National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for flow pressure rangepsi

  1. Coastal Inlet Model Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    None Available Sensors Flow, Pressure Range(psi), Turbulence, Velocity, Wave Probe Data Generation Capability Real-Time No Test Services Test Services Yes Past Pertinent...

  2. 10-ft Wave Flume Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    None Available Sensors Flow, Pressure Range(psi), Turbulence, Velocity, Wave Probe Data Generation Capability Real-Time No Test Services Test Services Yes Past Pertinent...

  3. Coastal Structures Modeling Complex | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    None Available Sensors Flow, Pressure Range(psi), Turbulence, Velocity, Wave Probe Data Generation Capability Real-Time No Test Services Test Services None Special...

  4. Sectional Model Flume Facilities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    None Available Sensors Flow, Pressure Range(psi), Turbulence, Velocity, Wave Probe Data Generation Capability Real-Time No Test Services Test Services Yes Past Pertinent...

  5. Pressure compensated flow control valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minteer, Daniel J.

    1999-01-01

    The invention is an air flow control valve which is capable of maintaining a constant flow at the outlet despite changes in the inlet or outlet pressure. The device consists of a shell assembly with an inlet chamber and outlet chamber separated by a separation plate. The chambers are connected by an orifice. Also located within the inlet chamber is a port controller assembly. The port controller assembly consists of a differential pressure plate and port cap affixed thereon. The cap is able to slide in and out of the orifice separating the inlet and outlet chambers. When the pressure differential is sufficient, the differential pressure plate rises or falls to maintain a constant air flow. Movement of the port controller assembly does not require the use of seals, diaphragms, tight tolerances, bushings, bearings, hinges, guides, or lubricants.

  6. Property:Available Sensors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 1 1.5-ft Wave Flume Facility + Flow, Pressure Range(psi), Turbulence, ... 10-ft Wave Flume Facility + Flow, Pressure...

  7. Pressure and flow characteristics of restrictive flow orifice...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA at www.ntis.gov. A Restrictive Flow Orifice (RFO) can be used to enhance the safe design of a pressure system in several ways. ...

  8. Pressure balanced drag turbine mass flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dacus, Michael W. (Gilbert, AR); Cole, Jack H. (Fayetteville, AR)

    1982-01-01

    The density of the fluid flowing through a tubular member may be measured by a device comprising a rotor assembly suspended within the tubular member, a fluid bearing medium for the rotor assembly shaft, independent fluid flow lines to each bearing chamber, and a scheme for detection of any difference between the upstream and downstream bearing fluid pressures. The rotor assembly reacts to fluid flow both by rotation and axial displacement; therefore concurrent measurements may be made of the velocity of blade rotation and also bearing pressure changes, where the pressure changes may be equated to the fluid momentum flux imparted to the rotor blades. From these parameters the flow velocity and density of the fluid may be deduced.

  9. Pressure balanced drag turbine mass flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dacus, M.W.; Cole, J.H.

    1980-04-23

    The density of the fluid flowing through a tubular member may be measured by a device comprising a rotor assembly suspended within the tubular member, a fluid bearing medium for the rotor assembly shaft, independent fluid flow lines to each bearing chamber, and a scheme for detection of any difference between the upstream and downstream bearing fluid pressures. The rotor assembly reacts to fluid flow both by rotation and axial displacement; therefore concurrent measurements may be made of the velocity of blade rotation and also bearing pressure changes, where the pressure changes may be equated to the fluid momentum flux imparted to the rotor blades. From these parameters the flow velocity and density of the fluid may be deduced.

  10. Pressure-flow reducer for aerosol focusing devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gard, Eric; Riot, Vincent; Coffee, Keith; Woods, Bruce; Tobias, Herbert; Birch, Jim; Weisgraber, Todd

    2008-04-22

    A pressure-flow reducer, and an aerosol focusing system incorporating such a pressure-flow reducer, for performing high-flow, atmosphere-pressure sampling while delivering a tightly focused particle beam in vacuum via an aerodynamic focusing lens stack. The pressure-flow reducer has an inlet nozzle for adjusting the sampling flow rate, a pressure-flow reduction region with a skimmer and pumping ports for reducing the pressure and flow to enable interfacing with low pressure, low flow aerosol focusing devices, and a relaxation chamber for slowing or stopping aerosol particles. In this manner, the pressure-flow reducer decouples pressure from flow, and enables aerosol sampling at atmospheric pressure and at rates greater than 1 liter per minute.

  11. System for measuring multiphase flow using multiple pressure differentials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-01-01

    An improved method and system for measuring a multi-phase flow in a pressure flow meter. An extended throat venturi is used and pressure of the multi-phase flow is measured at three or more positions in the venturi, which define two or more pressure differentials in the flow conduit. The differential pressures are then used to calculate the mass flow of the gas phase, the total mass flow, and the liquid phase. The system for determining the mass flow of the high void fraction fluid flow and the gas flow includes taking into account a pressure drop experienced by the gas phase due to work performed by the gas phase in accelerating the liquid phase.

  12. Pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, T.W.; Hamill, P.E. Jr.; Ozgu, M.R.; Padfield, R.C.; Rego, D.N.; Brita, G.P.

    1990-07-24

    A pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal is characterized by having a pair of principal compartments, one being essentially unpressurized and receiving molten metal introduced thereto, and the other being adapted for maintaining a controlled gaseous pressure over the surface of the fluid metal therein, whereby, by controlling the pressure within the pressurized chamber, metal exiting from the tundish is made to flow continually and at a controlled rate. 1 fig.

  13. Pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Thomas W.; Hamill, Jr., Paul E.; Ozgu, Mustafa R.; Padfield, Ralph C.; Rego, Donovan N.; Brita, Guido P.

    1990-01-01

    A pressurized tundish for controlling a continous flow of molten metal characterized by having a pair of principal compartments, one being essentially unpressurized and receiving molten metal introduced thereto, and the other being adapted for maintaining a controlled gaseous pressure over the surface of the fluid metal therein, whereby, by controlling the pressure within the pressurized chamber, metal exiting from the tundish is made to flow continually and at a controlled rate.

  14. Double Shock Experiments and Reactive Flow Modeling of High Pressure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Double Shock Experiments and Reactive Flow Modeling of High Pressure LX-17 Detonation Reaction Product States Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Double Shock Experiments ...

  15. Flow rate--pressure drop relation for deformable shallow microfluidic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    shallow microfluidic channels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flow rate--pressure drop relation for deformable shallow microfluidic channels Authors: Christov, Ivan ...

  16. Modeling flow in a pressure-sensitive, heterogeneous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasco, Donald W.; Minkoff, Susan E.

    2009-06-01

    Using an asymptotic methodology, including an expansion in inverse powers of {radical}{omega}, where {omega} is the frequency, we derive a solution for flow in a medium with pressure dependent properties. The solution is valid for a heterogeneous medium with smoothly varying properties. That is, the scale length of the heterogeneity must be significantly larger then the scale length over which the pressure increases from it initial value to its peak value. The resulting asymptotic expression is similar in form to the solution for pressure in a medium in which the flow properties are not functions of pressure. Both the expression for pseudo-phase, which is related to the 'travel time' of the transient pressure disturbance, and the expression for pressure amplitude contain modifications due to the pressure dependence of the medium. We apply the method to synthetic and observed pressure variations in a deforming medium. In the synthetic test we model one-dimensional propagation in a pressure-dependent medium. Comparisons with both an analytic self-similar solution and the results of a numerical simulation indicate general agreement. Furthermore, we are able to match pressure variations observed during a pulse test at the Coaraze Laboratory site in France.

  17. Vitiated ethane oxidation in a high-pressure flow reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, K.M.; Bowman, C.T.

    2009-10-15

    Vitiated combustion processes offer the potential to improve the thermodynamic efficiency in hydrocarbon-fueled combustion systems, providing a subsequent decrease in energy-specific CO{sub 2} emissions along with a decrease in the emission levels of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter. The present work comprises an experimental and modeling study of vitiated ethane oxidation in a high-pressure flow reactor, with pressures of 1-6 bar, O{sub 2} mole fractions of 3.5-7.0%, temperatures of 1075-1100 K and 15-18 mole.% H{sub 2}O. Time-history measurements of species are used to characterize the overall rate of reaction and track the fuel-carbon through intermediate and product species. A one-dimensional mixing-reacting model that accounts for partial oxidation during reactant mixing is used in conjunction with a detailed kinetic mechanism. Changes in competing pathways due to variations in pressure and O{sub 2} mole fraction give rise to the complex pressure dependence seen in the experiments. (author)

  18. Oblique inlet pressure loss for swirling flow entering a catalyst substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Persoons, T.; Vanierschot, M.; Van den Bulck, E. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Celestijnenlaan 300A, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2008-05-15

    This experimental study investigates the oblique inlet pressure loss for the entry of an annular swirling flow into an automotive catalyst substrate. The results are applicable to a wide range of compact heat exchangers. For zero swirl, the total pressure loss agrees with established expressions for pressure loss in developing laminar flow in parallel channels with finite wall thickness. For positive swirl, the additional pressure loss due to oblique flow entry is correlated to the tangential velocity upstream of the catalyst, measured using laser-Doppler anemometry. The obtained oblique inlet pressure loss correlation can improve the accuracy of numerical calculations of the flow distribution in catalysts. (author)

  19. Method and system for measuring multiphase flow using multiple pressure differentials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R.

    2001-01-01

    An improved method and system for measuring a multiphase flow in a pressure flow meter. An extended throat venturi is used and pressure of the multiphase flow is measured at three or more positions in the venturi, which define two or more pressure differentials in the flow conduit. The differential pressures are then used to calculate the mass flow of the gas phase, the total mass flow, and the liquid phase. The method for determining the mass flow of the high void fraction fluid flow and the gas flow includes certain steps. The first step is calculating a gas density for the gas flow. The next two steps are finding a normalized gas mass flow rate through the venturi and computing a gas mass flow rate. The following step is estimating the gas velocity in the venturi tube throat. The next step is calculating the pressure drop experienced by the gas-phase due to work performed by the gas phase in accelerating the liquid phase between the upstream pressure measuring point and the pressure measuring point in the venturi throat. Another step is estimating the liquid velocity in the venturi throat using the calculated pressure drop experienced by the gas-phase due to work performed by the gas phase. Then the friction is computed between the liquid phase and a wall in the venturi tube. Finally, the total mass flow rate based on measured pressure in the venturi throat is calculated, and the mass flow rate of the liquid phase is calculated from the difference of the total mass flow rate and the gas mass flow rate.

  20. Method and apparatus to measure vapor pressure in a flow system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; Biblarz, Oscar

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for determining, by a condensation method, the vapor pressure of a material with a known vapor pressure versus temperature characteristic, in a flow system particularly in a mercury isotope enrichment process.

  1. Study of flow fields induced by surface dielectric barrier discharge actuator in low-pressure air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Che, Xueke E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn; Nie, Wansheng; Tian, Xihui; Hou, Zhiyong; He, Haobo; Zhou, Penghui; Zhou, Siyin; Yang, Chao; Shao, Tao E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn

    2014-04-15

    Surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) is a promising method for a flow control. Flow fields induced by a SDBD actuator driven by the ac voltage in static air at low pressures varying from 1.0 to 27.7?kPa are measured by the particle image velocimetry method. The influence of the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude on the induced flow fields is studied. The results show that three different classes of flow fields (wall jet flow field, complex flow field, and vortex-shape flow field) can be induced by the SDBD actuator in the low-pressure air. Among them, the wall jet flow field is the same as the tangential jet at atmospheric pressure, which is, together with the vertical jet, the complex flow field. The vortex-shape flow field is composed of one vertical jet which points towards the wall and two opposite tangential jets. The complex and the vortex-shape flow fields can be transformed to the wall jet flow field when the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude are changed. It is found that the discharge power consumption increases initially, decreases, and then increases again at the same applied ac voltage magnitude when the air pressure decreases. The tangential velocity of the wall jet flow field increases when the air pressure decreases. It is however opposite for the complex flow field. The variation of the applied ac voltage frequency influences differently three different flow fields. When the applied ac voltage magnitude increases at the same applied ac voltage frequency, the maximal jet velocity increases, while the power efficiency increases only initially and then decreases again. The discharge power shows either linear or exponential dependences on the applied ac voltage magnitude.

  2. Experimental investigation of ice slurry flow pressure drop in horizontal tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grozdek, Marino; Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah; Lundqvist, Per [Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Energy Technology, Division of Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration, Brinellvaegen 68, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-01-15

    Pressure drop behaviour of ice slurry based on ethanol-water mixture in circular horizontal tubes has been experimentally investigated. The secondary fluid was prepared by mixing ethyl alcohol and water to obtain initial alcohol concentration of 10.3% (initial freezing temperature -4.4 C). The pressure drop tests were conducted to cover laminar and slightly turbulent flow with ice mass fraction varying from 0% to 30% depending on test conditions. Results from flow tests reveal much higher pressure drop for higher ice concentrations and higher velocities in comparison to the single phase flow. However for ice concentrations of 15% and higher, certain velocity exists at which ice slurry pressure drop is same or even lower than for single phase flow. It seems that higher ice concentration delay flow pattern transition moment (from laminar to turbulent) toward higher velocities. In addition experimental results for pressure drop were compared to the analytical results, based on Poiseulle and Buckingham-Reiner models for laminar flow, Blasius, Darby and Melson, Dodge and Metzner, Steffe and Tomita for turbulent region and general correlation of Kitanovski which is valid for both flow regimes. For laminar flow and low buoyancy numbers Buckingham-Reiner method gives good agreement with experimental results while for turbulent flow best fit is provided with Dodge-Metzner and Tomita methods. Furthermore, for transport purposes it has been shown that ice mass fraction of 20% offers best ratio of ice slurry transport capability and required pumping power. (author)

  3. Double Shock Experiments and Reactive Flow Modeling of High Pressure LX-17

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Detonation Reaction Product States (Conference) | SciTech Connect Double Shock Experiments and Reactive Flow Modeling of High Pressure LX-17 Detonation Reaction Product States Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Double Shock Experiments and Reactive Flow Modeling of High Pressure LX-17 Detonation Reaction Product States Authors: Vandersall, K S ; Garcia, F ; Fried, L E ; Tarver, C M Publication Date: 2014-06-24 OSTI Identifier: 1169870 Report Number(s): LLNL-CONF-656252

  4. Method and apparatus to measure vapor pressure in a flow system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; Biblarz, O.

    1991-10-15

    The present invention is directed to a method for determining, by a condensation method, the vapor pressure of a material with a known vapor pressure versus temperature characteristic, in a flow system particularly in a mercury isotope enrichment process. 2 figures.

  5. Carderock Large Cavitation Tunnel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    None Control and Data Acquisition Cameras None Available Sensors Pressure Range(psi) Data Generation Capability Real-Time No Test Services Test Services None Special...

  6. Relation between plasma plume density and gas flow velocity in atmospheric pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Taka, Shogo; Ogura, Kazuo [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    We have studied atmospheric pressure plasma generated using a quartz tube, helium gas, and copper foil electrode by applying RF high voltage. The atmospheric pressure plasma in the form of a bullet is released as a plume into the atmosphere. To study the properties of the plasma plume, the plasma plume current is estimated from the difference in currents on the circuit, and the drift velocity is measured using a photodetector. The relation of the plasma plume density n{sub plu}, which is estimated from the current and the drift velocity, and the gas flow velocity v{sub gas} is examined. It is found that the dependence of the density on the gas flow velocity has relations of n{sub plu} ? log(v{sub gas}). However, the plasma plume density in the laminar flow is higher than that in the turbulent flow. Consequently, in the laminar flow, the density increases with increasing the gas flow velocity.

  7. Estimation of fracture flow parameters through numerical analysis of hydromechanical pressure pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cappa, F.; Guglielmi, Y.; Rutqvist, J.; Tsang, C.-F.; Thoraval, A.

    2008-03-16

    The flow parameters of a natural fracture were estimated by modeling in situ pressure pulses. The pulses were generated in two horizontal boreholes spaced 1 m apart vertically and intersecting a near-vertical highly permeable fracture located within a shallow fractured carbonate reservoir. Fracture hydromechanical response was monitored using specialized fiber-optic borehole equipment that could simultaneously measure fluid pressure and fracture displacements. Measurements indicated a significant time lag between the pressure peak at the injection point and the one at the second measuring point, located 1 m away. The pressure pulse dilated and contracted the fracture. Field data were analyzed through hydraulic and coupled hydromechanical simulations using different governing flow laws. In matching the time lag between the pressure peaks at the two measuring points, our hydraulic models indicated that (1) flow was channeled in the fracture, (2) the hydraulic conductivity tensor was highly anisotropic, and (3) the radius of pulse influence was asymmetric, in that the pulse travelled faster vertically than horizontally. Moreover, our parametric study demonstrated that the fluid pressure diffusion through the fracture was quite sensitive to the spacing and orientation of channels, hydraulic aperture, storativity and hydraulic conductivity. Comparison between hydraulic and hydromechanical models showed that the deformation significantly affected fracture permeability and storativity, and consequently, the fluid pressure propagation, suggesting that the simultaneous measurements of pressure and mechanical displacement signals could substantially improve the interpretation of pulse tests during reservoir characterization.

  8. Parametric System Curves: Correlations Between Fan Pressure Rise and Flow for Large Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max; Wray, Craig

    2010-05-19

    A substantial fraction of HVAC energy use in large commercial buildings is due to fan operation. Fan energy use depends in part on the relationship between system pressure drop and flow through the fan, which is commonly called a "system curve." As a step toward enabling better selections of air-handling system components and analyses of common energy efficiency measures such as duct static pressure reset and duct leakage sealing, this paper shows that a simple four-parameter physical model can be used to define system curves. Our model depends on the square of the fan flow, as is commonly considered. It also includes terms that account for linear-like flow resistances such as filters and coils, and for supply duct leakage when damper positions are fixed or are changed independently of static pressure or fan flow. Only two parameters are needed for systems with variable-position supply dampers (e.g., VAV box dampers modulating to control flow). For these systems, reducing or eliminating supply duct leakage does not change the system curve. The parametric system curve may be most useful when applied to field data. Non-linear techniques could be used to fit the curve to fan pressure rise and flow measurements over a range of operating conditions. During design, when measurements are unavailable, one could use duct design calculation tools instead to determine the coefficients.

  9. Effects of sudden expansion and contraction flow on pressure drops in the Stirling engine regenerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamaguchi, K.; Yamashita, I.; Hirata, K.

    1998-07-01

    The flow losses in the regenerators greatly influence the performance of the Stirling engine. The losses mainly depend on fluid friction through the regenerator matrix, but are also generated in sudden expansion and contraction flow at the regenerator ends. The latter losses can't be neglected in the case of small area ratio (entrance area/cross-sectional area in regenerator). The pressure drops in regenerators are usually estimated assuming a uniform velocity distribution of working gas in the matrices. The estimation results, however, are generally smaller than practical data. The cross-sectional flow areas of the heater and cooler of typical Stirling engines are smaller than the cross- sectional area of the regenerator. The effects of the small flow passage on the velocity distribution of working fluid in the matrix, that is, a flow transition from tubes or channels to a regenerator matrix, can be often confirmed by the discolored matrix. Especially, the lack of a uniform distribution of velocity in the matrix causes increased flow loss and decreased thermal performance. So, it is necessary to understand the quantitative effects of the sudden change in flow area at the regenerator ends on the velocity distribution and pressure drop. In this paper, using matrices made of stacks of wire screens, the effects of the entrance and exit areas and the length of the regenerator on pressure drops are examined by an unidirectional steady flow apparatus. The experimental data are arranged in an empirical equation. The lack of a uniformity of velocity distribution is visualized using smoke-wire methods. The empirical equation presented is applied to the estimation of pressure loss in an actual engine regenerator. The applicability of the equation is examined by comparison of estimated value with engine data in pressure loss.

  10. Aerodynamic pressure and flow-visualization measurement from a rotating wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butterfield, C.P.

    1988-11-01

    Aerodynamic, load, flow-visualization, and inflow measurements have been made on a 10-m, three-bladed, downwind, horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT). A video camera mounted on the rotor was used to record nighttime and daytime video images of tufts attached to the low-pressure side of a constant-chord, zero-twist blade. Load measurements were made using strain gages mounted at every 10% of the blade's span. Pressure measurements were made at 80% of the blade's span. Pressure taps were located at 32 chordwise positions, revealing pressure distributions comparable with wind tunnel data. Inflow was measured using a vertical-plane array of eight propvane and five triaxial (U-V-W) prop-type anemometers located 10 m upwind in the predominant wind direction. One objective of this comprehensive research program was to study the effects of blade rotation on aerodynamic behavior below, near, and beyond stall. To this end, flow patterns are presented here that reveal the dynamic and steady behavior of flow conditions on the blade. Pressure distributions are compared to flow patterns and two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Separation boundary locations are shown that change as a function of spanwise location, pitch angle, and wind speed. 6 refs., 23 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Air mass flow estimation in turbocharged diesel engines from in-cylinder pressure measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desantes, J.M.; Galindo, J.; Guardiola, C.; Dolz, V.

    2010-01-15

    Air mass flow determination is needed for the control of current internal combustion engines. Current methods are based on specific sensors (as hot wire anemometers) or indirect estimation through manifold pressure. With the availability of cylinder pressure sensors for engine control, methods based on them can be used for replacing or complementing standard methods. Present paper uses in cylinder pressure increase during the intake stroke for inferring the trapped air mass. The method is validated on two different turbocharged diesel engines and compared with the standard methods. (author)

  12. PLASMA FLOWS AT VOYAGER 2 AWAY FROM THE MEASURED SUPRATHERMAL PRESSURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N. A.

    2014-11-01

    Plasma flows measured by Voyager 2 show a clear rotation away from radially outward with increasing penetration into the inner heliosheath while the overall flow speed remains roughly constant. However, the direction of rotation is far more into the transverse, and less into the polar direction, than predicted. No current model reproduces the key observational results of (1) the direction of flow rotation or (2) constancy of the flow speed. Here we show that the direction is consistent with flow away from the region of maximum pressure in the inner heliosheath, ?20° south of the upwind direction, as measured by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). Further, we show that the dominance of the suprathermal ion pressure in the inner heliosheath measured by IBEX can explain both the observed flow rotation and constancy of the flow speed. These results indicate the critical importance of suprathermal ions in the physics of the inner heliosheath and have significant implications for understanding this key region of the heliosphere's interstellar interaction and astrophysical plasmas more broadly.

  13. Experimental Modeling of VHTR Plenum Flows during Normal Operation and Pressurized Conduction Cooldown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn E McCreery; Keith G Condie

    2006-09-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is the leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Project in the U.S. which has the goal of demonstrating the production of emissions free electricity and hydrogen by 2015. The present document addresses experimental modeling of flow and thermal mixing phenomena of importance during normal or reduced power operation and during a loss of forced reactor cooling (pressurized conduction cooldown) scenario. The objectives of the experiments are, 1), provide benchmark data for assessment and improvement of codes proposed for NGNP designs and safety studies, and, 2), obtain a better understanding of related phenomena, behavior and needs. Physical models of VHTR vessel upper and lower plenums which use various working fluids to scale phenomena of interest are described. The models may be used to both simulate natural convection conditions during pressurized conduction cooldown and turbulent lower plenum flow during normal or reduced power operation.

  14. Hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene catalyzed by alumina-supported ruthenium carbonyl complexes in a pressurized flow system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    Ruthenium sulfide has been found to be most active for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of thiophenes as well as hydrogenation and hydrodenitrogenation among transition metal sulfides. When ruthenium sulfide is supported on alumina, silica, or zeolite with high surface area, highly dispersed ruthenium sulfide formed on the supports would increase the catalytic activity per a ruthenium atom. Several researchers have already reported HDS using supported ruthenium sulfides. In these works [Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}]{sup +}, Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub 12}, RuCl{sub 3}, and Ru(III) acetate supported on alumina, zeoliate, carbon, etc., were used as catalyst precursors in HDS of thiophene, benzothiophene, or dibenzothiophene. Although these HDS reactions were performed under an atmospheric pressure, the activity of the catalysts derived from supported ruthenium in a pressurized flow system have not yet been understood. In the present study, HDS of DBT catalyzed by ruthenium catalysts is investigated in a pressurized flow reactor. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Brine flow up a borehole caused by pressure perturbation from CO2 storage: Static and dynamic evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Nicot, J.-P.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Zhou, Q.; Kraemer, S.; Bandilla, K.W.

    2011-05-01

    Industrial-scale storage of CO{sub 2} in saline sedimentary basins will cause zones of elevated pressure, larger than the CO{sub 2} plume itself. If permeable conduits (e.g., leaking wells) exist between the injection reservoir and overlying shallow aquifers, brine could be pushed upwards along these conduits and mix with groundwater resources. This paper discusses the potential for such brine leakage to occur in temperature- and salinity-stratified systems. Using static mass-balance calculations as well as dynamic well flow simulations, we evaluate the minimum reservoir pressure that would generate continuous migration of brine up a leaking wellbore into a freshwater aquifer. Since the brine invading the well is denser than the initial fluid in the wellbore, continuous flow only occurs if the pressure perturbation in the reservoir is large enough to overcome the increased fluid column weight after full invasion of brine into the well. If the threshold pressure is exceeded, brine flow rates are dependent on various hydraulic (and other) properties, in particular the effective permeability of the wellbore and the magnitude of pressure increase. If brine flow occurs outside of the well casing, e.g., in a permeable fracture zone between the well cement and the formation, the fluid/solute transfer between the migrating fluid and the surrounding rock units can strongly retard brine flow. At the same time, the threshold pressure for continuous flow to occur decreases compared to a case with no fluid/solute transfer.

  16. Simplified configuration for the combustor of an oil burner using a low pressure, high flow air-atomizing nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butcher, Thomas A.; Celebi, Yusuf; Fisher, Leonard

    2000-09-15

    The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion of oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The improved fuel burner uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle that does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design. Inventors:

  17. Magnetic roller gas gate employing transonic sweep gas flow to isolate regions of differing gaseous composition or pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doehler, Joachim

    1994-12-20

    Disclosed herein is an improved gas gate for interconnecting regions of differing gaseous composition and/or pressure. The gas gate includes a narrow, elongated passageway through which substrate material is adapted to move between said regions and inlet means for introducing a flow of non-contaminating sweep gas into a central portion of said passageway. The gas gate is characterized in that the height of the passageway and the flow rate of the sweep gas therethrough provides for transonic flow of the sweep gas between the inlet means and at least one of the two interconnected regions, thereby effectively isolating one region, characterized by one composition and pressure, from another region, having a differing composition and/or pressure, by decreasing the mean-free-path length between collisions of diffusing species within the transonic flow region. The gas gate preferably includes a manifold at the juncture point where the gas inlet means and the passageway interconnect.

  18. Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Whitty

    2008-06-30

    The University of Utah's project 'Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment' (U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42261) was a response to U.S. DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS36-04GO94002, 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative' Topical Area 4-Kraft Black Liquor Gasification. The project began September 30, 2004. The objective of the project was to improve the understanding of black liquor conversion in high pressure, high temperature reactors that gasify liquor through partial oxidation with either air or oxygen. The physical and chemical characteristics of both the gas and condensed phase were to be studied over the entire range of liquor conversion, and the rates and mechanisms of processes responsible for converting the liquor to its final smelt and syngas products were to be investigated. This would be accomplished by combining fundamental, lab-scale experiments with measurements taken using a new semi-pilot scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier. As a result of insufficient availability of funds and changes in priority within the Office of Biomass Programs of the U.S. Department of Energy, the research program was terminated in its second year. In total, only half of the budgeted funding was made available for the program, and most of this was used during the first year for construction of the experimental systems to be used in the program. This had a severe impact on the program. As a consequence, most of the planned research was unable to be performed. Only studies that relied on computational modeling or existing experimental facilities started early enough to deliver useful results by the time to program was terminated Over the course of the program, small scale (approx. 1 ton/day) entrained-flow gasifier was designed and installed at the University of Utah's off-campus Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility. The system is designed to operate at pressures as high as 32 atmospheres, and at temperatures as high as 1500 C (2730 F). Total black liquor processing capacity under pressurized, oxygen-blown conditions should be in excess of 1 ton black liquor solids per day. Many sampling ports along the conversion section of the system will allow detailed analysis of the environment in the gasifier under industrially representative conditions. Construction was mostly completed before the program was terminated, but resources were insufficient to operate the system. A system for characterizing black liquor sprays in hot environments was designed and constructed. Silhouettes of black liquor sprays formed by injection of black liquor through a twin fluid (liquor and atomizing air) nozzle were videoed with a high-speed camera, and the resulting images were analyzed to identify overall characteristics of the spray and droplet formation mechanisms. The efficiency of liquor atomization was better when the liquor was injected through the center channel of the nozzle, with atomizing air being introduced in the annulus around the center channel, than when the liquor and air feed channels were reversed. Atomizing efficiency and spray angle increased with atomizing air pressure up to a point, beyond which additional atomizing air pressure had little effect. Analysis of the spray patterns indicates that two classifications of droplets are present, a finely dispersed 'mist' of very small droplets and much larger ligaments of liquor that form at the injector tip and form one or more relatively large droplets. This ligament and subsequent large droplet formation suggests that it will be challenging to obtain a narrow distribution of droplet sizes when using an injector of this design. A model for simulating liquor spray and droplet formation was developed by Simulent, Inc. of Toronto. The model was able to predict performance when spraying water that closely matched the vendor specifications. Simulation of liquor spray indicates that droplets on the order 200-300 microns can be expected, and that higher liquor flow will result in be

  19. An experimental study on sub-cooled flow boiling CHF of R134a at low pressure condition with atmospheric pressure (AP) plasma assisted surface modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Seung Jun; Zou, Ling; Jones, Barclay G.

    2015-02-01

    In this study, sub-cooled flow boiling critical heat flux tests at low pressure were conducted in a rectangular flow channel with one uniformly heated surface, using simulant fluid R-134a as coolant. The experiments were conducted under the following conditions: (1) inlet pressure (P) of 400-800 kPa, (2) mass flux (G) of 124-248 kg/m2s, (3) inlet sub-cooling enthalpy (ΔHi) of 12~ 26 kJ/kg. Parametric trends of macroscopic system parameters (G, P, Hi) were examined by changing inlet conditions. Those trends were found to be generally consistent with previous understandings of CHF behavior at low pressure condition (i.e. reduced pressure less than 0.2). A fluid-to-fluid scaling model was utilized to convert the test data obtained with the simulant fluid (R-134a) into the prototypical fluid (water). The comparison between the converted CHF of equivalent water and CHF look-up table with same operation conditions were conducted, which showed good agreement. Furthermore, the effect of surface wettability on CHF was also investigated by applying atmospheric pressure plasma (AP-Plasma) treatment to modify the surface characteristic. With AP-Plasma treatment, the change of microscopic surface characteristic was measured in terms of static contact angle. The static contact angle was reduced from 80° on original non-treated surface to 15° on treated surface. An enhancement of 18% on CHF values under flow boiling conditions were observed on AP-Plasma treated surfaces compared to those on non-treated heating surfaces.

  20. Effect of pressure anisotropy and flow velocity on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of anisotropic magnetized plasma using generalized polytrope laws

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prajapati, R. P.; Chhajlani, R. K.

    2010-11-15

    The effect of pressure anisotropy and flow velocity on the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability of two magnetized anisotropic pressure plasmas flowing relative to each other is investigated using generalized polytrope laws. The anisotropic pressure with the generalized polytrope laws is considered with three-dimensional perturbations in the description of plasma using relevant magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) set of equations. The magnetic field is assumed in the x-direction and parallel to the direction of the flow of plasma streams. A complete polytrope model is given for the considered system in terms of pressure components, magnetic field, and density of the fluids to discuss the condition of KH instability, stability, and overstability. The problem is solved using the normal mode analysis and the general dispersion relation is obtained by applying the appropriate boundary conditions. The case of nonvanishing wavenumber transverse to the direction of the stream is obtained, which represents the stationery configuration without excitation of KH instability. The longitudinal mode of propagation is discussed with conditions of KH instability, stability, and overstability for collisionless (anisotropic) double-adiabatic Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) and collisional (isotropic) MHD media, depending on various values of polytrope indices. The effects of pressure anisotropy, different flow velocities, and magnetic field are also discussed on the growth rate of KH instability. We observe that the presence of flow velocity and pressure anisotropy of the plasmas has a destabilizing influence on the growth rate of the system. The growth rate is found larger for MHD set of equations in comparison to the CGL set of equations. The presence of magnetic field has a stabilizing role on the growth rate of the considered system.

  1. Experimental study of forced convection heat transfer during upward and downward flow of helium at high pressure and high temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francisco Valentin; Narbeh Artoun; Masahiro Kawaji; Donald M. McEligot

    2015-08-01

    Fundamental high pressure/high temperature forced convection experiments have been conducted in support of the development of a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) with a prismatic core. The experiments utilize a high temperature/high pressure gas flow test facility constructed for forced convection and natural circulation experiments. The test section has a single 16.8 mm ID flow channel in a 2.7 m long, 108 mm OD graphite column with four 2.3kW electric heater rods placed symmetrically around the flow channel. This experimental study presents the role of buoyancy forces in enhancing or reducing convection heat transfer for helium at high pressures up to 70 bar and high temperatures up to 873 degrees K. Wall temperatures have been compared among 10 cases covering the inlet Re numbers ranging from 500 to 3,000. Downward flows display higher and lower wall temperatures in the upstream and downstream regions, respectively, than the upward flow cases due to the influence of buoyancy forces. In the entrance region, convection heat transfer is reduced due to buoyancy leading to higher wall temperatures, while in the downstream region, buoyancyinduced mixing causes higher convection heat transfer and lower wall temperatures. However, their influences are reduced as the Reynolds number increases. This experimental study is of specific interest to VHTR design and validation of safety analysis codes.

  2. Prediction of the entropy production and pressure losses in two-phase flow from the mixing length theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maeder, P.F.; Michaelides, E.E.

    1980-04-01

    The case of vertical two-phase flow is examined under the light of the mixing-length theory which was succesfully applied to turbulent flows. The purpose of the analysis is to obtain the pressure distribution along the geothermal wells. The well is modeled as a vertical pipe carrying a fluid of variable density; the density distribution is described by two parameters. The conservation equations are written in boundary layer coordinates and the pressure losses are computed through the entropy production function. The two-phase friction factor is defined and calculated and through this the pressure distribution of the geothermal well is obtained. Finally a comparison is made of the results emanating from this model to other theoretical predictions and known experimental data.

  3. Particle Imaging Velocimetry Technique Development for Laboratory Measurement of Fracture Flow Inside a Pressure Vessel Using Neutron Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polsky, Yarom; Bingham, Philip R; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Carmichael, Justin R

    2015-01-01

    This paper will describe recent progress made in developing neutron imaging based particle imaging velocimetry techniques for visualizing and quantifying flow structure through a high pressure flow cell with high temperature capability (up to 350 degrees C). This experimental capability has great potential for improving the understanding of flow through fractured systems in applications such as enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). For example, flow structure measurement can be used to develop and validate single phase flow models used for simulation, experimentally identify critical transition regions and their dependence on fracture features such as surface roughness, and study multiphase fluid behavior within fractured systems. The developed method involves the controlled injection of a high contrast fluid into a water flow stream to produce droplets that can be tracked using neutron radiography. A description of the experimental setup will be provided along with an overview of the algorithms used to automatically track droplets and relate them to the velocity gradient in the flow stream. Experimental results will be reported along with volume of fluids based simulation techniques used to model observed flow.

  4. Voltage and pressure scaling of streamer dynamics in a helium plasma jet with N{sub 2} co-flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leiweke, Robert J.; Ganguly, Biswa N.; Scofield, James D.

    2014-08-15

    Positive polarity applied voltage and gas pressure dependent scaling of cathode directed streamer propagation properties in helium gas flow guided capillary dielectric barrier discharge have been quantified from streamer velocity, streamer current, and streamer optical diameter measurements. All measurements of the non-stochastic streamer properties have been performed in a variable gas pressure glass cell with N{sub 2} co-flow and under self-consistent Poisson electric field dominated conditions to permit data comparison with 2-D streamer dynamics models in air/nitrogen. The streamer optical diameter was found to be nearly independent of both gas pressures, from 170 Torr up to 760 Torr, and also for applied voltages from 6 to 11 kV at 520 Torr. The streamer velocity was found to increase quadratically with increased applied voltage. These observed differences in the 2-D scaling properties of ionization wave sustained cathode directed streamer propagation in helium flow channel with N{sub 2} annular co-flow compared to the streamer propagation in air or nitrogen have been shown to be caused by the remnant ionization distribution due to large differences in the dissociative recombination rates of He{sub 2}{sup +} versus N{sub 4}{sup +} ions, for this 5 kHz repetition rate applied voltage pulse generated streamers.

  5. Experimental investigation of supersonic low pressure air plasma flows obtained with different arc-jet operating conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lago, Viviana; Ndiaye, Abdoul-Aziz

    2012-11-27

    A stationary arc-jet plasma flow at low pressure is used to simulate some properties of the gas flow surrounding a vehicle during its entry into celestial body's atmospheres. This paper presents an experimental study concerning plasmas simulating a re-entry into our planet. Optical measurements have been carried out for several operating plasma conditions in the free stream, and in the shock layer formed in front of a flat cylindrical plate, placed in the plasma jet. The analysis of the spectral radiation enabled the identification of the emitting species, the determination of the rotational and vibrational temperatures in the free-stream and in the shock layer and the determination of the distance of the shock to the flat plate face. Some plasma fluid parameters like, stagnation pressure, specific enthalpy and heat flux have been determined experimentally along the plasma-jet axis.

  6. Define and Quantify the Physics of Air Flow, Pressure Drop and Aerosol Collection in Nuclear Grade HEPA Filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Murray E.

    2015-02-23

    Objective: Develop a set of peer-review and verified analytical methods to adjust HEPA filter performance to different flow rates, temperatures and altitudes. Experimental testing will measure HEPA filter flow rate, pressure drop and efficiency to verify the analytical approach. Nuclear facilities utilize HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filters to purify air flow for workspace ventilation. However, the ASME AG-1 technical standard (Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment) does not adequately describe air flow measurement units for HEPA filter systems. Specifically, the AG-1 standard does not differentiate between volumetric air flow in ACFM (actual cubic feet per minute)compared to mass flow measured in SCFM (standard cubic feet per minute). More importantly, the AG-1 standard has an overall deficiency for using HEPA filter devices at different air flow rates, temperatures, and altitudes. Technical Approach: The collection efficiency and pressure drops of 18 different HEPA filters will be measured over a range of flow rates, temperatures and altitudes. The experimental results will be compared to analytical scoping calculations. Three manufacturers have allocated six HEPA filters each for this effort. The 18 filters will be tested at two different flow rates, two different temperatures and two different altitudes. The 36 total tests will be conducted at two different facilities: the ATI Test facilities (Baltimore MD) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos NM). The Radiation Protection RP-SVS group at Los Alamos has an aerosol wind tunnel that was originally designed to evaluate small air samplers. In 2010, modifications were started to convert the wind tunnel for HEPA filter testing. (Extensive changes were necessary for the required aerosol generators, HEPA test fixtures, temperature control devices and measurement capabilities.) To this date, none of these modification activities have been funded through a specific DOE or NNSA program. This is expected to require six months of time, after receipt of funding. Benefits: US DOE facilities that use HEPA filters will benefit from access to the new operational measurement methods. Uncertainty and guesswork will be removed from HEPA filter operations.

  7. Toroids as NMR detectors in metal pressure probes and in flow systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, Jerome W.

    1991-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance probe to measure the properties of a sample under high pressure conditions. The apparatus employs a free standing, elongated toroidal coil as the RF transmitter and receiver.

  8. Experimental investigation on the flow instability behavior of a multi-channel boiling natural circulation loop at low-pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Vikas; Nayak, A.K.; Vijayan, P.K.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.

    2010-09-15

    Natural circulation as a mode of heat removal is being considered as a prominent passive feature in the innovative nuclear reactor designs, particularly in boiling-water-reactors, due to its simplicity and economy. However, boiling natural circulation system poses many challenges to designer due to occurrence of various kinds of instabilities such as excursive instability, density wave oscillations, flow pattern transition instability, geysering and metastable states in parallel channels. This problem assumes greater significance particularly at low-pressures i.e. during startup, where there is great difference in the properties of two phases. In light of this, a parallel channel loop has been designed and installed that has a geometrical resemblance to the pressure-tube-type boiling-water-reactor, to investigate into the behavior of boiling natural circulation. The loop comprises of four identical parallel channels connected between two common plenums i.e. steam drum and header. The recirculation path is provided by a single downcomer connected between steam drum and header. Experiments have been conducted over a wide range of power and pressures (1-10 bar). Two distinct unstable zones are observed with respect to power i.e. corresponding to low power (Type-I) and high power (Type-II) with a stable zone at intermediate powers. The nature of oscillations in terms of their amplitude and frequency and their evolution for Type-I and Type-II instabilities are studied with respect to the effect of heater power and pressure. This paper discusses the evolution of unstable and stable behavior along with the nature of flow oscillation in the channels and the effect of pressure on it. (author)

  9. System overview and characterization of a high-temperature, high-pressure, entrained-flow, laboratory-scale gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, Madison A.; Dreyer, Christopher B.; Parker, Terence E.; Porter, Jason M.; Jakulewicz, Micah S.

    2015-05-15

    The high-temperature, high-pressure, entrained-flow, laboratory-scale gasifier at the Colorado School of Mines, including the primary systems and the supporting subsystems, is presented. The gasifier is capable of operating at temperatures and pressures up to 1650 °C and 40 bar. The heated section of the reactor column has an inner diameter of 50 mm and is 1 m long. Solid organic feedstock (e.g., coal, biomass, and solid waste) is ground into batches with particle sizes ranging from 25 to 90 μm and is delivered to the reactor at feed rates of 2–20 g/min. The maximum useful power output of the syngas is 10 kW, with a nominal power output of 1.2 kW. The initial characterization and demonstration results of the gasifier system with a coal feedstock are also reported.

  10. Characterization of 350 HZ thermoacoustic driven orifice pulse tube refrigerator with measurements of the phase of the mass flow and pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godshalk, K.M.; Jin, C.; Kwong, Y.K.

    1996-12-31

    The world`s first 350 Hz thermoacoustic driven orifice pulse tube refrigerator (TADOPTR) has been designed and built by Tektronix, Inc., in cooperation with Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This highly instrumented system includes hot wire anemometers and pressure sensors for measuring the phase of the mass flow and pressure at all key locations in the TADOPTR, permitting for the first time detailed comparison to analytical models developed by LANL and NIST. Characterization results for velocity and pressure phase, pressure amplitude, and enthalpy flow show good agreement with the simulations. The authors have also demonstrated a new design method that uses the inertance of the pulse tube at 350 Hz to achieve the desired phase between the mass flow and pressure, rather than the usual double inlet design. The authors have designed and characterized single stage and two stage 350 Hz TADOPTRs.

  11. A method for measuring the local gas pressure within a gas-flow stage in situ in the transmission electron microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colby, Robert J.; Alsem, Daan H.; Liyu, Andrey V.; Kabius, Bernd C.

    2015-06-01

    The development of environmental transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has enabled in situ experiments in a gaseous environment with high resolution imaging and spectroscopy. Addressing scientific challenges in areas such as catalysis, corrosion, and geochemistry can require pressures much higher than the ~20 mbar achievable with a differentially pumped, dedicated environmental TEM. Gas flow stages, in which the environment is contained between two semi-transparent thin membrane windows, have been demonstrated at pressures of several atmospheres. While this constitutes significant progress towards operando measurements, the design of many current gas flow stages is such that the pressure at the sample cannot necessarily be directly inferred from the pressure differential across the system. Small differences in the setup and design of the gas flow stage can lead to very different sample pressures. We demonstrate a method for measuring the gas pressure directly, using a combination of electron energy loss spectroscopy and TEM imaging. This method requires only two energy filtered TEM images, limiting the measurement time to a few seconds and can be performed during an ongoing experiment at the region of interest. This approach provides a means to ensure reproducibility between different experiments, and even between very differently designed gas flow stages.

  12. Entrained-flow gasification at elevated pressure: Volume 1: Final technical report, March 1, 1985-April 30,1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hedman, P.O.; Smoot, L.D.; Smith, P.J.; Blackham, A.U.

    1987-10-15

    The general purpose of this research program was to develop a basic understanding of the physical and chemical processes in entrained coal gasification and to use the results to improve and evaluate an entrained gasification computer model. The first task included the collection and analysis of in-situ gasifier data at elevated pressures with three coal types (North Dakota lignite, Wyoming subbituminous and Illinois bituminous), the design, construction, and testing of new coal/oxygen/steam injectors with a fourth coal type (Utah bituminous), the collection of supporting turbulent fluid dynamic (LDV) data from cold-flow studies, and the investigation of the feasibility of using laser-based (CARS) daignostic instruments to make measurements in coal flames. The second task included improvements to the two-dimensional gasifier submodels, tabulation and evaluation of new coal devolatilization and char oxidation data for predictions, fundamental studies of turbulent particle dispersion, the development of improved numerical methods, and validation of the comprehensive model through comparison of predictions with experimental results. The third task was to transfer technical advances to industry and to METC through technical seminars, production of a detailed data book, code placement, and publication of results. Research results for these three tasks are summarized briefly here and presented in detail in the body of the report and in supporting references. 202 refs., 73 figs., 23 tabs.

  13. Pressure Flow Scour Predictions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Previous Years: 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 Presentations for 2016 International Energy Outlook 2016 pdf ppt Subject: EIA, International energy markets Presented by: Adam Sieminski, Administrator Presented to: Center for Strategic and International Studies Washington, DC-May 11, 2016 Energy Markets Outlook pdf ppt Subject: EIA, petroleum, energy markets, forecasts Presented by: Adam Sieminski, Administrator Presented to:

  14. Pressure regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ebeling, Jr., Robert W.; Weaver, Robert B.

    1979-01-01

    The pressure within a pressurized flow reactor operated under harsh environmental conditions is controlled by establishing and maintaining a fluidized bed of uniformly sized granular material of selected density by passing the gas from the reactor upwardly therethrough at a rate sufficient to fluidize the bed and varying the height of the bed by adding granular material thereto or removing granular material therefrom to adjust the backpressure on the flow reactor.

  15. HOx radical chemistry in oxidation flow reactors with low-pressure mercury lamps systematically examined by modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peng, Z.; Day, D. A.; Stark, H.; Li, R.; Palm, B. B.; Brune, W. H.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-04-20

    Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) using OH produced from low-pressure Hg lamps at 254 nm (OFR254) or both 185 and 254 nm (OFR185) are commonly used in atmospheric chemistry and other fields. OFR254 requires the addition of externally formed O3 since OH is formed from O3 photolysis, while OFR185 does not since O2 can be photolyzed to produce O3 and OH can also be formed from H2O photolysis. In this study, we use a plug-flow kinetic model to investigate OFR properties under a very wide range of conditions applicable to both field and laboratory studies. We show that the radical chemistrymore » in OFRs can be characterized as a function of UV light intensity, H2O concentration, and total external OH reactivity (OHRext, e.g., from VOCs, NOx, and SO2). OH exposure is decreased by added external OH reactivity. OFR185 is especially sensitive to this effect at low UV intensity due to low primary OH production. OFR254 can be more resilient against OH suppression at high injected O3 (e.g., 70 ppm), as a larger primary OH source from O3, as well as enhanced recycling of HO2 to OH, make external perturbations to the radical chemistry less significant. However if the external OH reactivity in OFR254 is much larger than OH reactivity from injected O3, OH suppression can reach two orders of magnitude. For a typical input of 7 ppm O3 (OHRO3 = 10 s−1) ten-fold OH suppression is observed at OHRext ∼ 100 s−1, which is similar or lower than used in many laboratory studies. This finding may have important implications for the interpretation of past laboratory studies, as applying OHexp measurements acquired under different conditions could lead to over an order-of-magnitude error in the estimated OHexp. The uncertainties of key model outputs due to uncertainty in all rate constants and absorption cross-sections in the model are within ± 25% for OH exposure and within ± 60% for other parameters. These uncertainties are small relative to the dynamic range of outputs. Uncertainty analysis shows that most of the uncertainty is contributed by photolysis rates of O3, O2, and H2O and reactions of OH and HO2 with themselves or with some abundant species, i.e., O3 and H2O2. Using HOx-recycling vs. destructive external OH reactivity only leads to small changes in OHexp under most conditions. Changing the identity (rate constant) of external OH reactants can result in substantial changes in OHexp due to different reductions in OH suppression as the reactant is consumed. We also report two equations for estimating OH exposure in OFR254. We find that the equation estimating OHexp from measured O3 consumption performs better than an alternative equation that does not use it, and thus recommend measuring both input and output O3 concentrations in OFR254 experiments. This study contributes to establishing a firm and systematic understanding of the gas-phase HOx and Ox chemistry in these reactors, and enables better experiment planning and interpretation as well as improved design of future reactors.« less

  16. HOx radical chemistry in oxidation flow reactors with low-pressure mercury lamps systematically examined by modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peng, Z.; Day, D. A.; Stark, H.; Li, R.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Palm, B. B.; Brune, W. H.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-11-20

    Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) using OH produced from low-pressure Hg lamps at 254 nm (OFR254) or both 185 and 254 nm (OFR185) are commonly used in atmospheric chemistry and other fields. OFR254 requires the addition of externally formed O3 since OH is formed from O3 photolysis, while OFR185 does not since O2 can be photolyzed to produce O3, and OH can also be formed from H2O photolysis. In this study, we use a plug-flow kinetic model to investigate OFR properties under a very wide range of conditions applicable to both field and laboratory studies. We show that the radical chemistrymore » in OFRs can be characterized as a function of UV light intensity, H2O concentration, and total external OH reactivity (OHRext, e.g., from volatile organic compounds (VOCs), NOx, and SO2). OH exposure is decreased by added external OH reactivity. OFR185 is especially sensitive to this effect at low UV intensity due to low primary OH production. OFR254 can be more resilient against OH suppression at high injected O3 (e.g., 70 ppm), as a larger primary OH source from O3, as well as enhanced recycling of HO2 to OH, make external perturbations to the radical chemistry less significant. However if the external OH reactivity in OFR254 is much larger than OH reactivity from injected O3, OH suppression can reach 2 orders of magnitude. For a typical input of 7 ppm O3 (OHRO3 = 10 s−1), 10-fold OH suppression is observed at OHRext ~ 100 s−1, which is similar or lower than used in many laboratory studies. The range of modeled OH suppression for literature experiments is consistent with the measured values except for those with isoprene. The finding on OH suppression may have important implications for the interpretation of past laboratory studies, as applying OHexp measurements acquired under different conditions could lead to over a 1-order-of-magnitude error in the estimated OHexp. The uncertainties of key model outputs due to uncertainty in all rate constants and absorption cross-sections in the model are within ±25 % for OH exposure and within ±60 % for other parameters. These uncertainties are small relative to the dynamic range of outputs. Uncertainty analysis shows that most of the uncertainty is contributed by photolysis rates of O3, O2, and H2O and reactions of OH and HO2 with themselves or with some abundant species, i.e., O3 and H2O2. OHexp calculated from direct integration and estimated from SO2 decay in the model with laminar and measured residence time distributions (RTDs) are generally within a factor of 2 from the plug-flow OHexp. However, in the models with RTDs, OHexp estimated from SO2 is systematically lower than directly integrated OHexp in the case of significant SO2 consumption. We thus recommended using OHexp estimated from the decay of the species under study when possible, to obtain the most appropriate information on photochemical aging in the OFR. Using HOx-recycling vs. destructive external OH reactivity only leads to small changes in OHexp under most conditions. Changing the identity (rate constant) of external OH reactants can result in substantial changes in OHexp due to different reductions in OH suppression as the reactant is consumed. We also report two equations for estimating OH exposure in OFR254. We find that the equation estimating OHexp from measured O3 consumption performs better than an alternative equation that does not use it, and thus recommend measuring both input and output O3 concentrations in OFR254 experiments. This study contributes to establishing a firm and systematic understanding of the gas-phase HOx and Ox chemistry in these reactors, and enables better experiment planning and interpretation as well as improved design of future reactors.« less

  17. SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE AND LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM FLOW PARAMETERS FROM INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER LOW ENERGY HYDROGEN MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Moebius, E.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; French, J.; Saul, L.; Wurz, P.; Bzowski, M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Frisch, P.; Gruntman, M.; Mueller, H. R.

    2013-10-01

    Neutral hydrogen atoms that travel into the heliosphere from the local interstellar medium (LISM) experience strong effects due to charge exchange and radiation pressure from resonant absorption and re-emission of Ly?. The radiation pressure roughly compensates for the solar gravity. As a result, interstellar hydrogen atoms move along trajectories that are quite different than those of heavier interstellar species such as helium and oxygen, which experience relatively weak radiation pressure. Charge exchange leads to the loss of primary neutrals from the LISM and the addition of new secondary neutrals from the heliosheath. IBEX observations show clear effects of radiation pressure in a large longitudinal shift in the peak of interstellar hydrogen compared with that of interstellar helium. Here, we compare results from the Lee et al. interstellar neutral model with IBEX-Lo hydrogen observations to describe the distribution of hydrogen near 1 AU and provide new estimates of the solar radiation pressure. We find over the period analyzed from 2009 to 2011 that radiation pressure divided by the gravitational force (?) has increased slightly from ? = 0.94 ± 0.04 in 2009 to ? = 1.01 ± 0.05 in 2011. We have also derived the speed, temperature, source longitude, and latitude of the neutral H atoms and find that these parameters are roughly consistent with those of interstellar He, particularly when considering the filtration effects that act on H in the outer heliosheath. Thus, our analysis shows that over the period from 2009 to 2011, we observe signatures of neutral H consistent with the primary distribution of atoms from the LISM and a radiation pressure that increases in the early rise of solar activity.

  18. Analysis of a high pressure ATWS (anticipated transient without scram) with very low make-up flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, K.C.

    1988-10-01

    A series of calculations were performed to analyze the response of General Electric Company's (GE) advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) during an anticipated transient without scram (ATWS). This work investigated the early plant response with an assumed failure or manual inhibit of the high pressure core flooder (HPCF). Consequently, the reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) and control rod drive (CRD) systems are the only sources of high pressure injection available to maintain core cooling. Steam leaving the reactor pressure vessel was diverted to the pressure suppression pool (PSP) via the steam line and the safety relief valves. The combination of an unscrammed core and the CRD and RCIC injection sources make this a particularly challenging transient. System energy balance calculations were performed to predict the core power and PSP heat-up rate. The amount of vessel vapor superheat and the PSP temperature were found to significantly affect the resultant core power. Consequently, detailed thermal-hydraulic calculations were performed to simulate the system response during the postulated transient. 15 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Improving the Sensitivity of Mass Spectrometry by Using a New Sheath Flow Electrospray Emitter Array at Subambient Pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Jonathan T.; Marginean, Ioan; Kelly, Ryan T.; Smith, Richard D.; Tang, Keqi

    2014-12-01

    Arrays of chemically etched emitters with individualized sheath gas capillaries have been developed to enhance electrospray ionization (ESI) at subambient pressures. By including an emitter array in a subambient pressure ionization with nanoelectrospray (SPIN) source, ionization and transmission efficiency can be maximized allowing for increased sensitivity in mass spectrometric analyses. The SPIN source eliminates the major ion losses at conventional ESI-mass spectrometry (MS) interface by placing the emitter in the first vacuum region of the instrument. To facilitate stable electrospray currents in such conditions we have developed an improved emitter array with individualized sheath gas around each emitter. The utility of the new emitter arrays for generating stable multi-electrosprays at subambient pressures was probed by coupling the emitter array/SPIN source with a time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. The instrument sensitivity was compared between single emitter/SPIN-MS and multi-emitter/SPIN-MS configurations using an equimolar solution of 9 peptides. An increase in sensitivity correlative to the number of emitters in the array was observed.

  20. Pressure drop, heat transfer, critical heat flux, and flow stability of two-phase flow boiling of water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures - final report for project "Efficent cooling in engines with nucleate boiling."

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Routbort, J. L.

    2011-01-19

    Because of its order-of-magnitude higher heat transfer rates, there is interest in using controllable two-phase nucleate boiling instead of conventional single-phase forced convection in vehicular cooling systems to remove ever increasing heat loads and to eliminate potential hot spots in engines. However, the fundamental understanding of flow boiling mechanisms of a 50/50 ethylene glycol/water mixture under engineering application conditions is still limited. In addition, it is impractical to precisely maintain the volume concentration ratio of the ethylene glycol/water mixture coolant at 50/50. Therefore, any investigation into engine coolant characteristics should include a range of volume concentration ratios around the nominal 50/50 mark. In this study, the forced convective boiling heat transfer of distilled water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures with volume concentration ratios of 40/60, 50/50, and 60/40 in a 2.98-mm-inner-diameter circular tube has been investigated in both the horizontal flow and the vertical flow. The two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux of the test fluids were determined experimentally over a range of the mass flux, the vapor mass quality, and the inlet subcooling through a new boiling data reduction procedure that allowed the analytical calculation of the fluid boiling temperatures along the experimental test section by applying the ideal mixture assumption and the equilibrium assumption along with Raoult's law. Based on the experimental data, predictive methods for the two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux under engine application conditions were developed. The results summarized in this final project report provide the necessary information for designing and implementing nucleate-boiling vehicular cooling systems.

  1. Miniaturized pressurization system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, John C. (Davis, CA); Swink, Don G. (Woodinville, WA)

    1991-01-01

    The invention uses a fluid stored at a low pressure and provides the fluid at a high pressure. The invention allows the low pressure fluid to flow to a fluid bore of a differential pump and from the pump to a fluid pressure regulator. After flowing through the regulator the fluid is converted to a gas which is directed to a gas bore of the differential pump. By controlling the flow of gas entering and being exhausted from the gas bore, the invention provides pressure to the fluid. By setting the regulator, the high pressure fluid can be set at predetermined values. Because the invention only needs a low pressure fluid, the inventive apparatus has a low mass, and therefore would be useful in rocket propulsion systems.

  2. PRESSURE SYSTEM CONTROL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Esselman, W.H.; Kaplan, G.M.

    1961-06-20

    The control of pressure in pressurized liquid systems, especially a pressurized liquid reactor system, may be achieved by providing a bias circuit or loop across a closed loop having a flow restriction means in the form of an orifice, a storage tank, and a pump connected in series. The subject invention is advantageously utilized where control of a reactor can be achieved by response to the temperature and pressure of the primary cooling system.

  3. Multiphase flow calculation software

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-04-15

    Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.

  4. An Efficient, Semi-implicit Pressure-based Scheme Employing a High-resolution Finitie Element Method for Simulating Transient and Steady, Inviscid and Viscous, Compressible Flows on Unstructured Grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard C. Martineau; Ray A. Berry

    2003-04-01

    A new semi-implicit pressure-based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) scheme for simulating a wide range of transient and steady, inviscid and viscous compressible flow on unstructured finite elements is presented here. This new CFD scheme, termed the PCICEFEM (Pressure-Corrected ICE-Finite Element Method) scheme, is composed of three computational phases, an explicit predictor, an elliptic pressure Poisson solution, and a semiimplicit pressure-correction of the flow variables. The PCICE-FEM scheme is capable of second-order temporal accuracy by incorporating a combination of a time-weighted form of the two-step Taylor-Galerkin Finite Element Method scheme as an explicit predictor for the balance of momentum equations and the finite element form of a time-weighted trapezoid rule method for the semi-implicit form of the governing hydrodynamic equations. Second-order spatial accuracy is accomplished by linear unstructured finite element discretization. The PCICE-FEM scheme employs Flux-Corrected Transport as a high-resolution filter for shock capturing. The scheme is capable of simulating flows from the nearly incompressible to the high supersonic flow regimes. The PCICE-FEM scheme represents an advancement in mass-momentum coupled, pressurebased schemes. The governing hydrodynamic equations for this scheme are the conservative form of the balance of momentum equations (Navier-Stokes), mass conservation equation, and total energy equation. An operator splitting process is performed along explicit and implicit operators of the semi-implicit governing equations to render the PCICE-FEM scheme in the class of predictor-corrector schemes. The complete set of semi-implicit governing equations in the PCICE-FEM scheme are cast in this form, an explicit predictor phase and a semi-implicit pressure-correction phase with the elliptic pressure Poisson solution coupling the predictor-corrector phases. The result of this predictor-corrector formulation is that the pressure Poisson equation in the PCICE-FEM scheme is provided with sufficient internal energy information to avoid iteration. The ability of the PCICE-FEM scheme to accurately and efficiently simulate a wide variety of inviscid and viscous compressible flows is demonstrated here.

  5. Reactor pressure vessel nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, Roy C.; Upton, Hubert A.

    1994-01-01

    A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough.

  6. Reactor pressure vessel nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, R.C.; Upton, H.A.

    1994-10-04

    A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough. 2 figs.

  7. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1999-02-02

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under fill pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  8. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under full pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  9. Comparative study of laminar and turbulent flow model with different operating parameters for radio frequency-inductively coupled plasma torch working at 3??MHz frequency at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Punjabi, Sangeeta B.; Sahasrabudhe, S. N.; Das, A. K.; Joshi, N. K.; Mangalvedekar, H. A.; Kothari, D. C.

    2014-01-15

    This paper provides 2D comparative study of results obtained using laminar and turbulent flow model for RF (radio frequency) Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) torch. The study was done for the RF-ICP torch operating at 50?kW DC power and 3?MHz frequency located at BARC. The numerical modeling for this RF-ICP torch is done using ANSYS software with the developed User Defined Function. A comparative study is done between laminar and turbulent flow model to investigate how temperature and flow fields change when using different operating conditions such as (a) swirl and no swirl velocity for sheath gas flow rate, (b) variation in sheath gas flow rate, and (c) variation in plasma gas flow rate. These studies will be useful for different material processing applications.

  10. Tank depletion flow controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Georgeson, Melvin A.

    1976-10-26

    A flow control system includes two bubbler tubes installed at different levels within a tank containing such as radioactive liquid. As the tank is depleted, a differential pressure transmitter monitors pressure differences imparted by the two bubbler tubes at a remote, shielded location during uniform time intervals. At the end of each uniform interval, balance pots containing a dense liquid are valved together to equalize the pressures. The resulting sawtooth-shaped signal generated by the differential pressure transmitter is compared with a second sawtooth signal representing the desired flow rate during each time interval. Variations in the two signals are employed by a control instrument to regulate flow rate.

  11. Excess flow shutoff valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kiffer, Micah S.; Tentarelli, Stephen Clyde

    2016-02-09

    Excess flow shutoff valve comprising a valve body, a valve plug, a partition, and an activation component where the valve plug, the partition, and activation component are disposed within the valve body. A suitable flow restriction is provided to create a pressure difference between the upstream end of the valve plug and the downstream end of the valve plug when fluid flows through the valve body. The pressure difference exceeds a target pressure difference needed to activate the activation component when fluid flow through the valve body is higher than a desired rate, and thereby closes the valve.

  12. Stabilizing System Pressure | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stabilizing System Pressure Stabilizing System Pressure This tip sheet summarizes three methods used to stabilize compressed air system pressure: adequate primary and secondary storage, Pressure/Flow Controllers (P/FCs), and dedicated compressors. COMPRESSED AIR TIP SHEET #8 PDF icon Stabilizing System Pressure (August 2004) More Documents & Publications Compressed Air Storage Strategies Compressed Air System Control Strategies Analyzing Your Compressed Air

  13. Gas flow meter and method for measuring gas flow rate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robertson, Eric P.

    2006-08-01

    A gas flow rate meter includes an upstream line and two chambers having substantially equal, fixed volumes. An adjustable valve may direct the gas flow through the upstream line to either of the two chambers. A pressure monitoring device may be configured to prompt valve adjustments, directing the gas flow to an alternate chamber each time a pre-set pressure in the upstream line is reached. A method of measuring the gas flow rate measures the time required for the pressure in the upstream line to reach the pre-set pressure. The volume of the chamber and upstream line are known and fixed, thus the time required for the increase in pressure may be used to determine the flow rate of the gas. Another method of measuring the gas flow rate uses two pressure measurements of a fixed volume, taken at different times, to determine the flow rate of the gas.

  14. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McFarland, Andrew R.; Rodgers, John C.; Ortiz, Carlos A.; Nelson, David C.

    1994-01-01

    Elbow mass flow meter. The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity.

  15. Microwave fluid flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Billeter, Thomas R.; Philipp, Lee D.; Schemmel, Richard R.

    1976-01-01

    A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

  16. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, Juhani

    1996-01-01

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

  17. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, J.

    1996-03-19

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

  18. Saltstone Osmotic Pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, Ralph L.; Dixon, Kenneth L.

    2013-09-23

    Recent research into the moisture retention properties of saltstone suggest that osmotic pressure may play a potentially significant role in contaminant transport (Dixon et al., 2009 and Dixon, 2011). The Savannah River Remediation Closure and Disposal Assessments Group requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct a literature search on osmotic potential as it relates to contaminant transport and to develop a conceptual model of saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. This report presents the findings of the literature review and presents a conceptual model for saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. The task was requested through Task Technical Request HLW-SSF-TTR-2013-0004. Simulated saltstone typically has very low permeability (Dixon et al. 2008) and pore water that contains a large concentration of dissolved salts (Flach and Smith 2013). Pore water in simulated saltstone has a high salt concentration relative to pore water in concrete and groundwater. This contrast in salt concentration can generate high osmotic pressures if simulated saltstone has the properties of a semipermeable membrane. Estimates of osmotic pressure using results from the analysis of pore water collected from simulated saltstone show that an osmotic pressure up to 2790 psig could be generated within the saltstone. Most semi-permeable materials are non-ideal and have an osmotic efficiency <1 and as a result actual osmotic pressures are less than theoretical pressures. Observations from laboratory tests of simulated saltstone indicate that it may exhibit the behavior of a semi-permeable membrane. After several weeks of back pressure saturation in a flexible wall permeameter (FWP) the membrane containing a simulated saltstone sample appeared to have bubbles underneath it. Upon removal from the FWP the specimen was examined and it was determined that the bubbles were due to liquid that had accumulated between the membrane and the sample. One possible explanation for the accumulation of solution between the membrane and sample is the development of osmotic pressure within the sample. Osmotic pressure will affect fluid flow and contaminant transport and may result in the changes to the internal structure of the semi-permeable material. B?nard et al. 2008 reported swelling of wet cured Portland cement mortars containing salts of NaNO{sub 3}, KNO{sub 3}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}x12H {sub 2}O, and K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} when exposed to a dilute solution. Typically hydraulic head is considered the only driving force for groundwater in groundwater models. If a low permeability material containing a concentrated salt solution is present in the hydrogeologic sequence large osmotic pressures may develop and lead to misinterpretation of groundwater flow and solute transport. The osmotic pressure in the semi-permeable material can significantly impact groundwater flow in the vicinity of the semi-permeable material. One possible outcome is that groundwater will flow into the semi-permeable material resulting in hydrologic containment within the membrane. Additionally, hyperfiltration can occur within semi-permeable materials when water moves through a membrane into the more concentrated solution and dissolved constituents are retained in the lower concentration solution. Groundwater flow and transport equations that incorporate chemical gradients (osmosis) have been developed. These equations are referred to as coupled flow equations. Currently groundwater modeling to assess the performance of saltstone waste forms is conducted using the PORFLOW groundwater flow and transport model. PORFLOW does not include coupled flow from chemico-osmotic gradients and therefore numerical simulation of the effect of coupled flow on contaminant transport in and around saltstone cannot be assessed. Most natural semi-permeable membranes are non-ideal membranes and do not restrict all movement of solutes and as a result theoretical osmotic potential is not realized. Osmotic efficiency is a parameter in the coupled flow equation that accounts for the

  19. System for pressure letdown of abrasive slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kasper, Stanley

    1991-01-01

    A system and method for releasing erosive slurries from containment at high pressure without subjecting valves to highly erosive slurry flow. The system includes a pressure letdown tank disposed below the high-pressure tank, the two tanks being connected by a valved line communicating the gas phases and a line having a valve and choke for a transfer of liquid into the letdown tank. The letdown tank has a valved gas vent and a valved outlet line for release of liquid. In operation, the gas transfer line is opened to equalize pressure between tanks so that a low level of liquid flow occurs. The letdown tank is then vented, creating a high-pressure differential between the tanks. At this point, flow between tanks is controlled by the choke. High-velocity, erosive flow through a high-pressure outlet valve is prevented by equalizing the start up pressure and thereafter limiting flow with the choke.

  20. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.; Arnold, Don W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Neyer, David W.

    2003-06-03

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based system. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  1. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.; Arnold, Don W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Neyer, David W.

    2001-01-01

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based systems. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (Microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  2. Estimation of steady-state and transcient power distributions for the RELAP analyses of the 1963 loss-of-flow and loss-of-pressure tests at BR2.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dionne, B.; Tzanos, C. P.

    2011-05-23

    To support the safety analyses required for the conversion of the Belgian Reactor 2 (BR2) from highly-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, the simulation of a number of loss-of-flow tests, with or without loss of pressure, has been undertaken. These tests were performed at BR2 in 1963 and used instrumented fuel assemblies (FAs) with thermocouples (TC) imbedded in the cladding as well as probes to measure the FAs power on the basis of their coolant temperature rise. The availability of experimental data for these tests offers an opportunity to better establish the credibility of the RELAP5-3D model and methodology used in the conversion analysis. In order to support the HEU to LEU conversion safety analyses of the BR2 reactor, RELAP simulations of a number of loss-of-flow/loss-of-pressure tests have been undertaken. Preliminary analyses showed that the conservative power distributions used historically in the BR2 RELAP model resulted in a significant overestimation of the peak cladding temperature during the transient. Therefore, it was concluded that better estimates of the steady-state and decay power distributions were needed to accurately predict the cladding temperatures measured during the tests and establish the credibility of the RELAP model and methodology. The new approach ('best estimate' methodology) uses the MCNP5, ORIGEN-2 and BERYL codes to obtain steady-state and decay power distributions for the BR2 core during the tests A/400/1, C/600/3 and F/400/1. This methodology can be easily extended to simulate any BR2 core configuration. Comparisons with measured peak cladding temperatures showed a much better agreement when power distributions obtained with the new methodology are used.

  3. Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oakley, D.J.

    1984-05-30

    Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pins passageway extending through the assembly.

  4. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McFarland, A.R.; Rodgers, J.C.; Ortiz, C.A.; Nelson, D.C.

    1994-08-16

    The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity. 3 figs.

  5. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.

    2000-01-01

    A compact high pressure hydraulic pump having no moving mechanical parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force. The electrokinetic pump, which can generate hydraulic pressures greater than 2500 psi, can be employed to compress a fluid, either liquid or gas, and manipulate fluid flow. The pump is particularly useful for capillary-base systems. By combining the electrokinetic pump with a housing having chambers separated by a flexible member, fluid flow, including high pressure fluids, is controlled by the application of an electric potential, that can vary with time.

  6. Radial flow pulse jet mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    VanOsdol, John G.

    2013-06-25

    The disclosure provides a pulse jet mixing vessel for mixing a plurality of solid particles. The pulse jet mixing vessel is comprised of a sludge basin, a flow surface surrounding the sludge basin, and a downcoming flow annulus between the flow surface and an inner shroud. The pulse jet mixing vessel is additionally comprised of an upper vessel pressurization volume in fluid communication with the downcoming flow annulus, and an inner shroud surge volume separated from the downcoming flow annulus by the inner shroud. When the solid particles are resting on the sludge basin and a fluid such as water is atop the particles and extending into the downcoming flow annulus and the inner shroud surge volume, mixing occurs by pressurization of the upper vessel pressurization volume, generating an inward radial flow over the flow surface and an upwash jet at the center of the sludge basin.

  7. Shroud leakage flow discouragers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, Jeremy Clyde; Bunker, Ronald Scott

    2002-01-01

    A turbine assembly includes a plurality of rotor blades comprising a root portion, an airfoil having a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall, and a top portion having a cap. An outer shroud is concentrically disposed about said rotor blades, said shroud in combination with said tip portions defining a clearance gap. At least one circumferential shroud leakage discourager is disposed within the shroud. The leakage discourager(s) increase the flow resistance and thus reduce the flow of hot gas flow leakage for a given pressure differential across the clearance gap to improve overall turbine efficiency.

  8. Method and device for measuring fluid flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atherton, Richard; Marinkovich, Phillip S.; Spadaro, Peter R.; Stout, J. Wilson

    1976-11-23

    This invention is a fluid flow measuring device for determining the coolant flow at the entrance to a specific nuclear reactor fuel region. The device comprises a plurality of venturis having the upstream inlet and throat pressure of each respectively manifolded together to provide one static pressure signal for each region monitored. The device provides accurate flow measurement with low pressure losses and uniform entrance and discharge flow distribution.

  9. PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICE DATA SHEET FORM PS-5 Pressure System Number: Date:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RELIEF DEVICE DATA SHEET FORM PS-5 Pressure System Number: Date: Pressure System Name: Pressure Vessel Number (if Applicable): Device installed directly on vessel?: __Yes __No Code: System Fluid: Code Year: Fluid State: Fluid Category: RELIEF DEVICE DATA Device Type ___Safety Relief Valve ____Rupture Disk ___Other (specify) Certification Type: ___ASME ___CE/PED ___Other (specify) Manufacturer Rated Flow Capacity: Part Number Converted Flow Capacity: Serial Number Set Pressure Inspection/Test

  10. Continuous pressure letdown system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.; Matthews, David R.; Langowski, Terry

    2010-06-08

    A continuous pressure letdown system connected to a hopper decreases a pressure of a 2-phase (gas and solid) dusty gas stream flowing through the system. The system includes a discharge line for receiving the dusty gas from the hopper, a valve, a cascade nozzle assembly positioned downstream of the discharge line, a purge ring, an inert gas supply connected to the purge ring, an inert gas throttle, and a filter. The valve connects the hopper to the discharge line and controls introduction of the dusty gas stream into the discharge line. The purge ring is connected between the discharge line and the cascade nozzle assembly. The inert gas throttle controls a flow rate of an inert gas into the cascade nozzle assembly. The filter is connected downstream of the cascade nozzle assembly.

  11. HIGH PRESSURE GAS REGULATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramage, R.W.

    1962-05-01

    A gas regulator operating on the piston and feedback principle is described. The device is particularly suitable for the delicate regulation of high pressure, i.e., 10,000 psi and above, gas sources, as well as being perfectly adaptable for use on gas supplies as low as 50 psi. The piston is adjustably connected to a needle valve and the movement of the piston regulates the flow of gas from the needle valve. The gas output is obtained from the needle valve. Output pressure is sampled by a piston feedback means which, in turn, regulates the movement of the main piston. When the output is other than the desired value, the feedback system initiates movement of the main piston to allow the output pressure to be corrected or to remain constant. (AEC)

  12. Low pressure hydrocyclone separator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanigan, D.A.; Stolhand, J.E.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a method of separating a dispersed phase liquid from a bulk phase liquid of a liquid-liquid mixture, the dispersed phase and bulk phase liquids having different densities. The method comprises the steps of: providing a supply of the liquid-liquid mixture at a first pressure; providing a pump means including means for minimizing degradation of the volumetric means size of droplets of the dispersed phase further including a pump size for maintaining the pump means at substantially near maximum flow rate capacity; pumping the liquid-liquid mixture with at least one pump means to a second pressure such that a differential between the first and second pressures is not substantially greater than a differential pressure at which the pump means begins to substantially degrade the volumetric mean size of droplets of the dispersed phase liquid passing therethrough, the pumping without substantial droplet degradation being achieved by operating the pump means at relatively near its maximum flow rate capacity to substantially reduce on a percentage basis the effect of fluid slippage within the pump means; directing the liquid-liquid mixture from the pump means to a hydrocyclone; and separating a substantial portion of the dispersed phase liquid from the liquid-liquid mixture in the hydrocyclone.

  13. Non-plugging pressure tap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, Joseph P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1978-01-01

    A pressure tap having utility in an environment of a solid-gas phase process flow includes a tubular coupling part having attached over a passage therethrough at an end opening thereof exposed to the flow a grating of spaced bars, and affixed internally across a passage therethrough so as to cover over an opening therein a screen which maintains contained within the passage between it and the grating a matrix of smooth spheres. The grating bars are so oriented by the disposition of the aforesaid end opening with respect to the flow such that accumulations of solids therebetween tending to bridge the opening are removed therefrom by the flow.

  14. Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, Michael D.; Kaduchak, Gregory

    2010-11-23

    An apparatus for acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.

  15. For a Two- Phase Flow. Frank Ohene, Cecily Livingston, Crystal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to lack of complete elucidation of the mechanism of the complex flow through numerical ... Increasing the applied pressure increases the flow rate and thus, the kinetic energy. For ...

  16. Pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mee, David K.; Ripley, Edward B.; Nienstedt, Zachary C.; Nienstedt, Alex W.; Howell, Jr., Layton N.

    2015-09-29

    Disclosed is a passive, in-situ pressure sensor. The sensor includes a sensing element having a ferromagnetic metal and a tension inducing mechanism coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The tension inducing mechanism is operable to change a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal based on a change in pressure in the sensing element. Changes in pressure are detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal when subjected to an alternating magnetic field caused by the change in the tensile stress. The sensing element is embeddable in a closed system for detecting pressure changes without the need for any penetrations of the system for power or data acquisition by detecting changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  17. PRESSURE TRANSDUCER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sander, H.H.

    1959-10-01

    A pressure or mechanical force transducer particularly adaptable to miniature telemetering systems is described. Basically the device consists of a transistor located within a magnetic field adapted to change in response to mechanical force. The conduction characteristics of the transistor in turn vary proportionally with changes in the magnetic flux across the transistor such that the output (either frequency of amplitude) of the transistor circuit is proportional to mechanical force or pressure.

  18. High-Compression-Ratio; Atkinson-Cycle Engine Using Low-Pressure Direct Injection and Pneumatic-Electronic Valve Actuation Enabled by Ionization Current and Foward-Backward Mass Air Flow Sensor Feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold Schock; Farhad Jaberi; Ahmed Naguib; Guoming Zhu; David Hung

    2007-12-31

    This report describes the work completed over a two and one half year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The goal was to demonstrate the technology needed to produce a highly efficient engine enabled by several technologies which were to be developed in the course of the work. The technologies included: (1) A low-pressure direct injection system; (2) A mass air flow sensor which would measure the net airflow into the engine on a per cycle basis; (3) A feedback control system enabled by measuring ionization current signals from the spark plug gap; and (4) An infinitely variable cam actuation system based on a pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation These developments were supplemented by the use of advanced large eddy simulations as well as evaluations of fuel air mixing using the KIVA and WAVE models. The simulations were accompanied by experimental verification when possible. In this effort a solid base has been established for continued development of the advanced engine concepts originally proposed. Due to problems with the valve actuation system a complete demonstration of the engine concept originally proposed was not possible. Some of the highlights that were accomplished during this effort are: (1) A forward-backward mass air flow sensor has been developed and a patent application for the device has been submitted. We are optimistic that this technology will have a particular application in variable valve timing direct injection systems for IC engines. (2) The biggest effort on this project has involved the development of the pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation system. This system was originally purchased from Cargine, a Swedish supplier and is in the development stage. To date we have not been able to use the actuators to control the exhaust valves, although the actuators have been successfully employed to control the intake valves. The reason for this is the additional complication associated with variable back pressure on the exhaust valves when they are opened. As a result of this effort, we have devised a new design and have filed for a patent on a method of control which is believed to overcome this problem. The engine we have been working with originally had a single camshaft which controlled both the intake and exhaust valves. Single cycle lift and timing control was demonstrated with this system. (3) Large eddy simulations and KIVA based simulations were used in conjunction with flow visualizations in an optical engine to study fuel air mixing. During this effort we have devised a metric for quantifying fuel distribution and it is described in several of our papers. (4) A control system has been developed to enable us to test the benefits of the various technologies. This system used is based on Opal-RT hardware and is being used in a current DOE sponsored program.

  19. Microelectromechanical flow control apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat

    2009-06-02

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) flow control apparatus is disclosed which includes a fluid channel formed on a substrate from a first layer of a nonconducting material (e.g. silicon nitride). A first electrode is provided on the first layer of the nonconducting material outside the flow channel; and a second electrode is located on a second layer of the nonconducting material above the first layer. A voltage applied between the first and second electrodes deforms the fluid channel to increase its cross-sectional size and thereby increase a flow of a fluid through the channel. In certain embodiments of the present invention, the fluid flow can be decreased or stopped by applying a voltage between the first electrode and the substrate. A peristaltic pumping of the fluid through the channel is also possible when the voltage is applied in turn between a plurality of first electrodes and the substrate. A MEM flow control assembly can also be formed by providing one or more MEM flow control devices on a common substrate together with a submicron filter. The MEM flow control assembly can optionally include a plurality of pressure sensors for monitoring fluid pressure and determining flow rates through the assembly.

  20. Radial flow pulse jet mixer (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The pulse jet mixing vessel is additionally comprised of an upper vessel pressurization volume in fluid communication with the downcoming flow annulus, and an inner shroud surge ...

  1. Pressure transducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, T.T.; Roop, C.J.; Schmidt, K.J.; Gunchin, E.R.

    1987-02-13

    A pressure transducer suitable for use in high temperature environments includes two pairs of induction coils, each pair being bifilarly wound together, and each pair of coils connected as opposite arms of a four arm circuit; an electrically conductive target moveably positioned between the coil pairs and connected to a diaphragm such that deflection of the diaphragm causes axial movement of the target and an unbalance in the bridge output. 7 figs.

  2. Pressure transducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Thomas T.; Roop, Conard J.; Schmidt, Kenneth J.; Gunchin, Elmer R.

    1989-01-01

    A pressure transducer suitable for use in high temperature environments includes two pairs of induction coils, each pair being bifilarly wound together, and each pair of coils connected as opposite arms of a four arm circuit; an electrically conductive target moveably positioned between the coil pairs and connected to a diaphragm such that deflection of the diaphragm causes axial movement of the target and an unbalance in the bridge output.

  3. Wavy flow cooling concept for turbine airfoils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, George

    2010-08-31

    An airfoil including an outer wall and a cooling cavity formed therein. The cooling cavity includes a leading edge flow channel located adjacent a leading edge of the airfoil and a trailing edge flow channel located adjacent a trailing edge of the airfoil. Each of the leading edge and trailing edge flow channels define respective first and second flow axes located between pressure and suction sides of the airfoil. A plurality of rib members are located within each of the flow channels, spaced along the flow axes, and alternately extending from opposing sides of the flow channels to define undulating flow paths through the flow channels.

  4. Constant pressure high throughput membrane permeation testing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    membrane testing cell is ported by a permeate multiport valve for sampling or venting. ... pressures and flow rates on each side of the planar membrane throughout a sampling cycle. ...

  5. Pressure polymerization of polyester

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maurer, Charles J.; Shaw, Gordon; Smith, Vicky S.; Buelow, Steven J.; Tumas, William; Contreras, Veronica; Martinez, Ronald J.

    2000-08-29

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of a polyester polymer or polyester copolymer under superatmospheric pressure conditions in a pipe or tubular reaction under turbannular flow conditions. Reaction material having a glycol equivalents to carboxylic acid equivalents mole ratio of from 1.0:1 to 1.2:1, together with a superatmospheric dense gaseous medium are fed co-currently to the reactor. Dicarboxylic acid and/or diol raw materials may be injected into any of the reaction zones in the process during operation to achieve the overall desired mole ratio balance. The process operates at temperatures of from about 220.degree. C. to about 320.degree. C., with turbannular flow achieved before the polymer product and gas exit the reactor process. The pressure in the reaction zones can be in the range from 15 psia to 2500 psia. A polymer product having a DP of a greater than 40, more preferably at least about 70, is achieved by the transfer of water from the reacting material polymer melt to the gaseous medium in the reactor.

  6. Flow Coefficient

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    this type of flow in porous and fractured rocks, including flow in geothermal reservoirs. ... and Renewable Energy, Office of Geothermal and Wind Technologies of the U.S. ...

  7. Turbine blade tip flow discouragers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunker, Ronald Scott

    2000-01-01

    A turbine assembly comprises a plurality of rotating blade portions in a spaced relation with a stationery shroud. The rotating blade portions comprise a root section, a tip portion and an airfoil. The tip portion has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall. A number of flow discouragers are disposed on the blade tip portion. In one embodiment, the flow discouragers extend circumferentially from the pressure side wall to the suction side wall so as to be aligned generally parallel to the direction of rotation. In an alternative embodiment, the flow discouragers extend circumferentially from the pressure side wall to the suction side wall so as to be aligned at an angle in the range between about 0.degree. to about 60.degree. with respect to a reference axis aligned generally parallel to the direction of rotation. The flow discouragers increase the flow resistance and thus reduce the flow of hot gas flow leakage for a given pressure differential across the blade tip portion so as to improve overall turbine efficiency.

  8. Method for pressure modulation of turbine sidewall cavities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leone, Sal Albert; Book, Matthew David; Banares, Christopher R.

    2002-01-01

    A method is provided for controlling cooling air flow for pressure modulation of turbine components, such as the turbine outer sidewall cavities. The pressure at which cooling and purge air is supplied to the turbine outer side wall cavities is modulated, based on compressor discharge pressure (Pcd), thereby to generally maintain the back flow margin (BFM) so as to minimize excessive leakage and the consequent performance deterioration. In an exemplary embodiment, the air pressure within the third stage outer side wall cavity and the air pressure within the fourth stage outer side wall cavity are each controlled to a respective value that is a respective prescribed percentage of the concurrent compressor discharge pressure. The prescribed percentage may be determined from a ratio of the respective outer side wall pressure to compressor discharge pressure at Cold Day Turn Down (CDTD) required to provide a prescribed back flow margin.

  9. System for pressure modulation of turbine sidewall cavities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leone, Sal Albert; Book, Matthew David; Banares, Christopher R.

    2002-01-01

    A system and method are provided for controlling cooling air flow for pressure modulation of turbine components, such as the turbine outer sidewall cavities. The pressure at which cooling and purge air is supplied to the turbine outer side wall cavities is modulated, based on compressor discharge pressure (Pcd), thereby to generally maintain the back flow margin (BFM) so as to minimize excessive leakage and the consequent performance deterioration. In an exemplary embodiment, the air pressure within the third stage outer side wall cavity and the air pressure within the fourth stage outer side wall cavity are each controlled to a respective value that is a respective prescribed percentage of the concurrent compressor discharge pressure. The prescribed percentage may be determined from a ratio of the respective outer side wall pressure to compressor discharge pressure at Cold Day Turn Down (CDTD) required to provide a prescribed back flow margin.

  10. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawabe, James K. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-01-11

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell.

  11. Vertical flow chemical detection portal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, K.L.; Hannum, D.W.; Conrad, F.J.

    1999-06-22

    A portal apparatus is described for screening objects or persons for the presence of trace amounts of chemical substances such as illicit drugs or explosives. The apparatus has a test space, in which a person may stand, defined by two generally upright sides spanned by a horizontal transom. One or more fans in the transom generate a downward air flow (uni-directional) within the test space. The air flows downwardly from a high pressure upper zone, past the object or person to be screened. Air moving past the object dislodges from the surface thereof both volatile and nonvolatile particles of the target substance. The particles are entrained into the air flow which continues flowing downward to a lower zone of reduced pressure, where the particle-bearing air stream is directed out of the test space and toward preconcentrator and detection components. The sides of the portal are specially configured to partially contain and maintain the air flow. 3 figs.

  12. Vertical flow chemical detection portal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, Kevin L.; Hannum, David W.; Conrad, Frank James

    1999-01-01

    A portal apparatus for screening objects or persons for the presence of trace amounts of chemical substances such as illicit drugs or explosives. The apparatus has a test space, in which a person may stand, defined by two generally upright sides spanned by a horizontal transom. One or more fans in the transom generate a downward air flow (uni-directional) within the test space. The air flows downwardly from a high pressure upper zone, past the object or person to be screened. Air moving past the object dislodges from the surface thereof both volatile and nonvolatile particles of the target substance. The particles are entrained into the air flow which continues flowing downward to a lower zone of reduced pressure, where the particle-bearing air stream is directed out of the test space and toward preconcentrator and detection components. The sides of the portal are specially configured to partially contain and maintain the air flow.

  13. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit using an elbow flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Marcos G.; Boucher, Timothy J.

    1997-01-01

    A system for measuring fluid flow in a conduit. The system utilizes pressure transducers disposed generally in line upstream and downstream of the flow of fluid in a bend in the conduit. Data from the pressure transducers is transmitted to a microprocessor or computer. The pressure differential measured by the pressure transducers is then used to calculate the fluid flow rate in the conduit. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to control flow, total fluid dispersed, (in, for example, an irrigation system), area of dispersal or other desired effect based on the fluid flow in the conduit.

  14. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit using an elbow flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, M.G.; Boucher, T.J.

    1997-06-24

    A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit. The system utilizes pressure transducers disposed generally in line upstream and downstream of the flow of fluid in a bend in the conduit. Data from the pressure transducers is transmitted to a microprocessor or computer. The pressure differential measured by the pressure transducers is then used to calculate the fluid flow rate in the conduit. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to control flow, total fluid dispersed, (in, for example, an irrigation system), area of dispersal or other desired effect based on the fluid flow in the conduit. 2 figs.

  15. General single phase wellbore flow model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouyang, Liang-Biao; Arbabi, S.; Aziz, K.

    1997-02-05

    A general wellbore flow model, which incorporates not only frictional, accelerational and gravitational pressure drops, but also the pressure drop caused by inflow, is presented in this report. The new wellbore model is readily applicable to any wellbore perforation patterns and well completions, and can be easily incorporated in reservoir simulators or analytical reservoir inflow models. Three dimensionless numbers, the accelerational to frictional pressure gradient ratio R{sub af}, the gravitational to frictional pressure gradient ratio R{sub gf}, and the inflow-directional to accelerational pressure gradient ratio R{sub da}, have been introduced to quantitatively describe the relative importance of different pressure gradient components. For fluid flow in a production well, it is expected that there may exist up to three different regions of the wellbore: the laminar flow region, the partially-developed turbulent flow region, and the fully-developed turbulent flow region. The laminar flow region is located near the well toe, the partially-turbulent flow region lies in the middle of the wellbore, while the fully-developed turbulent flow region is at the downstream end or the heel of the wellbore. Length of each region depends on fluid properties, wellbore geometry and flow rate. As the distance from the well toe increases, flow rate in the wellbore increases and the ratios R{sub af} and R{sub da} decrease. Consequently accelerational and inflow-directional pressure drops have the greatest impact in the toe region of the wellbore. Near the well heel the local wellbore flow rate becomes large and close to the total well production rate, here R{sub af} and R{sub da} are small, therefore, both the accelerational and inflow-directional pressure drops can be neglected.

  16. System and method for bidirectional flow and controlling fluid flow in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Marcos German

    1999-01-01

    A system for measuring bidirectional flow, including backflow, of fluid in a conduit. The system utilizes a structural mechanism to create a pressure differential in the conduit. Pressure sensors are positioned upstream from the mechanism, at the mechanism, and downstream from the mechanism. Data from the pressure sensors are transmitted to a microprocessor or computer, and pressure differential detected between the pressure sensors is then used to calculate the backflow. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to shut off valves located in the conduit, upon the occurrence of backflow, or to control flow, total material dispersed, etc. in the conduit.

  17. System and method for bidirectional flow and controlling fluid flow in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, M.G.

    1999-03-23

    A system for measuring bidirectional flow, including backflow, of fluid in a conduit is disclosed. The system utilizes a structural mechanism to create a pressure differential in the conduit. Pressure sensors are positioned upstream from the mechanism, at the mechanism, and downstream from the mechanism. Data from the pressure sensors are transmitted to a microprocessor or computer, and pressure differential detected between the pressure sensors is then used to calculate the backflow. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to shut off valves located in the conduit, upon the occurrence of backflow, or to control flow, total material dispersed, etc. in the conduit. 3 figs.

  18. NETL SOFC: Pressurized Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pressurized Systems PRESSURIZED SYSTEMS (INDUSTRY TEAMS)-SOFCs demonstrate enhanced performance by increasing the cell pressure. Thus, power systems with pressurized SOFC technology have the potential to achieve efficiencies greater than 60 percent (HHV) with greater than 97 percent carbon capture, near-zero emissions, and low water usage. The Pressurized Systems key technology is developing a deeper understanding on the behavior of the state-of-the-art SOFC material set under pressurized

  19. Flow chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morozov, Victor

    2011-01-18

    A flow chamber having a vacuum chamber and a specimen chamber. The specimen chamber may have an opening through which a fluid may be introduced and an opening through which the fluid may exit. The vacuum chamber may have an opening through which contents of the vacuum chamber may be evacuated. A portion of the flow chamber may be flexible, and a vacuum may be used to hold the components of the flow chamber together.

  20. Measurement of the differential pressure of liquid metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metz, H.J.

    1975-09-01

    This patent relates to an improved means for measuring the differential pressure between any two points in a process liquid metal coolant loop, wherein the flow of liquid metal in a pipe is opposed by a permanent magnet liquid metal pump until there is almost zero flow shown by a magnetic type flowmeter. The pressure producing the liquid metal flow is inferred from the rate of rotation of the permanent magnet pump. In an alternate embodiment, a differential pressure transducer is coupled to a process pipeline by means of high-temperature bellows or diaphragm seals, and a permanent magnet liquid metal pump in the high-pressure transmission line to the pressure transducer can be utilized either for calibration of the transducer or for determining the process differential pressure as a function of the magnet pump speed. (auth)

  1. Furnace Pressure Controllers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet highlights the benefits of precise furnace pressure control in process heating systems.

  2. Fluid flow monitoring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKay, M.D.; Sweeney, C.E.; Spangler, B.S. Jr.

    1993-11-30

    A flow meter and temperature measuring device are described comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips. 7 figures.

  3. Fluid flow monitoring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKay, Mark D.; Sweeney, Chad E.; Spangler, Jr., B. Samuel

    1993-01-01

    A flow meter and temperature measuring device comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips.

  4. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S.

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A .gamma.-mode, resonant-cavity plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two concentric cylindrical electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the annular region therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly shaping the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, no ions survive for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  5. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawabe, J.K.

    1994-01-11

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell. 6 figures.

  6. Electokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.

    2000-01-01

    A compact high pressure hydraulic system having no moving parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force and for manipulating fluids. Electro-osmotic flow is used to provide a valve and means to compress a fluid or gas in a capillary-based system. By electro-osmotically moving an electrolyte between a first position opening communication between a fluid inlet and outlet and a second position closing communication between the fluid inlet and outlet the system can be configured as a valve. The system can also be used to generate forces as large as 2500 psi that can be used to compress a fluid, either a liquid or a gas.

  7. Flow battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lipka, Stephen M.; Swartz, Christopher R.

    2016-02-23

    An electrolyte system for a flow battery has an anolyte including [Fe(CN).sub.6].sup.3- and [Fe(CN).sub.6].sup.4- and a catholyte including Fe.sup.2+ and Fe.sup.3+.

  8. Equation determines pressure drop in coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y.S.

    1995-12-04

    A single equation can determine the pressure drop in wells with laminar, transitional, and turbulent incompressible fluid flow in coiled tubing or other steel tubulars. The single equation is useful, especially in computer-aided design and operations. The equation is derived and illustrated by an example.

  9. Incompressible Flows Free Surfaces

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-01

    NASA-VOF3D is a three-dimensional, transient, free surface, incompressible fluid dynamics program. It is specifically designed to calculate confined flows in a low gravity environment in which surface physics must be accurately treated. It allows multiple free surfaces with surface tension and wall adhesion and includes a partial cell treatment that allows curved boundaries and internal obstacles. Variable mesh spacing is permitted in all three coordinate directions. Boundary conditions available are rigid free-slip wall, rigid no-slipmore » wall, continuative, periodic, and specified pressure outflow boundary.« less

  10. CFD analysis of laminar oscillating flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booten, C. W. Charles W.); Konecni, S.; Smith, B. L.; Martin, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical simulations of oscillating flow in a constricted duct and compares the results with experimental and theoretical data. The numerical simulations were performed using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code CFX4.2. The numerical model simulates an experimental oscillating flow facility that was designed to test the properties and characteristics of oscillating flow in tapered ducts, also known as jet pumps. Jet pumps are useful devices in thermoacoustic machinery because they produce a secondary pressure that can counteract an unwanted effect called streaming, and significantly enhance engine efficiency. The simulations revealed that CFX could accurately model velocity, shear stress and pressure variations in laminar oscillating flow. The numerical results were compared to experimental data and theoretical predictions with varying success. The least accurate numerical results were obtained when laminar flow approached transition to turbulent flow.

  11. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalystes to Poisons form High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Janet ChakkamadathilMohandas; Wilson Shafer

    2009-09-30

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations.

  12. Pressure surge attenuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Alan M.; Snyder, Kurt I.

    1985-01-01

    A pressure surge attenuation system for pipes having a fluted region opposite crushable metal foam. As adapted for nuclear reactor vessels and heads, crushable metal foam is disposed to attenuate pressure surges.

  13. Pressure-sensitive optrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1986-07-15

    An apparatus is provided for sensing changes in pressure and for generating optical signals related to said changes in pressure. Light from a fiber optic illuminates a fluorescent composition causing it to fluoresce. The fluorescent composition is caused to fluoresce more relative to the end of the fiber optic in response to changes in pressure so that the intensity of fluorescent emissions collected by the same fiber optic used for illumination varies monotonically with pressure. 10 figs.

  14. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Dennis Sparks; Khalid Azzam; Janet Chakkamadathil Mohandas; Wilson Shafer; Venkat Ramana Rao Pendyala

    2011-09-30

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations. In the second and third years, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. Cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts were also subjected to a number of the same compounds in order to evaluate their sensitivities at different concentration levels of added contaminant.

  15. System and method measuring fluid flow in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Marcos German; Kidd, Terrel G.

    1999-01-01

    A system for measuring fluid mass flow in a conduit in which there exists a pressure differential in the fluid between at least two spaced-apart locations in the conduit. The system includes a first pressure transducer disposed in the side of the conduit at a first location for measuring pressure of fluid at that location, a second or more pressure transducers disposed in the side of the conduit at a second location, for making multiple measurements of pressure of fluid in the conduit at that location, and a computer for computing the average pressure of the multiple measurements at the second location and for computing flow rate of fluid in the conduit from the pressure measurement by the first pressure transducer and from the average pressure calculation of the multiple measurements.

  16. System and method measuring fluid flow in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, M.G.; Kidd, T.G.

    1999-05-18

    A system is described for measuring fluid mass flow in a conduit in which there exists a pressure differential in the fluid between at least two spaced-apart locations in the conduit. The system includes a first pressure transducer disposed in the side of the conduit at a first location for measuring pressure of fluid at that location, a second or more pressure transducers disposed in the side of the conduit at a second location, for making multiple measurements of pressure of fluid in the conduit at that location, and a computer for computing the average pressure of the multiple measurements at the second location and for computing flow rate of fluid in the conduit from the pressure measurement by the first pressure transducer and from the average pressure calculation of the multiple measurements. 3 figs.

  17. Pressure reducing regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, John C. (Davis, CA); Dilgard, Lemoyne W. (Willits, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes.

  18. Pressure reducing regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, J.C.; Dilgard, L.W.

    1995-10-10

    A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure is disclosed. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes. 10 figs.

  19. Sample injector for high pressure liquid chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Arnold, Don W.; Neyer, David W.

    2001-01-01

    Apparatus and method for driving a sample, having a well-defined volume, under pressure into a chromatography column. A conventional high pressure sampling valve is replaced by a sample injector composed of a pair of injector components connected in series to a common junction. The injector components are containers of porous dielectric material constructed so as to provide for electroosmotic flow of a sample into the junction. At an appropriate time, a pressure pulse from a high pressure source, that can be an electrokinetic pump, connected to the common junction, drives a portion of the sample, whose size is determined by the dead volume of the common junction, into the chromatographic column for subsequent separation and analysis. The apparatus can be fabricated on a substrate for microanalytical applications.

  20. Constant pressure high throughput membrane permeation testing system

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Patent) | SciTech Connect Constant pressure high throughput membrane permeation testing system Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Constant pressure high throughput membrane permeation testing system The disclosure relates to a membrane testing system for individual evaluation of a plurality of planar membranes subjected to a feed gas on one side and a sweep gas on a second side. The membrane testing system provides a pressurized flow of a feed and sweep gas to each membrane testing

  1. Flow cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    van den Engh, Ger

    1995-01-01

    A Faraday cage enclosing the flow chamber of a cytometer and ground planes associated with each field deflection plate in concert therewith inhibit electric fields from varying the charge on designated events/droplets and further concentrates and increases forces applied to a charged event passing therethrough for accurate focus thereof while concomitantly inhibiting a potential shock hazard.

  2. Flow cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van den Engh, G.

    1995-11-07

    A Faraday cage is described which encloses the flow chamber of a cytometer. Ground planes associated with each field deflection plate inhibit electric fields from varying the charge on designated events/droplets and further concentrates. They also increase forces applied to a passing charged event for accurate focus while concomitantly inhibiting a potential shock hazard. 4 figs.

  3. Liquid jet breakup regimes at supercritical pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oefelein, Joseph C.; Dahms, Rainer Norbert Uwe

    2015-07-23

    Previously, a theory has been presented that explains how discrete vapor–liquid interfaces become diminished at certain high-pressure conditions in a manner that leads to well known qualitative trends observed from imaging in a variety of experiments. Rather than surface tension forces, transport processes can dominate over relevant ranges of conditions. In this paper, this framework is now generalized to treat a wide range of fuel-oxidizer combinations in a manner consistent with theories of capillary flows and extended corresponding states theory. Different flow conditions and species-specific molecular properties are shown to produce distinct variations of interfacial structures and local free molecular paths. These variations are shown to occur over the operating ranges in a variety of propulsion and power systems. Despite these variations, the generalized analysis reveals that the envelope of flow conditions at which the transition from classical sprays to diffusion-dominated mixing occurs exhibits a characteristic shape for all liquid–gas combinations. As a result, for alkane-oxidizer mixtures, it explains that these conditions shift to higher pressure flow conditions with increasing carbon number and demonstrates that, instead of widely assumed classical spray atomization, diffusion-dominated mixing may occur under relevant high-pressure conditions in many modern devices.

  4. Liquid jet breakup regimes at supercritical pressures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Oefelein, Joseph C.; Dahms, Rainer Norbert Uwe

    2015-07-23

    Previously, a theory has been presented that explains how discrete vapor–liquid interfaces become diminished at certain high-pressure conditions in a manner that leads to well known qualitative trends observed from imaging in a variety of experiments. Rather than surface tension forces, transport processes can dominate over relevant ranges of conditions. In this paper, this framework is now generalized to treat a wide range of fuel-oxidizer combinations in a manner consistent with theories of capillary flows and extended corresponding states theory. Different flow conditions and species-specific molecular properties are shown to produce distinct variations of interfacial structures and local free molecularmore » paths. These variations are shown to occur over the operating ranges in a variety of propulsion and power systems. Despite these variations, the generalized analysis reveals that the envelope of flow conditions at which the transition from classical sprays to diffusion-dominated mixing occurs exhibits a characteristic shape for all liquid–gas combinations. As a result, for alkane-oxidizer mixtures, it explains that these conditions shift to higher pressure flow conditions with increasing carbon number and demonstrates that, instead of widely assumed classical spray atomization, diffusion-dominated mixing may occur under relevant high-pressure conditions in many modern devices.« less

  5. Laminated metal composite formed from low flow stress layers and high flow stress layers using flow constraining elements and making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Syn, Chol K.; Lesuer, Donald R.

    1995-01-01

    A laminated metal composite of low flow stress layers and high flow stress layers is described which is formed using flow constraining elements, preferably in the shape of rings, individually placed around each of the low flow stress layers while pressure is applied to the stack to bond the layers of the composite together, to thereby restrain the flow of the low flow stress layers from the stack during the bonding. The laminated metal composite of the invention is made by the steps of forming a stack of alternate layers of low flow stress layers and high flow stress layers with each layer of low flow stress material surrounded by an individual flow constraining element, such as a ring, and then applying pressure to the top and bottom surfaces of the resulting stack to bond the dissimilar layers together, for example, by compression rolling the stack. In a preferred embodiment, the individual flow constraining elements surrounding the layers of low flow stress material are formed of a material which may either be the same material as the material comprising the high flow stress layers, or have similar flow stress characteristics to the material comprising the high flow stress layers. Additional sacrificial layers may be added to the top and bottom of the stack to avoid damage to the stack during the bonding step; and these additional layers may then be removed after the bonding step.

  6. Laminated metal composite formed from low flow stress layers and high flow stress layers using flow constraining elements and making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Syn, C.K.; Lesuer, D.R.

    1995-07-04

    A laminated metal composite of low flow stress layers and high flow stress layers is described which is formed using flow constraining elements, preferably in the shape of rings, individually placed around each of the low flow stress layers while pressure is applied to the stack to bond the layers of the composite together, to thereby restrain the flow of the low flow stress layers from the stack during the bonding. The laminated metal composite of the invention is made by the steps of forming a stack of alternate layers of low flow stress layers and high flow stress layers with each layer of low flow stress material surrounded by an individual flow constraining element, such as a ring, and then applying pressure to the top and bottom surfaces of the resulting stack to bond the dissimilar layers together, for example, by compression rolling the stack. In a preferred embodiment, the individual flow constraining elements surrounding the layers of low flow stress material are formed of a material which may either be the same material as the material comprising the high flow stress layers, or have similar flow stress characteristics to the material comprising the high flow stress layers. Additional sacrificial layers may be added to the top and bottom of the stack to avoid damage to the stack during the bonding step; and these additional layers may then be removed after the bonding step. 5 figs.

  7. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  8. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Chae Un; Gruner, Sol M.

    2011-10-04

    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  9. Bag pressure monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughn, Mark Roy; Miller, Alva Keith

    2000-01-01

    An inexpensive mechanical indicator for measuring low pressure in an inflating bag includes a pair of sides connected to each other at one edge and pivotally connected at spaced parallel locations on the bag. A spring biases the sides towards each other in opposition to tension in the inflating bag. The distance between the sides is indicative of the pressure in the bag. The device is accurate at pressures below 0.05 psi.

  10. Pressure-sensitive optrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus and method for sensing changes in pressure and for generating optical signals related to changes in pressure. Light from a fiber optic is directed to a movable surface which is coated with a light-responsive material, and which moves relative to the end of the fiber optic in response to changes in pressure. The same fiber optic collects a portion of the reflected or emitted light from the movable surface. Changes in pressure are determined by measuring changes in the amount of light collected.

  11. 6151 Pressure Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For design, fabrication, testing, repair, modification and inspection are based on the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section ...

  12. Sapphire tube pressure vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Outwater, John O. (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-01-01

    A pressure vessel is provided for observing corrosive fluids at high temperatures and pressures. A transparent Teflon bag contains the corrosive fluid and provides an inert barrier. The Teflon bag is placed within a sapphire tube, which forms a pressure boundary. The tube is received within a pipe including a viewing window. The combination of the Teflon bag, sapphire tube and pipe provides a strong and inert pressure vessel. In an alternative embodiment, tie rods connect together compression fittings at opposite ends of the sapphire tube.

  13. Pressure-sensitive optrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1985-04-09

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for sensing changes in pressure and for generating optical signals related to changes in pressure. Light from a fiber optic is directed to a movable surface which is coated with a light-responsive material, and which moves relative to the end of the fiber optic in response to changes in pressure. The same fiber optic collects a portion of the reflected or emitted light from the movable surface. Changes in pressure are determined by measuring changes in the amount of light collected. 5 figs.

  14. Dual shell pressure balanced vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fassbender, Alexander G.

    1992-01-01

    A dual-wall pressure balanced vessel for processing high viscosity slurries at high temperatures and pressures having an outer pressure vessel and an inner vessel with an annular space between the vessels pressurized at a pressure slightly less than or equivalent to the pressure within the inner vessel.

  15. Apparatus for unloading pressurized fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehberger, Kevin M.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for unloading fluid, preferably pressurized gas, from containers in a controlled manner that protects the immediate area from exposure to the container contents. The device consists of an unloading housing, which is enclosed within at least one protective structure, for receiving the dispensed contents of the steel container, and a laser light source, located external to the protective structure, for opening the steel container instantaneously. The neck or stem of the fluid container is placed within the sealed interior environment of the unloading housing. The laser light passes through both the protective structure and the unloading housing to instantaneously pierce a small hole within the stem of the container. Both the protective structure and the unloading housing are specially designed to allow laser light passage without compromising the light's energy level. Also, the unloading housing allows controlled flow of the gas once it has been dispensed from the container. The external light source permits remote operation of the unloading device.

  16. Development of Tools for Measuring Temperature, Flow, Pressure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE 2010 Geothermal Technologies Program Peer Review PDF icon hightemp017tilak.pdf More Documents & Publications Fielding of HT-seismic Tools and Evaluation of HT-FPGA Module - ...

  17. Double Shock Experiments and Reactive Flow Modeling of High Pressure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Information Service, Springfield, VA at www.ntis.gov. Authors: Vandersall, K S ; Garcia, F ; Fried, L E ; Tarver, C M Publication Date: 2014-06-24 OSTI Identifier: 1169870 ...

  18. Flow rate--pressure drop relation for deformable shallow microfluidic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Division of Fluid Dynamics ; 2013-11-24 - 2013-11-26 ; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United ... Subject: Engineering(42); Mathematics & Computing(97) Mathematics Word Cloud More Like ...

  19. Flow rate--pressure drop relation for deformable shallow microfluidic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Normale Superieure de Cachan Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan; Stone, Howard A Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering,...

  20. Pressurizer tank upper support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, T.H.; Ott, H.L.

    1994-01-11

    A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90[degree] intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure. 10 figures.

  1. Pressurizer tank upper support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Tod H. (O'Hara Township, Allegheny County, PA); Ott, Howard L. (Kiski Township, Armstrong County, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90.degree. intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure.

  2. PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICE TESTING AND INSPECTION DATA SHEET FORM PS-12

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RELIEF DEVICE TESTING AND INSPECTION DATA SHEET FORM PS-12 Pressure System Number: Date: Pressure System Name: Vessel Number (if Applicable): Device installed directly on vessel?: __Yes __No Code: System Fluid: Code Year: Fluid State: Fluid Category: RELIEF DEVICE DATA Device Type ___Safety Relief Valve ____Rupture Disk ___Other (specify) Certification Type: ___ASME ___CE/PED ___Other (specify) Manufacturer Rated Flow Capacity: Part Number Converted Flow Capacity: Serial Number Set Pressure: Set

  3. Multi-bottle, no compressor, mean pressure control system for a Stirling engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A.

    1990-01-01

    The invention relates to an apparatus for mean pressure control of a Stirling engine without the need for a compressor. The invention includes a multi-tank system in which there is at least one high pressure level tank and one low pressure level tank wherein gas flows through a maximum pressure and supply line from the engine to the high pressure tank when a first valve is opened until the maximum pressure of the engine drops below that of the high pressure tank opening an inlet regulator to permit gas flow from the engine to the low pressure tank. When gas flows toward the engine it flows through the minimum pressure supply line 2 when a second valve is opened from the low pressure tank until the tank reaches the engine's minimum pressure level at which time the outlet regulator opens permitting gas to be supplied from the high pressure tank to the engine. Check valves between the two tanks prevent any backflow of gas from occurring.

  4. High Temperature Electrolysis Pressurized Experiment Design, Operation, and Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.E. O'Brien; X. Zhang; G.K. Housley; K. DeWall; L. Moore-McAteer

    2012-09-01

    A new facility has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for pressurized testing of solid oxide electrolysis stacks. Pressurized operation is envisioned for large-scale hydrogen production plants, yielding higher overall efficiencies when the hydrogen product is to be delivered at elevated pressure for tank storage or pipelines. Pressurized operation also supports higher mass flow rates of the process gases with smaller components. The test stand can accommodate planar cells with dimensions up to 8.5 cm x 8.5 cm and stacks of up to 25 cells. It is also suitable for testing other cell and stack geometries including tubular cells. The pressure boundary for these tests is a water-cooled spool-piece pressure vessel designed for operation up to 5 MPa. Pressurized operation of a ten-cell internally manifolded solid oxide electrolysis stack has been successfully demonstrated up 1.5 MPa. The stack is internally manifolded and operates in cross-flow with an inverted-U flow pattern. Feed-throughs for gas inlets/outlets, power, and instrumentation are all located in the bottom flange. The entire spool piece, with the exception of the bottom flange, can be lifted to allow access to the internal furnace and test fixture. Lifting is accomplished with a motorized threaded drive mechanism attached to a rigid structural frame. Stack mechanical compression is accomplished using springs that are located inside of the pressure boundary, but outside of the hot zone. Initial stack heatup and performance characterization occurs at ambient pressure followed by lowering and sealing of the pressure vessel and subsequent pressurization. Pressure equalization between the anode and cathode sides of the cells and the stack surroundings is ensured by combining all of the process gases downstream of the stack. Steady pressure is maintained by means of a backpressure regulator and a digital pressure controller. A full description of the pressurized test apparatus is provided in this report. Results of initial testing showed the expected increase in open-cell voltage associated with elevated pressure. However, stack performance in terms of area-specific resistance was enhanced at elevated pressure due to better gas diffusion through the porous electrodes of the cells. Some issues such as cracked cells and seals were encountered during testing. Full resolution of these issues will require additional testing to identify the optimum test configurations and protocols.

  5. Low energy high pressure miniature screw valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Gary J.; Spletzer, Barry L.

    2006-12-12

    A low energy high pressure screw valve having a valve body having an upper portion and a lower portion, said lower portion of said valve body defining an inlet flow passage and an outlet flow passage traversing said valve body to a valve seat, said upper portion of said valve body defining a cavity at said valve seat, a diaphragm restricting flow between said upper portion of said valve body and said lower portion, said diaphragm capable of engaging said valve seat to restrict fluid communication between said inlet passage and said outlet passage, a plunger within said cavity supporting said diaphragm, said plunger being capable of engaging said diaphragm with said valve seat at said inlet and outlet fluid passages, said plunger being in point contact with a drive screw having threads engaged with opposing threads within said upper portion of said valve body such engagement allowing motion of said drive screw within said valve body.

  6. Capacitance pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eaton, William P.; Staple, Bevan D.; Smith, James H.

    2000-01-01

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) capacitance pressure sensor integrated with electronic circuitry on a common substrate and a method for forming such a device are disclosed. The MEM capacitance pressure sensor includes a capacitance pressure sensor formed at least partially in a cavity etched below the surface of a silicon substrate and adjacent circuitry (CMOS, BiCMOS, or bipolar circuitry) formed on the substrate. By forming the capacitance pressure sensor in the cavity, the substrate can be planarized (e.g. by chemical-mechanical polishing) so that a standard set of integrated circuit processing steps can be used to form the electronic circuitry (e.g. using an aluminum or aluminum-alloy interconnect metallization).

  7. Radial pressure flange seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Batzer, Thomas H.; Call, Wayne R.

    1989-01-01

    This invention provides an all metal seal for vacuum or pressure vessels or systems. This invention does not use gaskets. The invention uses a flange which fits into a matching groove. Fluid pressure is applied in a chamber in the flange causing at least one of the flange walls to radially press against a side of the groove creating the seal between the flange wall and the groove side.

  8. Pressure multiplying dispenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeFord, Henry S.; Moss, Owen R.

    1986-01-01

    A pressure multiplying dispenser for delivering fluid, preferably as a spray to the atmosphere, from a source of fluid, preferably a spray bottle, is described. The dispenser includes in combination a hollow cylindrical member, a nozzle delivery tube within the cylindrical member and a hollow actuator piston slideable within the cylindrical member which acts to multiply the pressure of a squeeze applied to the spray bottle.

  9. Radial pressure flange seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1989-01-24

    This invention provides an all metal seal for vacuum or pressure vessels or systems. This invention does not use gaskets. The invention uses a flange which fits into a matching groove. Fluid pressure is applied in a chamber in the flange causing at least one of the flange walls to radially press against a side of the groove creating the seal between the flange wall and the groove side. 5 figs.

  10. Rotationally Augmented Flow Structures and Time Varying Loads on Turbine Blades: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreck, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    To better understand wind turbine flow physics, time dependent blade surface pressure data were acquired from the NREL Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment.

  11. Method and apparatus for controlling supercharge pressure for a turbocharger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abo, T.; Veno, T.

    1987-06-16

    A method for controlling supercharge pressure of a turbocharger, is described which comprises the steps of: seeking a basic control amount, BASE, from a look-up table in accordance with an intake air flow rate Qa; determining if an actual supercharge pressure P2 detected is greater than a first predetermined value of supercharge pressure; calculating the deviation P between the first predetermined supercharge pressure and the actual supercharge pressure P2, and also calculating a proportional value portion (PROP=K1 x P) where K1 is a first constant; determining if the actual supercharge pressure P2 is greater than a second predetermined value of supercharge pressure; calculating an integral value portion INT=(K2 x P + INT') when the actual supercharge pressure P2 is greater than the second predetermined value where K2 is a second constant and INT' is a value of INT resulting from a prior calculation, and setting INT to be zero when the actual supercharge pressure P2 is not greater than the second predetermined pressure; calculating a duty value OUT which is a sum of BASE, PROP and INT; and actuating an electromagnetic valve for controlling the supercharge pressure in accordance with the duty value OUT.

  12. New process to avoid emissions: Constant pressure in coke ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giertz, J.; Huhn, F.; Hofherr, K.

    1995-12-01

    A chamber pressure regulation (PROven), especially effective in regard to emission control problems of coke ovens is introduced for the first time. Because of the partial vacuum in the collecting main system, it is possible to keep the oven`s raw gas pressure constant on a low level over the full coking time. The individual pressure control for each chamber is assured directly as a function of the oven pressure by an immersion system controlling the flow resistance of the collecting main valve. The latter is a fixed-position design (system name ``FixCup``). By doing away with the interdependence of collecting main pressure and chamber pressure, a parameter seen as a coking constant could not be made variable. This opens a new way to reduce coke oven emissions and simultaneously to prevent the ovens from damage caused by air ingress into the oven.

  13. Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... List of Figures Figure A1. Pressure relief valve activation characteristics ... Figure A5. Spring-loaded pressure relief valve device cross-section ......

  14. Constant pressure high throughput membrane permeation testing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albenze, Erik J.; Hopkinson, David P.; Luebke, David R.

    2014-09-02

    The disclosure relates to a membrane testing system for individual evaluation of a plurality of planar membranes subjected to a feed gas on one side and a sweep gas on a second side. The membrane testing system provides a pressurized flow of a feed and sweep gas to each membrane testing cell in a plurality of membrane testing cells while a stream of retentate gas from each membrane testing cell is ported by a retentate multiport valve for sampling or venting, and a stream of permeate gas from each membrane testing cell is ported by a permeate multiport valve for sampling or venting. Back pressure regulators and mass flow controllers act to maintain substantially equivalent gas pressures and flow rates on each side of the planar membrane throughout a sampling cycle. A digital controller may be utilized to position the retentate and permeate multiport valves cyclically, allowing for gas sampling of different membrane cells over an extended period of time.

  15. Controlled differential pressure system for an enhanced fluid blending apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis

    2009-02-24

    A system and method for producing a controlled blend of two or more fluids. Thermally-induced permeation through a permeable tube is used to mix a first fluid from outside the tube with a second fluid flowing through the tube. Mixture ratios may be controlled by adjusting the temperature of the first fluid or by adjusting the pressure drop through the permeable tube. The combination of a back pressure control valve and a differential regulator is used to control the output pressure of the blended fluid. The combination of the back pressure control valve and differential regulator provides superior flow control of the second dry gas. A valve manifold system may be used to mix multiple fluids, and to adjust the volume of blended fluid produced, and to further modify the mixture ratio.

  16. Dual pressure-dual temperature isotope exchange process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babcock, D.F.

    1974-02-12

    A liquid and a gas stream, each containing a desired isotope, flow countercurrently through two liquid-gas contacting towers maintained at different temperatures and pressures. The liquid is enriched in the isotope in one tower while the gas is enriched within the other and a portion of at least one of the enriched streams is withdrawn from the system for use or further enrichment. The tower operated at the lower temperature is also maintained at the lower pressure to prevent formation of solid solvates. Gas flow between the towers passes through an expander-compressor apparatas to recover work from the expansion of gas to the lower pressure and thereby compress the gas returning to the tower of higher pressure. (Official Gazette)

  17. Pressurized reactor system and a method of operating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, J.M.

    1996-06-18

    A method and apparatus are provided for operating a pressurized reactor system in order to precisely control the temperature within a pressure vessel in order to minimize condensation of corrosive materials from gases on the surfaces of the pressure vessel or contained circulating fluidized bed reactor, and to prevent the temperature of the components from reaching a detrimentally high level, while at the same time allowing quick heating of the pressure vessel interior volume during start-up. Super-atmospheric pressure gas is introduced from the first conduit into the fluidized bed reactor and heat derived reactions such as combustion and gasification are maintained in the reactor. Gas is exhausted from the reactor and pressure vessel through a second conduit. Gas is circulated from one part of the inside volume to another to control the temperature of the inside volume, such as by passing the gas through an exterior conduit which has a heat exchanger, control valve, blower and compressor associated therewith, or by causing natural convection flow of circulating gas within one or more generally vertically extending gas passages entirely within the pressure vessel (and containing heat exchangers, flow rate control valves, or the like therein). Preferably, inert gas is provided as a circulating gas, and the inert gas may also be used in emergency shut-down situations. In emergency shut-down reaction gas being supplied to the reactor is cut off, while inert gas from the interior gas volume of the pressure vessel is introduced into the reactor. 2 figs.

  18. Pressurized reactor system and a method of operating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, Juhani M. (Karhula, FI)

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for operating a pressurized reactor system in order to precisely control the temperature within a pressure vessel in order to minimize condensation of corrosive materials from gases on the surfaces of the pressure vessel or contained circulating fluidized bed reactor, and to prevent the temperature of the components from reaching a detrimentally high level, while at the same time allowing quick heating of the pressure vessel interior volume during start-up. Superatmospheric pressure gas is introduced from the first conduit into the fluidized bed reactor and heat derived reactions such as combustion and gassification are maintained in the reactor. Gas is exhausted from the reactor and pressure vessel through a second conduit. Gas is circulated from one part of the inside volume to another to control the temperature of the inside volume, such as by passing the gas through an exterior conduit which has a heat exchanger, control valve, blower and compressor associated therewith, or by causing natural convection flow of circulating gas within one or more generally vertically extending gas passages entirely within the pressure vessel (and containing heat exchangers, flow rate control valves, or the like therein). Preferably, inert gas is provided as a circulating gas, and the inert gas may also be used in emergency shut-down situations. In emergency shut-down reaction gas being supplied to the reactor is cut off, while inert gas from the interior gas volume of the pressure vessel is introduced into the reactor.

  19. Passive blast pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

    2013-03-19

    A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

  20. General Transient Fluid Flow Algorithm

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-03-12

    SALE2D calculates two-dimensional fluid flows at all speeds, from the incompressible limit to highly supersonic. An implicit treatment of the pressure calculation similar to that in the Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (ICE) technique provides this flow speed flexibility. In addition, the computing mesh may move with the fluid in a typical Lagrangian fashion, be held fixed in an Eulerian manner, or move in some arbitrarily specified way to provide a continuous rezoning capability. This latitude resultsmore » from use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) treatment of the mesh. The partial differential equations solved are the Navier-Stokes equations and the mass and internal energy equations. The fluid pressure is determined from an equation of state and supplemented with an artificial viscous pressure for the computation of shock waves. The computing mesh consists of a two-dimensional network of quadrilateral cells for either cylindrical or Cartesian coordinates, and a variety of user-selectable boundary conditions are provided in the program.« less

  1. Ionization based multi-directional flow sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chorpening, Benjamin T.; Casleton, Kent H.

    2009-04-28

    A method, system, and apparatus for conducting real-time monitoring of flow (airflow for example) in a system (a hybrid power generation system for example) is disclosed. The method, system and apparatus measure at least flow direction and velocity with minimal pressure drop and fast response. The apparatus comprises an ion source and a multi-directional collection device proximate the ion source. The ion source is configured to generate charged species (electrons and ions for example). The multi-directional collection source is configured to determine the direction and velocity of the flow in real-time.

  2. ARM - Lesson Plans: Air Pressure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Air Pressure Objective The objective of this ... Important Points to Understand Air has weight and exerts pressure on everything with which ...

  3. Flow-Through Electrode Capacitive Desalination - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    channels (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Flow rate--pressure drop relation for deformable shallow microfluidic channels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flow rate--pressure drop relation for deformable shallow microfluidic channels Authors: Christov, Ivan [1] ; Cognet, Vincent [2] ; Stone, Howard A [3] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory [Los Alamos National Laboratory Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan [Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan Mechanical

  4. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Townsend, Harold E.

    1994-03-15

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto.

  5. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.; Townsend, H.E.

    1994-03-15

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto. 6 figures.

  6. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, D.W.

    1994-09-06

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.

  7. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, Dennis W.

    1994-01-01

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured.

  8. Pressurizer with a mechanically attached surge nozzle thermal sleeve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wepfer, Robert M

    2014-03-25

    A thermal sleeve is mechanically attached to the bore of a surge nozzle of a pressurizer for the primary circuit of a pressurized water reactor steam generating system. The thermal sleeve is attached with a series of keys and slots which maintain the thermal sleeve centered in the nozzle while permitting thermal growth and restricting flow between the sleeve and the interior wall of the nozzle.

  9. Pressurized feed-injection spray-forming apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, Ray A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); McHugh, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01

    A spray apparatus and method for injecting a heated, pressurized liquid in a first predetermined direction into a pressurized gas flow that is flowing in a second predetermined direction, to provide for atomizing and admixing the liquid with the gas to form a two-phase mixture. A valve is also disposed within the injected liquid conduit to provide for a pulsed injection of the liquid and timed deposit of the atomized gas phase. Preferred embodiments include multiple liquid feed ports and reservoirs to provide for multiphase mixtures of metals, ceramics, and polymers.

  10. Pressurized feed-injection spray-forming apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, R.A.; Fincke, J.R.; McHugh, K.M.

    1995-08-29

    A spray apparatus and method are disclosed for injecting a heated, pressurized liquid in a first predetermined direction into a pressurized gas flow that is flowing in a second predetermined direction, to provide for atomizing and admixing the liquid with the gas to form a two-phase mixture. A valve is also disposed within the injected liquid conduit to provide for a pulsed injection of the liquid and timed deposit of the atomized gas phase. Preferred embodiments include multiple liquid feed ports and reservoirs to provide for multiphase mixtures of metals, ceramics, and polymers. 22 figs.

  11. Capillary toroid cavity detector for high pressure NMR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Chen, Michael J.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; ter Horst, Marc

    2007-09-11

    A Toroid Cavity Detector (TCD) is provided for implementing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of chemical reactions under conditions of high pressures and temperatures. A toroid cavity contains an elongated central conductor extending within the toroid cavity. The toroid cavity and central conductor generate an RF magnetic field for NMR analysis. A flow-through capillary sample container is located within the toroid cavity adjacent to the central conductor to subject a sample material flowing through the capillary to a static magnetic field and to enable NMR spectra to be recorded of the material in the capillary under a temperature and high pressure environment.

  12. Pressurized solid oxide fuel cell integral air accumular containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Basel, Richard A.

    2004-02-10

    A fuel cell generator apparatus contains at least one fuel cell subassembly module in a module housing, where the housing is surrounded by a pressure vessel such that there is an air accumulator space, where the apparatus is associated with an air compressor of a turbine/generator/air compressor system, where pressurized air from the compressor passes into the space and occupies the space and then flows to the fuel cells in the subassembly module, where the air accumulation space provides an accumulator to control any unreacted fuel gas that might flow from the module.

  13. Wellbore pressure transducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1979-01-01

    Subterranean earth formations containing energy values are subjected to hydraulic fracturing procedures to enhance the recovery of the energy values. These fractures are induced in the earth formation by pumping liquid into the wellbore penetrating the earth formation until the pressure of the liquid is sufficient to fracture the earth formation adjacent to the wellbore. The present invention is directed to a transducer which is positionable within the wellbore to generate a signal indicative of the fracture initiation useful for providing a timing signal to equipment for seismic mapping of the fracture as it occurs and for providing a measurement of the pressure at which the fracture is initiated.

  14. Gas-Dynamic Transients Flow Networks

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1987-09-01

    TVENT1P predicts flows and pressures in a ventilation system or other air pathway caused by pressure transients, such as a tornado. For an analytical model to simulate an actual system, it must have (1) the same arrangement of components in a network of flow paths; (2) the same friction characteristics; (3) the same boundary pressures; (4) the same capacitance; and (5) the same forces that drive the air. A specific set of components used formore » constructing the analytical model includes filters, dampers, ducts, blowers, rooms, or volume connected at nodal points to form networks. The effects of a number of similar components can be lumped into a single one. TVENT1P contains a material transport algorithm and features for turning blowers off and on, changing blower speeds, changing the resistance of dampers and filters, and providing a filter model to handle very high flows. These features make it possible to depict a sequence of events during a single run. Component properties are varied using time functions. The filter model is not used by the code unless it is specified by the user. The basic results of a TVENT1P solution are flows in branches and pressures at nodes. A postprocessor program, PLTTEX, is included to produce the plots specified in the TVENT1P input. PLTTEX uses the proprietary CA-DISSPLA graphics software.« less

  15. Low volume flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meixler, Lewis D.

    1993-01-01

    The low flow monitor provides a means for determining if a fluid flow meets a minimum threshold level of flow. The low flow monitor operates with a minimum of intrusion by the flow detection device into the flow. The electrical portion of the monitor is externally located with respect to the fluid stream which allows for repairs to the monitor without disrupting the flow. The electronics provide for the adjustment of the threshold level to meet the required conditions. The apparatus can be modified to provide an upper limit to the flow monitor by providing for a parallel electronic circuit which provides for a bracketing of the desired flow rate.

  16. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  17. Approximate Model for Turbulent Stagnation Point Flow.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dechant, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Here we derive an approximate turbulent self-similar model for a class of favorable pressure gradient wedge-like flows, focusing on the stagnation point limit. While the self-similar model provides a useful gross flow field estimate this approach must be combined with a near wall model is to determine skin friction and by Reynolds analogy the heat transfer coefficient. The combined approach is developed in detail for the stagnation point flow problem where turbulent skin friction and Nusselt number results are obtained. Comparison to the classical Van Driest (1958) result suggests overall reasonable agreement. Though the model is only valid near the stagnation region of cylinders and spheres it nonetheless provides a reasonable model for overall cylinder and sphere heat transfer. The enhancement effect of free stream turbulence upon the laminar flow is used to derive a similar expression which is valid for turbulent flow. Examination of free stream enhanced laminar flow suggests that the rather than enhancement of a laminar flow behavior free stream disturbance results in early transition to turbulent stagnation point behavior. Excellent agreement is shown between enhanced laminar flow and turbulent flow behavior for high levels, e.g. 5% of free stream turbulence. Finally the blunt body turbulent stagnation results are shown to provide realistic heat transfer results for turbulent jet impingement problems.

  18. Pressure Testing of a High Temperature Naturally Fractured Reservoir

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Pressure Testing of a High Temperature Naturally Fractured Reservoir Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pressure Testing of a High Temperature Naturally Fractured Reservoir Los Alamos National Laboratory has conducted a number of pumping and flow-through tests at the Hot Dry rock (HDR) test site at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. These tests consisted of injecting fresh water at controlled rates up to 12 BPM (32 {ell}/s) and surface pressures up to

  19. Transient Wellbore Fluid Flow Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1982-04-06

    WELBORE is a code to solve transient, one-dimensional two-phase or single-phase non-isothermal fluid flow in a wellbore. The primary thermodynamic variables used in solving the equations are the pressure and specific energy. An equation of state subroutine provides the density, quality, and temperature. The heat loss out of the wellbore is calculated by solving a radial diffusion equation for the temperature changes outside the bore. The calculation is done at each node point in themore » wellbore.« less

  20. Flow and evaporation in single micrometer and nanometer scale pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velasco, A. E.; Yang, C.; Siwy, Z. S.; Taborek, P.; Toimil-Molares, M. E.

    2014-07-21

    We report measurements of pressure driven flow of fluids entering vacuum through a single pipe of micrometer or nanometer scale diameter. Nanopores were fabricated by etching a single ion track in polymer or mica foils. A calibrated mass spectrometer was used to measure the flow rates of nitrogen and helium through pipes with diameter ranging from 10??m to 31?nm. The flow of gaseous and liquid nitrogen was studied near 77?K, while the flow of helium was studied from the lambda point (2.18?K) to above the critical point (5.2?K). Flow rates were controlled by changing the pressure drop across the pipe in the range 0–31 atm. When the pressure in the pipe reached the saturated vapor pressure, an abrupt flow transition was observed. A simple viscous flow model is used to determine the position of the liquid/vapor interface in the pipe. The observed mass flow rates are consistent with no slip boundary conditions.

  1. Investigating Flow-Structure Interactions in Cerebral Aneurysms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-13

    Visualization of blood flow in a cerebral aneurysm. Streamlines (colored by fluid velocity magnitude) reveal the complexity of the flow, isocontours of vorticity show blood vortex structures (colored by pressure), and the flexible arterial wall is colored by the stress magnitude, where regions in red indicate areas of high stress.

  2. Flow distribution channels to control flow in process channels...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Flow distribution channels to control flow in process channels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flow distribution channels to control flow in process channels You are ...

  3. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefano Orsino

    2005-03-30

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical reaction mechanism for the NBFZ tests.

  4. Apparatus for unloading pressurized fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehberger, K.M.

    1994-01-04

    An apparatus is described for unloading fluid, preferably pressurized gas, from containers in a controlled manner that protects the immediate area from exposure to the container contents. The device consists of an unloading housing, which is enclosed within at least one protective structure, for receiving the dispensed contents of the steel container, and a laser light source, located external to the protective structure, for opening the steel container instantaneously. The neck or stem of the fluid container is placed within the sealed interior environment of the unloading housing. The laser light passes through both the protective structure and the unloading housing to instantaneously pierce a small hole within the stem of the container. Both the protective structure and the unloading housing are specially designed to allow laser light passage without compromising the light's energy level. Also, the unloading housing allows controlled flow of the gas once it has been dispensed from the container. The external light source permits remote operation of the unloading device. 2 figures.

  5. Device for accurately measuring mass flow of gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hylton, James O.; Remenyik, Carl J.

    1994-01-01

    A device for measuring mass flow of gases which utilizes a substantially buoyant pressure vessel suspended within a fluid/liquid in an enclosure. The pressure vessel is connected to a weighing device for continuously determining weight change of the vessel as a function of the amount of gas within the pressure vessel. In the preferred embodiment, this pressure vessel is formed from inner and outer right circular cylindrical hulls, with a volume between the hulls being vented to the atmosphere external the enclosure. The fluid/liquid, normally in the form of water typically with an added detergent, is contained within an enclosure with the fluid/liquid being at a level such that the pressure vessel is suspended beneath this level but above a bottom of the enclosure. The buoyant pressure vessel can be interconnected with selected valves to an auxiliary pressure vessel so that initial flow can be established to or from the auxiliary pressure vessel prior to flow to or from the buoyant pressure vessel.

  6. Device for accurately measuring mass flow of gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hylton, J.O.; Remenyik, C.J.

    1994-08-09

    A device for measuring mass flow of gases which utilizes a substantially buoyant pressure vessel suspended within a fluid/liquid in an enclosure is disclosed. The pressure vessel is connected to a weighing device for continuously determining weight change of the vessel as a function of the amount of gas within the pressure vessel. In the preferred embodiment, this pressure vessel is formed from inner and outer right circular cylindrical hulls, with a volume between the hulls being vented to the atmosphere external the enclosure. The fluid/liquid, normally in the form of water typically with an added detergent, is contained within an enclosure with the fluid/liquid being at a level such that the pressure vessel is suspended beneath this level but above a bottom of the enclosure. The buoyant pressure vessel can be interconnected with selected valves to an auxiliary pressure vessel so that initial flow can be established to or from the auxiliary pressure vessel prior to flow to or from the buoyant pressure vessel. 5 figs.

  7. Pressure Change Measurement Leak Testing Errors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pryor, Jeff M; Walker, William C

    2014-01-01

    A pressure change test is a common leak testing method used in construction and Non-Destructive Examination (NDE). The test is known as being a fast, simple, and easy to apply evaluation method. While this method may be fairly quick to conduct and require simple instrumentation, the engineering behind this type of test is more complex than is apparent on the surface. This paper intends to discuss some of the more common errors made during the application of a pressure change test and give the test engineer insight into how to correctly compensate for these factors. The principals discussed here apply to ideal gases such as air or other monoatomic or diatomic gasses; however these same principals can be applied to polyatomic gasses or liquid flow rate with altered formula specific to those types of tests using the same methodology.

  8. Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S.; Henins, Ivars; Babayan, Steve E.; Hicks, Robert F.

    2001-01-01

    Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two planar, parallel electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the volume therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly spacing the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, there is a negligible density of ions surviving for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike the situation for low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  9. Analytical model for transient gas flow in nuclear fuel rods. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowe, D.S.; Oehlberg, R.N.

    1981-08-01

    An analytical model for calculating gas flow and pressure inside a nuclear fuel rod is presented. Such a model is required to calculate the pressure loading of cladding during ballooning that could occur for postulated reactor accidents. The mathematical model uses a porous media (permeability) concept to define the resistance to gas flow along the fuel rod. 7 refs.

  10. Pressure atomizer having multiple orifices and turbulent generation feature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    VanBrocklin, Paul G.; Geiger, Gail E.; Moran, Donald James; Fournier, Stephane

    2002-01-01

    A pressure atomizer includes a silicon plate having a top surface and a bottom surface. A portion of the top surface defines a turbulent chamber. The turbulent chamber is peripherally bounded by the top surface of the plate. The turbulent chamber is recessed a predetermined depth relative to the top surface. The silicon plate further defines at least one flow orifice. Each flow orifice extends from the bottom surface of the silicon plate to intersect with and open into the turbulent chamber. Each flow orifice is in fluid communication with the turbulent chamber.

  11. Pressure suppression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M.

    1994-01-01

    A pressure suppression system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and an enclosed gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The GDCS pool includes a plenum for receiving through an inlet the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A condenser is disposed in the GDCS plenum for condensing the steam channeled therein and to trap the non-condensable gas therein. A method of operation includes draining the GDCS pool following the LOCA and channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the GDCS plenum for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith for trapping the gas therein.

  12. Pressure suppression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.

    1994-10-04

    A pressure suppression system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and an enclosed gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The GDCS pool includes a plenum for receiving through an inlet the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A condenser is disposed in the GDCS plenum for condensing the steam channeled therein and to trap the non-condensable gas therein. A method of operation includes draining the GDCS pool following the LOCA and channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the GDCS plenum for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith for trapping the gas therein. 3 figs.

  13. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  14. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E.

    1993-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  15. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  16. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1993-09-14

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

  17. Pressure activated diaphragm bonder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Leland B.; Malba, Vincent

    1997-01-01

    A device is available for bonding one component to another, particularly for bonding electronic components of integrated circuits, such as chips, to a substrate. The bonder device in one embodiment includes a bottom metal block having a machined opening wherein a substrate is located, a template having machined openings which match solder patterns on the substrate, a thin diaphragm placed over the template after the chips have been positioned in the openings therein, and a top metal block positioned over the diaphragm and secured to the bottom block, with the diaphragm retained therebetween. The top block includes a countersink portion which extends over at least the area of the template and an opening through which a high pressure inert gas is supplied to exert uniform pressure distribution over the diaphragm to keep the chips in place during soldering. A heating means is provided to melt the solder patterns on the substrate and thereby solder the chips thereto.

  18. Pressure activated diaphragm bonder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, L.B.; Malba, V.

    1997-05-27

    A device is available for bonding one component to another, particularly for bonding electronic components of integrated circuits, such as chips, to a substrate. The bonder device in one embodiment includes a bottom metal block having a machined opening wherein a substrate is located, a template having machined openings which match solder patterns on the substrate, a thin diaphragm placed over the template after the chips have been positioned in the openings therein, and a top metal block positioned over the diaphragm and secured to the bottom block, with the diaphragm retained therebetween. The top block includes a countersink portion which extends over at least the area of the template and an opening through which a high pressure inert gas is supplied to exert uniform pressure distribution over the diaphragm to keep the chips in place during soldering. A heating means is provided to melt the solder patterns on the substrate and thereby solder the chips thereto. 4 figs.

  19. Heat release analysis of engine pressure data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gatowski, J.A.; Balles, E.N.; Chun, K.M.; Nelson, F.E.; Ekchian, J.A.; Heywood, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    In analyzing the processes inside the cylinder of an internal combustion engine, the principal diagnostic at the experimenter's disposal is a measured time history of the cylinder pressure. This paper develops, tests, and applies a heat release analysis procedure that maintains simplicity while including the effects of heat transfer, crevice flows and fuel injection. The heat release model uses a one zone description of the cylinder contents with thermodynamic properties represented by a linear approximation. Applications of the analysis to a single-cylinder spark-ignition engine, a special square cross-section visualization spark-ignition engine, and a direct-injection stratified charge engine are presented.

  20. Pressurized Combustion and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pressurized Combustion and Gasification - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  1. DEFLECTION PRESSURE TESTER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, C.M.

    1961-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining whether the jacket of a nuclear- fuel slug has a leak are described. The region of the jacket to be leak-tested is sealed off, and gas under pressure is applied thereto. If there is an imperfection, the gas will enter the jacket and bulge another region of the jacket. The bulge occurring is measured by a gage.

  2. High Pressure Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pressure Chemistry - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  3. High pressure storage vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Qiang

    2013-08-27

    Disclosed herein is a composite pressure vessel with a liner having a polar boss and a blind boss a shell is formed around the liner via one or more filament wrappings continuously disposed around at least a substantial portion of the liner assembly combined the liner and filament wrapping have a support profile. To reduce susceptible to rupture a locally disposed filament fiber is added.

  4. Flow Split Venturi, Axially-Rotated Valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walrath, David E.; Lindberg, William R.; Burgess, Robert K.; LaBelle, James

    2000-02-22

    The present invention provides an axially-rotated valve which permits increased flow rates and lower pressure drop (characterized by a lower loss coefficient) by using an axial eccentric split venturi with two portions where at least one portion is rotatable with respect to the other portion. The axially-rotated valve typically may be designed to avoid flow separation and/or cavitation at full flow under a variety of conditions. Similarly, the valve is designed, in some embodiments, to produce streamlined flow within the valve. An axially aligned outlet may also increase the flow efficiency. A typical cross section of the eccentric split venturi may be non-axisymmetric such as a semicircular cross section which may assist in both throttling capabilities and in maximum flow capacity using the design of the present invention. Such a design can include applications for freeze resistant axially-rotated valves and may be fully-opened and fully-closed in one-half of a complete rotation. An internal wide radius elbow typically connected to a rotatable portion of the eccentric venturi may assist in directing flow with lower friction losses. A valve actuator may actuate in an axial manner yet be uniquely located outside of the axial flow path to further reduce friction losses. A seal may be used between the two portions that may include a peripheral and diametrical seal in the same plane. A seal separator may increase the useful life of the seal between the fixed and rotatable portions.

  5. High-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardt, David E. (Concord, MA); Lee, Steven G. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1996-01-01

    A high-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace for stream welding applications includes a metal mass contained in a crucible having an orifice. A power source charges an electrode for generating an arc between the electrode and the mass. The arc heats the metal mass to a molten state. A pressurized gas source propels the molten metal mass through the crucible orifice in a continuous stream. As the metal is ejected, a metal feeder replenishes the molten metal bath. A control system regulates the electrode current, shielding gas pressure, and metal source to provide a continuous flow of molten metal at the crucible orifice. Independent control over the electrode current and shield gas pressure decouples the metal flow temperature and the molten metal flow rate, improving control over resultant weld characteristics.

  6. High-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardt, D.E.; Lee, S.G.

    1996-08-06

    A high-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace for stream welding applications includes a metal mass contained in a crucible having an orifice. A power source charges an electrode for generating an arc between the electrode and the mass. The arc heats the metal mass to a molten state. A pressurized gas source propels the molten metal mass through the crucible orifice in a continuous stream. As the metal is ejected, a metal feeder replenishes the molten metal bath. A control system regulates the electrode current, shielding gas pressure, and metal source to provide a continuous flow of molten metal at the crucible orifice. Independent control over the electrode current and shield gas pressure decouples the metal flow temperature and the molten metal flow rate, improving control over resultant weld characteristics. 4 figs.

  7. Dynamic high-pressure studies of an electrothermal capillary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, D.A.; Cahill, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes arc discharge tests conducted in a prepressurized, constant-volume pressure vessel to study arc behavior over a wide range of current densities, discharge durations and initial vessel pressures. This method allows controlled access to a wider range of conditions than those previously studied in capillary tests. We have investigated aspects of the radiative heat transfer by calculating the material opacity and mean free paths of photons for conditions typical of arc diagnostics. We also performed one-dimensional Eulerian hydrodynamic calculations of the boundary layer behavior in the radiative diffusion approximation. These calculations, which describe the radial mass flow and heat transfer in the absence of turbulent flow effects, show the characteristic times for equilibrium of the high-pressure arc. Finally, we describe progress on a promising means for increasing the mass flux from the capillary discharge through the use of chemically reactive media on the capillary walls. 20 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Engine control system having pressure-based timing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willi, Martin L.; Fiveland, Scott B.; Montgomery, David T.; Gong, Weidong

    2011-10-04

    A control system for an engine having a first cylinder and a second cylinder is disclosed having a first engine valve movable to regulate a fluid flow of the first cylinder and a first actuator associated with the first engine valve. The control system also has a second engine valve movable to regulate a fluid flow of the second cylinder and a sensor configured to generate a signal indicative of a pressure within the first cylinder. The control system also has a controller that is in communication with the first actuator and the sensor. The controller is configured to compare the pressure within the first cylinder with a desired pressure and selectively regulate the first actuator to adjust a timing of the first engine valve independently of the timing of the second engine valve based on the comparison.

  9. Determining critical flow valve characteristics using extrapolation techniques. [L9-3 ATWS experiment in LOFT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarrell, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the methodology and documentation of the calibration of the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) power-operated relief and safety relief valve (PORV + SRV) for the L9-3 anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) experiment. A multiposition globe valve was calibrated to produce scaled high-pressure flow rates using a low-pressure calibration facility and a simple RELAP5 critical flow model to extrapolate the calibration data to expected operating pressures. It was demonstrated that an accurate high-pressure, multiphase flow calibration can be performed without the necessity of actual high-pressure testing. This technique, when applied to large pressurized water reactor (LPWR) safety and relief valves, represents a potentially large savings in the capacity qualification procedure of full-scale pressure reduction valves.

  10. High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks for the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting held February 8-9, 2005 at Argonne National Laboratory

  11. HIGH PRESSURE DIES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, W.B.

    1960-05-31

    A press was invented for subjecting specimens of bismuth, urania, yttria, or thoria to high pressures and temperatures. The press comprises die parts enclosing a space in which is placed an electric heater thermally insulated from the die parts so as not to damage them by heat. The die parts comprise two opposed inner frustoconical parts and an outer part having a double frustoconical recess receiving the inner parts. The die space decreases in size as the inner die parts move toward one another against the outer part and the inner parts, though very hard, do not fracture because of the mode of support provided by the outer part.

  12. Vehicle having hydraulic and power steering systems using a single high pressure pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-06-22

    A vehicle comprises a plurality of wheels attached to a vehicle housing. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a power steering system, including a fluid flow circuit, which is operably coupled to a number of the wheels. An internal combustion engine attached to the vehicle housing is connected to a hydraulically actuated system that includes a high pressure pump. An outlet of the high pressure pump is in fluid communication with the fluid flow circuit.

  13. Pressure Data Within BOP- XLS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This file describes the components within the BOP and the pressure readings taken during diagnostic operations on May 25.

  14. Pressure Data Within BOP- ODS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This file describes the components within the BOP and the pressure readings taken during diagnostic operations on May 25.

  15. High pressure capillary connector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renzi, Ronald F.

    2005-08-09

    A high pressure connector capable of operating at pressures of 40,000 psi or higher is provided. This connector can be employed to position a first fluid-bearing conduit that has a proximal end and a distal end to a second fluid-bearing conduit thereby providing fluid communication between the first and second fluid-bearing conduits. The connector includes (a) an internal fitting assembly having a body cavity with (i) a lower segment that defines a lower segment aperture and (ii) an interiorly threaded upper segment, (b) a first member having a first member aperture that traverses its length wherein the first member aperture is configured to accommodate the first fluid-bearing conduit and wherein the first member is positioned in the lower segment of the internal fitting assembly, and (c) a second member having a second member aperture that traverses its length wherein the second member is positioned in the upper segment of the fitting assembly and wherein a lower surface of the second member is in contact with an upper surface of the first member to assert a compressive force onto the first member and wherein the first member aperture and the second member aperture are coaxial.

  16. Engine with hydraulic fuel injection and ABS circuit using a single high pressure pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    An engine system comprises a hydraulically actuated fuel injection system and an ABS circuit connected via a fluid flow passage that provides hydraulic fluid to both the fuel injection system and to the ABS circuit. The hydraulically actuated system includes a high pressure pump. The fluid control passage is in fluid communication with an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  17. Development test report for the high pressure water jet system nozzles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takasumi, D.S.

    1995-09-28

    The high pressure water jet nozzle tests were conducted to identify optimum water pressure, water flow rate, nozzle orifice size and fixture configuration needed to effectively decontaminate empty fuel storage canisters in KE-Basin. This report gives the tests results and recommendations from the these tests.

  18. Pressure behavior of laterally composite reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuchuk, F.J.; Habashy, T.

    1997-03-01

    This paper presents a new general method for solving the pressure diffusion equation in laterally composite reservoirs, where rock and fluid properties may change laterally as a function of y in the x-y plane. Composite systems can be encountered as a result of many different types of depositional and tectonic processes. For example, meandering point bar reservoirs or reservoirs with edgewater encroachment are examples of such systems. The new solution method presented is based on the reflection-transmission concept of electromagnetics to solve fluid-flow problems in 3D nonhomogeneous reservoirs, where heterogeneity is in only one (y) direction. A general Green`s function for a point source in 3D laterally composite systems is developed by using the reflection-transmission method. The solutions in the Laplace transform domain are then developed from the Green`s function for the pressure behavior of specific composite reservoirs. The solution method can also be applied to many different types of wells, such as vertical, fractured, and horizontal in composite reservoirs. The pressure behavior of a few well-known laterally composite systems are investigated. It is shown that a network of partially communicating faults and fractures in porous medium can be modeled as composite systems. It is also shown that the existing solutions for a partially communicating fault are not valid when the fault permeability is substantially larger than the formation permeability. The derivative plots are presented for selected faulted, fractured, channel, and composite reservoirs as diagnostic tools for well-test interpretation. It is also shown that if the composite system`s permeability varies moderately in the x or y direction, it exhibits a homogeneous system behavior. However, it does not yield the system`s average permeability. Furthermore, the composite systems with distributed low-permeability zones behave as if the system has many two no-flow boundaries.

  19. Pressurized Testing of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Stacks with Advanced Electrode-Supported Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. O'Brien; X. Zhang; G. K. Housley; K. DeWall; L. Moore-McAteer; G. Tao

    2012-06-01

    A new facility has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for pressurized testing of solid oxide electrolysis stacks. Pressurized operation is envisioned for large-scale hydrogen production plants, yielding higher overall efficiencies when the hydrogen product is to be delivered at elevated pressure for tank storage or pipelines. Pressurized operation also supports higher mass flow rates of the process gases with smaller components. The test stand can accommodate cell dimensions up to 8.5 cm x 8.5 cm and stacks of up to 25 cells. The pressure boundary for these tests is a water-cooled spool-piece pressure vessel designed for operation up to 5 MPa. The stack is internally manifolded and operates in cross-flow with an inverted-U flow pattern. Feed-throughs for gas inlets/outlets, power, and instrumentation are all located in the bottom flange. The entire spool piece, with the exception of the bottom flange, can be lifted to allow access to the internal furnace and test fixture. Lifting is accomplished with a motorized threaded drive mechanism attached to a rigid structural frame. Stack mechanical compression is accomplished using springs that are located inside of the pressure boundary, but outside of the hot zone. Initial stack heatup and performance characterization occurs at ambient pressure followed by lowering and sealing of the pressure vessel and subsequent pressurization. Pressure equalization between the anode and cathode sides of the cells and the stack surroundings is ensured by combining all of the process gases downstream of the stack. Steady pressure is maintained by means of a backpressure regulator and a digital pressure controller. A full description of the pressurized test apparatus is provided in this paper.

  20. The vapor pressures of explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Hotchkiss, Peter

    2013-01-05

    The vapor pressures of many explosive compounds are extremely low and thus determining accurate values proves difficult. Many researchers, using a variety of methods, have measured and reported the vapor pressures of explosives compounds at single temperatures, or as a function of temperature using vapor pressure equations. There are large variations in reported vapor pressures for many of these compounds, and some errors exist within individual papers. This article provides a review of explosive vapor pressures and describes the methods used to determine them. We have compiled primary vapor pressure relationships traceable to the original citations and include the temperature ranges for which they have been determined. Corrected values are reported as needed and described in the text. In addition, after critically examining the available data, we calculate and tabulate vapor pressures at 25 °C.

  1. Cradle and pressure grippers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muniak, John E.

    2001-01-01

    A gripper that is designed to incorporate the functions of gripping, supporting and pressure tongs into one device. The gripper has two opposing finger sections with interlocking fingers that incline and taper to form a wedge. The interlocking fingers are vertically off-set so that the opposing finger sections may close together allowing the inclined, tapered tips of the fingers to extend beyond the plane defined by the opposing finger section's engagement surface. The range of motion defined by the interlocking relationship of the finger sections allows the gripper to grab, lift and support objects of varying size and shape. The gripper has one stationary and one moveable finger section. Power is provided to the moveable finger section by an actuating device enabling the gripper to close around an object to be lifted. A lifting bail is attached to the gripper and is supported by a crane that provides vertical lift.

  2. Theoretical collapse pressures for two pressurized torispherical heads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalnins, A.; Updike, D.P.; Rana, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    In order to determine the pressures at which real torispherical heads fail upon a single application of pressure, two heads were pressurized in recent Praxair tests, and displacements and strains were recorded at various locations. In this paper, theoretical results for the two test heads are presented in the form of curves of pressure versus crown deflections, using the available geometry and material parameters. From these curves, limit and collapse pressures are calculated, using procedures permitted by the ASME B and PV Code Section 8/Div.2. These pressures are shown to vary widely, depending on the method and model used to calculate them. The effect of no stress relief on the behavior of the Praxair test heads is also evaluated and found to be of no significance for neither the objectives of the tests nor the objectives of this paper. The results of this paper are submitted as an enhancement to the experimental results recorded during the Praxair tests.

  3. Ultrasonic flow metering system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gomm, Tyler J.; Kraft, Nancy C.; Mauseth, Jason A.; Phelps, Larry D.; Taylor, Steven C.

    2002-01-01

    A system for determining the density, flow velocity, and mass flow of a fluid comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the fluid. A system for determining flow velocity uses two of the inventive circuits with directional transmitters and receivers, one of which is set at an angle to the direction of flow that is different from the others.

  4. Collapse pressure of coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y.S.

    1996-09-01

    The collapse pressure is a measure of an external force required to collapse a tube in the absence of internal pressure. It is defined as the minimum pressure required to yield the tube in the absence of internal pressure. Coiled tubing is sometimes used in high-pressure wells. If the external pressure becomes too high, the coiled tubing will collapse. This could not only lead to serious well-control problems, but may result in extensive fishing operations. A reliable safety criterion of collapse pressure for the coiled tubing is needed by the coiled tubing operators. Theoretical models of collapse pressure are well developed for perfectly round coiled tubing but not for oval coiled tubing. Coiled tubing is initially manufactured with nearly perfect roundness, sometimes having a small ovality (typically {le} 0.5%). Perfectly round CT becomes oval owing to the plastic mechanical deformation of the coiled tubing as it spooled on and off the reel and over the gooseneck. As the cycling continues, the ovality usually increases. This ovality significantly decreases the collapse failure pressure as compared to perfectly round tubing. In this paper, an analytical model of collapse pressure for oval tubing under axial tension or compression is developed based on elastic instability theory and the von Mises criterion. The theoretical model shows satisfactory agreement with experimental data.

  5. Method for reducing pressure drop through filters, and filter exhibiting reduced pressure drop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sappok, Alexander; Wong, Victor

    2014-11-18

    Methods for generating and applying coatings to filters with porous material in order to reduce large pressure drop increases as material accumulates in a filter, as well as the filter exhibiting reduced and/or more uniform pressure drop. The filter can be a diesel particulate trap for removing particulate matter such as soot from the exhaust of a diesel engine. Porous material such as ash is loaded on the surface of the substrate or filter walls, such as by coating, depositing, distributing or layering the porous material along the channel walls of the filter in an amount effective for minimizing or preventing depth filtration during use of the filter. Efficient filtration at acceptable flow rates is achieved.

  6. Design Strategies for Optically-Accessible, High-Temperature, High-Pressure Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. F. Rice; R. R. Steeper; C. A. LaJeunesse; R. G. Hanush; J. D. Aiken

    2000-02-01

    The authors have developed two optical cell designs for high-pressure and high-temperature fluid research: one for flow systems, and the other for larger batch systems. The flow system design uses spring washers to balance the unequal thermal expansions of the reactor and the window materials. A typical design calculation is presented showing the relationship between system pressure, operating temperature, and torque applied to the window-retaining nut. The second design employs a different strategy more appropriate for larger windows. This design uses two seals: one for the window that benefits from system pressure, and a second one that relies on knife-edge, metal-to-metal contact.

  7. Design strategies for optically-accessible, high-temperature, high-pressure reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. F. Rice; R. R. Steeper; C. A. LaJeunesse; R. G. Hanush; J. D. Aiken

    2000-02-01

    The authors have developed two optical cell designs for high-pressure and high-temperature fluid research: one for flow systems, and the other for larger batch systems. The flow system design uses spring washers to balance the unequal thermal expansions of the reactor and the window materials. A typical design calculation is presented showing the relationship between system pressure, operating temperature, and torque applied to the window-retaining nut. The second design employs a different strategy more appropriate for larger windows. This design uses two seals: one for the window that benefits from system pressure, and a second one that relies on knife-edge, metal-to-metal contact.

  8. Device and method for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Marcos German; Boucher, Timothy J

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow.

  9. Device and method for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, M.G.; Boucher, T.J.

    1998-11-10

    A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow. 1 fig.

  10. Lateral flow strip assay

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miles, Robin R.; Benett, William J.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  11. NETL SOFC: Atmospheric Pressure Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Pressure Systems ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE SYSTEMS (INDUSTRY TEAMS)-This key technology focuses on the design, scaleup, and integration of the SOFC technology, ultimately resulting in atmospheric-pressure modules suitable to serve as the building blocks for distributed-generation, commercial, and utility-scale power systems. Activities include fabrication, testing, post-test analysis of cells; integrating cells into stacks; and the development and validation testing of progressively

  12. Advanced Pressure Boundary Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santella, Michael L; Shingledecker, John P

    2007-01-01

    Increasing the operating temperatures of fossil power plants is fundamental to improving thermal efficiencies and reducing undesirable emissions such as CO{sub 2}. One group of alloys with the potential to satisfy the conditions required of higher operating temperatures is the advanced ferritic steels such as ASTM Grade 91, 9Cr-2W, and 12Cr-2W. These are Cr-Mo steels containing 9-12 wt% Cr that have martensitic microstructures. Research aimed at increasing the operating temperature limits of the 9-12 wt% Cr steels and optimizing them for specific power plant applications has been actively pursued since the 1970's. As with all of the high strength martensitic steels, specifying upper temperature limits for tempering the alloys and heat treating weldments is a critical issue. To support this aspect of development, thermodynamic analysis was used to estimate how this critical temperature, the A{sub 1} in steel terminology, varies with alloy composition. The results from the thermodynamic analysis were presented to the Strength of Weldments subgroup of the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code and are being considered in establishing maximum postweld heat treatment temperatures. Experiments are also being planned to verify predictions. This is part of a CRADA project being done with Alstom Power, Inc.

  13. A Galerkin least squares approach to viscoelastic flow.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Rekha R.; Schunk, Peter Randall

    2015-10-01

    A Galerkin/least-squares stabilization technique is applied to a discrete Elastic Viscous Stress Splitting formulation of for viscoelastic flow. From this, a possible viscoelastic stabilization method is proposed. This method is tested with the flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid past a rigid cylinder, where it is found to produce inaccurate drag coefficients. Furthermore, it fails for relatively low Weissenberg number indicating it is not suited for use as a general algorithm. In addition, a decoupled approach is used as a way separating the constitutive equation from the rest of the system. A Pressure Poisson equation is used when the velocity and pressure are sought to be decoupled, but this fails to produce a solution when inflow/outflow boundaries are considered. However, a coupled pressure-velocity equation with a decoupled constitutive equation is successful for the flow past a rigid cylinder and seems to be suitable as a general-use algorithm.

  14. Low flow fume hood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Geoffrey C. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Feustel, Helmut E. (Albany, CA); Dickerhoff, Darryl J. (Berkeley, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A fume hood is provided having an adequate level of safety while reducing the amount of air exhausted from the hood. A displacement flow fume hood works on the principal of a displacement flow which displaces the volume currently present in the hood using a push-pull system. The displacement flow includes a plurality of air supplies which provide fresh air, preferably having laminar flow, to the fume hood. The displacement flow fume hood also includes an air exhaust which pulls air from the work chamber in a minimally turbulent manner. As the displacement flow produces a substantially consistent and minimally turbulent flow in the hood, inconsistent flow patterns associated with contaminant escape from the hood are minimized. The displacement flow fume hood largely reduces the need to exhaust large amounts of air from the hood. It has been shown that exhaust air flow reductions of up to 70% are possible without a decrease in the hood's containment performance. The fume hood also includes a number of structural adaptations which facilitate consistent and minimally turbulent flow within a fume hood.

  15. Pressure testing of torispherical heads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rana, M.D.; Kalnins, A.; Updike, D.P.

    1995-12-01

    Two vessels fabricated from SA516-70 steel with 6% knuckle radius torispherical heads were tested under internal pressure to failure. The D/t ratios of Vessel 1 and Vessel 2 were 238 and 185 respectively. The calculated maximum allowable working pressures of Vessel 1 and 2 heads using the ASME Section 8, Div. 1 rules and measured dimensions were 85 and 110 psi, respectively. Vessel 1 failed at a nozzle weld in the cylindrical shell at 700 psi pressure. Neither buckling nor any other objectionable deformation of the head was observed at a theoretical double-elastic-slope collapse pressure of 241 and a calculated buckling pressure of 270 psi. Buckles were observed developing slowly after 600 psi pressure, and a total of 22 buckles were observed after the test, having the maximum amplitude of 0.15 inch. Vessel 2 failed at the edge of the longitudinal weld of the cylindrical shell at 1,080 psi pressure. Neither buckling nor any other objectionable deformation of the head was observed up to the final pressure, which exceeded the theoretical double-elastic-slope collapse and calculated buckling pressures of 274 psi and 342 psi, respectively.

  16. Screenable Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) in recycled paper create a number of problems for the recycling process, including lost production and diminished product quality. Unlike conventional PSAs, a...

  17. Ultrasonic analyte concentration and application in flow cytometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Goddard, Greg; Salzman, Gary; Sinha, Dipen; Martin, John C.; Kwiatkowski, Christopher; Graves, Steven

    2008-03-11

    The present invention includes an apparatus and corresponding method for concentrating analytes within a fluid flowing through a tube using acoustic radiation pressure. The apparatus includes a function generator that outputs a radio frequency electrical signal to a transducer that transforms the radio frequency electric signal to an acoustic signal and couples the acoustic signal to the tube. The acoustic signal is converted within the tube to acoustic pressure that concentrates the analytes within the fluid.

  18. Ultrasonic analyte concentration and application in flow cytometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Goddard, Greg; Salzman, Gary; Sinha, Dipen; Martin, John C.; Kwiatkowski, Christopher; Graves, Steven

    2015-07-07

    The present invention includes an apparatus and corresponding method for concentrating analytes within a fluid flowing through a tube using acoustic radiation pressure. The apparatus includes a function generator that outputs a radio frequency electrical signal to a transducer that transforms the radio frequency electric signal to an acoustic signal and couples the acoustic signal to the tube. The acoustic signal is converted within the tube to acoustic pressure that concentrates the analytes within the fluid.

  19. Ultrasonic analyte concentration and application in flow cytometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Goddard, Greg; Salzman, Gary; Sinha, Dipen; Martin, John C.; Kwiatkowski, Christopher; Graves, Steven

    2014-07-22

    The present invention includes an apparatus and corresponding method for concentrating analytes within a fluid flowing through a tube using acoustic radiation pressure. The apparatus includes a function generator that outputs a radio frequency electrical signal to a transducer that transforms the radio frequency electric signal to an acoustic signal and couples the acoustic signal to the tube. The acoustic signal is converted within the tube to acoustic pressure that concentrates the analytes within the fluid.

  20. Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Paul, Phillip H.; Schoeniger, Luke

    2002-01-01

    An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

  1. Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Paul, Phillip H.; Schoeniger, Luke

    2005-11-01

    An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

  2. Balanced pressure gerotor fuel pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raney, Michael Raymond; Maier, Eugen

    2004-08-03

    A gerotor pump for pressurizing gasoline fuel is capable of developing pressures up to 2.0 MPa with good mechanical and volumetric efficiency and satisfying the durability requirements for an automotive fuel pump. The pump has been designed with optimized clearances and by including features that promote the formation of lubricating films of pressurized fuel. Features of the improved pump include the use of a shadow port in the side plate opposite the outlet port to promote balancing of high fuel pressures on the opposite sides of the rotors. Inner and outer rotors have predetermined side clearances with the clearances of the outer rotor being greater than those of the inner rotor in order to promote fuel pressure balance on the sides of the outer rotor. Support of the inner rotor and a drive shaft on a single bushing with bearing sleeves maintains concentricity. Additional features are disclosed.

  3. Scaled Experimental Modeling of VHTR Plenum Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ICONE 15

    2007-04-01

    Abstract The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is the leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Project in the U.S. which has the goal of demonstrating the production of emissions free electricity and hydrogen by 2015. Various scaled heated gas and water flow facilities were investigated for modeling VHTR upper and lower plenum flows during the decay heat portion of a pressurized conduction-cooldown scenario and for modeling thermal mixing and stratification (“thermal striping”) in the lower plenum during normal operation. It was concluded, based on phenomena scaling and instrumentation and other practical considerations, that a heated water flow scale model facility is preferable to a heated gas flow facility and to unheated facilities which use fluids with ranges of density to simulate the density effect of heating. For a heated water flow lower plenum model, both the Richardson numbers and Reynolds numbers may be approximately matched for conduction-cooldown natural circulation conditions. Thermal mixing during normal operation may be simulated but at lower, but still fully turbulent, Reynolds numbers than in the prototype. Natural circulation flows in the upper plenum may also be simulated in a separate heated water flow facility that uses the same plumbing as the lower plenum model. However, Reynolds number scaling distortions will occur at matching Richardson numbers due primarily to the necessity of using a reduced number of channels connected to the plenum than in the prototype (which has approximately 11,000 core channels connected to the upper plenum) in an otherwise geometrically scaled model. Experiments conducted in either or both facilities will meet the objectives of providing benchmark data for the validation of codes proposed for NGNP designs and safety studies, as well as providing a better understanding of the complex flow phenomena in the plenums.

  4. Rotating diffuser for pressure recovery in a steam cooling circuit of a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eldrid, Sacheverel Q.; Salamah, Samir A.; DeStefano, Thomas Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The buckets of a gas turbine are steam-cooled via a bore tube assembly having concentric supply and spent cooling steam return passages rotating with the rotor. A diffuser is provided in the return passage to reduce the pressure drop. In a combined cycle system, the spent return cooling steam with reduced pressure drop is combined with reheat steam from a heat recovery steam generator for flow to the intermediate pressure turbine. The exhaust steam from the high pressure turbine of the combined cycle unit supplies cooling steam to the supply conduit of the gas turbine.

  5. Polyoxometalate flow battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Travis M.; Pratt, Harry D.

    2016-03-15

    Flow batteries including an electrolyte of a polyoxometalate material are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell including an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion comprises a polyoxometalate material. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

  6. Solids mass flow determination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Macko, Joseph E.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining the mass flow rate of solids mixed with a transport fluid to form a flowing mixture. A temperature differential is established between the solids and fluid. The temperature of the transport fluid prior to mixing, the temperature of the solids prior to mixing, and the equilibrium temperature of the mixture are monitored and correlated in a heat balance with the heat capacities of the solids and fluid to determine the solids mass flow rate.

  7. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van den Engh, Ger (Seattle, WA); Esposito, Richard J. (Seattle, WA)

    1996-01-01

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane.

  8. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engh, G. van den; Esposito, R.J.

    1996-01-09

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane. 8 figs.

  9. Nuclear reactor pressure vessel support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sepelak, George R.

    1978-01-01

    A support system for nuclear reactor pressure vessels which can withstand all possible combinations of stresses caused by a postulated core disrupting accident during reactor operation. The nuclear reactor pressure vessel is provided with a flange around the upper periphery thereof, and the flange includes an annular vertical extension formed integral therewith. A support ring is positioned atop of the support ledge and the flange vertical extension, and is bolted to both members. The plug riser is secured to the flange vertical extension and to the top of a radially outwardly extension of the rotatable plug. This system eliminates one joint through which fluids contained in the vessel could escape by making the fluid flow path through the joint between the flange and the support ring follow the same path through which fluid could escape through the plug risers. In this manner, the sealing means to prohibit the escape of contained fluids through the plug risers can also prohibit the escape of contained fluid through the securing joint.

  10. Summary on the depressurization from supercritical pressure conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, M.; Chen, Y.; Ammirable, L.; Yamada, K.

    2012-07-01

    When a fluid discharges from a high pressure and temperature system, a 'choking' or critical condition occurs, and the flow rate becomes independent of the downstream pressure. During a postulated loss of coolant accident (LOCA) of a water reactor the break flow will be subject to this condition. An accurate estimation of the critical flow rate is important for the evaluation of the reactor safety, because this flow rate controls the loss of coolant inventory and energy from the system, and thus has a significant effect on the accident consequences[1]. In the design of safety systems for a super critical water reactor (SCWR), postulated LOCA transients are particularly important due to the lower coolant inventory compared to a typical PWR for the same power output. This lower coolant inventory would result in a faster transient response of the SCWR, and hence accurate prediction of the critical discharge is mandatory. Under potential two-phase conditions critical flow is dominated by the vapor content or quality of the vapor, which is closely related with the onset of vaporization and the interfacial interaction between phases [2]. This presents a major challenge for the estimation of the flow rate due to the lack of the knowledge of those processes, especially under the conditions of interest for the SCWR. According to the limited data of supercritical fluids, the critical flows at conditions above the pseudo-critical point seem to be fairly stable and consistent with the subcritical homogeneous equilibrium model (HEM) model predictions, while having a lower flow rate than those in the two-phase region. Thus the major difficulty in the prediction of the depressurization flow rates remains in the region where two phases co-exist at the top of the vapor dome. In this region, the flow rate is strongly affected by the nozzle geometry and tends to be unstable. Various models for this region have been developed with different assumptions, e.g. the HEM and Moody model [3], and the Henry-Fauske non-equilibrium model [4], and are currently used in subcritical pressure reactor safety design[5]. It appears that some of these models could be reasonably extended to above the thermodynamic pseudo-critical point. The more stable and lower discharge flow rates observed in conditions above the pseudo-critical point suggests that even though SCWR's have a smaller coolant inventory, the safety implications of a LOCA and the subsequent depressurization may not be as severe as expected, this however needs to be confirmed by a rigorous evaluation of the particular event and further evaluation of the critical flow rate. This paper will summarize activities on critical flow models, experimental data and numerical modeling during blowdown from supercritical pressure conditions under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Heat Transfer Behaviour and Thermo-hydraulics Code testing for SCWRs'. (authors)

  11. Adiabatic two-phase frictional pressure drops in microchannels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Revellin, Remi; Thome, John R. [EPFL, STI ISE LTCM, ME Gl 464, Station 9, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-07-15

    Two-phase pressure drops were measured over a wide range of experimental test conditions in two sizes of microchannels (sight glass tubes 0.509 and 0.790 mm) for two refrigerants (R-134a and R-245fa). Similar to the classic Moody diagram in single-phase flow, three zones were distinguishable when plotting the variation of the two-phase friction factor versus the two-phase Reynolds number: a laminar regime for Re{sub TP} < 2000, a transition regime for 2000 {<=} Re{sub TP} < 8000 and a turbulent regime for Re{sub TP} {>=} 8000. The laminar zone yields a much sharper gradient than in single-phase flow. The transition regime is not predicted well by any of the prediction methods for two-phase frictional pressure drops available in the literature. This is not unexpected since only a few data are available for this region in the literature and most methods ignore this regime, jumping directly from laminar to turbulent flow at Re{sub TP} = 2000. The turbulent zone is best predicted by the Mueller-Steinhagen and Heck correlation. Also, a new homogeneous two-phase frictional pressure drop has been proposed here with a limited range of application. (author)

  12. Pressure field study of the Tevatron cold compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klebaner, A.L.; Martinez, A.; Soyars, W.M.; Theilacker, J.C.; /Fermilab

    2003-01-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system utilizes high-speed centrifugal cold compressors, manufactured by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. (IHI), for high-energy operations [1]. The compressor is designed to pump 60 g/sec of 3.6 K saturated helium vapor at a pressure ratio of 2.8, with an off-design range of 40 to 70 g/sec. Operating speeds are between 40 and 95 krpm, with a speed of 80 krpm at the design point. Different heat loads and magnet quench performance of each of the twenty-four satellite refrigerators dictates different process pressure and flow rates of the cold compressors. Reducing the process flow rate can cause the centrifugal cold compressor to stop pumping and subsequently surge. Tests have been conducted at the Cryogenic Test Facility at Fermilab to map the pressure field and appropriate efficiency of the IHI hydrodynamic cold compressor. The information allows tuning of each of the twenty-four Tevatron satellite refrigerators to avoid cold compressor operation near the surge and choke lines. A new impeller has also been tested. The Tevatron cold compressor pressure field and efficiency data with the new impeller are presented in this paper.

  13. Pressure sensor for sealed containers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hodges, Franklin R.

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic pressure sensor for sensing a pressure change inside a sealed container. The sensor includes a sealed deformable vessel having a first end attachable to an interior surface of the sealed container, and a second end. A magnet mounted to the vessel second end defining a distance away from the container surface provides an externally detectable magnetic field. A pressure change inside the sealed container causes deformation of the vessel changing the distance of the magnet away from the container surface, and thus the detectable intensity of the magnetic field.

  14. Pressure dispensable gelled alcohol fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monick, J.A.

    1982-12-28

    A pressurized fuel gel composition particularly suitable for igniting wood and charcoal consisting essentially of, by weight, 42-90% of at least one c1-c6 monohydric alcohol, 0.5-6% of water-soluble gelling agent, up to about 24% water and a correlated amount of propellant from 0.5% to 30% characterized by a gel structure which forms a shape retaining mass upon contact with wood or charcoal that is maintained during the burning of said composition. Also within the scope of the invention is an aerosol product comprising said pressurized composition enclosed within a pressure-tight container having valve means for expelling the composition.

  15. Correlations to predict frictional pressure loss of hydraulic-fracturing slurry in coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, S.; Zhoi, Y.X.; Bailey, M.; Hernandez, J.

    2009-08-15

    Compared with conventional-tubing fracturing, coiled-tubing (CT) fracturing has several advantages. CT fracturing has become an effective stimulation technique for multizone oil and gas wells. It is also an attractive production-enhancement method for multiseam coalbed-methane wells, and wells with bypassed zones. The excessive frictional pressure loss through CT has been a concern in fracturing. The small diameter of the string limits the cross-sectional area open to flow. Furthermore, the tubing curvature causes secondary flow and results in extra flow resistance. This increased frictional pressure loss results in high surface pumping pressure. The maximum possible pump rate and sand concentration, therefore, have to be reduced. To design a CT fracturing job properly, it is essential to predict the frictional pressure loss through the tubing accurately. This paper presents correlations for the prediction of frictional pressure loss of fracturing slurries in straight tubing and CT. They are developed on the basis of full-scale slurry-flow tests with 11/2-in. CT and slurries prepared with 35 lbm/1,000 gal of guar gel. The extensive experiments were conducted at the full-scale CT-flow test facility. The proposed correlations have been verified with the experimental data and actual field CT-fracturing data. Case studies of wells recently fractured are provided to demonstrate the application of the correlations. The correlations will be useful to the CT engineers in their hydraulics design calculations.

  16. Investigation of pressure drop in capillary tube for mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardhapurkar, P. M.; Sridharan, Arunkumar; Atrey, M. D.

    2014-01-29

    A capillary tube is commonly used in small capacity refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. It is also a preferred expansion device in mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR J-T) cryocoolers, since it is inexpensive and simple in configuration. However, the flow inside a capillary tube is complex, since flashing process that occurs in case of refrigeration and air-conditioning systems is metastable. A mixture of refrigerants such as nitrogen, methane, ethane, propane and iso-butane expands below its inversion temperature in the capillary tube of MR J-T cryocooler and reaches cryogenic temperature. The mass flow rate of refrigerant mixture circulating through capillary tube depends on the pressure difference across it. There are many empirical correlations which predict pressure drop across the capillary tube. However, they have not been tested for refrigerant mixtures and for operating conditions of the cryocooler. The present paper assesses the existing empirical correlations for predicting overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the MR J-T cryocooler. The empirical correlations refer to homogeneous as well as separated flow models. Experiments are carried out to measure the overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the cooler. Three different compositions of refrigerant mixture are used to study the pressure drop variations. The predicted overall pressure drop across the capillary tube is compared with the experimentally obtained value. The predictions obtained using homogeneous model show better match with the experimental results compared to separated flow models.

  17. Instream Flow Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As a part of the Department of Energy’s Water Power Program, the Instream Flow Project was carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and Argonne National Laboratory to develop tools aimed at defining environmental flow needs for hydropower operations.

  18. Modeling of Propagation of Interacting Cracks Under Hydraulic Pressure Gradient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Hai; Mattson, Earl Douglas; Podgorney, Robert Karl

    2015-04-01

    A robust and reliable numerical model for fracture initiation and propagation, which includes the interactions among propagating fractures and the coupling between deformation, fracturing and fluid flow in fracture apertures and in the permeable rock matrix, would be an important tool for developing a better understanding of fracturing behaviors of crystalline brittle rocks driven by thermal and (or) hydraulic pressure gradients. In this paper, we present a physics-based hydraulic fracturing simulator based on coupling a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) for deformation and fracturing with conjugate lattice network flow model for fluid flow in both fractures and porous matrix. Fracturing is represented explicitly by removing broken bonds from the network to represent microcracks. Initiation of new microfractures and growth and coalescence of the microcracks leads to the formation of macroscopic fractures when external and/or internal loads are applied. The coupled DEM-network flow model reproduces realistic growth pattern of hydraulic fractures. In particular, simulation results of perforated horizontal wellbore clearly demonstrate that elastic interactions among multiple propagating fractures, fluid viscosity, strong coupling between fluid pressure fluctuations within fractures and fracturing, and lower length scale heterogeneities, collectively lead to complicated fracturing patterns.

  19. Pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of boiling water in sub-hundred micron channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhide, R.R.; Singh, S.G.; Sridharan, Arunkumar; Duttagupta, S.P.; Agrawal, Amit [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2009-09-15

    The current work focuses on the pressure drop, heat transfer and stability in two phase flow in microchannels with hydraulic diameter of less than one hundred microns. Experiments were conducted in smooth microchannels of hydraulic diameter of 45, 65 {mu}m, and a rough microchannel of hydraulic diameter of 70 {mu}m, with deionised water as the working fluid. The local saturation pressure and temperature vary substantially over the length of the channel. In order to correctly predict the local saturation temperature and subsequently the heat transfer characteristics, numerical techniques have been used in conjunction with the conventional two phase pressure drop models. The Lockhart-Martinelli (liquid-laminar, vapour-laminar) model is found to predict the two phase pressure drop data within 20%. The instability in two phase flow is quantified; it is found that microchannels of smaller hydraulic diameter have lesser instabilities as compared to their larger counterparts. The experiments also suggest that surface characteristics strongly affect flow stability in the two phase flow regime. The effect of hydraulic diameter and surface characteristics on the flow characteristics and stability in two phase flow is seldom reported, and is of considerable practical relevance. (author)

  20. Low pressure carbonylation of heterocycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Geoffrey W.; Kramer, John

    2009-08-04

    Heterocycles, e.g., epoxides, are carbonylated at low pressure with high percentage conversion to cyclic, ring expanded products using the catalyst ##STR00001## where L is tetrahydrofuran (THF).

  1. Low pressure carbonylation of heterocycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Geoffrey W.; Kramer, John W.; Schmidt, Joseph A. R.

    2011-01-25

    Heterocycles, e.g., epoxides, are carbonylated at low pressure with high percentage conversion to cyclic, ring expanded products using the catalyst ##STR00001## where L is tetrahydrofuran (THF).

  2. A Two-Dimensional Compressible Gas Flow Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-03-17

    F2D is a general purpose, two dimensional, fully compressible thermal-fluids code that models most of the phenomena found in situations of coupled fluid flow and heat transfer. The code solves momentum, continuity, gas-energy, and structure-energy equations using a predictor-correction solution algorithm. The corrector step includes a Poisson pressure equation. The finite difference form of the equation is presented along with a description of input and output. Several example problems are included that demonstrate the applicabilitymore » of the code in problems ranging from free fluid flow, shock tubes and flow in heated porous media.« less

  3. Review of air flow measurement techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWilliams, Jennifer

    2002-12-01

    Airflow measurement techniques are necessary to determine the most basic of indoor air quality questions: ''Is there enough fresh air to provide a healthy environment for the occupants of the building?'' This paper outlines airflow measurement techniques, but it does not make recommendations for techniques that should be used. The airflows that will be discussed are those within a room or zone, those between rooms or zones, such as through doorways (open or closed) or passive vents, those between the building and outdoors, and those through mechanical air distribution systems. Techniques that are highlighted include particle streak velocimetry, hot wire anemometry, fan pressurization (measuring flow at a given pressure), tracer gas, acoustic methods for leak size determination, the Delta Q test to determine duct leakage flows, and flow hood measurements. Because tracer gas techniques are widely used to measure airflow, this topic is broken down into sections as follows: decay, pulse injection, constant injection, constant concentration, passive sampling, and single and multiple gas measurements for multiple zones.

  4. 2-Phase Fluid Flow & Heat Transport

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-03-13

    GEOTHER is a three-dimensional, geothermal reservoir simulation code. The model describes heat transport and flow of a single component, two-phase fluid in porous media. It is based on the continuity equations for steam and water, which are reduced to two nonlinear partial differential equations in which the dependent variables are fluid pressure and enthalpy. GEOTHER can be used to simulate the fluid-thermal interaction in rock that can be approximated by a porous media representation. Itmore »can simulate heat transport and the flow of compressed water, two-phase mixtures, and superheated steam in porous media over a temperature range of 10 to 300 degrees C. In addition, it can treat the conversion from single to two-phase flow, and vice versa. It can be used for evaluation of a near repository spatial scale and a time scale of a few years to thousands of years. The model can be used to investigate temperature and fluid pressure changes in response to thermal loading by waste materials.« less

  5. 2-Phase Fluid Flow & Heat Transport

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-03-13

    GEOTHER is a three-dimensional, geothermal reservoir simulation code. The model describes heat transport and flow of a single component, two-phase fluid in porous media. It is based on the continuity equations for steam and water, which are reduced to two nonlinear partial differential equations in which the dependent variables are fluid pressure and enthalpy. GEOTHER can be used to simulate the fluid-thermal interaction in rock that can be approximated by a porous media representation. Itmore » can simulate heat transport and the flow of compressed water, two-phase mixtures, and superheated steam in porous media over a temperature range of 10 to 300 degrees C. In addition, it can treat the conversion from single to two-phase flow, and vice versa. It can be used for evaluation of a near repository spatial scale and a time scale of a few years to thousands of years. The model can be used to investigate temperature and fluid pressure changes in response to thermal loading by waste materials.« less

  6. Partially penetrating fractures: Pressure transient analysis of an infinite conductivity fracture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, F.; Cinco-Ley, H.; Horne, R.N.

    1984-04-01

    The effect of the partial penetration of an infinite conductivity fracture on the transient pressure behavior of a vertically fractured well is investigated. Analysis of results shows that the pressure behavior of a well intersected by a partially-penetrating infinite conductivity vertical fracture can be divided into three flow periods: 1) the early time flow period which is characterized by a formation linear flow as in the case of a fully-penetrating infinite-conductivity vertical fracture, 2) the infinite-acting flow period and 3) the pseudoradial flow period which develops after the effects of the vertical boundaries of the reservoir are felt in the pressure behavior of the well. A log-log graph of log(h /SUB f/ /h)p /SUB wD/ versus log t /SUB Dxf/ shows a slope of one half during the early time flow period of a well with an infinite-conductivity partially penetrating fracture. The time for the end of the early time flow period is directly related to the square of the dimensionless height of the fracture, h /SUB fD/, which is defined as the ratio between the height of the fracture and its half length.

  7. Spray bottle apparatus with pressure multiplying pistons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moss, Owen R.; Gordon, Norman R.; DeFord, Henry S.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is acted upon the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

  8. Hydrologic test system for fracture flow studies in crystalline rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raber, E; Lord, D.; Burklund, P.

    1982-05-05

    A hydrologic test system has been designed to measure the intrinsic permeabilities of individual fractures in crystalline rock. This system is used to conduct constant pressure-declining flow rate and pressure pulse hydraulic tests. The system is composed of four distinct units: (1) the Packer System, (2) Injection system, (3) Collection System, and (4) Electronic Data Acquisition System. The apparatus is built in modules so it can be easily transported and re-assembled. It is also designed to operate over a wide range of pressures (0 to 300 psig) and flow rates (0.2 to 1.0 gal/min). This system has proved extremely effective and versatile in its use at the Climax Facility, Nevada Test Site.

  9. Conformable pressure vessel for high pressure gas storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Lavender, Curt A.; Newhouse, Norman L.; Yeggy, Brian C.

    2016-01-12

    A non-cylindrical pressure vessel storage tank is disclosed. The storage tank includes an internal structure. The internal structure is coupled to at least one wall of the storage tank. The internal structure shapes and internally supports the storage tank. The pressure vessel storage tank has a conformability of about 0.8 to about 1.0. The internal structure can be, but is not limited to, a Schwarz-P structure, an egg-crate shaped structure, or carbon fiber ligament structure.

  10. Sample introduction system for a flow cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van den Engh, Ger

    1997-01-01

    A sample introduction system for a flow cytometer allows easy change of sample containers such as test tubes and facilitates use in high pressure environments. The sample container includes a cap having a pressure supply chamber and a sample container attachment cavity. A sample container may be automatically positioned into the attachment cavity so as to sealably engage the end of the sample container as its outer surface. This positioning may be accomplished through some sample introduction mechanism. To facilitate cleaning, HPLC tubing and fittings may be used in a manner which facilitates removing of the entire tubing from both the nozzle container and other sample container cap to permit its replacement to avoid contamination. The sample container support may include horizontal stops which loosely limit the movement of the sample container and thus avoid further stresses upon it.

  11. Sample introduction apparatus for a flow cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van den Engh, G.

    1998-03-10

    A sample introduction system for a flow cytometer allows easy change of sample containers such as test tubes and facilitates use in high pressure environments. The sample container includes a cap having a pressure supply chamber and a sample container attachment cavity. A sample container may be automatically positioned into the attachment cavity so as to sealably engage the end of the sample container as its outer surface. This positioning may be accomplished through some sample introduction mechanism. To facilitate cleaning HPLC tubing and fittings may be used in a manner which facilitates removable of the entire tubing from both the nozzle container and other sample container cap to permit its replacement to avoid contamination. The sample container support may include horizontal stops which loosely limit the movement of the sample container and thus avoid further stresses upon it. 3 figs.

  12. Sample introduction system for a flow cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engh, G. van den

    1997-02-11

    A sample introduction system for a flow cytometer allows easy change of sample containers such as test tubes and facilitates use in high pressure environments. The sample container includes a cap having a pressure supply chamber and a sample container attachment cavity. A sample container may be automatically positioned into the attachment cavity so as to sealably engage the end of the sample container as its outer surface. This positioning may be accomplished through some sample introduction mechanism. To facilitate cleaning, HPLC tubing and fittings may be used in a manner which facilitates removing of the entire tubing from both the nozzle container and other sample container cap to permit its replacement to avoid contamination. The sample container support may include horizontal stops which loosely limit the movement of the sample container and thus avoid further stresses upon it. 3 figs.

  13. Sample introduction apparatus for a flow cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van den Engh, Ger

    1998-01-01

    A sample introduction system for a flow cytometer allows easy change of sample containers such as test tubes and facilitates use in high pressure environments. The sample container includes a cap having a pressure supply chamber and a sample container attachment cavity. A sample container may be automatically positioned into the attachment cavity so as to sealably engage the end of the sample container as its outer surface. This positioning may be accomplished through some sample introduction mechanism. To facilitate cleaning HPLC tubing and fittings may be used in a manner which facilitates removable of the entire tubing from both the nozzle container and other sample container cap to permit its replacement to avoid contamination. The sample container support may include horizontal stops which loosely limit the movement of the sample container and thus avoid further stresses upon it.

  14. Use of finite volume radiation for predicting the Knudsen minimum in 2D channel flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malhotra, Chetan P.; Mahajan, Roop L.

    2014-12-09

    In an earlier paper we employed an analogy between surface-to-surface radiation and free-molecular flow to model Knudsen flow through tubes and onto planes. In the current paper we extend the analogy between thermal radiation and molecular flow to model the flow of a gas in a 2D channel across all regimes of rarefaction. To accomplish this, we break down the problem of gaseous flow into three sub-problems (self-diffusion, mass-motion and generation of pressure gradient) and use the finite volume method for modeling radiation through participating media to model the transport in each sub-problem as a radiation problem. We first model molecular self-diffusion in the stationary gas by modeling the transport of the molecular number density through the gas starting from the analytical asymptote for free-molecular flow to the kinetic theory limit of gaseous self-diffusion. We then model the transport of momentum through the gas at unit pressure gradient to predict Poiseuille flow and slip flow in the 2D gas. Lastly, we predict the generation of pressure gradient within the gas due to molecular collisions by modeling the transport of the forces generated due to collisions per unit volume of gas. We then proceed to combine the three radiation problems to predict flow of the gas over the entire Knudsen number regime from free-molecular to transition to continuum flow and successfully capture the Knudsen minimum at Kn ? 1.

  15. Microstructure evolution in solution treated Ti15Mo alloy processed by high pressure torsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jane?ek, Miloš; ?ížek, Jakub; Stráský, Josef; Václavová, Kristína; Hruška, Petr; Polyakova, Veronika; Gatina, Svetlana; Semenova, Irina

    2014-12-15

    Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of ultra-fine grained Ti15Mo alloy processed by high pressure torsion were investigated. High pressure torsion straining resulted in strong grain refinement as-observed by transmission electron microscopy. Microhardness and light microscopy showed two distinct regions — (i) a central region with radial material flow and low microhardness (340 HV) and (ii) a peripheral region with rotational material flow and high microhardness (430 HV). Positron annihilation spectroscopy showed that the only detectable defects in the material are dislocations, whose density increases with the radial distance and the number of high pressure torsion revolutions. The local chemical environment around defects does not differ significantly from the average composition. - Highlights: • Beta-Ti alloy Ti15Mo was processed by high pressure torsion (HPT). • Lateral inhomogeneity of the microstructure and microhardness was found. • Dislocations are the only lattice defects detectable by positron annihilation. • Molybdenum is not preferentially segregated along dislocation cores.

  16. Wind-induced Ground-surface Pressures Around a Single-Family House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, W.J.; Gadgil, A.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    1996-02-01

    Wind induces a ground-surface pressure field around a building that can substantially affect the flow of soil gas and thereby the entry of radon and other soil-gas contaminants into the building. To quantify the effect of the wind-induced groundsurface pressure field on contaminant entry rates, the mean ground-surface pressure field was experimentally measured in a wind tunnel for several incidence angles of the wind, two atmospheric boundary layers, and two house geometries. The experimentally measured ground-surface pressure fields are compared with those predicted by a k-e turbulence model. Despite the fundamental limitations in applying a k-e model to a system with flow separation, predictions from the numerical simulations were good for the two wind incidence angles tested.

  17. Complex Flow Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-05-01

    This report documents findings from a workshop on the impacts of complex wind flows in and out of wind turbine environments, the research needs, and the challenges of meteorological and engineering modeling at regional, wind plant, and wind turbine scales.

  18. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  19. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  20. High pressure neon arc lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Robert C.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2003-07-15

    A high pressure neon arc lamp and method of using the same for photodynamic therapies is provided. The high pressure neon arc lamp includes a housing that encloses a quantity of neon gas pressurized to about 500 Torr to about 22,000 Torr. At each end of the housing the lamp is connected by electrodes and wires to a pulse generator. The pulse generator generates an initial pulse voltage to breakdown the impedance of the neon gas. Then the pulse generator delivers a current through the neon gas to create an electrical arc that emits light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. A method for activating a photosensitizer is provided. Initially, a photosensitizer is administered to a patient and allowed time to be absorbed into target cells. Then the high pressure neon arc lamp is used to illuminate the target cells with red light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. The red light activates the photosensitizers to start a chain reaction that may involve oxygen free radicals to destroy the target cells. In this manner, a high pressure neon arc lamp that is inexpensive and efficiently generates red light useful in photodynamic therapy is provided.

  1. Version pressure feedback mechanisms for speculative versioning...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Version pressure feedback mechanisms for speculative versioning caches Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Version pressure feedback mechanisms for speculative versioning ...

  2. Mobile Monolith Polymer Elements For Flow Control In Microfluidic Systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselbrink, Jr., Ernest F.; Rehm, Jason E.; Shepodd, Timothy J.; Kirby, Brian J.

    2006-01-24

    A cast-in-place and lithographically shaped mobile, monolithic polymer element for fluid flow control in microfluidic devices and method of manufacture. Microfluid flow control devices, or microvalves that provide for control of fluid or ionic current flow can be made incorporating a cast-in-place, mobile monolithic polymer element, disposed within a microchannel, and driven by fluid pressure (either liquid or gas) against a retaining or sealing surface. The polymer elements are made by the application of lithographic methods to monomer mixtures formulated in such a way that the polymer will not bond to microchannel walls. The polymer elements can seal against pressures greater than 5000 psi, and have a response time on the order of milliseconds. By the use of energetic radiation it is possible to depolymerize selected regions of the polymer element to form shapes that cannot be produced by conventional lithographic patterning and would be impossible to machine.

  3. Mobile monolithic polymer elements for flow control in microfluidic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselbrink, Jr., Ernest F.; Rehm, Jason E.; Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2004-08-31

    A cast-in-place and lithographically shaped mobile, monolithic polymer element for fluid flow control in microfluidic devices and method of manufacture. Microfluid flow control devices, or microvalves that provide for control of fluid or ionic current flow can be made incorporating a cast-in-place, mobile monolithic polymer element, disposed within a microchannel, and driven by either fluid or gas pressure against a retaining or sealing surface. The polymer elements are made by the application of lithographic methods to monomer mixtures formulated in such a way that the polymer will not bond to microchannel walls. The polymer elements can seal against pressures greater than 5000 psi, and have a response time on the order of milliseconds. By the use of energetic radiation it is possible to depolymerize selected regions of the polymer element to form shapes that cannot be produced by conventional lithographic patterning and would be impossible to machine.

  4. Mobile monolithic polymer elements for flow control in microfluidic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselbrink, Jr., Ernest F.; Rehm, Jason E.; Shepodd, Timothy J.; Kirby, Brian J.

    2005-11-11

    A cast-in-place and lithographically shaped mobile, monolithic polymer element for fluid flow control in microfluidic devices and method of manufacture. Microfluid flow control devices, or microvalves that provide for control of fluid or ionic current flow can be made incorporating a cast-in-place, mobile monolithic polymer element, disposed within a microchannel, and driven by fluid pressure (either liquid or gas) against a retaining or sealing surface. The polymer elements are made by the application of lithographic methods to monomer mixtures formulated in such a way that the polymer will not bond to microchannel walls. The polymer elements can seal against pressures greater than 5000 psi, and have a response time on the order of milliseconds. By the use of energetic radiation it is possible to depolymerize selected regions of the polymer element to form shapes that cannot be produced by conventional lithographic patterning and would be impossible to machine.

  5. Electrochemical flow capacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gogotsi, Yury; Presser, Volker; Kumbar, Emin Caglan

    2015-11-05

    The present invention generally relates to devices for energy storage technologies, and more particularly to electrochemical flow capacitor systems and applications. In some aspects, these flow capacitors have at least one electrode comprising a non-stationary solid or semi-solid composition comprising supercapacitive particles and an electrolytic solvent in electrical communication with at least one current collector, and energy is stored and/or released by charging and/or discharging the electrode(s).

  6. Electrochemical flow capacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gogotsi, Yury; Presser, Volker; Kumbur, Emin Caglan

    2015-10-27

    The present invention generally relates to devices for energy storage technologies, and more particularly to electrochemical flow capacitor systems and applications. In some aspects, these flow capacitors have at least one electrode comprising a non-stationary solid or semi-solid composition comprising supercapacitive particles and an electrolytic solvent in electrical communication with at least one current collector, and energy is stored and/or released by charging and/or discharging the electrode(s).

  7. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2014-08-06

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  8. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2014-03-06

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  9. Nonisothermal Two-Phase Porous Flow

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-21

    NORIA is a finite element program that simultaneously solves four nonlinear parabolic, partial differential equations that describe the transport of water, water vapor, air, and energy through partially saturated porous media. NORIA is designed for the analysis of two-dimensional, non-isothermal, unsaturated porous flow problems. Nearly all material properties, such as permeability, can either be set to constant values or defined as functions of the dependent and independent variables by user-supplied subroutines. The gas phase ismore » taken to be ideal. NORIA is intended to solve nonisothermal problems in which large gradients are expected in the gas pressure.« less

  10. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt gradual bend

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Marcos German

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt bend. The system includes pressure transducers, one disposed in the conduit at the inside of the bend and one or more disposed in the conduit at the outside of the bend but spaced a distance therefrom. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow.

  11. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt gradual bend

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, M.G.

    1998-02-10

    A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt bend. The system includes pressure transducers, one disposed in the conduit at the inside of the bend and one or more disposed in the conduit at the outside of the bend but spaced a distance therefrom. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow. 1 fig.

  12. Dynamics of the ion flow in a discharge with crossed E and H fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Movsesyants, Yu. B. Tyuryukanov, P. M.

    2011-12-15

    The experimental and theoretical results of the investigation of an ion flow in a low-pressure discharge in crossed E and H fields are presented. It is shown that two quasi-stationary current states can be realized in a transonic collisionless flow of ions in a cold plasma.

  13. Two-phase pressure drop across a hydrofoil-based micro pin device using R-123

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosar, Ali [Mechatronics Engineering Program, Sabanci University, Orhanli, Tuzla, 34956 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-05-15

    The two-phase pressure drop in a hydrofoil-based micro pin fin heat sink has been investigated using R-123 as the working fluid. Two-phase frictional multipliers have been obtained over mass fluxes from 976 to 2349 kg/m{sup 2} s and liquid and gas superficial velocities from 0.38 to 1.89 m/s and from 0.19 to 24 m/s, respectively. It has been found that the two-phase frictional multiplier is strongly dependent on flow pattern. The theoretical prediction using Martinelli parameter based on the laminar fluid and laminar gas flow represented the experimental data fairly well for the spray-annular flow. For the bubbly and wavy-intermittent flow, however, large deviations from the experimental data were recorded. The Martinelli parameter was successfully used to determine the flow patterns, which were bubbly, wavy-intermittent, and spray-annular flow in the current study. (author)

  14. Level indicator for pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-04-28

    A liquid-level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic-field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal-processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  15. High pressure liquid level monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bean, Vern E.; Long, Frederick G.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  16. Pressurized-fluid-operated engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holleyman, J.E.

    1990-01-30

    This patent describes a pressurized-fluid-operated reciprocating engine for providing output power by use of a pressurized gas that expands within the engine without combustion. It comprises: an engine block having a plurality of cylinders within which respective pistons are reciprocatable to provide a rotary power output; gas inlet means connected with the engine block for introducing a pressurized gas into the respective cylinders in a predetermined, timed relationship to provide a smooth power output from the engine; gas outlet means connected with the engine block for conveying exhaust gas from the respective cylinders after the gas expanded to move the pistons within the cylinders; and recirculation means extending between the inlet means and the outlet means for recirculation a predetermined quantity of exhaust gas. The recirculation means including ejector means for drawing exhaust gas into the recirculation means.

  17. Experimental characterization of pressure drops and channel instabilities in helical coil SG tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colombo, M.; Cammi, A.; De Amicis, J.; Ricotti, M. E. [Politecnico di Milano, Dept. of Energy, Nuclear Engineering Div. - CeSNEF, Via La Masa 34, 20156, Milano (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    Helical tube heat exchangers provide better heat transfer characteristics, an improved capability to accommodate stresses due to thermal expansions and a more compact design with respect to straight tube heat exchangers. For these advantages they are considered as an option for the Steam Generator (SG) of many new reactor projects of Generation III+ and Generation IV. In particular, their compactness fits well with the requirements of Small-medium Modular Reactors (SMRs) of integral design, where all the primary system components are located inside the reactor vessel. In this framework, thermal hydraulics of helical pipes has been studied in recent years by Politecnico di Milano in different experimental campaigns. Experiments have been carried out in a full-scale open loop test facility installed at SIET labs in Piacenza (Italy)), to simulate the SG of a typical SMR. The facility includes two helical pipes (1 m coil diameter, 32 m length, 8 m height), connected via lower and upper headers. Following recently completed experimental campaigns dedicated to pressure drops and density wave instabilities, this paper deals with a new experimental campaign focused on both pressure drops (single-phase flow and two-phase flow, laminar and turbulent regimes) and flow instabilities. The availability of a large number of experimental data, in particular on two-phase flow, is of fundamental interest for correlation development, model validation and code assessment. Two-phase pressure drops have been measured in adiabatic conditions, ranging from 200 to 600 kg/m{sup 2}s for the mass flux, from 30 to 60 bar for the pressure and from 0.1 to 1.0 for the flow quality. The channel characteristics mass flow rate - pressure drop has been determined experimentally in the range 10-40 bar, varying the mass flow rate at a fixed value of the thermal flux. In addition, single-phase pressure drops have been measured in both laminar and turbulent conditions. Density wave instabilities have been studied at mass flux from 100 to 400 kg/m{sup 2}s and pressure from 10 to 20 bar, to confirm the particular behavior of the stability boundary in helical geometry at low pressure and low mass flow rate. Finally, starting from the unstable regions identified from the experimental channel characteristics, Ledinegg type instabilities have been investigated to drawn stability maps with complete stable and unstable regions in the dimensionless plane N sub-N pch. (authors)

  18. Geomechanical Fracturing with Flow and Heat

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-01-01

    The GeoFracFH model is a particle-based discrete element model (DEM) that has been coupled with fluid flow and heat conduction/convection. In this model, the rock matrix material is represented by a network of DEM particles connected by mechanical bonds (elastic beams in this case, see Figure 1, gray particles connected by beams). During the simulation process, the mechanical bonds that have been stretched or bent beyond a critical strain (both tensile and shear failures aremore » simulated) are broken and removed from the network in a progressive manner. Bonds can be removed from the network with rates or probabilities that depend on their stress or strain, or the properties of the discrete elements and bonds can be varied continuously to represent phenomena such as creep, strain hardening, and chemical degradation. The coupling of a DEM geomechanical model with models for Darcy flow and heat transport is also illustrated in Figure 1. Darcy flow and heat transport equations are solved on an underlying fixed finite difference grid with evolving porosity and permeability for each grid cell that depends on the local structure of the discrete element network (such as the DEM particle density). The fluid pressure gradient exerts forces on individual elements of the DEM network, which then deforms and fractures the rock matrix. The deformation/fracturing in turn changes the permeability which again changes the evolution of fluid pressure, coupling the two phenomena. The intimate coupling between fracturing, fluid flow, and thermal transport makes the GeoFracFH model, rather than conventional continuum mechanical models, necessary for coupled hydro-thermal-mechanical problems in the subsurface.« less

  19. Experimental and numerical study of gas dynamic window for electron beam transport into the space with increased pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skovorodko, P. A.; Sharafutdinov, R. G.

    2014-12-09

    The paper is devoted to experimental and numerical study of the gas jet technical device for obtaining axisymmetric flow with low pressure in its near axis region. The studied geometry of the device is typical of that used in the plasma generator consisting of an electron gun with a hollow (plasma) cathode and a double supersonic ring nozzle. The geometry of the nozzles as well as the relation between the gas flow rates through the nozzles providing the electron beam extraction into the region with increased pressure are tested both experimentally and numerically. The maximum external pressure of about 0.25 bar that does not disturb the electron beam is achieved.

  20. Downhole steam generator using low pressure fuel and air supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Ronald L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a spiral, tubular heat exchanger is used in the combustion chamber to isolate the combustion process from the water being superheated for conversion into steam. The isolation allows combustion of a relatively low pressure oxidant and fuel mixture for generating high enthalpy steam. The fuel is preheated by feedback of combustion gases from the top of the combustion chamber through a fuel preheater chamber. The hot exhaust gases of combustion at the bottom of the combustion chamber, after flowing over the heat exchanger enter an exhaust passage and pipe. The exhaust pipe is mounted inside the water supply line heating the water flowing into the heat exchanger. After being superheated in the heat exchanger, the water is ejected through an expansion nozzle and converts into steam prior to penetration into the earth formation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at a steam outlet downstream of the nozzle and close when the steam pressure is lost due to flameout.

  1. High-pressure three-phase fluidization: Hydrodynamics and heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, X.; Jiang, P.; Fan, L.S.

    1997-10-01

    High-pressure operations are common in industrial applications of gas-liquid-solid fluidized-bed reactors for resid hydrotreating, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, coal methanation, methanol synthesis, polymerization, and other reactions. The phase holdups and the heat-transfer behavior were studied experimentally in three-phase fluidized beds over a pressure range of 0.1--15.6 MPa. Bubble characteristics in the bed are examined by direct flow visualization. Pressure effects on the bubble coalescence and breakup are analyzed mechanistically. The study indicates that the pressure affects the hydrodynamics and heat-transfer properties of a three-phase fluidized bed significantly. The average bubble size decreases and the bubble-size distribution becomes narrower with an increase in pressure. The bubble-size reduction leads to an increase in the transition gas velocity from the dispersed bubble regime to the coalesced bubble regime, an increase in the gas holdup, and a decrease in the liquid and solids holdups. The pressure effect is insignificant above 6 MPa. The heat-transfer coefficient between an immersed surface and the bed increases to a maximum at pressure 6--8 MPa and then decreases with an increase in pressure at a given gas and liquid flow rate. This variation is attributed to the pressure effects on phase holdups and physical properties of the gas and liquid phases. A mechanistic analysis revealed that the major heat-transfer resistance in high-pressure three-phase fluidized beds resides in a liquid film surrounding the heat-0transfer surface. An empirical correlation is proposed to predict the heat-transfer coefficient under high-pressure conditions.

  2. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system with directed internal gas flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holmes, Michael Jerome; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2010-02-09

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an inlet adapted to introduce gas into the interior of the vessel, an outlet adapted to withdraw gas from the interior of the vessel, and an axis; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region; and (c) one or more gas flow control partitions disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and adapted to change a direction of gas flow within the vessel.

  3. System for controlling the flow of gas into and out of a gas laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry; Uhlich, Dennis M.; Benett, William J.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    A modularized system for controlling the gas pressure within a copper vapor or like laser is described herein. This system includes a gas input assembly which serves to direct gas into the laser in a controlled manner in response to the pressure therein for maintaining the laser pressure at a particular value, for example 40 torr. The system also includes a gas output assembly including a vacuum pump and a capillary tube arrangement which operates within both a viscous flow region and a molecular flow region for drawing gas out of the laser in a controlled manner.

  4. Stirling engine with pressurized crankcase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A.

    1988-01-01

    A two piston Stirling engine wherein the pistons are coupled to a common crankshaft via bearing means, the pistons include pad means to minimize friction between the pistons and the cylinders during reciprocation of the pistons, means for pressurizing the engine crankcase, and means for cooling the crankshaft and the bearing means eliminating the need for oil in the crankcase.

  5. Piezoelectric axial flow microvalve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gemmen, Randall; Thornton, Jimmy; Vipperman, Jeffrey S.; Clark, William W.

    2007-01-09

    This invention is directed to a fuel cell operable with a quantity of fuel and a quantity of an oxidizer to produce electrical power, the fuel cell including a fuel cell body including a labyrinth system structured to permit the fuel and the oxidizer to flow therethrough; at least a first catalyst in fluid communication with the labyrinth; and at least a first microvalve operably disposed within at least a portion of the labyrinth. The microvalve utilizes a deflectable member operable upon the application of a voltage from a voltage source. The microvalve includes an elongated flow channel formed therein and extending substantially longitudinally between the first and second ends to permit substantially longitudinal flow of the fluid therethrough and between the first and second ends; and the deflectable member disposed on the valve body, the deflectable member including at least a first piezoelectric portion that is piezoelectrically operable to deflect the deflectable member between an open position and a closed position upon the application of a voltage, the deflectable member in the closed position being operable to resist the flow of the fluid through the flow channel.

  6. Design and optimization of a back-flow limiter for the high performance light water reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Kai; Laurien, Eckart; Claas, Andreas G.; Schulenberg, Thomas

    2007-07-01

    Design and Analysis of a back-flow limiter are presented, which is implemented as a safety device in the four inlet lines of the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) of the High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR). As a passive component, the back-flow limiter has no moving parts and belongs to the group of fluid diodes. It has low flow resistance for regular operation condition and a high flow resistance when the flow direction is reversed which is the case if a break of the feedwater line occurs. The increased flow resistance is due to a substantially increased swirl for reverse flow condition. The design is optimized employing 1D flow analyses in combination with 3D CFD analyses with respect to geometrical modifications, like the nozzle shape and swirler angles. (authors)

  7. Apparatus for passive removal of subsurface contaminants and mass flow measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Rossabi, Joseph; Riha, Brian D.

    2003-07-15

    A system for improving the Baroball valve and a method for retrofitting an existing Baroball valve. This invention improves upon the Baroball valve by reshaping the interior chamber of the valve to form a flow meter measuring chamber. The Baroball valve sealing mechanism acts as a rotameter bob for determining mass flow rate through the Baroball valve. A method for retrofitting a Baroball valve includes providing static pressure ports and connecting a measuring device, to these ports, for measuring the pressure differential between the Baroball chamber and the well. A standard curve of nominal device measurements allows the mass flow rate to be determined through the retrofitted Baroball valve.

  8. Apparatus for passive removal of subsurface contaminants and volume flow measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Rossabi, Joseph; Riha, Brian D.

    2002-01-01

    A system for improving the Baroball valve and a method for retrofitting an existing Baroball valve. This invention improves upon the Baroball valve by reshaping the interior chamber of the valve to form a flow meter measuring chamber. The Baroball valve sealing mechanism acts as a rotameter bob for determining volume flow rate through the Baroball valve. A method for retrofitting a Baroball valve includes providing static pressure ports and connecting a measuring device, to these ports, for measuring the pressure differential between the Baroball chamber and the well. A standard curve of nominal device measurements allows the volume flow rate to be determined through the retrofitted Baroball valve.

  9. Method of and apparatus for preheating pressurized fluidized bed combustor and clean-up subsystem of a gas turbine power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Rossa W.; Zoll, August H.

    1982-01-01

    In a gas turbine power plant having a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, gas turbine-air compressor subsystem and a gas clean-up subsystem interconnected for fluid flow therethrough, a pipe communicating the outlet of the compressor of the gas turbine-air compressor subsystem with the interior of the pressurized fluidized bed combustor and the gas clean-up subsystem to provide for flow of compressed air, heated by the heat of compression, therethrough. The pressurized fluidized bed combustor and gas clean-up subsystem are vented to atmosphere so that the heated compressed air flows therethrough and loses heat to the interior of those components before passing to the atmosphere.

  10. Vacuum chamber with a supersonic flow aerodynamic window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, Clark L.

    1982-01-01

    A supersonic flow aerodynamic window, whereby a steam ejector situated in a primary chamber at vacuum exhausts superheated steam toward an orifice to a region of higher pressure, creating a barrier to the gas in the region of higher pressure which attempts to enter through the orifice. In a mixing chamber outside and in fluid communication with the primary chamber, superheated steam and gas are combined into a mixture which then enters the primary chamber through the orifice. At the point of impact of the ejector/superheated steam and the incoming gas/superheated steam mixture, a barrier is created to the gas attempting to enter the ejector chamber. This barrier, coupled with suitable vacuum pumping means and cooling means, serves to keep the steam ejector and primary chamber at a negative pressure, even though the primary chamber has an orifice to a region of higher pressure.

  11. Vacuum chamber with a supersonic-flow aerodynamic window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, C.L.

    1980-10-14

    A supersonic flow aerodynamic window is disclosed whereby a steam ejector situated in a primary chamber at vacuum exhausts superheated steam toward an orifice to a region of higher pressure, creating a barrier to the gas in the region of higher pressure which attempts to enter through the orifice. In a mixing chamber outside and in fluid communication with the primary chamber, superheated steam and gas are combined into a mixture which then enters the primary chamber through the orifice. At the point of impact of the ejector/superheated steam and the incoming gas/superheated steam mixture, a barrier is created to the gas attempting to enter the ejector chamber. This barrier, coupled with suitable vacuum pumping means and cooling means, serves to keep the steam ejector and primary chamber at a negative pressure, even though the primary chamber has an orifice to a region of higher pressure.

  12. On fluid flow in a heterogeneous medium under nonisothermal conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.W., Vasco

    2010-11-01

    An asymptotic technique, valid in the presence of smoothly-varying heterogeneity, provides explicit expressions for the velocity of a propagating pressure and temperature disturbance. The governing equations contain nonlinear terms due to the presence of temperature-dependent coefficients and due to the advection of fluids with differing temperatures. Two cases give well-defined expressions in terms of the parameters of the porous medium: the uncoupled propagation of a pressure disturbance and the propagation of a fully coupled temperature and pressure disturbance. The velocity of the coupled disturbance or front, depends upon the medium parameters and upon the change in temperature and pressure across the front. For uncoupled flow, the semi-analytic expression for the front velocity reduces to that associated with a linear diffusion equation. A comparison of the asymptotic travel time estimates with calculations from a numerical simulator indicates reasonably good agreement for both uncoupled and coupled disturbances.

  13. Microhole High-Pressure Jet Drill for Coiled Tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Theimer; Jack Kolle

    2007-06-30

    Tempress Small Mechanically-Assisted High-Pressure Waterjet Drilling Tool project centered on the development of a downhole intensifier (DHI) to boost the hydraulic pressure available from conventional coiled tubing to the level required for high-pressure jet erosion of rock. We reviewed two techniques for implementing this technology (1) pure high-pressure jet drilling and (2) mechanically-assisted jet drilling. Due to the difficulties associated with modifying a downhole motor for mechanically-assisted jet drilling, it was determined that the pure high-pressure jet drilling tool was the best candidate for development and commercialization. It was also determined that this tool needs to run on commingled nitrogen and water to provide adequate downhole differential pressure and to facilitate controlled pressure drilling and descaling applications in low pressure wells. The resulting Microhole jet drilling bottomhole assembly (BHA) drills a 3.625-inch diameter hole with 2-inch coil tubing. The BHA consists of a self-rotating multi-nozzle drilling head, a high-pressure rotary seal/bearing section, an intensifier and a gas separator. Commingled nitrogen and water are separated into two streams in the gas separator. The water stream is pressurized to 3 times the inlet pressure by the downhole intensifier and discharged through nozzles in the drilling head. The energy in the gas-rich stream is used to power the intensifier. Gas-rich exhaust from the intensifier is conducted to the nozzle head where it is used to shroud the jets, increasing their effective range. The prototype BHA was tested at operational pressures and flows in a test chamber and on the end of conventional coiled tubing in a test well. During instrumented runs at downhole conditions, the BHA developed downhole differential pressures of 74 MPa (11,000 psi, median) and 90 MPa (13,000 psi, peaks). The median output differential pressure was nearly 3 times the input differential pressure available from the coiled tubing. In a chamber test, the BHA delivered up to 50 kW (67 hhp) hydraulic power. The tool drilled uncertified class-G cement samples cast into casing at a rate of 0.04 to 0.17 m/min (8 to 33 ft/hr), within the range projected for this tool but slower than a conventional PDM. While the tool met most of the performance goals, reliability requires further improvement. It will be difficult for this tool, as currently configured, to compete with conventional positive displacement downhole motors for most coil tubing drill applications. Mechanical cutters on the rotating nozzle head would improve cutting. This tool can be easily adapted for well descaling operations. A variant of the Microhole jet drilling gas separator was further developed for use with positive displacement downhole motors (PDM) operating on commingled nitrogen and water. A fit-for-purpose motor gas separator was designed and yard tested within the Microhole program. Four commercial units of that design are currently involved in a 10-well field demonstration with Baker Oil Tools in Wyoming. Initial results indicate that the motor gas separators provide significant benefit.

  14. High vacuum measurements and calibrations, molecular flow fluid transient effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, Robert A.; Gavalas, Nickolas A.

    2015-04-29

    High vacuum pressure measurements and calibrations below 1 × 10-8 Torr are problematic. Specifically, measurement accuracies change drastically for vacuum gauges when pressures are suddenly lowered in vacuum systems. How can gauges perform like this? A brief system description is first required to answer this question. Calibrations were performed using a vacuum calibration chamber with attached vacuum gauges. To control chamber pressures, vacuum pumps decreased the chamber pressure while nitrogen tanks increased the chamber pressure. By balancing these opposing pressures, equilibrium in the chamber was maintained at selected set point pressures to perform calibrations. When pressures were suddenly decreased during set point adjustments, a sudden rush of gas from the chamber also caused a surge of gas from the gauges to decrease the pressures in those gauges. Gauge pressures did not return to equilibrium as fast as chamber pressures due to the sparse distribution of gas molecules in the system. This disparity in the rate of pressure changes caused the pressures in different gauges to be different than expected. This discovery was experimentally proven to show that different gauge designs return to equilibrium at different rates, and that gauge accuracies vary for different gauge designs due to fluid transients in molecular flow.

  15. High vacuum measurements and calibrations, molecular flow fluid transient effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, Robert A.; Gavalas, Nickolas A.

    2015-04-29

    High vacuum pressure measurements and calibrations below 1 × 10-8 Torr are problematic. Specifically, measurement accuracies change drastically for vacuum gauges when pressures are suddenly lowered in vacuum systems. How can gauges perform like this? A brief system description is first required to answer this question. Calibrations were performed using a vacuum calibration chamber with attached vacuum gauges. To control chamber pressures, vacuum pumps decreased the chamber pressure while nitrogen tanks increased the chamber pressure. By balancing these opposing pressures, equilibrium in the chamber was maintained at selected set point pressures to perform calibrations. When pressures were suddenly decreased during set point adjustments, a sudden rush of gas from the chamber also caused a surge of gas from the gauges to decrease the pressures in those gauges. Gauge pressures did not return to equilibrium as fast as chamber pressures due to the sparse distribution of gas molecules in the system. This disparity in the rate of pressure changes caused the pressures in different gauges to be different than expected. This discovery was experimentally proven to show that different gauge designs return to equilibrium at different rates, and that gauge accuracies vary for different gauge designs due to fluid transients in molecular flow.

  16. High vacuum measurements and calibrations, molecular flow fluid transient effects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leishear, Robert A.; Gavalas, Nickolas A.

    2015-04-29

    High vacuum pressure measurements and calibrations below 1 × 10-8 Torr are problematic. Specifically, measurement accuracies change drastically for vacuum gauges when pressures are suddenly lowered in vacuum systems. How can gauges perform like this? A brief system description is first required to answer this question. Calibrations were performed using a vacuum calibration chamber with attached vacuum gauges. To control chamber pressures, vacuum pumps decreased the chamber pressure while nitrogen tanks increased the chamber pressure. By balancing these opposing pressures, equilibrium in the chamber was maintained at selected set point pressures to perform calibrations. When pressures were suddenly decreased duringmore » set point adjustments, a sudden rush of gas from the chamber also caused a surge of gas from the gauges to decrease the pressures in those gauges. Gauge pressures did not return to equilibrium as fast as chamber pressures due to the sparse distribution of gas molecules in the system. This disparity in the rate of pressure changes caused the pressures in different gauges to be different than expected. This discovery was experimentally proven to show that different gauge designs return to equilibrium at different rates, and that gauge accuracies vary for different gauge designs due to fluid transients in molecular flow.« less

  17. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with BackpressureTurbine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Replace Pressure-Reducing Valves with Backpressure Turbogenerators Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and ...

  18. Method of producing a high pressure gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Zollinger, William T.

    2006-07-18

    A method of producing a high pressure gas is disclosed and which includes providing a container; supplying the container with a liquid such as water; increasing the pressure of the liquid within the container; supplying a reactant composition such as a chemical hydride to the liquid under pressure in the container and which chemically reacts with the liquid to produce a resulting high pressure gas such as hydrogen at a pressure of greater than about 100 pounds per square inch of pressure; and drawing the resulting high pressure gas from the container.

  19. Pressure Profiles in Two-Phase Geothermal Wells: Comparison of Field Data and Model Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ambastha, A.K.; Gudmundsson, J.S.

    1986-01-21

    Increased confidence in the predictive power of two-phase correlations is a vital part of wellbore deliverability and deposition studies for geothermal wells. Previously, the Orkiszewski (1967) set of correlations has been recommended by many investigators to analyze geothermal wellbore performance. In this study, we use measured flowing pressure profile data from ten geothermal wells around the world, covering a wide range of flowrate, fluid enthalpy, wellhead pressure and well depth. We compare measured and calculated pressure profiles using the Orkiszewski (1967) correlations.

  20. Flow distribution channels to control flow in process channels (Patent) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Flow distribution channels to control flow in process channels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flow distribution channels to control flow in process channels The invention describes features that can be used to control flow to an array of microchannels. The invention also describes methods in which a process stream is distributed to plural microchannels. Authors: Tonkovich, Anna Lee ; Arora, Ravi ; Kilanowski, David Publication Date: 2014-10-28 OSTI Identifier:

  1. Electrocapturing flow cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morozov, Victor

    2011-04-05

    A flow cell for electrophoretically-assisted capturing analytes from a flow. The flow cell includes a specimen chamber, a first membrane, a second membrane, a first electrode chamber, and a second electrode chamber. The specimen chamber may have a sample inlet and a sample outlet. A first portion of the first membrane may be coupled to a first portion of the specimen chamber. A first portion of the second membrane may be coupled to a second portion of the specimen chamber. The first electrode chamber may be configured to accept a charge. A portion of the first electrode chamber may be coupled to a second portion of the first membrane. A second electrode chamber may be configured to accept an opposite charge. A portion of the second electrode chamber may be coupled to a second portion of the second membrane.

  2. Flow line sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nicholls, Colin I.

    1992-07-14

    An on-line product sampling apparatus and method for measuring product samples from a product stream (12) in a flow line (14) having a sampling aperture (11), includes a sampling tube (18) for containing product samples removed from flow line (14). A piston (22) removes product samples from the product stream (12) through the sampling aperture (11) and returns samples to product stream (12). A sensor (20) communicates with sample tube (18), and senses physical properties of samples while the samples are within sample tube (18). In one embodiment, sensor (20) comprises a hydrogen transient nuclear magnetic resonance sensor for measuring physical properties of hydrogen molecules.

  3. Luminescence imaging for aerodynamic temperature and pressure measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallery, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    A luminescent temperature sensitive paint containing the molecule rhodamine B base (rhBb) is described whose emission intensity can be monitored by video camera to produce qualitative and quantitative two dimensional surface temperature maps. This paint was designed for use with the pressure sensitive paint containing platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP), but is also a useful tool when used alone in the measurement of heat flow, boundary layer transition, and quantitative surface temperature during wind tunnel studies. The ability of the rhBb paint to produce a continuous temperature map makes it possible to locate structures in the temperature field on an airfoil that are otherwise undetected by surface mounted thermocouples spaced a finite distance apart. A dual temperature/pressure sensitive paint was investigated with both the rhBb and PtOEP dyes incorporated into the silicone polymer paint base of the pressure sensor. Photodegradation and batch variations in the polymer were found to compromise the calibration parameters of the PtOEP paint and therefore the accuracy of pressure predictions. Suggestions are made for improving the prediction ability of the paint. The molecule europium(III) thenoyltrifluoroacetonate (EuTTA) is also discussed as a temperature sensor for a two layer temperature/pressure paint. EuTTA can not be directly incorporated into the silicone paint base of the PtOEP paint (as the rhBp paint can), but performs well in non-oxygenpermeable coatings. Benefits of the EuTTA temperature paint include: (1) decreased photodegradation, (2) very bright luminescence intensity, and (3) long luminescent lifetime (several hundred microseconds). The long lifetime facilitates lifetime imaging, a technique currently under development as an alternative detection method where luminescent lifetimes rather than emission intensity are related to temperature and pressure.

  4. Competition between pressure effects and airflow influence for the performance of plasma actuators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriegseis, J.; Barckmann, K.; Grundmann, S.; Frey, J.; Tropea, C.

    2014-05-15

    The present work addresses the combined influence of pressure variations and different airflow velocities on the discharge intensity of plasma actuators. Power consumption, plasma length, and discharge capacitance were investigated systematically for varying pressure levels (p = 0.1–1 bar) and airflow velocities (U{sub ∞}=0−100 m/s) to characterize and quantify the favorable and adverse effects on the discharge intensity. In accordance with previous reports, an increasing plasma actuator discharge intensity is observed for decreasing pressure levels. At constant pressure levels, an adverse airflow influence on the electric actuator performance is demonstrated. Despite the improved discharge intensity at lower pressure levels, the seemingly improved performance of the plasma actuators is accompanied with a more pronounced drop of the relative performance. These findings demonstrate the dependency of the (kinematic and thermodynamic) environmental conditions on the electric performance of plasma actuators, which in turn affects the control authority of plasma actuators for flow control applications.

  5. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTION KINETICS PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chris Guenther; Bill Rogers

    2001-09-15

    The HPCCK project was initiated with a kickoff meeting held on June 12, 2001 in Morgantown, WV, which was attended by all project participants. SRI's existing g-RCFR reactor was reconfigured to a SRT-RCFR geometry (Task 1.1). This new design is suitable for performing the NBFZ experiments of Task 1.2. It was decided that the SRT-RCFR apparatus could be modified and used for the HPBO experiments. The purchase, assembly, and testing of required instrumentation and hardware is nearly complete (Task 1.1 and 1.2). Initial samples of PBR coal have been shipped from FWC to SRI (Task 1.1). The ECT device for coal flow measurements used at FWC will not be used in the SRI apparatus and a screw type feeder has been suggested instead (Task 5.1). NEA has completed a upgrade of an existing Fluent simulator for SRI's RCFR to a version that is suitable for interpreting results from tests in the NBFZ configuration (Task 1.3) this upgrade includes finite-rate submodels for devolatilization, secondary volatiles pyrolysis, volatiles combustion, and char oxidation. Plans for an enhanced version of CBK have been discussed and development of this enhanced version has begun (Task 2.5). A developmental framework for implementing pressure and oxygen effects on ash formation in an ash formation model (Task 3.3) has begun.

  6. Studies on flow resistance of regenerator in Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakano, Akira; Isshiki, Seita; Ushiyama, Izumi

    1995-12-31

    Studies on flow resistance of regenerator in Stirling engine are to be reported. The purpose of this study is to measure the flow resistance of regenerator in oscillating flow condition, compare with the results of previous studies and examine whether the friction factor changes between accelerating period and decelerating period of the oscillation cycle. New experimental apparatus for measurement of flow resistance of regenerator element was designed and built. Using semiconductor pressure transducer, instantaneous pressure drops during many oscillation cycle were measured. As regenerator elements, layer of usual mesh and packed mesh were used. It was clear that friction factor of usual mesh, obtained from maximum values of pressure drops in oscillation cycle, lay between two previous studies, while friction factor of packed mesh became higher than the previous studies. Also it became obvious that friction factor did not change between accelerating period and decelerating period of oscillation cycle under revolution speed of 100 rpm, while over 200 rpm, friction factor in decelerating period became higher than in accelerating period at same lower Reynolds number.

  7. Fissile Flow and Enrichment Monitor for GCEP Advanced Safeguards Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    March-Leuba, Jose A; Uckan, Taner

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents experimental data that demonstrate a concept for a {sup 235}U flow and enrichment monitor (FEMO) based on passive measurements of process equipment in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). The primary goal of the FEMO is to prevent, without using pipe penetrations or active interrogation with external sources, the production and diversion of undeclared nuclear material. This FEMO concept utilizes: (1) calibrated measurements of {sup 235}U density in cascade headers, and (2) measurements of pump inlet pressure and volumetric flow rate, which are correlated to the electrical power consumed by the GCEP pumps that transport UF{sub 6} from the cascade to the condensation cylinders. The {sup 235}U density is measured by counting 186 keV emissions using a NaI gamma detector located upstream of the pump. The pump inlet pressure and volumetric flow rate are determined using a correlation that is a function of the measured pump operational parameters (e.g., electric power consumption and rotational frequency) and the pumping configuration. The concept has been demonstrated in a low-pressure flow loop at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  8. Refrigerant pressurization system with a two-phase condensing ejector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergander, Mark

    2009-07-14

    A refrigerant pressurization system including an ejector having a first conduit for flowing a liquid refrigerant therethrough and a nozzle for accelerating a vapor refrigerant therethrough. The first conduit is positioned such that the liquid refrigerant is discharged from the first conduit into the nozzle. The ejector includes a mixing chamber for condensing the vapor refrigerant. The mixing chamber comprises at least a portion of the nozzle and transitions into a second conduit having a substantially constant cross sectional area. The condensation of the vapor refrigerant in the mixing chamber causes the refrigerant mixture in at least a portion of the mixing chamber to be at a pressure greater than that of the refrigerant entering the nozzle and greater than that entering the first conduit.

  9. Composition Pulse Time-Of-Flight Mass Flow Sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosier, Bruce P.; Crocker, Robert W.; Harnett, Cindy K. l

    2004-01-13

    A device for measuring fluid flow rates over a wide range of flow rates (<1 nL/min to >10 .mu.L/min) and at pressures at least as great as 10,000 psi. The invention is particularly adapted for use in microfluidic systems. The device operates by producing compositional variations in the fluid, or pulses, that are subsequently detected downstream from the point of creation to derive a flow rate. Each pulse, comprising a small fluid volume, whose composition is different from the mean composition of the fluid, can be created by electrochemical means, such as by electrolysis of a solvent, electrolysis of a dissolved species, or electrodialysis of a dissolved ionic species. Measurements of the conductivity of the fluid can be used to detect the arrival time of the pulses, from which the fluid flow rate can be determined

  10. Combustor air flow control method for fuel cell apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clingerman, Bruce J. (Palmyra, NY); Mowery, Kenneth D. (Noblesville, IN); Ripley, Eugene V. (Russiaville, IN)

    2001-01-01

    A method for controlling the heat output of a combustor in a fuel cell apparatus to a fuel processor where the combustor has dual air inlet streams including atmospheric air and fuel cell cathode effluent containing oxygen depleted air. In all operating modes, an enthalpy balance is provided by regulating the quantity of the air flow stream to the combustor to support fuel cell processor heat requirements. A control provides a quick fast forward change in an air valve orifice cross section in response to a calculated predetermined air flow, the molar constituents of the air stream to the combustor, the pressure drop across the air valve, and a look up table of the orifice cross sectional area and valve steps. A feedback loop fine tunes any error between the measured air flow to the combustor and the predetermined air flow.

  11. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor and a method of operating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, J.

    1996-02-20

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

  12. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor and a method of operating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, Juhani

    1996-01-01

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

  13. US energy flow, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borg, I.Y.; Briggs, C.K.

    1992-06-01

    Trends in energy consumption and assessment of energy sources are discussed. Specific topics discussed include: energy flow charts; comparison of energy use with 1990 and earlier years; supply and demand of fossil fuels (oils, natural gas, coal); electrical supply and demand; and nuclear power.

  14. Flow cytometry apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinkel, D.

    1987-11-30

    An obstruction across the flow chamber creates a one-dimensional convergence of a sheath fluid. A passageway in the obstruction directs flat cells near to the area of one-dimensional convergence in the sheath fluid to provide proper orientation of flat cells at fast rates. 6 figs.

  15. Flow cytometry apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinkel, Daniel (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1991-01-01

    An obstruction across the flow chamber creates a one dimensional convergence of a sheath fluid. A passageway in the construction directs flat cells near to the area of one dimensional convergence in the sheath fluid to provide proper orientation of flat cells at fast rates.

  16. LOW-PRESSURE MEMBRANE CONTACTORS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Richard; Kniep, Jay; Hao, Pingjiao; Chan, Chi Cheng; Nguyen, Vincent; Huang, Ivy; Amo, Karl; Freeman, Brice; Fulton, Don; Ly, Jennifer; Lipscomb, Glenn; Lou, Yuecun; Gogar, Ravikumar

    2014-09-30

    This final technical progress report describes work conducted by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE NETL) on development of low-pressure membrane contactors for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from power plant flue gas (award number DE-FE0007553). The work was conducted from October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2014. The overall goal of this three-year project was to build and operate a prototype 500 m2 low-pressure sweep membrane module specifically designed to separate CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. MTR was assisted in this project by a research group at the University of Toledo, which contributed to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of module design and process simulation. This report details the work conducted to develop a new type of membrane contactor specifically designed for the high-gas-flow, low-pressure, countercurrent sweep operation required for affordable membrane-based CO2 capture at coal power plants. Work for this project included module development and testing, design and assembly of a large membrane module test unit at MTR, CFD comparative analysis of cross-flow, countercurrent, and novel partial-countercurrent sweep membrane module designs, CFD analysis of membrane spacers, design and fabrication of a 500 m2 membrane module skid for field tests, a detailed performance and cost analysis of the MTR CO2 capture process with low-pressure sweep modules, and a process design analysis of a membrane-hybrid separation process for CO2 removal from coal-fired flue gas. Key results for each major task are discussed in the report.

  17. Ambient pressure fuel cell system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    2000-01-01

    An ambient pressure fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell stack formed from a plurality of fuel cells having membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) that are hydrated with liquid water and bipolar plates with anode and cathode sides for distributing hydrogen fuel gas and water to a first side of each one of the MEAs and air with reactant oxygen gas to a second side of each one of the MEAs. A pump supplies liquid water to the fuel cells. A recirculating system may be used to return unused hydrogen fuel gas to the stack. A near-ambient pressure blower blows air through the fuel cell stack in excess of reaction stoichiometric amounts to react with the hydrogen fuel gas.

  18. Electrical characteristics and formation mechanism of atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Lijuan; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Weijing; Meng, Ying; Ouyang, Jiting

    2014-06-16

    The behavior of atmospheric pressure plasma jet produced by a coplanar dielectric barrier discharge in helium in external electrostatic and magnetic field is investigated. Net negative charges in the plasma jet outside the tube were detected. The deflection of the plume in the external field was observed. The plasma jet is suggested to be formed by the electron beam from the temporal cathode which is accelerated by a longitudinal field induced by the surface charges on the dielectric tube or interface between the helium and ambient air. The helium flow is necessary for the jet formation in the surrounding air.

  19. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Malecha, Richard F. (Naperville, IL); Chilenskas, Albert A. (Chicago, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communcation with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket.

  20. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

    1994-09-20

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

  1. High pressure xenon ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Markey, John K. (New Haven, CT)

    1989-01-01

    A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0.degree. to 30.degree. C.

  2. High pressure xenon ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Markey, J.K.

    1989-11-14

    A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0 to 30 C. 2 figs.

  3. Evaluation of flow redistribution due to flow blockage in rod bundles using COBRA code simulation. Final report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prelewicz, D.A.; Caruso, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    During a Loss-of-Coolant Accident, fuel rod cladding may reach temperatures approaching 2200/sup 0/F. At these temperatures, swelling and rupture of the cladding may occur. The resulting flow blockage will affect steam flow and heat transfer in the bundle during the period of reflooding. The COBRA-IV-I subchannel computer code was used to simulate flow redistribution due to sleeve blockages in the FLECHT-SEASET 21-rod bundle and plate blockages in the JAERI Slab Core Test Facility. Sensitivity studies were conducted to determine the effects of spacer grid and blockage interaction, sleeve shape effects, sleeve length effects, blockage magnitude and distribution, thermally induced mixing and bundle average velocity on flow redistribution. Pressure drop due to sleeve blockages was also calculated for several blockage configurations.

  4. Apparatus for controlling fluid flow in a conduit wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glass, S. Jill; Nicolaysen, Scott D.; Beauchamp, Edwin K.

    2003-05-13

    A frangible rupture disk and mounting apparatus for use in blocking fluid flow, generally in a fluid conducting conduit such as a well casing, a well tubing string or other conduits within subterranean boreholes. The disk can also be utilized in above-surface pipes or tanks where temporary and controllable fluid blockage is required. The frangible rupture disk is made from a pre-stressed glass with controllable rupture properties wherein the strength distribution has a standard deviation less than approximately 5% from the mean strength. The frangible rupture disk has controllable operating pressures and rupture pressures.

  5. Experimental Investigation of Two-Phase Flow in Rock Salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malama, Bwalya; Howard, Clifford L.

    2014-07-01

    This Test Plan describes procedures for conducting laboratory scale flow tests on intact, damaged, crushed, and consolidated crushed salt to measure the capillary pressure and relative permeability functions. The primary focus of the tests will be on samples of bedded geologic salt from the WIPP underground. However, the tests described herein are directly applicable to domal salt. Samples being tested will be confined by a range of triaxial stress states ranging from atmospheric pressure up to those approximating lithostatic. Initially these tests will be conducted at room temperature, but testing procedures and equipment will be evaluated to determine adaptability to conducting similar tests under elevated temperatures.

  6. Flow metering valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1983-11-03

    An apparatus for metering fluids at high pressures of about 20,000 to 60,000 psi is disclosed. The apparatus includes first and second plates which are positioned adjacent each other to form a valve chamber. The plates are made of materials which have substantially equal elastic properties. One plate has a planar surface area, and the other a recessed surface area defined by periphery and central lips. When the two plates are positioned in adjacent contacting relationship, a valve chamber is formed between the planar surface area and the recessed surface area. Fluid is introduced into the chamber and exits therefrom when a deformation occurs at positions where they no longer form a valve seat. This permits the metering of fluids at high pressures and at slow variable rates. Fluid then exits from the chamber until an applied external force becomes large enough to bring the valve seats back into contact.

  7. Flow metering valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaedel, Kenneth L.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for metering fluids at high pressures of about 20,000 to 60,000 psi is disclosed. The apparatus includes first and second plates which are positioned adjacent each other to form a valve chamber. The plates are made of materials which have substantially equal elastic properties. One plate has a planar surface area, and the other a recessed surface area defined by periphery and central lips. When the two plates are positioned in adjacent contacting relationship, a valve chamber is formed between the planar surface area and the recessed surface area. Fluid is introduced into the chamber and exits therefrom when a deformation occurs at positions where they no longer form a valve seat. This permits the metering of fluids at high pressures and at slow variable rates. Fluid then exits from the chamber until an applied external force becomes large enough to bring the valve seats back into contact.

  8. Performance Characterization of the Production Facility Prototype Helium Flow System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.; Dalmas, Dale Allen; Romero, Frank Patrick

    2015-12-16

    The roots blower in use at ANL for in-beam experiments and also at LANL for flow tests was sized for 12 mm diameter disks and significantly less beam heating. Currently, the disks are 29 mm in diameter, with a 12 mm FWHM Gaussian beam spot at 42 MeV and 2.86 ?A on each side of the target, 5.72 ?A total. The target design itself is reported elsewhere. With the increased beam heating, the helium flow requirement increased so that a larger blower was need for a mass flow rate of 400 g/s at 2.76 MPa (400 psig). An Aerzen GM 12.4 blower was selected, and is currently being installed at the LANL facility for target and component flow testing. This report describes this blower/motor/pressure vessel package and the status of the facility preparations. Blower performance (mass flow rate as a function of loop pressure drop) was measured at 4 blower speeds. Results are reported below.

  9. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  10. Continuous-flow free acid monitoring method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strain, James E.; Ross, Harley H.

    1981-01-01

    A free acid monitoring method and apparatus is provided for continuously measuring the excess acid present in a process stream. The disclosed monitoring system and method is based on the relationship of the partial pressure ratio of water and acid in equilibrium with an acid solution at constant temperature. A portion of the process stream is pumped into and flows through the monitor under the influence of gravity and back to the process stream. A continuous flowing sample is vaporized at a constant temperature and the vapor is subsequently condensed. Conductivity measurements of the condensate produces a nonlinear response function from which the free acid molarity of the sample process stream is determined.

  11. Continuous-flow free acid monitoring method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strain, J.E.; Ross, H.H.

    1980-01-11

    A free acid monitoring method and apparatus is provided for continuously measuring the excess acid present in a process stream. The disclosed monitoring system and method is based on the relationship of the partial pressure ratio of water and acid in equilibrium with an acid solution at constant temperature. A portion of the process stream is pumped into and flows through the monitor under the influence of gravity and back to the process stream. A continuous flowing sample is vaporized at a constant temperature and the vapor is subsequently condensed. Conductivity measurements of the condensate produces a nonlinear response function from which the free acid molarity of the sample process stream is determined.

  12. Air-flow regulation system for a coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    An improved air-flow regulator for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which allows close air-flow regulation from a compressor source even though the pressure variations are too rapid for a single primary control loop to respond. The improved system includes a primary controller to control a valve in the main (large) air supply line to regulate large slow changes in flow. A secondary controller is used to control a smaller, faster acting valve in a secondary (small) air supply line parallel to the main line valve to regulate rapid cyclic deviations in air flow. A low-pass filter with a time constant of from 20 to 50 seconds couples the output of the secondary controller to the input of the primary controller so that the primary controller only responds to slow changes in the air-flow rate, the faster, cyclic deviations in flow rate sensed and corrected by the secondary controller loop do not reach the primary controller due to the high frequency rejection provided by the filter. This control arrangement provides at least a factor of 5 improvement in air-flow regulation for a coal gasifier in which air is supplied by a reciprocating compressor through a surge tank.

  13. A fluid pressure and deformation analysis for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Zhijie; Fang, Yilin; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Bonneville, Alain

    2012-06-07

    We present a hydro-mechanical model and deformation analysis for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. The model considers the poroelastic effects by taking into account the two-way coupling between the geomechanical response and the fluid flow process in greater detail. In order for analytical solutions, the simplified hydro-mechanical model includes the geomechanical part that relies on the theory of linear elasticity, while the fluid flow is based on the Darcy’s law. The model was derived through coupling the two parts using the standard linear poroelasticity theory. Analytical solutions for fluid pressure field were obtained for a typical geological sequestration scenario and the solutions for ground deformation were obtained using the method of Green’s function. Solutions predict the temporal and spatial variation of fluid pressure, the effect of permeability and elastic modulus on the fluid pressure, the ground surface uplift, and the radial deformation during the entire injection period.

  14. Preconcentrator with high volume chiller for high vapor pressure particle detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, Kevin L

    2013-10-22

    Apparatus and method for collecting particles of both high and low vapor pressure target materials entrained in a large volume sample gas stream. Large volume active cooling provides a cold air supply which is mixed with the sample gas stream to reduce the vapor pressure of the particles. In embodiments, a chiller cools air from ambient conditions to 0-15.degree. C. with the volumetric flow rate of the cold air supply being at least equal to the volumetric flow rate of the sample gas stream. In further embodiments an adsorption media is heated in at least two stages, a first of which is below a threshold temperature at which decomposition products of the high vapor pressure particle are generated.

  15. Oahu Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for the island of Oahu. Data is from the following sources: Rotzoll, K., A.I. El-Kadi. 2007. Numerical Ground-Water Flow Simulation for Red Hill Fuel Storage Facilities, NAVFAC Pacific, Oahu, Hawaii - Prepared TEC, Inc. Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.; Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume VII – Island of Oahu Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.; and Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2009. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. December 2009.

  16. Structural power flow measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

  17. A new friction factor correlation for laminar, single-phase flows through rock fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazridoust, K. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY); Ahmadi, G. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY); Smith, D.H.

    2006-09-30

    Single-phase flow through fractured media occurs in various situations, such as transport of dissolved contaminants through geological strata, sequestration of carbon dioxide in depleted gas reservoirs, and in primary oil recovery. In the present study, fluid flows through a rock fracture were simulated. The fracture geometry was obtained from the CT scans of a rock fracture produced by the Brazilian method in a sandstone sample. A post-processing code using a CAD package was developed and used to generate the three-dimensional fracture from the CT scan data. Several sections along the fracture were considered and the GambitTM code was used to generate unstructured grids for flow simulations. FLUENTTM was used to analyze the flow conditions through the fracture section for different flow rates. Because of the small aperture of the fractures, the gravitational effects could be neglected. It was confirmed that the pressure drop was dominated by the smallest aperture passages of the fracture. The accuracy of parallel plate models for estimating the pressure drops through fractures was studied. It was shown that the parallel plate flow model with the use of an appropriate effective fracture aperture and inclusion of the tortuosity factor could provide reasonable estimates for pressure drops in the fracture. On the basis of the CFD simulation data, a new expression for the friction factor for flows through fractures was developed. The new model predictions were compared with the simulation results and favorable agreement was found. It was shown that when the length of the fracture and the mean and standard deviation of the fracture are known, the pressure loss as a function of the flow rate could be estimated. These findings may prove useful for design of lab experiments, computational studied of flows through real rock fractures, or inclusions in simulators for large-scale flows in highly fractured rocks.

  18. TEP process flow diagram

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilms, R Scott; Carlson, Bryan; Coons, James; Kubic, William

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

  19. PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICE DATA SHEET FORM PS-5 Pressure System Number...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DEVICE DATA Device Type Safety Relief Valve Rupture Disk Other (specify) ... test passed: YES NO Pop test (valve only) pressure: Test pressure within 5% or ...

  20. Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet outlines optimal conditions for flashing high-pressure condensate to regenerate low-pressure steam in steam systems.

  1. Convective heat flow probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, James C.; Hardee, Harry C.; Striker, Richard P.

    1985-01-01

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  2. Convective heat flow probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, J.C.; Hardee, H.C.; Striker, R.P.

    1984-01-09

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packet-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  3. Pressure Data: BOP Summary 28 May 2010

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This is a schematic of the BOP stack with the static pressure data recoded on the 28th of May and shows pressures before and after the attempted top kill and junk shots.

  4. High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks for the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting held February 8-9, 2005 at Argonne National Laboratory

  5. Self-pressurizing Stirling engine (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Self-pressurizing Stirling engine Title: Self-pressurizing Stirling engine A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling ...

  6. Air separation with temperature and pressure swing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cassano, Anthony A.

    1986-01-01

    A chemical absorbent air separation process is set forth which uses a temperature swing absorption-desorption cycle in combination with a pressure swing wherein the pressure is elevated in the desorption stage of the process.

  7. Aqueous Geochemistry at High Pressures and High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, Jay D.

    2015-05-21

    This project is aimed at experimental characterization of the sound velocities, equations of state (EOS), and derived physical and chemical properties of aqueous solutions and carbon dioxide at extreme pressure and temperature conditions relevant to processes occurring in the interior of the Earth. Chemical transport, phase changes (including melting), fluid-solid reactions, and formation of magmatic liquids at convergent plat boundaries are a key motivation for this project. Research in this area has long been limited by the extreme experimental challenges and lack of data under the appropriate pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions. The vast majority of studies of aqueous geochemistry relevant to terrestrial problems of fluid-rock interactions have been conducted at 0.3 GPa or less, and the widely used Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equation of state for aqueous species is applicable only at ~ < 0.5 GPa. These limits are unfortunate because fluid flow and reactions plays a central role in many deeper environments. Recent efforts including our own, have resulted in new experimental techniques that now make it possible to investigate properties of homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria involving aqueous species and minerals over a much broader range of pressure and temperature appropriate for deep crustal and upper mantle processes involving water-rich fluids. We carried out 1) Brillouin scattering measurements of the equations of state and molar volume of water and carbon dioxide to over 10 GPa and 870K using precise resistance heating of samples under pressure in the diamond anvil cell, and 2) the phase diagrams of the water and CO2, and 3) Exploring new experimental approaches, including CO2 laser heating of samples in a diamond cell, to measurements of sound velocities, EOS, and phase relations by Brillouin scattering to far greater pressures and temperatures.

  8. Control of reactor coolant flow path during reactor decay heat removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein N.

    1988-01-01

    An improved reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system for a sodium cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed. The sodium cooled nuclear reactor is of the type having a reactor vessel liner separating the reactor hot pool on the upstream side of an intermediate heat exchanger and the reactor cold pool on the downstream side of the intermediate heat exchanger. The improvement includes a flow path across the reactor vessel liner flow gap which dissipates core heat across the reactor vessel and containment vessel responsive to a casualty including the loss of normal heat removal paths and associated shutdown of the main coolant liquid sodium pumps. In normal operation, the reactor vessel cold pool is inlet to the suction side of coolant liquid sodium pumps, these pumps being of the electromagnetic variety. The pumps discharge through the core into the reactor hot pool and then through an intermediate heat exchanger where the heat generated in the reactor core is discharged. Upon outlet from the heat exchanger, the sodium is returned to the reactor cold pool. The improvement includes placing a jet pump across the reactor vessel liner flow gap, pumping a small flow of liquid sodium from the lower pressure cold pool into the hot pool. The jet pump has a small high pressure driving stream diverted from the high pressure side of the reactor pumps. During normal operation, the jet pumps supplement the normal reactor pressure differential from the lower pressure cold pool to the hot pool. Upon the occurrence of a casualty involving loss of coolant pump pressure, and immediate cooling circuit is established by the back flow of sodium through the jet pumps from the reactor vessel hot pool to the reactor vessel cold pool. The cooling circuit includes flow into the reactor vessel liner flow gap immediate the reactor vessel wall and containment vessel where optimum and immediate discharge of residual reactor heat occurs.

  9. A Holistic Framework for Environmental Flows Determination in Hydropower Contexts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McManamay, Ryan A; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2013-05-01

    Among the ecological science community, the consensus view is that the natural flow regime sustains the ecological integrity of river systems. This prevailing viewpoint by many environmental stakeholders has progressively led to increased pressure on hydropower dam owners to change plant operations to affect downstream river flows with the intention of providing better conditions for aquatic biological communities. Identifying the neccessary magnitude, frequency, duration, timing, or rate of change of stream flows to meet ecological needs in a hydropower context is challenging because the ecological responses to changes in flows may not be fully known, there are usually a multitude of competing users of flow, and implementing environmental flows usually comes at a price to energy production. Realistically, hydropower managers must develop a reduced set of goals that provide the most benefit to the identified ecological needs. As a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program, the Instream Flow Project (IFP) was carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Argon National Laboratory (ANL) as an attempt to develop tools aimed at defining environmental flow needs for hydropower operations. The application of these tools ranges from national to site-specific scales; thus, the utility of each tool will depend on various phases of the environmental flow process. Given the complexity and sheer volume of applications used to determine environmentally acceptable flows for hydropower, a framework is needed to organize efforts into a staged process dependent upon spatial, temporal, and functional attributes. By far, the predominant domain for determining environmental flows related to hydropower is within the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) relicensing process. This process can take multiple years and can be very expensive depending on the scale of each hydropower project. The utility of such a framework is that it can expedite the environmental flow process by 1) organizing data and applications to identify predictable relationships between flows and ecology, and 2) suggesting when and where tools should be used in the environmental flow process. In addition to regulatory procedures, a framework should also provide the coordination for a comprehensive research agenda to guide the science of environmental flows. This research program has further reaching benefits than just environmental flow determination by providing modeling applications, data, and geospatial layers to inform potential hydropower development. We address several objectives within this document that highlight the limitations of existing environmental flow paradigms and their applications to hydropower while presenting a new framework catered towards hydropower needs. Herein, we address the following objectives: 1) Provide a brief overview of the Natural Flow Regime paradigm and existing environmental flow frameworks that have been used to determine ecologically sensitive stream flows for hydropower operations. 2) Describe a new conceptual framework to aid in determining flows needed to meet ecological objectives with regard to hydropower operations. The framework is centralized around determining predictable relationships between flow and ecological responses. 3) Provide evidence of how efforts from ORNL, PNNL, and ANL have filled some of the gaps in this broader framework, and suggest how the framework can be used to set the stage for a research agenda for environmental flow.

  10. The Influence of Electrode and Channel Configurations on Flow Battery Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darling, RM; Perry, ML

    2014-05-21

    Flow batteries with flow-through porous electrodes are compared to cells with porous electrodes adjacent to either parallel or interdigitated channels. Resistances and pressure drops are measured for different configurations to augment the electrochemical data. Cell tests are done with an electrolyte containing VO2+ and VO2+ in sulfuric acid that is circulated through both anode and cathode from a single reservoir. Performance is found to depend sensitively on the combination of electrode and flow field. Theoretical explanations for this dependence are provided. Scale-up of flow through and interdigitated designs to large active areas is also discussed. (C) 2014 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ivanov, Ilia N; Geohegan, David Bruce

    2013-10-29

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  12. High pressure fiber optic sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guida, Renato; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon K; Dekate, Sachin N

    2013-11-26

    The present application provides a fiber optic sensor system. The fiber optic sensor system may include a small diameter bellows, a large diameter bellows, and a fiber optic pressure sensor attached to the small diameter bellows. Contraction of the large diameter bellows under an applied pressure may cause the small diameter bellows to expand such that the fiber optic pressure sensor may measure the applied pressure.

  13. DETONATION PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS ON PETN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, L G; Lee, E L

    2006-06-23

    PETN is widely recognized as an example of nearly ideal detonation performance. The chemical composition is such that little or no carbon is produced in the detonation products. The reaction zone width is less than currently detectable. (<1 ns) Observations on PETN have thus become a baseline for EOS model predictions. It has therefore become important to characterize the detonation parameters as accurately as possible in order to provide the most exacting comparisons of EOS predictions with experimental results. We undertook a painstaking review of the detonation pressure measurements reported in an earlier work that was presented at the Fifth Detonation Symposium and found that corrections were required in determining the shock velocity in the PMMA witness material. We also refined the impedance calculation to account for the difference between the usual ''acoustic'' method and the more accurate Riemann integral. Our review indicates that the CJ pressures previously reported for full density PETN require an average lowering of about 6 percent. The lower densities require progressively smaller corrections. We present analysis of the records, supporting hydrodynamic simulations, the Riemann integral results, and EOS parameter values derived from the revised results.

  14. High-pressure microhydraulic actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosier, Bruce P. [San Francisco, CA; Crocker, Robert W. [Fremont, CA; Patel, Kamlesh D. [Dublin, CA

    2008-06-10

    Electrokinetic ("EK") pumps convert electric to mechanical work when an electric field exerts a body force on ions in the Debye layer of a fluid in a packed bed, which then viscously drags the fluid. Porous silica and polymer monoliths (2.5-mm O.D., and 6-mm to 10-mm length) having a narrow pore size distribution have been developed that are capable of large pressure gradients (250-500 psi/mm) when large electric fields (1000-1500 V/cm) are applied. Flowrates up to 200 .mu.L/min and delivery pressures up to 1200 psi have been demonstrated. Forces up to 5 lb-force at 0.5 mm/s (12 mW) have been demonstrated with a battery-powered DC-DC converter. Hydraulic power of 17 mW (900 psi@ 180 uL/min) has been demonstrated with wall-powered high voltage supplies. The force and stroke delivered by an actuator utilizing an EK pump are shown to exceed the output of solenoids, stepper motors, and DC motors of similar size, despite the low thermodynamic efficiency.

  15. Long-term durability testing of ceramic cross-flow filter. Final report, September 29, 1987--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lippert, T.E.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1993-08-01

    Long term durability testing of the cross flow filter is described. Two high temperature, high pressure test facilities were built and operated. The facilities were designed to simulate dirty gas environments typical of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and coal gasification. Details of the design and operation of the test facilities and filter testing results are described.

  16. Flowing effects in gas lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhi, G.

    1984-05-01

    Currently accepted theory states that saturation intensity and gain (or optical power density) increase without limit with the increase of the flow speed. These conclusions are not true. It is shown instead that they tend to be limiting values with the increase of flow speed. The variations of the parameters mentioned above with flow speed are presented.

  17. Modeling shrouded stator cavity flows in axial-flow compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellborn, S.R.; Tolchinsky, I.; Okiishi, T.H.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments and computational analyses were completed to understand the nature of shrouded stator cavity flows. From this understanding, a one-dimensional model of the flow through shrouded stator cavities was developed. This model estimates the leakage mass flow, temperature rise, and angular momentum increase through the cavity, given geometry parameters and the flow conditions at the interface between the cavity and primary flow path. This cavity model consists of two components, one that estimates the flow characteristics through the labyrinth seals and the other that predicts the transfer of momentum due to windage. A description of the one-dimensional model is given. The incorporation and use of the one-dimensional model in a multistage compressor primary flow analysis tool is described. The combination of this model and the primary flow solver was used to reliably simulate the significant impact on performance of the increase of hub seal leakage in a twelve-stage axial-flow compressor. Observed higher temperatures of the hub region fluid, different stage matching, and lower overall efficiencies and core flow than expected could be correctly linked to increased hub seal clearance with this new technique. The importance of including these leakage flows in compressor simulations is shown.

  18. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D{sub 2}O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The annulus has a full-scale geometry, and in fat uses SRL dummy hardware for the inner annulus wall in the ribbed geometry. The materials aluminum. The annulus is uniformly heated in the axial direction, but the circumferential heat flux can be varied to provide ``power tilt`` or asymmetric heating of the inner and outer annulus walls. The test facility uses H{sub 2}O rather than D{sub 2}O, but it includes the effects of dissolved helium gas present in the reactor. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. This document consists solely of tables of temperature measurements; minima, maxima, averages and standard deviations being measured.

  19. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D{sub 2}O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The annulus has a full-scale geometry, and in fat uses SRL dummy hardware for the inner annulus wall in the ribbed geometry. The materials aluminum. The annulus is uniformly heated in the axial direction, but the circumferential heat flux can be varied to provide ``power tilt`` or asymmetric heating of the inner and outer annulus walls. The test facility uses H{sub 2}O rather than D{sub 2}O, but it includes the effects of dissolved helium gas present in the reactor. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. This document consists of a summary of temperature measurements to include recorded minima, maxima, averages and standard deviations.

  20. Low frequency pressure modulation of indium antimonide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallock, Gary A.; Meier, Mark A.

    2012-07-15

    A lumped parameter resonator capable of generating megapascal pressures at low frequency (kilohertz) is described. Accelerometers are used to determine the applied pressure, and are calibrated with a piezoelectric sample. A laser diagnostic was also developed to measure the pressure in semiconductor samples through the band gap pressure dependence. In addition, the laser diagnostic has been used to measure the attenuation coefficient {alpha} of commercially available indium antimonide (InSb) wafers. The resonator and laser diagnostic have been used with InSb samples to verify the pressure response.

  1. Plug Flow Reactor Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-07-30

    PLUG is a computer program that solves the coupled steady state continuity, momentum, energy, and species balance equations for a plug flow reactor. Both homogeneous (gas-phase) and heterogenous (surface) reactions can be accommodated. The reactor may be either isothermal or adiabatic or may have a specified axial temperature or heat flux profile; alternatively, an ambient temperature and an overall heat-transfer coefficient can be specified. The crosssectional area and surface area may vary with axial position,more » and viscous drag is included. Ideal gas behavior and surface site conservation are assumed.« less

  2. The effect of fluid flow on coiled tubing reach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhalla, K.; Walton, I.C.

    1996-12-31

    A critical parameter to the success of many coiled tubing (CT) operations in highly deviated or horizontal wells is the depth penetration that can be attained before the CT buckles and locks up. Achieving a desired depth is always critical in CT operations and attaining an additional reach of a few hundred feet can be crucial. This paper addresses the effect of fluid flow in the CT and in the CT/wellbore annulus on the state of force and stress in the CT, and thereby predicts its effect on the reach attainable by the CT. The flow of fluid through the CT and annulus between the CT and borehole modifies the pressures and the effective force which governs the mechanical stability of the CT. The net force per unit length due to fluid flow in the coiled tubing and annulus between the coiled tubing casing/well is calculated in terms of the shear stress and its effect on the onset of buckling and lockup is determined. The model is then implemented in a full tubing forces calculation and the effect of flowing fluids and producing fluids on reach is analyzed. The new model is utilized in the design of commercial jobs. The exact analytic model shows that fluid flow inside the CT has zero impact on reach, that downward flow in the annulus has a favourable impact, and upward flow in the annulus reduces the maximum attainable reach. Using the full tubing forces model, a coiled tubing job can be designed taking into account the flow of a fluid with a specified rheology, density and flow rate. Thus the feasibility of attaining a given reach can be more accurately determined. Results are presented in the form of the surface weight for commercial wells and compared to field jobs.

  3. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow and density of fluid in a conduit having a gradual bend

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, M.G.; Boucher, T.J.

    1998-10-27

    A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow. 1 fig.

  4. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow and density of fluid in a conduit having a gradual bend

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Marcos German; Boucher, Timothy J.

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow.

  5. Optimum position for wells producing at constant wellbore pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camacho-Velazquez, R.; Rodriguez de la Garza, F.; Galindo-Nava, A.; Prats, M.

    1994-12-31

    This paper deals with the determination of the optimum position of several wells, producing at constant different wellbore pressures from a two-dimensional closed-boundary reservoirs, to maximize the cumulative production or the total flow rate. To achieve this objective they authors use an improved version of the analytical solution recently proposed by Rodriguez and Cinco-Ley and an optimization algorithm based on a quasi-Newton procedure with line search. At each iteration the algorithm approximates the negative of the objective function by a cuadratic relation derived from a Taylor series. The improvement of rodriguez and Cinco`s solution is attained in four ways. First, an approximation is obtained, which works better at earlier times (before the boundary dominated period starts) than the previous solution. Second, the infinite sums that are present in the solution are expressed in a condensed form, which is relevant for reducing the computer time when the optimization algorithm is used. Third, the solution is modified to take into account the possibility of having wells starting to produce at different times. This point allows them to deal with the problem of getting the optimum position for an infill drilling program. Last, the solution is extended to include the possibility of changing the value of wellbore pressure or being able to stimulate any of the wells at any time. When the wells are producing at different wellbore pressures it is found that the optimum position is a function of time, otherwise the optimum position is fixed.

  6. High-pressure studies of melamine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pravica, Michael; Kim, Eunja; Tkachev, Sergey; Chow, Paul; Xiao, Yuming

    2010-04-05

    We performed the first high-pressure study of melamine using X-ray Raman spectroscopy (XRS) up to -17 GPa in a diamond anvil cell at ambient temperature. We utilized the 16 ID-D undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source for the X-ray source. The observed diminishment of the 1s {yields} {pi}* peak as well as other changes in the XRS spectra with pressure suggest the possibility of intra- and inter-molecular bonding changes due to two phase changes in the investigated pressure range or hybridization changes of atomic orbitals in the material with pressure. We also performed a complementary X-ray powder diffraction study of neat melamine up to 24 GPa observing at least two phase transitions with pressure. Pressure cycling indicated that the phase transitions were reversible. Density-functional theory calculations performed on the system at ambient and low pressure show a high level of agreement with the experiments.

  7. Passive tire pressure sensor and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Williams, Robert Leslie; Waldschmidt, Robert Lee; Morgan, Catherine Hook

    2006-08-29

    A surface acoustic wave device includes a micro-machined pressure transducer for monitoring tire pressure. The device is configured having a micro-machined cavity that is sealed with a flexible conductive membrane. When an external tire pressure equivalent to the cavity pressure is detected, the membrane makes contact with ridges on the backside of the surface acoustic wave device. The ridges are electrically connected to conductive fingers of the device. When the detected pressure is correct, selected fingers on the device will be grounded producing patterned acoustic reflections to an impulse RF signal. When the external tire pressure is less than the cavity reference pressure, a reduced reflected signal to the receiver results. The sensor may further be constructed so as to identify itself by a unique reflected identification pulse series.

  8. Passive tire pressure sensor and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Williams, Robert Leslie; Waldschmidt, Robert Lee; Morgan, Catherine Hook

    2007-09-04

    A surface acoustic wave device includes a micro-machined pressure transducer for monitoring tire pressure. The device is configured having a micro-machined cavity that is sealed with a flexible conductive membrane. When an external tire pressure equivalent to the cavity pressure is detected, the membrane makes contact with ridges on the backside of the surface acoustic wave device. The ridges are electrically connected to conductive fingers of the device. When the detected pressure is correct, selected fingers on the device will be grounded producing patterned acoustic reflections to an impulse RF signal. When the external tire pressure is less than the cavity reference pressure, a reduced reflected signal to the receiver results. The sensor may further be constructed so as to identify itself by a unique reflected identification pulse series.

  9. Engine having a high pressure hydraulic system and low pressure lubricating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2000-01-01

    An engine includes a high pressure hydraulic system having a high pressure pump and at least one hydraulically-actuated device attached to an engine housing. A low pressure engine lubricating system is attached to the engine housing and includes a circulation conduit fluidly connected to an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  10. Passive containment cooling system with drywell pressure regulation for boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, P.R.

    1994-12-27

    A boiling water reactor is described having a regulating valve for placing the wetwell in flow communication with an intake duct of the passive containment cooling system. This subsystem can be adjusted to maintain the drywell pressure at (or slightly below or above) wetwell pressure after the initial reactor blowdown transient is over. This addition to the PCCS design has the benefit of eliminating or minimizing steam leakage from the drywell to the wetwell in the longer-term post-LOCA time period and also minimizes the temperature difference between drywell and wetwell. This in turn reduces the rate of long-term pressure buildup of the containment, thereby extending the time to reach the design pressure limit. 4 figures.

  11. Development of design criteria for a high pressure vessel construction code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mraz, G.J.

    1987-05-01

    Out of concern for public safety, most legal jurisdictions now require unfired pressure vessel construction to comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Because the present two divisions of Section VIII of that Code are not well suited for high pressure design, a new division is needed. The currently anticipated main design criteria of the proposed division are full plastic flow or full overstrain pressure, stress intensity in the bore, fatigue, and fracture mechanics. The rules are expected to allow better utilization of high strength steels already included in the present Section VIII. At the same time materials of even higher strength are introduced. The benefits of compressive prestress are recognized. Construction methods allowing it's achievement, such as autofrettage, shrink fitting and wire winding are included. Reasons for selection of the criteria are given.

  12. Passive containment cooling system with drywell pressure regulation for boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Paul R.

    1994-01-01

    A boiling water reactor having a regulating valve for placing the wetwell in flow communication with an intake duct of the passive containment cooling system. This subsystem can be adjusted to maintain the drywell pressure at (or slightly below or above) wetwell pressure after the initial reactor blowdown transient is over. This addition to the PCCS design has the benefit of eliminating or minimizing steam leakage from the drywell to the wetwell in the longer-term post-LOCA time period and also minimizes the temperature difference between drywell and wetwell. This in turn reduces the rate of long-term pressure buildup of the containment, thereby extending the time to reach the design pressure limit.

  13. Stirling engine with pressurized crankcase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corey, J.A.

    1988-08-23

    This patent describes a Stirling cycle engine comprising an engine housing which includes compression and expansion cylinders and a crankcase area; a compression piston and an expansion piston positioned in respective cylinders in the housing and coupled to a common crankshaft via bearing means. The crankshaft being positioned in the crankcase area which is defined by the pistons and the housing. The pistons includes pad means between the pistons and their respective cylinders to minimize the friction therebetween during reciprocal movement thereof; the crankcase being pressurized to inhibit the passing of working gas past the pistons; and means for cooling the crankshaft and the bearing means eliminating the need for oil in the crankcase.

  14. Annular flow diverter valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rider, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    A valve for diverting flow from the center of two concentric tubes to the annulus between the tubes or, operating in the reverse direction, for mixing fluids from concentric tubes into a common tube and for controlling the volume ratio of said flow consists of a toroidal baffle disposed in sliding engagement with the interior of the inner tube downstream of a plurality of ports in the inner tube, a plurality of gates in sliding engagement with the interior of the inner tube attached to the baffle for movement therewith, a servomotor having a bullet-shaped plug on the downstream end thereof, and drive rods connecting the servomotor to the toroidal baffle, the servomotor thereby being adapted to move the baffle into mating engagement with the bullet-shaped plug and simultaneously move the gates away from the ports in the inner tube and to move the baffle away from the bullet-shaped plug and simultaneously move the gates to cover the ports in the inner tube.

  15. Radial flow heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valenzuela, Javier

    2001-01-01

    A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

  16. Microporous Separators for Fe/V Redox Flow Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Liyu; Luo, Qingtao; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Li, Bin; Xia, Guanguang; Miller, Eric; Chambers, Jeff; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-06-28

    The Fe/V redox flow battery has demonstrated promising performance that is advantageous over other redox flow battery systems. The less oxidative nature of the Fe(III) species enables use of hydrocarbon - based ion exchange membranes or separators. Daramic(reg. sign) microporous polyethylene separators were tested on Fe/V flow cells using the sulphuric/chloric mixed acid - supporting electrolytes. Among them, Daramic(reg. sign) C exhibited good flow cell cycling performance with satisfactory repeatability over a broad temperature range of 5 - 50 degrees C. Energy efficiency (EE) of C remains above 67% at current densities of 50 - 80 cm{sup -2} in the temperature range from room temperature to 50 degrees C. The capacity decay problem could be circumvented through hydraulic pressure balancing by applying different pump rates to the positive and negative electrolytes. Stable capacity and energy were obtained over 40 cycles at room temperature and 40 degrees C. These results manifest that the extremely low-cost separators ($10/cm2) are applicable in the Fe/V flow battery system at an acceptable sacrifice of energy efficiency. This stands for a remarkable breakthrough in significant reduction of the capital cost of the Fe/V flow battery system, and is promising to promote its market penetration in grid stabilization and renewable integration.

  17. A preliminary study to Assess Model Uncertainties in Fluid Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marc Oliver Delchini; Jean C. Ragusa

    2009-09-01

    The goal of this study is to assess the impact of various flow models for a simplified primary coolant loop of a light water nuclear reactor. The various fluid flow models are based on the Euler equations with an additional friction term, gravity term, momentum source, and energy source. The geometric model is purposefully chosen simple and consists of a one-dimensional (1D) loop system in order to focus the study on the validity of various fluid flow approximations. The 1D loop system is represented by a rectangle; the fluid is heated up along one of the vertical legs and cooled down along the opposite leg. A pressurizer and a pump are included in the horizontal legs. The amount of energy transferred and removed from the system is equal in absolute value along the two vertical legs. The various fluid flow approximations are compressible vs. incompressible, and complete momentum equation vs. Darcy’s approximation. The ultimate goal is to compute the fluid flow models’ uncertainties and, if possible, to generate validity ranges for these models when applied to reactor analysis. We also limit this study to single phase flows with low-Mach numbers. As a result, sound waves carry a very small amount of energy in this particular case. A standard finite volume method is used for the spatial discretization of the system.

  18. UZ Flow Models and Submodels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Wu

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) flow models and submodels, as well as the flow fields that have been generated using the UZ flow model(s) of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this report, the term ''UZ model'' refers to the UZ flow model and the several submodels, which include tracer transport, temperature or ambient geothermal, pneumatic or gas flow, and geochemistry (chloride, calcite, and strontium) submodels. The term UZ flow model refers to the three-dimensional models used for calibration and simulation of UZ flow fields. This work was planned in the ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.7). The table of included Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs), Table 6.2-11, is different from the list of included FEPs assigned to this report in the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Table 2.1.5-1), as discussed in Section 6.2.6. The UZ model has revised, updated, and enhanced the previous UZ model (BSC 2001 [DIRS 158726]) by incorporating the repository design with new grids, recalibration of property sets, and more comprehensive validation effort. The flow fields describe fracture-fracture, matrix-matrix, and fracture-matrix liquid flow rates, and their spatial distributions as well as moisture conditions in the UZ system. These three-dimensional UZ flow fields are used directly by Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The model and submodels evaluate important hydrogeologic processes in the UZ as well as geochemistry and geothermal conditions. These provide the necessary framework to test hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales, and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic conditions. In addition, the limitations of the UZ model are discussed in Section 8.11.

  19. Effect of bed pressure drop on performance of a CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hairui Yang; Hai Zhang; Shi Yang; Guangxi Yue; Jun Su; Zhiping Fu

    2009-05-15

    The effect of bed pressure drop and bed inventory on the performances of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler was studied. By using the state specification design theory, the fluidization state of the gas-solids flow in the furnace of conventional CFB boilers was reconstructed to operate at a much lower bed pressure drop by reducing bed inventory and control bed quality. Through theoretical analysis, it was suggested that there would exist a theoretical optimal value of bed pressure drop, around which the boiler operation can achieve the maximal combustion efficiency and with significant reduction of the wear of the heating surface and fan energy consumption. The analysis was validated by field tests carried out in a 75 t/h CFB boiler. At full boiler load, when bed pressure drop was reduced from 7.3 to 3.2 kPa, the height of the dense zone in the lower furnace decreased, but the solid suspension density profile in the upper furnace and solid flow rate were barely influenced. Consequently, the average heat transfer coefficient in the furnace was kept nearly the same and the furnace temperature increment was less than 17{sup o}C. It was also found that the carbon content in the fly ash decreased first with decreasing bed pressure drop and then increased with further increasing bed pressure drop. The turning point with minimal carbon content was referred to as the point with optimal bed pressure drop. For this boiler, at the optimum point the bed pressure was around 5.7 kPa with the overall excess air ratio of 1.06. When the boiler was operated around this optimal point, not only the combustion efficiency was improved, but also fan energy consumption and wear of heating surface were reduced. 23 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Method and apparatus for adapting steady flow with cyclic thermodynamics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W.; Reid, Robert S.; Ward, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Energy transfer apparatus has a resonator for supporting standing acoustic waves at a selected frequency with a steady flow process fluid thermodynamic medium and a solid medium having heat capacity. The fluid medium and the solid medium are disposed within the resonator for thermal contact therebetween and for relative motion therebetween. The relative motion is produced by a first means for producing a steady velocity component and second means for producing an oscillating velocity component at the selected frequency and concomitant wavelength of the standing acoustic wave. The oscillating velocity and associated oscillating pressure component provide energy transfer between the steady flow process fluid and the solid medium as the steady flow process fluid moves through the resonator.

  1. Comparison of high pressure transient PVT measurements and model predictions. Part I.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felver, Todd G.; Paradiso, Nicholas Joseph; Evans, Gregory Herbert; Rice, Steven F.; Winters, William Stanley, Jr.

    2010-07-01

    A series of experiments consisting of vessel-to-vessel transfers of pressurized gas using Transient PVT methodology have been conducted to provide a data set for optimizing heat transfer correlations in high pressure flow systems. In rapid expansions such as these, the heat transfer conditions are neither adiabatic nor isothermal. Compressible flow tools exist, such as NETFLOW that can accurately calculate the pressure and other dynamical mechanical properties of such a system as a function of time. However to properly evaluate the mass that has transferred as a function of time these computational tools rely on heat transfer correlations that must be confirmed experimentally. In this work new data sets using helium gas are used to evaluate the accuracy of these correlations for receiver vessel sizes ranging from 0.090 L to 13 L and initial supply pressures ranging from 2 MPa to 40 MPa. The comparisons show that the correlations developed in the 1980s from sparse data sets perform well for the supply vessels but are not accurate for the receivers, particularly at early time during the transfers. This report focuses on the experiments used to obtain high quality data sets that can be used to validate computational models. Part II of this report discusses how these data were used to gain insight into the physics of gas transfer and to improve vessel heat transfer correlations. Network flow modeling and CFD modeling is also discussed.

  2. Alternative Strategies for Low Pressure End Uses | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alternative Strategies for Low Pressure End Uses Alternative Strategies for Low Pressure End Uses This tip sheet outlines alternative strategies for low-pressure end uses as a ...

  3. High Pressure Rotary Shaft Sealing Mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietle, Lannie; Gobeli, Jeffrey D.

    2001-05-08

    A laterally translatable pressure staged rotary shaft sealing mechanism having a seal housing with a shaft passage therein being exposed to a fluid pressure P1 and with a rotary shaft being located within the shaft passage. At least one annular laterally translatable seal carrier is provided. First and second annular resilient sealing elements are supported in axially spaced relation by the annular seal carriers and have sealing relation with the rotary shaft. The seal housing and at least one seal carrier define a first pressure staging chamber exposed to the first annular resilient sealing element and a second pressure staging chamber located between and exposed to the first and second annular resilient sealing elements. A first fluid is circulated to the first pressure chamber at a pressure P1, and a second staging pressure fluid is circulated to the second pressure chamber at a fraction of pressure P1 to achieve pressure staging, cooling of the seals. Seal placement provides hydraulic force balancing of the annular seal carriers.

  4. Role of metastable atoms in the propagation of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Qing; Zhu Ximing; Li Jiangtao; Pu Yikang [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-02-15

    In the experiment of plasma jets generated in a tube dielectric barrier discharge configuration, three distinguishable modes, namely, laminar, transition, and turbulent jet modes, have been identified. Flows of helium, neon, and argon gases shared the hydrodynamic law when their plasma jets spraying into ambient air of atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Aiming to reveal the basic processes, we propose that plasma jet length is mainly determined by reactions involving metastable atoms. These processes are responsible for the variation in plasma jet length versus gas flow rate and working gas species. To investigate this proposal in detail, we have obtained three significant experimental results, i.e., (1) the plasma jet lengths of helium, neon, and argon are different; (2) the plasma jet length of krypton slightly changes with gas flow rate, with three modes indistinguishable; and (3) there are large differences between optical emission spectra of helium, neon, argon, and krypton flow gases. These observations are in good agreement with our proposal.

  5. Magnetic Nanoparticle Capilary Flow as a Replacement for Lateral Flow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chromatography - Energy Innovation Portal Magnetic Nanoparticle Capilary Flow as a Replacement for Lateral Flow Chromatography Colorado School of Mines Contact CSM About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryThis invention looks at method to detect targeted analytes. DescriptionThe method most often used now is Lateral Flow Chromatography (LFC) which has many drawbacks including: the need for extensive optimization, sensitivity, specificity, lack of quantitative data and extensive

  6. Conductance valve and pressure-to-conductance transducer method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Cummings, Eric B.; Brennan, James S.

    2005-01-18

    A device for interrupting or throttling undesired ionic transport through a fluid network is disclosed. The device acts as a fluid valve by reversibly generating a fixed "bubble" in the conducting solvent solution carried by the network. The device comprises a porous hydrophobic structure filling a portion of a connecting channel within the network and optionally incorporates flow restrictor elements at either end of the porous structure that function as pressure isolation barriers, and a fluid reservoir connected to the region of the channel containing the porous structure. Also included is a pressure pump connected to the fluid reservoir. The device operates by causing the pump to vary the hydraulic pressure to a quantity of solvent solution held within the reservoir and porous structure. At high pressures, most or all of the pores of the structure are filled with conducting liquid so the ionic conductance is high. At lower pressures, only a fraction of the pores are filled with liquid, so ionic conductivity is lower. Below a threshold pressure, the porous structure contains only vapor, so there is no liquid conduction path. The device therefore effectively throttles ionic transport through the porous structure and acts as a "conductance valve" or "pressure-to-conductance" transducer within the network.

  7. Kauai Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for Kauai. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014.; and Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume IV – Island of Kauai Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2015.

  8. Kauai Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for Kauai. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014.; and Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume IV – Island of Kauai Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2015.

  9. Category:Flow Test | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Flow Test Jump to: navigation, search Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Flow Test page? For detailed information on Flow Test, click here. Category:Flow Test Add.png Add a new...

  10. Uranyl Nitrate Flow Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ladd-Lively, Jennifer L

    2008-10-01

    The objectives of the work discussed in this report were to: (1) develop a flow loop that would simulate the purified uranium-bearing aqueous stream exiting the solvent extraction process in a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP); (2) develop a test plan that would simulate normal operation and disturbances that could be anticipated in an NUCP; (3) use the flow loop to test commercially available flowmeters for use as safeguards monitors; and (4) recommend a flowmeter for production-scale testing at an NUCP. There has been interest in safeguarding conversion plants because the intermediate products [uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}), uranium tetrafluoride (UF{sub 4}), and uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6})] are all suitable uranium feedstocks for producing special nuclear materials. Furthermore, if safeguards are not applied virtually any nuclear weapons program can obtain these feedstocks without detection by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Historically, IAEA had not implemented safeguards until the purified UF{sub 6} product was declared as feedstock for enrichment plants. H. A. Elayat et al. provide a basic definition of a safeguards system: 'The function of a safeguards system on a chemical conversion plant is in general terms to verify that no useful nuclear material is being diverted to use in a nuclear weapons program'. The IAEA now considers all highly purified uranium compounds as candidates for safeguarding. DOE is currently interested in 'developing instruments, tools, strategies, and methods that could be of use to the IAEA in the application of safeguards' for materials found in the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle-prior to the production of the uranium hexafluoride or oxides that have been the traditional starting point for IAEA safeguards. Several national laboratories, including Oak Ridge, Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore, and Brookhaven, have been involved in developing tools or techniques for safeguarding conversion plants. This study was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) NA-241, Office of Dismantlement and Transparency.

  11. Portable high precision pressure transducer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piper, T.C.; Morgan, J.P.; Marchant, N.J.; Bolton, S.M.

    1994-04-26

    A high precision pressure transducer system is described for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum fluorescent display. 2 figures.

  12. Portable high precision pressure transducer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piper, Thomas C.; Morgan, John P.; Marchant, Norman J.; Bolton, Steven M.

    1994-01-01

    A high precision pressure transducer system for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum florescent display.

  13. Steady-state axial pressure losses along the exterior of deformed fuel cladding: Multirod Burst Test (MRBT) bundles B-1 and B-2. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mincey, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The experimental and COBRA-IV computational data presented in this report confirm that increased pressure losses, induced by the steady-state axial flow of water exterior to deformed Multirod Burst Test (MRBT) bundles B-1 and B-2, may be closely predicted using a bundle-averaged approach for describing flow channel restrictions. One anomaly that was encountered using this technique occurred while modeling the B-2 flow test data near a severe channel restriction: the COBRA-IV results tended to underestimate experimental pressure losses.

  14. Active combustion flow modulation valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hensel, John Peter; Black, Nathaniel; Thorton, Jimmy Dean; Vipperman, Jeffrey Stuart; Lambeth, David N; Clark, William W

    2013-09-24

    A flow modulation valve has a slidably translating hollow armature with at least one energizable coil wound around and fixably attached to the hollow armature. The energizable coil or coils are influenced by at least one permanent magnet surrounding the hollow armature and supported by an outer casing. Lorentz forces on the energizable coils which are translated to the hollow armature, increase or decrease the flow area to provide flow throttling action. The extent of hollow armature translation depends on the value of current supplied and the direction of translation depends on the direction of current flow. The compact nature of the flow modulation valve combined with the high forces afforded by the actuator design provide a flow modulation valve which is highly responsive to high-rate input control signals.

  15. Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Multiscale Preferential Flow - 8/05-8/10 - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ralph Showalter; Malgorzata Peszynska

    2012-07-03

    The research agenda of this project are: (1) Modeling of preferential transport from mesoscale to macroscale; (2) Modeling of fast flow in narrow fractures in porous media; (3) Pseudo-parabolic Models of Dynamic Capillary Pressure; (4) Adaptive computational upscaling of flow with inertia from porescale to mesoscale; (5) Adaptive modeling of nonlinear coupled systems; and (6) Adaptive modeling and a-posteriori estimators for coupled systems with heterogeneous data.

  16. Lightweight bladder lined pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, F.; Myers, B.; Magnotta, F.

    1998-08-25

    A lightweight, low permeability liner is described for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using tori spherical or near tori spherical end caps, with or without bosses therein, about which a high strength to weight material, such as graphite epoxy composite shell, is formed to withstand the storage pressure forces. The polymeric substrate may be laminated on one or both sides with additional layers of polymeric film. The liner may be formed to a desired configuration using a dissolvable mandrel or by inflation techniques and the edges of the film sealed by heat sealing. The liner may be utilized in most any type of gas storage system, and is particularly applicable for hydrogen, gas mixtures, and oxygen used for vehicles, fuel cells or regenerative fuel cell applications, high altitude solar powered aircraft, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems, and lunar/Mars space applications, and other applications requiring high cycle life. 19 figs.

  17. Low-pressure injection molding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangels, J.A. (Ceradyne Inc., Costa Mesa, CA (United States))

    1994-05-01

    Ceramic injection molding experienced a revival in the 1970s and 1980s with the application of ceramics for gas turbine components. Concurrently, techniques were being developed for the injection molding of powdered metal compositions into complex shaped articles. The impetus for the development of injection molding as a ceramic fabrication process lay in the potential to produce complex-shaped components to near-net shape. In the ceramic injection molding process, ceramic powders are processed to obtain the desired particle size, distribution and morphology and blended to obtain a homogeneous distribution. These powders are then mixed with the organic binders, generally in a heated, highshear mixer at temperatures above the melting point of the organic binders. The injection molding mix is pelletized, cooled and fed into an injection molding machine. The molding mix is reheated to a fluid state and injected under high pressure (7--70 MPa) into a die cavity. The molded part is removed from the tooling after the molding mix has solidified in the die. The organic binders are then removed from the component at temperatures up to 400 C, generally by some combination of wicking and thermal decomposition. Finally, the component is sintered to obtain its final ceramic properties, using conventional ceramic processes.

  18. Lightweight bladder lined pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, Fred; Myers, Blake; Magnotta, Frank

    1998-01-01

    A lightweight, low permeability liner for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using torispherical or near torispherical end caps, with or without bosses therein, about which a high strength to weight material, such as graphite epoxy composite shell, is formed to withstand the storage pressure forces. The polymeric substrate may be laminated on one or both sides with additional layers of polymeric film. The liner may be formed to a desired configuration using a dissolvable mandrel or by inflation techniques and the edges of the film seamed by heat sealing. The liner may be utilized in most any type of gas storage system, and is particularly applicable for hydrogen, gas mixtures, and oxygen used for vehicles, fuel cells or regenerative fuel cell applications, high altitude solar powered aircraft, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems, and lunar/Mars space applications, and other applications requiring high cycle life.

  19. Laminar and turbulent nozzle-jet flows and their acoustic near-field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bühler, Stefan; Obrist, Dominik; Kleiser, Leonhard

    2014-08-15

    We investigate numerically the effects of nozzle-exit flow conditions on the jet-flow development and the near-field sound at a diameter-based Reynolds number of Re{sub D} = 18?100 and Mach number Ma = 0.9. Our computational setup features the inclusion of a cylindrical nozzle which allows to establish a physical nozzle-exit flow and therefore well-defined initial jet-flow conditions. Within the nozzle, the flow is modeled by a potential flow core and a laminar, transitional, or developing turbulent boundary layer. The goal is to document and to compare the effects of the different jet inflows on the jet flow development and the sound radiation. For laminar and transitional boundary layers, transition to turbulence in the jet shear layer is governed by the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. With the turbulent nozzle boundary layer, the jet flow development is characterized by a rapid changeover to a turbulent free shear layer within about one nozzle diameter. Sound pressure levels are strongly enhanced for laminar and transitional exit conditions compared to the turbulent case. However, a frequency and frequency-wavenumber analysis of the near-field pressure indicates that the dominant sound radiation characteristics remain largely unaffected. By applying a recently developed scaling procedure, we obtain a close match of the scaled near-field sound spectra for all nozzle-exit turbulence levels and also a reasonable agreement with experimental far-field data.

  20. High-Pressure Hydrogen Tank Testing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Many types of compressed hydrogen tanks have been certified worldwide and demonstrated in several prototype fuel cell vehicles. The following information discusses high-pressure hydrogen tank...

  1. Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues This brief details industrial steam ... A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition Install an Automatic Blowdown-Control

  2. Pulse Pressure Forming of Lightweight Materials, Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forming of Lightweight Materials, Development of High Strength Superplastic Al Sheet, Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels Pulse Pressure Forming of...

  3. Digiquartz pressure transducer calibration test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bentzen, F.L.

    1980-12-01

    The safeguarding of strategic nuclear material in chemical fuel reprocessing plants requires the accurate determination of liquid level, which is translated to pressure through bubbler probes. To measure the pressure with sufficient accuracy requires transducers better than standard process units. The Paroscientific Inc. Digiquartz transducer meets the requirement when calibrated. Calibration was accomplished with an automatic data acquisition system using a Hewlett Packard 9825A computer and associated precision laboratory equipment and a Ruska DDR 6000 pressure calibrator. Data were taken from 0 to 15 psid over the range of 15 to 60/sup 0/C for 14 pressure transducers.

  4. Pressure dependence of Hexanitrostilbene Raman/ electronic absorption...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hexanitrostilbene Raman electronic absorption spectra to validate DFT EOS. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pressure dependence of Hexanitrostilbene Raman electronic ...

  5. Predicting Pressure-Dependent Combustion Chemical Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Predicting Pressure-Dependent Combustion Chemical Reactions - Sandia Energy Energy Search ... ARPA-E Basic Energy Sciences Materials Sciences and Engineering Chemical Sciences ...

  6. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan [Houston, TX

    2010-01-12

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  7. STATISTICAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SPRING OPERATED PRESSURE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    VALVE RELIABILITY IMPROVEMENTS 2004 TO 2014 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: STATISTICAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SPRING OPERATED PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE RELIABILITY ...

  8. Pressure dependence of Hexanitrostilbene Raman/ electronic absorption...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    its thermal stability and low vapor pressure, Hexanitrostilbene (HNS) is often used in high- temperature or vacuum applications as a detonator explosive or in mild detonating fuse. ...

  9. STATISTICAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SPRING OPERATED PRESSURE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    STATISTICAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SPRING OPERATED PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE RELIABILITY IMPROVEMENTS 2004 TO 2014 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: STATISTICAL PERFORMANCE ...

  10. Flow Test | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    borehole geophysics in defining the physical characteristics of the Raft River geothermal reservoir, Idaho Flow Test At Raft River Geothermal Area (2004) Raft River Geothermal Area...

  11. Financing Program Implementation Process Flow

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The implementation process flow for financing with two models: a generic option for primary markets and a conceptual option for secondary markets.

  12. Automated high pressure cell for pressure jump x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Nicholas J.; Gauthe, Beatrice L. L. E.; Templer, Richard H.; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M.; Terrill, Nick J.; Rogers, Sarah E.

    2010-06-15

    A high pressure cell for small and wide-angle x-ray diffraction measurements of soft condensed matter samples has been developed, incorporating a fully automated pressure generating network. The system allows both static and pressure jump measurements in the range of 0.1-500 MPa. Pressure jumps can be performed as quickly as 5 ms, both with increasing and decreasing pressures. Pressure is generated by a motorized high pressure pump, and the system is controlled remotely via a graphical user interface to allow operation by a broad user base, many of whom may have little previous experience of high pressure technology. Samples are loaded through a dedicated port allowing the x-ray windows to remain in place throughout an experiment; this facilitates accurate subtraction of background scattering. The system has been designed specifically for use at beamline I22 at the Diamond Light Source, United Kingdom, and has been fully integrated with the I22 beamline control systems.

  13. Flame and flow characteristics of double concentric jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, R.F.; Yang, J.T.; Lee, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    The characteristic flame and flow modes of a double concentric type of combustor possessing a central air jet and an annular propane gas are experimentally studied. Subject to the effects of the gravitational, inertial, and pressure forces, the cold flow is classified into three primary patterns: annular fountain, unstable fountain, and recirculation bubble flows. Using direct and schlieren photography techniques, the flames in the velocity domain of annulus and central jets are systematically classified into several characteristic modes. At low central jet velocity, a central flame enclosed in a annular diffusion flame might exist. At high central jet velocity, only the annular flames exist. The existence of the central flame dominates the flame and flow behaviors at low central jet velocity. The interaction between the central jet and the recirculation bubble in the near wake region dominates the flame characteristics at high central jet velocity. The interaction between the flame behavior and the flow patterns in each characteristic mode is comprehensively discussed. The temperature profiles are probed by a fine-wire thermocouple. The radial temperature profiles for each characteristic flame mode at various levels are presented to show the thermal structures.

  14. Inhibition of slug front corrosion in multiphase flow conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H.J.; Jepson, W.P.

    1998-12-31

    Corrosion at the slug front at the bottom of a pipeline is identified as one of the worst cases of corrosion occurring in the pipeline which carries unprocessed multiphase production with a high level of CO{sub 2} gas. One objective of the study in recommending a subsea completion to shore was to determine if commercial corrosion inhibitors can control this type of corrosion using carbon steel pipeline. Thus, inhibitors which showed excellent performance in the lab using the Rotating Cylinder Electrode system (RCE) were further evaluated to confirm their performance in a flow loop simulating the test conditions predicted from the flow modeling for the proposed pipeline. The performance profile of two commercial inhibitors were determined in a 4 in. flow loop at 7O C, 100 psig CO{sub 2} partial pressure in corrosive brines with or without ethylene glycol and/or light hydrocarbon. Results showed that the carbon steel pipeline could be adequately protected at low temperature using a commercial corrosion inhibitor to meet the designed life of the pipeline. Ethylene glycol, which is used in the pipeline to prevent hydrate formation, reduces the corrosivity of the brine and gives no effect on inhibitor performance under the slug flow conditions. A good agreement in inhibitor performance was observed between the flow loop and the RCE testing. The uninhibited corrosion rate of the test brine in this study is in good agreement with the predicted value using deWaard and Williams correlation for CO{sub 2} corrosion.

  15. Composition pulse time-of-flight mass flow sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harnett, Cindy K. (Livermore, CA); Crocker, Robert W. (Fremont, CA); Mosier, Bruce P. (San Francisco, CA); Caton, Pamela F. (Berkeley, CA); Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-06-05

    A device for measuring fluid flow rates over a wide range of flow rates (<1 nL/min to >10 .mu.L/min) and at pressures at least as great as 2,000 psi. The invention is particularly adapted for use in microfluidic systems. The device operates by producing compositional variations in the fluid, or pulses, that are subsequently detected downstream from the point of creation to derive a flow rate. Each pulse, comprising a small fluid volume, whose composition is different from the mean composition of the fluid, can be created by electrochemical means, such as by electrolysis of a solvent, electrolysis of a dissolved species, or electrodialysis of a dissolved ionic species. Measurements of the conductivity of the fluid can be used to detect the arrival time of the pulses, from which the fluid flow rate can be determined. A pair of spaced apart electrodes can be used to produce the electrochemical pulse. In those instances where it is desired to measure a wide range of fluid flow rates a three electrode configuration in which the electrodes are spaced at unequal distances has been found to be desirable.

  16. Droplet sizes, dynamics and deposition in vertical annular flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopes, J C.B.; Dukler, A E

    1985-10-01

    The role of droplets in vertical upwards annular flow is investigated, focusing on the droplet size distributions, dynamics, and deposition phenomena. An experimental program was performed based on a new laser optical technique developed in these laboratories and implemented here for annular flow. This permitted the simultaneous measurement of droplet size, axial and radial velocity. The dependence of droplet size distributions on flow conditions is analyzed. The Upper-Log Normal function proves to be a good model for the size distribution. The mechanism controlling the maximum stable drop size was found to result from the interaction of the pressure fluctuations of the turbulent flow of the gas core with the droplet. The average axial droplet velocity showed a weak dependence on gas rates. This can be explained once the droplet size distribution and droplet size-velocity relationship are analyzed simultaneously. The surprising result from the droplet conditional analysis is that larger droplet travel faster than smaller ones. This dependence cannot be explained if the drag curves used do not take into account the high levels of turbulence present in the gas core in annular flow. If these are considered, then interesting new situations of multiplicity and stability of droplet terminal velocities are encountered. Also, the observed size-velocity relationship can be explained. A droplet deposition is formulated based on the particle inertia control. This permitted the calculation of rates of drop deposition directly from the droplet size and velocities data.

  17. Flow Tones in a Pipeline-Cavity System: Effect of Pipe Asymmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Erdem; D. rockwell; P. Oshkai; M. Pollack

    2002-05-29

    Flow tones in a pipeline-cavity system are characterized in terms of unsteady pressure within the cavity and along the pipe. The reference case corresponds to equal lengths of pipe connected to the inlet and outlet ends of the cavity. Varying degrees of asymmetry of this pipe arrangement are investigated. The asymmetry is achieved by an extension of variable length, which is added to the pipe at the cavity outlet. An extension length as small as a few percent of the acoustic wavelength of the resonant mode can yield a substantial reduction in the pressure amplitude of the flow tone. This amplitude decrease occurs in a similar fashion within both the cavity and the pipe resonator, which indicates that it is a global phenomenon. Furthermore, the decrease of pressure amplitude is closely correlated with a decrease of the Q (quality)-factor of the predominant spectral component of pressure. At a sufficiently large value of extension length, however, the overall form of the pressure spectrum recovers to the form that exists at zero length of the extension. Further insight is provided by variation of the inflow velocity at selected values of extension length. Irrespective of its value, both the magnitude and frequency of the peak pressure exhibit a sequence of resonant-like states. Moreover, the maximum attainable magnitude of the peak pressure decreases with increasing extension length.

  18. Flow Tones in a Pipeline-Cavity System: Effect of Pipe Asymmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Erdem; D. Rockwell; P.L. Oshkai; M. Pollack

    2001-02-28

    Flow tones in a pipeline-cavity system are characterized in terms of unsteady pressure within the cavity and along the pipe. The reference case corresponds to equal lengths of pipe connected to the inlet and outlet ends of the cavity. Varying degrees of asymmetry of this pipe arrangement are investigated. The asymmetry is achieved by an extension of variable length, which is added to the pipe at the cavity outlet. An extension length as small as a few percent of the acoustic wavelength of the resonant mode can yield a substantial reduction in the pressure amplitude of the flow tone. This amplitude decrease occurs in a similar fashion within both the cavity and the pipe resonator, which indicates that it is a global phenomenon. Furthermore, the decrease of pressure amplitude is closely correlated with a decrease of the Q (quality)-factor of the predominant spectral component of pressure. At a sufficiently large value of extension length, however, the overall form of the pressure spectrum recovers to the form that exists at zero length of the extension. Further insight is provided by variation of the inflow velocity at selected values of extension length. Irrespective of its value, both the magnitude and frequency of the peak pressure exhibit a sequence of resonant-like states. moreover, the maximum attainable magnitude of the peak pressure decreases with increasing extension length.

  19. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-26

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  20. Balanced pressure techniques applied to geothermal drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dareing, D.W.

    1981-08-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate balanced pressure drilling techniques for use in combating lost circulation in geothermal drilling. Drilling techniques evaluated are: aerated drilling mud, parasite tubing, concentric drill pipe, jet sub, and low density fluids. Based on the present state of the art of balanced pressure drilling techniques, drilling with aerated water has the best overall balance of performance, risk, availability, and cost. Aerated water with a 19:1 free air/water ratio reduce maximum pressure unbalance between wellbore and formation pressures from 1000 psi to 50 psi. This pressure unbalance is within acceptable operating limits; however, air pockets could form and cause pressure surges in the mud system due to high percent of air. Low density fluids used with parasite tubing has the greatest potential for combating lost circulation in geothermal drilling, when performance only is considered. The top portion of the hole would be aerated through the parasite tube at a 10:1 free air/mud ratio and the low density mud could be designed so that its pressure gradient exactly matches the formation pore pressure gradient. The main problem with this system at present is the high cost of ceramic beads needed to produce low density muds.

  1. Induced topological pressure for topological dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xing, Zhitao; Chen, Ercai

    2015-02-15

    In this paper, inspired by the article [J. Jaerisch et al., Stochastics Dyn. 14, 1350016, pp. 1-30 (2014)], we introduce the induced topological pressure for a topological dynamical system. In particular, we prove a variational principle for the induced topological pressure.

  2. Single stage high pressure centrifugal slurry pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, John W.; Bonin, John H.; Daniel, Arnold D.

    1984-03-27

    Apparatus is shown for feeding a slurry to a pressurized housing. An impeller that includes radial passages is mounted in the loose fitting housing. The impeller hub is connected to a drive means and a slurry supply means which extends through the housing. Pressured gas is fed into the housing for substantially enveloping the impeller in a bubble of gas.

  3. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-07-08

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  4. Crystal Plasticity Model of Reactor Pressure Vessel Embrittlement in GRIZZLY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, Pritam; Biner, Suleyman Bulent; Zhang, Yongfeng; Spencer, Benjamin Whiting

    2015-07-01

    The integrity of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) is of utmost importance to ensure safe operation of nuclear reactors under extended lifetime. Microstructure-scale models at various length and time scales, coupled concurrently or through homogenization methods, can play a crucial role in understanding and quantifying irradiation-induced defect production, growth and their influence on mechanical behavior of RPV steels. A multi-scale approach, involving atomistic, meso- and engineering-scale models, is currently being pursued within the GRIZZLY project to understand and quantify irradiation-induced embrittlement of RPV steels. Within this framework, a dislocation-density based crystal plasticity model has been developed in GRIZZLY that captures the effect of irradiation-induced defects on the flow stress behavior and is presented in this report. The present formulation accounts for the interaction between self-interstitial loops and matrix dislocations. The model predictions have been validated with experiments and dislocation dynamics simulation.

  5. Uncertainty Analysis for a Virtual Flow Meter Using an Air-Handling Unit Chilled Water Valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Li; Wang, Gang; Brambley, Michael R.

    2013-04-28

    A virtual water flow meter is developed that uses the chilled water control valve on an air-handling unit as a measurement device. The flow rate of water through the valve is calculated using the differential pressure across the valve and its associated coil, the valve command, and an empirically determined valve characteristic curve. Thus, the probability of error in the measurements is significantly greater than for conventionally manufactured flow meters. In this paper, mathematical models are developed and used to conduct uncertainty analysis for the virtual flow meter, and the results from the virtual meter are compared to measurements made with an ultrasonic flow meter. Theoretical uncertainty analysis shows that the total uncertainty in flow rates from the virtual flow meter is 1.46% with 95% confidence; comparison of virtual flow meter results with measurements from an ultrasonic flow meter yielded anuncertainty of 1.46% with 99% confidence. The comparable results from the theoretical uncertainty analysis and empirical comparison with the ultrasonic flow meter corroborate each other, and tend to validate the approach to computationally estimating uncertainty for virtual sensors introduced in this study.

  6. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U. Tennessee Knoxville; U. Texas Austin; McGill U; Weber, Adam Z.; Mench, Matthew M.; Meyers, Jeremy P.; Ross, Philip N.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-07-15

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  7. Apparatus for measuring fluid flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, J.E.; Thomas, D.G.

    Flow measuring apparatus includes a support loop having strain gages mounted thereon and a drag means which is attached to one end of the support loop and which bends the sides of the support loop and induces strains in the strain gages when a flow stream impacts thereon.

  8. Direct flow crystal growth system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montgomery, Kenneth E.; Milanovich, Fred P.

    1992-01-01

    A crystal is grown in a constantly filtered solution which is flowed directly into the growing face of a crystal. In a continuous flow system, solution at its saturation temperature is removed from a crystal growth tank, heated above its saturation temperature, filtered, cooled back to its saturation temperature, and returned to the tank.

  9. An algorithm to predict pressure and temperature profiles through a coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilo, S.; Intevep, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    The scope of this work is to develop an algorithm to predict the temperature and pressure profiles in a compressible flow through a coiled tubing, taking into account both friction losses and heat transfer simultaneously. The algorithm combines the theory of gas dynamics (heat transfer process) and thermodynamics (energy balance) to predict pressure, temperature, density, velocity and Mach number profiles for either horizontal, inclined or vertical strings. The results of the algorithm were compared with the Cullender & Smith method, which is the standard correlation used for downward gas flow calculations. A strong agreement between them was obtained. The algorithm presented allows more reliable results because it only needs for start-up, gas data that is usually very precisely known in real conditions.

  10. Influence of shape and skin of matrix-rock blocks on pressure transients in fractured reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Swaan, A.

    1986-01-01

    A formulation of pressure transients in terms of the intrinsic, or core, properties of the two media that compose the fractured reservoir, establishes the influence of these properties, and reciprocally, their corroboration from - the pressure-time relationship observed in well tests and interference tests. The following reservoir characteristics are analyzed: the area of fractures transverse to flow; the dimensions, shape and properties of rectangular parallelepiped matrix-rock blocks; and a permeability reduction in the blocks surface. A restatement of the so-called pseudo-steady state inter-media flow gives to parameters alfa and lambda in the theory of a previous study the physical meaning they lacked, and allows a direct determination of the blocks minimum dimension.

  11. Extreme pressure fluid sample transfer pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halverson, Justin E.; Bowman, Wilfred W.

    1990-01-01

    A transfer pump for samples of fluids at very low or very high pressures comprising a cylinder having a piston sealed with an O-ring, the piston defining forward and back chambers, an inlet and exit port and valve arrangement for the fluid to enter and leave the forward chamber, and a port and valve arrangement in the back chamber for adjusting the pressure across the piston so that the pressure differential across the piston is essentially zero and approximately equal to the pressure of the fluid so that the O-ring seals against leakage of the fluid and the piston can be easily moved, regardless of the pressure of the fluid. The piston may be actuated by a means external to the cylinder with a piston rod extending through a hole in the cylinder sealed with a bellows attached to the piston head and the interior of the back chamber.

  12. Rapid pressure cycle effects on flexible pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, R.T.; Upchurch, J.L.; McMahan, J.M. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    The use of subsea satellite wells tied back to a central manifold unit is a field development concept currently being used by operating companies for staged production of either commingled oil or gas. Remote platform operated control systems that couple the satellite wells and manifold require that safe operating pressure cycle parameters be established for all subsea components. Because of start-up and shut-in procedures, extreme pressure variations in the form of rapid pressurization and depressurization must be considered. This paper describes the test procedures, equipment and results specific to the evaluation of high pressure non-bonded flexible pipe used for subsea production jumpers between satellite wells and manifold system. Recommendation of safe rates of pressurization and depressurization are included.

  13. Ceramic pressure housing with metal endcaps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Downing, J.P. Jr.; DeRoos, B.G.; Hackman, D.J.

    1995-06-27

    A housing is disclosed for the containment of instrumentation in a high pressure fluid environment that consists of a metallic endcap and ceramic cylinder bonded together. The improvement comprises a structure which results in the improved sealing of said housing as the fluid pressure increases. The cylindrical ceramic tube and endcap are dimensioned such that mechanical failure does not occur when exposed to the desired external operating pressures which includes up to 36,000 feet of water. The housing is designed to withstand the external operating pressures without being subject to mechanical failure or excessive deformation which results in the loss of pressure housing integrity via cracking or deformation of the ceramic tube, deformation of the endcap, or from failure of the bonding agent. 9 figs.

  14. Variable pressure ionization detector for gas chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchanan, Michelle V.; Wise, Marcus B.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus for differentiating organic compounds based on their electron affinity. An electron capture detector cell (ECD) is operated at pressures ranging from atmospheric to less than 1 torr. Through variation of the pressure within the ECD cell, the organic compounds are induced to either capture or emit electrons. Differentiation of isomeric compounds can be obtianed when, at a given pressure, one isomer is in the emission mode and the other is in the capture mode. Output of the ECD is recorded by chromatogram. The invention also includes a method for obtaining the zero-crossing pressure of a compound, defined as the pressure at which the competing emission and capture reactions are balanced and which may be correlated to the electron affinity of a compound.

  15. Flowmeter for pressure-driven chromatography systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Arnold, Don W.

    2003-01-01

    A flowmeter for accurately measuring the flowrate of fluids in high pressure chromatography systems. The flowmeter is a porous bed of a material, the porous bed having a porosity in the range of about 0.1 to 0.6 and a pore size in the range of about 50 nm to 1 .mu.m, disposed between a high pressure pumping means and a chromatography column. The flowmeter is provided with pressure measuring means at both the inlet and outlet of the porous bed for measuring the pressure drop through the porous bed. This flowmeter system provides not only the ability to measure accurately flowrates in the range of .mu.L/min to nL/min but also to provide a signal that can be used for a servo loop or feedback control system for high pressure pumping systems.

  16. Flowmeter for pressure-driven chromatography systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Arnold, Don W.

    2002-01-01

    A flowmeter for accurately measuring the flowrate of fluids in high pressure chromatography systems. The flowmeter is a porous bed of a material, the porous bed having a porosity in the range of about 0.1 to 0.6 and a pore size in the range of about 50 nm to 1 .mu.m, disposed between a high pressure pumping means and a chromatography column. The flowmeter is provided with pressure measuring means at both the inlet and outlet of the porous bed for measuring the pressure drop through the porous bed. This flowmeter system provides not only the ability to measure accurately flowrates in the range of .mu.L/min to nL/min but also to provide a signal that can be used for a servo loop or feedback control system for high pressure pumping systems.

  17. EDC-37 Deflagration Rates at Elevated Pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maienschein, J L; Koerner, J G

    2008-01-31

    We report deflagration rates on EDC-37 at high pressures. Experiments are conducted using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory High Pressure Strand Burner (HPSB) apparatus. The HPSB contains a deflagrating sample in a small volume, high pressure chamber. The sample consists of nine, 6.35 mm diameter, 6.35 mm length cylinders stacked on end, with burn wires placed between cylinders. Sample deflagration is limited to the cross-sectional surface of the cylinder by coating the cylindrical surface of the tower with Halthane 88-2 epoxy. Sample deflagration is initiated on one end of the tower by a B/KNO{sub 3} and HNS igniter train. Simultaneous temporal pressure history and burn front time of arrival measurements yield the laminar deflagration rate for a range of pressures and provide insight into deflagration uniformity. These measurements are one indicator of overall thermal explosion violence. Specific details of the experiment and the apparatus can be found in the literature.

  18. Pressure sensor for high-temperature liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forster, George A.

    1978-01-01

    A pressure sensor for use in measuring pressures in liquid at high temperatures, especially such as liquid sodium or liquid potassium, comprises a soft diaphragm in contact with the liquid. The soft diaphragm is coupled mechanically to a stiff diaphragm. Pressure is measured by measuring the displacment of both diaphragms, typically by measuring the capacitance between the stiff diaphragm and a fixed plate when the stiff diaphragm is deflected in response to the measured pressure through mechanical coupling from the soft diaphragm. Absolute calibration is achieved by admitting gas under pressure to the region between diaphragms and to the region between the stiff diaphragm and the fixed plate, breaking the coupling between the soft and stiff diaphragms. The apparatus can be calibrated rapidly and absolutely.

  19. Ceramic pressure housing with metal endcaps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Downing, Jr., John P. (Port Townsand, WA); DeRoos, Bradley G. (Worthington, OH); Hackman, Donald J. (Columbus, OH)

    1995-01-01

    A housing for the containment of instrumentation in a high pressure fluid environment that consists of a metallic endcap and ceramic cylinder bonded together. The improvement comprises a structure which results in the improved sealing of said housing as the fluid pressure increases. The cylindrical ceramic tube and endcap are dimensioned such that mechanical failure does not occur when exposed to the desired external operating pressures which includes up to 36,000 feet of water. The housing is designed to withstand the external operating pressures without being subject to mechanical failure or excessive deformation which results in the loss of pressure housing integrity via cracking or deformation of the ceramic tube, deformation of the endcap, or from failure of the bonding agent.

  20. Systematic characterization of degas-driven flow for poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, David Y. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States) Biomolecular Nanotechnology Center, Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center; Tentori, Augusto M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States) Biomolecular Nanotechnology Center, Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center; Dimov, Ivan K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States) Biomolecular Nanotechnology Center, Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center; Univ. de Valapariso, Valapariso (Chile); Lee, Luke P. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States) Biomolecular Nanotechnology Center, Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center

    2011-01-01

    Degas-driven flow is a novel phenomenon used to propel fluids in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based microfluidic devices without requiring any external power. This method takes advantage of the inherently high porosity and air solubility of PDMS by removing air molecules from the bulk PDMS before initiating the flow. The dynamics of degas-driven flow are dependent on the channel and device geometries and are highly sensitive to temporal parameters. These dependencies have not been fully characterized, hindering broad use of degas-driven flow as a microfluidic pumping mechanism. Here, we characterize, for the first time, the effect of various parameters on the dynamics of degas-driven flow, including channel geometry, PDMS thickness, PDMS exposure area, vacuum degassing time, and idle time at atmospheric pressure before loading. We investigate the effect of these parameters on flow velocity as well as channel fill time for the degas-driven flow process. Using our devices, we achieved reproducible flow with a standard deviation of less than 8% for flow velocity, as well as maximum flow rates of up to 3 nL/s and mean flow rates of approximately 1-1.5 nL/s. Parameters such as channel surface area and PDMS chip exposure area were found to have negligible impact on degas-driven flow dynamics, whereas channel cross-sectional area, degas time, PDMS thickness, and idle time were found to have a larger impact. In addition, we develop a physical model that can predict mean flow velocities within 6% of experimental values and can be used as a tool for future design of PDMS-based microfluidic devices that utilize degas-driven flow.

  1. Systematic characterization of degas-driven flow for poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liang, David Y.; Tentori, Augusto M.; Dimov, Ivan K.; Lee, Luke P.

    2011-01-01

    Degas-driven flow is a novel phenomenon used to propel fluids in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based microfluidic devices without requiring any external power. This method takes advantage of the inherently high porosity and air solubility of PDMS by removing air molecules from the bulk PDMS before initiating the flow. The dynamics of degas-driven flow are dependent on the channel and device geometries and are highly sensitive to temporal parameters. These dependencies have not been fully characterized, hindering broad use of degas-driven flow as a microfluidic pumping mechanism. Here, we characterize, for the first time, the effect of various parameters on the dynamics ofmore » degas-driven flow, including channel geometry, PDMS thickness, PDMS exposure area, vacuum degassing time, and idle time at atmospheric pressure before loading. We investigate the effect of these parameters on flow velocity as well as channel fill time for the degas-driven flow process. Using our devices, we achieved reproducible flow with a standard deviation of less than 8% for flow velocity, as well as maximum flow rates of up to 3 nL/s and mean flow rates of approximately 1-1.5 nL/s. Parameters such as channel surface area and PDMS chip exposure area were found to have negligible impact on degas-driven flow dynamics, whereas channel cross-sectional area, degas time, PDMS thickness, and idle time were found to have a larger impact. In addition, we develop a physical model that can predict mean flow velocities within 6% of experimental values and can be used as a tool for future design of PDMS-based microfluidic devices that utilize degas-driven flow.« less

  2. Estimating flow parameters using ground-penetrating radar and hydrological data during transient flow in the vadose zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalsky, Michael; Finsterle, Stefan; Rubin, Yoram

    2003-05-12

    Methods for determining the parameters necessary for modeling fluid flow and contaminant transport in the shallow subsurface are in great demand. Soil properties such as permeability, porosity, and water retention are typically estimated through the inversion of hydrological data (e.g., measurements of capillary pressure and water saturation). However, ill-posedness and non-uniqueness commonly arise in such inverse problems making their solutions elusive. Incorporating additional types of data, such as from geophysical methods, may greatly improve the success of inverse modeling. In particular, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has proven sensitive to subsurface fluid flow processes. In the present work, an inverse technique is presented in which permeability distributions are generated conditional to time-lapsed GPR measurements and hydrological data collected during a transient flow experiment. Specifically, a modified pilot point framework has been implemented in iTOUGH2 allowing for the generation of permeability distributions that preserve point measurements and spatial correlation patterns while reproducing geophysical and hydrological measurements. Through a numerical example, we examine the performance of this method and the benefit of including synthetic GPR data while inverting for fluid flow parameters in the vadose zone. Our hypothesis is that within the inversion framework that we describe, our ability to predict flow across control planes greatly improves with the use of both transient hydrological measurements and geophysical measurements (GPR-derived estimates of water saturation, in particular).

  3. Recurrent flow analysis in spatiotemporally chaotic 2-dimensional Kolmogorov flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Dan Kerswell, Rich R.

    2015-04-15

    Motivated by recent success in the dynamical systems approach to transitional flow, we study the efficiency and effectiveness of extracting simple invariant sets (recurrent flows) directly from chaotic/turbulent flows and the potential of these sets for providing predictions of certain statistics of the flow. Two-dimensional Kolmogorov flow (the 2D Navier-Stokes equations with a sinusoidal body force) is studied both over a square [0, 2?]{sup 2} torus and a rectangular torus extended in the forcing direction. In the former case, an order of magnitude more recurrent flows are found than previously [G. J. Chandler and R. R. Kerswell, “Invariant recurrent solutions embedded in a turbulent two-dimensional Kolmogorov flow,” J. Fluid Mech. 722, 554–595 (2013)] and shown to give improved predictions for the dissipation and energy pdfs of the chaos via periodic orbit theory. Analysis of the recurrent flows shows that the energy is largely trapped in the smallest wavenumbers through a combination of the inverse cascade process and a feature of the advective nonlinearity in 2D. Over the extended torus at low forcing amplitudes, some extracted states mimic the statistics of the spatially localised chaos present surprisingly well recalling the findings of Kawahara and Kida [“Periodic motion embedded in plane Couette turbulence: Regeneration cycle and burst,” J. Fluid Mech. 449, 291 (2001)] in low-Reynolds-number plane Couette flow. At higher forcing amplitudes, however, success is limited highlighting the increased dimensionality of the chaos and the need for larger data sets. Algorithmic developments to improve the extraction procedure are discussed.

  4. Engine having hydraulic and fan drive systems using a single high pressure pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2000-01-01

    An engine comprises a hydraulic system attached to an engine housing that includes a high pressure pump and a hydraulic fluid flowing through at least one passageway. A fan drive system is also attached to the engine housing and includes a hydraulic motor and a fan which can move air over the engine. The hydraulic motor includes an inlet fluidly connected to the at least one passageway.

  5. LNG Vehicle High-Pressure Fuel System and ''Cold Energy'' Utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    powers,Charles A.; Derbidge, T. Craig

    2001-03-27

    A high-pressure fuel system for LNG vehicles with direct-injection natural gas engines has been developed and demonstrated on a heavy-duty truck. A new concept for utilizing the ''cold energy'' associated with LNG vehicles to generate mechanical power to drive auxiliary equipment (such as high-pressure fuel pumps) has also been developed and demonstrated in the laboratory. The high-pressure LNG fuel system development included the design and testing of a new type of cryogenic pump utilizes multiple chambers and other features to condense moderate quantities of sucked vapor and discharge supercritical LNG at 3,000 to 4,000 psi. The pump was demonstrated on a Class 8 truck with a Westport high-pressure direct-injection Cummins ISX engine. A concept that utilizes LNG's ''cold energy'' to drive a high-pressure fuel pump without engine attachments or power consumption was developed. Ethylene is boiled and superheated by the engine coolant, and it is cooled and condensed by rejecting h eat to the LNG. Power is extracted in a full-admission blowdown process, and part of this power is applied to pump the ethylene liquid to the boiler pressure. Tests demonstrated a net power output of 1.1. hp at 1.9 Lbm/min of LNG flow, which is adequate to isentropically pump the LNG to approximately 3,400 psi..

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of cascade microcryocoolers with low pressure ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radebaugh, Ray

    2014-01-29

    The vapor-compression cycle for refrigeration near ambient temperature achieves high efficiency because the isenthalpic expansion of the condensed liquid is a rather efficient process. However, temperatures are limited to about 200 K with a single-stage system. Temperatures down to 77 K are possible with many stages. In the case of microcryocoolers using microcompressors, pressure ratios are usually limited to about 6 or less. As a result, even more stages are required to reach 77 K. If the microcompressors can be fabricated with low-cost wafer-level techniques, then the use of many stages with separate compressors may become a viable option for achieving temperatures of 77 K with high efficiency. We analyze the ideal thermodynamic efficiency of a cascade Joule-Thomson system for various temperatures down to 77 K and with low pressure ratios. About nine stages are required for 77 K, but fewer stages are also analyzed for operation at higher temperatures. For 77 K, an ideal second-law efficiency of 83 % of Carnot is possible with perfect recuperative heat exchangers and 65 % of Carnot is possible with no recuperative heat exchangers. The results are compared with calculated efficiencies in mixed-refrigerant cryocoolers over the range of 77 K to 200 K. Refrigeration at intermediate temperatures is also available. The use of single-component fluids in each of the stages is expected to eliminate the problem of pulsating flow and temperature oscillations experienced in microcryocoolers using mixed refrigerants.

  7. Analytical solution for two-phase flow in a wellbore using the drift-flux model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, L.; Webb, S.W.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents analytical solutions for steady-state, compressible two-phase flow through a wellbore under isothermal conditions using the drift flux conceptual model. Although only applicable to highly idealized systems, the analytical solutions are useful for verifying numerical simulation capabilities that can handle much more complicated systems, and can be used in their own right for gaining insight about two-phase flow processes in wells. The analytical solutions are obtained by solving the mixture momentum equation of steady-state, two-phase flow with an assumption that the two phases are immiscible. These analytical solutions describe the steady-state behavior of two-phase flow in the wellbore, including profiles of phase saturation, phase velocities, and pressure gradients, as affected by the total mass flow rate, phase mass fraction, and drift velocity (i.e., the slip between two phases). Close matching between the analytical solutions and numerical solutions for a hypothetical CO{sub 2} leakage problem as well as to field data from a CO{sub 2} production well indicates that the analytical solution is capable of capturing the major features of steady-state two-phase flow through an open wellbore, and that the related assumptions and simplifications are justified for many actual systems. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of the analytical solution to evaluate how the bottomhole pressure in a well in which CO{sub 2} is leaking upward responds to the mass flow rate of CO{sub 2}-water mixture.

  8. Numerical study on microwave-sustained argon discharge under atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y.; Hua, W. Guo, S. Y.

    2014-04-15

    A numerical study on microwave sustained argon discharge under atmospheric pressure is reported in this paper. The purpose of this study is to investigate both the process and effects of the conditions of microwave-excited gas discharge under atmospheric pressure, thereby aiding improvements in the design of the discharge system, setting the appropriate working time, and controlling the operating conditions. A 3D model is presented, which includes the physical processes of electromagnetic wave propagation, electron transport, heavy species transport, gas flow, and heat transfer. The results can be obtained by means of the fluid approximation. The maxima of the electron density and gas temperature are 4.96 × 10{sup 18} m{sup −3} and 2514.8 K, respectively, and the gas pressure remains almost unchanged for typical operating conditions with a gas flow rate of 20 l/min, microwave power of 1000 W, and initial temperature of 473 K. In addition, the conditions (microwave power, gas flow rate, and initial temperature) of discharge are varied to obtain deeper information about the electron density and gas temperature. The results of our numerical study are valid and clearly describe both the physical process and effects of the conditions of microwave-excited argon discharge.

  9. A direct numerical simulation-based investigation and modeling of pressure Hessian effects on compressible velocity gradient dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danish, Mohammad Suman, Sawan Srinivasan, Balaji

    2014-12-15

    The pressure Hessian tensor plays a key role in shaping the behavior of the velocity gradient tensor, and in turn, that of many incumbent non-linear processes in a turbulent flow field. In compressible flows, the role of pressure Hessian is even more important because it represents the level of fluid-thermodynamic coupling existing in the flow field. In this work, we first perform a direct numerical simulation-based study to clearly identify, isolate, and understand various important inviscid mechanisms that govern the evolution of the pressure Hessian tensor in compressible turbulence. The ensuing understanding is then employed to introduce major improvements to the existing Lagrangian model of the pressure Hessian tensor (the enhanced Homogenized Euler equation or EHEE) in terms of (i) non-symmetric, non-isentropic effects and (ii) improved representation of the anisotropic portion of the pressure Hessian tensor. Finally, we evaluate the new model extensively by comparing the new model results against known turbulence behavior over a range of Reynolds and Mach numbers. Indeed, the new model shows much improved performance as compared to the EHEE model.

  10. Electrochemical cell having improved pressure vent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dean, Kevin (Pontiac, MI); Holland, Arthur (Troy, MI); Fillmore, Donn (Waterford, MI)

    1993-01-01

    The electrochemical cell of the instant invention includes a case having a gas outlet, one or more positive electrodes positioned within the case, one or more negative electrodes positioned within the case electrode separators positioned between the positive and negative electrodes, electrolyte positioned within the case, and a pressure vent for releasing internal pressure occurring in the case to the surrounding atmosphere. The pressure vent is affixed to the case covering the gas outlet, the pressure vent includes a vent housing having a hollow interior area in gaseous communication with the surrounding atmosphere and the interior of the case via the gas outlet, a pressure release piston positioned within the hollow interior area, the pressure release piston sized to surround the gas outlet and having a seal groove configured to encapsulate all but one surface of a seal mounted within the seal groove, leaving the non-encapsulated surface of the seal exposed, and a compression spring positioned to urge the pressure release piston to compress the seal in the seal groove and block the gas outlet in the case.

  11. Particle Pressures in Fluidized Beds. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

    1996-09-01

    This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction): they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, we inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined)and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

  12. Particle pressures in fluidized beds. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

    1996-09-01

    This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction), they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, the authors inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds; the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined) and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

  13. Initiation Pressure Thresholds from Three Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souers, P C; Vitello, P

    2007-02-28

    Pressure thresholds are minimum pressures needed to start explosive initiation that ends in detonation. We obtain pressure thresholds from three sources. Run-to-detonation times are the poorest source but the fitting of a function gives rough results. Flyer-induced initiation gives the best results because the initial conditions are the best known. However, very thick flyers are needed to give the lowest, asymptotic pressure thresholds used in modern models and this kind of data is rarely available. Gap test data is in much larger supply but the various test sizes and materials are confusing. We find that explosive pressures are almost the same if the distance in the gap test spacers are in units of donor explosive radius. Calculated half-width time pulses in the spacers may be used to create a pressure-time curve similar to that of the flyers. The very-large Eglin gap tests give asymptotic thresholds comparable to extrapolated flyer results. The three sources are assembled into a much-expanded set of near-asymptotic pressure thresholds. These thresholds vary greatly with density: for TATB/LX-17/PBX 9502, we find values of 4.9 and 8.7 GPa at 1.80 and 1.90 g/cm{sup 3}, respectively.

  14. Fluid Flow Phenomena during Welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    MOLTEN WELD POOLS are dynamic. Liquid in the weld pool in acted on by several strong forces, which can result in high-velocity fluid motion. Fluid flow velocities exceeding 1 m/s (3.3 ft/s) have been observed in gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds under ordinary welding conditions, and higher velocities have been measured in submerged arc welds. Fluid flow is important because it affects weld shape and is related to the formation of a variety of weld defects. Moving liquid transports heat and often dominates heat transport in the weld pool. Because heat transport by mass flow depends on the direction and speed of fluid motion, weld pool shape can differ dramatically from that predicted by conductive heat flow. Temperature gradients are also altered by fluid flow, which can affect weld microstructure. A number of defects in GTA welds have been attributed to fluid flow or changes in fluid flow, including lack of penetration, top bead roughness, humped beads, finger penetration, and undercutting. Instabilities in the liquid film around the keyhole in electron beam and laser welds are responsible for the uneven penetration (spiking) characteristic of these types of welds.

  15. Flow distribution channels to control flow in process channels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee; Arora, Ravi; Kilanowski, David

    2014-10-28

    The invention describes features that can be used to control flow to an array of microchannels. The invention also describes methods in which a process stream is distributed to plural microchannels.

  16. Pressurized-water reactor internals aging degradation study. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luk, K.H.

    1993-09-01

    This report documents the results of a Phase I study on the effects of aging degradations on pr internals. Primary stressers for internals an generated by the primary coolant flow in the they include unsteady hydrodynamic forces and pump-generated pressure pulsations. Other stressors are applied loads, manufacturing processes, impurities in the coolant and exposures to fast neutron fluxes. A survey of reported aging-related failure information indicates that fatigue, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and mechanical wear are the three major aging-related degradation mechanisms for PWR internals. Significant reported failures include thermal shield flow-induced vibration problems, SCC in guide tube support pins and core support structure bolts, fatigue-induced core baffle water-jet impingement problems and excess wear in flux thimbles. Many of the reported problems have been resolved by accepted engineering practices. Uncertainties remain in the assessment of long-term neutron irradiation effects and environmental factors in high-cycle fatigue failures. Reactor internals are examined by visual inspections and the technique is access limited. Improved inspection methods, especially one with an early failure detection capability, can enhance the safety and efficiency of reactor operations.

  17. Device For Determining Therophysical Properties Of A Multi-Component Gas At Arbitrary Temperature And Pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrow, Thomas B.; Behring, II, Kendricks A.

    2005-02-01

    A computer product for determining thermodynamic properties of a natural gas hydrocarbon, when the speed of sound in the gas is known at an arbitrary temperature and pressure. Thus, the known parameters are the sound speed, temperature, pressure, and concentrations of any dilute components of the gas. The method uses a set of reference gases and their calculated density and speed of sound values to estimate the density of the subject gas. Additional calculations can be made to estimate the molecular weight of the subject gas, which can then be used as the basis for mass flow calculations, to determine the speed of sound at standard pressure and temperature, and to determine various thermophysical characteristics of the gas.

  18. The effects of pulse duration on ablation pressure driven by laser radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Lei; Li, Xiao-Ya Zhu, Wen-Jun; Wang, Jia-Xiang; Tang, Chang-Jian

    2015-03-28

    The effects of laser pulse duration on the ablation pressure induced by laser radiation are investigated using Al target. Numerical simulation results using one dimensional radiation hydro code for laser intensities from 5×10{sup 12}W/cm{sup 2} to 5×10{sup 13}W/cm{sup 2} and pulse durations from 0.5 ns to 20 ns are presented. These results suggest that the laser intensity scaling law of ablation pressure differs for different pulse durations. And the theoretical analysis shows that the effects of laser pulse duration on ablation pressure are mainly caused by two regimes: the unsteady-state flow and the radiative energy loss to vacuum.

  19. Pressure Safety Program Implementation at ORNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lower, Mark; Etheridge, Tom; Oland, C. Barry

    2013-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility that is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC. In February 2006, DOE promulgated worker safety and health regulations to govern contractor activities at DOE sites. These regulations, which are provided in 10 CFR 851, Worker Safety and Health Program, establish requirements for worker safety and health program that reduce or prevent occupational injuries, illnesses, and accidental losses by providing DOE contractors and their workers with safe and healthful workplaces at DOE sites. The regulations state that contractors must achieve compliance no later than May 25, 2007. According to 10 CFR 851, Subpart C, Specific Program Requirements, contractors must have a structured approach to their worker safety and health programs that at a minimum includes provisions for pressure safety. In implementing the structured approach for pressure safety, contractors must establish safety policies and procedures to ensure that pressure systems are designed, fabricated, tested, inspected, maintained, repaired, and operated by trained, qualified personnel in accordance with applicable sound engineering principles. In addition, contractors must ensure that all pressure vessels, boilers, air receivers, and supporting piping systems conform to (1) applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (2004) Sections I through XII, including applicable code cases; (2) applicable ASME B31 piping codes; and (3) the strictest applicable state and local codes. When national consensus codes are not applicable because of pressure range, vessel geometry, use of special materials, etc., contractors must implement measures to provide equivalent protection and ensure a level of safety greater than or equal to the level of protection afforded by the ASME or applicable state or local codes. This report documents the work performed to address legacy pressure vessel deficiencies and comply with pressure safety requirements in 10 CFR 851. It also describes actions taken to develop and implement ORNL’s Pressure Safety Program.

  20. Simulation of water flow in terrestrial systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-12-18

    ParFlow is a parallel, variabley saturated groundwater flow code that is especially suitable for large scale problem. ParFlow simulates the three-dimensional saturated and variably saturated subsurface flow in heterogeneous porous media in three spatial dimensions. ParFlow's developemt and appkication has been on-ging for more than 10 uear. ParFlow has recently been extended to coupled surface-subsurface flow to enabel the simulation of hillslope runoff and channel routing in a truly integrated fashion. ParFlow simulates the three-dimensionalmore » varably saturated subsurface flow in strongly heterogeneous porous media in three spatial dimension.« less