record nighttime and daytime video images of tufts attached to the low-pressure side of a constant-chord, zero-twist blade. Load measurements were made using strain gages mounted at every 10% of the blade's span. Pressure measurements were made at 80% of the blade's span. Pressure taps were located at 32 chordwise positions, revealing pressure distributions comparable with wind tunnel data. Inflow was measured using a vertical-plane array of eight propvane and five triaxial (U-V-W) prop-type anemometers located 10 m upwind in the predominant wind direction. One objective of this comprehensive research program was to study the effects of blade rotation on aerodynamic behavior below, near, and beyond stall. To this end, flow patterns are presented here that reveal the dynamic and steady behavior of flow conditions on the blade. Pressure distributions are compared to flow patterns and two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Separation boundary locations are shown that change as a function of spanwise location, pitch angle, and wind speed. 6 refs., 23 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Analytical and Experimental Study of Annular Two-Phase Flow Friction Pressure Drop Under Microgravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Ngoc Thanh

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    tests were conducted aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft by the Interphase Transport Phenomena (ITP) group from Texas A&M University. The two-phase flow pressure drops were measured across a single transparent test section 12.7 mm ID and 1.63 m long...

  5. Radio frequency induced ionized collisional flow model for application at atmospheric pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Subrata

    Radio frequency induced ionized collisional flow model for application at atmospheric pressures and radio frequency (rf) induced plasma-sheath dynamics, using multifluid equations. For the former, argon inherent in nonequilibrium discharges such as obtained through radio frequency (rf) or microwave excitation

  6. Dynamic pressure response of water flow between closely spaced roughened flat plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hess, John Charles

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A flat plate tester was designed and built to determine friction factors and dynamic pressures for water flow over smooth, knurl, and cavity plates. Reynolds numbers between 2000 and 35000 were obtained at plate clearances of 0.076 mm to 1.270 mm...

  7. Drag Reduction Study by Wavelet Analysis of Differential Pressure Signals in Turbulent Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ling Zhen; Yassin, A. Hassan; Dominguez-Ontiveros, Elvis [Nuclear Engineering Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drag reduction was studied when micro-bubbles with low void fractions were injected in the boundary layer of a turbulent channel flow. The particle tracking velocimetry (PIV) flow measurement technique was used to measure two-dimensional full velocity fields. Since pressure field distribution is associated with turbulence behavior and dissipation, it is important to study the changes of the pressure field. However, the differential pressure signals are difficult to analyze due to irregularity. The characteristics of these signals have been studied by traditional statistical methods. In this study, the multi-resolution technique of wavelet transform based on localized wavelet functions is utilized to nonlinear pressure signals. By using continuous wavelet transform method, the pressure signals in the turbulent flow can be decomposed into its approximations and details at different resolutions. The magnitudes of the coefficients represent the energy distribution at different scales and this also can facilitate the visual observation of the energy transition process. The wavelet decomposition coefficients at different scales plot would provide a tool to further our understanding of drag reduction mechanism via micro-bubbles injection. (authors)

  8. Liquid-metal pin-fin pressure drop by correlation in cross flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhibi; Kuzay, T.M.; Assoufid, L.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The pin-fin configuration is widely used as a heat transfer enhancement method in high-heat-flux applications. Recently, the pin-fin design with liquid-metal coolant was also applied to synchrotron-radiation beamline devices. This paper investigates the pressure drop in a pin-post design beamline mirror with liquid gallium as the coolant. Because the pin-post configuration is a relatively new concept, information in literature about pin-post mirrors or crystals is rare, and information about the pressure drop in pin-post mirrors with liquid metal as the coolant is even more sparse. Due to this the authors considered the cross flow in cylinder-array geometry, which is very similar to that of the pin-post, to examine the pressure drop correlation with liquid metals over pin fins. The cross flow of fluid with various fluid characteristics or properties through a tube bank was studied so that the results can be scaled to the pin-fin geometry with liquid metal as the coolant. Study lead to two major variables to influence the pressure drop: fluid properties, viscosity and density, and the relative length of the posts. Correlation of the pressure drop between long and short posts and the prediction of the pressure drop of liquid metal in the pin-post mirror and comparison with an existing experiment are addressed.

  9. An experimental and analytical study of annular two phase flow friction pressure drop in a reduced acceleration field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, Montgomery

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the same mass fluxes and mass qualities. The reduced acceleration pressure drops were found to be 45% greater overall than the 1-g pressure drops. In addition, the reduced acceleration flows were modeled using a universal velocity profile integral... approach to determine the liquid film thickness and the interfacial friction factor. The reduced acceleration annular flow interfacial friction factors were compared with current models for vertical up-flow in a 1-g environment. The reduced acceleration...

  10. Transient growth mechanisms of low Reynolds number flow over a low-pressure turbine blade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, AS; Sherwin, SJ; Theofilis, V; 10.1007/s00162-010-0183-9

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A direct transient growth analysis for three-dimensional perturbations to flow past a periodic array of T-106/300 low-pressure turbine fan blades is presented. The methodology is based on a singular value decomposition of the flow evolution operator, linearised about a steady or periodic base flow. This analysis yields the optimal growth modes. Previous work on global mode stability analysis of this flow geometry showed the flow is asymptotically stable, indicating a non-modal explanation of transition may be more appropriate. The present work extends previous investigations into the transient growth around a steady base flow, to higher Reynolds numbers and periodic base flows. It is found that the notable transient growth of the optimal modes suggests a plausible route to transition in comparison to modal growth for this configuration. The spatial extent and localisation of the optimal modes is examined and possible physical triggering mechanisms are discussed. It is found that for longer times and longer sp...

  11. Experimental Modeling of VHTR Plenum Flows during Normal Operation and Pressurized Conduction Cooldown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn E McCreery; Keith G Condie

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is the leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Project in the U.S. which has the goal of demonstrating the production of emissions free electricity and hydrogen by 2015. The present document addresses experimental modeling of flow and thermal mixing phenomena of importance during normal or reduced power operation and during a loss of forced reactor cooling (pressurized conduction cooldown) scenario. The objectives of the experiments are, 1), provide benchmark data for assessment and improvement of codes proposed for NGNP designs and safety studies, and, 2), obtain a better understanding of related phenomena, behavior and needs. Physical models of VHTR vessel upper and lower plenums which use various working fluids to scale phenomena of interest are described. The models may be used to both simulate natural convection conditions during pressurized conduction cooldown and turbulent lower plenum flow during normal or reduced power operation.

  12. Compressive Sensing Based Machine Learning Strategy For Characterizing The Flow Around A Cylinder With Limited Pressure Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bright, Ido; Lin, Guang; Kutz, Nathan

    2013-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Compressive sensing is used to determine the flow characteristics around a cylinder (Reynolds number and pressure/flow field) from a sparse number of pressure measurements on the cylinder. Using a supervised machine learning strategy, library elements encoding the dimensionally reduced dynamics are computed for various Reynolds numbers. Convex L1 optimization is then used with a limited number of pressure measurements on the cylinder to reconstruct, or decode, the full pressure field and the resulting flow field around the cylinder. Aside from the highly turbulent regime (large Reynolds number) where only the Reynolds number can be identified, accurate reconstruction of the pressure field and Reynolds number is achieved. The proposed data-driven strategy thus achieves encoding of the fluid dynamics using the L2 norm, and robust decoding (flow field reconstruction) using the sparsity promoting L1 norm.

  13. Observation of pressure gradient and related flow rate effect on the plasma parameters in plasma processing reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kim, Aram; Chung, Chin-Wook [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Se Youn [Solar Energy Group, LG Electronics Advanced Research Institute, 16 Woomyeon-Dong, Seocho-Gu, Seoul 137-724 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In industrial plasma processes, flow rate has been known to a key to control plasma processing results and has been discussed with reactive radical density, gas residence time, and surface reaction. In this study, it was observed that the increase in the flow rate can also change plasma parameters (electron temperature and plasma density) and electron energy distribution function in plasma processing reactor. Based on the measurement of gas pressure between the discharge region and the pumping port region, the considerable differences in the gas pressure between the two regions were found with increasing flow rate. It was also observed that even in the discharge region, the pressure gradient occurs at the high gas flow rate. This result shows that increasing the flow rate results in the pressure gradient and causes the changes in the plasma parameters.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW PRESSURE, AIR ATOMIZED OIL BURNER WITH HIGH ATOMIZER AIR FLOW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BUTCHER,T.A.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes technical advances made to the concept of a low pressure, air atomized oil burner for home heating applications. Currently all oil burners on the market are of the pressure atomized, retention head type. These burners have a lower firing rate limit of about 0.5 gallons per hour of oil, due to reliability problems related to small flow passage sizes. High pressure air atomized burners have been shown to be one route to avoid this problem but air compressor cost and reliability have practically eliminated this approach. With the low pressure air atomized burner the air required for atomization can be provided by a fan at 5--8 inches of water pressure. A burner using this concept, termed the Fan-Atomized Burner or FAB has been developed and is currently being commercialized. In the head of the FAB, the combustion air is divided into three parts, much like a conventional retention head burner. This report describes development work on a new concept in which 100% of the air from the fan goes through the atomizer. The primary advantage of this approach is a great simplification of the head design. A nozzle specifically sized for this concept was built and is described in the report. Basic flow pressure tests, cold air velocity profiles, and atomization performance have been measured. A burner head/flame tube has been developed which promotes a torroidal recirculation zone near the nozzle for flame stability. The burner head has been tested in several furnace and boiler applications over the tiring rate range 0.2 to 0.28 gallons per hour. In all cases the burner can operate with very low excess air levels (under 10%) without producing smoke. Flue gas NO{sub x} concentration varied from 42 to 62 ppm at 3% 0{sub 2}. The concept is seen as having significant potential and planned development efforts are discussed.

  15. Local heat transfer and pressure drop measurements in a wavy channel with and without flow disturbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dini, S.; Kmelius, D. [Western New England College, Springfield, MA (United States); Saniei, N. [Southern Illinois Univ., Edwardsville, IL (United States)

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments have been performed to measure local heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop in a wavy channel for Reynolds numbers of 2,900 and 7,000. Additionally, the effect of flow disturbers mounted on the first two peaks on one surface was investigated. The transient method and liquid crystals were used for the local heat transfer measurements. Initial experimental results indicate that addition of ribs into the passage stimulates flow instabilities which enhance the heat transfer performance with moderate effect on pressure drop. Measurements were conducted on a 6 in x 3/8 in x 12 in wavy channel with a wave length of one inch. The highest local heat transfer was detected on the second, followed by the third and fourth peaks at Re = 7000; wheras for Re = 2900 the highest heat transfer was along the next peak detected immediately after the disturbers. The experimental results observed in this study suggest that ribbed passages would yield higher heat transfer with moderate change in pressure drop compared with non-ribbed channels.

  16. Pressure change and transport process on flames formed in a stretched, rotating flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro [Toyohashi Univ. of Technology, Aichi (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering] [Toyohashi Univ. of Technology, Aichi (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flame characteristics in a stretched, rotating flow have been investigated by numerical simulation of tubular laminar flames for lean hydrogen, methane, and propane/air mixtures. Twin planar flames in counterflow have been also simulated for comparison. A fixed inlet velocity at the porous wall of the burner was assumed in all cases, and the cylindrical containing tube (radius R = 9.5 mm) was either maintained stationary or rotated. Results showed that, within the range studied, the flame temperatures always increase monotonically with increasing fuel concentration, and at the same time the reaction zones move outwards. However, while the introduction of rotation also causes a monotonic temperature increase of hydrogen and methane air mixtures, that of a propane/air mixture decreases. The temperature change with rotation becomes smaller with an increase of the fuel concentration. As a consequence of the centrifugal force, {rho}{nu}{sub {theta}}{sup 2}/r, induced by the rotation, a pressure gradient is formed in the cylindrical containing tube, with low pressure along the axis. The pressure gradient at the outer, unburnt edge of the flame reaction zone becomes smaller as the fuel concentration increases. The resultant decreased mass transport by pressure diffusion provides an explanation for part of the above-mentioned temperature change associated with rotation. The remainder of the effect is associated with changed stretch characteristics of the flames.

  17. Simplified configuration for the combustor of an oil burner using a low pressure, high flow air-atomizing nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butcher, Thomas A. (Port Jefferson, NY); Celebi, Yusuf (Middle Island, NY); Fisher, Leonard (Colrain, MA)

    2000-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion of oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The improved fuel burner uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle that does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design. Inventors:

  18. Scaling of pressure drop for oscillatory flow through a slot Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The George Washington University,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mittal, Rajat

    vec- toring, active control of separation, and drag reduction in a turbulent boundary layer.1Scaling of pressure drop for oscillatory flow through a slot Reni Raju Department of Mechanical to oscillatory flow through a slot. In this Brief Communication, we use numerical simulations and experiments

  19. Onset of Taylor vortices in flows with a circumferential pressure gradient: application to the helical screw rheometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bixler, N.E.; Kraynik, A.M.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Taylor vortex flows are analyzed for the stability of flow between two rotating, concentric cylinders. The study is pertinent to the helical screw rheometer. Relative stability is given for four configurations: (1) high pressure, (2) chemically reacting fluids, (3) multiphase fluids, and (4) on-line measurements. (WRF)

  20. Development of a new dynamic gas flow-control system in the pressure range of 1 Pa-133 Pa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, S. S.; Chung, J. W. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of); Khan, Wakil [Pakistan Vacuum Society, street 17, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new flow-control system (FCS-705) has been developed at Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science. The system is intended for calibration of vacuum gauges in the pressure range of 1 Pa-133 Pa by comparison method. This paper describes some basic characteristics of the system including; (1) the design and construction of the system, (2) the generation of stable pressures in the chamber, (3) achieving high upstream pressure limit by installing a short duct in the by-pass pumping line, and (4) investigation of the gas flow regimes within the short duct.

  1. A review and development of correlations for base pressure and base heating in supersonic flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamb, J.P. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Oberkampf, W.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive review of experimental base pressure and base heating data related to supersonic and hypersonic flight vehicles has been completed. Particular attention was paid to free-flight data as well as wind tunnel data for models without rear sting support. Using theoretically based correlation parameters, a series of internally consistent, empirical prediction equations has been developed for planar and axisymmetric geometries (wedges, cones, and cylinders). These equations encompass the speed range from low supersonic to hypersonic flow and laminar and turbulent forebody boundary layers. A wide range of cone and wedge angles and cone bluntness ratios was included in the data base used to develop the correlations. The present investigation also included preliminary studies of the effect of angle of attack and specific-heat ratio of the gas.

  2. The effects of flow rate and pressure on breakthrough times and permeation rates through an impermeable membrane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Peter Lee

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cell pressure may have on corresponding breakthrough times and permeation rates. The chemical challenge/membrane material consisted of acetone/neoprene, using a 2. 54 cm (one-inch) permeation test cell in an open loop system. A preliminary... water pressure (relative to the carrier gas side of the test cell) 4 Flow Chart of Experimental Logic 5 Typical Permeation Profile INTRODUCTION Evaluating the degree of protection a chemical protective garment provides its user has in the past...

  3. The effects of orientation angle, subcooling, heat flux, mass flux, and pressure on bubble growth and detachment in subcooled flow boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sugrue, Rosemary M

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of orientation angle, subcooling, heat flux, mass flux, and pressure on bubble growth and detachment in subcooled flow boiling were studied using a high-speed video camera in conjunction with a two-phase flow ...

  4. Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Whitty

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Utah's project 'Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment' (U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42261) was a response to U.S. DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS36-04GO94002, 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative' Topical Area 4-Kraft Black Liquor Gasification. The project began September 30, 2004. The objective of the project was to improve the understanding of black liquor conversion in high pressure, high temperature reactors that gasify liquor through partial oxidation with either air or oxygen. The physical and chemical characteristics of both the gas and condensed phase were to be studied over the entire range of liquor conversion, and the rates and mechanisms of processes responsible for converting the liquor to its final smelt and syngas products were to be investigated. This would be accomplished by combining fundamental, lab-scale experiments with measurements taken using a new semi-pilot scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier. As a result of insufficient availability of funds and changes in priority within the Office of Biomass Programs of the U.S. Department of Energy, the research program was terminated in its second year. In total, only half of the budgeted funding was made available for the program, and most of this was used during the first year for construction of the experimental systems to be used in the program. This had a severe impact on the program. As a consequence, most of the planned research was unable to be performed. Only studies that relied on computational modeling or existing experimental facilities started early enough to deliver useful results by the time to program was terminated Over the course of the program, small scale (approx. 1 ton/day) entrained-flow gasifier was designed and installed at the University of Utah's off-campus Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility. The system is designed to operate at pressures as high as 32 atmospheres, and at temperatures as high as 1500 C (2730 F). Total black liquor processing capacity under pressurized, oxygen-blown conditions should be in excess of 1 ton black liquor solids per day. Many sampling ports along the conversion section of the system will allow detailed analysis of the environment in the gasifier under industrially representative conditions. Construction was mostly completed before the program was terminated, but resources were insufficient to operate the system. A system for characterizing black liquor sprays in hot environments was designed and constructed. Silhouettes of black liquor sprays formed by injection of black liquor through a twin fluid (liquor and atomizing air) nozzle were videoed with a high-speed camera, and the resulting images were analyzed to identify overall characteristics of the spray and droplet formation mechanisms. The efficiency of liquor atomization was better when the liquor was injected through the center channel of the nozzle, with atomizing air being introduced in the annulus around the center channel, than when the liquor and air feed channels were reversed. Atomizing efficiency and spray angle increased with atomizing air pressure up to a point, beyond which additional atomizing air pressure had little effect. Analysis of the spray patterns indicates that two classifications of droplets are present, a finely dispersed 'mist' of very small droplets and much larger ligaments of liquor that form at the injector tip and form one or more relatively large droplets. This ligament and subsequent large droplet formation suggests that it will be challenging to obtain a narrow distribution of droplet sizes when using an injector of this design. A model for simulating liquor spray and droplet formation was developed by Simulent, Inc. of Toronto. The model was able to predict performance when spraying water that closely matched the vendor specifications. Simulation of liquor spray indicates that droplets on the order 200-300 microns can be expected, and that higher liquor flow will result in be

  5. Interpretation of in-situ pressure and flow measurements of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howarth, S.M.; Peterson, E.W.; Lagus, P.L.; Lie, K.; Finley, S.J.; Nowak, E.J.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes preliminary interpretation of in-situ pressure and flow measurements of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The WIPP facility is located 660 m underground in the Salado, a bedded salt deposit. Shut-in pressure tests were conducted prior to, and subsequent to, the mining of a circular drift in order to evaluate excavation effects on pore pressure, permeability, and host rock heterogeneity. Borehole deformation was measured during these tests and used to correct for changes in the test region volume due to salt creep effects. Preliminary pre-excavation results indicate that the flow properties of this layered host rock are heterogeneous. Resulting pore pressures range from 1 to 14 MPa and permeabilities range from below measurable to about 1 nanodarcy. Normalized borehole diameter change rates were between {minus}4 and 63 microstrains/day. Shut-in pressures and borehole diameters in all test boreholes were affected by the excavation of Room Q coincident with the advances of the boring machine. Preliminary results from post-excavation test results show decreased pore pressures compared to pre-excavation values.

  6. Application of convolution and average pressure approximation for solving non-linear flow problems. constant pressure inner boundary condition for gas flow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhakupov, Mansur

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The accurate description of fluid flow through porous media allows an engineer to properly analyze past behavior and predict future reservoir performance. In particular, appropriate mathematical models which describe fluid ...

  7. Voltage and pressure scaling of streamer dynamics in a helium plasma jet with N{sub 2} co-flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leiweke, Robert J. [UES, Inc., 4401 Dayton-Xenia Road, Dayton, Ohio 45432 (United States); Ganguly, Biswa N.; Scofield, James D. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433-7919 (United States)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Positive polarity applied voltage and gas pressure dependent scaling of cathode directed streamer propagation properties in helium gas flow guided capillary dielectric barrier discharge have been quantified from streamer velocity, streamer current, and streamer optical diameter measurements. All measurements of the non-stochastic streamer properties have been performed in a variable gas pressure glass cell with N{sub 2} co-flow and under self-consistent Poisson electric field dominated conditions to permit data comparison with 2-D streamer dynamics models in air/nitrogen. The streamer optical diameter was found to be nearly independent of both gas pressures, from 170?Torr up to 760?Torr, and also for applied voltages from 6 to 11?kV at 520?Torr. The streamer velocity was found to increase quadratically with increased applied voltage. These observed differences in the 2-D scaling properties of ionization wave sustained cathode directed streamer propagation in helium flow channel with N{sub 2} annular co-flow compared to the streamer propagation in air or nitrogen have been shown to be caused by the remnant ionization distribution due to large differences in the dissociative recombination rates of He{sub 2}{sup +} versus N{sub 4}{sup +} ions, for this 5?kHz repetition rate applied voltage pulse generated streamers.

  8. Power dissipation and time-averaged pressure in oscillating flow through a sudden area change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Barton L.

    effects including boundary layer turbu- lence and random motions in separated flows. These losses fixed while varying the third. Evidence is presented that the losses due to oscillatory flow for steady flow are available, few such data exist for oscillatory flow in any geometry, despite the fact

  9. Heat transfer and pressure drop of supercritical carbon dioxide flowing in several printed circuit heat exchanger channel patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison, 839 Engineering Research Building, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Kruizenga, A. [Sandia National Laboratory (United States); Anderson, M.; Corradini, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison, 839 Engineering Research Building, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Closed-loop Brayton cycles using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO{sub 2}) show potential for use in high-temperature power generation applications including High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGR) and Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFR). Compared to Rankine cycles SCO{sub 2} Brayton cycles offer similar or improved efficiency and the potential for decreased capital costs due to a reduction in equipment size and complexity. Compact printed-circuit heat exchangers (PCHE) are being considered as part of several SCO{sub 2} Brayton designs to further reduce equipment size with increased energy density. Several designs plan to use a gas cooler operating near the pseudo-critical point of carbon dioxide to benefit from large variations in thermophysical properties, but further work is needed to validate correlations for heat transfer and pressure-drop characteristics of SCO{sub 2} flows in candidate PCHE channel designs for a variety of operating conditions. This paper presents work on experimental measurements of the heat transfer and pressure drop behavior of miniature channels using carbon dioxide at supercritical pressure. Results from several plate geometries tested in horizontal cooling-mode flow are presented, including a straight semi-circular channel, zigzag channel with a bend angle of 80 degrees, and a channel with a staggered array of extruded airfoil pillars modeled after a NACA 0020 airfoil with an 8.1 mm chord length facing into the flow. Heat transfer coefficients and bulk temperatures are calculated from measured local wall temperatures and local heat fluxes. The experimental results are compared to several methods for estimating the friction factor and Nusselt number of cooling-mode flows at supercritical pressures in millimeter-scale channels. (authors)

  10. Development of a Low Pressure, Air Atomized Oil Burner with High Atomizer Air Flow: Progress Report FY 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, T.A.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes technical advances made to the concept of a low pressure, air atomized oil burner for home heating applications. Currently all oil burners on the market are of the pressure atomized, retention head type. These burners have a lower firing rate limit of about 0.5 gallons per hour of oil, due to reliability problems related to small flow passage sizes. High pressure air atomized burners have been shown to be one route to avoid this problem but air compressor cost and reliability have practically eliminated this approach. With the low pressure air atomized burner the air required for atomization can be provided by a fan at 5-8 inches of water pressure. A burner using this concept, termed the Fan-Atomized Burner or ''FAB'' has been developed and is currently being commercialized. In the head of the FAB, the combustion air is divided into three parts, much like a conventional retention head burner. This report describes development work on a new concept in which 100% of the air from the fan goes through the atomizer. The primary advantage of this approach is a great simplification of the head design. A nozzle specifically sized for this concept was built and is described in the report. Basic flow pressure tests, cold air velocity profiles, and atomization performance have been measured. A burner head/flame tube has been developed which promotes a toroidal recirculation zone near the nozzle for flame stability. The burner head has been tested in several furnace and boiler applications over the firing rate range 0.2 to 0.28 gallons per hour. In all cases the burner can operate with very low excess air levels (under 10%) without producing smoke. Flue gas NO{sub x} concentration varied from 42 to 62 ppm at 3% O{sub 2}. The concept is seen as having significant potential and planned development efforts are discussed.

  11. Estimating maximum sustainable injection pressure during geological sequestration of CO2 using coupled fluid flow and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallée, Martin

    coupled fluid flow and geomechanical fault-slip analysis J. Rutqvist *, J. Birkholzer, F. Cappa, C demonstrates the use of coupled fluid flow and geomechanical fault slip (fault reactivation) analysis: Geological CO2 sequestration; geomechanics; Fault slip; Stress; Caprock integrity; CO2 injection 1

  12. Journal of Power Sources 142 (2005) 117124 Pressure drop behavior in the anode flow field of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -house fabricated direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The anode flow field consisted of a single serpentine flow PEM fuel cells, a liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), using a solid polymer membrane for portable electronic devices, electric vehicles, and other mobile and stationery ap- plications. Driven

  13. Establishment of a research facility for investigating the effects of unsteady inlet flow, pressure gradient and curvature on boundary layer development, wake development and heat transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pardivala, Darayus Noshir

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ESTABLISHMENT OF A RESEARCH FACILITY FOR INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF UNSTEADY INLET FLOW) PRESSURE GRADIENT AND CURVATURE ON BOUNDARY LAYER DEVELOPMENT) %'AKE DEVELOPMENT AND HEAT TRANSFER A Thesis by DARAYUS NOSHIR PARDIVALA Submitted... THE EFFECTS OF UNSTEADY INLET FLOW, PRESSURE GRADIENT AND CURVATURE ON BOUNDARY LAYER DEVELOPMENT, WAKE DEVELOPMENT AND HEAT TRANSFER A Thesis by DARAYUS NOSHIR PARDIVALA Approved as to style and content by: Taher Schobeiri (Chair of Committee) Gerald...

  14. MODELING INTRACRANIAL FLUID FLOWS AND VOLUMES DURING TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY TO BETTER UNDERSTAND PRESSURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and pressure associated with each intra- and extracranial compartment (arteries and arterioles, capillary bed fluid volume] + ["other" volume]) is fixed [7]. Excellent mathematical results and insights, the assumption of fixed brain volume is not ac

  15. Study of shear-driven unsteady flows of a fluid with a pressure dependent viscosity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Shriram

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    withpressure dependent viscosity. The viscosity of many uids varies signicantly withpressure, a fact recognized by Stokes; and Barus, in fact, conducted experiments thatshowed that the variation of the viscosity with pressure was exponential. Given sucha...

  16. Experimental Investigation of Sphere Slamming to Quiescent Water Surface-Pressure Distribution and Jetting Flow Field 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Wan-Yi

    2014-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    in four various sphere impacting speeds as four cases. Five designed impacting angles which means impacting measuring point around sphere surface for sensor were conducted for each case. Maximum pressures happened at impacting measuring point of 0o...

  17. FLOW OF A FLUID THROUGH A POROUS SOLID DUE TO HIGH PRESSURE GRADIENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonito, Andrea

    or carbon diox- ide sequestration where very high pressure differentials are involved. Another important and geotechnical engineering, for example problems such as enhanced oil recovery and carbon di-oxide sequestration

  18. Performance characteristics of a low pressure cyclone for axial-flow fan exhausts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simpson, Shay Lynn

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on axial-flow fan exhausts to significantly reduce particulate emissions. Average emission concentrations, cut-point diameters, PMIO emission concentrations, and fractional efficiencies from this cyclone operating at different cyclone inlet velocities...

  19. Green Water Flow Kinematics and Impact Pressure on a Three Dimensional Model Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ariyarathne, Hanchapola Appuhamilage Kusalika Suranjani

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Flow kinematics of green water due to plunging breaking waves interacting with a simplified, three-dimensional model structure was investigated in laboratory. Two breaking wave conditions were tested: one with waves impinging and breaking...

  20. Analytical and Experimental Study of Annular Two-Phase Flow Friction Pressure Drop Under Microgravity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Ngoc Thanh

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-phase liquid-gas flow has a wide variety of applications in space, including active thermal control systems, high-power communications satellites, heat pumps and space nuclear reactors. Two-phase systems have many ...

  1. Effects of geometric scaling on static pressure measurements in orifice flow-meters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarker, Arunava

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the flange tap in typical orifice meters on pipes of different sizes. This was accomplished by comparing the static pressure distribution in a 60. 96 cm (2 foot) diameter orifice run to that on a 5. 08 cm (2 inch) diameter orifice run using air... at a Reynolds number of 122800 exceeded 200 m/s. This was above Mach 0. 6 which exceeds the API standards. The information obtained on the static pressure distributions in the 60. 96 cm (2 foot) and 5. 08 cm (2 inch) run were non...

  2. An existence result for multidimensional immiscible two-phase flows with discontinuous capillary pressure field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , but also discontinuous pressure fields (see [vDMdN95], [EEN98], [BDPvD03], [EEM06], [CGP09], [BLS09], [Can dimensions, unless some strong assumptions are made in order to reduce the problem (see [CGP09], [EEM06

  3. An existence result for multidimensional immiscible two-phase flows with discontinuous capillary pressure field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the fluid composition, but also discontinuous pressure fields (see [vDMdN95], [EEN98], [BDPvD03], [EEM06], [EEM06]). In this paper, we propose to establish an existence result for the solution of the system

  4. Induced Pressure Pumping in Polymer Microchannels via Field-Effect Flow Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    as an elegant method for flow control in polymer-based microfluidics with a simple and low-cost fabrication systems since it requires no mechanical parts, greatly simplifying device fabrication.1-4 An electric counterions at the solution-wall interface electrokinetically toward the cathode. The momentum

  5. A numerical study of fluids with pressure dependent viscosity flowing through a rigid porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakshatrala, K B

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we consider modifications to Darcy's equation wherein the drag coefficient is a function of pressure, which is a realistic model for technological applications like enhanced oil recovery and geological carbon sequestration. We first outline the approximations behind Darcy's equation and the modifications that we propose to Darcy's equation, and derive the governing equations through a systematic approach using mixture theory. We then propose a stabilized mixed finite element formulation for the modified Darcy's equation. To solve the resulting nonlinear equations we present a solution procedure based on the consistent Newton-Raphson method. We solve representative test problems to illustrate the performance of the proposed stabilized formulation. One of the objectives of this paper is also to show that the dependence of viscosity on the pressure can have a significant effect both on the qualitative and quantitative nature of the solution.

  6. Hollow cylinder dynamic pressurization and radial flow through permeability tests for cementitous materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Christopher Andrew

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    depending on the age and relative strength of the specimen. Since the specimen was sealed at both ends, the fluid would flow T es ti n g Fl u i d ( W a ter etc .) Hy d r a u l i c o i l L V D T c o i l E l ec tr i c - h y d r a u l i c p u m p Ho l... is representative of a typical driveway or sidewalk mix. C e m e n t T y p e I / I I 334 k g / m 3 564 l b s / y d 3 W a t e r 200 k g / m 3 338 l b s / y d 3 C oa r s e A g g r e g a t e ( 9 . 5 m m m a x ) 1232 k g / m 3 2079 l b s / y d 3 F i n e A g g r...

  7. The determination of the turbulent intensities in a transitional flow from a smooth to a rough wall with zero pressure gradient in a two-dimensional channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Islam, Obaidul

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE DETERMINATION OF THE TURBULENT INTENSITIES IN A TRANSITIONAL FLOW FROM A SMOOTH TO A ROUGH WALL WITH ZERO PRESSURE GRADIENT IN A TWO-DIMENSIONAL CHANNEL A Thesis By Ol3AIDU I. ISLAM Submitted to the Graduate School of. tire Agricultural... WALL WITH ZERO PRESSURE GRADIENT IN A TWO DIMENSIONAL. GHANNEL A Thesis By OBAIDUL ISLAM Approved as to style and content by: F / F Ghairma p'f mm tg Head of Department May 1963 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Grateful acknowledgment is made to the Texas...

  8. A novel target-type low pressure drop bidirectional optoelectronic air flow sensor for infant artificial ventilation: Measurement principle and static calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saccomandi, Paola; Schena, Emiliano; Silvestri, Sergio [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, University Campus Bio-Medico, Via Alvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Rome (Italy)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An optoelectronic target-type volumetric air flow-rate transducer for bidirectional measurements is presented. The sensor is composed of a T-shaped target and two nominally identical LED-photodiode couples which are operated in differential mode. The sensitive surfaces of the photodiodes are differentially shadowed by the deflection of the target, which in turn depends on the gas flow-rate. The principle of operation is described in mathematical terms and the design parameters have been optimized in order to obtain the highest sensitivity along with minimal pressure drop and reduced dimensions. The sensor is placed in a 20 mm diameter hose and was tested with air flow-rate in the typical temperature range of mechanical ventilation between 20 and 40 deg. C. The theoretical model was validated through experiments carried out in the volumetric flow range from -7.0 to +7.0 l min{sup -1}. The nonlinear behavior allows sensitivities equal to 0.6 V l{sup -1} min for flow rates ranging from -2.0 to +2.0 l min{sup -1}, equal to 2.0 V l{sup -1} min for flow rates ranging from -3.0 to -2.0 l min{sup -1} and from +2.0 to +3.0 l min{sup -1}, up to 5.7 V l{sup -1} min at higher flow rates ranging from -7.0 to -3.0 l min{sup -1} and from +3.0 to +7.0 l min{sup -1}. The linear range extends from 3.0 to 7.0 l min{sup -1} with constant sensitivity equal to 5.7 V l{sup -1} min. The sensor is able to detect a flow-rate equal to 1.0 l min{sup -1} with a sensitivity of about 400 mV l{sup -1} min. The differential nature of the output minimizes the influence of the LEDs' power supply variations and allows to obtain a repeatability in the order of 3% of full scale output. The small pressure drop produced by the sensor placed in-line the fluid stream, of about 2.4 Pa at 7 l min{sup -1}, corresponds to a negligible fluid dynamic resistance lower than 0.34 Pa l{sup -1} min.

  9. A Differential Pressure Instrument with Wireless Telemetry for In-Situ Measurement of Fluid Flow across Sediment-Water Boundaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, Alan T.

    An instrument has been built to carry out continuous in-situ measurement of small differences in water pressure, conductivity and temperature, in natural surface water and groundwater systems. A low-cost data telemetry ...

  10. Design of a high-pressure research flow loop for the experimental investigation of liquid loading in gas wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez Alvarez, Juan Jose

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    body with top and bottom welded-flat head covers with multiple openings to minimize its weight. The pipelines connecting major equipment and injection manifold located at the pressure vessel were selected based on the superficial velocities for air...

  11. The role of effective stress on silica solubility and pressure solution: an experimental investigation in a flow-through system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elias, Brian Patrick

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in thin sections are evidence of deformation having occurred at grain contacts. The partitioning of relative amounts of deformation between the various mechanisms cannot be determined. Grain breakage, dissolution, and precipitation features were... by the overburden. This results in stress concentrations at the contact points between adjacent grains (Gallagher et a1?1974). Pressure solution is believed to take place at these stressed contacts (Weyl, 1959). Pressure solution can be described as a deformation...

  12. TWO-PHASE FLOW PATTERNS, PRESSURE DROP AND HEAT TRANSFER DURING BOILING IN MINICHANNEL AND MICROCHANNEL FLOW PASSAGES OF COMPACT EVAPORATORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    refrigerant channels with large aspect ratio were brazed in small cross-ribbed sections to provide a better transfer, especially in parallel multi-channel configuration. The pressure drop oscillations often with some results obtained by the author for water evaporating in 1-mm hydraulic diameter multi-channel

  13. SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE AND LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM FLOW PARAMETERS FROM INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER LOW ENERGY HYDROGEN MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Moebius, E.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; French, J. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Saul, L.; Wurz, P. [University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Bzowski, M. [Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Fuselier, S. A.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Frisch, P. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Gruntman, M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Mueller, H. R. [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutral hydrogen atoms that travel into the heliosphere from the local interstellar medium (LISM) experience strong effects due to charge exchange and radiation pressure from resonant absorption and re-emission of Ly?. The radiation pressure roughly compensates for the solar gravity. As a result, interstellar hydrogen atoms move along trajectories that are quite different than those of heavier interstellar species such as helium and oxygen, which experience relatively weak radiation pressure. Charge exchange leads to the loss of primary neutrals from the LISM and the addition of new secondary neutrals from the heliosheath. IBEX observations show clear effects of radiation pressure in a large longitudinal shift in the peak of interstellar hydrogen compared with that of interstellar helium. Here, we compare results from the Lee et al. interstellar neutral model with IBEX-Lo hydrogen observations to describe the distribution of hydrogen near 1 AU and provide new estimates of the solar radiation pressure. We find over the period analyzed from 2009 to 2011 that radiation pressure divided by the gravitational force (?) has increased slightly from ? = 0.94 ± 0.04 in 2009 to ? = 1.01 ± 0.05 in 2011. We have also derived the speed, temperature, source longitude, and latitude of the neutral H atoms and find that these parameters are roughly consistent with those of interstellar He, particularly when considering the filtration effects that act on H in the outer heliosheath. Thus, our analysis shows that over the period from 2009 to 2011, we observe signatures of neutral H consistent with the primary distribution of atoms from the LISM and a radiation pressure that increases in the early rise of solar activity.

  14. Combined effects of Reynolds number, turbulence intensity and periodic unsteady wake flow conditions on boundary layer development and heat transfer of a low pressure turbine blade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozturk, Burak

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    .18 (S R =80 mm)........................................103 Figure 11.1. Static pressure distributions at Re=110,000 and reduced frequencies S=0, 1.59, 3.18 (no rod, 160 mm, 80 mm), SS=Separation start, SE= Separation end...................................................110 Figure 11.2. Time-averaged hot-film distributions at Re=110,000 and reduced frequencies S=0, 1.59, 3.18 (no rod, 160 mm, 80 mm)...........................112 Figure 11.3. Ensemble averaged velocity as a function for (a) steady flow case S=0 (S R...

  15. Coupled multiphase flow and poromechanics: A computational model of pore pressure effects on fault slip and earthquake triggering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jha, Birendra

    The coupling between subsurface flow and geomechanical deformation is critical in the assessment of the environmental impacts of groundwater use, underground liquid waste disposal, geologic storage of carbon dioxide, and ...

  16. Design of a high-pressure research flow loop for the experimental investigation of liquid loading in gas wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez Alvarez, Juan Jose

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    compressors working in parallel is the most technical and economic configuration for the TowerLab based on the overall costs provided by the supplier, the footprint but most importantly the flexibility. The design of the pressure vessel required a cylindrical...

  17. Development and verification of a numerical simulator to calculate the bottom hole flowing pressures in multiphase systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasool, Syed Ahmed

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Middle East, but there were some wells located in offshore Louisiana. There was a wide range Of variation in the variables for each well, some of these were: flow rates, gas/oil ratios, total depths, tubing sizes, fluid Compositions, and water cuts...

  18. Effective flow surface of porous materials with two populations of voids under internal pressure: I. a GTN model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ). Such a microstructure is typical of the highly irradiated uranium dioxide (UO2), a nuclear fuel commonly used in nuclear several studies on the mechanical behavior of highly irradiated nuclear fuels at different scales (Vincent to the effective plastic flow surface of a bi-porous material saturated by a fluid. The material under

  19. Finite volume approximation for an immiscible two-phase flow in porous media with discontinuous capillary pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    by substituting the Darcy-Muskat law in the conservation equations for both phases, so that we obtain for each experiments show in particular that this scheme permits to reproduce the oil trapping phenomenon. Keywords of incompressible immiscible two-phase flows are widely used in oil engineering to predict the motion of oil

  20. The role of pressure drop and flow redistribution on modeling mercury control using sorbent injection in baghouse filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph R.V. Flora; Richard A. Hargis; William J. O'Dowd; Andrew Karash; Henry W. Pennline; Radisav D. Vidic [University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A mathematical model based on simple cake filtration theory was coupled to a previously developed two-stage mathematical model for mercury (Hg) removal from coal combustion using powdered activated carbon injection upstream of a baghouse filter. Values of the average permeability of the filter cake and the filter resistance extracted from the model were 4.4 x 10{sup -13}m{sup 2} and 2.5 x 10{sup -4}m{sup -1}, respectively. The flow is redistributed during partial cleaning of the filter, with flows higher across the newly cleaned filter section. The calculated average Hg removal efficiency from the baghouse is lower because of the high mass flux of Hg exiting the filter in the newly cleaned section. The model shows that calculated average Hg removal is affected by permeability, filter resistance, fraction of the baghouse cleaned, and cleaning interval. 17 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Pressure drop, heat transfer, critical heat flux, and flow stability of two-phase flow boiling of water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures - final report for project "Efficent cooling in engines with nucleate boiling."

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Routbort, J. L. (Energy Systems)

    2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of its order-of-magnitude higher heat transfer rates, there is interest in using controllable two-phase nucleate boiling instead of conventional single-phase forced convection in vehicular cooling systems to remove ever increasing heat loads and to eliminate potential hot spots in engines. However, the fundamental understanding of flow boiling mechanisms of a 50/50 ethylene glycol/water mixture under engineering application conditions is still limited. In addition, it is impractical to precisely maintain the volume concentration ratio of the ethylene glycol/water mixture coolant at 50/50. Therefore, any investigation into engine coolant characteristics should include a range of volume concentration ratios around the nominal 50/50 mark. In this study, the forced convective boiling heat transfer of distilled water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures with volume concentration ratios of 40/60, 50/50, and 60/40 in a 2.98-mm-inner-diameter circular tube has been investigated in both the horizontal flow and the vertical flow. The two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux of the test fluids were determined experimentally over a range of the mass flux, the vapor mass quality, and the inlet subcooling through a new boiling data reduction procedure that allowed the analytical calculation of the fluid boiling temperatures along the experimental test section by applying the ideal mixture assumption and the equilibrium assumption along with Raoult's law. Based on the experimental data, predictive methods for the two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux under engine application conditions were developed. The results summarized in this final project report provide the necessary information for designing and implementing nucleate-boiling vehicular cooling systems.

  2. Convective heat transfer to CO{sub 2} at a supercritical pressure flowing vertically upward in tubes and an annular channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bae, Yoon-Yeong; Kim, Hwan-Yeol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea)

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Super-Critical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) has been chosen by the Generation IV International Forum as one of the candidates for the next generation nuclear reactors. Heat transfer to water from a fuel assembly may deteriorate at certain supercritical pressure flow conditions and its estimation at degraded conditions as well as in normal conditions is very important to the design of a safe and reliable reactor core. Extensive experiments on a heat transfer to a vertically upward flowing CO{sub 2} at a supercritical pressure in tubes and an annular channel have been performed. The geometries of the test sections include tubes of an internal diameter (ID) of 4.4 and 9.0 mm and an annular channel (8 x 10 mm). The heat transfer coefficient (HTC) and Nusselt numbers were derived from the inner wall temperature converted by using the outer wall temperature measured by adhesive K-type thermocouples and a direct (tube) or indirect (annular channel) electric heating power. From the test results, a correlation, which covers both a deteriorated and a normal heat transfer regime, was developed. The developed correlation takes different forms in each interval divided by the value of parameter Bu. The parameter Bu (referred to as Bu hereafter), a function of the Grashof number, the Reynolds number and the Prandtl number, was introduced since it is known to be a controlling factor for the occurrence of a heat transfer deterioration due to a buoyancy effect. The developed correlation predicted the HTCs for water and HCFC-22 fairly well. (author)

  3. A flexible pressure monitoring system for pressure ulcer prevention

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yip, Marcus

    Pressure ulcers are painful sores that arise from prolonged exposure to high pressure points, which restricts blood flow and leads to tissue necrosis. This is a common occurrence among patients with impaired mobility, ...

  4. Transverse transport of solutes between co-flowing pressure-driven streams for microfluidic studies of diffusion/reaction processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jean-Baptiste Salmon; Armand Ajdari

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a situation commonly encountered in microfluidics: two streams of miscible liquids are brought at a junction to flow side by side within a microchannel, allowing solutes to diffuse from one stream to the other and possibly react. We focus on two model problems: (i) the transverse transport of a single solute from a stream into the adjacent one, (ii) the transport of the product of a diffusion-controlled chemical reaction between solutes originating from the two streams. Our description is made general through a non-dimensionalized formulation that incorporates both the parabolic Poiseuille velocity profile along the channel and thermal diffusion in the transverse direction. Numerical analysis over a wide range of the streamwise coordinate $x$ reveal different regimes. Close to the top and the bottom walls of the microchannel, the extent of the diffusive zone follows three distinct power law regimes as $x$ is increased, characterized respectively by the exponents 1/2, 1/3 and 1/2. Simple analytical arguments are proposed to account for these results.

  5. High pressure counterflow CHF.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walkush, Joseph Patrick

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a report of the experimental results of a program in countercurrent flow critical heat flux. These experiments were performed with Freon 113 at 200 psia in order to model a high pressure water system. An internally ...

  6. Reactor pressure vessel nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, R.C.; Upton, H.A.

    1994-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough. 2 figs.

  7. Multiphase flow calculation software

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.

  8. An Efficient, Semi-implicit Pressure-based Scheme Employing a High-resolution Finitie Element Method for Simulating Transient and Steady, Inviscid and Viscous, Compressible Flows on Unstructured Grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard C. Martineau; Ray A. Berry

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new semi-implicit pressure-based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) scheme for simulating a wide range of transient and steady, inviscid and viscous compressible flow on unstructured finite elements is presented here. This new CFD scheme, termed the PCICEFEM (Pressure-Corrected ICE-Finite Element Method) scheme, is composed of three computational phases, an explicit predictor, an elliptic pressure Poisson solution, and a semiimplicit pressure-correction of the flow variables. The PCICE-FEM scheme is capable of second-order temporal accuracy by incorporating a combination of a time-weighted form of the two-step Taylor-Galerkin Finite Element Method scheme as an explicit predictor for the balance of momentum equations and the finite element form of a time-weighted trapezoid rule method for the semi-implicit form of the governing hydrodynamic equations. Second-order spatial accuracy is accomplished by linear unstructured finite element discretization. The PCICE-FEM scheme employs Flux-Corrected Transport as a high-resolution filter for shock capturing. The scheme is capable of simulating flows from the nearly incompressible to the high supersonic flow regimes. The PCICE-FEM scheme represents an advancement in mass-momentum coupled, pressurebased schemes. The governing hydrodynamic equations for this scheme are the conservative form of the balance of momentum equations (Navier-Stokes), mass conservation equation, and total energy equation. An operator splitting process is performed along explicit and implicit operators of the semi-implicit governing equations to render the PCICE-FEM scheme in the class of predictor-corrector schemes. The complete set of semi-implicit governing equations in the PCICE-FEM scheme are cast in this form, an explicit predictor phase and a semi-implicit pressure-correction phase with the elliptic pressure Poisson solution coupling the predictor-corrector phases. The result of this predictor-corrector formulation is that the pressure Poisson equation in the PCICE-FEM scheme is provided with sufficient internal energy information to avoid iteration. The ability of the PCICE-FEM scheme to accurately and efficiently simulate a wide variety of inviscid and viscous compressible flows is demonstrated here.

  9. The effects of cold water injection and two-phase flow on skin factor and permeability estimates from pressure falloff analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linge, Frode

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    33 54 78 LIST OF TABLES Tabl e Data for Bottomhole Temperature Calculation Reservoir and Thermal Properties for Model Verification Page 34 35 Water and Oil Viscosities for Model Verification . . 36 10 12 13 14 15 Water and Oil... Relative Permeabilities for Model Verification Data for Single-Phase Flow Runs Low Oil Viscosity for Single-Phase Flow Runs High Oil Viscosity for Single-Phase Flow Runs Data for Two-Phase Flow Runs Sumaary of Numerical Simulation Runs Results...

  10. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Robert M. (320 S. Wilson Ave., Bozeman, MT 59715)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under full pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  11. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Robert M. (320 S. Wilson Ave., Bozeman, MT 59715)

    1999-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under fill pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  12. Dynamics of Low-Pressure and High-Pressure Fuel Cell Air Supply System1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    comparing the low pressure system with the high- pressure system equipped with a high-speed compressor pressure of the FC that is defined as the pressure at which the reactant hydrogen and oxygen (air) are delivered to the FC stack flow fields. In the case of stored compressed hydrogen the pressure of the cathode

  13. Please cite this article in press as: Birkholzer, J.T., et al., Brine flow up a well caused by pressure perturbation from geologic carbon sequestration: Static and dynamic evaluations. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control (2011), doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2011.01.003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Quanlin

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by pressure perturbation from geologic carbon sequestration: Static and dynamic evaluations. Int. J.elsevier.com/locate/ijggc Brine flow up a well caused by pressure perturbation from geologic carbon sequestration: Static carbon sequestration (GCS) has drawn increasing con- sideration as a promising method to mitigate

  14. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, Juhani (Karhula, FI)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

  15. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, J.

    1996-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

  16. Saltstone Osmotic Pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, Ralph L.; Dixon, Kenneth L.

    2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent research into the moisture retention properties of saltstone suggest that osmotic pressure may play a potentially significant role in contaminant transport (Dixon et al., 2009 and Dixon, 2011). The Savannah River Remediation Closure and Disposal Assessments Group requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct a literature search on osmotic potential as it relates to contaminant transport and to develop a conceptual model of saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. This report presents the findings of the literature review and presents a conceptual model for saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. The task was requested through Task Technical Request HLW-SSF-TTR-2013-0004. Simulated saltstone typically has very low permeability (Dixon et al. 2008) and pore water that contains a large concentration of dissolved salts (Flach and Smith 2013). Pore water in simulated saltstone has a high salt concentration relative to pore water in concrete and groundwater. This contrast in salt concentration can generate high osmotic pressures if simulated saltstone has the properties of a semipermeable membrane. Estimates of osmotic pressure using results from the analysis of pore water collected from simulated saltstone show that an osmotic pressure up to 2790 psig could be generated within the saltstone. Most semi-permeable materials are non-ideal and have an osmotic efficiency <1 and as a result actual osmotic pressures are less than theoretical pressures. Observations from laboratory tests of simulated saltstone indicate that it may exhibit the behavior of a semi-permeable membrane. After several weeks of back pressure saturation in a flexible wall permeameter (FWP) the membrane containing a simulated saltstone sample appeared to have bubbles underneath it. Upon removal from the FWP the specimen was examined and it was determined that the bubbles were due to liquid that had accumulated between the membrane and the sample. One possible explanation for the accumulation of solution between the membrane and sample is the development of osmotic pressure within the sample. Osmotic pressure will affect fluid flow and contaminant transport and may result in the changes to the internal structure of the semi-permeable material. B?nard et al. 2008 reported swelling of wet cured Portland cement mortars containing salts of NaNO{sub 3}, KNO{sub 3}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}x12H {sub 2}O, and K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} when exposed to a dilute solution. Typically hydraulic head is considered the only driving force for groundwater in groundwater models. If a low permeability material containing a concentrated salt solution is present in the hydrogeologic sequence large osmotic pressures may develop and lead to misinterpretation of groundwater flow and solute transport. The osmotic pressure in the semi-permeable material can significantly impact groundwater flow in the vicinity of the semi-permeable material. One possible outcome is that groundwater will flow into the semi-permeable material resulting in hydrologic containment within the membrane. Additionally, hyperfiltration can occur within semi-permeable materials when water moves through a membrane into the more concentrated solution and dissolved constituents are retained in the lower concentration solution. Groundwater flow and transport equations that incorporate chemical gradients (osmosis) have been developed. These equations are referred to as coupled flow equations. Currently groundwater modeling to assess the performance of saltstone waste forms is conducted using the PORFLOW groundwater flow and transport model. PORFLOW does not include coupled flow from chemico-osmotic gradients and therefore numerical simulation of the effect of coupled flow on contaminant transport in and around saltstone cannot be assessed. Most natural semi-permeable membranes are non-ideal membranes and do not restrict all movement of solutes and as a result theoretical osmotic potential is not realized. Osmotic efficiency is a parameter in the coupled flow equation that accounts for the

  17. Influence of Atmospheric Pressure and Water Table Fluctuations on Gas Phase Flow and Transport of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Unsaturated Zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    You, Kehua

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the gas phase flow and transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in unsaturated zones is indispensable to develop effective environmental remediation strategies, to create precautions for fresh water protection, and to provide...

  18. Numerical Simulation of Flow Field Inside a Squeeze Film Damper and the Study of the Effect of Cavitation on the Pressure Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khandare, Milind Nandkumar

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    of SFDs can be expensive and time consuming. The current work simulates the flow field inside the dynamically deforming annular gap of a SFD using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code Fluent and compares the results to the experimental...

  19. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.; Arnold, Don W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Neyer, David W.

    2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based system. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  20. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA); Arnold, Don W. (Livermore, CA); Hencken, Kenneth R. (Pleasanton, CA); Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Neyer, David W. (Castro Valley, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based systems. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (Microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  1. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McFarland, Andrew R. (College Station, TX); Rodgers, John C. (Santa Fe, NM); Ortiz, Carlos A. (Bryan, TX); Nelson, David C. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elbow mass flow meter. The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity.

  2. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact high pressure hydraulic pump having no moving mechanical parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force. The electrokinetic pump, which can generate hydraulic pressures greater than 2500 psi, can be employed to compress a fluid, either liquid or gas, and manipulate fluid flow. The pump is particularly useful for capillary-base systems. By combining the electrokinetic pump with a housing having chambers separated by a flexible member, fluid flow, including high pressure fluids, is controlled by the application of an electric potential, that can vary with time.

  3. Continuous pressure letdown system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.; Matthews, David R.; Langowski, Terry

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous pressure letdown system connected to a hopper decreases a pressure of a 2-phase (gas and solid) dusty gas stream flowing through the system. The system includes a discharge line for receiving the dusty gas from the hopper, a valve, a cascade nozzle assembly positioned downstream of the discharge line, a purge ring, an inert gas supply connected to the purge ring, an inert gas throttle, and a filter. The valve connects the hopper to the discharge line and controls introduction of the dusty gas stream into the discharge line. The purge ring is connected between the discharge line and the cascade nozzle assembly. The inert gas throttle controls a flow rate of an inert gas into the cascade nozzle assembly. The filter is connected downstream of the cascade nozzle assembly.

  4. The conformation change of model polymers in stochastic flow fields: Flow through fixed beds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaqfeh, Eric

    The conformation change of model polymers in stochastic flow fields: Flow through fixed beds Alisa that as a polymer solution flows through a fixed bed, the pressure drop neces- sary to pump the solution may

  5. Radial flow pulse jet mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    VanOsdol, John G.

    2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure provides a pulse jet mixing vessel for mixing a plurality of solid particles. The pulse jet mixing vessel is comprised of a sludge basin, a flow surface surrounding the sludge basin, and a downcoming flow annulus between the flow surface and an inner shroud. The pulse jet mixing vessel is additionally comprised of an upper vessel pressurization volume in fluid communication with the downcoming flow annulus, and an inner shroud surge volume separated from the downcoming flow annulus by the inner shroud. When the solid particles are resting on the sludge basin and a fluid such as water is atop the particles and extending into the downcoming flow annulus and the inner shroud surge volume, mixing occurs by pressurization of the upper vessel pressurization volume, generating an inward radial flow over the flow surface and an upwash jet at the center of the sludge basin.

  6. Continuous pressure letdown system | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    pressure letdown system connected to a hopper decreases a pressure of a 2-phase (gas and solid) dusty gas stream flowing through the system. The system includes a discharge...

  7. Pressure drop with surface boiling in small-diameter tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dr?mer, Thomas

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressure drop for water flowing in small-diameter tubes under isothermal, nonboiling, and surface-boiling conditions was investigated. Experimental results for local pressure gradient and heattransfer coefficients are ...

  8. High-Compression-Ratio; Atkinson-Cycle Engine Using Low-Pressure Direct Injection and Pneumatic-Electronic Valve Actuation Enabled by Ionization Current and Foward-Backward Mass Air Flow Sensor Feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold Schock; Farhad Jaberi; Ahmed Naguib; Guoming Zhu; David Hung

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the work completed over a two and one half year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The goal was to demonstrate the technology needed to produce a highly efficient engine enabled by several technologies which were to be developed in the course of the work. The technologies included: (1) A low-pressure direct injection system; (2) A mass air flow sensor which would measure the net airflow into the engine on a per cycle basis; (3) A feedback control system enabled by measuring ionization current signals from the spark plug gap; and (4) An infinitely variable cam actuation system based on a pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation These developments were supplemented by the use of advanced large eddy simulations as well as evaluations of fuel air mixing using the KIVA and WAVE models. The simulations were accompanied by experimental verification when possible. In this effort a solid base has been established for continued development of the advanced engine concepts originally proposed. Due to problems with the valve actuation system a complete demonstration of the engine concept originally proposed was not possible. Some of the highlights that were accomplished during this effort are: (1) A forward-backward mass air flow sensor has been developed and a patent application for the device has been submitted. We are optimistic that this technology will have a particular application in variable valve timing direct injection systems for IC engines. (2) The biggest effort on this project has involved the development of the pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation system. This system was originally purchased from Cargine, a Swedish supplier and is in the development stage. To date we have not been able to use the actuators to control the exhaust valves, although the actuators have been successfully employed to control the intake valves. The reason for this is the additional complication associated with variable back pressure on the exhaust valves when they are opened. As a result of this effort, we have devised a new design and have filed for a patent on a method of control which is believed to overcome this problem. The engine we have been working with originally had a single camshaft which controlled both the intake and exhaust valves. Single cycle lift and timing control was demonstrated with this system. (3) Large eddy simulations and KIVA based simulations were used in conjunction with flow visualizations in an optical engine to study fuel air mixing. During this effort we have devised a metric for quantifying fuel distribution and it is described in several of our papers. (4) A control system has been developed to enable us to test the benefits of the various technologies. This system used is based on Opal-RT hardware and is being used in a current DOE sponsored program.

  9. Compression effects on pressure loss in flexible HVAC ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abushakra, Bass; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to Determine Flow Resistance of HVAC Air Ducts and Fittings.Pressure Loss in Flexible HVAC Ducts Bass Abushakra, Ph.D.to Determine Flow Resistance of HVAC Air Ducts and Fittings.

  10. abnormal blood pressure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to flow through the artery, the measurement of which determines the systolic pressure. Pulse rate is also sensed at this time. The measurement taken when the blood flow is no...

  11. Grad-Shafranov equation with anisotropic pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. S. Beskin; I. V. Kuznetsova

    2000-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The most general form of the nonrelativistic Grad-Shafranov equation describing anisotropic pressure effects is formulated within the double adiabatic approximation. It gives a possibility to analyze quantitatively how the anisotropic pressure affects the 2D structure of the ideal magnetohydrodynamical flows.

  12. Numerical simulation of electrokinetically driven micro flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahm, Jungyoon

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in a micro-channel is studied. External electric field, flow rate of pressure driven flow, and geometry in the micro-channel are manipulated to obtain the focusing point, which led to determination of the electrophoretic mobility and (relative...

  13. Method for pressure modulation of turbine sidewall cavities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leone, Sal Albert (Scotia, NY); Book, Matthew David (Altamont, NY); Banares, Christopher R. (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for controlling cooling air flow for pressure modulation of turbine components, such as the turbine outer sidewall cavities. The pressure at which cooling and purge air is supplied to the turbine outer side wall cavities is modulated, based on compressor discharge pressure (Pcd), thereby to generally maintain the back flow margin (BFM) so as to minimize excessive leakage and the consequent performance deterioration. In an exemplary embodiment, the air pressure within the third stage outer side wall cavity and the air pressure within the fourth stage outer side wall cavity are each controlled to a respective value that is a respective prescribed percentage of the concurrent compressor discharge pressure. The prescribed percentage may be determined from a ratio of the respective outer side wall pressure to compressor discharge pressure at Cold Day Turn Down (CDTD) required to provide a prescribed back flow margin.

  14. System for pressure modulation of turbine sidewall cavities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leone, Sal Albert (Scotia, NY); Book, Matthew David (Altamont, NY); Banares, Christopher R. (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method are provided for controlling cooling air flow for pressure modulation of turbine components, such as the turbine outer sidewall cavities. The pressure at which cooling and purge air is supplied to the turbine outer side wall cavities is modulated, based on compressor discharge pressure (Pcd), thereby to generally maintain the back flow margin (BFM) so as to minimize excessive leakage and the consequent performance deterioration. In an exemplary embodiment, the air pressure within the third stage outer side wall cavity and the air pressure within the fourth stage outer side wall cavity are each controlled to a respective value that is a respective prescribed percentage of the concurrent compressor discharge pressure. The prescribed percentage may be determined from a ratio of the respective outer side wall pressure to compressor discharge pressure at Cold Day Turn Down (CDTD) required to provide a prescribed back flow margin.

  15. Wavy flow cooling concept for turbine airfoils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, George (Palm City, FL)

    2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An airfoil including an outer wall and a cooling cavity formed therein. The cooling cavity includes a leading edge flow channel located adjacent a leading edge of the airfoil and a trailing edge flow channel located adjacent a trailing edge of the airfoil. Each of the leading edge and trailing edge flow channels define respective first and second flow axes located between pressure and suction sides of the airfoil. A plurality of rib members are located within each of the flow channels, spaced along the flow axes, and alternately extending from opposing sides of the flow channels to define undulating flow paths through the flow channels.

  16. Program predicts two-phase pressure gradients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacks, D.C.; Hill, A.D.

    1983-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The calculator program discussed, ORK, was designed for the HP-41CV hand-held calculator and uses the Orkiszewski correlation for predicting 2-phase pressure gradients in vertical tubulars. Accurate predictions of pressure gradients in flowing and gas lift wells over a wide range of well conditions can be obtained with this method, which was developed based on data from 148 wells. The correlation is one of the best generalized 2-phase pressure gradient prediction methods developed to date for vertical flow. It is unique in that hold-up is derived from observed physical phenomena, and the pressure gradient is related to the geometrical distribution of the liquid and gas phase (flow regime).

  17. Spectral discretization of Darcy's equations with pressure dependent porosity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Spectral discretization of Darcy's equations with pressure dependent porosity by Mejdi Aza¨iez1 and the pressure p of the fluid. This system is an extension of Darcy's equations, which model the flow of the resulting system of equations which takes into account the axisymmetry of the domain and of the flow. We

  18. Microelectromechanical flow control apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat (NE Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) flow control apparatus is disclosed which includes a fluid channel formed on a substrate from a first layer of a nonconducting material (e.g. silicon nitride). A first electrode is provided on the first layer of the nonconducting material outside the flow channel; and a second electrode is located on a second layer of the nonconducting material above the first layer. A voltage applied between the first and second electrodes deforms the fluid channel to increase its cross-sectional size and thereby increase a flow of a fluid through the channel. In certain embodiments of the present invention, the fluid flow can be decreased or stopped by applying a voltage between the first electrode and the substrate. A peristaltic pumping of the fluid through the channel is also possible when the voltage is applied in turn between a plurality of first electrodes and the substrate. A MEM flow control assembly can also be formed by providing one or more MEM flow control devices on a common substrate together with a submicron filter. The MEM flow control assembly can optionally include a plurality of pressure sensors for monitoring fluid pressure and determining flow rates through the assembly.

  19. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawabe, James K. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell.

  20. Predicting enhanced mass flow rates in gas microchannels using nonkinetic models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dadzie, S. Kokou

    Different nonkinetic approaches are adopted in this paper towards theoretically predicting the experimentally observed phenomenon of enhanced mass flow rates accompanying pressure-driven rarefied gas flows through ...

  1. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit using an elbow flow meter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, Marcos G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Boucher, Timothy J. (Helena, MT)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for measuring fluid flow in a conduit. The system utilizes pressure transducers disposed generally in line upstream and downstream of the flow of fluid in a bend in the conduit. Data from the pressure transducers is transmitted to a microprocessor or computer. The pressure differential measured by the pressure transducers is then used to calculate the fluid flow rate in the conduit. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to control flow, total fluid dispersed, (in, for example, an irrigation system), area of dispersal or other desired effect based on the fluid flow in the conduit.

  2. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit using an elbow flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, M.G.; Boucher, T.J.

    1997-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit. The system utilizes pressure transducers disposed generally in line upstream and downstream of the flow of fluid in a bend in the conduit. Data from the pressure transducers is transmitted to a microprocessor or computer. The pressure differential measured by the pressure transducers is then used to calculate the fluid flow rate in the conduit. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to control flow, total fluid dispersed, (in, for example, an irrigation system), area of dispersal or other desired effect based on the fluid flow in the conduit. 2 figs.

  3. Pressure buildup characteristics in Austin Chalk wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claycomb, Eddy

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bottom Hole Pressure Data; Case IV: Most Prevalent Case . 30 VIII Data Used for Analysis of Buildup Test; Case IV 32 LIST OF FIGURES Fi gure Page I Austin Chalk Trend in Texas Horner Plot; Case I: Radial Flow, i. e. , No Hydraulic Fracture 12 III... Pressure 8uildup Test in Vertically Fractured Wells. . . . . . . . . . . . 37 INTRODUCTION The Austin Chalk is a limestone that was deposited during the Gulfian Series of the Cretaceous System. The Austin Chalk overlies the Eagle Ford Group...

  4. Effects of confining pressure, pore pressure and temperature on absolute permeability. SUPRI TR-27

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gobran, B.D.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigates absolute permeability of consolidated sandstone and unconsolidated sand cores to distilled water as a function of the confining pressure on the core, the pore pressure of the flowing fluid and the temperature of the system. Since permeability measurements are usually made in the laboratory under conditions very different from those in the reservoir, it is important to know the effect of various parameters on the measured value of permeability. All studies on the effect of confining pressure on absolute permeability have found that when the confining pressure is increased, the permeability is reduced. The studies on the effect of temperature have shown much less consistency. This work contradicts the past Stanford studies by finding no effect of temperature on the absolute permeability of unconsolidated sand or sandstones to distilled water. The probable causes of the past errors are discussed. It has been found that inaccurate measurement of temperature at ambient conditions and non-equilibrium of temperature in the core can lead to a fictitious permeability reduction with temperature increase. The results of this study on the effect of confining pressure and pore pressure support the theory that as confining pressure is increased or pore pressure decreased, the permeability is reduced. The effects of confining pressure and pore pressure changes on absolute permeability are given explicitly so that measurements made under one set of confining pressure/pore pressure conditions in the laboratory can be extrapolated to conditions more representative of the reservoir.

  5. Steam Pressure Reduction Opportunities and Issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, J.; Griffin, B.; Wright, A. L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - use, and recovery. In addition to reduced energy losses, fuel consumption can be reduced, boiler efficiency can be improved, and process energy needs can be met with a reduced steam flow rate. Changes in system parameters can vary with the design... steam trap to discharge the required flow of condensate, resulting in water- logging of steam-heated equipment (e.g., dryers, water heaters, reactors). For example, consider a makeup air unit that operates at the main system pressure...

  6. Vertical flow chemical detection portal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, K.L.; Hannum, D.W.; Conrad, F.J.

    1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A portal apparatus is described for screening objects or persons for the presence of trace amounts of chemical substances such as illicit drugs or explosives. The apparatus has a test space, in which a person may stand, defined by two generally upright sides spanned by a horizontal transom. One or more fans in the transom generate a downward air flow (uni-directional) within the test space. The air flows downwardly from a high pressure upper zone, past the object or person to be screened. Air moving past the object dislodges from the surface thereof both volatile and nonvolatile particles of the target substance. The particles are entrained into the air flow which continues flowing downward to a lower zone of reduced pressure, where the particle-bearing air stream is directed out of the test space and toward preconcentrator and detection components. The sides of the portal are specially configured to partially contain and maintain the air flow. 3 figs.

  7. System and method for bidirectional flow and controlling fluid flow in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, M.G.

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for measuring bidirectional flow, including backflow, of fluid in a conduit is disclosed. The system utilizes a structural mechanism to create a pressure differential in the conduit. Pressure sensors are positioned upstream from the mechanism, at the mechanism, and downstream from the mechanism. Data from the pressure sensors are transmitted to a microprocessor or computer, and pressure differential detected between the pressure sensors is then used to calculate the backflow. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to shut off valves located in the conduit, upon the occurrence of backflow, or to control flow, total material dispersed, etc. in the conduit. 3 figs.

  8. System and method for bidirectional flow and controlling fluid flow in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Marcos German (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for measuring bidirectional flow, including backflow, of fluid in a conduit. The system utilizes a structural mechanism to create a pressure differential in the conduit. Pressure sensors are positioned upstream from the mechanism, at the mechanism, and downstream from the mechanism. Data from the pressure sensors are transmitted to a microprocessor or computer, and pressure differential detected between the pressure sensors is then used to calculate the backflow. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to shut off valves located in the conduit, upon the occurrence of backflow, or to control flow, total material dispersed, etc. in the conduit.

  9. FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gudmundsson, Jon Steinar

    FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS DETERMINATION DU and Technology, Norway ABSTRACT Pressure drop experiments on natural gas flow at 80 to 120 bar pressure and high of natural gas at typical operating pressures (100-180 bar). At such Reynolds numbers the classical Colebrook

  10. Static Pressure Loss in 12”, 14”, and 16” Non-metallic Flexible Duct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cantrill, David Lee

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    flow rate for a given duct size. The data gathered showed general agreement with previous studies showing an increase in compression ratio leads to an increase in static pressure loss through the duct. It was determined that pressure losses...

  11. Numerical simulation of two-phase fluid flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    diffusive wave (see also Carcione, 2007). Hence, fluid flow and pressure diffusion are phenomena described by the same differential equation. In hydrology and ...

  12. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A .gamma.-mode, resonant-cavity plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two concentric cylindrical electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the annular region therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly shaping the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, no ions survive for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  13. GEOPHYSICS, VOL. 66, NO. 1 (JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2001); P. 283293, 11 FIGS., 1 TABLE. Amplitude variations with offset of pressure-seal reflections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    of the wet- ting phase (brine), a pressure seal restricts both hydrocar- bon and brine flow. Here, I consider

  14. Nitrogen Atmospheric Pressure Post Discharges for Surface Biological Decontamination inside

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Nitrogen Atmospheric Pressure Post Discharges for Surface Biological Decontamination inside Small) (PET) capillary tubes of different shapes and lengths and decontamination of flow tubes, both for several years at the Orsay Plasma Lab. Its biological decontamination efficiency has been demonstrated

  15. Annulus fluid pressure operated testing valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, H.A. III; Green, R.R.

    1990-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a fluid pressure controlled apparatus having tubular housing means adapted to be connected to a pipe string and having an axial flow passage extending therethrough from an isolated well formation. Also described is apparatus for opening and closing a well conduit extending to an isolated production formation.

  16. Electokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact high pressure hydraulic system having no moving parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force and for manipulating fluids. Electro-osmotic flow is used to provide a valve and means to compress a fluid or gas in a capillary-based system. By electro-osmotically moving an electrolyte between a first position opening communication between a fluid inlet and outlet and a second position closing communication between the fluid inlet and outlet the system can be configured as a valve. The system can also be used to generate forces as large as 2500 psi that can be used to compress a fluid, either a liquid or a gas.

  17. Response of a slotted plate flow meter to horizontal two phase flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muralidharan, Vasanth

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    there is a change in the pipeline geometry or 8 inclination. Severe riser slugging is an example of this effect and it can prevail for kilometers mainly in sea lines. When there are no transient effects or geometry/terrain effects the flow is steady... constant, a static differential pressure due to flow of the pure liquid is attained. 9 Therefore the static differential pressure lines of constant liquid flow rate become horizontal when the gas flow rate is reduced. 4. When the gas flow is increased...

  18. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawabe, J.K.

    1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell. 6 figures.

  19. PressurePressure Indiana Coal Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    TimeTime PressurePressure · Indiana Coal Characteristics · Indiana Coals for Coke · CoalTransportation in Indiana · Coal Slurry Ponds Evaluation · Site Selection for Coal Gasification · Coal-To-Liquids Study, CTL · Indiana Coal Forecasting · Under-Ground Coal Gasification · Benefits of Oxyfuel Combustion · Economic

  20. Effects of vaned diffuser pressure recovery on centrifugal compressor stage performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eason, Robyn Monique

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficiency 6 ? diffuser channel divergence semi-angle u ? absolute viscosity p ? density o ? factor applied to inducer choking flow coefficient ? flow angle measured from axis in meridional plane () ? rotational speed (rad per sec) ? diffuser vane... on the respective pressure and temperature measurements. 'The pressure differential across the flow nozzle was measured with a sixty-inch water mananeter. Air mass flow rate was an- alytically determined with manufacturer supplied flaw coefficients. All...

  1. AGN and Cooling Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Binney

    2001-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    For two decades the steady-state cooling-flow model has dominated the literature of cluster and elliptical-galaxy X-ray sources. For ten years this model has been in severe difficulty from a theoretical point of view, and it is now coming under increasing pressure observationally. For two decades the steady-state cooling-flow model has dominated the literature of cluster and elliptical-galaxy X-ray sources. For ten years this model has been in severe difficulty from a theoretical point of view, and it is now coming under increasing pressure observationally. A small number of enthusiasts have argued for a radically different interpretation of the data, but had little impact on prevailing opinion because the unsteady heating picture that they advocate is extremely hard to work out in detail. Here I explain why it is difficult to extract robust observational predictions from the heating picture. Major problems include the variability of the sources, the different ways in which a bi-polar flow can impact on X-ray emission, the weakness of synchrotron emission from sub-relativistic flows, and the sensitivity of synchrotron emission to a magnetic field that is probably highly localized.

  2. Understanding Blood Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Understanding Blood Pressure · Monitorathomewithadigitalmonitor. · Useleftarmwithcorrectsizecuff. · Avoidcaffeine,alcohol,andtobacco. Steps to Follow FOR AN ACCURATE MEASUREMENT Blood pressure is the measurement of the force of blood on the walls of the arteries. Bottom number = Diastolic (force between heart beats) Top

  3. The emissions of gases from abandoned mines: role of atmospheric pressure changes and air temperature on the surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    pressure were monitored. Gas flow can be influenced mainly by the temperature difference between external pressure influences gas flow in the coal mines, which can be considered as closed systems. Modelling has confirmed the differential pressure value measured that exceeds friction losses. Key words Mine gas emission

  4. A noninvasive estimation of cerebral perfusion pressure using critical closing pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varsos, Georgios V.; Kolias, Angelos G.; Smielewski, Peter; Brady, Ken M.; Varsos, Vassilis G.; Hutchinson, Peter J.; Pickard, John D.; Czosnyka, Marek

    2015-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    noninvasively using a model based on the concept of critical closing pressure (CrCP), requiring ABP and TCD flow velocity (FV) measurements. Critical closing pressure denotes a threshold of ABP, below which the local microvascular blood pressure is in... and ventilated patients with head injuries (78.2% male, median age 29 years, interquartile range [IQR] 20–43 years), hospitalized in the Neurocritical Care Unit of Ad- denbrooke’s Hospital between 2002 and 2011.10 The de- mographics of the patients...

  5. Atmospheric Pressure Reactor System | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Pressure Reactor System Atmospheric Pressure Reactor System The atmospheric pressure reactor system is designed for testing the efficiency of various catalysts for the...

  6. Finite volume methods for fluid flow in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiptmair, Ralf

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.5 Multiphase and multicomponent flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.5.1 Black-oil model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.3.1 General solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.3.2 Pressure equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.3.3 Pressure equation for incompressible immiscible flow . . . 11 2.3.4 Saturation equation

  7. COMPARISON OF VARIOUS FORMULATIONS OF THREEPHASE FLOW IN POROUS MEDIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , oil, and gas) flow in porous media, including phase, global, and pseudo­global pressure three­phase (e.g., water, oil, and gas) flow in porous media. We show that, under a so­called total­global pressure and two saturations without any assumption. However, it turns out that the phase and pseudo

  8. System and method measuring fluid flow in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Marcos German (Idaho Falls, ID); Kidd, Terrel G. (Blackfoot, ID)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for measuring fluid mass flow in a conduit in which there exists a pressure differential in the fluid between at least two spaced-apart locations in the conduit. The system includes a first pressure transducer disposed in the side of the conduit at a first location for measuring pressure of fluid at that location, a second or more pressure transducers disposed in the side of the conduit at a second location, for making multiple measurements of pressure of fluid in the conduit at that location, and a computer for computing the average pressure of the multiple measurements at the second location and for computing flow rate of fluid in the conduit from the pressure measurement by the first pressure transducer and from the average pressure calculation of the multiple measurements.

  9. Neutrino Factory Mercury Flow Loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    ­ Could require double containment of mercury ­ Chase will certainly have a drain back into hot cell Decay 2010 #12;Hg Flow Overflow · Minimize pressure drops through piping Overflow Mercury Drain drops Gravity Drain Beam Dumptransitioning to 1 cm nozzle · Actual NF Hg inventory may reach SNS Gravity Drain

  10. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS FOR FLOW IN RESERVOIRS By ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Darcy's law for each phase with a simple differential material balance for each phase. In this first ... that the pressure declines in the direction of flow. .... lies within some closed curve C across which there is no flow, and fluid injec- tion and ...

  11. Non-Darcy flow in geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zyvoloski, G.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of non-Darcy flow laws are investigated for two geothermal reservoir types: multiphase and Hot Dry Rock (HDR). Long-term thermal behavior is emphasized as short-term pressure transient behavior is addressed in the oil field literature. Comparisons of Darcy and non-Darcy flow laws are made.

  12. Fluid flow monitoring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKay, M.D.; Sweeney, C.E.; Spangler, B.S. Jr.

    1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A flow meter and temperature measuring device are described comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips. 7 figures.

  13. Fluid flow monitoring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKay, Mark D. (1426 Socastee Dr., North Augusta, SC 29841); Sweeney, Chad E. (3600 Westhampton Dr., Martinez, GA 30907-3036); Spangler, Jr., B. Samuel (2715 Margate Dr., Augusta, GA 30909)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A flow meter and temperature measuring device comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips.

  14. CFD analysis of laminar oscillating flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booten, C. W. Charles W.); Konecni, S. (Snezana); Smith, B. L. (Barton L.); Martin, R. A. (Richard A.)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a numerical simulations of oscillating flow in a constricted duct and compares the results with experimental and theoretical data. The numerical simulations were performed using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code CFX4.2. The numerical model simulates an experimental oscillating flow facility that was designed to test the properties and characteristics of oscillating flow in tapered ducts, also known as jet pumps. Jet pumps are useful devices in thermoacoustic machinery because they produce a secondary pressure that can counteract an unwanted effect called streaming, and significantly enhance engine efficiency. The simulations revealed that CFX could accurately model velocity, shear stress and pressure variations in laminar oscillating flow. The numerical results were compared to experimental data and theoretical predictions with varying success. The least accurate numerical results were obtained when laminar flow approached transition to turbulent flow.

  15. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Chae Un (Ithaca, NY); Gruner, Sol M. (Ithaca, NY)

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  16. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  17. Pressure-sensitive optrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for sensing changes in pressure and for generating optical signals related to changes in pressure. Light from a fiber optic is directed to a movable surface which is coated with a light-responsive material, and which moves relative to the end of the fiber optic in response to changes in pressure. The same fiber optic collects a portion of the reflected or emitted light from the movable surface. Changes in pressure are determined by measuring changes in the amount of light collected. 5 figs.

  18. Dual shell pressure balanced vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fassbender, Alexander G. (West Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dual-wall pressure balanced vessel for processing high viscosity slurries at high temperatures and pressures having an outer pressure vessel and an inner vessel with an annular space between the vessels pressurized at a pressure slightly less than or equivalent to the pressure within the inner vessel.

  19. ULTRA LOW PRESSURE-DROP HELIUM-COOLED POROUS-TUNGSTEN PFC S. Sharafat1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    ULTRA LOW PRESSURE-DROP HELIUM-COOLED POROUS-TUNGSTEN PFC S. Sharafat1 , A. Mills1 , D. Youchison2/s. Based on these impressive performance results, a unique and scalable heat exchanger channel with ultra-low and ultra low-pressure drop short flow-path (SOFIT) concept was designed. Typical pressure drops through

  20. Using cavitation to measure statistics of low-pressure events in large-Reynolds-number turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La Porta, Arthur

    Using cavitation to measure statistics of low-pressure events in large-Reynolds-number turbulence A is studied using cavitation. The flow is seeded with microscopic gas bubbles and the hydrostatic pressure is reduced until large negative pressure fluctuations trigger cavitation. Cavitation is detected via light

  1. Multi-bottle, no compressor, mean pressure control system for a Stirling engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A. (Melrose, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to an apparatus for mean pressure control of a Stirling engine without the need for a compressor. The invention includes a multi-tank system in which there is at least one high pressure level tank and one low pressure level tank wherein gas flows through a maximum pressure and supply line from the engine to the high pressure tank when a first valve is opened until the maximum pressure of the engine drops below that of the high pressure tank opening an inlet regulator to permit gas flow from the engine to the low pressure tank. When gas flows toward the engine it flows through the minimum pressure supply line 2 when a second valve is opened from the low pressure tank until the tank reaches the engine's minimum pressure level at which time the outlet regulator opens permitting gas to be supplied from the high pressure tank to the engine. Check valves between the two tanks prevent any backflow of gas from occurring.

  2. Flow chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morozov, Victor (Manassas, VA)

    2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A flow chamber having a vacuum chamber and a specimen chamber. The specimen chamber may have an opening through which a fluid may be introduced and an opening through which the fluid may exit. The vacuum chamber may have an opening through which contents of the vacuum chamber may be evacuated. A portion of the flow chamber may be flexible, and a vacuum may be used to hold the components of the flow chamber together.

  3. Geological flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. N. Bratkov

    2008-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper geology and planetology are considered using new conceptual basis of high-speed flow dynamics. Recent photo technics allow to see all details of a flow, 'cause the flow is static during very short time interval. On the other hand, maps and images of many planets are accessible. Identity of geological flows and high-speed gas dynamics is demonstrated. There is another time scale, and no more. All results, as far as the concept, are new and belong to the author. No formulae, pictures only.

  4. Design and fabrication of a MEMS-array pressure sensor system for passive underwater navigation inspired by the lateral line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou, Stephen Ming-Chang, 1981-

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An object within a fluid flow generates local pressure variations that are unique and characteristic to the object's shape and size. For example, a three-dimensional object or a wall-like obstacle obstructs flow and creates ...

  5. Capillary exit pressure as a basin sealing mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shosa, J.; Cathles, L. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Abnormally pressured compartments in sedimentary basins require an efficient sealing mechanism. Most sealing mechanisms rely on either intrinsically low formation permeabilities or on the entry pressure of a non-aqueous phase into a fine-grained unit. However, the nanodarcy permeabilities required to maintain overpressures over significant geologic time are not plausible over wide areas. Entry pressures, while effective in trapping a non-aqueous phase in a local reservoir, can not prevent leakage where the non-aqueous phase is not ponded against the seal. The capillary exit pressure required to displace water from a fine-grained formation into a coarse-grained formation which contains a non-aqueous phase provides an alternative sealing mechanism. Capillary exit pressure seals require contrasts in grain size and the presence of two phases in the coarse-grained unit, but do not require 100% saturation of the non-aqueous phase. These conditions can exist on all sides of a pressure compartment, and can account for sealing on the top, bottom, and sides of a compartment. We have shown in the laboratory that capillary exit pressure seals under reservoir conditions allow no fluid flow across the seal until a threshold pressure is exceeded (e.g., the seat is not a relative permeability effect) and that exit pressures are additive over a series of fine/coarse interfaces. Capillary exit pressure seals can maintain the abnormal pressures observed in the South Eugene Island Block 330 field. Both a sufficient number of sand/shale layers and a gas phase are present in the pressure transition zone there. We believe capillary exit pressure seals are a general feature of sedimentary basins and are important in controlling large scale fluid flow.

  6. Capillary exit pressure as a basin sealing mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shosa, J.; Cathles, L. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abnormally pressured compartments in sedimentary basins require an efficient sealing mechanism. Most sealing mechanisms rely on either intrinsically low formation permeabilities or on the entry pressure of a non-aqueous phase into a fine-grained unit. However, the nanodarcy permeabilities required to maintain overpressures over significant geologic time are not plausible over wide areas. Entry pressures, while effective in trapping a non-aqueous phase in a local reservoir, can not prevent leakage where the non-aqueous phase is not ponded against the seal. The capillary exit pressure required to displace water from a fine-grained formation into a coarse-grained formation which contains a non-aqueous phase provides an alternative sealing mechanism. Capillary exit pressure seals require contrasts in grain size and the presence of two phases in the coarse-grained unit, but do not require 100% saturation of the non-aqueous phase. These conditions can exist on all sides of a pressure compartment, and can account for sealing on the top, bottom, and sides of a compartment. We have shown in the laboratory that capillary exit pressure seals under reservoir conditions allow no fluid flow across the seal until a threshold pressure is exceeded (e.g., the seat is not a relative permeability effect) and that exit pressures are additive over a series of fine/coarse interfaces. Capillary exit pressure seals can maintain the abnormal pressures observed in the South Eugene Island Block 330 field. Both a sufficient number of sand/shale layers and a gas phase are present in the pressure transition zone there. We believe capillary exit pressure seals are a general feature of sedimentary basins and are important in controlling large scale fluid flow.

  7. High Temperature Electrolysis Pressurized Experiment Design, Operation, and Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.E. O'Brien; X. Zhang; G.K. Housley; K. DeWall; L. Moore-McAteer

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new facility has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for pressurized testing of solid oxide electrolysis stacks. Pressurized operation is envisioned for large-scale hydrogen production plants, yielding higher overall efficiencies when the hydrogen product is to be delivered at elevated pressure for tank storage or pipelines. Pressurized operation also supports higher mass flow rates of the process gases with smaller components. The test stand can accommodate planar cells with dimensions up to 8.5 cm x 8.5 cm and stacks of up to 25 cells. It is also suitable for testing other cell and stack geometries including tubular cells. The pressure boundary for these tests is a water-cooled spool-piece pressure vessel designed for operation up to 5 MPa. Pressurized operation of a ten-cell internally manifolded solid oxide electrolysis stack has been successfully demonstrated up 1.5 MPa. The stack is internally manifolded and operates in cross-flow with an inverted-U flow pattern. Feed-throughs for gas inlets/outlets, power, and instrumentation are all located in the bottom flange. The entire spool piece, with the exception of the bottom flange, can be lifted to allow access to the internal furnace and test fixture. Lifting is accomplished with a motorized threaded drive mechanism attached to a rigid structural frame. Stack mechanical compression is accomplished using springs that are located inside of the pressure boundary, but outside of the hot zone. Initial stack heatup and performance characterization occurs at ambient pressure followed by lowering and sealing of the pressure vessel and subsequent pressurization. Pressure equalization between the anode and cathode sides of the cells and the stack surroundings is ensured by combining all of the process gases downstream of the stack. Steady pressure is maintained by means of a backpressure regulator and a digital pressure controller. A full description of the pressurized test apparatus is provided in this report. Results of initial testing showed the expected increase in open-cell voltage associated with elevated pressure. However, stack performance in terms of area-specific resistance was enhanced at elevated pressure due to better gas diffusion through the porous electrodes of the cells. Some issues such as cracked cells and seals were encountered during testing. Full resolution of these issues will require additional testing to identify the optimum test configurations and protocols.

  8. PRESSURE ACTIVATED SEALANT TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael A. Romano

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop new, efficient, cost effective methods of internally sealing natural gas pipeline leaks through the application of differential pressure activated sealants. In researching the current state of the art for gas pipeline sealing technologies we concluded that if the project was successful, it appeared that pressure activated sealant technology would provide a cost effective alternative to existing pipeline repair technology. From our analysis of current field data for a 13 year period from 1985 to 1997 we were able to identify 205 leaks that were candidates for pressure activated sealant technology, affirming that pressure activated sealant technology is a viable option to traditional external leak repairs. The data collected included types of defects, areas of defects, pipe sizes and materials, incident and operating pressures, ability of pipeline to be pigged and corrosion states. This data, and subsequent analysis, was utilized as a basis for constructing applicable sealant test modeling.

  9. High pressure melt ejection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarbell, W.W.; Brockmann, J.E.; Pilch, M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent probabilistic risk assessments have identified the potential for reactor pressure vessel failure while the reactor coolant system is at elevated pressure. The analyses postulate that the blowdown of steam and hydrogen into the reactor cavity will cause the core material to be swept from the cavity region into the containment building. The High Pressure Melt Streaming (HIPS) program is an experimental study of the high pressure ejection of molten material and subsequent interactions within a concrete cavity. The program focuses on using prototypic system conditions and scaled models of reactor geometries to accurately simulate the ex-vessel processes during high-pressure accident sequences. Scaling analyses of the experiment show that the criteria established for core debris removal from the cavity are met or exceeded. Tests are performed at two scales, representing 1/10th and 1/20th linear reproductions of the Zion reactor plant. Results of the 1/20th scale tests are presented.

  10. Viscous exchange flows Gary P. Matson and Andrew J. Hogg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogg, Andrew

    -based expressions for the gas mass flow rate and pressure profile in a microscale tube Phys. Fluids 24, 012005 (2012 viscosities, counter-flow within a horizontal channel, are found in many industrial and environmental settingsViscous exchange flows Gary P. Matson and Andrew J. Hogg Citation: Phys. Fluids 24, 023102 (2012

  11. Problem Statement Characterizing the flow of neutral propellant gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Mitchell

    at the exit plane of the anode using a premixed mixture of air and propane. C3H8 + 3.76N2 + 5O2 3CO2 + 4H2O. Flow conditions (pressure, flow rate, and fuel-air ratio) that show this exit plane flow are required

  12. MODELING OF POROSITY FORMATION AND FEEDING FLOW IN STEEL CASTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    . By combining Darcy's law, which governs fluid flow in the mushy zone, with the equation for Stokes' flow, which governs the motion of slow-flowing pure liquid, it is possible to derive a momentum equation that is valid everywhere in the solution domain. A pressure equation is then derived by combining this momentum equation

  13. NIST Measurement Services: Natural Gas Flow Calibration Service (NGFCS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NIST Measurement Services: Natural Gas Flow Calibration Service (NGFCS) NIST Special Publication of Standards and Technology #12;i Table of Contents for the Natural Gas Flowmeter Calibration Service (NGFCS;1 Abstract This document describes NIST's high pressure natural gas flow calibration service (NGFCS). Flow

  14. New process to avoid emissions: Constant pressure in coke ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giertz, J.; Huhn, F. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany). Inst. for Cokemaking and Fuel Technology; Hofherr, K. [Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chamber pressure regulation (PROven), especially effective in regard to emission control problems of coke ovens is introduced for the first time. Because of the partial vacuum in the collecting main system, it is possible to keep the oven`s raw gas pressure constant on a low level over the full coking time. The individual pressure control for each chamber is assured directly as a function of the oven pressure by an immersion system controlling the flow resistance of the collecting main valve. The latter is a fixed-position design (system name ``FixCup``). By doing away with the interdependence of collecting main pressure and chamber pressure, a parameter seen as a coking constant could not be made variable. This opens a new way to reduce coke oven emissions and simultaneously to prevent the ovens from damage caused by air ingress into the oven.

  15. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Dennis Sparks; Khalid Azzam; Janet Chakkamadathil Mohandas; Wilson Shafer; Venkat Ramana Rao Pendyala

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations. In the second and third years, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. Cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts were also subjected to a number of the same compounds in order to evaluate their sensitivities at different concentration levels of added contaminant.

  16. Pressurizer tank upper support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Tod H. (O'Hara Township, Allegheny County, PA); Ott, Howard L. (Kiski Township, Armstrong County, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90.degree. intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure.

  17. Pressurizer tank upper support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, T.H.; Ott, H.L.

    1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90[degree] intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure. 10 figures.

  18. Low energy high pressure miniature screw valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Gary J. (Sandia Park, NM); Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A low energy high pressure screw valve having a valve body having an upper portion and a lower portion, said lower portion of said valve body defining an inlet flow passage and an outlet flow passage traversing said valve body to a valve seat, said upper portion of said valve body defining a cavity at said valve seat, a diaphragm restricting flow between said upper portion of said valve body and said lower portion, said diaphragm capable of engaging said valve seat to restrict fluid communication between said inlet passage and said outlet passage, a plunger within said cavity supporting said diaphragm, said plunger being capable of engaging said diaphragm with said valve seat at said inlet and outlet fluid passages, said plunger being in point contact with a drive screw having threads engaged with opposing threads within said upper portion of said valve body such engagement allowing motion of said drive screw within said valve body.

  19. Constant pressure high throughput membrane permeation testing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albenze, Erik J.; Hopkinson, David P.; Luebke, David R.

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure relates to a membrane testing system for individual evaluation of a plurality of planar membranes subjected to a feed gas on one side and a sweep gas on a second side. The membrane testing system provides a pressurized flow of a feed and sweep gas to each membrane testing cell in a plurality of membrane testing cells while a stream of retentate gas from each membrane testing cell is ported by a retentate multiport valve for sampling or venting, and a stream of permeate gas from each membrane testing cell is ported by a permeate multiport valve for sampling or venting. Back pressure regulators and mass flow controllers act to maintain substantially equivalent gas pressures and flow rates on each side of the planar membrane throughout a sampling cycle. A digital controller may be utilized to position the retentate and permeate multiport valves cyclically, allowing for gas sampling of different membrane cells over an extended period of time.

  20. Pressurized reactor system and a method of operating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, J.M.

    1996-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for operating a pressurized reactor system in order to precisely control the temperature within a pressure vessel in order to minimize condensation of corrosive materials from gases on the surfaces of the pressure vessel or contained circulating fluidized bed reactor, and to prevent the temperature of the components from reaching a detrimentally high level, while at the same time allowing quick heating of the pressure vessel interior volume during start-up. Super-atmospheric pressure gas is introduced from the first conduit into the fluidized bed reactor and heat derived reactions such as combustion and gasification are maintained in the reactor. Gas is exhausted from the reactor and pressure vessel through a second conduit. Gas is circulated from one part of the inside volume to another to control the temperature of the inside volume, such as by passing the gas through an exterior conduit which has a heat exchanger, control valve, blower and compressor associated therewith, or by causing natural convection flow of circulating gas within one or more generally vertically extending gas passages entirely within the pressure vessel (and containing heat exchangers, flow rate control valves, or the like therein). Preferably, inert gas is provided as a circulating gas, and the inert gas may also be used in emergency shut-down situations. In emergency shut-down reaction gas being supplied to the reactor is cut off, while inert gas from the interior gas volume of the pressure vessel is introduced into the reactor. 2 figs.

  1. Pressurized reactor system and a method of operating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, Juhani M. (Karhula, FI)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for operating a pressurized reactor system in order to precisely control the temperature within a pressure vessel in order to minimize condensation of corrosive materials from gases on the surfaces of the pressure vessel or contained circulating fluidized bed reactor, and to prevent the temperature of the components from reaching a detrimentally high level, while at the same time allowing quick heating of the pressure vessel interior volume during start-up. Superatmospheric pressure gas is introduced from the first conduit into the fluidized bed reactor and heat derived reactions such as combustion and gassification are maintained in the reactor. Gas is exhausted from the reactor and pressure vessel through a second conduit. Gas is circulated from one part of the inside volume to another to control the temperature of the inside volume, such as by passing the gas through an exterior conduit which has a heat exchanger, control valve, blower and compressor associated therewith, or by causing natural convection flow of circulating gas within one or more generally vertically extending gas passages entirely within the pressure vessel (and containing heat exchangers, flow rate control valves, or the like therein). Preferably, inert gas is provided as a circulating gas, and the inert gas may also be used in emergency shut-down situations. In emergency shut-down reaction gas being supplied to the reactor is cut off, while inert gas from the interior gas volume of the pressure vessel is introduced into the reactor.

  2. Capacitance pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eaton, William P. (Tijeras, NM); Staple, Bevan D. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, James H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) capacitance pressure sensor integrated with electronic circuitry on a common substrate and a method for forming such a device are disclosed. The MEM capacitance pressure sensor includes a capacitance pressure sensor formed at least partially in a cavity etched below the surface of a silicon substrate and adjacent circuitry (CMOS, BiCMOS, or bipolar circuitry) formed on the substrate. By forming the capacitance pressure sensor in the cavity, the substrate can be planarized (e.g. by chemical-mechanical polishing) so that a standard set of integrated circuit processing steps can be used to form the electronic circuitry (e.g. using an aluminum or aluminum-alloy interconnect metallization).

  3. Controlled differential pressure system for an enhanced fluid blending apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis (Knoxville, TN)

    2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for producing a controlled blend of two or more fluids. Thermally-induced permeation through a permeable tube is used to mix a first fluid from outside the tube with a second fluid flowing through the tube. Mixture ratios may be controlled by adjusting the temperature of the first fluid or by adjusting the pressure drop through the permeable tube. The combination of a back pressure control valve and a differential regulator is used to control the output pressure of the blended fluid. The combination of the back pressure control valve and differential regulator provides superior flow control of the second dry gas. A valve manifold system may be used to mix multiple fluids, and to adjust the volume of blended fluid produced, and to further modify the mixture ratio.

  4. Flow characteristics in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.L.; Himmelblau, D.M.; Edgar, T.F.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the underground coal gasification field test at the Hoe Creek site No. 2, Wyoming, helium pulses were introduced to develop information to characterize the flow field, and to estimate the coefficients in dispersion models of the flow. Quantitative analysis of the tracer response curves shows an increasing departure from a plug flow regime with time because of the combined effects of the free and forced convection in addition to the complex non-uniformity of the flow field. The Peclet number was a function of temperature, pressure, gas recovery and characteristic velocity, as well as the split of the gas between the parallel streams in the model. 17 refs.

  5. Smokeless Control of Flare Steam Flow Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agar, J.; Balls, B. W.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the First Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 22-25, 1979 FLARE GAS FLOW RATE MEASUREMENT "Accurate measurement of the very low flow rates which are normally present is very difficult" 0, p 15-8). "It is generally considered too...-04-91 Proceedings from the First Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 22-25, 1979 to calibration conditions. Turndown is 40:1 and pressure loss is negligible. APPLICATION FLOW RATE The mass flow meter described has been applied to a wide...

  6. Pressurizer with a mechanically attached surge nozzle thermal sleeve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wepfer, Robert M

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal sleeve is mechanically attached to the bore of a surge nozzle of a pressurizer for the primary circuit of a pressurized water reactor steam generating system. The thermal sleeve is attached with a series of keys and slots which maintain the thermal sleeve centered in the nozzle while permitting thermal growth and restricting flow between the sleeve and the interior wall of the nozzle.

  7. Cooling Flows or Heating Flows?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Binney

    2003-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    It is now clear that AGN heat cooling flows, largely by driving winds. The winds may contain a relativistic component that generates powerful synchrotron radiation, but it is not clear that all winds do so. The spatial and temporal stability of the AGN/cooling flow interaction are discussed. Collimation of the winds probably provides spatial stability. Temporal stability may be possible only for black holes with masses above a critical value. Both the failure of cooling flows to have adiabatic cores and the existence of X-ray cavities confirm the importance of collimated outflows. I quantify the scale of the convective flow that the AGN Hydra would need to drive if it balanced radiative inward flow by outward flow parallel to the jets. At least in Virgo any such flow must be confined to r<~20 kpc. Hydrodynamical simulations suggest that AGN outbursts cannot last longer than ~25 Myr. Data for four clusters with well studied X-ray cavities suggests that heating associated with cavity formation approximately balances radiative cooling. The role of cosmic infall and the mechanism of filament formation are briefly touched on.

  8. Pressurized feed-injection spray-forming apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, Ray A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); McHugh, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A spray apparatus and method for injecting a heated, pressurized liquid in a first predetermined direction into a pressurized gas flow that is flowing in a second predetermined direction, to provide for atomizing and admixing the liquid with the gas to form a two-phase mixture. A valve is also disposed within the injected liquid conduit to provide for a pulsed injection of the liquid and timed deposit of the atomized gas phase. Preferred embodiments include multiple liquid feed ports and reservoirs to provide for multiphase mixtures of metals, ceramics, and polymers.

  9. Pressurized feed-injection spray-forming apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, R.A.; Fincke, J.R.; McHugh, K.M.

    1995-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A spray apparatus and method are disclosed for injecting a heated, pressurized liquid in a first predetermined direction into a pressurized gas flow that is flowing in a second predetermined direction, to provide for atomizing and admixing the liquid with the gas to form a two-phase mixture. A valve is also disposed within the injected liquid conduit to provide for a pulsed injection of the liquid and timed deposit of the atomized gas phase. Preferred embodiments include multiple liquid feed ports and reservoirs to provide for multiphase mixtures of metals, ceramics, and polymers. 22 figs.

  10. Pressurized solid oxide fuel cell integral air accumular containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Basel, Richard A.

    2004-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell generator apparatus contains at least one fuel cell subassembly module in a module housing, where the housing is surrounded by a pressure vessel such that there is an air accumulator space, where the apparatus is associated with an air compressor of a turbine/generator/air compressor system, where pressurized air from the compressor passes into the space and occupies the space and then flows to the fuel cells in the subassembly module, where the air accumulation space provides an accumulator to control any unreacted fuel gas that might flow from the module.

  11. Capillary toroid cavity detector for high pressure NMR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Chen, Michael J. (Downers Grove, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Honer Glen, IL); ter Horst, Marc (Chapel Hill, NC)

    2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A Toroid Cavity Detector (TCD) is provided for implementing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of chemical reactions under conditions of high pressures and temperatures. A toroid cavity contains an elongated central conductor extending within the toroid cavity. The toroid cavity and central conductor generate an RF magnetic field for NMR analysis. A flow-through capillary sample container is located within the toroid cavity adjacent to the central conductor to subject a sample material flowing through the capillary to a static magnetic field and to enable NMR spectra to be recorded of the material in the capillary under a temperature and high pressure environment.

  12. Hydrogen Oxidation-Driven Hot Electron Flow Detected by Catalytic Nanodiodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hervier, Antoine

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electron generation under hydrogen oxidation is proportionalincrease as the pressure of hydrogen rises. Figure 1 FigureHydrogen Oxidation-Driven Hot Electron Flow Detected by

  13. Rotationally Augmented Flow Structures and Time Varying Loads on Turbine Blades: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreck, S. J.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To better understand wind turbine flow physics, time dependent blade surface pressure data were acquired from the NREL Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment.

  14. Coupled fluid flow and geomechanical deformation modeling Susan E. Minkoff a,*, C. Mike Stoneb,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minkoff, Susan E.

    Coupled fluid flow and geomechanical deformation modeling Susan E. Minkoff a,*, C. Mike Stoneb,1 reservoir properties. Pore pressures from flow are used as loads for the geomechanics code

  15. Aerodynamics of Two Interfering Simple-Shape Bodies in Hypersonic Rarefied-Gas Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riabov, Vladimir V.

    ] for transition rarefied-gas flows. Supersonic, subsonic, and pressure-driven, low-speed flows in twoAerodynamics of Two Interfering Simple-Shape Bodies in Hypersonic Rarefied-Gas Flows Vladimir V. Riabov Rivier College, Nashua, New Hampshire, USA Abstract. Hypersonic rarefied-gas flows near two side

  16. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.; Townsend, H.E.

    1994-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto. 6 figures.

  17. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, D.W.

    1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.

  18. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Townsend, Harold E. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto.

  19. Plating under reduced pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dini, J.W.; Beat, T.G.; Cowden, W.C. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Ryan, L.E.; Hewitt, W.B. (TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, CA (United States))

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plating under reduced pressure was evaluated for both electroless nickel and electrodeposited copper systems. The objective was to reduce pitting of these coatings thereby further enhancing their usage for diamond turning applications. Cursory experiments with electroless nickel showed reduced porosity when deposition was done at around 500 torr. Detailed experiments with electrodeposited copper at around 100 torr provided similar results. Scanning tunneling microscopy was effectively used to show the improvement in the copper deposits plated under reduced pressure. Benefits included reduced surface roughness and finer and denser grain structure.

  20. Reaction rates from pressure-gauge measurements in reacting explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginsberg, M.J.; Anderson, A.B.; Wackerle, J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proper hydrodynamic data and an equation of state are sufficient to describe quantitatively the reaction rates of explosives during the shock-to-detonation transition. Manganin pressure gauges embedded in the reacting explosive have provided these data for the explosives PETN, PBX 9404, TATB, and TNT. Once a pressure-field history has been assembled from individual pressure histories at different depths in the explosive, the conservation equations can be applied in a Lagrangian analysis of the data. The combination of a reactant-product equation of state with this analysis then allows the calculation of the extent of reaction and reaction rate. Successful correlation of the calculated reaction rate values with other thermodynamic variables, such as pressure or temperature, allows formulation of a rate law and the prediction of initiation behavior under circumstances quite different from the experiments that led to the rate law. The best dynamic piezoresistive pressure gauge for most applications would have a substantial output voltage and present negligible disturbance to the flow. In explosives, however, requirements for survival in the extreme temperature and pressure environment encountered by the gauge dictate compromise. Low electrical resistance (approx. 20 m..cap omega..) helps to minimize shunt conductivity failures, but this drastically reduces output and demands that much attention be given to reducingnoise. Although relatively thick insulation perturbs the flow to some extent, survivability requirements dictate its use. Pressure measurements in reactive flow can now be made routinely with gauges that successfully produce data leading to a description of the flow and a powerful predictive capability.

  1. Flow characteristics in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.L.; Himmelblau, D.M.; Edgar, T.F.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the Hoe Creek No. 2 (Wyoming) underground-coal-gasification field test, researchers introduced helium pulses to characterize the flow field and to estimate the coefficients in dispersion models of the flow. Flow models such as the axial-dispersion and parallel tanks-in-series models allowed interpretation of the in situ combustion flow field from the residence time distribution of the tracer gas. A quantitative analysis of the Hoe Creek tracer response curves revealed an increasing departure from a plug-flow regime with time, which was due to the combined effects of the free and forced convection in addition to the complex nonuniformity of the flow field. The Peclet number was a function of temperature, pressure, gas recovery, and characteristic velocity, as well as the split of the gas between the parallel streams in the model.

  2. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefano Orsino

    2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical reaction mechanism for the NBFZ tests.

  3. Columbia University flow instability experimental program: Volume 3. Single tube parallel flow tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dougherty, T.; Maciuca, C.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Reddy, D.G.; Yang, B.W.

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The coolant in the Savannah River Site (SRS) production nuclear reactor assemblies is circulated as a subcooled liquid under normal operating conditions. This coolant is evenly distributed throughout multiple annular flow channels with a uniform pressure profile across each coolant flow channel. During the postulated Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), which is initiated by a hypothetical guillotine pipe break, the coolant flow through the reactor assemblies is significantly reduced. The flow reduction and accompanying power reduction (after shutdown is initiated) occur in the first 1--2 seconds of the LOCA. This portion of the LOCA is referred to as the Flow Instability phase. A series of down flow experiments have been conducted on three different size single tubes. The objective of these experiments was to determine the effect of a parallel flow path on the occurrence of flow instability. In all cases, it has been shown that the point of flow instability (OFI) determined under controlled flow operation does not change when operating in a controlled pressure drop mode (parallel path operation).

  4. Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM); Henins, Ivars (Los Alamos, NM); Babayan, Steve E. (Huntington Beach, CA); Hicks, Robert F. (Los Angeles, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two planar, parallel electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the volume therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly spacing the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, there is a negligible density of ions surviving for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike the situation for low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  5. High Temperature, Large Sample Volume, Constant Flow Magic Angle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sample spinning rate of 3.5 kHz, 1 H and 13 C 90-degree pulse width of 8 s, constant flow control at 1.0 atmospheric pressure, and temperature control up to 250 C. This...

  6. Pressure atomizer having multiple orifices and turbulent generation feature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    VanBrocklin, Paul G. (Pittsford, NY); Geiger, Gail E. (Caledonia, NY); Moran, Donald James (Rochester, NY); Fournier, Stephane (Rochester, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure atomizer includes a silicon plate having a top surface and a bottom surface. A portion of the top surface defines a turbulent chamber. The turbulent chamber is peripherally bounded by the top surface of the plate. The turbulent chamber is recessed a predetermined depth relative to the top surface. The silicon plate further defines at least one flow orifice. Each flow orifice extends from the bottom surface of the silicon plate to intersect with and open into the turbulent chamber. Each flow orifice is in fluid communication with the turbulent chamber.

  7. Pressure Change Measurement Leak Testing Errors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pryor, Jeff M [ORNL] [ORNL; Walker, William C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure change test is a common leak testing method used in construction and Non-Destructive Examination (NDE). The test is known as being a fast, simple, and easy to apply evaluation method. While this method may be fairly quick to conduct and require simple instrumentation, the engineering behind this type of test is more complex than is apparent on the surface. This paper intends to discuss some of the more common errors made during the application of a pressure change test and give the test engineer insight into how to correctly compensate for these factors. The principals discussed here apply to ideal gases such as air or other monoatomic or diatomic gasses; however these same principals can be applied to polyatomic gasses or liquid flow rate with altered formula specific to those types of tests using the same methodology.

  8. Pressure Drop of Fully Developed, Laminar Flow in Rough Microtubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    Mem. ASME e-mail: majid@mhtlab.uwaterloo.ca M. M. Yovanovich Distinguished Professor Emeritus Fellow ASME J. R. Culham1 Associate Professor Mem. ASME Microelectronics Heat Transfer Laboratory, Department be supplied to their numerical code. These parameters cannot be measured directly; no relationship

  9. Modeling flow in a pressure-sensitive, heterogeneous medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasco, Donald W.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    deformation modeling, J. of Petrol. Sci. and Eng. , 38, 37-sandstone reservoir rocks, J. Petrol. Tech. , March, 15-16.fluid properties, Soc. Petrol. Eng. J. ,, 267-276. Rickett,

  10. Modelling Flow through Porous Media under Large Pressure Gradients 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Shriram

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to contribute to global warming and adversely impact the climate. The idea of sequestering carbon dioxide to reduce the amount entering the atmosphere is fairly new. But the technology needed to do this has been developed for EOR already. Thermal power stations...

  11. Development of Tools for Measuring Temperature, Flow, Pressure...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Peer Review hightemp017tilak.pdf More Documents & Publications Fielding of HT-seismic Tools and Evaluation of HT-FPGA Module - Development of a HT-seismic Tool; 2010...

  12. Flow rate--pressure drop relation for deformable shallow microfluidic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.New MexicoFinancingProofWorking Outside theFlooded First

  13. Radiative Flow in a Luminous Disk II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun Fukue

    2006-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiatively-driven transfer flow perpendicular to a luminous disk is examined in the subrelativistic regime of $(v/c)^1$, taking into account the gravity of the central object. The flow is assumed to be vertical, and the gas pressure is ignored, while internal heating is assumed to be proportional to the gas density. The basic equations were numerically solved as a function of the optical depth, and the flow velocity, the height, the radiative flux, and the radiation pressure were obtained for a given radius, an initial optical depth, and initial conditions at the flow base (disk ``inside''), whereas the mass-loss rate was determined as an eigenvalue of the boundary condition at the flow top (disk ``surface''). For sufficiently luminous cases, the flow resembles the case without gravity. For less-luminous cases, however, the flow velocity decreases, and the flow would be impossible due to the existence of gravity in the case that the radiative flux is sufficiently small. Application to a supercritical accretion disk with mass loss is briefly discussed.

  14. Turbulent flow of gas in fractures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koh, Wong In

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sises of 40 - 60, 20 - 40 and 10 - 20 mesh and with varying concentration of proppants . The confining pressure was varied for each core up to $, 000 psi step by step. The proppant concentration in each fracture was varied up to a complete monolayer... an ovex'bux'den pressure of 4, 000 psi, the reduction in flow capaoity would vary from 86 $ to 76 4 with corresponding change of pressure dxop from 2, 000 psi to 7, 000 psi across a 320 ft long fractuxe. ACKHOWLEDGENEN% The author wishes to extend...

  15. Experimental Investigation on High-pressure, High-temperature Viscosity of Gas Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davani, Ehsan

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling the performance of high-pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) natural gas reservoirs requires the understanding of gas behavior at such conditions. In particular, gas viscosity is an important fluid property that directly affects fluid flow...

  16. Initial Modeling of a Pressurized Water Reactor Completed Using RELAP-7

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RELAP-7 is a nuclear reactor system safety analysis code where initial capabilities were demonstrated by simulating a steady-state single-phase pressurized water reactor (PWR) with two parallel loops and multiple reactor core flow channels.

  17. The influence of return bends on the downstream pressure drop and condensation heat transfer in tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traviss, Donald P.

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of return bends on the downstream pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient of condensing refrigerant R-12 was studied experimentally. Flow patterns in glass return bends of 1/2 to 1 in. radius and 0.315 ...

  18. A Novel Approach for the Rapid Estimation of Drainage Volume, Pressure and Well Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Neha 1986-

    2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    For effective reservoir management and production optimization, it is important to understand drained volumes, pressure depletion and reservoir well rates at all flow times. For conventional reservoirs, this behavior is based on the concepts...

  19. Materials Science Under Extreme Conditions of Pressure and Strain Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    continuum hydrodynamic computer codes to simu- late plastic flow in the solid state. Models such as the Johnson­Cook,[9] Zerilli­Armstrong,[10,11] mechanical threshold stress (MTS),[12] thermal-activation­phonon-drag, Taylor cylinders, and with high-explosive (HE)­driven shock or compression waves at pressures up to a few

  20. Flow of Navier-Stokes Fluids in Cylindrical Elastic Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sochi, Taha

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analytical expressions correlating the volumetric flow rate to the inlet and outlet pressures are derived for the time-independent flow of Newtonian fluids in cylindrically-shaped elastic tubes using a one-dimensional Navier-Stokes flow model with two pressure-area constitutive relations. These expressions for elastic tubes are the equivalent of Poiseuille and Poiseuille-type expressions for rigid tubes which were previously derived for the flow of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids under various flow conditions. Formulae and procedures for identifying the pressure field and tube geometric profile are also presented. The results are validated by a finite element method implementation. Sensible trends in the analytical and numerical results are observed and documented.

  1. Engine control system having pressure-based timing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willi, Martin L. (Dunlap, IL); Fiveland, Scott B. (Metamora, IL); Montgomery, David T. (Edelstein, IL); Gong, Weidong (Dunlap, IL)

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A control system for an engine having a first cylinder and a second cylinder is disclosed having a first engine valve movable to regulate a fluid flow of the first cylinder and a first actuator associated with the first engine valve. The control system also has a second engine valve movable to regulate a fluid flow of the second cylinder and a sensor configured to generate a signal indicative of a pressure within the first cylinder. The control system also has a controller that is in communication with the first actuator and the sensor. The controller is configured to compare the pressure within the first cylinder with a desired pressure and selectively regulate the first actuator to adjust a timing of the first engine valve independently of the timing of the second engine valve based on the comparison.

  2. Vehicle having hydraulic and power steering systems using a single high pressure pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2001-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A vehicle comprises a plurality of wheels attached to a vehicle housing. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a power steering system, including a fluid flow circuit, which is operably coupled to a number of the wheels. An internal combustion engine attached to the vehicle housing is connected to a hydraulically actuated system that includes a high pressure pump. An outlet of the high pressure pump is in fluid communication with the fluid flow circuit.

  3. Evaluation of Annular Pressure Buildup (APB) during WCD Blowout of Deepwater Hp/Ht Wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taghizadeh Ansari, Matin

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    . 12 WELLCATTM models any standard hydrocarbons composed of dry or free gas, oil and dissolved gas, vapor-liquids without heavy oil, and dissolved gas. The oil properties can be calculated by oil API gravity, while gas properties are modeled using... and Environmental Enforcement FWHP Flowing Well Head Pressure FBHP Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure CGR Condensate Gas Ratio GLR Gas Liquid Ratio API American Petroleum Association SRK Soave-Redlich-Kwong VLE Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium PR Peng-Robinson GOR Gas...

  4. Heat transfer and pressure drop data for high heat flux densities to water at high subcritical pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohsenow, Warren M.

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Local surface ooeffioients of heat t-ansfer, overall pressure drop data and mean friction factor are presented for heat flamms up to 3.52106 BtuAr ft2 for water flowing in a nickel tabe isder the following conditions: mass ...

  5. Pressure suppression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.

    1994-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure suppression system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and an enclosed gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The GDCS pool includes a plenum for receiving through an inlet the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A condenser is disposed in the GDCS plenum for condensing the steam channeled therein and to trap the non-condensable gas therein. A method of operation includes draining the GDCS pool following the LOCA and channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the GDCS plenum for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith for trapping the gas therein. 3 figs.

  6. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1993-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

  7. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  8. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  9. Pressure suppression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure suppression system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and an enclosed gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The GDCS pool includes a plenum for receiving through an inlet the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A condenser is disposed in the GDCS plenum for condensing the steam channeled therein and to trap the non-condensable gas therein. A method of operation includes draining the GDCS pool following the LOCA and channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the GDCS plenum for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith for trapping the gas therein.

  10. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  11. The linear and nonlinear stability of thread-annular flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walton, Andrew G

    .walton@ic.ac.uk) The surgical technique of thread injection of medical implants is modelled by the axial pressure surgical trauma. The thread is stored on a spool and injected within a fluid by applying an axial pressure Navier­Stokes solution for sliding flow through an annulus (equation (1.1) below), they discovered

  12. High pressure storage vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Qiang

    2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a composite pressure vessel with a liner having a polar boss and a blind boss a shell is formed around the liner via one or more filament wrappings continuously disposed around at least a substantial portion of the liner assembly combined the liner and filament wrapping have a support profile. To reduce susceptible to rupture a locally disposed filament fiber is added.

  13. Effect of Nozzle Geometry on Jet Noise Reduction Using Fan Flow Deflectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papamoschou, Dimitri

    or sideforce p = pressure q = dynamic pressure S = wedge wetted area u = mean velocity in jet plume U = nozzleEffect of Nozzle Geometry on Jet Noise Reduction Using Fan Flow Deflectors Dimitri Papamoschou of baseline nozzle shape on the ability of fan flow deflectors to reduce downward-emitted turbulent mixing

  14. A Theoretic-Experimental Model for Defining the Rate of the Air Flow through Capillary Channels*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borissova, Daniela

    authors [3, 4] recommend for gas flow formula (2), in which the mass flow and the gas pressure before cross sections. 1. Introduction The study and development of devices for generation, transformation according to the method of the electro- hydraulic analogy: (1) G P R , is a function of the pressure

  15. Ionization based multi-directional flow sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chorpening, Benjamin T. (Morgantown, WV); Casleton, Kent H. (Morgantown, WV)

    2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method, system, and apparatus for conducting real-time monitoring of flow (airflow for example) in a system (a hybrid power generation system for example) is disclosed. The method, system and apparatus measure at least flow direction and velocity with minimal pressure drop and fast response. The apparatus comprises an ion source and a multi-directional collection device proximate the ion source. The ion source is configured to generate charged species (electrons and ions for example). The multi-directional collection source is configured to determine the direction and velocity of the flow in real-time.

  16. Pressurized Testing of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Stacks with Advanced Electrode-Supported Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. O'Brien; X. Zhang; G. K. Housley; K. DeWall; L. Moore-McAteer; G. Tao

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new facility has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for pressurized testing of solid oxide electrolysis stacks. Pressurized operation is envisioned for large-scale hydrogen production plants, yielding higher overall efficiencies when the hydrogen product is to be delivered at elevated pressure for tank storage or pipelines. Pressurized operation also supports higher mass flow rates of the process gases with smaller components. The test stand can accommodate cell dimensions up to 8.5 cm x 8.5 cm and stacks of up to 25 cells. The pressure boundary for these tests is a water-cooled spool-piece pressure vessel designed for operation up to 5 MPa. The stack is internally manifolded and operates in cross-flow with an inverted-U flow pattern. Feed-throughs for gas inlets/outlets, power, and instrumentation are all located in the bottom flange. The entire spool piece, with the exception of the bottom flange, can be lifted to allow access to the internal furnace and test fixture. Lifting is accomplished with a motorized threaded drive mechanism attached to a rigid structural frame. Stack mechanical compression is accomplished using springs that are located inside of the pressure boundary, but outside of the hot zone. Initial stack heatup and performance characterization occurs at ambient pressure followed by lowering and sealing of the pressure vessel and subsequent pressurization. Pressure equalization between the anode and cathode sides of the cells and the stack surroundings is ensured by combining all of the process gases downstream of the stack. Steady pressure is maintained by means of a backpressure regulator and a digital pressure controller. A full description of the pressurized test apparatus is provided in this paper.

  17. Cite this: Lab Chip, 2013, 13, 2922 Rapid fabrication of pressure-driven open-channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    Cite this: Lab Chip, 2013, 13, 2922 Rapid fabrication of pressure-driven open-channel microfluidic of pressure-driven, open-channel microfluidic systems with lateral dimensions of 45­300 microns carved to control fluid flow. Introduction Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (mPADs),1­7 in which aqueous

  18. Intracranial Pressure Variation Associated with Changes in End-Tidal CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Intracranial Pressure Variation Associated with Changes in End-Tidal CO2 Sunghan Kim, James Mc that the partial pressure of arterial CO2 (PaCO2) can affect cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, and therefore ICP. The end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) is usually monitored by clinicians as a proxy for PaCO2. We show

  19. Wear damage resulting from sliding impact kinematics in pressurized high temperature water: energetical and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Wear damage resulting from sliding impact kinematics in pressurized high temperature water.bec@ec-lyon.fr Abstract Specific wear of Rod Cluster Control Assemblies (RCCA) in Pressurized Water nuclear Reactors (PWR) results from contacts with their guides due to flow induced vibration. Particular sliding impact contact

  20. Engine with hydraulic fuel injection and ABS circuit using a single high pressure pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An engine system comprises a hydraulically actuated fuel injection system and an ABS circuit connected via a fluid flow passage that provides hydraulic fluid to both the fuel injection system and to the ABS circuit. The hydraulically actuated system includes a high pressure pump. The fluid control passage is in fluid communication with an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  1. Interior Duct Wall Pressure Downstream of a Low-Speed Scott C. Morris

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso, Juan J.

    Interior Duct Wall Pressure Downstream of a Low-Speed Rotor Scott C. Morris , David B. Stephens The region downstream of a ducted rotor has been experimentally investigated in terms of its wake the description of the flow field and wall pressure in the region downstream of the rotor. Measurements involving

  2. Flowfield and wall pressure characteristics downstream of a boundary layer suction device.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tinney, Charles E.

    Flowfield and wall pressure characteristics downstream of a boundary layer suction device. Meagan A-dimensional slit can significantly reduce the fluctuating wall pressure immediately downstream of the suction slit momentum regions of the flow with the wall at the downstream edge of the suction slit. The third region

  3. Convective heat transfer characteristics of China RP-3 aviation kerosene at supercritical pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zhixiong "James"

    Convective heat transfer characteristics of China RP-3 aviation kerosene at supercritical pressure Keywords: Supercritical pressure Aviation kerosene Convective heat transfer Numerical study a b s t r a c convective in kerosene pipe flow is complicated. Here the convective heat transfer characteristics of China

  4. Submarine landslide flows simulation through centrifuge modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gue, Chang Shin

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    ......... 140   4.6.4   Series 4: Experiments at various g le vels with a large flow rate in the dry condition ........................................................................................ 148   4.7   Repeatability of the Centrifuge Experiments... .......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188   5.5.4   Side wall friction ..................................................................................189   5.5.5   Basal friction and pore pressure ratio ( ? ) ............................................ 194   5.6   Summary...

  5. Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylva, D. M.

    Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction is a technical paper that addresses the operating and economic advantages associated with the program to lower the steam operating pressure. Evaluation of a testing program will be discussed. The paper...

  6. PARAMETER AND SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION FOR FLUID FLOW IN UNDERGROUND RESERVOIRS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewing, Richard E.

    associated with two seem­ ingly disparate applications: production of petroleum and the remediation of water procedures associated with injection and production wells. Equations to describe the flow of fluids in porous. Such data can include pressure and flow rates of various fluid phases obtained during production, or during

  7. Flow and evaporation in single micrometer and nanometer scale pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velasco, A. E.; Yang, C.; Siwy, Z. S.; Taborek, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine 92697 (United States); Toimil-Molares, M. E. [Department of Materials Science, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We report measurements of pressure driven flow of fluids entering vacuum through a single pipe of micrometer or nanometer scale diameter. Nanopores were fabricated by etching a single ion track in polymer or mica foils. A calibrated mass spectrometer was used to measure the flow rates of nitrogen and helium through pipes with diameter ranging from 10??m to 31?nm. The flow of gaseous and liquid nitrogen was studied near 77?K, while the flow of helium was studied from the lambda point (2.18?K) to above the critical point (5.2?K). Flow rates were controlled by changing the pressure drop across the pipe in the range 0–31 atm. When the pressure in the pipe reached the saturated vapor pressure, an abrupt flow transition was observed. A simple viscous flow model is used to determine the position of the liquid/vapor interface in the pipe. The observed mass flow rates are consistent with no slip boundary conditions.

  8. Investigating Flow-Structure Interactions in Cerebral Aneurysms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2014-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Visualization of blood flow in a cerebral aneurysm. Streamlines (colored by fluid velocity magnitude) reveal the complexity of the flow, isocontours of vorticity show blood vortex structures (colored by pressure), and the flexible arterial wall is colored by the stress magnitude, where regions in red indicate areas of high stress.

  9. Nitrogen at very high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nellis, W.J.

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-pressure results for nitrogen are reviewed and discussed in terms of phenomena that occur at extreme conditions.

  10. Pressure Data Within BOP- ODS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This file describes the components within the BOP and the pressure readings taken during diagnostic operations on May 25.

  11. Pressure Data Within BOP- XLS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This file describes the components within the BOP and the pressure readings taken during diagnostic operations on May 25.

  12. Investigation of flow in vane-island diffusers in centrifugal compressors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vandijk, Hanne Nicolaas

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Boundary slope variation along the channel 46 US. Pressure recovery coefficient (B;1 Pressure Ratio) 31 Uaned diffuser geometry 53 ix NOMENCLATURE ~Smbo1 ~tl i ti A, B, C Cf Constants Vane height Coefficient of friction Cp Pressure recovery (with... Flow reOions of the vaned diffuser because the flow path changes from a rotating system into a stationary system. This complex unsteady flow is strongly affected by the jet-wake flow [1] leaving the impeller, Fig. 4, the three-dimensional boundary...

  13. Blood Pressure Medicine: Special Instructions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Blood Pressure Medicine: Special Instructions: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute · What is my blood pressure reading in numbers? · What is my goal blood pressure? · Is there a healthy eating plan that I should follow to help

  14. Iterative methods for solving the pressure problem at multiphase filtration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vabishchevich, P

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Applied problems of oil and gas recovery are studied numerically using the mathematical models of multiphase fluid flows in porous media. The basic model includes the continuity equations and the Darcy laws for each phase, as well as the algebraic expression for the sum of saturations. Primary computational algorithms are implemented for such problems using the pressure equation. In this paper, we highlight the basic properties of the pressure problem and discuss the necessity of their fulfillment at the discrete level. The resulting elliptic problem for the pressure equation is characterized by a non-selfadjoint operator. Possibilities of approximate solving the elliptic problem are considered using the iterative methods. Special attention is given to the numerical algorithms for calculating the pressure on parallel computers.

  15. Air flow characteristics of dry and liquid loaded packed and fluidized systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millsap, George Wayne

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acknowledgnent s List of Tables List of Figures Introduction Description of s Fluidised Bed Obgectives Application 1 2 3 Description of Apparatus Test Procedure Preparation of Bed Material Beds With Upward Flow of Air Beds With Upward Flow of Air... obgectives of thi ~ investigation were: (1) to deternine the air flow-pressure drop relationships in a dry bed of unifornly sised spherical particles in both the packed and fluidised regines of air flow; (3) to deternine under the sane air flow conditions...

  16. LES of the adverse-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer M. Inoue a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marusic, Ivan

    at the University of Melbourne wind tunnel where a plate section with zero pressure gradient is followed by section accurate simulations, for example, of separated flow on the wings of airplanes or for flow through turbine such as the amplified wake of the mean velocity profile and the increasing turbulence intensity in the outer region

  17. Air and water flows in a large sand box with a two-layer aquifer system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    Air and water flows in a large sand box with a two-layer aquifer system Xingxing Kuang & Jiu Jimmy negative air pressure can be generated in the vadose zone during pumping. The negative air pressure. The initial water-table depth has a significant effect on the generated negative air pressure. The shallower

  18. Study of casing treatment effects in axial flow compressors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiller, Robert Neil

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to in- creased tip leakage between shroud and blade tip. Figure (I) shows a typical performance curve for an axial flow compressor. Note that as pressure ratio increases, the operating 'range between surge and stall is decreased, there by reducing... the surge to stall margin of the axial flow compressor. REFERENCES I 1 ~ 4 Koch, C. C. , "Experimental Evaluation of Outer Case Blowing or Bleeding of Single Stage Axial Flow Compressor". , Part IV. Rep. R 69AEG256, General Electric Co. , (NASA CR...

  19. High-pressure neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Hongwu [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This lecture will cover progress and prospect of applications of high-pressure neutron diffraction techniques to Earth and materials sciences. I will first introduce general high-pressure research topics and available in-situ high-pressure techniques. Then I'll talk about high-pressure neutron diffraction techniques using two types of pressure cells: fluid-driven and anvil-type cells. Lastly, I will give several case studies using these techniques, particularly, those on hydrogen-bearing materials and magnetic transitions.

  20. Soot formation and temperature field structure in laminar propane-air diffusion flames at elevated pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bento, Decio S.; Guelder, OEmer L. [Institute for Aerospace Studies, University of Toronto, 4925 Dufferin Street, Toronto, ON M3H 5T6 (Canada); Thomson, Kevin A. [National Research Council, ICPET Combustion Technology, 1200 Montreal Road M-9, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of pressure on soot formation and the structure of the temperature field was studied in coflow propane-air laminar diffusion flames over the pressure range of 0.1 to 0.73 MPa in a high-pressure combustion chamber. The fuel flow rate was selected so that the soot was completely oxidized within the visible flame and the flame was stable at all pressures. Spectral soot emission was used to measure radially resolved soot volume fraction and soot temperature as a function of pressure. Additional soot volume fraction measurements were made at selected heights using line-of-sight light attenuation. Soot concentration values from these two techniques agreed to within 30% and both methods exhibited similar trends in the spatial distribution of soot concentration. Maximum line-of-sight soot concentration along the flame centerline scaled with pressure; the pressure exponent was about 1.4 for pressures between 0.2 and 0.73 MPa. Peak carbon conversion to soot, defined as the percentage of fuel carbon content converted to soot, also followed a power-law dependence on pressure, where the pressure exponent was near to unity for pressures between 0.2 and 0.73 MPa. Soot temperature measurements indicated that the overall temperatures decreased with increasing pressure; however, the temperature gradients increased with increasing pressure. (author)

  1. Reversing Flow Test Facility. Technical report, March 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, P.D.

    1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Reversing Flow Test Facility (RFTF) is intended for the study of fluid flow and heat transfer under the reversing-flow conditions that occur in Stirling engines. the facility consists of four major parts: (1) Mechanical Drive - two cylinders with cam-driven pistons which generate the reversing gas flow, (2) Test Section - a U-shaped section containing instrumented test pieces, (3) Instruments -l high-speed transducers for measuring gas pressure and temperature, piston positions, and other system parameters, and (4) Data Acquisition System - a computer-based system able to acquire, store, display and analyze the data from the instruments. The RFTF can operate at pressures up to 8.0 MPa, hot-side temperatures to 800/sup 0/C, and flow-reversal frequencies to 50 Hz. Operation to data has used helium as the working gas at pressures of 3.0 and 6.0 MPa, at ambient temperature, and at frequencies from 1 to 50 Hz. The results show that both frictional and inertial parts of the pressure drop are significant in the heater, coolers and connecting tubes; the inertial part is negligible in the regenerators. In all cases, the frictional part of the pressure drop is nearly in phase with the mass flow. 18 refs., 22 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. Device for measuring the flow of a gas containing particulates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, R.G.; Hofer, P.H.

    1991-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an apparatus for continuously measuring the flow of a gas containing entrained particulates. It comprises: a flow channel, through which the gas flows; an orifice disposed within the flow channel, including at least a first surface and a second surface; means for causing the first surface and second surface independently to move in directions perpendicular to lines normal to the surfaces; scraping means, for intimately contacting at least a portion of the first surface and of the second surface, at all times while the surfaces are moving, whereby particulates which adhere to the first and second surfaces are removed by the movement of the surfaces past the scraping means; pressure taps, positioned so as to communicate with the flow channel upstream and downstream from the orifice, the pressure taps additionally in communication with pressure-measuring means, for measuring the pressure differential in the flow channel resulting from the passage of the gas through the orifice; and thermophoretic heaters, positioned so as to heat the gas within the pressure taps, and thereby excluding particulates therefrom.

  3. The effects of damage in and around a fracture upon the analysis of pressure data from low permeability gas wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, Thomas Lee

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Buildup Data for a 100 Foot Fracture in an Unbounded Reservoir 15 16 Horner Plot of Pressure Buildup Data for a 100 Foot Fracture in an Unbounded Reservoir--Closure and non- Darcy Flow Included 17 Horner Plot of Pressure Buildup Data for a 100 Foot... Fracture in an Unbounded Reservoir--Closure and non- Darcy Flow Included--500 MCFPD Rate 18 10 Horner Plot of Pressure Buildup Data for a 100 Foot Fracture in an Unbounded Reservoir--Closure and non- Darcy Flow Included--1000 MCFPD Rate...

  4. Method for reducing pressure drop through filters, and filter exhibiting reduced pressure drop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sappok, Alexander; Wong, Victor

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for generating and applying coatings to filters with porous material in order to reduce large pressure drop increases as material accumulates in a filter, as well as the filter exhibiting reduced and/or more uniform pressure drop. The filter can be a diesel particulate trap for removing particulate matter such as soot from the exhaust of a diesel engine. Porous material such as ash is loaded on the surface of the substrate or filter walls, such as by coating, depositing, distributing or layering the porous material along the channel walls of the filter in an amount effective for minimizing or preventing depth filtration during use of the filter. Efficient filtration at acceptable flow rates is achieved.

  5. High-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardt, D.E.; Lee, S.G.

    1996-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace for stream welding applications includes a metal mass contained in a crucible having an orifice. A power source charges an electrode for generating an arc between the electrode and the mass. The arc heats the metal mass to a molten state. A pressurized gas source propels the molten metal mass through the crucible orifice in a continuous stream. As the metal is ejected, a metal feeder replenishes the molten metal bath. A control system regulates the electrode current, shielding gas pressure, and metal source to provide a continuous flow of molten metal at the crucible orifice. Independent control over the electrode current and shield gas pressure decouples the metal flow temperature and the molten metal flow rate, improving control over resultant weld characteristics. 4 figs.

  6. High-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardt, David E. (Concord, MA); Lee, Steven G. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace for stream welding applications includes a metal mass contained in a crucible having an orifice. A power source charges an electrode for generating an arc between the electrode and the mass. The arc heats the metal mass to a molten state. A pressurized gas source propels the molten metal mass through the crucible orifice in a continuous stream. As the metal is ejected, a metal feeder replenishes the molten metal bath. A control system regulates the electrode current, shielding gas pressure, and metal source to provide a continuous flow of molten metal at the crucible orifice. Independent control over the electrode current and shield gas pressure decouples the metal flow temperature and the molten metal flow rate, improving control over resultant weld characteristics.

  7. Theoretical collapse pressures for two pressurized torispherical heads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalnins, A.; Updike, D.P. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Rana, M.D. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Research and Development Dept.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to determine the pressures at which real torispherical heads fail upon a single application of pressure, two heads were pressurized in recent Praxair tests, and displacements and strains were recorded at various locations. In this paper, theoretical results for the two test heads are presented in the form of curves of pressure versus crown deflections, using the available geometry and material parameters. From these curves, limit and collapse pressures are calculated, using procedures permitted by the ASME B and PV Code Section 8/Div.2. These pressures are shown to vary widely, depending on the method and model used to calculate them. The effect of no stress relief on the behavior of the Praxair test heads is also evaluated and found to be of no significance for neither the objectives of the tests nor the objectives of this paper. The results of this paper are submitted as an enhancement to the experimental results recorded during the Praxair tests.

  8. A new precision flow calorimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Mark Gezer

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . THE REFERENCE FLUID CIRCUIT (The Thermo-Syphon System) 2. THE SAMPLE FLUID CIRCUIT 11 17 CALORIMETER AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT 1. BAYONET SYSTEM 2. MATCHING HEATER 3. PRESSURE TRANSDUCER 4. VACUUM SYSTEM 5. MAGNETIC STIRRER 6. METERING PUMP 20 25 25 31... Circuit (Thermo-Syphon System) Detail 12 4 A Typical Cycle of Thermo-Syphon System on a PT Diagram of Freon&-11 13 5 The Reference Fluid Circuit Simplified 14 6 The Sample Fluid Flow System 7 Calorimeter Detail 21 8 Bayonet System Detail 9 Copper...

  9. Heat transfer and flow characteristics of cooling channels in turbine blades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Amit

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    /mass transfer distributions were determined for straight flow' through a pin fin channel (H/D = 1, S/D = X/D = 2. 5) and a flow through the pin fin channel with trailing edge flow ejection. The overall friction factor and local pressure drop results were... obtained for various configurations and lengths (L/d = 2 and 20) of the trailing edge ejection holes, From the pressure drop data, the radial mass flow rate and the mass flow rates through trailing edge ejection holes were calculated. The results show...

  10. Cradle and pressure grippers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muniak, John E. (New York, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gripper that is designed to incorporate the functions of gripping, supporting and pressure tongs into one device. The gripper has two opposing finger sections with interlocking fingers that incline and taper to form a wedge. The interlocking fingers are vertically off-set so that the opposing finger sections may close together allowing the inclined, tapered tips of the fingers to extend beyond the plane defined by the opposing finger section's engagement surface. The range of motion defined by the interlocking relationship of the finger sections allows the gripper to grab, lift and support objects of varying size and shape. The gripper has one stationary and one moveable finger section. Power is provided to the moveable finger section by an actuating device enabling the gripper to close around an object to be lifted. A lifting bail is attached to the gripper and is supported by a crane that provides vertical lift.

  11. Author's personal copy Numerical study of interference between simple-shape bodies in hypersonic flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riabov, Vladimir V.

    2008 Available online 3 December 2008 Keywords: Hypersonic rarefied-gas flows Direct simulation Monte-Carlo method Flow interference Simple-shape bodies Toroidal balloon a b s t r a c t Hypersonic rarefied-gas, the configuration of subsonic flow zones), skin friction, pressure distribu- tion, lift, and drag have been found. Ó

  12. Analytical solution to the Riemann problem of three-phase flow in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    media. The model uses the common multiphase flow extension of Darcy's equation, and does not include of the common multiphase extension of Darcy's equation [33]. When the fractional flow approach is used, flow of three immiscible incompressible fluids is described by a pressure equation (whose solution is trivial

  13. Prediction of Riser Carbon Macrosegregation due to Shrinkage Flow in Steel Casting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    1 Prediction of Riser Carbon Macrosegregation due to Shrinkage Flow in Steel Casting Kent D of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 Abstract A new simulation model is developed that predicts carbon predicted with a new advanced feeding flow model that predicts melt pressure, feeding flow and porosity

  14. Stopping Cooling Flows with Jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrizio Brighenti; William G. Mathews

    2006-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe 2D gasdynamical models of jets that carry mass as well as energy to the hot gas in galaxy clusters. These flows have many attractive attributes for solving the galaxy cluster cooling flow problem: Why the hot gas temperature and density profiles resemble cooling flows but show no spectral evidence of cooling to low temperatures. Using an approximate model for the cluster A1795, we show that mass-carrying jets can reduce the overall cooling rate to or below the low values implied by X-ray spectra. Biconical subrelativistic jets, described with several ad hoc parameters, are assumed to be activated when gas flows toward or cools near a central supermassive black hole. As the jets proceed out from the center they entrain more and more ambient gas. The jets lose internal pressure by expansion and are compressed by the ambient cluster gas, becoming rather difficult to observe. For a wide variety of initial jet parameters and several feedback scenarios the global cooling can be suppressed for many Gyrs while maintaining cluster temperature profiles similar to those observed. The intermittancy of the feedback generates multiple generations of X-ray cavities similar to those observed in the Perseus Cluster and elsewhere.

  15. Low volume flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meixler, Lewis D. (East Windsor, NJ)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The low flow monitor provides a means for determining if a fluid flow meets a minimum threshold level of flow. The low flow monitor operates with a minimum of intrusion by the flow detection device into the flow. The electrical portion of the monitor is externally located with respect to the fluid stream which allows for repairs to the monitor without disrupting the flow. The electronics provide for the adjustment of the threshold level to meet the required conditions. The apparatus can be modified to provide an upper limit to the flow monitor by providing for a parallel electronic circuit which provides for a bracketing of the desired flow rate.

  16. Steam Oxidation at High Pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL; Carney, Casey [URS

    2013-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A first high pressure test was completed: 293 hr at 267 bar and 670{degrees}C; A parallel 1 bar test was done for comparison; Mass gains were higher for all alloys at 267 bar than at 1 bar; Longer term exposures, over a range of temperatures and pressures, are planned to provide information as to the commercial implications of pressure effects; The planned tests are at a higher combination of temperatures and pressures than in the existing literature. A comparison was made with longer-term literature data: The short term exposures are largely consistent with the longer-term corrosion literature; Ferritic steels--no consistent pressure effect; Austenitic steels--fine grain alloys less able to maintain protective chromia scale as pressure increases; Ni-base alloys--more mass gains above 105 bar than below. Not based on many data points.

  17. High Pressure Hydrogen Materials Compatibility of Piezoelectric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pressure Hydrogen Materials Compatibility of Piezoelectric Films. High Pressure Hydrogen Materials Compatibility of Piezoelectric Films. Abstract: Abstract: Hydrogen is being...

  18. Flow Split Venturi, Axially-Rotated Valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walrath, David E. (Laramie, WY); Lindberg, William R. (Laramie, WY); Burgess, Robert K. (Sheridan, WY); LaBelle, James (Murrieta, CA)

    2000-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides an axially-rotated valve which permits increased flow rates and lower pressure drop (characterized by a lower loss coefficient) by using an axial eccentric split venturi with two portions where at least one portion is rotatable with respect to the other portion. The axially-rotated valve typically may be designed to avoid flow separation and/or cavitation at full flow under a variety of conditions. Similarly, the valve is designed, in some embodiments, to produce streamlined flow within the valve. An axially aligned outlet may also increase the flow efficiency. A typical cross section of the eccentric split venturi may be non-axisymmetric such as a semicircular cross section which may assist in both throttling capabilities and in maximum flow capacity using the design of the present invention. Such a design can include applications for freeze resistant axially-rotated valves and may be fully-opened and fully-closed in one-half of a complete rotation. An internal wide radius elbow typically connected to a rotatable portion of the eccentric venturi may assist in directing flow with lower friction losses. A valve actuator may actuate in an axial manner yet be uniquely located outside of the axial flow path to further reduce friction losses. A seal may be used between the two portions that may include a peripheral and diametrical seal in the same plane. A seal separator may increase the useful life of the seal between the fixed and rotatable portions.

  19. To estimate vapor pressure easily

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Yang, H.C. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (USA))

    1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor pressures as functions of temperature for approximately 700 major organic chemical compounds are given. The tabulation also gives the temperature range for which the data are applicable. Minimum and maximum temperatures are denoted by TMIN and TMAX. The Antoine equation that correlates vapor pressure as a function of temperature is described. A representative comparison of calculated and actual data values for vapor pressure is shown for ethyl alcohol. The coefficient tabulation is based on both literature (experimental data) and estimated values.

  20. Thermally-driven flows between a Leidenfrost solid and a ratchet surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardt, Steffen; Baier, Tobias

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The significance of thermally-driven flows for the propulsion of Leidenfrost solids on a ratchet surface is studied based on a numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation. In contrast to a previous analysis, it is found that no significant thermal creep flow is established. Instead, the flow pattern is dominated by thermal edge and thermal-stress slip flow, the latter being directed opposite to thermal creep flow. However, in total thermally-induced flows only make a minor contribution to the propulsion of Leidenfrost solids on ratchet surfaces which is dominated by the pressure-driven flow due to the sublimating solid.

  1. Rotating diffuser for pressure recovery in a steam cooling circuit of a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eldrid, Sacheverel Q. (Saratoga Springs, NY); Salamah, Samir A. (Niskayuna, NY); DeStefano, Thomas Daniel (Ballston Lake, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The buckets of a gas turbine are steam-cooled via a bore tube assembly having concentric supply and spent cooling steam return passages rotating with the rotor. A diffuser is provided in the return passage to reduce the pressure drop. In a combined cycle system, the spent return cooling steam with reduced pressure drop is combined with reheat steam from a heat recovery steam generator for flow to the intermediate pressure turbine. The exhaust steam from the high pressure turbine of the combined cycle unit supplies cooling steam to the supply conduit of the gas turbine.

  2. Pressure testing of torispherical heads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rana, M.D. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Research and Development Dept.; Kalnins, A.; Updike, D.P. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two vessels fabricated from SA516-70 steel with 6% knuckle radius torispherical heads were tested under internal pressure to failure. The D/t ratios of Vessel 1 and Vessel 2 were 238 and 185 respectively. The calculated maximum allowable working pressures of Vessel 1 and 2 heads using the ASME Section 8, Div. 1 rules and measured dimensions were 85 and 110 psi, respectively. Vessel 1 failed at a nozzle weld in the cylindrical shell at 700 psi pressure. Neither buckling nor any other objectionable deformation of the head was observed at a theoretical double-elastic-slope collapse pressure of 241 and a calculated buckling pressure of 270 psi. Buckles were observed developing slowly after 600 psi pressure, and a total of 22 buckles were observed after the test, having the maximum amplitude of 0.15 inch. Vessel 2 failed at the edge of the longitudinal weld of the cylindrical shell at 1,080 psi pressure. Neither buckling nor any other objectionable deformation of the head was observed up to the final pressure, which exceeded the theoretical double-elastic-slope collapse and calculated buckling pressures of 274 psi and 342 psi, respectively.

  3. An improved model for flashing flow in short tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilton, J.D.; Kornhauser, A.A. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Short tube restrictors are commonly used as expansion devices in refrigeration and heat pumping systems. Flashing flow through short tubes is choked, i.e. independent of downstream conditions. Flow rate is typically predicted by empirically correcting the flow rate of compressed liquid from upstream pressure to saturation pressure at upstream temperature. The empirical correction factors depend on pressure and temperature, on short tube geometry, and on the refrigerant used. This work extends and improves a model of short tube flow based on the physics of the observed flow phenomena. Short tube flow is believed to consist of a core of superheated liquid surrounded by an annulus of vapor. Evaporation is driven by heat transfer form the core to tine interface, and the flow is choked by the evaporated vapor. Flow rate is modeled by calculating the heat transfer rate, the evaporation rate, and the choking effect of the vapor. The model attempts to improve on previous work by improving the accuracy with which thermodynamic properties are approximated, by improving the heat transfer model, and by including the effects of frictional heating of the liquid. In comparisons with experimental data it is found that the improved thermodynamic modeling increases accuracy, but the change to the heat transfer model reduces accuracy. For the data examined the effects of the frictional heating are small. The heat transfer model is based on an existing analytic solution with a mixing-length turbulence model. It appears that this model must be further improved, perhaps through empirical modification.

  4. Rarefaction wave in relativistic steady magnetohydrodynamic flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sapountzis, Konstantinos, E-mail: ksapountzis@phys.uoa.gr; Vlahakis, Nektarios, E-mail: vlahakis@phys.uoa.gr [Faculty of Physics, University of Athens, 15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct and analyze a model of the relativistic steady-state magnetohydrodynamic rarefaction that is induced when a planar symmetric flow (with one ignorable Cartesian coordinate) propagates under a steep drop of the external pressure profile. Using the method of self-similarity, we derive a system of ordinary differential equations that describe the flow dynamics. In the specific limit of an initially homogeneous flow, we also provide analytical results and accurate scaling laws. We consider that limit as a generalization of the previous Newtonian and hydrodynamic solutions already present in the literature. The model includes magnetic field and bulk flow speed having all components, whose role is explored with a parametric study.

  5. Bacteria in shear flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcos, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria are ubiquitous and play a critical role in many contexts. Their environment is nearly always dynamic due to the prevalence of fluid flow: creeping flow in soil, highly sheared flow in bodily conduits, and turbulent ...

  6. Dispersed flow film boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoder, Graydon L.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dispersed flow consists of small liquid droplets entrained in a flowing vapor. This flow regime can occur in cryogenic equipment, in steam generators, and during nuclear reactor loss of coolant accidents. A theoretical ...

  7. Device and method for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, M.G.; Boucher, T.J.

    1998-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow. 1 fig.

  8. Integrating Biomechanics, Hemodynamics, and Vascular Adaptation to Relate Mechanisms of Vascular Adaptation to Arterial Pulsatile Pressure in Health and Disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Phuc Hoang

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    local changes in pulsatile blood pressures and flows lead to changes in local endothelial shear stress and circumferential wall stress. The field of mechanobiology has identified how local changes in wall circumferential stress and endothelial shear...

  9. SPE INTERNATIONAL STUDENT PAPER CONTEST A Sequential Explicit-Implicit Algorithm for Computing Discontinuous Flows in Porous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    et al. [1] uses Darcy's law for the volumetric flow rates. The flow equations are manipulated mathematically to form a pressure equation and a modified equation of phase mass conservation. It has been shown that the pressure equation is elliptic and that the component-conservation equations are hyperbolic in the absence

  10. Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Schoeniger, Luke (Pittsford, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

  11. Possible Pressure Effect for Superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Kwang-Hua Chu

    2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We make an estimate of the possible range of $\\Delta T_c$ induced by high-pressure effects in post-metallic superconductors by using the theory of {\\it extended irreversible/reversible thermodynamics} and Pippard's length scale. The relationship between the increment of the superconducting temperature and the increase of the pressure is parabolic.

  12. Investigation of pressure drop in capillary tube for mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardhapurkar, P. M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, MS 400 076 India and S. S. G. M. College of Engineering Shegaon, MS 444 203 (India); Sridharan, Arunkumar; Atrey, M. D. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, MS 400 076 (India)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A capillary tube is commonly used in small capacity refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. It is also a preferred expansion device in mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR J-T) cryocoolers, since it is inexpensive and simple in configuration. However, the flow inside a capillary tube is complex, since flashing process that occurs in case of refrigeration and air-conditioning systems is metastable. A mixture of refrigerants such as nitrogen, methane, ethane, propane and iso-butane expands below its inversion temperature in the capillary tube of MR J-T cryocooler and reaches cryogenic temperature. The mass flow rate of refrigerant mixture circulating through capillary tube depends on the pressure difference across it. There are many empirical correlations which predict pressure drop across the capillary tube. However, they have not been tested for refrigerant mixtures and for operating conditions of the cryocooler. The present paper assesses the existing empirical correlations for predicting overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the MR J-T cryocooler. The empirical correlations refer to homogeneous as well as separated flow models. Experiments are carried out to measure the overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the cooler. Three different compositions of refrigerant mixture are used to study the pressure drop variations. The predicted overall pressure drop across the capillary tube is compared with the experimentally obtained value. The predictions obtained using homogeneous model show better match with the experimental results compared to separated flow models.

  13. Measurement of steam quality in two-phase critical flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinclair, John William

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    flow orifice meter 4 Vapor-phase orifice meter 5 Steam quality adjustment valves 6 Critical flow test section 12 13 15 17 7 Two-phase mixture vent to atmosphere passage through test section 8 Fluke data logger 9 Condenser apparatus 18 21...-water 15 Steam quality as a function of vapor-phase Reynolds number for critical flow of steam-water . . . . . . . . , . . . . 48 16 Steam quality as a function of pressure measured upstream from critical flow orifice 17 Steam quality as a function...

  14. Stereoscopic PIV measurements of swirling flow entering a catalyst substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Persoons, T. [Trinity College Dublin, Mechanical Engineering Department, Parsons Building, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Vanierschot, M.; Van den Bulck, E. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This experimental study investigates the stagnation region of a swirling flow entering an automotive catalyst substrate. A methodology is established using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) to determine three-component velocity distributions up to 0.2 mm from the catalyst entrance face. In adverse conditions of strong out-of-plane velocity, PIV operating parameters are adjusted for maximum spatial correlation strength. The measurement distance to the catalyst is sufficiently small to observe radial flow spreading. A scaling analysis of the stagnation flow region provides a model for the flow uniformization as a function of the catalyst pressure drop. (author)

  15. Balanced pressure gerotor fuel pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raney, Michael Raymond; Maier, Eugen

    2004-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A gerotor pump for pressurizing gasoline fuel is capable of developing pressures up to 2.0 MPa with good mechanical and volumetric efficiency and satisfying the durability requirements for an automotive fuel pump. The pump has been designed with optimized clearances and by including features that promote the formation of lubricating films of pressurized fuel. Features of the improved pump include the use of a shadow port in the side plate opposite the outlet port to promote balancing of high fuel pressures on the opposite sides of the rotors. Inner and outer rotors have predetermined side clearances with the clearances of the outer rotor being greater than those of the inner rotor in order to promote fuel pressure balance on the sides of the outer rotor. Support of the inner rotor and a drive shaft on a single bushing with bearing sleeves maintains concentricity. Additional features are disclosed.

  16. Low-pressure debris dispersal from scaled reactor cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, R.T.; Tarbell, W.W.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During a severe nuclear reactor accident, degradation of the core may result in debris accumulating in the lower head. Upon failure of the head, the melt may be ejected under pressure through the cavity and into the containment building. Under low system pressure conditions, understanding the mechanisms of debris dispersal is instrumental in assessing the response of the containment to pressurized melt ejection. Current analytical approaches rely on empirical correlations for debris entrainment criteria and very simple gas flow patterns in the cavity. The work reported here is directed toward performing scaled experiments that will develop a data base for refined scaling analyses. Subsequently, extrapolations from the analyses to reactor scale may be performed to provide insight for accident predictions. Mechanistic models for gas flow through the cavity and entrainment of the debris are also being developed from the results presented here. The objective of the test matrix is to vary key parameters to assess the effect on the physical processes of dispersal of the melt from the reactor cavity at low system pressures.

  17. The Streaming Potential Generated by Flow of Wet Steam in Capillary Tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsden, S.S. Jr.; Tyran, Craig K.

    1986-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    For a constant pressure differential, the flow of wet steam generated electric potentials which increased with time and did not reach equilibrium values. These potentials were found to increase to values greater than 100 volts. The reason for this kind of potential build-up behavior was the presence of tiny flowing water slugs which were interspersed with electrically nonconductive steam vapor slugs. The measured electric potential for wet steam increased with pressure differential, but the relationship was not linear. The increase in potential with pressure drop was attributed both to an increase in fluid flow rate and changes in the wet steam quality.

  18. Fluid flow control with transformation media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urzhumov, Yaroslav A

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a new concept for the manipulation of fluid flow around three-dimensional bodies. Inspired by transformation optics, the concept is based on a mathematical idea of coordinate transformations, and physically implemented with anisotropic porous media permeable to the flow of fluids. In two different situations - for an impermeable object situated either in a free-flowing fluid or in a fluid-filled porous medium - we show that the object can be coated with a properly chosen inhomogeneous, anisotropic permeable medium, such as to preserve the streamlines of flow and the pressure distribution that would have existed in the absence of the object. The proposed fluid flow cloak completely eliminates any disturbance of the flow by the object, including the downstream wake. Consequently, the structure helps prevent the onset of turbulence by keeping the flow laminar even above the typical critical Reynolds number for the object of the same shape and size. The cloak also cancels the viscous drag force. This...

  19. Flow Metering and Oxygen Trim Control Reduce Dairy Steam Plant Fuel Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foster, E. L.; Nelson, R. L.

    FLOW METERING AND OXYGEN TRIM CONTROL REDUCE DAIRY STEAM PLANT FUEL COSTS Edward L. Foster, Plant Engineer, Dairy Farm Products, Orrville Ohio Robert L. Nelson, Manager Engineering, Westinghouse Combustion Control DiVision, Orrville, Ohio... boiler loads. A Westinghouse Hagan Ring' Balance integrating flow meter was selected for natural gas flow measurement and Westinghouse Veritrak differential pressure transmitters with remote round chart recorders were selected for steam flow...

  20. Transient Flow in a Heterogeneous Vadose Zone with Uncertain Parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. M. Tartakovsky; Luis Garcia-Naranjo; Daniel M. Tartakovsky

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider transient flow in unsaturated heterogeneous porous media with uncertain hydraulic parameters. Our aim is to provide unbiased predictions (estimates) of system states, such as pressure head, water content, and fluxes, and to quantify the uncertainty associated with such predictions. We achieve this goal by treating hydraulic parameters as random fields and the corresponding flow equations as stochastic. Current stochastic analyses of transient flow in partially saturated soils require linearization of the constitutive relations, which may lead to significant inaccuracies when these relations are highly nonlinear. If relative conductivity and saturation vary exponentially with pressure and the corresponding scaling parameters are random variables, the transient Richards equation is mapped onto a linear equation by means of the Kirchhoff transformation. This allows us to develop deterministic differential equations for the first and second ensemble moments of pressure and saturation. We solve these equations analytically, for vertical infiltration, and compare them with direct Monte Carlo simulations.

  1. Investigating the changes in matrix and fracture properties and fluid flow under different stress-state conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muralidharan, Vivek

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    pressure of 500 psi................................................................33 3.16 The average flow rate comparison between laboratory and simulation results at 5 cc/min and each different overburden pressure.............................35... .........................................................................................................87 xiii FIGURE Pa ge 5.28 Sample scans taken along the length of the core with 500 psi overburden pressure...

  2. Manifestation of constrained dynamics in a low pressure spark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auluck, S K H

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some features of neutron emission from dense plasma focus suggest that the participating deuterons have energy in the range of 105 eV and have a directionality of toroidal motion. Theoretical models of these devices assume that the plasma evolves through a purely irrotational flow and thus fail to predict such solenoidal flow on the scale of the plasma dimensions. Predictions of a relaxation theory are consistent with experimental data [S K H Auluck, Physics of Plasmas,18, 032508 (2011)], but the assumptions upon which it is based are not compatible with known features of these devices. There is thus no satisfactory theoretical construct which provides the necessity for solenoidal flow in these devices. This paper proposes such theoretical construct, namely, the principle of constrained dynamics, and describes an experiment which provides support for this idea. The experiment consisted of low inductance, self-breaking spark discharge in helium at a pressure ~100 hPa between two pointed electrodes separated by...

  3. Freshwater Flow Charts - 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaiper, G V

    2003-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers the following: (1) Explanation of Charts Showing Freshwater Flow in 1995; (2) Estimated U.S. Freshwater Flow in 1995 (chart); (3) Estimated California Freshwater Flow in 1995 (chart); (4) Estimated New Mexico Freshwater Flow in 1995 (chart); and (5) Web locations and credits.

  4. Pressure sensor for sealed containers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hodges, Franklin R. (Loudon, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetic pressure sensor for sensing a pressure change inside a sealed container. The sensor includes a sealed deformable vessel having a first end attachable to an interior surface of the sealed container, and a second end. A magnet mounted to the vessel second end defining a distance away from the container surface provides an externally detectable magnetic field. A pressure change inside the sealed container causes deformation of the vessel changing the distance of the magnet away from the container surface, and thus the detectable intensity of the magnetic field.

  5. Cryogenic & Gas System Piping Pressure Tests (A Collection of PT Permits)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rucinski, Russell A.; /Fermilab

    2002-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This engineering note is a collection of pipe pressure testing documents for various sections of piping for the D-Zero cryogenic and gas systems. High pressure piping must conform with FESHM chapter 5031.1. Piping lines with ratings greater than 150 psig have a pressure test done before the line is put into service. These tests require the use of pressure testing permits. It is my intent that all pressure piping over which my group has responsibility conforms to the chapter. This includes the liquid argon and liquid helium and liquid nitrogen cryogenic systems. It also includes the high pressure air system, and the high pressure gas piping of the WAMUS and MDT gas systems. This is not an all inclusive compilation of test documentation. Some piping tests have their own engineering note. Other piping section test permits are included in separate safety review documents. So if it isn't here, that doesn't mean that it wasn't tested. D-Zero has a back up air supply system to add reliability to air compressor systems. The system includes high pressure piping which requires a review per FESHM 5031.1. The core system consists of a pressurized tube trailer, supply piping into the building and a pressure reducing regulator tied into the air compressor system discharge piping. Air flows from the trailer if the air compressor discharge pressure drops below the regulator setting. The tube trailer is periodically pumped back up to approximately 2000 psig. A high pressure compressor housed in one of the exterior buildings is used for that purpose. The system was previously documented, tested and reviewed for Run I, except for the recent addition of piping to and from the high pressure compressor. The following documents are provided for review of the system: (1) Instrument air flow schematic, drg. 3740.000-ME-273995 rev. H; (2) Component list for air system; (3) Pressure testing permit for high pressure piping; (4) Documentation from Run I contained in D-Zero Engineering note 3740.214-EN-268, John Urbin 11120/90; (5) Pressure test procedure; (6) Schematic for pressure test; and (7) List of component pressure ratings. The goal of this independent review is to: (1) Reviewer makes recommendation to the Division/Section Safety Officer to approve the testing permit; and (2) Reviewer is satisfied the FESHM 5031 is met, and recommends to the division head that approval to operate be granted.

  6. Rotordynamic characteritics of incompressible-flow labyrinth seals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghali, Anupama

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) . Parsons (1938) was apparently the first to introduce the labyrinth seal in his development of a steam turbine near the turn of the century The objective of the seal is to create a highly frictional flow path between high-pressure and low... to point out the unstable vibrations due to labyrinth seals. He discovered that the circumferential variation of pressure in the labyrinth seal caused excitation forces, which in turn were responsible for the rotor whirl in axial compressors...

  7. Ultrasonic analyte concentration and application in flow cytometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Goddard, Greg; Salzman, Gary; Sinha, Dipen; Martin, John C.; Kwiatkowski, Christopher; Graves, Steven

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention includes an apparatus and corresponding method for concentrating analytes within a fluid flowing through a tube using acoustic radiation pressure. The apparatus includes a function generator that outputs a radio frequency electrical signal to a transducer that transforms the radio frequency electric signal to an acoustic signal and couples the acoustic signal to the tube. The acoustic signal is converted within the tube to acoustic pressure that concentrates the analytes within the fluid.

  8. Ultrasonic analyte concentration and application in flow cytometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaduchak, Gregory (Los Alamos, NM); Goddard, Greg (Los Alamos, NM); Salzman, Gary (White Rock, NM); Sinha, Dipen (Los Alamos, NM); Martin, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Kwiatkowski, Christopher (Los Alamos, NM); Graves, Steven (San Juan Pueblo, NM)

    2008-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention includes an apparatus and corresponding method for concentrating analytes within a fluid flowing through a tube using acoustic radiation pressure. The apparatus includes a function generator that outputs a radio frequency electrical signal to a transducer that transforms the radio frequency electric signal to an acoustic signal and couples the acoustic signal to the tube. The acoustic signal is converted within the tube to acoustic pressure that concentrates the analytes within the fluid.

  9. OVERBURDEN PRESSURE AFFECTS FRACTURE APERTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schechter, David S.

    OVERBURDEN PRESSURE AFFECTS FRACTURE APERTURE AND FRACTURE PERMEABILITY IN A FRACTURED RESERVOIR are in integrated reservoir study, reservoir charac- terization, naturally fractured reservoirs, waterflooding in Hydraulically and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs." His research areas include experimental analysis

  10. Down hole drilling motor with pressure balanced bearing seals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maurer, W.C.

    1980-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A downhole drilling motor, e.g., a turbodrill is described, which is connected to a string of drill pipe has a rotating shaft for driving a drill bit which may be a rotary bit or a high speed solid head diamond bit. The turbine section has rotor and stator blades which are crescent shaped in cross section with each blade having an exit angle of 14-23/sup 0/ for maximum turbine efficiency. The drilling motor may alternatively be a positive displacement motor. The bearing shaft is provided with chevron rotary seals positioned below the rotary bearings carrying both radial and vertical thrust. Fluid lubricant fills the space from the rotary seals to a predetermined level above the bearings. A piston seals the lubricant chamber and is pressurized by drilling fluid (i.e. mud) flowing through the tool. A layer of lubricant fluid overlies the first piston and has a second piston covering said fluid and transmitting pressure from the drilling fluid to the lubricant fluid surrounding the bearings. The drilling mud is divided into two streams, one of which rotates the drill bit, and the other of which passes through the drill bit. The pressure drop across the drilling motor equals the pressure drop across the drill bit, thus balancing the pressure on the bearing seals.

  11. Squirt flow in fully saturated rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dvorkin, J.; Mavko, G.; Nur, A. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Geophysics] [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Geophysics

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors estimate velocity/frequency dispersion and attenuation in fully saturated rocks by employing the squirt-flow mechanism of solid-fluid interaction. In this model, pore fluid is squeezed from thin soft cracks into the surrounding large pores. Information about the compliance of these soft cracks at low confining pressures is extracted from high-pressure velocity data. The frequency dependence of squirt-induced pressure in the soft cracks is linked with the porosity and permeability of the soft pore space, and the characteristic squirt-flow length. These unknown parameters are combined into one expression that is assumed to be a fundamental rock property that does not depend on frequency. The appropriate value of this expression for a given rock can be found by matching the authors theoretical predictions with the experimental measurements of attenuation or velocity. The low-frequency velocity limits, as given by their model, are identical to those predicted by Gassmann`s formula. The high-frequency limits may significant exceed those given by the Biot theory: the high-frequency frame bulk modulus is close to that measured at high confining pressure. They have applied their model to D`Euville Limestone, Navajo Sandstone, and Westerly Granite. The model realistically predicts the observed velocity/frequency dispersion, and attenuation.

  12. Spray bottle apparatus with pressure multiplying pistons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moss, Owen R. (Kennewick, WA); Gordon, Norman R. (Kennewick, WA); DeFord, Henry S. (Kennewick, WA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is acted upon the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

  13. Development of Next Generation Multiphase Pipe Flow Prediction Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cem Sarica; Holden Zhang

    2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The developments of oil and gas fields in deep waters (5000 ft and more) will become more common in the future. It is inevitable that production systems will operate under multiphase flow conditions (simultaneous flow of gas, oil and water possibly along with sand, hydrates, and waxes). Multiphase flow prediction tools are essential for every phase of hydrocarbon recovery from design to operation. Recovery from deep-waters poses special challenges and requires accurate multiphase flow predictive tools for several applications, including the design and diagnostics of the production systems, separation of phases in horizontal wells, and multiphase separation (topside, seabed or bottom-hole). It is crucial for any multiphase separation technique, either at topside, seabed or bottom-hole, to know inlet conditions such as flow rates, flow patterns, and volume fractions of gas, oil and water coming into the separation devices. Therefore, the development of a new generation of multiphase flow predictive tools is needed. The overall objective of the proposed study is to develop a unified model for gas-oil-water three-phase flow in wells, flow lines, and pipelines to predict flow characteristics such as flow patterns, phase distributions, and pressure gradient encountered during petroleum production at different flow conditions (pipe diameter and inclination, fluid properties and flow rates). In the current multiphase modeling approach, flow pattern and flow behavior (pressure gradient and phase fractions) prediction modeling are separated. Thus, different models based on different physics are employed, causing inaccuracies and discontinuities. Moreover, oil and water are treated as a pseudo single phase, ignoring the distinct characteristics of both oil and water, and often resulting in inaccurate design that leads to operational problems. In this study, a new model is being developed through a theoretical and experimental study employing a revolutionary approach. The basic continuity and momentum equations is established for each phase, and used for both flow pattern and flow behavior predictions. The required closure relationships are being developed, and will be verified with experimental results. Gas-oil-water experimental studies are currently underway for the horizontal pipes. Industry-driven consortia provide a cost-efficient vehicle for developing, transferring, and deploying new technologies into the private sector. The Tulsa University Fluid Flow Projects (TUFFP) is one of the earliest cooperative industry-university research consortia. TUFFP's mission is to conduct basic and applied multiphase flow research addressing the current and future needs of hydrocarbon production and transportation. TUFFP participants and The University of Tulsa are supporting this study through 55% cost sharing.

  14. Wind tunnel calibration of 5-hole pressure probes for application to wind turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fingersh, L.J.; Robinson, M.C.

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to quantify the local inflow vector on a rotating turbine blade using a 5-hole static pressure probe was developed at the National Wind Technology Center. The technique permits quantification of dynamic pressure, angle-of-attack and cross-flow-angle to magnitudes of {+-} 40{degree} in any inflow direction parallel to the probe centerline. A description of the static and dynamic calibration procedure, iteration sequence for data reduction, and field results are included.

  15. Barometric pressure transient testing applications at the Nevada Test Site: formation permeability analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, J.M.

    1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report evaluates previous investigations of the gas permeability of the rock surrounding emplacement holes at the Nevada Test Site. The discussion sets the framework from which the present uncertainty in gas permeability can be overcome. The usefulness of the barometric pressure testing method has been established. Flow models were used to evaluate barometric pressure transients taken at NTS holes U2fe, U19ac and U20ai. 31 refs., 103 figs., 18 tabs. (ACR)

  16. Blade tip clearance effect on the performance and flow field of a three stage axial turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel-Fattah, Sharef Aly

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of a 1.5 % blade tip clearance on a rotating three stage turbine under different operating points was investigated using radially and circumferentially traversed five hole pressure probes. The probes were used to obtain flow field total...

  17. Active flow control in an advanced serpentine jet engine inlet duct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirk, Aaron Michael

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    control devices were installed to deliver varying degrees of boundary layer suction, suction and steady fluid injection, and suction and oscillatory injection. Testing showed that suction alone could delay flow separation and improve the pressure recovery...

  18. Wavelet analysis study of microbubble drag reduction in a boundary channel flow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhen, Ling

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and pressure measurement techniques were performed to investigate the drag reduction due to microbubble injection in the boundary layer of a fully developed turbulent channel flow. ...

  19. Transition from film boiling to nucleate boiling in forced convection vertical flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iloeje, Onwuamaeze C.

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanism of collapse of forced cnnvection annular vertical flow film boiling, with liquid core, is investigated using liquid nitrogen at low pressures. The report includes the effect of heat flux from the buss bar. ...

  20. Flow instability and critical heat flux in a ribbed annulus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, B.W.; Dougherty, T.; Fighetti, C.; Kokolis, S.; Reddy, G.D. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); McAssey, E.V. Jr. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States); Coutts, A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental program has been conducted to determine the onset of flow instability point in a heated annulus which is divided into four sub channels by non-conducting ribs. The onset of flow instability is identified by the minimum point in the pressure drop-velocity curve. Comparison with a ribless annulus show that the presence of ribs increases the minimum point velocity. In addition, data are presented which show that under certain conditions premature CHF can be induced by the ribs.

  1. Pore-scale characteristics of multiphase flow in porous media: A comparison of airwater and oilwater experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildenschild, Dorthe

    Pore-scale characteristics of multiphase flow in porous media: A comparison of air­water and oil Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Multi-phase flow; NAPLs; Porous media; Microtomography; Interfacial areas; Capillary pressure­saturation curves 1. Introduction Understanding of multiphase flow

  2. Flexible Pressure Sensors: Modeling and Experimental Characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viana, J.C.

    Flexible capacitive pressure sensors fabricated with nanocomposites were experimentally characterized and results compared with simulations from analytical modeling. Unlike traditional diaphragm silicon pressure sensors, ...

  3. Documentation Requirements for Pressurized Experiment Equipment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Documentation Requirements for Pressurized Experiment Apparatus PSSC NOTE01 15-Jan-2013 When bringing a piece of apparatus to the APS for an experiment that will involve pressure,...

  4. Separator Design for Use in High GVF Multiphase Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cihak, Daniel

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    storage tank. The water is fed through a 135 GPM centrifugal water pump, while a pressure regulator maintains a pressure level of 120 psi. 31 Once the water leaves the pump, it flows into the laboratory where it is controlled and measured... Figure 4.5 and Figure 4.6 show the air control system. The oil free air compressors are responsible for pressurizing the air to 115 psi. Water is removed from the air and the air is then stored in a large tank. The air manifold is responsible...

  5. Heat transfer and pressure drop in an annular channel with downflow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolan, F.X.; Crowley, C.J. (Creare, Inc., Hanover, NH (United States)); Qureshi, Z.H. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The onset of a flow instability (OFI) determines the minimum flow rate for cooling in the flow channels of a nuclear fuel assembly. A test facility was constructed with full-scale models (length and diameter) of annular flow channels incorporating many instruments to measure heat transfer and pressure drop with downflow in the annulus. Tests were performed both with and without axial centering ribs at prototypical values of pressure, flow rate and uniform wall heat flux. The axial ribs have the effect of subdividing the annulus into quadrants, so the problem becomes one of parallel channel flow, unlike previous experiments in tubes (upflow and downflow). Other tests were performed to determine the effects if any of asymmetric and non-uniform circumferential wall heating, operating pressure level and dissolved gas concentration. Data from the tests are compared with models for channel heat transfer and pressure drop profiles in several regimes of wall heating from single-phase forced convection through partially and fully developed nucleate boiling. Minimum stable flow rates were experimentally determined as a function of wall heat flux and heat distribution and compared with the model for the transition to fully developed boiling which is a key criterion in determining the OFI condition in the channel. The heat transfer results in the channel without ribs are in excellent agreement with predictions from a computer model of the flow in the annulus and with empirical correlations developed from similar tests. The test results with centering ribs show that geometrical variations between the channels can lead to differences in subchannel behavior which can make the effect of the ribs and the geometry an important factor when assessing the power level at which the fuel assembly (and the reactor) can be operated to prevent overheating in the event of a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA).

  6. Heat transfer and pressure drop in an annular channel with downflow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolan, F.X.; Crowley, C.J. [Creare, Inc., Hanover, NH (United States); Qureshi, Z.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The onset of a flow instability (OFI) determines the minimum flow rate for cooling in the flow channels of a nuclear fuel assembly. A test facility was constructed with full-scale models (length and diameter) of annular flow channels incorporating many instruments to measure heat transfer and pressure drop with downflow in the annulus. Tests were performed both with and without axial centering ribs at prototypical values of pressure, flow rate and uniform wall heat flux. The axial ribs have the effect of subdividing the annulus into quadrants, so the problem becomes one of parallel channel flow, unlike previous experiments in tubes (upflow and downflow). Other tests were performed to determine the effects if any of asymmetric and non-uniform circumferential wall heating, operating pressure level and dissolved gas concentration. Data from the tests are compared with models for channel heat transfer and pressure drop profiles in several regimes of wall heating from single-phase forced convection through partially and fully developed nucleate boiling. Minimum stable flow rates were experimentally determined as a function of wall heat flux and heat distribution and compared with the model for the transition to fully developed boiling which is a key criterion in determining the OFI condition in the channel. The heat transfer results in the channel without ribs are in excellent agreement with predictions from a computer model of the flow in the annulus and with empirical correlations developed from similar tests. The test results with centering ribs show that geometrical variations between the channels can lead to differences in subchannel behavior which can make the effect of the ribs and the geometry an important factor when assessing the power level at which the fuel assembly (and the reactor) can be operated to prevent overheating in the event of a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA).

  7. The effect of longitudinal spacer ribs on the minimum pressure drop in a heated annulus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, B.S.; Neff, J.M.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When evaluating a heated flow passage for vulnerability to static flow excursions, special note should be taken of flow restrictions which might allow premature vapor generation. In this study, measurements of steady state pressure drop were made for the downward flow of water in a vertical annulus. The outer wall was uniformly heated to allow subcooled boiling. Minima in the pressure drop characteristics were compared for test sections with and without longitudinal spacer ribs. For a given power and inlet temperature, the minimum occurred at a higher flow rate in the ribbed test section. This is attributed to vapor generation at the ribs. The work cited in this document show how a restriction in a heated channel can produce vapor which would not be observed in the absence of the restriction. In the present study, the effect of a flow restriction on the tendency to flow excursion is explored by finding demand curves for a heated annulus in subcooled boiling flow. The annulus is heated from the outside, and alternately equipped with and without longitudinal spacer ribs. These ribs separate the heated and unheated walls; in pressing against the heated wall they provide a means for premature vapor production.

  8. High pressure neon arc lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Robert C.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2003-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A high pressure neon arc lamp and method of using the same for photodynamic therapies is provided. The high pressure neon arc lamp includes a housing that encloses a quantity of neon gas pressurized to about 500 Torr to about 22,000 Torr. At each end of the housing the lamp is connected by electrodes and wires to a pulse generator. The pulse generator generates an initial pulse voltage to breakdown the impedance of the neon gas. Then the pulse generator delivers a current through the neon gas to create an electrical arc that emits light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. A method for activating a photosensitizer is provided. Initially, a photosensitizer is administered to a patient and allowed time to be absorbed into target cells. Then the high pressure neon arc lamp is used to illuminate the target cells with red light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. The red light activates the photosensitizers to start a chain reaction that may involve oxygen free radicals to destroy the target cells. In this manner, a high pressure neon arc lamp that is inexpensive and efficiently generates red light useful in photodynamic therapy is provided.

  9. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Block, J.A.; Crowley, C.; Dolan, F.X.; Sam, R.G.; Stoedefalke, B.H.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D{sub 2}O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The annulus has a full-scale geometry, and in fat uses SRL dummy hardware for the inner annulus wall in the ribbed geometry. The materials aluminum. The annulus is uniformly heated in the axial direction, but the circumferential heat flux can be varied to provide ``power tilt`` or asymmetric heating of the inner and outer annulus walls. The test facility uses H{sub 2}O rather than D{sub 2}O, but it includes the effects of dissolved helium gas present in the reactor. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. Nineteen test series and a total of 178 tests were performed. Testing addressed the effects of: Heat flux; pressure; helium gas; power tilt; ribs; asymmetric heat flux.

  10. Pressure drop in cyclone separators commonly used in the agricultural processing industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guzman, Francisco Alejandro

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -20, 406 mm diameter cyclone. 58 sion of kinetic energy into static and in some cases flow separation. A comparison between the static pressure at the piezometer ring and at the cyclone inlet as shown in Tables 7 and 8 (pp. 41 and 42) seemed... and so small in magnitude that for graphical purposes they were assumed to be zero. Examination of the static pressures in Tables 9 and 10 (pp. 43 and 44) suggested a regain of static pressure at the cyclone inlets. For instance, at an airflow rate...

  11. Microhole High-Pressure Jet Drill for Coiled Tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Theimer; Jack Kolle

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Tempress Small Mechanically-Assisted High-Pressure Waterjet Drilling Tool project centered on the development of a downhole intensifier (DHI) to boost the hydraulic pressure available from conventional coiled tubing to the level required for high-pressure jet erosion of rock. We reviewed two techniques for implementing this technology (1) pure high-pressure jet drilling and (2) mechanically-assisted jet drilling. Due to the difficulties associated with modifying a downhole motor for mechanically-assisted jet drilling, it was determined that the pure high-pressure jet drilling tool was the best candidate for development and commercialization. It was also determined that this tool needs to run on commingled nitrogen and water to provide adequate downhole differential pressure and to facilitate controlled pressure drilling and descaling applications in low pressure wells. The resulting Microhole jet drilling bottomhole assembly (BHA) drills a 3.625-inch diameter hole with 2-inch coil tubing. The BHA consists of a self-rotating multi-nozzle drilling head, a high-pressure rotary seal/bearing section, an intensifier and a gas separator. Commingled nitrogen and water are separated into two streams in the gas separator. The water stream is pressurized to 3 times the inlet pressure by the downhole intensifier and discharged through nozzles in the drilling head. The energy in the gas-rich stream is used to power the intensifier. Gas-rich exhaust from the intensifier is conducted to the nozzle head where it is used to shroud the jets, increasing their effective range. The prototype BHA was tested at operational pressures and flows in a test chamber and on the end of conventional coiled tubing in a test well. During instrumented runs at downhole conditions, the BHA developed downhole differential pressures of 74 MPa (11,000 psi, median) and 90 MPa (13,000 psi, peaks). The median output differential pressure was nearly 3 times the input differential pressure available from the coiled tubing. In a chamber test, the BHA delivered up to 50 kW (67 hhp) hydraulic power. The tool drilled uncertified class-G cement samples cast into casing at a rate of 0.04 to 0.17 m/min (8 to 33 ft/hr), within the range projected for this tool but slower than a conventional PDM. While the tool met most of the performance goals, reliability requires further improvement. It will be difficult for this tool, as currently configured, to compete with conventional positive displacement downhole motors for most coil tubing drill applications. Mechanical cutters on the rotating nozzle head would improve cutting. This tool can be easily adapted for well descaling operations. A variant of the Microhole jet drilling gas separator was further developed for use with positive displacement downhole motors (PDM) operating on commingled nitrogen and water. A fit-for-purpose motor gas separator was designed and yard tested within the Microhole program. Four commercial units of that design are currently involved in a 10-well field demonstration with Baker Oil Tools in Wyoming. Initial results indicate that the motor gas separators provide significant benefit.

  12. High pressure liquid level monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bean, Vern E. (Frederick, MD); Long, Frederick G. (Ijamsville, MD)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  13. Level indicator for pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid-level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic-field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal-processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  14. Ultrasonic flow metering system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gomm, Tyler J. (Meridian, ID); Kraft, Nancy C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mauseth, Jason A. (Pocatello, ID); Phelps, Larry D. (Pocatello, ID); Taylor, Steven C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for determining the density, flow velocity, and mass flow of a fluid comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the fluid. A system for determining flow velocity uses two of the inventive circuits with directional transmitters and receivers, one of which is set at an angle to the direction of flow that is different from the others.

  15. Competition between pressure effects and airflow influence for the performance of plasma actuators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriegseis, J., E-mail: kriegseis@kit.edu [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Barckmann, K.; Grundmann, S., E-mail: grundmann@csi.tu-darmstadt.de [Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Frey, J. [Institute for Aerospace Engineering, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Tropea, C. [Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Aerodynamics, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present work addresses the combined influence of pressure variations and different airflow velocities on the discharge intensity of plasma actuators. Power consumption, plasma length, and discharge capacitance were investigated systematically for varying pressure levels (p?=?0.1–1 bar) and airflow velocities (U{sub ?}=0?100 m/s) to characterize and quantify the favorable and adverse effects on the discharge intensity. In accordance with previous reports, an increasing plasma actuator discharge intensity is observed for decreasing pressure levels. At constant pressure levels, an adverse airflow influence on the electric actuator performance is demonstrated. Despite the improved discharge intensity at lower pressure levels, the seemingly improved performance of the plasma actuators is accompanied with a more pronounced drop of the relative performance. These findings demonstrate the dependency of the (kinematic and thermodynamic) environmental conditions on the electric performance of plasma actuators, which in turn affects the control authority of plasma actuators for flow control applications.

  16. Therapeutic Consequences of Variation in Intraarterial Pressure Measurements After Iliac Angioplasty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tetteroo, Eric; Haaring, Cees; Engelen, Andries D. van [Department of Radiology, Room E.01.132, University Hospital Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, NL-3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Graaf, Yolanda van der [Department of Clinical Epidemiology, University Hospital Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, NL-3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Mali, Willem P.T.M. [Department of Radiology, Room E.01.132, University Hospital Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, NL-3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1997-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of intraarterial measurement of transstenotic pressure gradients for the detection of hemodynamically suboptimal iliac angioplasty. Methods: In 14 patients, referred for diagnostic angiography, mean pressure gradients in the aorta and iliac artery were obtained twice, using a double-sensor pressure catheter. Additional iliac measurements were performed during pharmacologically induced flow augmentation. Repeatability was assessed by calculation of the mean difference plus standard deviation (MD {+-} SD) and repeatability coefficient (2 x SD). These results were extrapolated to 137 iliac angioplasty procedures with secondary stenting where there was a residual pressure gradient > 10 mmHg. Results: MD {+-} SD for repeated measurements at rest and during flow augmentation were 0 {+-} 2 mmHg and 1 {+-} 3 mmHg, respectively. Repeatability coefficients were 3 and 6 mmHg. Mean pressure gradients after hemodynamically insufficient angioplasty were 8 {+-} 7 mmHg at rest and 17 {+-} 5 mmHg following vasodilatation. Inaccurate pressure recordings may have led to inappropriate stent placement in less than 2.5%, and inappropriate denial of stent placement in less than 5% of the lesions. Conclusion: Variability of intraarterial pressure measurements has little consequence in the detection of hemodynamically significant stenosis after angioplasty.

  17. Scaled Experimental Modeling of VHTR Plenum Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ICONE 15

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is the leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Project in the U.S. which has the goal of demonstrating the production of emissions free electricity and hydrogen by 2015. Various scaled heated gas and water flow facilities were investigated for modeling VHTR upper and lower plenum flows during the decay heat portion of a pressurized conduction-cooldown scenario and for modeling thermal mixing and stratification (“thermal striping”) in the lower plenum during normal operation. It was concluded, based on phenomena scaling and instrumentation and other practical considerations, that a heated water flow scale model facility is preferable to a heated gas flow facility and to unheated facilities which use fluids with ranges of density to simulate the density effect of heating. For a heated water flow lower plenum model, both the Richardson numbers and Reynolds numbers may be approximately matched for conduction-cooldown natural circulation conditions. Thermal mixing during normal operation may be simulated but at lower, but still fully turbulent, Reynolds numbers than in the prototype. Natural circulation flows in the upper plenum may also be simulated in a separate heated water flow facility that uses the same plumbing as the lower plenum model. However, Reynolds number scaling distortions will occur at matching Richardson numbers due primarily to the necessity of using a reduced number of channels connected to the plenum than in the prototype (which has approximately 11,000 core channels connected to the upper plenum) in an otherwise geometrically scaled model. Experiments conducted in either or both facilities will meet the objectives of providing benchmark data for the validation of codes proposed for NGNP designs and safety studies, as well as providing a better understanding of the complex flow phenomena in the plenums.

  18. Steady states for shear flows of a liquid-crystal model: multiplicity, stability, and hysteresis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Weishi

    thickness between two solid blocks with the blocks sliding in opposite directions at a prescribed relative is the pressure, is the relaxation parameter, and denotes the region bounded by the two solid blocks. The domain the horizontal pressure gradient to be zero so that the flow is driven by the imposed slip velocity ¯u

  19. Sliding Mode Flow Rate Observer Design Song Liu and Bin Yao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Bin

    pressure measurements and unavoidable modelling uncertainties. This paper proposes a sliding mode dynamicSliding Mode Flow Rate Observer Design Song Liu and Bin Yao School of Mechanical Engineering rate from fluid pressure dynamic equations usually results in poor estimates due to the very noisy

  20. An experimental investigation of the mean flow field of a wavy cylinder at critical Reynolds numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damiana, Thomas Anthony

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluid flow around a wavy cylinder geometry was investigated in the Texas A&M University 2'x3' wind tunnel. Tests consisted of mean surface static pressure and mean wake dynamic pressure measurements around two wavy cylinders of differing wavelength...

  1. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt gradual bend

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, M.G.

    1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt bend. The system includes pressure transducers, one disposed in the conduit at the inside of the bend and one or more disposed in the conduit at the outside of the bend but spaced a distance therefrom. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow. 1 fig.

  2. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor and a method of operating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, Juhani (Karhula, FI)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

  3. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor and a method of operating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, J.

    1996-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

  4. Flow dynamics and solute transport in unsaturated rock fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, G. W.

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rock fractures play an important role in flow and contaminant transport in fractured aquifers, production of oil from petroleum reservoirs, and steam generation from geothermal reservoirs. In this dissertation, phenomenological aspects of flow in unsaturated fractures were studied in visualization experiments conducted on a transparent replica of a natural, rough-walled rock fracture for inlet conditions of constant pressure and flow rate over a range of angles of inclination. The experiments demonstrated that infiltrating liquid proceeds through unsaturated rock fractures along non-uniform, localized preferential flow paths. Even in the presence of constant boundary conditions, intermittent flow was a persistent flow feature observed, where portions of the flow channel underwent cycles of snapping and reforming. Two modes of intermittent flow were observed, the pulsating blob mode and the rivulet snapping mode. A conceptual model for the rivulet snapping mode was proposed and examined using idealized, variable-aperture fractures. The frequency of intermittent flow events was measured in several experiments and related to the capillary and Bond numbers to characterize this flow behavior.

  5. SUBNANOWATT MICROBUBBLE PRESSURE TRANSDUCER C. A. Gutierrez*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Ellis

    pprrr g &&&& 421 2 3 2 (1) where r is the bubble radius (dots denote time-derivative), pg and p microchamber, for pressure sensing. Pressure-induced bubble size variation is detected by electrochemical pressure measurement applications. INTRODUCTION It is known that gas bubbles respond to external pressure

  6. Multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics with anisotropy and flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, G. R., E-mail: graham.dennis@anu.edu.au; Dewar, R. L.; Hole, M. J. [Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia); Hudson, S. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an extension of the multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) equilibrium model that includes pressure anisotropy and general plasma flows. This anisotropic extension to our previous isotropic model is motivated by Sun and Finn's model of relaxed anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic equilibria. We prove that as the number of plasma regions becomes infinite, our anisotropic extension of MRxMHD reduces to anisotropic ideal MHD with flow. The continuously nested flux surface limit of our MRxMHD model is the first variational principle for anisotropic plasma equilibria with general flow fields.

  7. Lateral flow strip assay

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miles, Robin R. (Danville, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Coleman, Matthew A. (Oakland, CA); Pearson, Francesca S. (Livermore, CA); Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  8. Pressure Fluctuations as a Diagnostic Tool for Fluidized Beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ethan Bure; Joel R. Schroeder; Ramon De La Cruz; Robert C. Brown

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the origin of pressure fluctuations in fluidized bed systems. The study assessed the potential for using pressure fluctuations as an indicator of fluidized bed hydrodynamics in both laboratory scale cold-models and industrial scale boilers. Both bubbling fluidized beds and circulating fluidized beds were evaluated. Testing including both cold-flow models and laboratory and industrial-scale combustors operating at elevated temperatures. The study yielded several conclusions on the relationship of pressure fluctuations and hydrodynamic behavior in fluidized beds. The study revealed the importance of collecting sufficiently long data sets to capture low frequency (on the order of 1 Hz) pressure phenomena in fluidized beds. Past research has tended toward truncated data sets collected with high frequency response transducers, which miss much of the spectral structure of fluidized bed hydrodynamics. As a result, many previous studies have drawn conclusions concerning hydrodynamic similitude between model and prototype fluidized beds that is insupportable from the low resolution data presented.

  9. Micromachined thin-film gas flow sensor for microchemical reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Besser, Ronald S.

    Micromachined thin-film gas flow sensor for microchemical reactors W C Shin and R S Besser New applications not practical before such as highly compact, non-invasive pressure sensors, accelerometers and gas power consumption, fast response, and low-cost batch production [1-4]. Spurred by the development

  10. Electromagnetically and Thermally Driven Flow Phenomena in Electroslag Welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    ) Electromagnetically and Thermally Driven Flow Phenomena in Electroslag Welding A. H. DILAWARI, J for the Electroslag Welding Process. In the formulation, allowance has been made {or both etee- tromagnetic and b in the use of electroslag welding (ESW), particularly for the construction of thick walled pressure vessels

  11. COMPUTATION OF TWO-PHASE FLOW IN STEAM GENERATOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    COMPUTATION OF TWO-PHASE FLOW IN STEAM GENERATOR USING DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION AND LOCAL ZOOM METHODS Abstract We present ow simulations in the Steam Generator of a pressurized water nuclear reactor using coherence between the zoom and the full domain. Key words: Steam Generator, Zoom, Domain Decomposition

  12. Managed Pressure Drilling Candidate Selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nauduri, Anantha S.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Managed Pressure Drilling now at the pinnacle of the 'Oil Well Drilling' evolution tree, has itself been coined in 2003. It is an umbrella term for a few new drilling techniques and some preexisting drilling techniques, all of them aiming to solve...

  13. Gas Exchange, Partial Pressure Gradients,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riba Sagarra, Jaume

    Gas Exchange, Partial Pressure Gradients, and the Oxygen Window Johnny E. Brian, Jr., M of circulatory and gas transport physiology, and the best place to start is with normobaric physiology. LIFE affect the precise gas exchange occurring in individual areas of the lungs and body tissues. To make

  14. Enlarge Image Peer pressure. Magnetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thywissen, Joseph

    to stick it to your refrigerator, but an ultra-cold gas magnetizes itself just as do metals such as ironEnlarge Image Peer pressure. Magnetic domains in steel (vertical bans) arise when neighboring electrons point their magnetic poles in the same direction. CREDIT: ZUREKS, CHRIS VARDON

  15. Enlarge Image Peer pressure. Magnetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enlarge Image Peer pressure. Magnetic domains in steel (vertical bans) arise when neighboring electrons point their magnetic poles in the same direction. CREDIT: ZUREKS, CHRIS VARDON/WIKIMEDIA By Adrian Cho ScienceNOW Daily News 18 September 2009 It would be tough to stick it to your refrigerator

  16. Quantum Mechanical Pressure Frank Rioux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rioux, Frank

    by the kinetic theory of gases for an individual gas molecule. #12; Planck's constant. Using de Broglie's equation in the classical expression for kinetic energy converts provides, as we see now, a quantum interpretation for gas pressure. #12;To show this we will consider

  17. Stirling engine with pressurized crankcase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corey, John A. (Melrose, NY)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two piston Stirling engine wherein the pistons are coupled to a common crankshaft via bearing means, the pistons include pad means to minimize friction between the pistons and the cylinders during reciprocation of the pistons, means for pressurizing the engine crankcase, and means for cooling the crankshaft and the bearing means eliminating the need for oil in the crankcase.

  18. Current sheets and pressure anisotropy in the reconnection exhaust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le, A.; Karimabadi, H.; Roytershteyn, V. [SciberQuest, Inc., Del Mar, California 92014 (United States)] [SciberQuest, Inc., Del Mar, California 92014 (United States); Egedal, J. [University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)] [University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Ng, J. [PPPL, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [PPPL, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Scudder, J. [University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)] [University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Daughton, W.; Liu, Y.-H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A particle-in-cell simulation shows that the exhaust during anti-parallel reconnection in the collisionless regime contains a current sheet extending 100 inertial lengths from the X line. The current sheet is supported by electron pressure anisotropy near the X line and ion anisotropy farther downstream. Field-aligned electron currents flowing outside the magnetic separatrices feed the exhaust current sheet and generate the out-of-plane, or Hall, magnetic field. Existing models based on different mechanisms for each particle species provide good estimates for the levels of pressure anisotropy. The ion anisotropy, which is strong enough to reach the firehose instability threshold, is also important for overall force balance. It reduces the outflow speed of the plasma.

  19. Turbulence production and turbulent pressure support in the intergalactic medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iapichino, L; Niemeyer, J C; Merklein, J

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The injection and evolution of turbulence in the intergalactic medium is studied by means of mesh-based hydrodynamical simulations, including a subgrid scale (SGS) model for small-scale unresolved turbulence. The simulations show that the production of turbulence has a different redshift dependence in the intracluster medium (ICM) and the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). We show that turbulence in the ICM is produced chiefly by merger-induced shear flows, whereas the production in the WHIM is dominated by shock interactions. Secondly, the effect of dynamical pressure support on the gravitational contraction has been studied. This turbulent support is stronger in the WHIM gas at baryon overdensities 1 < delta < 100, and less relevant for the ICM. Although the relative mass fraction of the gas with large vorticity is considerable (52% in the ICM), we find that for only about 10% in mass this is dynamically relevant, namely not associated to an equally large thermal pressure support. According to this...

  20. High Temperature High Pressure Thermodynamic Measurements for Coal Model Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John C. Chen; Vinayak N. Kabadi

    1998-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a better thermodynamic model for predicting properties of high-boiling coal derived liquids, especially the phase equilibria of different fractions at elevated temperatures and pressures. The development of such a model requires data on vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), enthalpy, and heat capacity which would be experimentally determined for binary systems of coal model compounds and compiled into a database. The data will be used to refine existing models such as UNIQUAC and UNIFAC. The flow VLE apparatus designed and built for a previous project was upgraded and recalibrated for data measurements for thk project. The modifications include better and more accurate sampling technique and addition of a digital recorder to monitor temperature, pressure and liquid level inside the VLE cell. VLE data measurements for system benzene-ethylbenzene have been completed. The vapor and liquid samples were analysed using the Perkin-Elmer Autosystem gas chromatography.

  1. Gas flow to a barometric pumping well in a multilayer unsaturated Kehua You,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhan, Hongbin

    Gas flow to a barometric pumping well in a multilayer unsaturated zone Kehua You,1 Hongbin Zhan,1. [1] When an open well is installed in an unsaturated zone, gas can flow between the subsurface and the well depending on the gas pressure gradient near the well. This well is called a barometric pumping

  2. Numerical Study of Hypersonic Rarefied-Gas Flows About a Toroidal Ballute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riabov, Vladimir V.

    , pressure distribution, and drag have been found. Keywords: Torus, Balloon Parachute, Transition Rarefied-GasNumerical Study of Hypersonic Rarefied-Gas Flows About a Toroidal Ballute Vladimir V. Riabov investigated numerically using the Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo technique under transition rarefied-gas flow

  3. INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF THE AERONAUTICAL SCIENCES Hypersonic flows of argon, nitrogen, oxygen,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riabov, Vladimir V.

    the Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) technique under transition rarefied-gas flow conditions (Knudsen structure (the shape of shock waves and the stagnation point location), skin friction, pressure distribution and gas mixtures were used in simulations of planetary atmospheres. The flow pattern near a torus in argon

  4. Dynamics of the ion flow in a discharge with crossed E and H fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Movsesyants, Yu. B., E-mail: yumovsesyants@gmail.com; Tyuryukanov, P. M. [All-Russian Electrotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The experimental and theoretical results of the investigation of an ion flow in a low-pressure discharge in crossed E and H fields are presented. It is shown that two quasi-stationary current states can be realized in a transonic collisionless flow of ions in a cold plasma.

  5. A moving-mesh relaxation scheme for one-dimensional barotropic two-phase flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyue, Keh-Ming

    . However, due to the non-monotonic behavior of the mixture sound speed (denoted by c) ver- sus the volume-mail: shyue@math.ntu.edu.tw 1 Introduction Cavitation is commonly defined as a phenomenon in a liquid-flowing system when the pressure of the liquid falls sufficiently low in some re- gion of the flow so that vapor

  6. AIR-FLOW STRUCTURE IN THE VERY CLOSE VICINITY OF WIND GENERATED WATER-WAVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the static pressure, / , the slope of the water waves, the air kinematic viscosity. Wave characteristics wereAIR-FLOW STRUCTURE IN THE VERY CLOSE VICINITY OF WIND GENERATED WATER-WAVES Hubert Branger1 the structure of the air flow in the very close vicinity of the water-surface above wind-generated waves. We

  7. Relativistic Radiative Flow in a Luminous Disk II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun Fukue; Chizuru Akizuki

    2007-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiatively-driven transfer flow perpendicular to a luminous disk is examined in the relativistic regime of $(v/c)^2$, taking into account the gravity of the central object. The flow is assumed to be vertical, and the gas pressure as well as the magnetic field are ignored. Using a velocity-dependent variable Eddington factor, we can solve the rigorous equations of the relativistic radiative flow accelerated up to the {\\it relativistic} speed. For sufficiently luminous cases, the flow resembles the case without gravity. For less-luminous or small initial radius cases, however, the flow velocity decreases due to gravity. Application to a supercritical accretion disk with mass loss is briefly discussed.

  8. LOW-PRESSURE MEMBRANE CONTACTORS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Richard; Kniep, Jay; Hao, Pingjiao; Chan, Chi Cheng; Nguyen, Vincent; Huang, Ivy; Amo, Karl; Freeman, Brice; Fulton, Don; Ly, Jennifer; Lipscomb, Glenn; Lou, Yuecun; Gogar, Ravikumar

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This final technical progress report describes work conducted by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE NETL) on development of low-pressure membrane contactors for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from power plant flue gas (award number DE-FE0007553). The work was conducted from October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2014. The overall goal of this three-year project was to build and operate a prototype 500 m2 low-pressure sweep membrane module specifically designed to separate CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. MTR was assisted in this project by a research group at the University of Toledo, which contributed to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of module design and process simulation. This report details the work conducted to develop a new type of membrane contactor specifically designed for the high-gas-flow, low-pressure, countercurrent sweep operation required for affordable membrane-based CO2 capture at coal power plants. Work for this project included module development and testing, design and assembly of a large membrane module test unit at MTR, CFD comparative analysis of cross-flow, countercurrent, and novel partial-countercurrent sweep membrane module designs, CFD analysis of membrane spacers, design and fabrication of a 500 m2 membrane module skid for field tests, a detailed performance and cost analysis of the MTR CO2 capture process with low-pressure sweep modules, and a process design analysis of a membrane-hybrid separation process for CO2 removal from coal-fired flue gas. Key results for each major task are discussed in the report.

  9. Development of Next Generation Multiphase Pipe Flow Prediction Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tulsa Fluid Flow

    2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The developments of fields in deep waters (5000 ft and more) is a common occurrence. It is inevitable that production systems will operate under multiphase flow conditions (simultaneous flow of gas-oil-and water possibly along with sand, hydrates, and waxes). Multiphase flow prediction tools are essential for every phase of the hydrocarbon recovery from design to operation. The recovery from deep-waters poses special challenges and requires accurate multiphase flow predictive tools for several applications including the design and diagnostics of the production systems, separation of phases in horizontal wells, and multiphase separation (topside, seabed or bottom-hole). It is very crucial to any multiphase separation technique that is employed either at topside, seabed or bottom-hole to know inlet conditions such as the flow rates, flow patterns, and volume fractions of gas, oil and water coming into the separation devices. The overall objective was to develop a unified model for gas-oil-water three-phase flow in wells, flow lines, and pipelines to predict the flow characteristics such as flow patterns, phase distributions, and pressure gradient encountered during petroleum production at different flow conditions (pipe diameter and inclination, fluid properties and flow rates). The project was conducted in two periods. In Period 1 (four years), gas-oil-water flow in pipes were investigated to understand the fundamental physical mechanisms describing the interaction between the gas-oil-water phases under flowing conditions, and a unified model was developed utilizing a novel modeling approach. A gas-oil-water pipe flow database including field and laboratory data was formed in Period 2 (one year). The database was utilized in model performance demonstration. Period 1 primarily consisted of the development of a unified model and software to predict the gas-oil-water flow, and experimental studies of the gas-oil-water project, including flow behavior description and closure relation development for different flow conditions. Modeling studies were performed in two parts, Technology Assessment and Model Development and Enhancement. The results of the Technology assessment study indicated that the performance of the current state of the art two-phase flow models was poor especially for three-phase pipeline flow when compared with the existing data. As part of the model development and enhancement study, a new unified model for gas-oil-water three-phase pipe flow was developed. The new model is based on the dynamics of slug flow, which shares transition boundaries with all the other flow patterns. The equations of slug flow are used not only to calculate the slug characteristics, but also to predict transitions from slug flow to other flow patterns. An experimental program including three-phase gas-oil-water horizontal flow and two-phase horizontal and inclined oil-water flow testing was conducted utilizing a Tulsa University Fluid Flow Projects Three-phase Flow Facility. The experimental results were incorporated into the unified model as they became available, and model results were used to better focus and tailor the experimental study. Finally, during the Period 2, a new three-phase databank has been developed using the data generated during this project and additional data available in the literature. The unified model to predict the gas-oil-water three phase flow characteristics was tested by comparing the prediction results with the data. The results showed good agreements.

  10. Thermal expansion of low-pressure chemical vapor deposition polysilicon films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ballarini, Roberto

    polysilicon films were deposited on the sub- strates by LPCVD in a hot-walled horizontal tube fur- nace with an inner diameter of 225 mm, using SiH4 at a flow rate of 100 sccm and a pressure of 300 mtorr J. Mater

  11. Static Pressure Losses in 6, 8, and 10-inch Non-Metallic Flexible Ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weaver, K.; Culp, C.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study measured airflow static pressure losses through non-metallic flexible ducts in compliance with ASHRAE Standard 120-1999, Methods of Testing to Determine Flow Resistance of HVAC Air Ducts and Fittings (ASHRAE 1999). Duct sizes of 6, 8...

  12. Static Pressure Losses in 6, 8, and 10-inch Non-Metallic Flexible Ducts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weaver, K.; Culp, C.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study measured airflow static pressure losses through non-metallic flexible ducts in compliance with ASHRAE Standard 120-1999, Methods of Testing to Determine Flow Resistance of HVAC Air Ducts and Fittings (ASHRAE 1999). Duct sizes of 6, 8...

  13. Dynamic pressure and shear stress measurements on the stator wall of whirling annular seals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winslow, Robert Bradley

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamic pressure and shear stress measurements on the stator wall of whirling annular seals are presented. Two flow conditions (Re=12,000 & 24,000), two seal speeds (Ta=3,300 & 6,600) and three eccentricity ratios (0, 10, & 50% of the clearance...

  14. Electrical characteristics and formation mechanism of atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Lijuan; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Weijing; Meng, Ying; Ouyang, Jiting, E-mail: jtouyang@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of atmospheric pressure plasma jet produced by a coplanar dielectric barrier discharge in helium in external electrostatic and magnetic field is investigated. Net negative charges in the plasma jet outside the tube were detected. The deflection of the plume in the external field was observed. The plasma jet is suggested to be formed by the electron beam from the temporal cathode which is accelerated by a longitudinal field induced by the surface charges on the dielectric tube or interface between the helium and ambient air. The helium flow is necessary for the jet formation in the surrounding air.

  15. Optical emission spectroscopy of atmospheric pressure microwave plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia Haijun; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Michio [Research Center for Photovoltaics (RCPVs), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Kuraseko, Hiroshi [Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., Production Technology Development Center, 6 Yawata-Kaigandori, Chiba 290-8555 (Japan)

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The optical emission behaviors of Ar, He, and Ar+He plasmas generated in air using an atmospheric pressure microwave plasma source have been studied employing optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Emissions from various source gas species and air were observed. The variations in the intensities and intensity ratios of specific emissions as functions of the microwave power and gas flow rate were analyzed to investigate the relationship between the emission behavior and the plasma properties. We find that dependence of the emission behavior on the input microwave power is mainly determined by variations in electron density and electron temperature in the plasmas. On the other hand, under different gas flow rate conditions, changes in the density of the source gas atoms also significantly affect the emissions. Interestingly, when plasma is generated using an Ar+He mixture, emissions from excited He atoms disappear while a strong H{sub {alpha}} signal appears. The physics behind these behaviors is discussed in detail.

  16. Extended fluid models: Pressure tensor effects and equilibria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerri, S. S. [Physics Department “E. Fermi,” University of Pisa and CNISM, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy) [Physics Department “E. Fermi,” University of Pisa and CNISM, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Henri, P. [Physics Department “E. Fermi,” University of Pisa and CNISM, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy) [Physics Department “E. Fermi,” University of Pisa and CNISM, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, BP 4229 06304, Nice Cedex 4 (France); Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F. [Physics Department “E. Fermi,” University of Pisa and CNISM, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)] [Physics Department “E. Fermi,” University of Pisa and CNISM, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Del Sarto, D. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS – Université de Lorraine, BP 239 F-54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)] [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS – Université de Lorraine, BP 239 F-54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Faganello, M. [International Institute for Fusion Science/PIIM, UMR 7345 CNRS Aix-Marseille University, Marseille (France)] [International Institute for Fusion Science/PIIM, UMR 7345 CNRS Aix-Marseille University, Marseille (France)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the use of “extended fluid models” as a viable alternative to computationally demanding kinetic simulations in order to manage the global large scale evolution of a collisionless plasma while accounting for the main effects that come into play when spatial micro-scales of the order of the ion inertial scale d{sub i} and of the thermal ion Larmor radius ?{sub i} are formed. We present an extended two-fluid model that retains finite Larmor radius (FLR) corrections to the ion pressure tensor while electron inertia terms and heat fluxes are neglected. Within this model we calculate analytic FLR plasma equilibria in the presence of a shear flow and elucidate the role of the magnetic field asymmetry. Using a Hybrid Vlasov code, we show that these analytic equilibria offer a significant improvement with respect to conventional magnetohydrodynamic shear-flow equilibria when initializing kinetic simulations.

  17. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system with directed internal gas flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holmes, Michael Jerome (Thompson, ND); Ohrn, Theodore R. (Alliance, OH); Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh (Allentown, PA)

    2010-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an inlet adapted to introduce gas into the interior of the vessel, an outlet adapted to withdraw gas from the interior of the vessel, and an axis; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region; and (c) one or more gas flow control partitions disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and adapted to change a direction of gas flow within the vessel.

  18. Tailoring Topology Optimization to Composite Pressure Vessel Design with Simultaneous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    ;Introduction ­ CNG Pressure Vessels Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Pressure Vessels CNG Cargo Containment System

  19. Mobile Monolith Polymer Elements For Flow Control In Microfluidic Systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselbrink, Jr., Ernest F. (Saline, MI); Rehm, Jason E. (Alameda, CA); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Kirby, Brian J. (San Francisco, CA)

    2006-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A cast-in-place and lithographically shaped mobile, monolithic polymer element for fluid flow control in microfluidic devices and method of manufacture. Microfluid flow control devices, or microvalves that provide for control of fluid or ionic current flow can be made incorporating a cast-in-place, mobile monolithic polymer element, disposed within a microchannel, and driven by fluid pressure (either liquid or gas) against a retaining or sealing surface. The polymer elements are made by the application of lithographic methods to monomer mixtures formulated in such a way that the polymer will not bond to microchannel walls. The polymer elements can seal against pressures greater than 5000 psi, and have a response time on the order of milliseconds. By the use of energetic radiation it is possible to depolymerize selected regions of the polymer element to form shapes that cannot be produced by conventional lithographic patterning and would be impossible to machine.

  20. Preconcentrator with high volume chiller for high vapor pressure particle detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, Kevin L

    2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method for collecting particles of both high and low vapor pressure target materials entrained in a large volume sample gas stream. Large volume active cooling provides a cold air supply which is mixed with the sample gas stream to reduce the vapor pressure of the particles. In embodiments, a chiller cools air from ambient conditions to 0-15.degree. C. with the volumetric flow rate of the cold air supply being at least equal to the volumetric flow rate of the sample gas stream. In further embodiments an adsorption media is heated in at least two stages, a first of which is below a threshold temperature at which decomposition products of the high vapor pressure particle are generated.

  1. A fluid pressure and deformation analysis for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Zhijie; Fang, Yilin; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Bonneville, Alain

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a hydro-mechanical model and deformation analysis for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. The model considers the poroelastic effects by taking into account the two-way coupling between the geomechanical response and the fluid flow process in greater detail. In order for analytical solutions, the simplified hydro-mechanical model includes the geomechanical part that relies on the theory of linear elasticity, while the fluid flow is based on the Darcy’s law. The model was derived through coupling the two parts using the standard linear poroelasticity theory. Analytical solutions for fluid pressure field were obtained for a typical geological sequestration scenario and the solutions for ground deformation were obtained using the method of Green’s function. Solutions predict the temporal and spatial variation of fluid pressure, the effect of permeability and elastic modulus on the fluid pressure, the ground surface uplift, and the radial deformation during the entire injection period.

  2. The effect of distributors on two-phase and three-phase flows in vertical columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ouyang, Chie-Jan Paul

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    been investigated in a 15. 2-centimeter internal diameter vertical column. Pressure drop across the dis- tributor and average phase hold-up were measured for two- phase and three-phase flows over flow ranges of' superficial gas velocity, 0 ? 25. 9... cm. /sec. and superficial liquid velocity, 0 ? 3. 46 cm. /sec. . Gas hold-up / pressure drop ratios were plotted against superficial gas velocity and liquid flow rate. From these plots it was found that the bubble cap was better at gas...

  3. Apparatus for passive removal of subsurface contaminants and mass flow measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Dennis G. (Augusta, GA); Rossabi, Joseph (Aiken, SC); Riha, Brian D. (Augusta, GA)

    2003-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for improving the Baroball valve and a method for retrofitting an existing Baroball valve. This invention improves upon the Baroball valve by reshaping the interior chamber of the valve to form a flow meter measuring chamber. The Baroball valve sealing mechanism acts as a rotameter bob for determining mass flow rate through the Baroball valve. A method for retrofitting a Baroball valve includes providing static pressure ports and connecting a measuring device, to these ports, for measuring the pressure differential between the Baroball chamber and the well. A standard curve of nominal device measurements allows the mass flow rate to be determined through the retrofitted Baroball valve.

  4. Apparatus for passive removal of subsurface contaminants and volume flow measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Dennis G. (Augusta, GA); Rossabi, Joseph (Aiken, SC); Riha, Brian D. (Augusta, GA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for improving the Baroball valve and a method for retrofitting an existing Baroball valve. This invention improves upon the Baroball valve by reshaping the interior chamber of the valve to form a flow meter measuring chamber. The Baroball valve sealing mechanism acts as a rotameter bob for determining volume flow rate through the Baroball valve. A method for retrofitting a Baroball valve includes providing static pressure ports and connecting a measuring device, to these ports, for measuring the pressure differential between the Baroball chamber and the well. A standard curve of nominal device measurements allows the volume flow rate to be determined through the retrofitted Baroball valve.

  5. Ambient pressure fuel cell system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ambient pressure fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell stack formed from a plurality of fuel cells having membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) that are hydrated with liquid water and bipolar plates with anode and cathode sides for distributing hydrogen fuel gas and water to a first side of each one of the MEAs and air with reactant oxygen gas to a second side of each one of the MEAs. A pump supplies liquid water to the fuel cells. A recirculating system may be used to return unused hydrogen fuel gas to the stack. A near-ambient pressure blower blows air through the fuel cell stack in excess of reaction stoichiometric amounts to react with the hydrogen fuel gas.

  6. Applications of the Radiation Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    ) of the Sun at the Earth's surface: I = 1.2 kW/m2 · The total energy of all photons falling on 1 m2 per 1;12 Theory · Photon's energy: E = h (400 pN nm) · Photon's momentum: p = h/ · Energy and momentum of photon second · From Maxwell's equations, the energy density of an EM wave: · In terms of irradiance: Pressure P

  7. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

    1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

  8. Turbulent flow in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar S. Gupta; Siddhartha Sen

    2010-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate the possibility of a turbulent flow of electrons in graphene in the hydrodynamic region, by calculating the corresponding turbulent probability density function. This is used to calculate the contribution of the turbulent flow to the conductivity within a quantum Boltzmann approach. The dependence of the conductivity on the system parameters arising from the turbulent flow is very different from that due to scattering.

  9. High pressure xenon ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Markey, John K. (New Haven, CT)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0.degree. to 30.degree. C.

  10. Scaling of pressurized fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guralnik, S.; Glicksman, L.R.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project has two primary objectives. The first is to verify a set of hydrodynamic scaling relationships for commercial pressurized fluidized bed combustors (PFBC). The second objective is to investigate solids mixing in pressurized bubbling fluidized beds. American Electric Power`s (AEP) Tidd combined-cycle demonstration plant will provide time-varying pressure drop data to serve as the basis for the scaling verification. The verification will involve demonstrating that a properly scaled cold model and the Tidd PFBC exhibit hydrodynamically similar behavior. An important issue in PFBC design is the spacing of fuel feed ports. The feed spacing is dictated by the fuel distribution and the mixing characteristics within the bed. After completing the scaling verification, the cold model will be used to study the characteristics of PFBCs. A thermal tracer technique will be utilized to study mixing both near the fuel feed region and in the far field. The results allow the coal feed and distributor to be designed for optimal heating.

  11. Sample introduction apparatus for a flow cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van den Engh, Ger (Seattle, WA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sample introduction system for a flow cytometer allows easy change of sample containers such as test tubes and facilitates use in high pressure environments. The sample container includes a cap having a pressure supply chamber and a sample container attachment cavity. A sample container may be automatically positioned into the attachment cavity so as to sealably engage the end of the sample container as its outer surface. This positioning may be accomplished through some sample introduction mechanism. To facilitate cleaning HPLC tubing and fittings may be used in a manner which facilitates removable of the entire tubing from both the nozzle container and other sample container cap to permit its replacement to avoid contamination. The sample container support may include horizontal stops which loosely limit the movement of the sample container and thus avoid further stresses upon it.

  12. Sample introduction system for a flow cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engh, G. van den

    1997-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A sample introduction system for a flow cytometer allows easy change of sample containers such as test tubes and facilitates use in high pressure environments. The sample container includes a cap having a pressure supply chamber and a sample container attachment cavity. A sample container may be automatically positioned into the attachment cavity so as to sealably engage the end of the sample container as its outer surface. This positioning may be accomplished through some sample introduction mechanism. To facilitate cleaning, HPLC tubing and fittings may be used in a manner which facilitates removing of the entire tubing from both the nozzle container and other sample container cap to permit its replacement to avoid contamination. The sample container support may include horizontal stops which loosely limit the movement of the sample container and thus avoid further stresses upon it. 3 figs.

  13. Sample introduction system for a flow cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van den Engh, Ger (Seattle, WA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sample introduction system for a flow cytometer allows easy change of sample containers such as test tubes and facilitates use in high pressure environments. The sample container includes a cap having a pressure supply chamber and a sample container attachment cavity. A sample container may be automatically positioned into the attachment cavity so as to sealably engage the end of the sample container as its outer surface. This positioning may be accomplished through some sample introduction mechanism. To facilitate cleaning, HPLC tubing and fittings may be used in a manner which facilitates removing of the entire tubing from both the nozzle container and other sample container cap to permit its replacement to avoid contamination. The sample container support may include horizontal stops which loosely limit the movement of the sample container and thus avoid further stresses upon it.

  14. Sample introduction apparatus for a flow cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van den Engh, G.

    1998-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A sample introduction system for a flow cytometer allows easy change of sample containers such as test tubes and facilitates use in high pressure environments. The sample container includes a cap having a pressure supply chamber and a sample container attachment cavity. A sample container may be automatically positioned into the attachment cavity so as to sealably engage the end of the sample container as its outer surface. This positioning may be accomplished through some sample introduction mechanism. To facilitate cleaning HPLC tubing and fittings may be used in a manner which facilitates removable of the entire tubing from both the nozzle container and other sample container cap to permit its replacement to avoid contamination. The sample container support may include horizontal stops which loosely limit the movement of the sample container and thus avoid further stresses upon it. 3 figs.

  15. Pressure safety program Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borzileri, C.; Traini, M.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a Research and Development facility. Programs include research in: nuclear weapons, energy, environmental, biomedical, and other DOE funded programs. LLNL is managed by the University of California for the Department of Energy. Many research and development programs require the use of pressurized fluid systems. In the early 1960`s, courses were developed to train personnel to safely work with pressurized systems. These courses served as a foundation for the Pressure Safety Program. The Pressure Safety Program is administered by the Pressure Safety Manager through the Hazards Control Department, and responsibilities include: (1) Pressure Safety course development and training, (2) Equipment documentation, tracking and inspections/retests, (3) Formal and informal review of pressure systems. The program uses accepted codes and standards and closely follows the DOE Pressure Safety Guidelines Manual. This manual was developed for DOE by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The DOE Pressure Safety Guidelines Manual defines five (5) basic elements which constitute this Pressure Safety Program. These elements are: (1) A Pressure Safety Manual, (2) A Safety Committee, (3) Personnel who are trained and qualified, (4) Documentation and accountability for each pressure vessel or system, (5) Control of the selection and the use of high pressure hardware.

  16. Measuring barometric pressure with a manifold pressure sensor in a microprocessor based engine control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pauwels, M.A.; Wright, D.O.

    1986-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A microprocessor based electronic engine control system is described for an internal combustion engine, a method for updating the stored ambient pressure signal by measuring the ambient barometric pressure during engine operation using a manifold pressure sensor. The method consists of: generating timing signals indicating the rotational position of an engine member and including a signal indicating a predetermined rotational position in the rotation of the engine member; generating a pressure signal from the manifold pressure sensor representing the pressure surrounding the sensor in response to the predetermined rotational position; reading the value of ambient barometric pressure stored in the memory of the microprocessor; comparing the value of the barometric pressure stored in the memory of the microprocessor and the value of the pressure signal; increasing the value of the barometric pressure by one unit to generate a new barometric pressure value when the value of the pressure signal is greater than the value of the barometric pressure; comparing the new barometric pressure value with a predetermined fixed constant representing the maximum barometric pressure; and storing in the memory of the microprocessor either the new barometric pressure value if equal to or less than the fixed constant or the value of the maximum barometric pressure if the new barometric pressure value is greater than the fixed constant.

  17. Pressure Data: BOP Summary 28 May 2010

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This is a schematic of the BOP stack with the static pressure data recoded on the 28th of May and shows pressures before and after the attempted top kill and junk shots.

  18. Effect of high pressure on structural oddities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnstone, Russell D. L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the effect of pressure on crystal structures that are in some way unusual. The aim was to investigate whether pressure could be used to force these ‘structural oddities’ to conform to more conventional ...

  19. Nanocomposite Flexible Pressure Sensor for Biomedical Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fachin, F.

    A new approach for the fabrication of flexible pressure sensors based on aligned carbon nanotubes (A-CNTs) is described in this paper. The technology is suitable for blood pressure sensors that can be attached to a stent-graft ...

  20. NORIA. Nonisothermal Two-Phase Porous Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bixler, N.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    NORIA is a finite element program that simultaneously solves four nonlinear parabolic, partial differential equations that describe the transport of water, water vapor, air, and energy through partially saturated porous media. NORIA is designed for the analysis of two-dimensional, non-isothermal, unsaturated porous flow problems. Nearly all material properties, such as permeability, can either be set to constant values or defined as functions of the dependent and independent variables by user-supplied subroutines. The gas phase is taken to be ideal. NORIA is intended to solve nonisothermal problems in which large gradients are expected in the gas pressure.

  1. Role of viscoelasticity and non-linear rheology in flows of complex fluids at high deformation rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ober, Thomas J. (Thomas Joseph)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We combine pressure, velocimetry and birefringence measurements to study three phenomena for which the fluid rheology plays a dominant role: 1) shear banding in micellar fluids, 2) extension-dominated flows in microfluidic ...

  2. An investigation of convergence pressure methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wattenbarger, Robert Chick

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and subsequent phase behavior calculations, various physical properties of each component are needed. Table 1 lists the physical properties of each of the pure components found in the reservoir fluids. The physical properties of the C7+ must be found..., the pressure at which the K-curves appear to converge to unity is called the apparent convergence pressure. Unless stated otherwise, the convergence pressure of a system implies its apparent convergence pressure. For an N-component, two phase system at a...

  3. High pressure fiber optic sensor system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guida, Renato; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon K; Dekate, Sachin N

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The present application provides a fiber optic sensor system. The fiber optic sensor system may include a small diameter bellows, a large diameter bellows, and a fiber optic pressure sensor attached to the small diameter bellows. Contraction of the large diameter bellows under an applied pressure may cause the small diameter bellows to expand such that the fiber optic pressure sensor may measure the applied pressure.

  4. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ivanov, Ilia N; Geohegan, David Bruce

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  5. The development of a cryogenic over-pressure pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, M.; Cease, H.; Flaugher, B.; Flores, R.; Lathrop, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL, 60510 (United States); Garcia, J. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, 60616 A (United States); Ruiz, F. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, 60616 (United States)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A cryogenic over-pressure pump (OPP) was tested in the prototype telescope liquid nitrogen (LN2) cooling system for the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Project. This OPP consists of a process cylinder (PC), gas generator, and solenoid operated valves (SOVs). It is a positive displacement pump that provided intermittent liquid nitrogen (LN2) flow to an array of charge couple devices (CCDs) for the prototype Dark Energy Camera (DECam). In theory, a heater submerged in liquid would generate the drive gas in a closed loop cooling system. The drive gas would be injected into the PC to displace that liquid volume. However, due to limitations of the prototype closed loop nitrogen system (CCD cooling system) for DECam, a quasiclosed-loop nitrogen system was created. During the test of the OPP, the CCD array was cooled to its designed set point temperature of 173K. It was maintained at that temperature via electrical heaters. The performance of the OPP was captured in pressure, temperature, and flow rate in the CCD LN2 cooling system at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL)

  6. Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in the Emergency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in the Emergency Department Mei-Ean Yeow, MDa , Jairo I, 1411 East 31st Street, Oakland, CA 94602-1018, USA Noninvasive ventilation is defined as the provision ventilators consist of both negative and positive pressure ventilators. Because negative pressure ventilation

  7. Elec 331 -Blood Pressure Heart Valves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulfrey, David L.

    Elec 331 - Blood Pressure 1 Heart Valves · Atrio-Ventricular (AV) ­ Bicuspid / Mitral (left - Blood Pressure 2 Phases of the Heart · Systole (Max BP) ­ Ventricle contracted ­ Aorta inflated 331 - Blood Pressure 3 Korotkov Phases / Sounds S D P P Nothing Sharp Swish Faint Nothing 0 1 2-3 4 5

  8. Passive containment cooling system with drywell pressure regulation for boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, P.R.

    1994-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A boiling water reactor is described having a regulating valve for placing the wetwell in flow communication with an intake duct of the passive containment cooling system. This subsystem can be adjusted to maintain the drywell pressure at (or slightly below or above) wetwell pressure after the initial reactor blowdown transient is over. This addition to the PCCS design has the benefit of eliminating or minimizing steam leakage from the drywell to the wetwell in the longer-term post-LOCA time period and also minimizes the temperature difference between drywell and wetwell. This in turn reduces the rate of long-term pressure buildup of the containment, thereby extending the time to reach the design pressure limit. 4 figures.

  9. Passive containment cooling system with drywell pressure regulation for boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Paul R. (Tucson, AZ)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A boiling water reactor having a regulating valve for placing the wetwell in flow communication with an intake duct of the passive containment cooling system. This subsystem can be adjusted to maintain the drywell pressure at (or slightly below or above) wetwell pressure after the initial reactor blowdown transient is over. This addition to the PCCS design has the benefit of eliminating or minimizing steam leakage from the drywell to the wetwell in the longer-term post-LOCA time period and also minimizes the temperature difference between drywell and wetwell. This in turn reduces the rate of long-term pressure buildup of the containment, thereby extending the time to reach the design pressure limit.

  10. Flow reversal power limit for the HFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, L.Y.; Tichler, P.R.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) is a pressurized heavy water moderated and cooled research reactor that began operation at 40 MW. The reactor was subsequently upgraded to 60 MW and operated at that level for several years. The reactor undergoes a buoyancy-driven reversal of flow in the reactor core following certain postulated accidents. Questions which were raised about the afterheat removal capability during the flow reversal transition led to a reactor shutdown and subsequent resumption of operation at a reduced power of 30 MW. An experimental and analytical program to address these questions is described in this report. The experiments were single channel flow reversal tests under a range of conditions. The analytical phase involved simulations of the tests to benchmark the physical models and development of a criterion for dryout. The criterion is then used in simulations of reactor accidents to determine a safe operating power level. It is concluded that the limit on the HFBR operating power with respect to the issue of flow reversal is in excess of 60 MW. Direct use of the experimental results and an understanding of the governing phenomenology supports this conclusion.

  11. Taylor-Couette flow of unmagnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, C.; Cooper, C. M.; Flanagan, K.; Khalzov, I. V.; Nornberg, M. D.; Forest, C. B. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States) [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Center for Magnetic Self Organization, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Clark, M.; Seidlitz, B.; Wallace, J. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Differentially rotating flows of unmagnetized, highly conducting plasmas have been created in the Plasma Couette Experiment. Previously, hot-cathodes have been used to control plasma rotation by a stirring technique [C. Collins et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 115001 (2012)] on the outer cylindrical boundary—these plasmas were nearly rigid rotors, modified only by the presence of a neutral particle drag. Experiments have now been extended to include stirring from an inner boundary, allowing for generalized circular Couette flow and opening a path for both hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic experiments, as well as fundamental studies of plasma viscosity. Plasma is confined in a cylindrical, axisymmetric, multicusp magnetic field, with T{sub e}?flows (up to 12?km/s, M?=?V?c{sub s}???0.7) are driven by edge J?×?B torques in helium, neon, argon, and xenon plasmas, and the experiment has already achieved Rm???65 and Pm?0.2?12. We present measurements of a self-consistent, rotation-induced, species-dependent radial electric field, which acts together with pressure gradient to provide the centripetal acceleration for the ions. The maximum flow speeds scale with the Alfvén critical ionization velocity, which occurs in partially ionized plasma. A hydrodynamic stability analysis in the context of the experimental geometry and achievable parameters is also explored.

  12. An Experimental Investigaton of the Effect of Oil on Convective Heat Trasfer and Pressure Drop of a HFC-32/HRC-125 Mixture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McJimsey, Bert Ashford

    The heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops of HCFC-22 and a 50% mass mixture of HFC-32/HFC-125 were experimentally measured under flow boiling conditions in a smooth tube. The refrigerants were flowed through an 8 mm diameter smooth tube...

  13. WH[eta] under pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Labet, Vanessa; Strobel, Timothy A.; Hoffmann, Roald; Ashcroft, N.W. (Cornell); (CIW)

    2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An initial observation of the formation of WH under pressure from W gaskets surrounding hydrogen in diamond anvil cells led to a theoretical study of tungsten hydride phases. At P = 1 atm no stoichiometry is found to be stable with respect to separation into the elements, but as the pressure is raised WH{sub n} (n = 1-6, 8) stoichiometries are metastable or stable. WH and WH{sub 4} are calculated to be stable at P > 15 GPa, WH{sub 2} becomes stable at P > 100 GPa and WH{sub 6} at P > 150 GPa. In agreement with experiment, the structure computed for WH is anti-NiAs. WH{sub 2} shares with WH a hexagonal arrangement of tungsten atoms, with hydrogen atoms occupying octahedral and tetrahedral holes. For WH{sub 4} the W atoms are in a distorted fcc arrangement. As the number of hydrogens rises, the coordination of W by H increases correspondingly, leading to a twelve-coordinated W in WH{sub 6}. In WH{sub 8} H{sub 2} units also develop. All of the hydrides considered should be metallic at high pressure, though the Fermi levels of WH{sub 4} and WH{sub 6} lie in a deep pseudogap. Prodded by these theoretical studies, experiments were then undertaken to seek phases other than WH, exploring a variety of experimental conditions that would favor further reaction. Though a better preparation and characterization of WH resulted, no higher hydrides have as yet been found.

  14. Vapor Pressure measurements for dichlorosilane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Tony Knimbula

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    stainless steel surface inside the head. In the user's manual, one of the sections talked about this window and the plugging screw below it. This screw was provided to empty any fluid that might have gotten into that section of the head behind the window... due to being tilted. Immediately afler emptying the fluid, the balance was still unsteady. After allowing the area to dry by leaving the plug off for a few days, the balance readings were stable. It tumed out that the pressure would somehow push...

  15. ARM - Lesson Plans: Air Pressure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home RoomPlansPressure

  16. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D{sub 2}O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The annulus has a full-scale geometry, and in fat uses SRL dummy hardware for the inner annulus wall in the ribbed geometry. The materials aluminum. The annulus is uniformly heated in the axial direction, but the circumferential heat flux can be varied to provide ``power tilt`` or asymmetric heating of the inner and outer annulus walls. The test facility uses H{sub 2}O rather than D{sub 2}O, but it includes the effects of dissolved helium gas present in the reactor. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. This document consists of tables of temperature measurements.

  17. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D{sub 2}O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The annulus has a full-scale geometry, and in fat uses SRL dummy hardware for the inner annulus wall in the ribbed geometry. The materials aluminum. The annulus is uniformly heated in the axial direction, but the circumferential heat flux can be varied to provide ``power tilt`` or asymmetric heating of the inner and outer annulus walls. The test facility uses H{sub 2}O rather than D{sub 2}O, but it includes the effects of dissolved helium gas present in the reactor. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. This document consists of a summary of temperature measurements to include recorded minima, maxima, averages and standard deviations.

  18. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D{sub 2}O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The annulus has a full-scale geometry, and in fat uses SRL dummy hardware for the inner annulus wall in the ribbed geometry. The materials aluminum. The annulus is uniformly heated in the axial direction, but the circumferential heat flux can be varied to provide ``power tilt`` or asymmetric heating of the inner and outer annulus walls. The test facility uses H{sub 2}O rather than D{sub 2}O, but it includes the effects of dissolved helium gas present in the reactor. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. This document consists solely of tables of temperature measurements; minima, maxima, averages and standard deviations being measured.

  19. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Block, J.A.; Crowley, C.; Dolan, F.X.; Sam, R.G.; Stoedefalke, B.H.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D{sub 2}O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The annulus has a full-scale geometry, and in fat uses SRL dummy hardware for the inner annulus wall in the ribbed geometry. The materials aluminum. The annulus is uniformly heated in the axial direction, but the circumferential heat flux can be varied to provide ``power tilt`` or asymmetric heating of the inner and outer annulus walls. The test facility uses H{sub 2}O rather than D{sub 2}O, but it includes the effects of dissolved helium gas present in the reactor. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. This document consists of data plots and summary files of temperature measurements.

  20. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Block, J.A.; Crowley, C.; Dolan, F.X.; Sam, R.G.; Stoedefalke, B.H.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D{sub 2}O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The annulus has a full-scale geometry, and in fat uses SRL dummy hardware for the inner annulus wall in the ribbed geometry. The materials aluminum. The annulus is uniformly heated in the axial direction, but the circumferential heat flux can be varied to provide ``power tilt`` or asymmetric heating of the inner and outer annulus walls. The test facility uses H{sub 2}O rather than D{sub 2}O, but it includes the effects of dissolved helium gas present in the reactor. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. This document consists of data plots and summary files of temperature measurements.

  1. Effect of bed pressure drop on performance of a CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hairui Yang; Hai Zhang; Shi Yang; Guangxi Yue; Jun Su; Zhiping Fu [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Department of Thermal Engineering

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of bed pressure drop and bed inventory on the performances of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler was studied. By using the state specification design theory, the fluidization state of the gas-solids flow in the furnace of conventional CFB boilers was reconstructed to operate at a much lower bed pressure drop by reducing bed inventory and control bed quality. Through theoretical analysis, it was suggested that there would exist a theoretical optimal value of bed pressure drop, around which the boiler operation can achieve the maximal combustion efficiency and with significant reduction of the wear of the heating surface and fan energy consumption. The analysis was validated by field tests carried out in a 75 t/h CFB boiler. At full boiler load, when bed pressure drop was reduced from 7.3 to 3.2 kPa, the height of the dense zone in the lower furnace decreased, but the solid suspension density profile in the upper furnace and solid flow rate were barely influenced. Consequently, the average heat transfer coefficient in the furnace was kept nearly the same and the furnace temperature increment was less than 17{sup o}C. It was also found that the carbon content in the fly ash decreased first with decreasing bed pressure drop and then increased with further increasing bed pressure drop. The turning point with minimal carbon content was referred to as the point with optimal bed pressure drop. For this boiler, at the optimum point the bed pressure was around 5.7 kPa with the overall excess air ratio of 1.06. When the boiler was operated around this optimal point, not only the combustion efficiency was improved, but also fan energy consumption and wear of heating surface were reduced. 23 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Dislocations and Plasticity in bcc Transition Metals at High Pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L H; Tang, M; Moriarty, J A

    2009-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Using first-principles electronic structure calculations, quantum-based atomistic simulations and atomistically informed dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations, we have studied individual dislocation behavior and the multiscale modeling of single-crystal plasticity in the prototype bcc transition metals Ta, Mo and V under both ambient and high pressure conditions. The primary focus in this work is on the pressure-dependent structure, mobility and interaction of a/2<111> screw dislocations, which dominate the plastic deformation properties of these materials. At the electronic scale, first-principles calculations of elasticity, ideal strength and generalized stacking fault energy surfaces have been used to validate quantum-based multi-ion interatomic potentials. At the atomistic scale, these potentials have been used in flexible Green's function boundary condition simulations to study the core structure, Peierls stress {tau}{sub P}, thermally activated kink-pair formation and mobility below {tau}{sub P}, and phonon-drag mobility above {tau}{sub P}. These results have then been distilled into analytic velocity laws and used directly in predictive microscale DD simulations of flow stress and resolved yield stress over wide ranges of pressure, temperature and strain rate.

  3. Down hole drilling motor with pressure balanced bearing seals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, W.J.

    1981-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A down hole drilling motor, e.g., A turbodrill, which is connected to a string of drill pipe has a rotating shaft for driving a drill bit which may be a rotary bit or a high speed solid head diamond bit. The turbine section has rotor and stator blades which are crescent shaped in cross section with each blade having an exit angle of 14*-23* for maximum turbine efficiency. The bearing shaft is provided with chevron rotary seals positioned below the rotary bearings carrying both radial and vertical thrust. Fluid lubricant fills the space from the rotary seals to a predetermined level above the bearings. A piston seals the lubricant chamber and is pressurized by drilling fluid (I.E. Mud) flowing through the tool. A layer of lubricant fluid overlies the first piston and has a second piston covering said fluid and transmitting pressure from the drilling fluid to the lubricant fluid surrounding the bearings. The drilling mud that causes the turbodrill to rotate is pumped away from the bearing seals by pump means operated by the drilling motor to balance the pressure on the upper and lower bearing seals.

  4. Interface effects on multiphase flows in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Duan Z [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most models for multiphase flows in a porous medium are based on the straightforward extension of Darcy's law, in which each fluid phase is driven by its own pressure gradient. The pressure difference between the phases is thought to be an effect of surface tension and is called capillary pressure. Independent of Darcy's law, for liquid imbibition processes in a porous material, diffusion models are sometime used. In this paper, an ensemble phase averaging technique for continuous multi phase flows is applied to derive averaged equations and to examine the validity of the commonly used models. The closure for the averaged equations is quite complicated for general multiphase flows in a porous material. For flows with a small ratio of the characteristic length of the phase interfaces to the macroscopic length, the closure relations can be simplified significantly by an approximation with a second order error in the length ratio. The approximation reveals the information of the length scale separation obscured during the ensemble averaging process, and leads to an equation system similar to Darcy's law, but with additional terms. Based on interactions on phase interfaces, relations among closure quantities are studied.

  5. Fissile Flow and Enrichment Monitor for GCEP Advanced Safeguards Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    March-Leuba, Jose A [ORNL] [ORNL; Uckan, Taner [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents experimental data that demonstrate a concept for a {sup 235}U flow and enrichment monitor (FEMO) based on passive measurements of process equipment in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). The primary goal of the FEMO is to prevent, without using pipe penetrations or active interrogation with external sources, the production and diversion of undeclared nuclear material. This FEMO concept utilizes: (1) calibrated measurements of {sup 235}U density in cascade headers, and (2) measurements of pump inlet pressure and volumetric flow rate, which are correlated to the electrical power consumed by the GCEP pumps that transport UF{sub 6} from the cascade to the condensation cylinders. The {sup 235}U density is measured by counting 186 keV emissions using a NaI gamma detector located upstream of the pump. The pump inlet pressure and volumetric flow rate are determined using a correlation that is a function of the measured pump operational parameters (e.g., electric power consumption and rotational frequency) and the pumping configuration. The concept has been demonstrated in a low-pressure flow loop at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  6. Transient foam flow in porous media with CAT Scanner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Dianbin; Brigham, W.E.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transient behavior is likely to dominate over most of the duration of a foam injection field project. Due to the lack of date, little is presently known about transient foam flow behavior. Foam flow does not follow established models such as the Buckley-Leverett theory, and no general predictive model has been derived. Therefore, both experimental data and a foam flow theory are needed. In this work, foam was injected at a constant mass rate into one-dimensional sandpacks of 1-in diameter and 24-in or 48-in length that had initially been saturate with distilled water. The system was placed in a cat Scanner. Data, obtained at room temperature and low pressure at various times, include both the pressure and saturation distributions. Pressure profiles showed that the pressure gradient is much greater behind the foam front than ahead of it. Moreover, the pressure gradients keep changing as the foam advances in the sandpack. This behavior differs from Buckley-Leverett theory. The CT scan results demonstrated gas channeling near the front, but eventually the foam block all these channels and sweeps the entire cross section after many pore volumes of injection. Three series of experiments were run: (1) surfactant adsorption measurements; (2) gas displacements of surfactant-laden solutions and (3) foam displacements. The first two series of experiments were made to provide the necessary parameters required to match the foam displacements. To this end, it was necessary to smooth the saturation history data, using a Langmuir-type formula. A theory was proposed based on the principles of the fractional flow curve construction method. This foam theory treats the foam as composed of infinitesimal slugs of gas of varying viscosities. The foam front has the lowest viscosity and foam at the injection end has the highest.

  7. Pressure transient method for front tracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, S.M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure transient technique for tracking the advance of cold water fronts during water flooding and goethermal injection operations has been developed. The technique is based on the concept that the steady state pressure buildup in the reservoir region inside the front can be calculated by a fluid skin factor. By analyzing successive pressure falloff tests, the advance of the front in the reservoir can be monitored. The validity of the methods is demonstrated by application to three numerically simulated data sets, a nonisothermal step-rate injection test, a series of pressure falloffs in a multilayered reservoir, and a series of pressure falloff tests in a water flooded oil reservoir.

  8. Mechanics and Applications of Pressure Adaptive Honeycomb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vos, Roelof

    2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    calculations. In addition, I would like to express my gratitude to the undergraduate students that have helped with the preparations of the experiments: Lauren Kerth, Will Pflug, Tom O?Brien, Thomas Statsny, and Ryan Barnhart. v TABLE OF CONTENTS... and Curvature Induced by Pressure adaptive Honeycomb 55 3.2.1 Pressure adaptive Wing Section 60 3.2.2 Pressure adaptive Gurney Flap 63 3.2.3 Pressure adaptive Solid State Flap 65 3.2.4 Pressure adaptive Engine Inlet 67 vi 3.3 Actuation Sources 71 4.1 Cellular...

  9. Engine having a high pressure hydraulic system and low pressure lubricating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An engine includes a high pressure hydraulic system having a high pressure pump and at least one hydraulically-actuated device attached to an engine housing. A low pressure engine lubricating system is attached to the engine housing and includes a circulation conduit fluidly connected to an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  10. Comparison of high pressure transient PVT measurements and model predictions. Part I.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felver, Todd G.; Paradiso, Nicholas Joseph; Evans, Gregory Herbert; Rice, Steven F.; Winters, William Stanley, Jr.

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of experiments consisting of vessel-to-vessel transfers of pressurized gas using Transient PVT methodology have been conducted to provide a data set for optimizing heat transfer correlations in high pressure flow systems. In rapid expansions such as these, the heat transfer conditions are neither adiabatic nor isothermal. Compressible flow tools exist, such as NETFLOW that can accurately calculate the pressure and other dynamical mechanical properties of such a system as a function of time. However to properly evaluate the mass that has transferred as a function of time these computational tools rely on heat transfer correlations that must be confirmed experimentally. In this work new data sets using helium gas are used to evaluate the accuracy of these correlations for receiver vessel sizes ranging from 0.090 L to 13 L and initial supply pressures ranging from 2 MPa to 40 MPa. The comparisons show that the correlations developed in the 1980s from sparse data sets perform well for the supply vessels but are not accurate for the receivers, particularly at early time during the transfers. This report focuses on the experiments used to obtain high quality data sets that can be used to validate computational models. Part II of this report discusses how these data were used to gain insight into the physics of gas transfer and to improve vessel heat transfer correlations. Network flow modeling and CFD modeling is also discussed.

  11. High-pressure microhydraulic actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosier, Bruce P. (San Francisco, CA) [San Francisco, CA; Crocker, Robert W. (Fremont, CA) [Fremont, CA; Patel, Kamlesh D. (Dublin, CA) [Dublin, CA

    2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrokinetic ("EK") pumps convert electric to mechanical work when an electric field exerts a body force on ions in the Debye layer of a fluid in a packed bed, which then viscously drags the fluid. Porous silica and polymer monoliths (2.5-mm O.D., and 6-mm to 10-mm length) having a narrow pore size distribution have been developed that are capable of large pressure gradients (250-500 psi/mm) when large electric fields (1000-1500 V/cm) are applied. Flowrates up to 200 .mu.L/min and delivery pressures up to 1200 psi have been demonstrated. Forces up to 5 lb-force at 0.5 mm/s (12 mW) have been demonstrated with a battery-powered DC-DC converter. Hydraulic power of 17 mW (900 psi@ 180 uL/min) has been demonstrated with wall-powered high voltage supplies. The force and stroke delivered by an actuator utilizing an EK pump are shown to exceed the output of solenoids, stepper motors, and DC motors of similar size, despite the low thermodynamic efficiency.

  12. Combustor air flow control method for fuel cell apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clingerman, Bruce J. (Palmyra, NY); Mowery, Kenneth D. (Noblesville, IN); Ripley, Eugene V. (Russiaville, IN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for controlling the heat output of a combustor in a fuel cell apparatus to a fuel processor where the combustor has dual air inlet streams including atmospheric air and fuel cell cathode effluent containing oxygen depleted air. In all operating modes, an enthalpy balance is provided by regulating the quantity of the air flow stream to the combustor to support fuel cell processor heat requirements. A control provides a quick fast forward change in an air valve orifice cross section in response to a calculated predetermined air flow, the molar constituents of the air stream to the combustor, the pressure drop across the air valve, and a look up table of the orifice cross sectional area and valve steps. A feedback loop fine tunes any error between the measured air flow to the combustor and the predetermined air flow.

  13. Composition Pulse Time-Of-Flight Mass Flow Sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosier, Bruce P. (San Francisco, CA); Crocker, Robert W. (Fremont, CA); Harnett, Cindy K. (Livermore, CA) l

    2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for measuring fluid flow rates over a wide range of flow rates (<1 nL/min to >10 .mu.L/min) and at pressures at least as great as 10,000 psi. The invention is particularly adapted for use in microfluidic systems. The device operates by producing compositional variations in the fluid, or pulses, that are subsequently detected downstream from the point of creation to derive a flow rate. Each pulse, comprising a small fluid volume, whose composition is different from the mean composition of the fluid, can be created by electrochemical means, such as by electrolysis of a solvent, electrolysis of a dissolved species, or electrodialysis of a dissolved ionic species. Measurements of the conductivity of the fluid can be used to detect the arrival time of the pulses, from which the fluid flow rate can be determined

  14. Preventing Buckling of Slender Cylindrical Structures by Internal Viscous Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Max Linshits; Amir D. Gat

    2015-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Viscous flows within an elastic structure apply stress on the solid-liquid interface. The stress-field created by the viscous flow can be utilized to counter stress created by external forces and thus may be applied as a tool for delaying the onset of structural failure. To illustrate this concept we study viscous flow within an elastic cylinder under compressive axial force. We obtain a closed-form expression showing an approximately linear relation between the critical buckling load and the liquid inlet pressure. Our results are validated by numerical computations. We discuss future research directions of fluid-solid composite materials which create flow under external stress, yielding enhanced resistance to structural failure.

  15. Flows and mixing in channels with misaligned superhydrophobic walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkaya, Tatiana V; Zhou, Jiajia; Schmid, Friederike; Vinogradova, Olga I

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aligned superhydrophobic surfaces with the same texture orientation reduce drag in the channel and generate secondary flows transverse to the direction of the applied pressure gradient. Here we show that a transverse shear, superimposed with the conventional Poiseuille and slip-driven plug flows, can be easily generated by using superhydrophobic channels with misaligned textured surfaces. We propose a general theoretical approach to quantify this transverse flow by introducing the concept of an effective shear tensor. To illustrate its use, we present approximate theoretical solutions and Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations for striped superhydrophobic channels. Our results demonstrate that the transverse shear leads to complex flow patterns on the length scale of the texture period, which leads to a new mechanism of a passive mixing at low Reynolds number. This vertical mixing occurs at the texture period scale and does not require the contribution of side walls. Our results provide a basis for design ...

  16. Flows and mixing in channels with misaligned superhydrophobic walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tatiana V. Nizkaya; Evgeny S. Asmolov; Jiajia Zhou; Friederike Schmid; Olga I. Vinogradova

    2015-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Aligned superhydrophobic surfaces with the same texture orientation reduce drag in the channel and generate secondary flows transverse to the direction of the applied pressure gradient. Here we show that a transverse shear can be easily generated by using superhydrophobic channels with misaligned textured surfaces. We propose a general theoretical approach to quantify this transverse flow by introducing the concept of an effective shear tensor. To illustrate its use, we present approximate theoretical solutions and Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations for striped superhydrophobic channels. Our results demonstrate that the transverse shear leads to complex flow patterns, which provide a new mechanism of a passive vertical mixing at the scale of a texture period. Depending on the value of Reynolds number two different scenarios occur. At relatively low Reynolds number the flow represents a transverse shear superimposed with two co-rotating vortices. For larger Reynolds number these vortices become isolated, by suppressing fluid transport in the transverse direction.

  17. Passive tire pressure sensor and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent Bryant (Los Lunas, NM); Williams, Robert Leslie (Albuquerque, NM); Waldschmidt, Robert Lee (Calgary, CA); Morgan, Catherine Hook (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A surface acoustic wave device includes a micro-machined pressure transducer for monitoring tire pressure. The device is configured having a micro-machined cavity that is sealed with a flexible conductive membrane. When an external tire pressure equivalent to the cavity pressure is detected, the membrane makes contact with ridges on the backside of the surface acoustic wave device. The ridges are electrically connected to conductive fingers of the device. When the detected pressure is correct, selected fingers on the device will be grounded producing patterned acoustic reflections to an impulse RF signal. When the external tire pressure is less than the cavity reference pressure, a reduced reflected signal to the receiver results. The sensor may further be constructed so as to identify itself by a unique reflected identification pulse series.

  18. Passive tire pressure sensor and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Williams, Robert Leslie; Waldschmidt, Robert Lee; Morgan, Catherine Hook

    2006-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A surface acoustic wave device includes a micro-machined pressure transducer for monitoring tire pressure. The device is configured having a micro-machined cavity that is sealed with a flexible conductive membrane. When an external tire pressure equivalent to the cavity pressure is detected, the membrane makes contact with ridges on the backside of the surface acoustic wave device. The ridges are electrically connected to conductive fingers of the device. When the detected pressure is correct, selected fingers on the device will be grounded producing patterned acoustic reflections to an impulse RF signal. When the external tire pressure is less than the cavity reference pressure, a reduced reflected signal to the receiver results. The sensor may further be constructed so as to identify itself by a unique reflected identification pulse series.

  19. Soot particle aerosol dynamics at high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, S.J. (General Motors Research Labs., Warren, MI (USA). Physics Dept.); Kennedy, I.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have used detailed calculations to analyze the coagulation dynamics of a soot aerosol at high pressures (20 and 50 atm). They find that the soot size distribution is altered compared to lower-pressure conditions because the mean free path at high pressures is reduced to the point that the particles are similar in size to the mean free path. At lower pressures the form of the size distribution becomes constant (self-preserving) in time, allowing optical measurements to be easily interpreted. However, the authors find that at pressures above about 5 atm the shape of the size distribution continually changes. As a result, proper and accurate interpretation of optical data at high pressures is more difficult than at lower pressures.

  20. Conductance valve and pressure-to-conductance transducer method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Cummings, Eric B.; Brennan, James S.

    2005-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for interrupting or throttling undesired ionic transport through a fluid network is disclosed. The device acts as a fluid valve by reversibly generating a fixed "bubble" in the conducting solvent solution carried by the network. The device comprises a porous hydrophobic structure filling a portion of a connecting channel within the network and optionally incorporates flow restrictor elements at either end of the porous structure that function as pressure isolation barriers, and a fluid reservoir connected to the region of the channel containing the porous structure. Also included is a pressure pump connected to the fluid reservoir. The device operates by causing the pump to vary the hydraulic pressure to a quantity of solvent solution held within the reservoir and porous structure. At high pressures, most or all of the pores of the structure are filled with conducting liquid so the ionic conductance is high. At lower pressures, only a fraction of the pores are filled with liquid, so ionic conductivity is lower. Below a threshold pressure, the porous structure contains only vapor, so there is no liquid conduction path. The device therefore effectively throttles ionic transport through the porous structure and acts as a "conductance valve" or "pressure-to-conductance" transducer within the network.

  1. Top Hat Pressure System Hyperbaric Test Analysis | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Top Hat Pressure System Hyperbaric Test Analysis Top Hat Pressure System Hyperbaric Test Analysis This file contains data from pressure measurements inside Top Hat 4....

  2. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  3. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2014-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  4. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow and density of fluid in a conduit having a gradual bend

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, M.G.; Boucher, T.J.

    1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow. 1 fig.

  5. Experimental Investigation of Two-Phase Flow in Rock Salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malama, Bwalya; Howard, Clifford L.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Test Plan describes procedures for conducting laboratory scale flow tests on intact, damaged, crushed, and consolidated crushed salt to measure the capillary pressure and relative permeability functions. The primary focus of the tests will be on samples of bedded geologic salt from the WIPP underground. However, the tests described herein are directly applicable to domal salt. Samples being tested will be confined by a range of triaxial stress states ranging from atmospheric pressure up to those approximating lithostatic. Initially these tests will be conducted at room temperature, but testing procedures and equipment will be evaluated to determine adaptability to conducting similar tests under elevated temperatures.

  6. Money versus Time: Evaluation of Flow Control in Terms of Energy Consumption and Convenience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frohnapfel, Bettina; Quadrio, Maurizio

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flow control with the goal of reducing the skin friction drag on the fluid-solid interface is an active fundamental research area, motivated by its potential for significant energy savings and reduced emissions in the transport sector. Customarily, the performance of drag reduction techniques in internal flows is evaluated under two alternative flow conditions, i.e. at constant mass flow rate or constant pressure gradient. Successful control leads to reduction of drag and pumping power within the former approach, whereas the latter leads to an increase of the mass flow rate and pumping power. In practical applications, however, money and time define the flow control challenge: a compromise between the energy expenditure (money) and the corresponding convenience (flow rate) achieved with that amount of energy has to be reached so as to accomplish a goal which in general depends on the specific application. Based on this idea, we derive two dimensionless parameters which quantify the total energy consumption an...

  7. Modeling the pressure increase in liquid helium cryostats after failure of the insulating vacuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heidt, C.; Grohmann, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Thermodynamics and Refrigeration, Engler-Bunte (Germany); Süßer, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The pressure relief system of liquid helium cryostats requires a careful design, due to helium's low enthalpy of vaporization and due to the low operating temperature. Hazard analyses often involve the failure of the insulating vacuum in the worst-case scenario. The venting of the insulating vacuum and the implications for the pressure increase in the helium vessel, however, have not yet been fully analyzed. Therefore, the dimensioning of safety devices often requires experience and reference to very few experimental data. In order to provide a better foundation for the design of cryogenic pressure relief systems, this paper presents an analytic approach for the strongly dynamic process induced by the loss of insulating vacuum. The model is based on theoretical considerations and on differential equation modeling. It contains only few simplifying assumptions, which will be further investigated in future experiments. The numerical solutions of example calculations are presented with regard to the heat flux into the helium vessel, the helium pressure increase and the helium flow rate through the pressure relief device. Implications concerning two-phase flow and the influence of kinetic energy are discussed.

  8. High pressure sulfuric acid decomposition experiments for the sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velasquez, Carlos E; Reay, Andrew R.; Andazola, James C.; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Gelbard, Fred

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of three pressurized sulfuric acid decomposition tests were performed to (1) obtain data on the fraction of sulfuric acid catalytically converted to sulfur dioxide, oxygen, and water as a function of temperature and pressure, (2) demonstrate real-time measurements of acid conversion for use as process control, (3) obtain multiple measurements of conversion as a function of temperature within a single experiment, and (4) assess rapid quenching to minimize corrosion of metallic components by undecomposed acid. All four of these objectives were successfully accomplished. This report documents the completion of the NHI milestone on high pressure H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decomposition tests for the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle project. All heated sections of the apparatus, (i.e. the boiler, decomposer, and condenser) were fabricated from Hastelloy C276. A ceramic acid injection tube and a ceramic-sheathed thermocouple were used to minimize corrosion of hot liquid acid on the boiler surfaces. Negligible fracturing of the platinum on zirconia catalyst was observed in the high temperature decomposer. Temperature measurements at the exit of the decomposer and at the entry of the condenser indicated that the hot acid vapors were rapidly quenched from about 400 C to less than 20 C within a 14 cm length of the flow path. Real-time gas flow rate measurements of the decomposition products provided a direct measurement of acid conversion. Pressure in the apparatus was preset by a pressure-relief valve that worked well at controlling the system pressure. However, these valves sometimes underwent abrupt transitions that resulted in rapidly varying gas flow rates with concomitant variations in the acid conversion fraction.

  9. Control of reactor coolant flow path during reactor decay heat removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein N. (Los Gatos, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system for a sodium cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed. The sodium cooled nuclear reactor is of the type having a reactor vessel liner separating the reactor hot pool on the upstream side of an intermediate heat exchanger and the reactor cold pool on the downstream side of the intermediate heat exchanger. The improvement includes a flow path across the reactor vessel liner flow gap which dissipates core heat across the reactor vessel and containment vessel responsive to a casualty including the loss of normal heat removal paths and associated shutdown of the main coolant liquid sodium pumps. In normal operation, the reactor vessel cold pool is inlet to the suction side of coolant liquid sodium pumps, these pumps being of the electromagnetic variety. The pumps discharge through the core into the reactor hot pool and then through an intermediate heat exchanger where the heat generated in the reactor core is discharged. Upon outlet from the heat exchanger, the sodium is returned to the reactor cold pool. The improvement includes placing a jet pump across the reactor vessel liner flow gap, pumping a small flow of liquid sodium from the lower pressure cold pool into the hot pool. The jet pump has a small high pressure driving stream diverted from the high pressure side of the reactor pumps. During normal operation, the jet pumps supplement the normal reactor pressure differential from the lower pressure cold pool to the hot pool. Upon the occurrence of a casualty involving loss of coolant pump pressure, and immediate cooling circuit is established by the back flow of sodium through the jet pumps from the reactor vessel hot pool to the reactor vessel cold pool. The cooling circuit includes flow into the reactor vessel liner flow gap immediate the reactor vessel wall and containment vessel where optimum and immediate discharge of residual reactor heat occurs.

  10. Mechanism governing separation in microfluidic pinched flow fractionation devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sumedh R. Risbud; German Drazer

    2014-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a computational investigation of the mechanism governing size-based particle separation in microfluidic pinched flow fractionation. We study the behavior of particles moving through a pinching gap (i.e., a constriction in the aperture of a channel) in the Stokes regime as a function of particle size. The constriction aperture is created by a plane wall and spherical obstacle, and emulates the pinching segment in pinched flow fractionation devices. The simulation results show that the distance of closest approach between the particle and obstacle surfaces (along a trajectory) decreases with increasing particle size. We then use the distance of closest approach to investigate the effect of short-range repulsive non-hydrodynamic interactions (e.g., solid-solid contact). We define a critical trajectory as the one in which the minimum particle-obstacle separation is equal to the range of the non-hydrodynamic interactions. The results further show that the initial offset of the critical trajectory (defined as the critical offset) increases with particle size. We interpret the variation of the critical offset with particle size as the basis for size-based microfluidic separation in pinched flow fractionation. We also compare the effect of different driving fields on the particle trajectories; we simulate a constant force driving the particles in a quiescent fluid as well as a freely suspended particles in a pressure-driven flow. We observe that the particles driven by a constant force approach closer to the obstacle than those suspended in a flow (for the same initial offset). On the other hand, the increment in the critical offset (as a function of particle size) is larger in the pressure-driven case than in the force-driven case. Thus, pressure-driven particle separation using pinched flow fractionation would prove more effective than its force-driven counterpart.

  11. Screen and slotted liner horizontal completion: : correcting for wellbore pressure drop in the inflow performance relationships (IPR)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agbongiator, Eddie Osarenmwida

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the formation, md r = radius of investigation, ft c, = total compressibility, I/psi P = pressure, psi t = time, days Initial and boundary conditions, p(r, t = 0) = pi constant dl p ? p?t ? ln ? ' ? ? + s where pwf average reservoir pressure... in the drainage area, psi wellbore flowing pressure, psi net thickness of the formation, ft formation volume factor, RB/S'I'B production rate, S I'B/D skin duc to formation damage 13 Eq. 2. 3 is the equation for the productivity index, 3, of an oil well...

  12. The effect of high-pressure injection of gas on the reservoir volume factor of a crude oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honeycutt, Baxter Bewitt

    1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The gas was taken from the casing annulus at 180 psig pressure after the well had flowed for about 3 hours. An analysis of the gas is given in Table 4. Gravity of the oil was 37. 3 API at 60oF. Reservoir pressure in the Charlotte Field... are different at different locations in the reservoir. In the high-pressure zone about the injection well ? a substantial amount of the oil dissolves in the gas, leaving a low residual oil saturation consisting of the heaviest fraction of the oil...

  13. Experimental study on the emission spectra of microwave plasma at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Boya; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Guixin, E-mail: guixin@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liao, Shanshan [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shenzhen Power Supply Co. Ltd., Shenzhen 518000, Guangdong (China)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study on microwave plasma at atmospheric pressure was conducted by employing optical emission spectroscopy. Based on a microwave plasma generation device developed for nanoparticle synthesis, we studied the influence of input microwave power and gas flow rate on the optical emission behaviors and electron temperature of plasma using Ar, He, and N{sub 2} as working gas, respectively. The physics behind these behaviors was discussed. The results are useful in characterizing microwave plasma at atmospheric pressure and can be used for improving nanoparticle synthesis system for commercial use in the future.

  14. A study of capillary pressure in a partly saturated feldspar powder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Dennis Marshall

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solution from a squirt bottle and rinsing in like manner. An alternate procedure for saturating the housing is to first fill the housing with deaired water and then thread it on the Circle Seal valve from which water is constantly flowing. However... Diagram of Deairing Apparatus 35 36 39 40 Figure 5-10 Carhoy Filled with Water and Inflated Balloon. Page 41 7-1 Capillary Pressure versus Time for Different Degrees of Saturation 56 7-2 Time Lag in Capillary Pressure with an Increase...

  15. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  16. Optical flow switching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Vincent W. S.

    Present-day networks are being challenged by dramatic increases in bandwidth demand of emerging applications. We will explore a new transport, ldquooptical flow switchingrdquo, that will enable significant growth and ...

  17. Olefin Autoxidation in Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neuenschwander, Ulrich

    Handling hazardous multiphase reactions in flow brings not only safety advantages but also significantly improved performance, due to better mass transfer characteristics. In this paper, we present a continuous microreactor ...

  18. Conjugate flow action functionals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venturi, Daniele, E-mail: daniele-venturi@brown.edu [Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)] [Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new general framework to construct an action functional for a non-potential field theory. The key idea relies on representing the governing equations relative to a diffeomorphic flow of curvilinear coordinates which is assumed to be functionally dependent on the solution field. Such flow, which will be called the conjugate flow, evolves in space and time similarly to a physical fluid flow of classical mechanics and it can be selected in order to symmetrize the Gâteaux derivative of the field equations with respect to suitable local bilinear forms. This is equivalent to requiring that the governing equations of the field theory can be derived from a principle of stationary action on a Lie group manifold. By using a general operator framework, we obtain the determining equations of such manifold and the corresponding conjugate flow action functional. In particular, we study scalar and vector field theories governed by second-order nonlinear partial differential equations. The identification of transformation groups leaving the conjugate flow action functional invariant could lead to the discovery of new conservation laws in fluid dynamics and other disciplines.

  19. Measurements of wall heat (mass) transfer for flow through blockages with round and square holes in a wide rectangular channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cervantes, Joel

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) transfer on the channel wall by 4.7 to 6.3 times, and increased the pressure drop along the test channel by up to almost 490 times that for fully developed turbulent flow through a smooth channel at the same mass flow rates. The blockages with round holes...

  20. Temperature impacts on the set pressure of soft seated pressure relief valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engel, J.J.; Zirps, G.T.; Gleason, R.B. [and others

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From a safety standpoint, regardless of plant or facility type, the most important pieces of equipment are the pressure relief devices. The most critical characteristics of a pressure relief device are its set pressure and the related relieving capacity. The Set Pressure of a pressure relief device is defined as that value of increasing inlet static pressure at which the discharge becomes continuous (ASME PTC 25-1994, Performance Test Codes). To preclude an unsafe overpressure situation, the set pressure of the pressure relief device must not exceed the maximum allowable working pressure of the equipment or system being protected. Because of testing facility limitations, size or pressure, pressure relief valves intended for elevated temperature service are often set using ambient temperature air. Adjustments are made to the ambient valve opening pressures to compensate for the temperature differences. The extent of the adjustments to the pressure relief valve set pressure is important to ensure the valve will provide the required overpressure protection at the elevated in-service temperature.

  1. Section 13: Flow control 1 Section 13: Flow control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich

    Geometries for Energyefficient Flow Around Bodies Abstract 14:30 ­ 14:50: Elfriede Friedmann (Universität

  2. Air-flow regulation system for a coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved air-flow regulator for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which allows close air-flow regulation from a compressor source even though the pressure variations are too rapid for a single primary control loop to respond. The improved system includes a primary controller to control a valve in the main (large) air supply line to regulate large slow changes in flow. A secondary controller is used to control a smaller, faster acting valve in a secondary (small) air supply line parallel to the main line valve to regulate rapid cyclic deviations in air flow. A low-pass filter with a time constant of from 20 to 50 seconds couples the output of the secondary controller to the input of the primary controller so that the primary controller only responds to slow changes in the air-flow rate, the faster, cyclic deviations in flow rate sensed and corrected by the secondary controller loop do not reach the primary controller due to the high frequency rejection provided by the filter. This control arrangement provides at least a factor of 5 improvement in air-flow regulation for a coal gasifier in which air is supplied by a reciprocating compressor through a surge tank.

  3. Flow-Force Compensation in a Hydraulic Valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lugowski, Jan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flow-reaction forces acting in hydraulic valves have been studied for many decades. Despite this, they are difficult to account for due to the complexities of the jet flow. This paper focuses only on the reduction, also referred to as compensation, of the flow force as applied to a valve spool featuring a profile of a turbine bucket. Fluid power textbooks explain the compensation taking place on such a profile by applying Newton laws of motion to the profile and deliver an equation for the magnitude and the direction of the flow force. This paper shows that both the magnitude and the direction of the compensating flow force are incorrect if calculated from the textbook equation. A corrected analysis of the dynamic forces is presented that are in agreement with earlier experiments by this author. It follows that the compensating flow force should be calculated from the static-pressure imbalance on the spool profile. That is, not Newton but Pascal law should be applied to calculate the compensating flow force.

  4. Portable high precision pressure transducer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piper, T.C.; Morgan, J.P.; Marchant, N.J.; Bolton, S.M.

    1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A high precision pressure transducer system is described for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum fluorescent display. 2 figures.

  5. Portable high precision pressure transducer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piper, Thomas C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Morgan, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Marchant, Norman J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bolton, Steven M. (Pocatello, ID)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high precision pressure transducer system for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum florescent display.

  6. The effect of fuel injection angle and pressure on combustor performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Michael Lee

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is a function of primary zone residence time and fuel-air ratio. For a fuel flow of 2, 9 pounds per hour the overall CO is low indicating lean combustion (figure I '). CO is highest for both fuel mass flow rates at a 0 injection angle... lowering CO emissions. The effect of increased tuel pressure on CO emissions is shown in figure 13, The 14. 5 psi injection 27 W CI CI D D D D D D D Lf) Lcl D D D QQ U c' D 0 0 4 6 E E F 0 CLI Vl Vl Vl VI 0 Ql 0 Q / 0 p / I d I c...

  7. Energy Flow Energy Flow Energy Flow A.Ukleja, T.Tymieniecka, I.Skillicorn 1 Azimuthal asymmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Flow Energy Flow Energy Flow A.Ukleja, T.Tymieniecka, I.Skillicorn 1 Azimuthal asymmetry using energy flow method Azimuthal angle distribution at Q2 >100 GeV2 Energy flow method.Ukleja on behalf of the ZEUS Collaboration #12; Energy Flow Energy Flow Energy Flow A.Ukleja, T.Tymieniecka, I

  8. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX

    2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  9. Zirconate pyrochlores under high pressure. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    phase transformation. Citation: Xiao HY, FX Zhang, F Gao, M Lang, RC Ewing, and WJ Weber.2010."Zirconate pyrochlores under high pressure."Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics....

  10. Elasticity of Materials at High Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gleason, Arianna Elizabeth

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    implications for lower mantle mineralogy, Earth Planet. Sci.C.R. (1998), Lower mantle mineralogy and the geophysical,in Ultrahigh-Pressure Mineralogy: Physics and Chemistry of

  11. Supplementary Material1 Estimation of Wall Loss of Sulfuric Acid in the Fast Flow Nucleation Reactor:3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Shan-Hu

    loss can be expressed with the first order rate constant, k, in a9 fast flow reactor:10 [H2SO4]t= [H2SO as the nucleation reactor. Ball et al.21 (1999) used a fast flow reactor in their H2SO4-H2O BHN experiments generator, a fast-flow nucleation46 reactor, an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometer

  12. A Holistic Framework for Environmental Flows Determination in Hydropower Contexts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Among the ecological science community, the consensus view is that the natural flow regime sustains the ecological integrity of river systems. This prevailing viewpoint by many environmental stakeholders has progressively led to increased pressure on hydropower dam owners to change plant operations to affect downstream river flows with the intention of providing better conditions for aquatic biological communities. Identifying the neccessary magnitude, frequency, duration, timing, or rate of change of stream flows to meet ecological needs in a hydropower context is challenging because the ecological responses to changes in flows may not be fully known, there are usually a multitude of competing users of flow, and implementing environmental flows usually comes at a price to energy production. Realistically, hydropower managers must develop a reduced set of goals that provide the most benefit to the identified ecological needs. As a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program, the Instream Flow Project (IFP) was carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Argon National Laboratory (ANL) as an attempt to develop tools aimed at defining environmental flow needs for hydropower operations. The application of these tools ranges from national to site-specific scales; thus, the utility of each tool will depend on various phases of the environmental flow process. Given the complexity and sheer volume of applications used to determine environmentally acceptable flows for hydropower, a framework is needed to organize efforts into a staged process dependent upon spatial, temporal, and functional attributes. By far, the predominant domain for determining environmental flows related to hydropower is within the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) relicensing process. This process can take multiple years and can be very expensive depending on the scale of each hydropower project. The utility of such a framework is that it can expedite the environmental flow process by 1) organizing data and applications to identify predictable relationships between flows and ecology, and 2) suggesting when and where tools should be used in the environmental flow process. In addition to regulatory procedures, a framework should also provide the coordination for a comprehensive research agenda to guide the science of environmental flows. This research program has further reaching benefits than just environmental flow determination by providing modeling applications, data, and geospatial layers to inform potential hydropower development. We address several objectives within this document that highlight the limitations of existing environmental flow paradigms and their applications to hydropower while presenting a new framework catered towards hydropower needs. Herein, we address the following objectives: 1) Provide a brief overview of the Natural Flow Regime paradigm and existing environmental flow frameworks that have been used to determine ecologically sensitive stream flows for hydropower operations. 2) Describe a new conceptual framework to aid in determining flows needed to meet ecological objectives with regard to hydropower operations. The framework is centralized around determining predictable relationships between flow and ecological responses. 3) Provide evidence of how efforts from ORNL, PNNL, and ANL have filled some of the gaps in this broader framework, and suggest how the framework can be used to set the stage for a research agenda for environmental flow.

  13. An experimental investigation of flow control for supersonic inlets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Titchener, Neil

    2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    and in severe cases can lead to engine surge. In the early days of inlet design pressure recovery was generally considered the most im- portant parameter in inlet flow, however, the development of axial compressors with higher tip speeds and blade loadings... descriptors shown above. 7 Chapter 2. Inlet Design–A Brief Introduction For more details on distortion, especially the influence of unsteadiness, the reader should refer to the details of the flight testing trouble encountered with the F-111 described...

  14. Flow of wet granular materials: a numerical study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saeed Khamseh; Jean-Noël Roux; François Chevoir

    2015-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We simulate dense assemblies of frictional spherical grains in steady shear flow under controlled normal stress $P$ in the presence of a small amount of an interstitial liquid, which gives rise to capillary menisci, assumed isolated (pendular regime), and to attractive forces. The system behavior depends on two dimensionless control parameters: inertial number $I$ and reduced pressure $P^*=aP/(\\pi\\Gamma)$, comparing confining forces $\\sim a^2P$ to meniscus tensile strength $F_0=\\pi\\Gamma a$, for grains of diameter $a$ joined by menisci with surface tension $\\Gamma$. We pay special attention to the quasi-static limit of slow flow and observe systematic, enduring strain localization in some of the cohesion-dominated ($P^*\\sim 0.1$) systems. Homogeneous steady flows are characterized by the dependence of internal friction coefficient $\\mu^*$ and solid fraction $\\Phi$ on $I$ and $P^*$. We record fairly small but not negligible normal stress differences and the moderate sensitivity of the system to saturation within the pendular regime. Capillary forces have a significant effect on the macroscopic behavior of the system, up to $P^*$ values of several units. The concept of effective pressure may be used to predict an order of magnitude for the strong increase of $\\mu^*$ as $P^*$ decreases but such a crude approach is unable to account for the complex structural changes induced by capillary cohesion. Likewise, the Mohr-Coulomb criterion for pressure-dependent critical states is, at best, an approximation valid within a restricted range of pressures, with $P^*\\ge 1$. At small enough $P^*$, large clusters of interacting grains form in slow flows, in which liquid bonds survive shear strains of several units. This affects the anisotropies associated to different interactions, and the shape of function $\\mu^*(I)$, which departs more slowly from its quasistatic limit than in cohesionless systems.

  15. Cluster Cooling Flows: Recent Progress and Outstanding Questions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig L. Sarazin

    1996-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent results on cluster cooling flows are reviewed. Observations of excess soft X-ray provides the only direct evidence for a major repository for the cooled gas. Unfortunately, the frequency of occurrence of large excess columns is uncertain. There is also great uncertainty about the physical state of the material producing the absorption. Radio observations have ruled out most forms of cold gas. Recent radio observations show that the plasma in cooling flows is strong magnetized. Models for cooling flows including the dynamical effects of the magnetic field are needed. We also need to understand what ultimately happens to the advected magnetic flux. At present, it appears most likely that the field is by field line reconnection. The radio sources associated with the central galaxies in cluster cooling flows seem to come in two varieties. There are ``lobe-dominated sources'' with strong radio jets and well-defined radio lobes, and ``amorphous'' sources without strong jets or lobes. In the lobe-dominated sources, the radio pressures agree approximately with the pressures of the X-ray emitting thermal gas, the X-ray and radio images anticorrelate, and the radio sources are highly polarized and have very large Faraday rotations. In the amorphous sources, the radio pressures are much smaller than the X-ray pressures, the X-ray and radio images correlate, and the radio sources are strongly depolarized. These results suggest that the lobes in the lobe-dominated sources have displaced the X-ray emitting gas, while in the amorphous sources, the radio and thermal plasma are mixed.

  16. Bubbles as tracers of heat input to cooling flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Binney; F. Alouani Bibi; H. Omma

    2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the distribution of injected energy in three-dimensional, adaptive-grid simulations of the heating of cooling flows. We show that less than 10 percent of the injected energy goes into bubbles. Consequently, the energy input from the nucleus is underestimated by a factor of order 6 when it is taken to be given by PVgamma/(gamma-1), where P and V are the pressure and volume of the bubble, and gamma the ratio of principal specific heats.

  17. Mesoscale modeling of the rheology of pressure sensitive adhesives through inclusion of transient forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padding, J T; Auhl, D; Briels, W J; Bailly, C

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For optimal application, pressure-sensitive adhesives must have rheological properties in between those of a viscoplastic solid and those of a viscoelastic liquid. Such adhesives can be produced by emulsion polymerisation, resulting in latex particles which are dispersed in water and contain long-chain acrylic polymers. When the emulsion is dried, the latex particles coalesce and an adhesive film is formed. The rheological properties of the dried samples are believed to be dominated by the interface regions between the original latex particles, but the relation between rheology and latex particle properties is poorly understood. In this paper we show that it is possible to describe the bulk rheology of a pressure-sensitive adhesive by means of a mesoscale simulation model. To reach experimental time and length scales, each latex particle is represented by just one simulated particle. The model is subjected to oscillatory shear flow and extensional flow. Simple order of magnitude estimates of the model paramet...

  18. Amplification of Pressure Waves during Vibrational Equilibration of Excited Chemical Reaction Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarver, C M

    2004-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The Non-Equilibrium Zeldovich - von Neumann - Doring (NEZND) theory of self-sustaining detonation identified amplification of pressure wavelets during equilibration of vibrationally excited reaction products in the reaction zone as the physical mechanism by which exothermic chemical energy release sustains detonation waves. This mechanism leads to the formation of the well-known, complex three-dimensional structure of a self-sustaining detonation wave. This amplification mechanism is postulated to be a general property of subsonic and supersonic reactive flows occurring during: shock to detonation transition (SDT); hot spot ignition and growth; deflagration to detonation transition (DDT); flame acceleration by shock or compression waves; and acoustic (sound) wave amplification. The existing experimental and theoretical evidence for pressure wave amplification by chemical energy release into highly vibrationally excited product molecules under these reactive flow conditions is reviewed in this paper.

  19. Piezoelectric axial flow microvalve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gemmen, Randall; Thornton, Jimmy; Vipperman, Jeffrey S.; Clark, William W.

    2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is directed to a fuel cell operable with a quantity of fuel and a quantity of an oxidizer to produce electrical power, the fuel cell including a fuel cell body including a labyrinth system structured to permit the fuel and the oxidizer to flow therethrough; at least a first catalyst in fluid communication with the labyrinth; and at least a first microvalve operably disposed within at least a portion of the labyrinth. The microvalve utilizes a deflectable member operable upon the application of a voltage from a voltage source. The microvalve includes an elongated flow channel formed therein and extending substantially longitudinally between the first and second ends to permit substantially longitudinal flow of the fluid therethrough and between the first and second ends; and the deflectable member disposed on the valve body, the deflectable member including at least a first piezoelectric portion that is piezoelectrically operable to deflect the deflectable member between an open position and a closed position upon the application of a voltage, the deflectable member in the closed position being operable to resist the flow of the fluid through the flow channel.

  20. Computer-aided analysis of formation pressure integrity tests used in oil well drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almeida, M.A.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, the development of a computer simulation model for leak-off tests has been accomplished. This model is more realistic than the one currently used, but is sufficiently simple that it can be applied with data normally available during leak-off test operations in the field. The model includes the many factors that affect pressure behavior during the test, and can predict with reasonable accuracy what the pressure curve will look like. In addition, test interpretation using the computer model is easily achieved using a curve matching technique. The first step toward the development of the computer model was to subdivide the leak-off test into four phases: (1) pressure increase due to overall compressibility of the system, (2) fracture initiation, (3) fracture expansion, and (4) pressure decline and fracture closure after the pump is shut-in. The second step was the development of mathematical models for each phase separately. The mathematical model that predicts pressure increase before fracture initiation includes the most important variables affecting overall compressibility of the system. The modeling of fracture initiation is based on the classical elasticity theory. The modeling of fracture expansion and closure is based on the solution of the continuity equation for flow into a vertical-elliptical fracture with constant height. A computer program that predicts the pressure behavior during the leak-off test was written. This computer model was then verified using field data furnished by Tenneco Oil Company.