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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Table B29. Percent of Floorspace Cooled, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 199  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9. Percent of Floorspace Cooled, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" 9. Percent of Floorspace Cooled, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Not Cooled","1 to 50 Percent Cooled","51 to 99 Percent Cooled","100 Percent Cooled","All Buildings","Not Cooled","1 to 50 Percent Cooled","51 to 99 Percent Cooled","100 Percent Cooled" "All Buildings ................",4657,1097,1012,751,1796,67338,8864,16846,16966,24662 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",2348,668,352,294,1034,6774,1895,1084,838,2957 "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",1110,282,292,188,348,8238,2026,2233,1435,2544

2

Floorspace  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7. Heated, Cooled, and Lit Buildings, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" 7. Heated, Cooled, and Lit Buildings, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"Total Floorspace in All Buildings*","Heated Buildings",,"Cooled Buildings",,"Lit Buildings c" ,,"Total Floor- space a","Heated Floor- space b","Total Floor- space a","Cooled Floor- space b","Total Floor- space a","Lit Floor- space b" "All Buildings* ...............",64783,60028,53473,56940,41788,62060,51342 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",6789,5668,4988,5007,4017,6038,4826 "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",6585,5786,5010,5408,3978,6090,4974

3

Floorspace  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A1. Summary Table for All Buildings (Including Malls), 2003" A1. Summary Table for All Buildings (Including Malls), 2003" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)","Total Floorspace (million square feet)","Mean Square Feet per Building (thousand)","Median Square Feet per Building (thousand)" "All Buildings ................",4859,71658,14.7,5 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",2586,6922,2.7,2.4 "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",948,7033,7.4,7.2 "10,001 to 25,000 .............",810,12659,15.6,15 "25,001 to 50,000 .............",261,9382,36,35 "50,001 to 100,000 ............",147,10291,70.2,67 "100,001 to 200,000 ...........",74,10217,138.6,130 "200,001 to 500,000 ...........",26,7494,287.6,260

4

Table B28. Percent of Floorspace Heated, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 199  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8. Percent of Floorspace Heated, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" 8. Percent of Floorspace Heated, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Not Heated","1 to 50 Percent Heated","51 to 99 Percent Heated","100 Percent Heated","All Buildings","Not Heated","1 to 50 Percent Heated","51 to 99 Percent Heated","100 Percent Heated" "All Buildings ................",4657,641,576,627,2813,67338,5736,7593,10745,43264 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",2348,366,230,272,1479,6774,1091,707,750,4227 "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",1110,164,194,149,603,8238,1148,1504,1177,4409

5

Table B15. Number of Establishments in Building, Floorspace, 1999  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5. Number of Establishments in Building, Floorspace, 1999" 5. Number of Establishments in Building, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Number of Establishments in Building" ,,"One","Two to Five","Six to Ten","Eleven to Twenty","More than Twenty","Currently Unoccupied" "All Buildings ................",67338,43343,10582,3574,3260,4811,1769 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",6774,5358,857,"Q","Q","Q",512 "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",8238,5952,1630,137,"Q","Q","Q" "10,001 to 25,000 .............",11153,7812,1982,784,"Q","Q",296

6

Table B27. Cooking Energy Sources, Number of Buildings and Floorspace...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7. Cooking Energy Sources, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings...

7

Table B37. Water Heating Equipment, Number of Buildings and Floorspace...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7. Water Heating Equipment, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings...

8

Table B30. Percent of Floorspace Lit When Open, Number of Buildings and Floorspa  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0. Percent of Floorspace Lit When Open, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" 0. Percent of Floorspace Lit When Open, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Not Lita","1 to 50 Percent Lit","51 to 99 Percent Lit","100 Percent Lit","All Buildings","Not Lita","1 to 50 Percent Lit","51 to 99 Percent Lit","100 Percent Lit" "All Buildings ................",4657,498,835,1228,2096,67338,3253,9187,20665,34233 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",2348,323,351,517,1156,6774,915,1061,1499,3299 "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",1110,114,279,351,367,8238,818,2014,2614,2793

9

Table B16. Multibuilding Facilities, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6. Multibuilding Facilities, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" 6. Multibuilding Facilities, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Buildings on Multibuilding Facilities",,"All Buildings","Buildings on Multibuilding Facilities" ,,"All Buildings","With Central Physical Plant",,"All Buildings","With Central Physical Plant" "All Buildings ................",4657,1362,142,67338,26049,7101 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",2348,604,"Q",6774,1706,"Q" "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",1110,297,"Q",8238,2211,"Q"

10

Table B36. Refrigeration Equipment, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6. Refrigeration Equipment, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" 6. Refrigeration Equipment, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Refrigeration Equipment","Type of Equipment (more than one may apply)",,,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Refrigeration Equipment","Type of Equipment (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Walk-In","Open Cases or Cabinets","Closed Cases or Cabinets",,,"Walk-In","Open Cases or Cabinets","Closed Cases or Cabinets" "All Buildings ................",4657,950,658,255,719,67338,25652,19713,8808,19938 "Building Floorspace"

11

Table B3. Census Region, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

. Census Region, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" . Census Region, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","North- east","Midwest ","South","West","All Buildings","North- east","Midwest","South","West" "All Buildings ................",4657,686,1188,1762,1021,67338,12360,16761,23485,14731 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",2348,305,620,916,506,6774,901,1835,2536,1503 "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",1110,169,273,413,255,8238,1302,2045,3058,1834 "10,001 to 25,000 .............",708,130,188,260,130,11153,1954,2881,4194,2124

12

Table B2. Summary Table: Totals and Medians of Floorspace, Number of Workers,  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

. Summary Table: Totals and Medians of Floorspace, Number of Workers, Hours of Operation, and Age of Building, 1999" . Summary Table: Totals and Medians of Floorspace, Number of Workers, Hours of Operation, and Age of Building, 1999" ,"All Buildings (thousand)","Total Floorspace (million square feet)","Total Workers in All Buildings (thousand)","Median Square Feet per Building (thousand)","Median Square Feet per Worker","Median Hours per Week","Median Age of Buildings (years)" "All Buildings ................",4657,67338,81852,5,909,50,30.5 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",2348,6774,11125,2.5,667,50,30.5 "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",1110,8238,10968,7,1000,50,34.5 "10,001 to 25,000 .............",708,11153,11378,15,1354,55,28.5

13

Table B1. Summary Table: Totals and Means of Floorspace, Number of Workers, and  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

. Summary Table: Totals and Means of Floorspace, Number of Workers, and Hours of Operation, 1999" . Summary Table: Totals and Means of Floorspace, Number of Workers, and Hours of Operation, 1999" ,"All Buildings (thousand)","Total Floorspace (million square feet)","Total Workers in All Buildings (thousand)","Mean Square Feet per Building (thousand)","Mean Square Feet per Worker","Mean Hours per Week" "All Buildings ................",4657,67338,81852,14.5,823,60 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",2348,6774,11125,2.9,609,57 "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",1110,8238,10968,7.4,751,53 "10,001 to 25,000 .............",708,11153,11378,15.7,980,65 "25,001 to 50,000 .............",257,9311,9243,36.2,1007,78

14

"Table HC1.4 Cooled Floorspace Usage Indicators, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Cooled Floorspace Usage Indicators, 2005" 4 Cooled Floorspace Usage Indicators, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Cooled Floorspace (square feet)" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Fewer than 500","500 to 999","1,000 to 1,499","1,500 to 1,999","2,000 to 2,499","2,500 to 2,999","3,000 or More" "Usage Indicators" "Total",111.1,49.2,15.1,15.6,11.1,7,5.2,8 "Have Cooling Equipment",93.3,31.3,15.1,15.6,11.1,7,5.2,8 "Use Cooling Equipment",91.4,30.4,14.6,15.4,11.1,6.9,5.2,7.9 "Have Equipment But Do Not Use it",1.9,1,0.5,"Q","Q","Q","Q","Q" "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,17.8,"N","N","N","N","N","N"

15

Table B19. Energy End Uses, Number of Buildings and Floorspace...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Buildings","Energy Used For (more than one may apply)" ,,"Space Heating","Cooling","Water Heating","Cooking","Manufact-uring",,"Space Heating","Cooling","Water...

16

Table B24. Cooling Energy Sources, Number of Buildings and Floorspace...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sources (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","District Chilled Water",,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","District Chilled Water" "All Buildings...

17

Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Floorspace and Buildings;  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9.1 Enclosed Floorspace and Number of Establishment Buildings, 2010; 9.1 Enclosed Floorspace and Number of Establishment Buildings, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Floorspace and Buildings; Unit: Floorspace Square Footage and Building Counts. Approximate Approximate Average Enclosed Floorspace Average Number Number of All Buildings Enclosed Floorspace of All Buildings of Buildings Onsite NAICS Onsite Establishments(b) per Establishment Onsite per Establishment Code(a) Subsector and Industry (million sq ft) (counts) (sq ft) (counts) (counts) Total United States 311 Food 1,115 13,271 107,293.7 32,953 3.1 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 126 602 443,178.6 5,207 24.8 311221 Wet Corn Milling 14 59 270,262.7 982 18.3 31131 Sugar Manufacturing

18

"Table A7. Enclosed Floorspace and Conditioned Floorspace"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Enclosed Floorspace and Conditioned Floorspace" Enclosed Floorspace and Conditioned Floorspace" " by Industry Group and Selected Industries, 1994" ,,"Approximate",,"Average" ,,"Enclosed",,"Enclosed"," Conditioned(c) Floorspace" ,,"Floorspace of All",,"Floorspace per"," of All Buildings Onsite",,"RSE" "SIC",,"Buildings Onsite","Establishments(b)","Establishment",,,"Row" "Code(a)","Industry Group and Industry","(million sq ft)","(counts)","(1000 sq ft)","(million sq ft)","(percents)","Factors" ,,"Total United States"

19

"Table HC1.2.3 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--" 3 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--" " Single-Family Housing Units and Mobile Homes, 2005" ,,"Single- Family and Mobile Homes (millions)","Average Square Feet per Housing Unit" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Single-Family Detached",,,"Single-Family Attached",,,"Mobile Homes" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,,"Total1","Heated","Cooled","Total1","Heated","Cooled","Total1","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,86.6,2522,1970,1310,1812,1475,821,1055,944,554 "Total Floorspace (Square Feet)" "Fewer than 500",3.2,0.9,261,336,162,"Q","Q","Q",334,260,"Q"

20

"Table B25. Energy End Uses, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5. Energy End Uses, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" 5. Energy End Uses, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings*","Energy Used For (more than one may apply)" ,,"Space Heating","Cooling","Water Heating","Cooking","Manu- facturing" "All Buildings* ...............",64783,60028,56940,56478,22237,3138 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",6789,5668,5007,4759,997,"Q" "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",6585,5786,5408,5348,1136,214 "10,001 to 25,000 .............",11535,10387,9922,9562,1954,472 "25,001 to 50,000 .............",8668,8060,7776,7734,2511,"Q"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "floorspace cooled number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Trends in Commercial Buildings--Buildings and Floorspace  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Home > Trends in Commercial Buildings > Home > Trends in Commercial Buildings > Trends in Buildings Floorspace Data tables Commercial Buildings Trend—Detail Commercial Floorspace Trend—Detail Background: Adjustment to data Trends in Buildings and Floorspace Each year buildings are added to and removed from the commercial buildings sector. Buildings are added by new construction or conversion of existing buildings from noncommercial to commercial activity. Buildings are removed by demolition or conversion from commercial to noncommercial activity. Number of Commercial Buildings In 1979, the Nonresidential Buildings Energy Consumption Survey estimated that there were 3.8 million commercial buildings in the United States; by 1992, the number increased 27 percent to 4.8 million (an average annual increase of 1.8%) (Figure 1). In 1995, the estimated number declined to 4.6 million buildings, but it is unlikely that there was an actual decline in the number of buildings. To understand the apparent decline, two factors should be considered—the change in the way that the target population of commercial buildings was defined in 1995 and the uncertainty of estimates from sample surveys:

22

"Table B11. Employment Size Category, Floorspace, 1999"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Employment Size Category, Floorspace, 1999" 1. Employment Size Category, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Number of Workers" ,,"Fewer than 5 Workers","5 to 9 Workers","10 to 19 Workers","20 to 49 Workers","50 to 99 Workers","100 to 249 Workers","250 or More Workers" "All Buildings ................",67338,14321,6325,8028,10814,8898,8356,10595 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",6774,4230,1502,791,235,"Q","Q","N" "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",8238,3748,1331,1792,1174,"Q","Q","N" "10,001 to 25,000 .............",11153,3922,1557,2263,2510,819,"Q","Q"

23

"Table B16. Employment Size Category, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6. Employment Size Category, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" 6. Employment Size Category, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings*","Number of Workers" ,,"Fewer than 5 Workers","5 to 9 Workers","10 to 19 Workers","20 to 49 Workers","50 to 99 Workers","100 to 249 Workers","250 or More Workers" "All Buildings* ...............",64783,15492,6166,7803,10989,7934,6871,9528 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",6789,4659,1264,689,155,"Q","Q","N" "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",6585,3323,1373,1109,689,"Q","Q","N" "10,001 to 25,000 .............",11535,4006,2075,2456,2113,692,"Q","N"

24

Table HC1.2.2 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace, " 2 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace, " " Per Housing Unit and Per Household Member, 2005" ,,"Average Square Feet" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Per Housing Unit",,,"Per Household Member" "Living Space Characteristics",,"Total1","Heated","Cooled","Total1","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,2033,1618,1031,791,630,401 "Total Floorspace (Square Feet)" "Fewer than 500",3.2,357,336,113,188,177,59 "500 to 999",23.8,733,667,308,343,312,144 "1,000 to 1,499",20.8,1157,1086,625,435,409,235 "1,500 to 1,999",15.4,1592,1441,906,595,539,339 "2,000 to 2,499",12.2,2052,1733,1072,765,646,400

25

Table HC1.2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" 2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" ,,,"Average Square Feet per Apartment in a --" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"2 to 4 Unit Building",,,"5 or More Unit Building" ,,"Apartments (millions)" "Living Space Characteristics",,,"Total","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,24.5,1090,902,341,872,780,441 "Total Floorspace (Square Feet)" "Fewer than 500",3.1,2.3,403,360,165,366,348,93 "500 to 999",22.2,14.4,763,660,277,730,646,303 "1,000 to 1,499",19.1,5.8,1223,1130,496,1187,1086,696 "1,500 to 1,999",14.4,1,1700,1422,412,1698,1544,1348

26

Floorspace, Energy Consumption, and Energy-Related Carbon ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Tabulation of changes in the amount of floorspace, energy consumption, and energy-related carbon emissions of U.S. commercial buildings, 1979-1995.

27

Table HC1.1.4 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" 4 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" ,,,"Average Square Feet per Apartment in a --" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"2 to 4 Unit Building",,,"5 or More Unit Building" ,,"Apartments (millions)" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,,"Total","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,24.5,1090,902,341,872,780,441 "Census Region and Division" "Northeast",20.6,6.7,1247,1032,"Q",811,788,147 "New England",5.5,1.9,1365,1127,"Q",814,748,107 "Middle Atlantic",15.1,4.8,1182,978,"Q",810,800,159 "Midwest",25.6,4.6,1349,1133,506,895,810,346

28

Buildings","Heated Buildings",,"Cooled Buildings",,"Lit Buildingsc"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Heated, Cooled, and Lit Buildings, Floorspace, 1999" 1. Heated, Cooled, and Lit Buildings, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Heated Buildings",,"Cooled Buildings",,"Lit Buildingsc" ,,"Total Floorspacea","Heated Floorspaceb","Total Floorspacea","Cooled Floorspaceb","Total Floorspacea","Lit Floorspaceb" "All Buildings ................",67338,61602,53812,58474,42420,64085,54696 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",6774,5684,5055,4879,3958,5859,4877 "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",8238,7090,5744,6212,4333,7421,5583 "10,001 to 25,000 .............",11153,9865,8196,9530,6195,10358,8251

29

"Table B21. Space-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Space-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999" 1. Space-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Space Heating","Space-Heating Energy Sources Used (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","Propane","Othera" "All Buildings ................",67338,61612,32291,37902,5611,5534,2728,945 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",6774,5684,2651,3250,598,"Q",469,"Q" "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",8238,7090,2808,4613,573,"Q",688,"Q" "10,001 to 25,000 .............",11153,9865,5079,6069,773,307,682,"Q"

30

"Table B26. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999" 6. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating Energy Sources Used (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","Propane" "All Buildings ................",67338,56115,24171,29196,2218,4182,1371 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",6774,4280,2307,1719,"Q","Q","Q" "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",8238,5748,2287,3204,"Q","Q","Q" "10,001 to 25,000 .............",11153,9000,4220,4221,224,164,493

31

"Table B23. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999" 3. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Space Heating","Primary Space-Heating Energy Source Useda" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat" "All Buildings ................",67338,61602,17627,32729,3719,5077 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",6774,5684,1567,3080,482,"Q" "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",8238,7090,1496,4292,557,"Q" "10,001 to 25,000 .............",11153,9865,3035,5320,597,232 "25,001 to 50,000 .............",9311,8565,2866,4416,486,577

32

Trends in Commercial Buildings--Buildings and Floorspace  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

activity. Number of Commercial Buildings In 1979, the Nonresidential Buildings Energy Consumption Survey estimated that there were 3.8 million commercial buildings in the...

33

Table AC9. Average Cooled Floorspace by Equipment Type, 2005 Air ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

A household is assigned to a climate zone according to the 30-year average annual degree-days for an appropriate nearby weather station.

34

Table A8. Number of Establishments in Building, Floorspace for All ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Climate Zone: 30-Year Average Under 2,000 CDD and --More than 7,000 HDD ..... 11,529 7,138 2,527 584 Q 538 Q 5,500-7,000 HDD ...

35

"Table B27. Space Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7. Space Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" 7. Space Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings*","Buildings with Space Heating","Space-Heating Energy Sources Used (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Elec- tricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","Propane","Other a" "All Buildings* ...............",64783,60028,28600,36959,5988,5198,3204,842 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",6789,5668,2367,2829,557,"Q",665,183 "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",6585,5786,2560,3358,626,"Q",529,"Q" "10,001 to 25,000 .............",11535,10387,4872,6407,730,289,597,"Q"

36

"Table B32. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" 2. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings*","Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating Energy Sources Used (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Elec- tricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","Propane" "All Buildings* ...............",64783,56478,27490,28820,1880,3088,1422 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",6789,4759,2847,1699,116,"N",169 "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",6585,5348,2821,2296,"Q","Q",205 "10,001 to 25,000 .............",11535,9562,4809,4470,265,"Q",430

37

"Table B29. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Total Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Total Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" 9. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Total Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings*","Buildings with Space Heating","Primary Space-Heating Energy Source Used a" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat" "All Buildings* ...............",64783,60028,15996,32970,3818,4907 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",6789,5668,1779,2672,484,"Q" "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",6585,5786,1686,3068,428,"Q" "10,001 to 25,000 .............",11535,10387,3366,5807,536,"Q" "25,001 to 50,000 .............",8668,8060,2264,4974,300,325

38

Experimental study of gas turbine blade film cooling and internal turbulated heat transfer at large Reynolds numbers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Film cooling effectiveness on a gas turbine blade tip on the near tip pressure side and on the squealer cavity floor is investigated. Optimal arrangement of film cooling holes, effect of a full squealer and a cutback squealer, varying blowing ratios and squealer cavity depth are also examined on film cooling effectiveness. The film-cooling effectiveness distributions are measured on the blade tip, near tip pressure side and the inner pressure and suction side rim walls using a Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) technique. A blowing ratio of 1.0 is found to give best results on the pressure side whereas the other tip surfaces give best results for blowing ratios of 2. Film cooling effectiveness tests are also performed on the span of a fully-cooled high pressure turbine blade in a 5 bladed linear cascade using the PSP technique. Film cooling effectiveness over the entire blade region is determined from full coverage film cooling, showerhead cooling and from each individual row with and without an upstream wake. The effect of superposition of film cooling effectiveness from each individual row is then compared with full coverage film cooling. Results show that an upstream wake can result in lower film cooling effectiveness on the blade. Effectiveness magnitudes from superposition of effectiveness data from individual rows are comparable with that from full coverage film cooling. Internal heat transfer measurements are also performed in a high aspect ratio channel and from jet array impingement on a turbulated target wall at large Reynolds numbers. For the channel, three dimple and one discrete rib configurations are tested on one of the wide walls for Reynolds numbers up to 1.3 million. The presence of a turbulated wall and its effect on heat transfer enhancement against a smooth surface is investigated. Heat transfer enhancement is found to decrease at high Re with the discrete rib configurations providing the best enhancement but highest pressure losses. Experiments to investigate heat transfer and pressure loss from jet array impingement are also performed on the target wall at Reynolds numbers up to 450,000. The heat transfer from a turbulated target wall and two jet plates is investigated. A target wall with short pins provides the best heat transfer with the dimpled target wall giving the lowest heat transfer among the three geometries studied.

Mhetras, Shantanu

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Heat transfer in leading and trailing edge cooling channels of the gas turbine blade under high rotation numbers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The gas turbine blade/vane internal cooling is achieved by circulating the compressed air through the cooling passages inside the turbine blade. Leading edge and trailing edge of the turbine blade are two critical regions which need to be properly cooled. Leading edge region receives extremely hot mainstream flow and high heat transfer enhancement is required. Trailing edge region usually has narrow shaped geometry and applicable cooling techniques are restricted. Heat transfer will be investigated in the leading edge and trailing edge cooling channels at high rotation numbers close to the engine condition. Heat transfer and pressure drop has been investigated in an equilateral triangular channel (Dh=1.83cm) to simulate the cooling channel near the leading edge of the gas turbine blade. Three different rib configurations (45, inverted 45, and 90) were tested at four different Reynolds numbers (10000-40000), each with five different rotational speeds (0-400 rpm). By varying the Reynolds numbers (10000-40000) and the rotational speeds (0-400 rpm), the rotation number and buoyancy parameter reached in this study were 0-0.58 and 0-2.3, respectively. 45 angled ribs show the highest thermal performance at stationary condition. 90 ribs have the highest thermal performance at the highest rotation number of 0.58. Heat transfer coefficients are also experimentally measured in a wedge-shaped cooling channel (Dh =2.22cm, Ac=7.62cm2) to model an internal cooling passage near the trailing edge of a gas turbine blade where the coolant discharges through the slot to the mainstream flow. Tapered ribs are put on the leading and trailing surfaces with an angle of attack of 45. The ribs are parallel with staggered arrangement on opposite walls. The inlet Reynolds number of the coolant varies from 10,000 to 40,000 and the rotational speeds varies from 0 to 500 rpm. The inlet rotation number is from 0 - 1.0. The local rotation number and buoyancy parameter are determined by the rotational speeds and the local Reynolds number at each region. Results show that heat transfer is high near the regions where strong slot ejection exists. Both the rotation number and buoyancy parameter have been correlated to predict the rotational heat transfer enhancement.

Liu, Yao-Hsien

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

2 2 Main Commercial Heating and Cooling Equipment as of 1995, 1999, and 2003 (Percent of Total Floorspace) (1) Heating Equipment 1995 1999 2003 (2) Cooling Equipment 1995 1999 2003 (2) Packaged Heating Units 29% 38% 28% Packaged Air Conditioning Units 45% 54% 46% Boilers 29% 29% 32% Individual Air Conditioners 21% 21% 19% Individual Space Heaters 29% 26% 19% Central Chillers 19% 19% 18% Furnaces 25% 21% 30% Residential Central Air Conditioners 16% 12% 17% Heat Pumps 10% 13% 14% Heat Pumps 12% 14% 14% District Heat 10% 8% 8% District Chilled Water 4% 4% 4% Other 11% 6% 5% Swamp Coolers 4% 3% 2% Other 2% 2% 2% Note(s): Source(s): 1) Heating and cooling equipment percentages of floorspace total more than 100% since equipment shares floorspace. 2) Malls are no longer included in most CBECs tables; therefore, some data is not directly comparable to past CBECs.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "floorspace cooled number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

"Table HC1.1.3 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

areas, determined according to the 30-year average (1971-2000) of the annual heating and cooling degree-days. A household is assigned to a climate zone according to the 30-year...

42

Table HC1.1.2 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

areas, determined according to the 30-year average (1971-2000) of the annual heating and cooling degree-days. A household is assigned to a climate zone according to the 30-year...

43

"Table HC1.3 Heated Floorspace Usage Indicators, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Heated Floorspace Usage Indicators, 2005" 3 Heated Floorspace Usage Indicators, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Heated Floorspace (square feet)" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Fewer than 500","500 to 999","1,000 to 1,499","1,500 to 1,999","2,000 to 2,499","2,500 to 2,999","3,000 or More" "Usage Indicators" "Total",111.1,6.1,27.7,26,17.6,10,"7 7.8",11.6 "No Main Space Heating Equipment",1.2,"N","N","N","N","N","N","N" "Have Main Space Heating Equipment",109.8,6.1,27.7,26,17.6,10,"7 7.8",11.6 "Use Main Space Heating Equipment",109.1,6.1,27.7,26,17.6,10,"7 7.8",11.6

44

Number  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

' ' , /v-i 2 -i 3 -A, This dow'at consists ~f--~-_,_~~~p.~,::, Number -------of.-&--copies, 1 Series.,-a-,-. ! 1 THE UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER 1; r-.' L INTRAMURALCORRESPONDENCE i"ks' 3 2.. September 25, 1947 Memo.tor Dr. A. H, Dovdy . From: Dr. H. E, Stokinger Be: Trip Report - Mayvood Chemical Works A trip vas made Nednesday, August 24th vith Messrs. Robert W ilson and George Sprague to the Mayvood Chemical F!orks, Mayvood, New Jersey one of 2 plants in the U.S.A. engaged in the production of thorium compounds. The purpose of the trip vas to: l 1. Learn the type of chemical processes employed in the thorium industry (thorium nitrate). 2. Survey conditions of eeosure of personnel associated vith these chemical processes. 3. Obtain samples of atmospheric contaminants in the plant, as

45

Released: June 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5. Percent of Floorspace Cooled, Number of Buildings and Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" 5. Percent of Floorspace Cooled, Number of Buildings and Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Build- ings*","Not Cooled","1 to 50 Percent Cooled","51 to 99 Percent Cooled","100 Percent Cooled","All Build- ings*","Not Cooled","1 to 50 Percent Cooled","51 to 99 Percent Cooled","100 Percent Cooled" "All Buildings* ...............",4645,1020,985,629,2011,64783,7843,16598,13211,27132 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",2552,710,407,279,1155,6789,1782,1206,781,3021 "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",889,157,226,133,374,6585,1177,1704,995,2710

46

CBECS Buildings Characteristics --Revised Tables  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Table 25. Cooling Energy Sources, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1995 Table 26. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1995 Table 27. Water-Heating Energy...

47

Natural Cooling Retrofit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Substantial numbers of existing plants and buildings are found to depend solely upon Mechanical Cooling even though Natural Cooling techniques could be employed utilizing ambient air. Most of these facilities were constructed without Natural Cooling capability due to 'first cost' budget constraints when the cost and availability of energy were of little concern.

Fenster, L. C.; Grantier, A. J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Compare Activities by Number of Computers  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Number of Computers Number of Computers Compare Activities by ... Number of Computers Office buildings contained the most computers per square foot, followed by education and outpatient health care buildings. Education buildings were the only type with more than one computer per employee. Religious worship and food sales buildings had the fewest computers per square foot. Percent of All Computers by Building Type Figure showing percent of all computers by building type. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call 202-586-8800. Computer Data by Building Type Number of Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million square feet) Number of Employees (thousand) Total Computers (thousand) Computers per Million Square Feet Computers per Thousand Employees All Buildings 4,657

49

Table B14. Number of Establishments in Building, Number of Buildings, 1999  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4. Number of Establishments in Building, Number of Buildings, 1999" 4. Number of Establishments in Building, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","Number of Establishments in Building" ,,"One","Two to Five","Six to Ten","Eleven to Twenty","More than Twenty","Currently Unoccupied" "All Buildings ................",4657,3528,688,114,48,27,251 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",2348,1897,272,"Q","Q","Q",164 "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",1110,802,222,17,"Q","Q","Q" "10,001 to 25,000 .............",708,506,121,51,12,"Q",17 "25,001 to 50,000 .............",257,184,33,15,15,"Q","Q"

50

" Row: NAICS Codes;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9.1 Enclosed Floorspace and Number of Establishment Buildings, 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Floorspace and Buildings;" " Unit: Floorspace Square...

51

Work Breakdown Structure and Plant/Equipment Designation System Numbering Scheme for the High Temperature Gas- Cooled Reactor (HTGR) Component Test Capability (CTC)  

SciTech Connect

This white paper investigates the potential integration of the CTC work breakdown structure numbering scheme with a plant/equipment numbering system (PNS), or alternatively referred to in industry as a reference designation system (RDS). Ideally, the goal of such integration would be a single, common referencing system for the life cycle of the CTC that supports all the various processes (e.g., information, execution, and control) that necessitate plant and equipment numbers be assigned. This white paper focuses on discovering the full scope of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) processes to which this goal might be applied as well as the factors likely to affect decisions about implementation. Later, a procedure for assigning these numbers will be developed using this white paper as a starting point and that reflects the resolved scope and outcome of associated decisions.

Jeffrey D Bryan

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Stochastic Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

Blaskiewicz, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Optimization of Cooling Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A cooling water system can be optimized by operation at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces. The way to optimize will be shown, with a number of examples of new systems.

Matson, J.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Turbine blade cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

Staub, Fred Wolf (Schenectady, NY); Willett, Fred Thomas (Niskayuna, NY)

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

55

Turbine blade cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

Staub, Fred Wolf (Schenectady, NY); Willett, Fred Thomas (Niskayuna, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Turbine blade cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number. 13 figs.

Staub, F.W.; Willett, F.T.

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

57

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Published 112011 Conference Location Seattle, WA Call Number LBNL-5128E Abstract Liquid cooling is key to reducing energy consumption for this generation of supercomputers and...

58

Dry Cooling: Perspectives on Future Needs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The total number of dry-cooled power plants in the United States has increased significantly in recent years. This is because nonutility generators are using dry-cooling systems to meet environmental protection and water conservation requirements. A survey shows that utility planners expect that dry cooling could become an important cooling-system option for new utility plants.

1991-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

59

Table B10. Employment Size Category, Number of Buildings, 1999  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0. Employment Size Category, Number of Buildings, 1999" 0. Employment Size Category, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","Number of Workers" ,,"Fewer than 5 Workers","5 to 9 Workers","10 to 19 Workers","20 to 49 Workers","50 to 99 Workers","100 to 249 Workers","250 or More Workers" "All Buildings ................",4657,2376,807,683,487,174,90,39 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",2348,1567,482,226,66,"Q","Q","N" "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",1110,511,180,249,144,"Q","Q","N" "10,001 to 25,000 .............",708,250,105,146,157,46,"Q","Q"

60

 

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5. Percent of Floorspace Cooled, Number of Buildings and Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 5. Percent of Floorspace Cooled, Number of Buildings and Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 Number of Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million square feet) All Build- ings* Not Cooled 1 to 50 Percent Cooled 51 to 99 Percent Cooled 100 Percent Cooled All Build- ings* Not Cooled 1 to 50 Percent Cooled 51 to 99 Percent Cooled 100 Percent Cooled All Buildings* ............................... 4,645 1,020 985 629 2,011 64,783 7,843 16,598 13,211 27,132 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ................................ 2,552 710 407 279 1,155 6,789 1,782 1,206 781 3,021 5,001 to 10,000 .............................. 889 157 226 133 374 6,585 1,177 1,704 995 2,710 10,001 to 25,000 ............................ 738 109 225 126 277 11,535 1,612 3,517 2,034 4,372

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "floorspace cooled number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Rotating Heat Transfer in High Aspect Ratio Rectangular Cooling...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reynolds Number (Nu Nu o ) (f f o ) 24% Increase in Cooling Performance Rotating Heat Transfer in High Aspect Ratio Rectangular Cooling Passages with Shaped Turbulators...

62

Cooled railplug  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers.

Weldon, William F. (Austin, TX)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Table B8. Year Constructed, Number of Buildings, 1999  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B8. Year Constructed, Number of Buildings, 1999" B8. Year Constructed, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","Year Constructed" ,,"1919 or Before","1920 to 1945","1946 to 1959","1960 to 1969","1970 to 1979","1980 to 1989","1990 to 1999" "All Buildings ................",4657,419,499,763,665,774,846,690 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",2348,227,270,359,321,367,413,390 "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",1110,107,102,240,166,193,156,145 "10,001 to 25,000 .............",708,63,90,97,84,130,179,65 "25,001 to 50,000 .............",257,13,20,39,53,44,43,44 "50,001 to 100,000 ............",145,7,9,19,24,26,33,27

64

FOCUS COOLING  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

www.datacenterdynamics.com www.datacenterdynamics.com FOCUS COOLING Issue 28, March/April 2013 LBNL'S NOVEL APPROACH TO COOLING Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and APC by Schneider Electric test a unique double-exchanger cooling system LBNL program manager Henry Coles says can cut energy use by half A s part of a demonstration sponsored by the California Energy Commission in support of the Silicon Valley Leadership Group's data center summit, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with APC by Schneider Electric to demonstrate a novel prototype data center cooling device. The device was installed at an LBNL data center in Berkeley, California. It included two air-to-water heat exchangers. Unlike common single-heat-exchanger configurations, one of these was supplied with

65

Ventilative cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis evaluates the performance of daytime and nighttime passive ventilation cooling strategies for Beijing, Shanghai and Tokyo. A new simulation method for cross-ventilated wind driven airflow is presented . This ...

Graa, Guilherme Carrilho da, 1972-

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Cooled railplug  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers. 10 figs.

Weldon, W.F.

1996-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

67

Evaluation of models for predicting evaporative water loss in cooling impoundments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling impoundments can offer a number of advantages over cooling towers for condenser water cooling at steam electric power plants. However, a major disadvantage of cooling ponds is a lack of confidence in the ability ...

Helfrich, Karl Richard

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Property:Cooling Capacity | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Capacity Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Pages using the property "Cooling Capacity" Showing 2 pages using this property. D Distributed Generation...

69

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production, Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Project 2001-001, Westinghouse Electric Co. Grant Number: DE-FG07-02SF22533, Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the six reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation IV program. SCWRs are promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency (i.e., about 45% versus about 33% efficiency for current Light Water Reactors [LWRs]) and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs are basically LWRs operating at higher pressure and temperatures with a direct once-through cycle. Operation above the critical pressure eliminates coolant boiling, so the coolant remains single-phase throughout the system. Thus, the need for a pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators, and dryers is eliminated. The main mission of the SCWR is generation of low-cost electricity. It is built upon two proven technologies: LWRs, which are the most commonly deployed power generating reactors in the world, and supercritical fossil-fired boilers, a large number of which are also in use around the world. The reference SCWR design for the U.S. program is a direct cycle system operating at 25.0 MPa, with core inlet and outlet temperatures of 280 and 500 C, respectively. The coolant density decreases from about 760 kg/m3 at the core inlet to about 90 kg/m3 at the core outlet. The inlet flow splits with about 10% of the inlet flow going down the space between the core barrel and the reactor pressure vessel (the downcomer) and about 90% of the inlet flow going to the plenum at the top of the rector pressure vessel, to then flow down through the core in special water rods to the inlet plenum. Here it mixes with the feedwater from the downcomer and flows upward to remove the heat in the fuel channels. This strategy is employed to provide good moderation at the top of the core. The coolant is heated to about 500 C and delivered to the turbine. The purpose of this NERI project was to assess the reference U.S. Generation IV SCWR design and explore alternatives to determine feasibility. The project was organized into three tasks: Task 1. Fuel-cycle Neutronic Analysis and Reactor Core Design Task 2. Fuel Cladding and Structural Material Corrosion and Stress Corrosion Cracking Task 3. Plant Engineering and Reactor Safety Analysis. moderator rods. materials.

Philip E. MacDonald

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Stochastic cooling in muon colliders  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of muon production techniques for high energy colliders indicates the need for rapid and effective beam cooling in order that one achieve luminosities > 10{sup 30} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} as required for high energy physics experiments. This paper considers stochastic cooling to increase the phase space density of the muons in the collider. Even at muon energies greater than 100 GeV, the number of muons per bunch must be limited to {approximately}10{sup 3} for the cooling rate to be less than the muon lifetime. With such a small number of muons per bunch, the final beam emittance implied by the luminosity requirement is well below the thermodynamic limit for beam electronics at practical temperatures. Rapid bunch stacking after the cooling process can raise the number of muons per bunch to a level consistent with both the luminosity goals and with practical temperatures for the stochastic cooling electronics. A major advantage of our stochastic cooling/stacking scheme over scenarios that employ only ionization cooling is that the power on the production target can be reduced below 1 MW.

Barletta, W.A.; Sessler, A.M.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Steam-Electric Power-Plant-Cooling Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The Steam-Electric Power Plant Cooling Handbook provides summary data on steam-electric power plant capacity, generation and number of plants for each cooling means, by Electric Regions, Water Resource Regions and National Electric Reliability Council Areas. Water consumption by once-through cooling, cooling ponds and wet evaporative towers is discussed and a methodology for computation of water consumption is provided for a typical steam-electric plant which uses a wet evaporative tower or cooling pond for cooling.

Sonnichsen, J.C.; Carlson, H.A.; Charles, P.D.; Jacobson, L.D.; Tadlock, L.A.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

liquid cooling, dry cooler, cooling tower 1. INTRODUCTIONsolutions for cooling. Substituting cooling towers,hybrid cooling towers, or dry coolers that provide warmer

Coles, Henry

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

REACTOR COOLING  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear reactor with provisions for selectively cooling the fuel elements is described. The reactor has a plurality of tubes extending throughout. Cylindrical fuel elements are disposed within the tubes and the coolant flows through the tubes and around the fuel elements. The fuel elements within the central portion of the reactor are provided with roughened surfaces of material. The fuel elements in the end portions of the tubes within the reactor are provlded with low conduction jackets and the fuel elements in the region between the central portion and the end portions are provided with smooth surfaces of high heat conduction material.

Quackenbush, C.F.

1959-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

74

--No Title--  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Multibuilding Facilities, Number of Buildings and Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 Number of Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million square feet) All Buildings*...

75

Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A8. Number of Establishments in Building, Floorspace for All Buildings (Including Malls), 2003 Total Floorspace (million square feet) All Buildings Number of Establishments in...

76

--No Title--  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

3. Cooking Energy Sources, Number of Buildings and Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 Number of Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million square feet) All Build- ings*...

77

CBECS Buildings Characteristics --Revised Tables  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Table 37. Refrigeration Equipment, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1995 Table 38. Water-Heating Equipment, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1995 Table 39. Lighting...

78

--No Title--  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2. Water Heating Equipment, Number of Buildings and Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 Number of Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million square feet) All Build- ings*...

79

Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseWinterConsumed | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search Property Name CoolingTowerWaterUseWinterConsumed Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (winter average) (afday) Consumed. Retrieved from "http:...

80

Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseSummerConsumed | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Name CoolingTowerWaterUseSummerConsumed Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (afday) Consumed. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "floorspace cooled number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseAnnlAvgConsumed | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Name CoolingTowerWaterUseAnnlAvgConsumed Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Consumed. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

82

Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseSummerGross | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Property Name CoolingTowerWaterUseSummerGross Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (afday) Gross. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

83

RADIATIVE AND PASSIVE COOLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at the 3rd Annual Solar Heating and Cooling R&D Contractors'been supported by the Solar Heating and Cooling Research andof Energy. 3rd Annual Solar Heating and Cooling R&D

Martin, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Parametric Study of Turbine Blade Internal Cooling and Film Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas turbine engines are extensively used in the aviation and power generation industries. They are used as topping cycles in combined cycle power plants, or as stand alone power generation units. Gains in thermodynamic efficiency can be realized by increasing the turbine inlet temperatures. Since modern turbine inlet temperatures exceed the melting point of the constituent superalloys, it is necessary to provide an aggressive cooling system. Relatively cool air, ducted from the compressor of the engine is used to remove heat from the hot turbine blade. This air flows through passages in the hollow blade (internal cooling), and is also ejected onto the surface of the blade to form an insulating film (film cooling). Modern land-based gas turbine engines use high Reynolds number internal flow to cool their internal passages. The first part of this study focuses on experiments pertaining to passages with Reynolds numbers of up to 400,000. Common turbulator designs (45degree parallel sharp-edged and round-edged) ribs are studied. Older correlations are found to require corrections in order to be valid in the high Reynolds number parameter space. The effect of rotation on heat transfer in a typical three-pass serpentine channel is studied using a computational model with near-wall refinement. Results from this computational study indicate that the hub experiences abnormally high heat transfer under rotation. An experimental study is conducted at Buoyancy numbers similar to an actual engine on a wedge shaped model trailing edge, roughened with pin-fins and equipped with slot ejection. Results show an asymmetery between the leading and trailing surfaces due to rotation - a difference which is subdued due to the provision of pin-fins. Film cooling effectiveness is measured by the PSP mass transfer analogy technique in two different configurations: a flat plate and a typical high pressure turbine blade. Parameters studied include a step immediately upstream of a row of holes; the Strouhal number (quantifying rotor-stator interaction) and coolant to mainstream density ratio. Results show a deterioration in film cooling effectiveness with on increasing the Strouhal number. Using a coolant with a higher density results in higher film cooling effectiveness.

Rallabandi, Akhilesh P.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

" Row: NAICS Codes;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2.1. Enclosed Floorspace and Number of Establishment Buildings, 1998;" 2.1. Enclosed Floorspace and Number of Establishment Buildings, 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Floorspace and Buildings;" " Unit: Floorspace Square Footage and Building Counts." ,,"Approximate",,,"Approximate","Average" ,,"Enclosed Floorspace",,"Average","Number","Number" ,,"of All Buildings",,"Enclosed Floorspace","of All Buildings","of Buildings Onsite","RSE" "NAICS"," ","Onsite","Establishments(b)","per Establishment","Onsite","per Establishment","Row"

86

" Row: NAICS Codes;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Enclosed Floorspace and Number of Establishment Buildings, 2002;" 1 Enclosed Floorspace and Number of Establishment Buildings, 2002;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Floorspace and Buildings;" " Unit: Floorspace Square Footage and Building Counts." ,,"Approximate",,,"Approximate","Average" ,,"Enclosed Floorspace",,"Average","Number","Number" ,,"of All Buildings",,"Enclosed Floorspace","of All Buildings","of Buildings Onsite","RSE" "NAICS"," ","Onsite","Establishments(b)","per Establishment","Onsite","per Establishment","Row"

87

Energy Basics: Evaporative Cooling  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

absorbent material. Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. How Evaporative Coolers Work There are two types of evaporative...

88

Actions You Can Take to Reduce Cooling Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fact Sheet Actions You Can Take to Reduce Cooling Costs Cooling costs can be a substantial part of your facility's annual utility bill. A number of energy savings opportunities...

89

'Radio Wave Cooling' Offers New Twist on Laser Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

'Radio Wave Cooling' Offers New Twist on Laser Cooling. From NIST Tech Beat: September 13, 2007. ...

2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

90

Proceedings: Cooling Tower and Advanced Cooling Systems Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling towers and associated systems performance strongly affects availability and heat rate in fossil and nuclear power plants. Papers presented at EPRI's 1994 Cooling Tower and Advanced Cooling Systems Conference discuss research results, industry experience, and case histories of cooling tower problems and solutions. Specific topics include cooling tower upgrades and retrofits, cooling tower performance, cooling tower fouling, and dry and hybrid cooling systems.

1995-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

91

OCCUPATIONAL COOLING TOWERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HEALTH SCIENCES LIBRARY COOLING TOWERS EMPLOYEE HEALTH B C D F E CHILDREN'S ELEVATORS MEDICAL SCHOOL

Crews, Stephen

92

Hybrid Cooling Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water consumption by power plants has become an increasingly contentious siting issue. In nearly all fossil-fired and nuclear plants, water for plant cooling is by far the greatest water requirement. Therefore, the use of water-conserving cooling systems such as dry or hybrid cooling is receiving increasing attention. This technology overview from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provides a brief introduction to hybrid cooling systems. As defined in the report, the term "hybrid cooling" refer...

2011-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

93

Cooling Plant Optimization Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Central cooling plants or district cooling systems account for 22 percent of energy costs for cooling commercial buildings. Improving the efficiency of central cooling plants will significantly impact peak demand and energy usage for both building owners and utilities. This guide identifies opportunities for optimizing a central cooling plant and provides a simplified optimization procedure. The guide focuses on plant optimization from the standpoint of minimizing energy costs and maximizing efficiencies...

1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

94

c33.xls  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Fuel Oil Expenditures Number of Buildings (thousand) Floorspace (million square feet) Floorspace per Building (thousand square feet) Total (trillion Btu) Total (million gallons)...

95

On thermal performance of seawater cooling towers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Seawater cooling towers have been used since the 1970s in power generation and other industries, so as to reduce the consumption of freshwater. The salts in seawater are known to create a number of operational problems, ...

Sharqawy, Mostafa H.

96

Keeping Cool at Fermilab INSIDE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

June 28, 1996 June 28, 1996 Number 13 Keeping Cool at Fermilab INSIDE 2 University Close-Up: The University of Minnesota 6 Summer at Fermilab by Eric Berger, Office of Public Affairs As debate heats up among lawmakers on the fate of the nation's helium reserve, Fermilab researchers prepare for a long, cold summer. How cold? Minus 450 degrees Fahrenheit-the temperature of the liquid helium that cools the Tevatron's supercon- ducting magnets. Proposed congressional changes to the 1960 Helium Act, however, could ultimately affect Fermilab's vital cooling operation, which uses 13 million cubic feet of gaseous helium annually. Electric current travels through a supercon- ductor friction-free, like skaters on smooth ice, allowing physicists to run accelerators at higher f energies, while using far less electricity than

97

DOE Science Showcase - Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE | OSTI...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Accelerator returns cool roof documents from 6 DOE Databases Executive Order on Sustainability Secretary Chu Announces Steps to Implement One Cool Roof Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler...

98

Evaluation and performance prediction of cooling tower rain zones.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Cooling tower rain zone performance characteristics such as the loss coefficient and the Merkel number are evaluated and simulated. To this end the influence of (more)

Pierce, Darren John

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) - Data - U.S. Energy  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 RECS Survey Data 2009 | 2005 | 2001 | 1997 | 1993 | Previous 5 RECS Survey Data 2009 | 2005 | 2001 | 1997 | 1993 | Previous Housing Characteristics Consumption & Expenditures Microdata Housing Characteristics Tables + EXPAND ALL Floorspace - Housing Characteristics PDF (all tables) Total Floorspace All, Heated, and Cooled Floorspace (HC1.1.1) PDF XLS Average Floorspace All Housing Units (HC1.1.2) PDF XLS Single Family and Mobile Homes (HC1.1.3) PDF XLS Apartments (HC1.1.4) PDF XLS Usage Indicators Heated Floorspace (HC1.3) PDF XLS Cooled Floorspace (HC1.4) PDF XLS Floorspace - Living Space PDF (all tables) Total Floorspace All, Heated, and Cooled Floorspace (HC1.2.1) PDF XLS Average Floorspace All Housing Units (HC1.2.2) PDF XLS Single Family and Mobile Homes (HC1.2.3) PDF XLS Apartments (HC1.2.4) PDF XLS

100

Space Heating and Cooling  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A wide variety of technologies are available for heating and cooling homes and other buildings. In addition, many heating and cooling systems have certain supporting equipment in common, such as...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "floorspace cooled number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Cooling System Functions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...size Flow restrictions Heat exchanger size and design All of these factors must be considered. Every component in the cooling

102

Cooling Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these...

103

Cooling load estimation methods  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described. Correlations are described that permit auxiliary cooling estimates from monthly average insolation and weather data. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy required of a given building.

McFarland, R.D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Cooling Water System Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During summer months, many manufacturing plants have to cut back in rates because the cooling water system is not providing sufficient cooling to support higher production rates. There are many low/no-cost techniques available to improve tower performance. To understand the importance of the optimization techniques, cooling tower theory will be discussed first.

Aegerter, R.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Stochastic cooling in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

After the success of longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched heavy ion beam in RHIC, transverse stochastic cooling in the vertical plane of Yellow ring was installed and is being commissioned with proton beam. This report presents the status of the effort and gives an estimate, based on simulation, of the RHIC luminosity with stochastic cooling in all planes.

Brennan,J.M.; Blaskiewicz, M. M.; Severino, F.

2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

106

Cooling water distribution system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

SOLERAS solar cooling project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In view of the increasing demand for cooling in both the United States and Saudi Arabia, solar cooling systems are being considered as serious alternatives to the energy intensive conventional systems, especially when confronted with rising fossil fuel costs. Saudi Arabia and the hot, southern regions of the United States, having abundant sunshine and high cooling demand, are obvious candidates for solar active cooling systems and passive cooling design. Solar active cooling has yet to be shown to be either technologically mature or economically feasible, but efforts have been, and are presently being made within the United States National Solar Cooling Program to develop reliable systems which can compete economically with conventional cooling systems. Currently, the program is funding research and development projects in the areas of absorption, Rankine, dessicant, and advanced technologies. Saudi Arabia has a long and successful tradition of building cooling using passive architectural designs. Combining these past achievements with a program of research and development in both active and passive solar cooling should permit an early economical introduction of entirely solar cooled buildings to Saudi Arabia and the southern United States.

Corcoleotes, G.; Williamson, J.S.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar) Place Livermore, California Zip 94550 Product CoolEarth is a concentrated PV developer using inflatable concentrators to focus light onto triple-junction cells. References CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar) is a company located in Livermore, California . References ↑ "CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=CoolEarth_formerly_Cool_Earth_Solar&oldid=343892" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations

109

JOB NUMBER  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

. . . . . . . . . .: LEAVE BLANK (NARA use only) JOB NUMBER N/-&*W- 9d - 3 DATE RECEIVED " -1s - 9 J - NOTIFICATION TOAGENCY , In accordance with the provisions of 44 U.S.C. 3303a the disposition request. including amendments, is ap roved except , . l for items that may be marke,, ,"dis osition not approved" or "withdrawn in c o i m n 10. 4. NAME OF PERSON WITH WHOM TO CONFER 5 TELEPHONE Jannie Kindred (202) 5&-333 5 - 2 -96 6 AGENCYCERTIFICATION -. ~ - I hereby certify that I am authorized to act for this agency in matters pertaining to the disposition of its records and that the records roposed for disposal are not now needed for the business of this agency or wiRnot be needed after t G t r & s s d ; and that written concurrence from

110

Case Number:  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Name of Petitioner: Name of Petitioner: Date of Filing: Case Number: Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 JUL 2 2 2009 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS Appeal Dean P. Dennis March 2, 2009 TBA-0072 Dean D. Dennis filed a complaint of retaliation under the Department of Energy (DOE) Contractor Employee Protection Program, 10 C.F.R. Part 708. Mr. Dennis alleged that he engaged in protected activity and that his employer, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec ), subsequently terminated him. An Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) Hearing Officer denied relief in Dean P. Dennis, Case No. TBH-0072, 1 and Mr. Dennis filed the instant appeal. As discussed below, the appeal is denied. I. Background The DOE established its Contractor Employee Protection Program to "safeguard public

111

KPA Number  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Supports CMM-SW Level 3 Supports CMM-SW Level 3 Mapping of the DOE Information Systems Engineering Methodology to the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) Software Capability Maturity Model (CMM-SW) level 3. Date: September 2002 Page 1 KPA Number KPA Activity SEM Section SEM Work Product SQSE Web site http://cio.doe.gov/sqse ORGANIZATION PROCESS FOCUS OPF-1 The software process is assessed periodically, and action plans are developed to address the assessment findings. Chapter 1 * Organizational Process Management * Process Improvement Action Plan * Methodologies ! DOE Methodologies ! SEM OPF-2 The organization develops and maintains a plan for its software process development and improvement activities. Chapter 1 * Organizational Process Management * Process Improvement

112

Stochastic cooling in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

The full 6-dimensional [x,x'; y,y'; z,z'] stochastic cooling system for RHIC was completed and operational for the FY12 Uranium-Uranium collider run. Cooling enhances the integrated luminosity of the Uranium collisions by a factor of 5, primarily by reducing the transverse emittances but also by cooling in the longitudinal plane to preserve the bunch length. The components have been deployed incrementally over the past several runs, beginning with longitudinal cooling, then cooling in the vertical planes but multiplexed between the Yellow and Blue rings, next cooling both rings simultaneously in vertical (the horizontal plane was cooled by betatron coupling), and now simultaneous horizontal cooling has been commissioned. The system operated between 5 and 9 GHz and with 3 x 10{sup 8} Uranium ions per bunch and produces a cooling half-time of approximately 20 minutes. The ultimate emittance is determined by the balance between cooling and emittance growth from Intra-Beam Scattering. Specific details of the apparatus and mathematical techniques for calculating its performance have been published elsewhere. Here we report on: the method of operation, results with beam, and comparison of results to simulations.

Brennan J. M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Mernick, K.

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

113

Alternatives to compressor cooling in California climates  

SciTech Connect

This review and discussion has been prepared for the California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE) to examine research on alternatives to compressor cooling. The report focuses on strategies for eliminating compressors in California's transition climates -- moderately warm areas located between the cool coastal regions and the hot central regions. Many of these strategies could also help reduce compressor use in hotter climates. Compressor-driven cooling of residences in California's transition climate regions is an undesirable load for California's electric utilities because load factor is poor and usage is typically high during periods of system peak demand. We review a number of alternatives to compressors, including low-energy strategies: evaporative cooling, natural and induced ventilation, reflective coatings, shading with vegetation and improved glazing, thermal storage, and radiative cooling. Also included are two energy-intensive strategies: absorption cooling and desiccant cooling. Our literature survey leads us to conclude that many of these strategies, used either singly or in combination, are technically and economically feasible alternatives to compressor-driven cooling. 78 refs., 8 figs.

Feustel, H. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); de Almeida, A. (Coimbra Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Blumstein, C. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Universitywide Energy Research Group)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Cooling system for continuous metal casting machines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous metal caster cooling system is provided in which water is supplied in jets from a large number of small nozzles against the inner surface of rim at a temperature and with sufficient pressure that the velocity of the jets is sufficiently high that the mode of heat transfer is substantially by forced convection, the liquid being returned from the cooling chambers through return pipes distributed interstitially among the nozzles. 9 figs.

Draper, R.; Sumpman, W.C.; Baker, R.J.; Williams, R.S.

1988-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

115

Cooling system for continuous metal casting machines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous metal caster cooling system is provided in which water is supplied in jets from a large number of small nozzles 19 against the inner surface of rim 13 at a temperature and with sufficient pressure that the velocity of the jets is sufficiently high that the mode of heat transfer is substantially by forced convection, the liquid being returned from the cooling chambers 30 through return pipes 25 distributed interstitially among the nozzles.

Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA); Sumpman, Wayne C. (North Huntingdon, PA); Baker, Robert J. (Wilkins Township, Allegheny County, PA); Williams, Robert S. (Plum Borough, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Gas turbine cooling system  

SciTech Connect

A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

Bancalari, Eduardo E. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Energy Basics: Absorption Cooling  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

cooling. Other potential heat sources include propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Although mainly used in industrial or commercial settings, absorption...

118

Passive containment cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Robinson Township, Allegheny County, PA); Stewart, William A. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Power electronics cooling apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

Sanger, Philip Albert (Monroeville, PA); Lindberg, Frank A. (Baltimore, MD); Garcen, Walter (Glen Burnie, MD)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Energy Basics: Cooling Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "floorspace cooled number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Process Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling towers have been on the scene for more than 50 years. It is because they have proven to be an economic choice for waste heat dissipation. But it seems, for some reason, that after installation very little attention is paid to the cooling-tower and its effect on plant operating efficiency and production. This paper will describe the value of working with a cooling tower specialist to establish the physical and thermal potential of an existing cooling tower. It also demonstrates that a repair and thermal upgrade project to improve efficiency will have a better than average return on investment.

McCann, C. J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Feasibility of a hybrid cooling system in a thermal power plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The feasibility of introducing a hybrid cooling system in a thermal power plant is investigated with an aim to reduce water use with a minimum impact on plant performance. A number of cooling systems have been modelled including existing evaporative ... Keywords: cooling, hybrid cooling, power station, sustainable water consumption

C. R. Williams; M. G. Rasul

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system  

SciTech Connect

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Fanning, Alan W. (San Jose, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Cool Storage Technology Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is a fact that avoiding load growth is cheaper than constructing new power plants. Cool storage technologies offer one method for strategically stemming the impact of future peak demand growth. This guide provides a comprehensive resource for understanding and evaluating cool storage technologies.

2000-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

125

Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Cooling Tower Technology Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling towers and associated systems cause significant loss of availability and heat rate degradation in both nuclear and fossil-fired power plants. Twenty-one papers presented at a 2003 conference in Charleston, South Carolina discussed industrial experience and provided case histories of cooling tower problems and solutions.

2003-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

127

Solar Desiccant Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solar Desiccant Cooling Solar Desiccant Cooling Speaker(s): Paul Bourdoukan Date: December 6, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Ashok Gadgil The development of HVAC systems is a real challenge regarding its environmental impact. An innovative technique operating only by means of water and solar energy, is desiccant cooling. The principle is evaporative cooling with the introduction of a dehumidification unit, the desiccant wheel to control the humidity levels. The regeneration of the desiccant wheel requires a preheated airstream. A solar installation is a very interesting option for providing the preheated airstream. In France, at the University of La Rochelle, and at the National Institute of Solar Energy (INES), the investigation of the solar desiccant cooling technique has been

128

Water cooled steam jet  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Cool Roof Colored Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Roof Colored Materials Cool Roof Colored Materials Speaker(s): Hashem Akbari Date: May 29, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60% can reduce cooling-energy use in buildings in excess of 20%. Cool roofs also result in a lower ambient temperature that further decreases the need for air conditioning and retards smog formation. Reflective roofing products currently available in the market are typically used for low-sloped roofs. For the residential buildings with steep-sloped roofs, non-white (colored) cool roofing products are generally not available and most consumers prefer colors other than white. In this collaborative project LBNL and ORNL are working with the roofing industry to develop and produce reflective, colored roofing products and make yhrm a market reality within three to

130

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Cool Magnetic Molecules Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Wednesday, 25 May 2011 00:00 Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

131

Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 4 Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems Cooling nonresidential buildings in the U.S. contributes significantly to electrical power consumption and peak power demand. Part of the electrical energy used to cool buildings is drawn by fans transporting cool air through the ducts. The typical thermal cooling peak load component for California office buildings can be divided as follows: 31% for lighting, 13% for people, 14% for air transport, and 6% for equipment (in the graph below, these account for 62.5% of the electrical peak load, labeled "chiller"). Approximately 37% of the electrical peak power is required for air transport, and the remainder is necessary to operate the compressor. DOE-2 simulations for different California climates using the California

132

Hydronic rooftop cooling systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A roof top cooling unit has an evaporative cooling section that includes at least one evaporative module that pre-cools ventilation air and water; a condenser; a water reservoir and pump that captures and re-circulates water within the evaporative modules; a fan that exhausts air from the building and the evaporative modules and systems that refill and drain the water reservoir. The cooling unit also has a refrigerant section that includes a compressor, an expansion device, evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, and connecting refrigerant piping. Supply air components include a blower, an air filter, a cooling and/or heating coil to condition air for supply to the building, and optional dampers that, in designs that supply less than 100% outdoor air to the building, control the mixture of return and ventilation air.

Bourne, Richard C. (Davis, CA); Lee, Brian Eric (Monterey, CA); Berman, Mark J. (Davis, CA)

2008-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

133

Home Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling Cooling Home Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Learn how to avoid heat buildup and keep your home cool with ventilation. Read more Cooling with a Whole House Fan A whole-house fan, in combination with other cooling systems, can meet all or most of your home cooling needs year round. Read more Although your first thought for cooling may be air conditioning, there are many alternatives that provide cooling with less energy use. You might also consider fans, evaporative coolers, or heat pumps as your primary means of cooling. In addition, a combination of proper insulation, energy-efficient windows and doors, daylighting, shading, and ventilation will usually keep homes cool with a low amount of energy use in all but the hottest climates. Although ventilation is not an effective cooling strategy in hot, humid

134

Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting Title Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBL-19734 Year of Publication 1985 Authors Arasteh, Dariush K., Russell Johnson, Stephen E. Selkowitz, and Deborah J. Connell Conference Name 2nd Annual Symposium on Improving Building Energy Efficiency in Hot and Humid Climates Date Published 09/1985 Conference Location Texas A&M University Call Number LBL-19734 Abstract Fenestration performance in nonresidentialsbuildings in hot climates is often a large coolingsload liability. Proper fenestration design andsthe use of daylight-responsive dimming controls onselectric lights can, in addition to drasticallysreducing lighting energy, lower cooling loads,speak electrical demand, operating costs, chillerssizes, and first costs. Using the building energyssimulation programs DOE-2.1B and DOE-2.1C , wesfirst discuss lighting energy savings from daylighting.sThe effects of fenestration parametersson cooling loads, total energy use, peak demand,schiller sizes, and initial and operating costs aresalso discussed. The impact of daylighting, asscompared to electric lighting, on cooling requirementssis discussed as a function of glazingscharacteristics, location, and shading systems.

135

Doppler cooling three-electronic-level molecules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analogous to the extension of laser cooling techniques from two-level to three-level atoms, Doppler cooling of molecules with an intermediate electronic state is considered. In particular, we use a rate-equation approach to simulate cooling of SiO+, in which population buildup in the intermediate state is prevented by its short lifetime. We determine that Doppler cooling of SiO+ can be accomplished without optically repumping from the intermediate state, at the cost of causing undesirable parity flips and rotational diffusion. Since the necessary repumping would require a large number of continuous-wave lasers, optical pulse shaping of a femtosecond laser is proposed as an attractive alternative. Other candidate three-electron-level molecules are also discussed.

Nguyen, J H V

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Enhancing cavity cooling with cavity driving  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cavity-mediated cooling has the potential to become one of the most efficient techniques to cool molecular species down to very low temperatures. However, theoretical schemes with single-laser driving require relatively strong trapping potentials and relatively long cavity photon life times which are hard to realise experimentally. In this paper we therefore consider an alternative cavity cooling scenario with double-laser driving. It is shown that the second laser can enhance the phonon-photon coherence which governs the time evolution of the mean phonon number, thereby resulting in higher cooling rates and a lower final temperature, when the cavity decay rate kappa is four or more times larger than the phonon frequency nu of the trapped particle.

Blake, Tony; Beige, Almut

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

cooling degree days | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cooling degree days cooling degree days Dataset Summary Description The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Services (NESDIS), in conjunction with the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) publish monthly and annual climate data by state for the U.S., including, cooling degree days (total number of days per month and per year). The average values for each state are weighted by population, using 2000 Census data. The base temperature for this dataset is 65 degrees F. Source NOAA Date Released Unknown Date Updated June 24th, 2005 (9 years ago) Keywords climate cooling degree days NOAA Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon hcs_51_avg_cdd.xls (xls, 215.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review

138

Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling (Redirected from Hybrid Cooling) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Evaporative Cooling: An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling Tower Diagram of Evaporative Cooling Tower Evaporative cooling technologies take advantage of both air and water to extract heat from a power plant. By utilizing both water and air one can

139

 

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0. Cooling Energy Sources, Number of Buildings and Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 0. Cooling Energy Sources, Number of Buildings and Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 Number of Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million square feet) All Build- ings* Build- ings with Cooling Cooling Energy Sources (more than one may apply) All Build- ings* Build- ings with Cooling Cooling Energy Sources (more than one may apply) Elec- tricity Natural Gas District Chilled Water Elec- tricity Natural Gas District Chilled Water All Buildings* ............................... 4,645 3,625 3,589 17 33 64,783 56,940 54,321 1,018 2,853 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ................................ 2,552 1,841 1,838 Q Q 6,789 5,007 4,994 Q Q 5,001 to 10,000 .............................. 889 732 727 Q Q 6,585 5,408 5,367 Q Q

140

Overview: Home Cooling Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

than earlier models. Dehumidifying heat pipes can help an air conditioner remove humidity and more efficiently cool the air. Radiant Cooling Radiant cooling cools a floor or...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "floorspace cooled number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

LBNL's Novel Approach to Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

systems department, chilled water, cooling water tower, double exchanger cooling, dual heat exchanger, high tech and industrial systems group, inrow, lawrence berkeley national...

142

Cool Roofs and Heat Islands  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(510) 486-7494 Links Heat Island Group The Cool Colors Project Batteries and Fuel Cells Buildings Energy Efficiency Applications Commercial Buildings Cool Roofs and...

143

Guide to efficient unitary cooling equipment  

SciTech Connect

The universe of unitary cooling equipment is a large one; these systems are used in nearly forty percent of the residential and commercial buildings in the United States. Unitary cooling equipment is made up of off-the-shelf units: factory-assembled single or split systems, including air-source heat pumps and air conditioners. The efficiency of this class of cooling equipment has increased steadily in recent years, driven primarily by government standards. Although most of the units have efficiencies near the minimum federal standards, a significant number of models beat the standards by 10 to 30 percent. However, the larger the system, the narrower the range of efficiencies available and the fewer models available in the most efficient categories. For the buyer and the utility, this report reveals where to get efficiency information on current products, and a recommended purchasing process. It also examines the ratings, standards, and programs that can expand the number of high-efficiency models available.

Gregerson, J.; George, K.L.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

RADIATIVE AND PASSIVE COOLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Passive Cooling Marlo Martin and Paul Berdahl SeptemberNTIS. 3. P. Berdahl and M. Martin, "The Resource for Radia-1978) p. 684. 4. M. Martin and P. Berdahl, "Description of a

Martin, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

146

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

147

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

148

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

149

Stimulated radiative laser cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Building a refrigerator based on the conversion of heat into optical energy is an ongoing engineering challenge. Under well-defined conditions, spontaneous anti-Stokes fluorescence of a dopant material in a host matrix is capable of lowering the host temperature. The fluorescence is conveying away a part of the thermal energy stored in the vibrational oscillations of the host lattice. In particular, applying this principle to the cooling of (solid-state) lasers opens up many potential device applications, especially in the domain of high-power lasers. In this paper, an alternative optical cooling scheme is outlined, leading to radiative cooling of solid-state lasers. It is based on converting the thermal energy stored in the host, into optical energy by means of a stimulated nonlinear process, rather than a spontaneous process. This should lead to better cooling efficiencies and a higher potential of applying the principle for device applications.

Muys, Peter

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Sisyphus Cooling of Lithium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laser cooling to sub-Doppler temperatures by optical molasses is thought to be inhibited in atoms with unresolved, near-degenerate hyperfine structure in the excited state. We demonstrate that such cooling is possible in one to three dimensions, not only near the standard D2 line for laser cooling, but over a range extending to the D1 line. Via a combination of Sisyphus cooling followed by adiabatic expansion, we reach temperatures as low as 40 \\mu K, which corresponds to atomic velocities a factor of 2.6 above the limit imposed by a single photon recoil. Our method requires modest laser power at a frequency within reach of standard frequency locking methods. It is largely insensitive to laser power, polarization and detuning, magnetic fields, and initial hyperfine populations. Our results suggest that optical molasses should be possible with all alkali species.

Paul Hamilton; Geena Kim; Trinity Joshi; Biswaroop Mukherjee; Daniel Tiarks; Holger Mller

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

151

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

152

Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseAnnlAvgGross | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Property Name CoolingTowerWaterUseAnnlAvgGross Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Gross. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

153

Cooling tower waste reduction  

SciTech Connect

At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the two main cooling tower systems (central and northwest) were upgraded during the summer of 1997 to reduce the generation of hazardous waste. In 1996, these two tower systems generated approximately 135,400 lbs (61,400 kg) of hazardous sludge, which is more than 90 percent of the hazardous waste for the site annually. At both, wet decks (cascade reservoirs) were covered to block sunlight. Covering the cascade reservoirs reduced the amount of chemical conditioners (e.g. algaecide and biocide), required and in turn the amount of waste generated was reduced. Additionally, at the northwest cooling tower system, a sand filtration system was installed to allow cyclical filtering and backflushing, and new pumps, piping, and spray nozzles were installed to increase agitation. the appurtenance upgrade increased the efficiency of the cooling towers. The sand filtration system at the northwest cooling tower system enables operators to continuously maintain the cooling tower water quality without taking the towers out of service. Operational costs (including waste handling and disposal) and maintenance activities are compared for the cooling towers before and after upgrades. Additionally, the effectiveness of the sand filter system in conjunction with the wet deck covers (northwest cooling tower system), versus the cascade reservoir covers alone (south cooling tower south) is discussed. the overall expected return on investment is calculated to be in excess of 250 percent. this upgrade has been incorporated into the 1998 DOE complex-wide water conservation project being led by Sandia National Laboratory/Albuquerque.

Coleman, S.J.; Celeste, J.; Chine, R.; Scott, C.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seiber, Larry E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlino, Laura D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

155

Laser cooling of solids  

SciTech Connect

We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

WATER COOLED RETORT COVER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A retort cover is designed for use in the production of magnesium metal by the condensation of vaporized metal on a collecting surface. The cover includes a condensing surface, insulating means adjacent to the condensing surface, ind a water-cooled means for the insulating means. The irrangement of insulation and the cooling means permits the magnesium to be condensed at a high temperature and in massive nonpyrophoric form. (AEC)

Ash, W.J.; Pozzi, J.F.

1962-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Program on Technology Innovation: Tradeoffs Between Once-Through Cooling and Closed-Cycle Cooling for Nuclear Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has been investigating a number of energy-related water topics that include the implications of retrofitting existing once-through generating stations with closed-cycle cooling, the cost and benefits of closed-cycle cooling, the impacts of impingement and entrainment, alternative fish protection technologies, water use in the electric power generation sector, and advanced power plant cooling technologies.

2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

158

Glossary Term - Atomic Number  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Particle Previous Term (Alpha Particle) Glossary Main Index Next Term (Avogadro's Number) Avogadro's Number Atomic Number Silver's atomic number is 47 The atomic number is equal to...

159

Gas-cooled reactors  

SciTech Connect

Experience to date with operation of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors has been quite favorable. Despite problems in completion of construction and startup, three high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) units have operated well. The Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (AGR) in the United Kingdom has had an excellent operating history, and initial operation of commercial AGRs shows them to be satisfactory. The latter reactors provide direct experience in scale-up from the Windscale experiment to fullscale commercial units. The Colorado Fort St. Vrain 330-MWe prototype helium-cooled HTGR is now in the approach-to-power phase while the 300-MWe Pebble Bed THTR prototype in the Federal Republic of Germany is scheduled for completion of construction by late 1978. THTR will be the first nuclear power plant which uses a dry cooling tower. Fuel reprocessing and refabrication have been developed in the laboratory and are now entering a pilot-plant scale development. Several commercial HTGR power station orders were placed in the U.S. prior to 1975 with similar plans for stations in the FRG. However, the combined effects of inflation, reduced electric power demand, regulatory uncertainties, and pricing problems led to cancellation of the 12 reactors which were in various stages of planning, design, and licensing.

Schulten, R.; Trauger, D.B.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Cooling Towers, The Debottleneckers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power generating plants and petro-chemical works are always expanding. An on-going problem is to identify and de-bottle neck restricting conditions of growth. The cooling tower is a highly visible piece of equipment. Most industrial crossflow units are large structures, Illustration 1. Big budget money and engineering time goes into gleaming stainless steel equipment and exotic process apparatus, the poor cooling tower is the ignored orphan of the system. Knowledgeable Engineers, however, are now looking into the function of the cooling tower, which is to produce colder water- and question the quality of water discharged from that simple appearing box. These cross-flow structures are quite large, ranging up to 60 feet tall with as many as 6 or more cells in a row. With cells up to 42 feet long so immense in aspect, with fans rotating, operators assume, just by appearances, that all is well, and usually pay no attention to the quality of cold water returning from the cooling tower. The boxes look sturdy, but the function of the cooling tower is repeated ignored production of water as cold as possible.

Burger, R.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "floorspace cooled number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Air Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Air Cooling: Air cooling is commonly defined as rejecting heat from an object by flowing air over the surface of the object, through means of convection. Air cooling requires that the air must be cooler than the object or surface from which it is expected to remove heat. This is due to the second law of thermodynamics, which states that heat will only move spontaneously from a hot reservoir (the heat sink) to a cold reservoir (the air). Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Air Cooling Air Cooling Diagram of Air Cooled Condenser designed by GEA Heat Exchangers Ltd. (http://www.gea-btt.com.cn/opencms/opencms/bttc/en/Products/Air_Cooled_Condenser.html) Air cooling is limited on ambient temperatures and typically require a

162

Water Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling: Cooling: Water cooling is commonly defined as a method of using water as a heat conduction to remove heat from an object, machine, or other substance by passing cold water over or through it. In energy generation, water cooling is typically used to cool steam back into water so it can be used again in the generation process. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Water Cooling Typical water cooled condenser used for condensing steam Water or liquid cooling is the most efficient cooling method and requires the smallest footprint when cold water is readily available. When used in power generation the steam/vapor that exits the turbine is condensed back into water and reused by means of a heat exchanger. Water cooling requires a water resource that is cold enough to bring steam, typically

163

Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling: Evaporative Cooling: An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling Tower Diagram of Evaporative Cooling Tower Evaporative cooling technologies take advantage of both air and water to extract heat from a power plant. By utilizing both water and air one can reduce the amount of water required for a power plant as well as reduce the

164

Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.2 Residential Sector Characteristics  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

7 7 Characteristics of a Typical Single-Family Home (1) Year Built | Building Equipment Fuel Age (5) Occupants 3 | Space Heating Natural Gas 12 Floorspace | Water Heating Natural Gas 8 Heated Floorspace (SF) 1,934 | Space Cooling 8 Cooled Floorspace (SF) 1,495 | Garage 2-Car | Stories 1 | Appliances Size Age (5) Foundation Concrete Slab | Refrigerator 19 Cubic Feet 8 Total Rooms (2) 6 | Clothes Dryer Bedrooms 3 | Clothes Washer Other Rooms 3 | Range/Oven Full Bathroom 2 | Microwave Oven Half Bathroom 0 | Dishwasher Windows | Color Televisions 3 Area (3) 222 | Ceiling Fans 3 Number (4) 15 | Computer 2 Type Double-Pane | Printer Insulation: Well or Adequate | Note(s): Source(s): 2-Door Top and Bottom Electric Top-Loading Electric 1) This is a weighted-average house that has combined characteristics of the Nation's stock homes. Although the population of homes with

165

cooling | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cooling cooling Dataset Summary Description The following data-set is for a benchmark residential home for all TMY3 locations across all utilities in the US. The data is indexed by utility service provider which is described by its "unique" EIA ID ( Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released April 05th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated April 06th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords AC apartment CFL coffeemaker Computer cooling cost demand Dishwasher Dryer Furnace gas HVAC Incandescent Laptop load Microwave model NREL Residential television tmy3 URDB Data text/csv icon Residential Cost Data for Common Household Items (csv, 14.5 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

166

Passive containment cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

Billig, Paul F. (San Jose, CA); Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA); Fitch, James R. (San Jose, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Passive containment cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

1994-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

168

Blowing Ratio Effects on Film Cooling Effectiveness  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The research focuses on testing the film cooling effectiveness on a gas turbine blade suction side surface. The test is performed on a five bladed cascade with a blow down facility. Four different blowing ratios are used in this study, which are 0.5, 1.0, 1.6, and 2.0; mainstream flow conditions are maintained at exit Mach number of 0.7, 1.1 and 1.3. Nitrogen is injected as the coolant so that the oxygen concentration levels can be obtained for the test surface. Based on mass transfer analogy, film cooling effectiveness can be computed with pressure sensitive paint (PSP) technique. The effect of blowing ratio on film cooling effectiveness is presented for each testing condition. The spanwise averaged effectiveness for each case is also presented to compare the blowing ratio and mainstream effect on film cooling effectiveness. Results show that due to effects of shock, the optimum blowing ratio is 1.6 for exit Mach number of 1.1 and 1.3; however; without the effects of shock, the optimum blowing ratio is 1.0 for exit Mach number of 0.7.

Liu, Kuo-Chun

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Testing of a solar powered cooling system using cross-cooled desiccant dehumidifiers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A solar powered desiccant cooling system using two fixed bed silica gel dehumidifiers has been designed, built and is being tested. The dehumidifiers, 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 m each, are constructed of 80 channels lined with 64 m/sup 2/ of 1.5 mm thick silica gel sheets. The bed is cooled by air flowing in an equal number of perpendicular channels. Both sets of channels are two mm wide, the dehumidifiers undergo adsorption, preheating, desorption and precooling in a cyclic fashion. The cooling capacity of the experimental system is one ton at ARI design conditions. The system has a high cooling capacity, high COP, low parasitic power consumption and requires low regeneration temperatures.

Monnier, J.B.; Worek, W.M.; Lavan, Z.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Evaluation of cooling performance of thermally activated building system with evaporative cooling source for typical United States climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cooling (TABS) with a cooling tower providing chilled waterevaporative cooling (cooling tower) for radiant ceiling slabradiant cooling with a cooling tower providing chilled water

Feng, Jingjuan; Bauman, Fred

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn. 5 figs.

Hultgren, K.G.; McLaurin, L.D.; Bertsch, O.L.; Lowe, P.E.

1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

172

Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling  

SciTech Connect

A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn.

Hultgren, Kent Goran (Winter Park, FL); McLaurin, Leroy Dixon (Winter Springs, FL); Bertsch, Oran Leroy (Titusville, FL); Lowe, Perry Eugene (Oviedo, FL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Five solar cooling projects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The jointly funded $100 million five-year international agreement (SOLERAS) between Saudi Arabia and the United States was undertaken to promote the development of solar energy technologies of interest to both nations. Five engineering field tests of active solar cooling systems funded under the SOLERAS agreement for installation and operation in the U.S. southwest are described.

Davis, R.E.; Williamson, J.S.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Cooling Towers- Energy Conservation Strategies Understanding Cooling Towers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling towers are energy conservation devices that Management, more often than not, historically overlooks in the survey of strategies for plant operating efficiencies. The utilization of the colder water off the cooling tower is the money maker!

Smith, M.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Glossary Term - Avogadro's Number  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atomic Number Previous Term (Atomic Number) Glossary Main Index Next Term (Beta Decay) Beta Decay Avogadro's Number Avogadro's number is the number of particles in one mole of a...

176

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THE COOLING WATER INTAKE STRUCTURE, TANGUISSON POWER PLANT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

report for the Environmental Effects of Cooling Water Intake Structures project (contract number/or chemicals) and as impingement (where the cooling water intake traps larger organisms against the intake and impingement of aquatic organisms in cooling water intakes.) For rules such as those outlined above

Schupp, Peter

177

Cool Earth Solar | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cool Earth Solar Cool Earth Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Cool Earth Solar Name Cool Earth Solar Address 4659 Las Positas Rd, Bldg C Place Livermore, California Zip 94551 Sector Solar Product Electricty from High Concentrating PV Year founded 2007 Number of employees 11-50 Phone number 925.454.8506 Website http://www.coolearthsolar.com/ Coordinates 37.6971629°, -121.7339673° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.6971629,"lon":-121.7339673,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

178

A Novel VLSI Technology to Manufacture High-Density Thermoelectric Cooling Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes a novel integrated circuit technology to manufacture high-density thermoelectric devices on a semiconductor wafer. With no moving parts, a thermoelectric cooler operates quietly, allows cooling below ambient temperature, and may be used for temperature control or heating if the direction of current flow is reversed. By using a monolithic process to increase the number of thermoelectric couples, the proposed solid-state cooling technology can be combined with traditional air cooling, liquid cooling, and phase-change cooling to yield greater heat flux and provide better cooling capability.

H. Chen; L. Hsu; X. Wei

2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

179

Dynamic Model of Facial Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent modifications to windchill forecasting have motivated the development of a rate-of-tissue-cooling model for the purpose of predicting facial cooling times. The model assumes a hollow cylindrical geometry with a fixed internal boundary ...

Peter Tikuisis; Randall J. Osczevski

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

HEPTAFLUOROPROPANE WITH WATER SPRAY COOLING ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HEPTAFLUOROPROPANE WITH WATER SPRAY COOLING SYSTEM AS A TOTAL ... and evaluation studies on active and passive fire protection ...

2011-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "floorspace cooled number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

EIA Energy Efficiency:Table 4. Total Floorspace of Commercial ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Public Order and Safety: Q. Q. Q. Q. Religious Worship: 792. 711. 896. 515. Warehouse and Storage: 1,606. 1,522. 2,012. 1,572 Other 2: 245. Q. 338. 186 Vacant: 1,015 ...

182

Total Floorspace of Commercial Buildings - U.S. Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Glossary Home > Households, Buildings & Industry > Energy Efficiency > Commercial Buildings Energy Intensities >Table 4

183

AIR COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear reactor of the air-cooled, graphite moderated type is described. The active core consists of a cubicle mass of graphite, approximately 25 feet in each dimension, having horizontal channels of square cross section extending between two of the opposite faces, a plurality of cylindrical uranium slugs disposed in end to end abutting relationship within said channels providing a space in the channels through which air may be circulated, and a cadmium control rod extending within a channel provided in the moderator. Suitable shielding is provlded around the core, as are also provided a fuel element loading and discharge means, and a means to circulate air through the coolant channels through the fuel charels to cool the reactor.

Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

1958-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

184

X-ray Absorption Due to Cold Gas in Cluster Cooling Cores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have calculated the emergent X-ray properties for models of cluster cooling flows including the effects of accumulated cooled material. The opacity of this cooled gas can reduce the overall X-ray luminosity of the cooling flow, and values of Mdot based on these luminosities can underestimate the true value by factors of ~2. We find that accumulated cooled material can produce emergent surface brightness profiles much like those observed even for nearly homogeneous gas distributions. Consequently, much more of the gas may be cooling below X-ray emitting temperatures in the central regions of cooling flows (r cooling flows may have been underestimated. We show that distributed absorption in cooling flows produces a number of observable effects in the spectrum which may allow it to be differentiated from absorption due to gas in our Galaxy. Th...

Wise, M W; Wise, Michael W.; Sarazin, Craig L.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Temperature and cooling management in computing systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

72 5.1.2 Memory thermal and cooling model . . . . . . . . 75Energy, Thermal and Cooling Management . . . . . . . .Conclusion . . Chapter 4 Thermal and Cooling Management in

Ayoub, Raid

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Guide to Minimizing Compress-based Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cooling (direct or indirect), or various liquid cooled solutions. In addition to weather data, the Green Grid organization has developed a free cooling map tool to aid in...

187

Conduction cooled tube supports  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Becht, IV, Charles (Morristown, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Cooling your home naturally  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes some alternatives to air conditioning which are common sense suggestions and low-cost retrofit options to cool a house. It first describes how to reflect heat away from roofs, walls, and windows. Blocking heat by using insulation or shading are described. The publication then discusses removing built-up heat, reducing heat-generating sources, and saving energy by selecting energy efficient retrofit appliances. A resource list is provided for further information.

NONE

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

SCINTILLATION DETECTOR COOLING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

A well logging apparatus for irradiating earth formations with neutrons and recording the gamma rays emitted therefrom is designed which hss a scintillation decay time of less than 3 x 10/sup -8/ sec and hence may be used with more intense neutron sources. The scintillation crystal is an unactivated NaI crystal maintained at liquid N/sub 2/ temperature. The apparatus with the cooling system is described in detail. (D.L.C.)

George, W.D.; Jones, S.B.; Yule, H.P.

1962-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

190

Table HC6.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005 5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total U.S. Housing Units.................................. 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Do Not Have Heating Equipment..................... 1.2 0.3 0.3 Q 0.2 0.2 Have Space Heating Equipment....................... 109.8 29.7 34.5 18.2 15.6 11.8 Use Space Heating Equipment........................ 109.1 29.5 34.4 18.1 15.5 11.6 Have But Do Not Use Equipment.................... 0.8 Q Q Q Q Q Space Heating Usage During 2005 Heated Floorspace (Square Feet) None............................................................ 3.6 1.0 0.8 0.5 0.5 0.7 1 to 499........................................................ 6.1 3.0 1.6 0.6 0.6 0.3 500 to 999.................................................... 27.7 11.6 8.3 3.6 2.7 1.6 1,000 to 1,499..............................................

191

Open Cooling Water Chemistry Guideline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

State-of-the-art chemistry programs help to ensure the continued operation of open cooling water systems while mitigating corrosion and fouling mechanisms. This document, Open Cooling Water Chemistry Guideline, prepared by a committee of industry experts, reflects field and laboratory data on corrosion and fouling issues of open cooling systems.BackgroundService Water System Chemical Addition Guideline (Electric Power Research Institute ...

2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

192

Proceedings: Cooling Tower Technology Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling towers and associated systems performance strongly affect availability and heat rate in fossil and nuclear power plants. Twenty-two papers presented at the 1997 Cooling Tower Technology Conference discuss research results, industry experience, and case histories of cooling tower problems and solutions.

1997-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

193

Conduction cooling: multicrate fastbus hardware  

SciTech Connect

Described is a new and novel approach for cooling nuclear instrumentation modules via heat conduction. The simplicity of liquid cooled crates and ease of thermal management with conduction cooled modules are described. While this system was developed primarily for the higher power levels expected with Fastbus electronics, it has many general applications.

Makowiecki, D.; Sims, W.; Larsen, R.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Passive cooling system for top entry liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled, top entry loop nuclear fission reactors. It comprises: a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant; a passive cooling system; and a secondary passive cooling system.

Boardman, C.E.; Hunsbedt, A.; Hui, M.M.

1992-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

195

Introduction of a Cooling Fan Efficiency Index  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with four cooling fans of different designs available on thedesign, installation, and use, the performance of cooling fans

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Advanced Cooling Options for Nuclear Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alternative power plant cooling systems exist that offer significant opportunity for reducing the amount of water used in power plant cooling. These systems include direct dry cooling using air-cooled condensers, indirect dry cooling using air-cooled heat exchangers paired with water-cooled surface condensers, and a variety of hybrid systems incorporating both dry and wet cooling elements. The water savings afforded by the use of these systems, however, comes at a price in the form of more expensive ...

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

197

Cooling thermal storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article gives some overall guidelines for successful operation of cooling thermal storage installations. Electric utilities use rates and other incentives to encourage thermal storage, which not only reduces their system peaks but also transfers a portion of their load from expensive daytime inefficient peaking plants to less expensive nighttime base load high efficiency coal and nuclear plants. There are hundreds of thermal storage installations around the country. Some of these are very successful; others have failed to achieve all of their predicted benefits because application considerations were not properly addressed.

Gatley, D.P.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Superconducting magnet cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is provided for cooling a conductor to the superconducting state. The conductor is positioned within an inner conduit through which is flowing a supercooled liquid coolant in physical contact with the conductor. The inner conduit is positioned within an outer conduit so that an annular open space is formed therebetween. Through the annular space is flowing coolant in the boiling liquid state. Heat generated by the conductor is transferred by convection within the supercooled liquid coolant to the inner wall of the inner conduit and then is removed by the boiling liquid coolant, making the heat removal from the conductor relatively independent of conductor length.

Vander Arend, Peter C. (Center Valley, PA); Fowler, William B. (St. Charles, IL)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

Morgan, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Cooling apparatus and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device and method provide for cooling of a system having an energy source, one or more devices that actively consume energy, and one or more devices that generate heat. The device may include one or more thermoelectric coolers ("TECs") in conductive engagement with at least one of the heat-generating devices, and an energy diverter for diverting at least a portion of the energy from the energy source that is not consumed by the active energy-consuming devices to the TECs.

Mayes, James C. (Sugar Land, TX)

2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "floorspace cooled number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Alternative technique for laser cooling with superradiance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a theoretical scheme for laser cooling of rare-earth-doped solids with optical superradiance (SR), which is the coherent, sharply directed spontaneous emission of photons by a system of laser-excited rare-earth ions in the solid-state host (glass or crystal). We consider an Yb{sup +}-doped ZnF{sub 4}-BaF{sub 2}-LaF{sub 3}-AlF{sub 3}-NaF (ZBLAN) sample pumped at a wavelength 1015 nm, with a rectangular pulsed source with a power of {approx}433 W and a duration of 10 ns. The intensity of the SR is proportional to the square of the number of excited ions. This unique feature of SR permits an increase in the rate of the cooling process in comparison with the traditional laser cooling of the rare-earth-doped solids with anti-Stokes spontaneous incoherent radiation (fluorescence). This scheme overcomes the limitation of using only low phonon energy glasses for laser cooling.

Nemova, Galina [Advanced Photonics Concepts Laboratory, Department of Engineering Physics, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, P.O. Box 6079, Station Centre-ville, Montreal (Canada); Kashyap, Raman [Advanced Photonics Concepts Laboratory, Department of Engineering Physics, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, P.O. Box 6079, Station Centre-ville, Montreal (Canada); Advanced Photonics Concepts Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, P.O. Box 6079, Station Centre-ville, Montreal (Canada)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

202

Evaporative Roof Cooling - A Simple Solution to Cut Cooling Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the "Energy Crisis" Evaporative Roof Cooling Systems have gained increased acceptance as a cost effective method to reduce the high cost of air conditioning. Documented case histories in retrofit installations show direct energy savings and paybacks from twelve to thirty months. The main operating cost of an Evaporative Roof Cooling System is water. One thousand gallons of water, completely evaporated, will produce over 700 tons of cooling capability. Water usage seldom averages over 100 gallons per 1000 ft^2 of roof area per day or 10 oz. of water per 100 ft^2 every six minutes. Roof Cooling Systems, when planned in new construction, return 1-1/2 times the investment the first year in equipment savings and operating costs. Roof sprays are a low cost cooling solution for warehouses, distribution centers and light manufacturing or assembly areas with light internal loads. See text "Flywheel Cooling."

Abernethy, D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Spray Cooling Enhancement of Air-Cooled Condensers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dry cooling of power plants may be an attractive alternative to wet cooling, particularly where water conservation and environmental protection pose critical siting issues. However, dry cooling technology may be unable to maintain design plant output during the hottest periods of the year, which are often periods of peak system demand. This studycosponsored by EPRI, the California Energy Commission, and Crockett Cogeneration Co.evaluated the use of a low-pressure spray enhancement system to...

2003-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

204

Indirect passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a passive cooling system. It is for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors having a pool of liquid metal coolant with the heat generating fissionable fuel core substantially immersed in the pool of liquid metal coolant. The passive cooling system including a combination of spaced apart side-by-side partitions in generally concentric arrangement and providing for intermediate fluid circulation and heat transfer therebetween.

Hunsbedt, A.; Boardman, C.E.

1990-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

205

Emergency core cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor provided with an emergency core cooling system includes a reactor vessel which contains a reactor core comprising an array of fuel assemblies and a plurality of blanket assemblies. The reactor core is immersed in a pool of liquid metal coolant. The reactor also includes a primary coolant system comprising a pump and conduits for circulating liquid metal coolant to the reactor core and through the fuel and blanket assemblies of the core. A converging-diverging venturi nozzle with an intermediate throat section is provided in between the assemblies and the pump. The intermediate throat section of the nozzle is provided with at least one opening which is in fluid communication with the pool of liquid sodium. In normal operation, coolant flows from the pump through the nozzle to the assemblies with very little fluid flowing through the opening in the throat. However, when the pump is not running, residual heat in the core causes fluid from the pool to flow through the opening in the throat of the nozzle and outwardly through the nozzle to the assemblies, thus providing a means of removing decay heat.

Schenewerk, William E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Glasgow, Lyle E. (Westlake Village, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Dim Isolated Neutron Stars, Cooling and Energy Dissipation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cooling and reheating histories of dim isolated neutron stars(DINs) are discussed. Energy dissipation due to dipole spindown with ordinary and magnetar fields, and due to torques from a fallback disk are considered as alternative sources of reheating which would set the temperature of the neutron star after the initial cooling era. Cooling or thermal ages are related to the numbers and formation rates of the DINs and therefore to their relations with other isolated neutron star populations. Interaction with a fallback disk, higher multipole fields and activity of the neutron star are briefly discussed.

M. Ali Alpar

2006-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

207

Passive cooling safety system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA); Hui, Marvin M. (Sunnyvale, CA); Berglund, Robert C. (Saratoga, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Indirect passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

SIMULATING THE COOLING FLOW OF COOL-CORE CLUSTERS  

SciTech Connect

We carry out high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement simulations of a cool core cluster, resolving the flow from Mpc scales down to pc scales. We do not (yet) include any active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating, focusing instead on cooling in order to understand how gas reaches the supermassive black hole at the center of the cluster. We find that, as the gas cools, the cluster develops a very flat temperature profile, undergoing a cooling catastrophe only in the central 10-100 pc of the cluster. Outside of this region, the flow is smooth, with no local cooling instabilities, and naturally produces very little low-temperature gas (below a few keV), in agreement with observations. The gas cooling in the center of the cluster rapidly forms a thin accretion disk. The amount of cold gas produced at the very center grows rapidly until a reasonable estimate of the resulting AGN heating rate (assuming even a moderate accretion efficiency) would overwhelm cooling. We argue that this naturally produces a thermostat which links the cooling of gas out to 100 kpc with the cold gas accretion in the central 100 pc, potentially closing the loop between cooling and heating. Isotropic heat conduction does not affect the result significantly, but we show that including the potential well of the brightest cluster galaxy is necessary to obtain the correct result. Also, we found that the outcome is sensitive to resolution, requiring very high mass resolution to correctly reproduce the small transition radius.

Li Yuan; Bryan, Greg L. [Department of Astronomy, Pupin Physics Laboratories, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Development of a Very Dense Liquid Cooled Compute Platform  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to design and develop a prototype very energy efficient high density compute platform with 100% pumped refrigerant liquid cooling using commodity components and high volume manufacturing techniques. Testing at SLAC has indicated that we achieved a DCIE of 0.93 against our original goal of 0.85. This number includes both cooling and power supply and was achieved employing some of the highest wattage processors available.

Hughes, Phillip N.; Lipp, Robert J.

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

211

Interaction of lighting, heating, and cooling systems in buildings  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of building lighting and HVAC systems, and the effects on cooling load and lighting system performance, are being evaluated using a full-scale test facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The results from a number of test configurations are described, including lighting system efficiency and cooling load due to lighting. The effect of lighting and HVAC system design and operation on performance is evaluated. Design considerations are discussed.

Treado, S.J.; Bean, J.W.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Cooling of X-ray Emitting Gas by Heat Conduction in the Center of Cooling Flow Clusters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the possibility that a large fraction of the gas at temperatures of ? 10 7 K in cooling flow clusters cools by heat conduction to lower temperatures, rather than by radiative cooling. We argue that this process, when incorporated into the so-called moderate cooling flow model, where the effective age of the intracluster medium is much lower than the age of the cluster, reduces substantially the expected X-ray luminosity from gas residing at temperatures of ? 10 7 K. In this model, the radiative mass cooling rate of gas at ? 10 7 K inferred from X-ray observations, which is heat conduction is regulated by reconnection between the magnetic field lines in cold ( ? 10 4 K) clouds and the field lines in the intracluster medium. A narrow conduction front is formed, which, despite the relatively low temperature, allows efficient heat conduction from the hot ICM to the cold clouds. The reconnection between the field lines in cold clouds and those in the intracluster medium occurs only when the magnetic field in the ICM is strong enough. This occurs only in the very inner regions of cooling flow clusters, at r ? 10 ? 30 kpc. The large ratio of the number of H? photons to the number of cooling hydrogen atoms is explained by this scenario. 1.

Noam Soker; L. Blanton; Craig L. Sarazin; Chandra Fellow

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Survey on Cooling Costs and Related Factors for Apartments in an Urban Area of Osaka  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A questionnaire survey was carried out to assess cooling behaviors and cooling costs for 290 apartments in an urban area. 1) Cooling costs are strongly related to the number of air conditioners, the months of occupation, and the air conditioner usage frequency during sleep. Lifestyle and ecological interest do not decrease costs. 2) Target temperatures of air conditioning are strongly related to the air pollution outdoors, and to the frequency of window opening. Cooling temperatures are affected by the residents' constitution. 3) Both cooling temperature and air-conditioner use frequency are higher for residents worried more about dew, humidity, odors, and mold. 4) Air-conditioner use frequency is higher for residents who are annoyed by glances from outside and for those with a higher preference of outdoors. 5) South openings are related to the lower cooling costs and higher cooling temperatures, whereas west openings are related to higher cooling costs.

Umemiya, N.; Lin, X.; Inoue, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Beam cooling: Principles and achievements  

SciTech Connect

After a discussion of Liouville's theorem, and its implications for beam cooling, a brief description is given of each of the various methods of beam cooling: stochastic, electron, radiation, laser, ionization, etc. For each, we present the type of particle for which it is appropriate, its range of applicability, and the currently achieved degree of cooling. For each method we also discuss the present applications and, also, possible future developments and further applications.

Mohl, Dieter; Sessler, Andrew M.

2003-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

215

Variable area fuel cell cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell arrangement having cooling fluid flow passages which vary in surface area from the inlet to the outlet of the passages. A smaller surface area is provided at the passage inlet, which increases toward the passage outlet, so as to provide more uniform cooling of the entire fuel cell. The cooling passages can also be spaced from one another in an uneven fashion.

Kothmann, Richard E. (Churchill Borough, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Muon Cooling R&D  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

International efforts are under way to design and test a muon ionization cooling channel. The present R&D program is described, and future plans outlined.

Steve Geer

2001-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

217

Influence of Cooling on Distortion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 11   Factors that influence the cooling intensity of liquid quenchants...the vapor pressure is, the more difficult the

218

Laser Cooling of Trapped Ions.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... period, so it can be assumed to give an in- stantaneous impulse to the ... In sympathetic laser cooling, two different ion species are loaded into a trap. ...

2002-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

219

Theory of Semiconductor Laser Cooling .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Recently laser cooling of semiconductors has received renewed attention, with the hope that a semiconductor cooler might be able to achieve cryogenic temperatures. In order (more)

Rupper, Greg

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Thermally activated miniaturized cooling system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A comprehensive study of a miniaturized thermally activated cooling system was conducted. This study represents the first work to conceptualize, design, fabricate and successfully test (more)

Determan, Matthew Delos

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "floorspace cooled number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Direct cooled power electronics substrate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

Wiles, Randy H. (Powell, TN), Wereszczak, Andrew A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN); Lowe, Kirk T. (Knoxville, TN)

2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

222

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

ESTIMATE Consumption Expenditures Residential Buildings per Total per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot Household Member Household Households Number

223

GAS COOLED NUCLEAR REACTORS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas-cooled nuclear reactor consisting of a graphite reacting core and reflector structure supported in a containing vessel is described. A gas sealing means is included for sealing between the walls of the graphite structure and containing vessel to prevent the gas coolant by-passing the reacting core. The reacting core is a multi-sided right prismatic structure having a pair of parallel slots around its periphery. The containing vessel is cylindrical and has a rib on its internal surface which supports two continuous ring shaped flexible web members with their radially innermost ends in sealing engagement within the radially outermost portion of the slots. The core structure is supported on ball bearings. This design permits thermal expansion of the core stracture and vessel while maintainirg a peripheral seal between the tvo elements.

Long, E.; Rodwell, W.

1958-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

224

Film cooling for a closed loop cooled airfoil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Turbine stator vane segments have radially inner and outer walls with vanes extending therebetween. The inner and outer walls are compartmentalized and have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall plenum passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall upper surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. At least one film cooling hole is defined through a wall of at least one of the cavities for flow communication between an interior of the cavity and an exterior of the vane. The film cooling hole(s) are defined adjacent a potential low LCF life region, so that cooling medium that bleeds out through the film cooling hole(s) reduces a thermal gradient in a vicinity thereof, thereby the increase the LCF life of that region.

Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY); Yu, Yufeng Phillip (Simpsonville, SC); Itzel, Gary Michael (Simpsonville, SC)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

A Wind-Tunnel Study of Wind Effects on Air-Cooled Condensers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to increasing competition for fresh water supplies in the future, development of power plants that use a minimum of water is crucial. When minimizing water use in a water-constrained environment, direct dry cooling systems are a good alternative to once-through cooling systems with an evaporative wet cooling tower. The core of any direct dry cooling system is an air-cooled condenser (ACC). A number of studies have shown that wind can negatively impact ACC system performance. Based on these observati...

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

226

Gaussian random number generators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rapid generation of high quality Gaussian random numbers is a key capability for simulations across a wide range of disciplines. Advances in computing have brought the power to conduct simulations with very large numbers of random numbers and with it, ... Keywords: Gaussian, Random numbers, normal, simulation

David B. Thomas; Wayne Luk; Philip H.W. Leong; John D. Villasenor

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

Forsberg, C.W.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Cool Roofs July 26, 2013 - 10:36am Addthis White painted roofs have been popular since ancient times in places like Greece. Similar technology can be easy to adapt to modern homes and other buildings. | Credit: ©iStockphoto/PhotoTalk White painted roofs have been popular since ancient times in places like Greece. Similar technology can be easy to adapt to modern homes and other buildings. | Credit: ©iStockphoto/PhotoTalk If you live in a hot climate, a cool roof can: Save you money on air conditioning Make your home more comfortable in hot weather How does it work? By making your roof more reflective, you reduce heat gain into your home. Check out these resources for more information. A cool roof is one that has been designed to reflect more sunlight and

230

Laser cooling to quantum degeneracy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in a gas of strontium atoms, using laser cooling as the only cooling mechanism. The condensate is formed within a sample that is continuously Doppler cooled to below 1\\muK on a narrow-linewidth transition. The critical phase-space density for BEC is reached in a central region of the sample, in which atoms are rendered transparent for laser cooling photons. The density in this region is enhanced by an additional dipole trap potential. Thermal equilibrium between the gas in this central region and the surrounding laser cooled part of the cloud is established by elastic collisions. Condensates of up to 10^5 atoms can be repeatedly formed on a timescale of 100ms, with prospects for the generation of a continuous atom laser.

Stellmer, Simon; Grimm, Rudolf; Schreck, Florian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Keeping cool in the job  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Describes cooling garments used at nuclear plants to keep workers cooler for longer periods of time, safeguard health, boost efficiency, and elevate morale. Examines 2 cooling concepts tested by EPRI in laboratory and field conditions: using circulating liquids for cooling (represented by 2 commercially available personal cooling systems); and using frozen water for cooling (represented by 2 prototype garments recently developed by EPRI). Explains that pipes and pressure vessels inside nuclear power plants give off significant amounts of waste heat, with temperatures reaching up to 55C (131F)-not very comfortable for maintenance workers who are swathed in radiation protection gear and doing repair work. Finds that the frozen-water concept may considerably extend working time in the power plant. Concludes that the right research can overcome heat, humidity, and close quarters which conspire to make maintenance work in power plants a tough task.

Lihach, N.; O'Brien, J.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Film cooling air pocket in a closed loop cooled airfoil  

SciTech Connect

Turbine stator vane segments have radially inner and outer walls with vanes extending between them. The inner and outer walls are compartmentalized and have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall plenum passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall upper surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. To provide for air film cooing of select portions of the airfoil outer surface, at least one air pocket is defined on a wall of at least one of the cavities. Each air pocket is substantially closed with respect to the cooling medium in the cavity and cooling air pumped to the air pocket flows through outlet apertures in the wall of the airfoil to cool the same.

Yu, Yufeng Phillip (Simpsonville, SC); Itzel, Gary Michael (Simpsonville, SC); Osgood, Sarah Jane (East Thetford, VT); Bagepalli, Radhakrishna (Schenectady, NY); Webbon, Waylon Willard (Greenville, SC); Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Improving efficiency of high-concentrator photovoltaics by cooling with  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improving efficiency of high-concentrator photovoltaics by cooling with Improving efficiency of high-concentrator photovoltaics by cooling with two-phase forced convection Title Improving efficiency of high-concentrator photovoltaics by cooling with two-phase forced convection Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2010 Authors Ho, Tony, Samuel S. Mao, and Ralph Greif Journal International Journal of Energy Research Volume 34 Start Page 1257 Issue 14 Pagination 1257-1271 Date Published 11/2010 Keywords high-concentrator photovoltaic efficiency, two-phase flow cooling applications Abstract The potential of increasing high-concentrator photovoltaic cell efficiency by cooling with two-phase flow is analyzed. The governing energy equations were used to predict cell temperature distributions and cell efficiencies for a photovoltaic cell under 100 suns' concentration. Several design conditions were taken into consideration in the analysis, including cooling channel height, working fluid type (between water and R134a), working fluid inlet temperature, pressure, and mass flow rate. It was observed that the dominant parameter for increasing cell efficiency was the working fluid saturation temperature, which itself is affected by a number of the aforementioned design parameters. The results show R134a at low inlet pressures to be highly effective in this two-phase cooling design.

234

New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Cool Roof Coatings and New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt Shingles Meng-Dawn Cheng Oak Ridge National Laboratory chengmd@ornl.gov; 865-241-5918 April 4, 2013 PM: Andre Desjarlais PI: Meng-Dawn Cheng, Ph.D. David Graham, Ph.D. Sue Carroll Steve Allman Dawn Klingeman Susan Pfiffner, Ph.D. (FY12) Karen Cheng (FY12) Partner: Joe Rokowski (Dow) Roof Testing Facility at ORNL Building Technologies Research and Integration Center 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov * Building accounted for 41% of the US energy consumption in 2010 greater than either transportation (28%) or industry (31%).

235

New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Cool Roof Coatings and New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt Shingles Meng-Dawn Cheng Oak Ridge National Laboratory chengmd@ornl.gov; 865-241-5918 April 4, 2013 PM: Andre Desjarlais PI: Meng-Dawn Cheng, Ph.D. David Graham, Ph.D. Sue Carroll Steve Allman Dawn Klingeman Susan Pfiffner, Ph.D. (FY12) Karen Cheng (FY12) Partner: Joe Rokowski (Dow) Roof Testing Facility at ORNL Building Technologies Research and Integration Center 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov * Building accounted for 41% of the US energy consumption in 2010 greater than either transportation (28%) or industry (31%).

236

Acoustic cooling engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An acoustic cooling engine with improved thermal performance and reduced internal losses comprises a compressible fluid contained in a resonant pressure vessel. The fluid has a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and is capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave. A thermodynamic element has first and second ends and is located in the resonant pressure vessel in thermal communication with the fluid. The thermal response of the thermodynamic element to the acoustic standing wave pumps heat from the second end to the first end. The thermodynamic element permits substantial flow of the fluid through the thermodynamic element. An acoustic driver cyclically drives the fluid with an acoustic standing wave. The driver is at a location of maximum acoustic impedance in the resonant pressure vessel and proximate the first end of the thermodynamic element. A hot heat exchanger is adjacent to and in thermal communication with the first end of the thermodynamic element. The hot heat exchanger conducts heat from the first end to portions of the resonant pressure vessel proximate the hot heat exchanger. The hot heat exchanger permits substantial flow of the fluid through the hot heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one quarter wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir. The frequency of the acoustic driver can be continuously controlled so as to maintain resonance.

Hofler, Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM); Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Cool Roofs: Your Questions Answered | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Roofs: Your Questions Answered Roofs: Your Questions Answered Cool Roofs: Your Questions Answered January 6, 2011 - 2:58pm Addthis John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Last month Secretary Chu announced that the Department of Energy had installed a "cool roof" atop the west building of our Washington, DC headquarters. The announcement elicited a fair number of questions from his Facebook fans, so we decided to reach out to the people behind the project for their insight on the specific benefits of switching to a cool roof, and the process that went into making that choice. Jim Bullis (Facebook): So what is the percentage saving of energy bills for this building? Answer: The West Building cool roof is estimated to save about $2,000 per

238

Prospects for Doppler cooling of three-electronic-level molecules  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analogous to the extension of laser cooling techniques from two-level to three-level atoms, Doppler cooling of molecules with an intermediate electronic state is considered. In particular, we use a rate-equation approach to simulate cooling of SiO{sup +}, in which population buildup in the intermediate state is prevented by its short lifetime. We determine that Doppler cooling of SiO{sup +} can be accomplished without optically repumping from the intermediate state, at the cost of causing undesirable parity flips and rotational diffusion. Since the necessary repumping would require a large number of continuous-wave lasers, optical pulse shaping of a femtosecond laser is proposed as an attractive alternative. Other candidate three-electron-level molecules are also discussed.

Nguyen, J. H. V.; Odom, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

239

Laser-driven Sisyphus cooling in an optical dipole trap  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a laser-driven Sisyphus-cooling scheme for atoms confined in a far-off resonance optical dipole trap. Utilizing the differential trap-induced ac Stark shift, two electronic levels of the atom are resonantly coupled by a cooling laser preferentially near the trap bottom. After absorption of a cooling photon, the atom loses energy by climbing the steeper potential, and then spontaneously decays preferentially away from the trap bottom. The proposed method is particularly suited to cooling alkaline-earth-metal-like atoms where two-level systems with narrow electronic transitions are present. Numerical simulations for the cases of {sup 88}Sr and {sup 174}Yb demonstrate the expected recoil and Doppler temperature limits. The method requires a relatively small number of scattered photons and can potentially lead to phase-space densities approaching quantum degeneracy in subsecond time scales.

Ivanov, Vladyslav V.; Gupta, Subhadeep [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Physics Department, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

240

Predictive pre-cooling control for low lift radiant cooling using building thermal mass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low lift cooling systems (LLCS) hold the potential for significant energy savings relative to conventional cooling systems. An LLCS is a cooling system which leverages existing HVAC technologies to provide low energy cooling ...

Gayeski, Nicholas (Nicholas Thomas)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "floorspace cooled number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Quantum Random Number Generator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... trusted beacon of random numbers. You could conduct secure auctions, or certify randomized audits of data. One of the most ...

2013-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

242

Non-intrusive cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A readily replaceable heat exchange cooling jacket for applying fluid to a system conduit pipe. The cooling jacket comprises at least two members, separable into upper and lower portions. A chamber is formed between the conduit pipe and cooling jacket once the members are positioned about the pipe. The upper portion includes a fluid spray means positioned above the pipe and the bottom portion includes a fluid removal means. The heat exchange cooling jacket is adaptable with a drain tank, a heat exchanger, a pump and other standard equipment to provide a system for removing heat from a pipe. A method to remove heat from a pipe, includes the steps of enclosing a portion of the pipe with a jacket to form a chamber between an outside surface of the pipe and the cooling jacket; spraying cooling fluid at low pressure from an upper portion of the cooling jacket, allowing the fluid to flow downwardly by gravity along the surface of the pipe toward a bottom portion of the chamber; and removing the fluid at the bottom portion of the chamber.

Morrison, Edward F. (Burnt Hills, NY); Bergman, John W. (Barrington, NH)

2001-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

243

CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SOLAR HEATING and COOLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

l U CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING* M.Wahlig,be capable of operating solar heating and cooling systemsand now transferred to ERDA, on solar heating and cooling of

Dols, C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Evaluation of the cooling fan efficiency index.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

between the cooling effect (measured with a thermal manikin)output is the body cooling effect [5]. Thermal manikins withThermal manikins can be used to measure the fan cooling

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Introduction of a Cooling Fan Efficiency Index  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the cooling effect measured with the thermal manikin andThe mea- sured cooling effect with the thermal manikin isby a thermal manikin to quantify the cooling effects of air

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

MUCOOL: Ionization Cooling R&D  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laboratory MUCOOL Muon Ionization Cooling R&D Welcome to the muon ionization cooling experimental R&D page. The MuCool collaboration has been formed to pursue the development of a...

247

Cooling arrangement for a tapered turbine blade  

SciTech Connect

A cooling arrangement (11) for a highly tapered gas turbine blade (10). The cooling arrangement (11) includes a pair of parallel triple-pass serpentine cooling circuits (80,82) formed in an inner radial portion (50) of the blade, and a respective pair of single radial channel cooling circuits (84,86) formed in an outer radial portion (52) of the blade (10), with each single radial channel receiving the cooling fluid discharged from a respective one of the triple-pass serpentine cooling circuit. The cooling arrangement advantageously provides a higher degree of cooling to the most highly stressed radially inner portion of the blade, while providing a lower degree of cooling to the less highly stressed radially outer portion of the blade. The cooling arrangement can be implemented with known casting techniques, thereby facilitating its use on highly tapered, highly twisted Row 4 industrial gas turbine blades that could not be cooled with prior art cooling arrangements.

Liang, George (Palm City, FL)

2010-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

248

Laser cooling and sympathetic cooling in a linear quadrupole rf trap  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An investigation of the sympathetic cooling method for the studies of large ultra-cold molecular ions in a quadrupole ion trap has been conducted.Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the rf heating mechanisms in the ion trap. The dependence of rf heating rates on the ion temperature, trapping parameters, and the number of ions is obtained. New rf heating mechanism affecting ultra-cold ion clouds exposed to laser radiation is described.The saturation spectroscopy setup of the hyperfine spectra of the molecular iodine has been built to provide an accurate frequency reference for the laser wavelength. This reference is used to obtain the fluorescence lineshapes of the laser cooled Mg$^+$ ions under different trapping conditions.The ion temperatures are deduced from the measurements, and the influence of the rf heating rates on the fluorescence lineshapes is also discussed. Cooling of the heavy ($m=720$a.u.) fullerene ions to under 10K by the means of the sympathetic cooling by the Mg$^+$ ions($m=24$a.u.) is demonstrated. The single-photon imaging system has been developed and used to obtain the images of the Mg$^+$ ion crystal structures at mK temperatures.

Ryjkov, Vladimir Leonidovich

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Economic Evaluation of Alternative Cooling Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water use and conservation at electric power plants are becoming increasingly important siting issues. At most plants, the requirement for condensing exhaust steam from the steam turbine, generically known as power plant cooling, is the major use of water. Alternative cooling systems exist, including once-through cooling, wet-recirculating cooling, dry cooling, and hybrid (or wet/dry cooling), some of which offer significant opportunity for water conservation. These water savings normally, but perhaps no...

2012-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

250

IEP - Water-Energy Interface: Cooling Water Intake Structures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The types of cooling water systems to be evaluated are: Wet Cooling Tower - The condenser is cooled with water recirculated to a mechanical draft cooling tower. Because there...

251

Thermally Activated Cooling: A Regional Approach for Estimating Building Adoption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Distributed Generation, Absorption Cooling, Space Cooling,use heat to drive an absorption cooling cycle, and the heatlargest drivers for absorption cooling technology adoption

Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Cool roofs could save money, save planet  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool roofs could save money, save planet Title Cool roofs could save money, save planet Publication Type Broadcast Year of Publication 2009 Authors Akbari, Hashem, and Arthur H....

253

Temperature and cooling management in computing systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

78 5.2 Combined Energy, Thermal and CoolingOne reason for thermal and energy variations betweenWe propose a combined energy, thermal and cooling management

Ayoub, Raid

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Vehicle Cooling Systems - Energy Innovation Portal  

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell; Hydropower, Wave and ... The cabin cooling system includes at least one fan to draw the hot air into the cooling duct at a ...

255

Cooling Technologies | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Technologies Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Power Plant Cooling Technologies Cooling Technologies Cooling tower at Steamboat Springs geothermal power plant in Steamboat Springs, NV. Power generation facilities that rely on thermal sources as their energy inputs such as Coal, Natural Gas, Geothermal, Concentrates Solar Power, and Nuclear require cooling technologies to reject the heat that is created. The second law of thermodynamics states: "No process can convert heat absorbed from a reservoir at one temperature directly into work without also rejecting heat to a cooler reservoir. That is, no heat engine is 100% efficient"[1] In the context of power generation from thermal energy, this means that any heat that is created must be rejected. Heat is most commonly rejected in

256

Multi-Photon Laser Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... used traditional cooling beams at 852 nm in the x-y plane, but replaced the usual two beams along z with lasers at 795 nm. This laser only couples ...

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

257

Success Stories: Cool Color Roofs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

instead of absorbing, solar heat. So the question for scientists interested in increasing energy efficiency is, can one make a roof that is both cool and dark? Hashem Akbari, Paul...

258

Convective Cooling of Lightning Channels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report experimental data which trace the time development of electric discharge channels in air and which demonstrate the turbulent cooling of such channels. These data provide qualitative confirmation of the model proposed and used by Hill, ...

J. M. Picone; J. P. Boris; J. R. Greig; M. Raleigh; R. F. Fernsler

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Energy Savers: Cool Summer Tips  

SciTech Connect

A tri-fold brochure addressing energy-saving tips for homeowners ranging from low- or no-cost suggestions to higher cost suggestions for longer-term savings. Cooling, windows, weatherizing, and landscaping are addressed.

Miller, M.

2001-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

260

Cooling Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

heat is drawn out of the air and the cooled air is blown into the space by the cooler's fan. Air Conditioning Air conditioners, which employ the same operating principles and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "floorspace cooled number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Advance in MEIC cooling studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling of ion beams is essential for achieving a high luminosity for MEIC at Jefferson Lab. In this paper, we present the design concept of the electron cooling system for MEIC. In the design, two facilities are required for supporting a multi-staged cooling scheme; one is a 2 MeV DC cooler in the ion pre-booster; the other is a high electron energy (up to 55 MeV) ERL-circulator cooler in the collider ring. The simulation studies of beam dynamics in an ERL-circulator cooler are summarized and followed by a report on technology development for this cooler. We also discuss two proposed experiments for demonstrating high energy cooling with a bunched electron beam and the ERL-circulator cooler.

Zhang, Yuhong [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Derbenev, Ya. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Douglas, D. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Hutton, A. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Kimber, A. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Li, R. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Nissen, E. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Tennant, [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, H. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Absorption Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

it is also referred to as gas-fired cooling. Other potential heat sources include propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Although mainly used in industrial...

263

Cooling Towers, Energy Conservation Machines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling towers, in all too many industrial plants, are often the neglected units of the process chain which are hidden bonanzas for energy conservation and dollar savings. By lowering the entire systems temperature by the use of colder water returning from the cooling tower, greater chemical product volume can be condensed and less energy is required to run compressors. This paper will discuss two case histories and the rapid cost-effective savings thereby accruing through retrofit.

Burger, R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Quantum limit of photothermal cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the problem of cooling a mechanical oscillator using the photothermal (bolometric) force. Contrary to previous attempts to model this system, we take into account the noise effects due to the granular nature of photon absorption. This allows us to tackle the cooling problem down to the noise dominated regime and to find reasonable estimates for the lowest achievable phonon occupation in the cantilever.

De Liberato, Simone; Nori, Franco

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

R93HC.PDF  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

3. Total Air-Conditioning in U.S. Households, 1993 Housing Unit and Household Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Households (millions) Cooled Floorspace (square feet per...

266

Energy Efficient Electronics Cooling Project  

SciTech Connect

Parker Precision Cooling Business Unit was awarded a Department of Energy grant (DE-EE0000412) to support the DOE-ITP goal of reducing industrial energy intensity and GHG emissions. The project proposed by Precision Cooling was to accelerate the development of a cooling technology for high heat generating electronics components. These components are specifically related to power electronics found in power drives focused on the inverter, converter and transformer modules. The proposed cooling system was expected to simultaneously remove heat from all three of the major modules listed above, while remaining dielectric under all operating conditions. Development of the cooling system to meet specific customer's requirements and constraints not only required a robust system design, but also new components to support long system functionality. Components requiring further development and testing during this project included pumps, fluid couplings, cold plates and condensers. All four of these major categories of components are required in every Precision Cooling system. Not only was design a key area of focus, but the process for manufacturing these components had to be determined and proven through the system development.

Steve O'Shaughnessey; Tim Louvar; Mike Trumbower; Jessica Hunnicutt; Neil Myers

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

267

Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

268

Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

English, William A. (Murrysville, PA); Young, Robert R. (Murrysville, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquid cooling is key to reducing energy consumption for this generation of supercomputers and remains on the roadmap for the foreseeable future. This is because the heat capacity of liquids is orders of magnitude larger than that of air and once heat has been transferred to a liquid, it can be removed from the datacenter efficiently. The transition from air to liquid cooling is an inflection point providing an opportunity to work collectively to set guidelines for facilitating the energy efficiency of liquid-cooled High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities and systems. The vision is to use non-compressor-based cooling, to facilitate heat re-use, and thereby build solutions that are more energy-efficient, less carbon intensive and more cost effective than their air-cooled predecessors. The Energy Efficient HPC Working Group is developing guidelines for warmer liquid-cooling temperatures in order to standardize facility and HPC equipment, and provide more opportunity for reuse of waste heat. This report describes the development of those guidelines.

IBM Corporation; Energy Efficient HPC Working Group; Hewlett Packard Corporation; SGI; Cray Inc.; Intel Corporation; U.S. Army Engineer Research Development Center; Coles, Henry; Ellsworth, Michael; Martinez, David J.; Bailey, Anna-Maria; Banisadr, Farhad; Bates, Natalie; Coghlan, Susan; Cowley, David E.; Dube, Nicholas; Fields, Parks; Greenberg, Steve; Iyengar, Madhusudan; Kulesza, Peter R.; Loncaric, Josip; McCann, Tim; Pautsch, Greg; Patterson, Michael K.; Rivera, Richard G.; Rottman, Greg K.; Sartor, Dale; Tschudi, William; Vinson, Wade; Wescott, Ralph

2011-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

270

Cooling System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Cooling technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these technologies work. Ventilation Ventilation allows air to move into and out of homes and buildings either by natural or mechanical means. Evaporative Cooling In dry climates, evaporative cooling or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the cooler. The heat is drawn out of the air and the cooled air is blown into the space by the cooler's fan. Air Conditioning Air conditioners, which employ the same operating principles and basic

271

Cooling System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Cooling technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these technologies work. Ventilation Ventilation allows air to move into and out of homes and buildings either by natural or mechanical means. Evaporative Cooling In dry climates, evaporative cooling or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the cooler. The heat is drawn out of the air and the cooled air is blown into the space by the cooler's fan. Air Conditioning Air conditioners, which employ the same operating principles and basic

272

Definition: Water Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Cooling Water Cooling Water cooling is commonly defined as a method of using water as a heat conduction to remove heat from an object, machine, or other substance by passing cold water over or through it. In energy generation, water cooling is typically used to cool steam back into water so it can be used again in the generation process.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Water cooling is a method of heat removal from components and industrial equipment. As opposed to air cooling, water is used as the heat conductor. Water cooling is commonly used for cooling automobile internal combustion engines and large industrial facilities such as steam electric power plants, hydroelectric generators, petroleum refineries and chemical plants. Other uses include cooling the barrels of machine guns, cooling of

273

Oriented spray-assisted cooling tower  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Apparatus useful for heat exchange by evaporative cooling when employed in conjunction with a conventional cooling tower. The arrangement includes a header pipe which is used to divert a portion of the water in the cooling tower supply conduit up stream of the cooling tower to a multiplicity of vertical pipes and spray nozzles which are evenly spaced external to the cooling tower so as to produce a uniform spray pattern oriented toward the central axis of the cooling tower and thereby induce an air flow into the cooling tower which is greater than otherwise achieved. By spraying the water to be cooled towards the cooling tower in a region external to the cooling tower in a manner such that the spray falls just short of the cooling tower basin, the spray does not interfere with the operation of the cooling tower, proper, and the-maximum increase in air velocity is achieved just above the cooling tower basin where it is most effective. The sprayed water lands on a concrete or asphalt apron which extends from the header pipe to the cooling tower basin and is gently sloped towards the cooling tower basin such that the sprayed water drains into the basin. By diverting a portion of the water to be cooled to a multiplicity of sprays external to the cooling tower, thermal performance is improved. 4 figs.

Bowman, C.F.

1995-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

274

Untapped Energy Savings from Cooling Towers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A cooling tower is often an overlooked source of easy energy savings. As long as it's running not much thought is usually given to it, but when numbers are applied to how much a degree of colder water is worth it can become a valuable and ready source of energy and monetary savings. Many of these savings can come from simple maintenance or by changing the way the tower is operated. The more dramatic savings can come from changing to advanced fill concepts. Over our 40 years of working in the cooling tower industry we have measured the effects of doing simple maintenance, the effects of blocking air flow with seemingly good ideas like maintenance walkways, the effects of nearby heat sources, and what fill changes are likely to get. We have put numbers to what a degree is worth to a large petrochemical company so you can get an idea of the magnitude of what these sometimes simple changes are actually worth. Also, we've included a way to monitor your tower for changes in performance.

Phelps Jr., P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

An Improved Simple Chilled Water Cooling Coil Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Improved Simple Chilled Water Cooling Coil Model An Improved Simple Chilled Water Cooling Coil Model Title An Improved Simple Chilled Water Cooling Coil Model Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBNL-6031E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Wang, Liping, Philip Haves, and Walter F. Buhl Conference Name SimBuild 2012 IBPSA Conference Date Published 08/2012 Abstract The accurate prediction of cooling and dehumidification coil performance is important in model-based fault detection and in the prediction of HVAC system energy consumption for support of both design and operations. It is frequently desirable to use a simple cooling coil model that does not require detailed specification of coil geometry and material properties. The approach adopted is to match the overall UA of the coil to the rating conditions and to estimate the air-side and water-side components of the UA using correlations developed by Holmes (1982). This approach requires some geometrical information about the coil and the paper investigates the sensitivity of the overall performance prediction to uncertainties in this information, including assuming a fixed ratio of air-side to water-side UA at the rating condition. Finally, simulation results from different coil models are compared, and experimental data are used to validate the improved cooling coil model.

276

Adaptive Cooling of Integrated Circuits using Digital Microfluidics. Artech House  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AbstractThermal management is critical for integrated circuit (IC) design. With each new IC technology generation, feature sizes decrease, while operating speeds and package densities increase. These factors contribute to elevated die temperatures detrimental to circuit performance and reliability. Furthermore, hot spots due to spatially nonuniform heat flux in ICs can cause physical stress that further reduces reliability. While a number of chip cooling techniques have been proposed in the literature, most are still unable to address the varying thermal profiles of an IC and their capability to remove a large amount of heat is undermined by their lack of reconfigurability of flows. We present an alternative cooling technique based on a recently invented "digital microfluidic " platform. This novel digital fluid handling platform uses a phenomenon known as electrowetting, and allows for a vast array of discrete droplets of liquid, ranging from microliters to nanoliters, and potentially picoliters, to be independently moved along a substrate. While this technology was originally developed for a biological and chemical lab-on-a-chip, we show how it can be adapted to be used as a fully reconfigurable, adaptive cooling platform. Index TermsAdaptive cooling, chip cooling, digital microfluidics, electrowetting, hot-spot cooling, microfluidics. I.

Philip Y. Paik; Vamsee K. Pamula; Krishnendu Chakrabarty

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Texas Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) Texas Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Texas Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of...

278

Bartholomew Heating and Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heating and Cooling Heating and Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Name Bartholomew Heating and Cooling Place Linwood, NJ Website http://bartholomewheatingandco References Bartholomew Heating and Cooling[1] Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes Partnership Type Test & Evaluation Partner Partnering Center within NREL Electricity Resources & Building Systems Integration LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! Bartholomew Heating and Cooling is a company located in Linwood, NJ. References ↑ "Bartholomew Heating and Cooling" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Bartholomew_Heating_and_Cooling&oldid=381585" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations

279

Personal cooling apparatus and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable lightweight cooling apparatus for cooling a human body is disclosed, having a channeled sheet which absorbs sweat and/or evaporative liquid, a layer of highly conductive fibers adjacent the channeled sheet; and, an air-moving device for moving air through the channeled sheet, wherein the layer of fibers redistributes heat uniformly across the object being cooled, while the air moving within the channeled sheet evaporates sweat and/or other evaporative liquid, absorbs evaporated moisture and the uniformly distributed heat generated by the human body, and discharges them into the environment. Also disclosed is a method for removing heat generated by the human body, comprising the steps of providing a garment to be placed in thermal communication with the body; placing a layer of highly conductive fibers within the garment adjacent the body for uniformly distributing the heat generated by the body; attaching an air-moving device in communication with the garment for forcing air into the garment; removably positioning an exchangeable heat sink in communication with the air-moving device for cooling the air prior to the air entering the garment; and, equipping the garment with a channeled sheet in communication with the air-moving device so that air can be directed into the channeled sheet and adjacent the layer of fibers to expell heat and moisture from the body by the air being directed out of the channeled sheet and into the environment. The cooling system may be configured to operate in both sealed and unsealed garments.

Siman-Tov, Moshe (Knoxville, TN); Crabtree, Jerry Allen (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

A Successful Cool Storage Rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Houston Lighting & Power (HL&P) initiated design and development of its commercial cool storage program as part of an integrated resource planning process with a targeted 225 MW of demand reduction through DSM. Houston's extensive commercial air conditioning load, which is highly coincident with HL&P's system peak, provided a large market for cool storage technologies. Initial market research made it very clear that a special cool storage rate was required to successfully market the technology. Development of the rate required an integrated, multidepartment effort and extensive use of DSManager, an integrated resource planning model. An experimental version of the rate was initially implemented as part of the initial phase of the cool storage program. A permanent rate, incorporating lessons learned from the experimental rate, was then developed for the long term implementation of the program. The permanent rate went through a lengthy regulatory approval process which included intervention by a local natural gas distribution company. The end result is a very successful cool storage program with 52 projects and 31 megawatts of demand reduction in the first three and one-half years of program implementation.

Ahrens, A. C.; Sobey, T. M.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "floorspace cooled number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Cooling Towers, Energy Conservation Strategies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling towers, because of their seeming simplicity, are usually orphans of the facilities operation. We are all aware that cooling towers are the step-children of the chemical process plant, electric power generating station, and refrigeration system. While our engineers are pretty well convinced of the importance of their sophisticated equipment, and rightly so, they take the cooling towers and the cold water returning from them for granted. Design Conditions are specified for the particular requirements before a cooling tower is purchased. After it is put on the line and the cold water temperature or volume becomes inadequate, they look to solutions other than the obvious. While all cooling towers are purchased to function at 100% of capability in accordance with the required Design Conditions, in actual on stream employment, the level of operation many times is lower, downwards to as much as 50% due to a variety of reasons: (1) The present service needed is now greater than the original requirements which the tower was purchased for; (2) 'Slippage' due to usage and perhaps deficient maintenance has reduced the performance of the tower over years of operation; (3) The installation could have been originally undersized due to the low bidder syndrome; and (4) New plant expansion needs colder temperatures off the tower.

Burger, R.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Oxygen Absorption in Cooling Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The inhomogeneous cooling flow scenario predicts the existence of large quantities of gas in massive elliptical galaxies, groups, and clusters that have cooled and dropped out of the flow. Using spatially resolved, deprojected X-ray spectra from the ROSAT PSPC we have detected strong absorption over energies ~0.4-0.8 keV intrinsic to the central ~1 arcmin of the galaxy, NGC 1399, the group, NGC 5044, and the cluster, A1795. These systems have amongst the largest nearby cooling flows in their respective classes and low Galactic columns. Since no excess absorption is indicated for energies below ~0.4 keV the most reasonable model for the absorber is warm, collisionally ionized gas with T=10^{5-6} K where ionized states of oxygen provide most of the absorption. Attributing the absorption only to ionized gas reconciles the large columns of cold H and He inferred from Einstein and ASCA with the lack of such columns inferred from ROSAT, and also is consistent with the negligible atomic and molecular H inferred from HI, and CO observations of cooling flows. The prediction of warm ionized gas as the product of mass drop-out in these and other cooling flows can be verified by Chandra, XMM, and ASTRO-E.

David A. Buote

2000-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

283

Integrated Modeling of Building Energy Requirements Incorporating Solar Assisted Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heat recovery and absorption cooling are selected in allself- generated and absorption cooling displaces a further

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Wang, Juan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Number | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Number More Documents & Publications Analysis of Open Office of Inspector General Recommendations, OAS-L-08-07 Policy and International Affairs (WFP) Open Government Plan 2.0...

285

Expected Frobenius numbers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that for large instances the order of magnitude of the expected Frobenius number is (up to a constant depending only on the dimension) given by its lower bound.

Aliev, Iskander; Hinrichs, Aicke

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

cooling | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cooling cooling Home Dc's picture Submitted by Dc(15) Member 15 November, 2013 - 13:26 Living Walls ancient building system architect biomimicry building technology cooling cu daylight design problem energy use engineer fred andreas geothermal green building heat transfer heating living walls metabolic adjustment net zero pre-electricity Renewable Energy Solar university of colorado utility grid Wind Much of the discussion surrounding green buildings centers around reducing energy use. The term net zero is the platinum standard for green buildings, meaning the building in question does not take any more energy from the utility grid than it produces using renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, or geothermal installations (and sometimes these renewable energy resources actually feed energy back to the utility grid).

287

Thermal performance of cooling towers  

SciTech Connect

Wet cooling towers are often used in HVAC applications to reject heat to the atmosphere. Heat rejection is accomplished within the tower by heat and mass transfer between hot water droplets and ambient air. These heat and mass transfer processes and the resulting coefficient of performance are often misunderstood and misinterpreted. To demystify these concepts, the heat and mass transfer exchange at the water droplet level are reviewed. This is followed by an analysis of an idealized spray-type tower to show how cooling tower performance is affected by fill height, water retention time, and air and water mass flow rates. Finally, the so-called coefficient of performance of cooling towers is examined.

Bernier, M.A. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Quench cooling under reduced gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the quench cooling experiments performed with liquid O2 under different levels of gravity simulated with the magnetic gravity compensation. A copper disk is quenched from 270K to 90K. It is found that the cooling time in microgravity is very long in comparison with any other gravity level. This phenomenon is explained by the isolation effect of the gas surrounding the disk. The liquid subcooling is shown to drastically improuve the heat exchange thus reducing the cooling time (about 20 times). The effect of subcooling on the heat transfer is analyzed at different gravity levels. It is shown that such type of experiments cannot be used for the analysis of the critical heat flux (CHF) of the boiling crisis. The minimum heat flux (MHF) of boiling is analyzed instead.

Chatain, D; Nikolayev, V S; Beysens, D

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Desiccant Cooling Systems - A Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Desiccant cooling systems have been investigated extensively during the past decade as alternatives to electrically driven vapor compression systems because regeneration temperatures of the desiccant - about 160F, can be achieved using natural gas or by solar systems. Comfort is achieved by reducing the moisture content of air by a solid or liquid desiccant and then reducing the temperature in an evaporative cooler (direct or indirect). Another system is one where the dehumidifier removes enough moisture to meet the latent portion of the load while the sensible portion is met by a vapor compression cooling system; desiccant regeneration is achieved by using the heat rejected from the condenser together with other thermal sources. At present, residential desiccant cooling systems are in actual operation but are more costly than vapor compression systems, resulting in relatively long payback periods. Component efficiencies need to be improved, particularly the efficiency of the dehumidifier.

Kettleborough, C. F.; Ullah, M. R.; Waugaman, D. G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Cooling Tower Inspection with Scuba  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A serious problem of scale and other solid material settling in heat transfer equipment was threatening to shut down our ethylene plant. All evidence pointed to the cooling tower as the source of the contamination. Visual inspection of the cooling tower pump suction basin was accomplished by diving into the basin using SCUBA gear. It was possible to see a build-up of debris on the pump suction basket strainers and on the floor of the sumps. Also, it was discovered that one of the four baskets had been installed incorrectly. Photographs of the basket strainers were taken to aid in describing their exact condition. With the aid of SCUBA it was possible to sufficiently clean the pump sumps so that costly downtime was avoided. Likewise, using this technique, steps were taken to greatly reduce the chance for further contamination of the circulating cooling water system.

Brenner, W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

The Potential of Vegetation in Reducing Summer Cooling Loads in Residential Buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential of trees and other vegetation to reduce building cooling loads has been recorded in a number of studies but the meso- and microclimate changes producing such savings are not well understood. This paper describes a preliminary ...

Y. J. Huang; H. Akbari; H. Taha; A. H. Rosenfeld

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Cool Cluster Correctly Correlated  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atomic clusters are unique objects, which occupy an intermediate position between atoms and condensed matter systems. For a long time it was thought that physical and chemical properties of atomic dusters monotonically change with increasing size of the cluster from a single atom to a condensed matter system. However, recently it has become clear that many properties of atomic clusters can change drastically with the size of the clusters. Because physical and chemical properties of clusters can be adjusted simply by changing the cluster's size, different applications of atomic clusters were proposed. One example is the catalytic activity of clusters of specific sizes in different chemical reactions. Another example is a potential application of atomic clusters in microelectronics, where their band gaps can be adjusted by simply changing cluster sizes. In recent years significant advances in experimental techniques allow one to synthesize and study atomic clusters of specified sizes. However, the interpretation of the results is often difficult. The theoretical methods are frequently used to help in interpretation of complex experimental data. Most of the theoretical approaches have been based on empirical or semiempirical methods. These methods allow one to study large and small dusters using the same approximations. However, since empirical and semiempirical methods rely on simple models with many parameters, it is often difficult to estimate the quantitative and even qualitative accuracy of the results. On the other hand, because of significant advances in quantum chemical methods and computer capabilities, it is now possible to do high quality ab-initio calculations not only on systems of few atoms but on clusters of practical interest as well. In addition to accurate results for specific clusters, such methods can be used for benchmarking of different empirical and semiempirical approaches. The atomic clusters studied in this work contain from a few atoms to tens of atoms. Therefore, they are quantum objects. Some qualitative information about the geometries of such clusters can be obtained with classical empirical methods, for example geometry optimization using an empirical Lennard-Jones potential. However, to predict their accurate geometries and other physical and chemical properties it is necessary to solve a Schroedinger equation. If one is not interested in dynamics of clusters it is enough to solve the stationary (time-independent) Schroedinger equation (H{Phi}=E{Phi}). This equation represents a multidimensional eigenvalue problem. The solution of the Schroedinger equation is a set of eigenvectors (wave functions) and their eigenvalues (energies). The lowest energy solution (wave function) corresponds to the ground state of the cluster. The other solutions correspond to excited states. The wave function gives all information about the quantum state of the cluster and can be used to calculate different physical and chemical properties, such as photoelectron, X-ray, NMR, EPR spectra, dipole moment, polarizability etc. The dimensionality of the Schroedinger equation is determined by the number of particles (nuclei and electrons) in the cluster. The analytic solution is only known for a two particle problem. In order to solve the equation for clusters of interest it is necessary to make a number of approximations and use numerical methods.

Sergey Aleksandrovich Varganov

2005-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

293

Lamination cooling system formation method  

SciTech Connect

An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

Rippel, Wally E. (Altadena, CA); Kobayashi, Daryl M. (Monrovia, CA)

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

294

Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs July 2010 V. 1.2 Prepared by the Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. Additional technical support provided by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Federal Energy Management Program. Authors: Bryan Urban and Kurt Roth, Ph.D. ii Table of Contents Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 3 Why Use Cool Roofs .............................................................................................................. 3

295

Cooling assembly for fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cooling assembly for fuel cells having a simplified construction whereby coolant is efficiently circulated through a conduit arranged in serpentine fashion in a channel within a member of such assembly. The channel is adapted to cradle a flexible, chemically inert, conformable conduit capable of manipulation into a variety of cooling patterns without crimping or otherwise restricting of coolant flow. The conduit, when assembled with the member, conforms into intimate contact with the member for good thermal conductivity. The conduit is non-corrodible and can be constructed as a single, manifold-free, continuous coolant passage means having only one inlet and one outlet.

Kaufman, Arthur (West Orange, NJ); Werth, John (Princeton, NJ)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Lamination cooling system formation method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

Rippel, Wally E [Altadena, CA; Kobayashi, Daryl M [Monrovia, CA

2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

297

Quantum noise in photothermal cooling  

SciTech Connect

We study the problem of cooling a mechanical oscillator using the photothermal (bolometric) force. Contrary to previous attempts to model this system, we take into account the noise effects due to the granular nature of photon absorption. We achieve this by developing a Langevin formalism for the motion of the cantilever, valid in the bad-cavity limit, which includes both photon absorption shot noise and the noise due to radiation pressure. This allows us to tackle the cooling problem down to the noise-dominated regime and to find reasonable estimates for the lowest achievable phonon occupation in the cantilever.

De Liberato, Simone [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Lambert, Neill [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nori, Franco [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

298

An analysis of electrothermodynamic heating and cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Current advances in semiconductor manufacturing have brought about an increasing use of thermoelectricity in a variety of applications. Most of these applications, however, have involved the steady state application of this phenomenon. As a result, few have considered the transient aspect of this field (Gray 1960). In recent years there has been an increasing demand to heat and cool objects very quickly. One particular proposal to use the transient nature of thermoelectricity was made by Lagoudas and Kinra (I 993) in regard to shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators. In general, SMA actuators have been largely limited by the rate that heat may be extracted from the SMA. In their investigation, they proposed the concept of using the SMA directly as the cold junction of a thermocouple. By way of the Peltier effect, then, heat could be added or removed at the interfaces at a rate proportional to the current density and local temperature; by increasing the current, the rate of cooling would be increased, albeit at the expense of the Joule heating within the conductor. This investigation explores the dynamic nature of thermoelectrically cooled/heated regions in effort to gain a greater understanding of the transient application of thermoelectricity, including the role of the surrounding material properties. To this end, we consider a pair of semi-infinite rods of equal cross-sectional area in perfect thermoelectric contact. At time t = 0, a DC current begins to flow in the axial direction. The electrothermodynamic response of the composite rod at the interface is calculated. The transient interface temperature is completely described by a single dimensionless parameter called the MOET number (Modulus Of ElectroThermodynamics). Perhaps the most interesting result is that the minimum temperature at the interface is independent of the current density. Of course, the time required to reach this minimum temperature does depend on the current density; it varies as 1/J2.

Honea, Mark Stephen

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Dynamic performance testing of prototype 3 ton air-cooled carrier absorption chiller  

SciTech Connect

The performance of a prototype 3 ton cooling capacity air-cooled lithium bromide/water absorption chiller was tested using an absorption chiller test facility which was modified to expand its testing capabilities to include air-cooled chillers in addition to water-cooled chillers. Temperatures of the three externally supplied fluid loops: hot water, chilled water, and cooling air, were varied in order to determine the effects this would have on the two principal measures of chiller performance: cooling capacity and thermal coefficient of performance (COP). A number of interrelated factors were identified as contributing to less than expected performance. For comparison, experimental correlations of other investigators for this and other similar absorption chillers are presented. These have been plotted as both contour and three-dimensional performance maps in order to more clearly show the functional dependence of the chiller performance on the fluid loop temperatures.

Borst, R.R.; Wood, B.D.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Experimental and computational studies of film cooling with compound angle injection  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The thermal efficiency of gas turbine systems depends largely on the turbine inlet temperature. Recent decades have seen a steady rise in the inlet temperature and a resulting reduction in fuel consumption. At the same time, it has been necessary to employ intensive cooling of the hot components. Among various cooling methods, film cooling has become a standard method for cooling of the turbine airfoils and combustion chamber walls. The University of Minnesota program is a combined experimental and computational study of various film-cooling configurations. Whereas a large number of parameters influence film cooling processes, this research focuses on compound angle injection through a single row and through two rows of holes. Later work will investigate the values of contoured hole designs. An appreciation of the advantages of compound angle injection has risen recently with the demand for more effective cooling and with improved understanding of the flow; this project should continue to further this understanding. Approaches being applied include: (1) a new measurement system that extends the mass/heat transfer analogy to obtain both local film cooling and local mass (heat) transfer results in a single system, (2) direct measurement of three-dimensional turbulent transport in a highly-disturbed flow, (3) the use of compound angle and shaped holes to optimize film cooling performance, and (4) an exploration of anisotropy corrections to turbulence modeling of film cooling jets.

Goldstein, R.J.; Eckert, E.R.G.; Patankar, S.V.; Simon, T.W. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "floorspace cooled number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

X-ray Absorption Due to Cold Gas in Cluster Cooling Cores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have calculated the emergent X-ray properties for models of cluster cooling flows including the effects of accumulated cooled material. The opacity of this cooled gas can reduce the overall X-ray luminosity of the cooling flow, and values of Mdot based on these luminosities can underestimate the true value by factors of ~2. We find that accumulated cooled material can produce emergent surface brightness profiles much like those observed even for nearly homogeneous gas distributions. Consequently, much more of the gas may be cooling below X-ray emitting temperatures in the central regions of cooling flows (r cooling flows may have been underestimated. We show that distributed absorption in cooling flows produces a number of observable effects in the spectrum which may allow it to be differentiated from absorption due to gas in our Galaxy. These include a characteristic suppression of the continuum below ~2 keV, absorption features such as a redshifted O K-edge, and diminished intensity of resonance emission lines. Spectra including the effects of intrinsic absorption are not well fit by foreground absorbing models. Attempting to fit such models to the spatially resolved spectra can lead to underestimates of the true absorbing column by factors of 3-20. Fits to integrated spectra of the entire cooling flow region can either underestimate or overestimate the mass of the absorbing gas depending on the specifics of the model. We discuss the potential detection of these effects with AXAF, XMM, and Astro-E.

Michael W. Wise; Craig L. Sarazin

1999-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

302

Report number codes  

SciTech Connect

This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

DOE Award Number  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. This project experimentally investigates the heat transfer phenomena on the rotor blade platform of gas turbines. Designers often rely on experimental data gathered from non-rotating models to provide cooling designs on rotating platforms. In many cases, the non-rotating models inadequately model the flow and heat transfer around the rotating blades. This might lead to

J. C. Han; M. T. Schobeiri

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Number | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Number Number Jump to: navigation, search Properties of type "Number" Showing 200 properties using this type. (previous 200) (next 200) A Property:AvgAnnlGrossOpCpcty Property:AvgTempGeoFluidIntoPlant Property:AvgWellDepth B Property:Building/FloorAreaChurchesChapels Property:Building/FloorAreaGroceryShops Property:Building/FloorAreaHealthServices24hr Property:Building/FloorAreaHealthServicesDaytime Property:Building/FloorAreaHeatedGarages Property:Building/FloorAreaHotels Property:Building/FloorAreaMiscellaneous Property:Building/FloorAreaOffices Property:Building/FloorAreaOtherRetail Property:Building/FloorAreaResidential Property:Building/FloorAreaRestaurants Property:Building/FloorAreaSchoolsChildDayCare Property:Building/FloorAreaShops Property:Building/FloorAreaSportCenters

305

NREL: Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction - Heat Generated Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Heat Generated Cooling Heat Generated Cooling A counterintuitive but promising path to reducing the loads imposed by automotive air conditioning systems is to use heat-specifically the waste heat generated by engines. This can be an abundant source of energy, since most light-duty vehicles with combustion engines are only about 30% efficient at best. With that degree of thermal efficiency, an engine releases 70% of its fuel energy as waste heat through the coolant, exhaust gases, and engine compartment warm-up. During much of a typical drive cycle, the engine efficiency is even lower than 30%. As efficiency decreases, the amount of waste heat increases, representing a larger potential energy source. NREL's Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction (VALR) team is investigating a number of heat generated cooling technologies

306

Heating & Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling Cooling Heating & Cooling Heating and cooling account for about 56% of the energy use in a typical U.S. home, making it the largest energy expense for most homes. Learn more about the principles of heating and cooling. Heating and cooling account for about 56% of the energy use in a typical U.S. home, making it the largest energy expense for most homes. Learn more about the principles of heating and cooling. Did you know that heating and cooling accounts for more than half of the energy use in a typical U.S. home, making it the largest energy expense for most homes? Energy Saver shares tips and advice on ways you can reduce your heating and cooling costs, putting more money in your wallet.

307

Global Cool Cities Alliance | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Global Cool Cities Alliance Global Cool Cities Alliance Global Cool Cities Alliance The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently supporting the Global Cool Cities Alliance (GCCA), a non-profit organization that works with cities, regions, and national governments to speed the worldwide installation of cool roofs, pavements, and other surfaces. GCCA is dedicated to advancing policies and actions that increase the solar reflectance of our buildings and pavements as a cost-effective way to promote cool buildings, cool cities, and to mitigate the effects of climate change through global cooling. The alliance was launched in June of 2011. Cool reflective surfaces are an important near-term strategy for improving city sustainability by delivering significant benefits such as increased building efficiency and comfort, improved urban health, and heat

308

Using Fractional Numbers of . . .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the design parameters in closed queueing networks is Np, the number of customers of class p. It has been assumed that Np must be an integer. However, integer choices will usually not achieve the target throughput for each class simultaneously. We use Mean Value Analysis with the Schweitzer-Bard approximation and nonlinear programming to determine the value of Np needed to achieve the production targets exactly, although the values of Np may be fractional. We interpret these values to represent the average number of customers of each class in the network. We implement a control rule to achieve these averages and verify our approach through simulation.

Rajan Suri; Rahul Shinde; Mary Vernon

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Commercial Cool Storage Design Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This state-of-the-art handbook provides comprehensive guidance for designing ice and chilled-water storage systems for commercial buildings. HVAC engineers can take advantage of attractive rates and incentives offered by utilities to increase the market for cool storage systems.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Solar-powered cooling system  

SciTech Connect

A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system uses nanostructural materials made of high specific surface area adsorption aerogel as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material. A circulation system circulates refrigerant from the nanostructural material to a cooling unit.

Farmer, Joseph C

2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

311

A number of organizations,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

buying power to purchase green power. The city of Chicago has formed an alliance with 47 other local installed solar electric systems on a number of the city's buildings, including the Chicago Center for Green to competition, the city of Chicago and 47 other local government agencies formed the Local Government Power

312

CHEMICAL SAFETY Emergency Numbers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- 1 - CHEMICAL SAFETY MANUAL 2010 #12;- 2 - Emergency Numbers UNBC Prince George Campus Security Prince George Campus Chemstores 6472 Chemical Safety 6472 Radiation Safety 5530 Biological Safety 5530 use, storage, handling, waste and emergency management of chemicals on the University of Northern

Bolch, Tobias

313

Disjunctive Rado numbers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

If L1 and L2 are linear equations, then the disjunctive Rado number of the set {L1, L2} is the least integer n, provided that it exists, such that for every 2-coloring of ... Keywords: Rado, Ramsey, Schur, disjunctive

Brenda Johnson; Daniel Schaal

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream. 3 figures.

Carr, P.

1991-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

315

Multi-pass cooling for turbine airfoils  

SciTech Connect

An airfoil for a turbine vane of a gas turbine engine. The airfoil includes an outer wall having pressure and suction sides, and a radially extending cooling cavity located between the pressure and suction sides. A plurality of partitions extend radially through the cooling cavity to define a plurality of interconnected cooling channels located at successive chordal locations through the cooling cavity. The cooling channels define a serpentine flow path extending in the chordal direction. Further, the cooling channels include a plurality of interconnected chambers and the chambers define a serpentine path extending in the radial direction within the serpentine path extending in the chordal direction.

Liang, George (Palm City, FL)

2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

316

Heat exchanger with auxiliary cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger with an auxiliary cooling system capable of cooling a nuclear reactor should the normal cooling mechanism become inoperable. A cooling coil is disposed around vertical heat transfer tubes that carry secondary coolant therethrough and is located in a downward flow of primary coolant that passes in heat transfer relationship with both the cooling coil and the vertical heat transfer tubes. A third coolant is pumped through the cooling coil which absorbs heat from the primary coolant which increases the downward flow of the primary coolant thereby increasing the natural circulation of the primary coolant through the nuclear reactor.

Coleman, John H. (Salem Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Closed circuit steam cooled turbine shroud and method for steam cooling turbine shroud  

SciTech Connect

A turbine shroud cooling cavity is partitioned to define a plurality of cooling chambers for sequentially receiving cooling steam and impingement cooling of the radially inner wall of the shoud. An impingement baffle is provided in each cooling chamber for receiving the cooling media from a cooling media inlet in the case of the first chamber or from the immediately upstream chamber in the case of the second through fourth chambers and includes a plurality of impingement holes for effecting the impingement cooling of the shroud inner wall.

Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY); Sexton, Brendan Francis (Simpsonville, SC); Kellock, Iain Robertson (Simpsonville, SC)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers...

319

South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Residential...

320

South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "floorspace cooled number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Preventive Action Number:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 Corrective Action Report Planning Worksheet 11_0414 1 of 3 7 Corrective Action Report Planning Worksheet 11_0414 1 of 3 EOTA - Business Form Document Title: Corrective Action Report Planning Worksheet Document Number: F-017 Rev 11_0414 Document Owner: Elizabeth Sousa Backup Owner: Melissa Otero Approver(s): Melissa Otero Parent Document: P-008, Corrective/Preventive Action Notify of Changes: EOTA Employees Referenced Document(s): N/A F-017 Corrective Action Report Planning Worksheet 11_0414 2 of 3 Revision History: Rev. Description of Change 08_0613 Initial Release 11_0414 Added problem statement to first block. F-017 Corrective Action Report Planning Worksheet 11_0414 3 of 3 Corrective Action Report Planning Worksheet Corrective Action Number: Source: Details/Problem Statement: Raised By: Raised Date: Target Date:

322

ELECTRICAL DISTRICT NUMBER EIGHT  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ELECTRICAL DISTRICT NUMBER EIGHT ELECTRICAL DISTRICT NUMBER EIGHT Board of Directors Reply to: Ronald Rayner C. W. Adams James D. Downing, P.E. Chairman Billy Hickman 66768 Hwy 60 Brian Turner Marvin John P.O. Box 99 Vice-Chairman Jason Pierce Salome, AZ 85348 Denton Ross Jerry Rovey Secretary James N. Warkomski ED8@HARCUVARCO.COM John Utz Gary Wood PHONE:(928) 859-3647 Treasurer FAX: (928) 859-3145 Sent via e-mail Mr. Darrick Moe, Regional Manager Western Area Power Administration Desert Southwest Region P. O. Box 6457 Phoenix, AZ 85005-6457 moe@wapa.gov; dswpwrmrk@wapa.gov Re: ED5-Palo Verde Hub Project Dear Mr. Moe, In response to the request for comments issued at the October 6 Parker-Davis Project customer th meeting, and in conjunction with comments previously submitted by the Southwest Public Power

323

Preventive Action Number:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 Preventive Action Report Planning Worksheet 11_0414 1 of 3 8 Preventive Action Report Planning Worksheet 11_0414 1 of 3 EOTA - Business Form Document Title: Preventive Action Report Planning Worksheet Document Number: F-018 Rev 11_0414 Document Owner: Elizabeth Sousa Backup Owner: Melissa Otero Approver(s): Melissa Otero Parent Document: P-008, Corrective/Preventive Action Notify of Changes: EOTA Employees Referenced Document(s): N/A F-018 Preventive Action Report Planning Worksheet 11_0414 2 of 3 Revision History: Rev. Description of Change 08_0613 Initial Release 09_0924 Worksheet modified to reflect External Audit recommendation for identification of "Cause for Potential Nonconformance". Minor editing changes. 11_0414 Added Preventive Action Number block to match Q-Pulse

324

Cool Roofs: An Introduction | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs: An Introduction Cool Roofs: An Introduction Cool Roofs: An Introduction August 9, 2010 - 4:43pm Addthis Erin R. Pierce Erin R. Pierce Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Lately, I've been hearing a lot about cool roof technologies, so I welcomed the chance to learn more at a recent seminar. Cool roofs, also referred to as white roofs, have special coatings that reflect sunlight and emit heat more efficiently than traditional roofs, keeping them cooler in the sun. Cool roofing technologies can be implemented quickly and at a relatively low cost, making it the fastest growing sector of the building industry. U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu is among the many cool roof enthusiasts. The Secretary recently announced plans to install cool roofs

325

Absorption Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling Basics Cooling Basics Absorption Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 2:26pm Addthis Absorption coolers use heat rather than electricity as their energy source. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption cooling, it is also referred to as gas-fired cooling. Other potential heat sources include propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Although mainly used in industrial or commercial settings, absorption coolers are commercially available for large residential homes. How Absorption Cooling Works An absorption cooling cycle relies on three basic principles: When a liquid is heated it boils (vaporizes) and when a gas is cooled it condenses Lowering the pressure above a liquid reduces its boiling point Heat flows from warmer to cooler surfaces.

326

Introduction of a Cooling Fan Efficiency Index  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

C F Cooling Effect (?t eq ) C F Fan Power, W (P f ) Cooling-Fan Efficiency (CFE) C/W F/Wand B. Jones. 1983. Ceiling fans as extenders of the summer

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Experimental Study of Hybrid Cooled Heat Exchanger.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A test system for a hybrid cooled heat exchanger was designed, and the test facility was constructed based on ASHRAE Standard 41.2-1987. A conventional air-cooled (more)

Tsao, Han-Chuan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Cooling Towers--Energy Conservation Strategies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A cooling water system can be optimized by operating the cooling tower at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces, tube bundles, refrigeration equipment, overhead condensers, and other associates heat rejection equipment.

Matson, J.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs Addthis Description This edition of Energy 101 takes a look at how switching to a cool roof can save you money and benefit the environment. Duration 2:17 Topic Tax Credits, Rebates, Savings Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Credit Energy Department Video MR. : Maybe you've never given much thought about what color your roof is or what it's made of, but your roof could be costing you more money than you know to cool your home or office building, especially if you live in a warmer climate. Think about it this way: In the summertime, we wear light-colored clothes because they keep us cooler. Lighter clothes reflect rather than absorb the heat of the sun. It's the same with your roof. A cool roof is

330

Laser Cooling and Cold Atomic Matter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser Cooling and Cold Atomic Matter: to advance the understanding and applications of cold atomic matter, including ...

2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

331

Data Center Alternative Cooling Analysis Tool  

amounts of energy. Consistent large loads of energy are required for data center efficiency and reliability. Four different cooling technologies, ...

332

Modeling Cathode Cooling Due to Power Interruption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Modeling Cathode Cooling Due to Power Interruption ... Development and Application of SAMI's Low Voltage Energy-Saving Technology.

333

Engineered design of SSC cooling ponds  

SciTech Connect

The cooling requirements of the SSC are significant and adequate cooling water systems to meet these requirements are critical to the project`s successful operation. The use of adequately designed cooling ponds will provide reliable cooling for operation while also meeting environmental goals of the project to maintain streamflow and flood peaks to preconstruction levels as well as other streamflow and water quality requirements of the Texas Water Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency.

Bear, J.B.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

What's so cool about Curiosity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What's so cool about Curiosity? What's so cool about Curiosity? Curiosity, the Mars Science Laboratory, is the largest and most complicated device we have ever landed on a planet other than Earth.  About the size of a small SUV -- ten feet long (not including the arm), nine feet wide and seven feet tall  900 kilograms (2,000 pounds) (Spirit and Opportunity, earlier research vehicles sent to Mars were 384 pounds)  Uses aerobraking, parachute, retro rockets and skycrane concepts to land gently (Spirit and Opportunity used aerobraking, parachutes and airbags that bounced them to the surface) Curiosity carries three instruments from Los Alamos National Laboratory.  The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator supplies electricity and heat to the rover

335

Transphase cool storage test report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Ice Storage Test Facility (ISTF) is designed to test commercial cool storage systems. Transphase, Inc. provided a prototype of a new storage tank design equipped with coils designed for use with a secondary fluid system and filled with a eutectic designed to freeze at 41{degree}F. The Transphase cool storage system was tested over a wide range of operating conditions. Measured system performance during charging showed the ability to freeze the tank with relatively constant brine temperatures over most of the charging cycle. During discharge cycles, the storage tank outlet temperature was governed mainly by the brine flow rate and the tank`s remaining charge. The discharge capacity was dependent upon both the selected discharge rate and maximum allowable tank outlet temperature. This prototype unit experienced several operational problems, not unexpected for the first full-size execution of a new design. Such prototype testing was one of EPRI`s primary goals in founding the ISTF.

Stovall, T.K.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Model Predictive Control for the Operation of Building Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the chillers and cooling towers, the thermal storage tankthe chillers and cooling towers, the thermal storage tank,of thermal energy storage in building cooling systems.

Ma, Yudong

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Thermal Performance of Phase Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling Application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COOLING AND DOUBLE WALLBOARD COMPARISON OF THERMAL STORAGEThermal Performance of Phase Change Wallboard for Residential CoolingThermal Performance of Phase Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling

Feustel, H.E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Viability of dynamic cooling control in a data center environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A. Beitelmal, Thermal Considerations in Cooling Large Scalesmart cooling, dynamic thermal control, energy optimization,thermal management conditions. EP-04-1163, BASH Keywords: Data center cooling,

Boucher, T.; Auslander, D.; Bash, C.; Federspiel, C.; Patel, C.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Cooling load differences between radiant and air systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the effect of thermal mass on cooling loads, and thereforelift radiant cooling using building thermal mass, Departmentlevel thermal modelling are recommended for design cooling

Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Thermal Energy Storage for Cooling of Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OF THIS DOCUME THERMAL FOR COOLING ENERGY STORAGE BUILDINGSi- LBL-25393 THERMAL FOR COOLING w ENERGY STORAGE BUILDINGSpeak power periods, thermal storage for cooling has become a

Akbari, H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "floorspace cooled number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

On-chip high speed localized cooling using superlattice microrefrigerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for on-chip cooling solution, thermal characterization andActive cooling can provide an effective thermal resistance (cooling of electron gas and by reducing the lattice thermal

Zhang, Y; Christofferson, J; Shakouri, A; Zeng, G H; Bowers, J E; Croke, E T

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Thermal Performance of Phase Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling Application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the shortcomings of alternative cooling sources, or to avoidthe shortcomings of alternative cooling sources, or to avoidC . Blumstein; "Alternatives to Compressor Cooling in

Feustel, H.E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Passive Cooling of a Micromechanical Oscillator with a ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Closely related passive cooling has been reported in [9,20 ... Although rather modest cooling is obtained here ... eventually provide ground state cool- ing ...

2007-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

344

Rapid cooling technology could aid surgery patients, heart attack...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cooling technology could aid surgery patients, heart attack victims Diagram shows how ice slurry cools blood INTERNAL COOLING - An ice slurry, delivered through an endotracheal...

345

Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That in Conventional Data Centers Title Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That in Conventional Data Centers Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-4951E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Coles, Henry C., Tae Won Han, Phillip N. Price, Ashok J. Gadgil, and William F. Tschudi Date Published 03/2011 Abstract There is a concern that environmental-contamination caused corrosion may negatively affect Information Technology (IT) equipment reliability. Nineteen data centers in the United States and two in India were evaluated using Corrosion Classification Coupons (CCC) to assess environmental air quality as it may relate IT equipment reliability. The data centers were of two basic types: "closed" and outside-air cooled. A closed data center provides cool air to the IT equipment using air conditioning in which only a small percentage of the recirculation air is "make-up" air continuously supplied from outside to meet human health requirements. An outside-air cooled data center uses outside air directly as the primary source for IT equipment cooling. Corrosion measuring coupons containing copper and silver metal strips were placed in both "closed" and outside-air cooled data centers. The coupons were placed at each data center (closed and outside-air cooled types) with the location categorized into three groups:

346

Cooling Evolution of Hybrid Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cooling of compact isolated objects for different values of the gravitational mass has been simulated for two alternative assumptions. One is that the interior of the star is purely hadronic and second that the star can have a rather large quark core. It has been shown that within a nonlocal chiral quark model the critical density for a phase transition to color superconducting quark matter under neutron star conditions can be low enough for these phases to occur in compact star configurations with masses below 1.3 M_sun. For a realistic choice of parameters the equation of state (EoS) allows for 2SC quark matter with a large quark gap ~ 100 MeV for u and d quarks of two colors that coexists with normal quark matter within a mixed phase in the hybrid star interior. We argue that, if in the hadronic phase the neutron pairing gap in 3P_2 channel is larger than few keV and the phases with unpaired quarks are allowed, the corresponding hybrid stars would cool too fast. Even in the case of the essentially suppressed 3P_2 neutron gap if free quarks occur for M cooling data existing by today. It is suggested to discuss a "2SC+X" phase, as a possibility to have all quarks paired in two-flavor quark matter under neutron star constraints, where the X-gap is of the order of 10 keV - 1 MeV. Density independent gaps do not allow to fit the cooling data. Only the presence of an X-gap that decreases with increase of the density could allow to appropriately fit the data in a similar compact star mass interval to that following from a purely hadronic model.

H. Grigorian

2005-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

347

Gas hydrate cool storage system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

1984-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

348

Gas-cooled nuclear reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas-cooled nuclear reactor includes a central core located in the lower portion of a prestressed concrete reactor vessel. Primary coolant gas flows upward through the core and into four overlying heat-exchangers wherein stream is generated. During normal operation, the return flow of coolant is between the core and the vessel sidewall to a pair of motor-driven circulators located at about the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel. The circulators repressurize the gas coolant and return it back to the core through passageways in the underlying core structure. If during emergency conditions the primary circulators are no longer functioning, the decay heat is effectively removed from the core by means of natural convection circulation. The hot gas rising through the core exits the top of the shroud of the heat-exchangers and flows radially outward to the sidewall of the concrete pressure vessel. A metal liner covers the entire inside concrete surfaces of the concrete pressure vessel, and cooling tubes are welded to the exterior or concrete side of the metal liner. The gas coolant is in direct contact with the interior surface of the metal liner and transfers its heat through the metal liner to the liquid coolant flowing through the cooling tubes. The cooler gas is more dense and creates a downward convection flow in the region between the core and the sidewall until it reaches the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel when it flows radially inward and up into the core for another pass. Water is forced to flow through the cooling tubes to absorb heat from the core at a sufficient rate to remove enough of the decay heat created in the core to prevent overheating of the core or the vessel.

Peinado, Charles O. (La Jolla, CA); Koutz, Stanley L. (San Diego, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Proceedings of the Cooling Tower Technology Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of cooling towers and associated systems strongly affects availability and heat rate in fossil and nuclear power plants. Twenty-four papers presented at the 2012 Cooling Tower Technology Conference, held August 89, 2012, in Pensacola, Florida, discuss research results, industry experience, and case histories of cooling tower problems and solutions. ...

2012-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

350

Air and water cooled modulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air. 9 figs.

Birx, D.L.; Arnold, P.A.; Ball, D.G.; Cook, E.G.

1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

351

Air and water cooled modulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air.

Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Arnold, Phillip A. (Livermore, CA); Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Cooling system for superconducting magnet  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir. In a second mode, the heater heats the second reservoir to cause the refrigerant to flow from the second reservoir through the load and heat exchanger via the conduit circuit and into the first reservoir. 3 figs.

Gamble, B.B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.

1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

353

Improvements in solid desiccant cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The DINC (Direct-Indirect Evaporative Cooling) cycle was proposed in 1986 by Texas A and M researchers. The idea was to combine the benefits of direct and indirect evaporative cooling with desiccant dehumidifying using a rotating solid silica-gel dehumidifier. Recent parametric studies completed for the Texas Energy Research in Applications Program have developed a computer design for a nominal 3-ton system that would minimize the energy consumption (both thermal and electric) while maintaining a sensible heat ratio of 75% or less. That optimum design for the original 1986 DINC cycle was modified to improve its energy efficiency. The modifications described in this paper were: (1) staging the desiccant regeneration air and (2) recirculation of the primary air to the secondary side of the indirect evaporative cooling. Computer simulations were run to study the effect of the modifications on the performance of the system. American Refrigeration Institute (AIR) standard conditions (Ambient air at 35C, 40% R.H. and Room air at 26.7C, 50% R.H.) were used for all the modifications. Results were also compared to the familiar Pennington (ventilation) cycle. The study indicated that recirculating the indirect evaporative cooler air only degenerated the performance. However, staging a portion of the regeneration air could improve the thermal coefficient of Performance by 25% over the non-staged DINC cycle. Compared to a similar staged-regeneration Pennington cycle it is a 16% improvement in thermal COP and the sensible heat ratio was 70%.

Waugaman, D.; Kini, A.; Kettleborough, C.F. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Cooling system for superconducting magnet  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir. In a second mode, the heater heats the second reservoir to cause the refrigerant to flow from the second reservoir through the load and heat exchanger via the conduit circuit and into the first reservoir.

Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed (Framingham, MA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Finite Neutrosophic Complex Numbers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this book for the first time the authors introduce the notion of real neutrosophic complex numbers. Further the new notion of finite complex modulo integers is defined. For every $C(Z_n)$ the complex modulo integer $i_F$ is such that $2F_i = n - 1$. Several algebraic structures on $C(Z_n)$ are introduced and studied. Further the notion of complex neutrosophic modulo integers is introduced. Vector spaces and linear algebras are constructed using these neutrosophic complex modulo integers.

W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Evaluation of cooling performance of thermally activated building system with evaporative cooling source for typical United States climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

have higher cooling capacity because the thermal resistancethe thermal comfort requirement unless the cooling capacitysurface cooling system and TABS systems THERMAL COMFORT

Feng, Jingjuan; Bauman, Fred

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Dependency of Heat Transfer Rate on the Brinkman Number in Microchannels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heat generation from electronics increases with the advent of high-density integrated circuit technology. To come up with the heat generation, microscale cooling has been thought as a promising technology. Prediction of heat transfer rate is crucial in design of microscale cooling device but is not clearly understood yet. This work proposes a new correlation between heat transfer rate and Brinkman number which is nondimensional number of viscosity, flow velocity and temperature. It is expected that the equation proposed by this work can be useful to design microchannel cooling device.

H. S. Park

2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

358

Western Cooling Efficiency Center | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Efficiency Center Efficiency Center Jump to: navigation, search Name Western Cooling Efficiency Center Place Davis, CA Website http://http://wcec.ucdavis.edu References Western Cooling Efficiency Center [1] Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes Partnership Type Test & Evaluation Partner Partnering Center within NREL Electricity Resources & Building Systems Integration LinkedIn Connections Western Cooling Efficiency Center is a research institution located in Davis, CA, at the University of California at Davis (UC Davis). References ↑ "Western Cooling Efficiency Center" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Western_Cooling_Efficiency_Center&oldid=382319" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations

359

Alternate Cooling Methods for Industrial Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling in industrial facilities has traditionally been performed by mechanical vapor compression units. While it remains the standard, recent concerns with the rising cost of electricity and environmental legislation restricting or outlawing CFC refrigerants has caused many plants to evaluate existing cooling methods. This paper presents case studies on alternate cooling methods used for space conditioning at several different industrial facilities. Methods discussed include direct and indirect evaporative, desiccant, and absorption cooling. Cooling effectiveness, operating cost and investment are also presented. Data for this evaluation was collected from clients served by Georgia Tech's Industrial Energy Extension Service, a state-sponsored energy conservation assistance program.

Brown, M.; Moore, D.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Passive containment cooling water distribution device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using a series of radial guide elements and cascading weir boxes to collect and then distribute the cooling water into a series of distribution areas through a plurality of cascading weirs. The cooling water is then uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weir notches in the face plate of the weir box.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Hookstown, PA); Fanto, Susan V. (Plum Borough, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "floorspace cooled number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Construction Project Number  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

North Execution - (2009 - 2011) North Execution - (2009 - 2011) Construction Project Number 2009 2010 2011 Project Description ANMLPL 0001C 76,675.32 - - Animas-Laplata circuit breaker and power rights CRGRFL 0001C - - 7,177.09 Craig Rifle Bay and transfer bay upgrade to 2000 amps; / Convert CRG RFL to 345 kV out of Bears Ear Sub FGE 0019C - - 39,207.86 Replace 69/25kV transformer KX2A at Flaming Gorge FGE 0020C - - 52,097.12 Flaming Gorge: Replace failed KW2A transformer HDN 0069C 16,638.52 208,893.46 3,704,578.33 Replace failed transformer with KZ1A 250 MVA 230/138kv

362

KPA Activity Number  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

supports CMM-SW Level 2 supports CMM-SW Level 2 Mapping of the DOE Systems Engineering Methodology to the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) Software Capability Maturity Model (CMM- SW) level 2. Date: September 2002 Page 1 KPA Activity Number KPA Activity SEM Section SME Work Product SQSE Web Site http://cio.doe.gov/sqse REQUIREMENTS MANAGEMENT RM-1 The software engineering group reviews the allocated requirements before they are incorporated in the software project. Chapter 3.0 * Develop High-Level Project Requirements Chapter 4.0 * Establish Functional Baseline * Project Plan * Requirements Specification Document * Requirements Management awareness * Defining Project Requirements RM-2 The software engineering group uses the allocated requirements as the basis for

363

Passive cooling system for top entry liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactor plant having a top entry loop joined satellite assembly with a passive auxiliary safety cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. This satellite type reactor plant is enhanced by a backup or secondary passive safety cooling system which augments the primary passive auxiliary cooling system when in operation, and replaces the primary cooling system when rendered inoperative.

Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA); Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Hui, Marvin M. (Cupertino, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Fans for Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fans for Cooling Fans for Cooling Fans for Cooling May 30, 2012 - 7:46pm Addthis Ceiling fans circulate air in a room to help keep occupants cool. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/jimkruger Ceiling fans circulate air in a room to help keep occupants cool. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/jimkruger What does this mean for me? You may be able to keep your home cool with energy-efficient and well-placed fans. Fans are less expensive to operate than air conditioners. Circulating fans include ceiling fans, table fans, floor fans, and fans mounted to poles or walls. These fans create a wind chill effect that will make you more comfortable in your home, even if it's also cooled by natural ventilation or air conditioning. Ceiling Fans Ceiling fans are considered the most effective of these types of fans,

365

VORPAL Simulations Relevant to Coherent Electron Cooling  

SciTech Connect

Coherent electron cooling (CEC)* combines the best features of electron cooling and stochastic cooling, via free-electron laser technology**, to offer the possibility of cooling high-energy hadron beams with order-of-magnitude shorter cooling times. Many technical difficulties must be resolved via full-scale 3D simulations, before the CEC concept can be validated experimentally. VORPAL is the ideal code for simulating the modulator and kicker regions, where the electron and hadron beams will co-propagate as in a conventional electron cooling section. Unlike previous VORPAL simulations*** of electron cooling physics, where dynamical friction on the ions was the key metric, it is the details of the electron density wake driven by each ion in the modulator section that must be understood, followed by strong amplification in the FEL. We present some initial simulation results. In particular, we compare the semi-analytic binary collision model with electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC).

Bell, G.I.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Sobol, A.V.; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Litvinenko, Vladimir; Derbenev, Yaroslav

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

VORPAL simulations relevant to coherent electron cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coherent electron cooling (CEC) [1] combines the best features of electron cooling and stochastic cooling, via free-electron laser technology [2], to offer the possibility of cooling high-energy hadron beams with order-of-magnitude shorter cooling times. Many technical difficulties must be resolved via full-scale 3D simulations, before the CEC concept can be validated experimentally. VORPAL is the ideal code for simulating the modulator and kicker regions, where the electron and hadron beams will co-propagate as in a conventional electron cooling section. Unlike previous VORPAL simulations [3] of electron cooling physics, where dynamical friction on the ions was the key metric, it is the details of the electron density wake driven by each ion in the modulator section that must be understood, followed by strong amplification in the FEL. We present some initial simulation results.

Bell,G.; Bruhwiler, D.; Sobol, A.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Litvinenko, V.; Derbenev, Y.

2008-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

367

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs Addthis Below is the text version for the Energy 101: Cool Roofs video. The video opens with "Energy 101: Cool Roofs." This is followed by images of residential rooftops. Maybe you've never given much thought about what color your roof is, or what it's made of. But your roof could be costing you more money than you know to cool your home or office building, especially if you live in a warmer climate. The video shows pedestrians walking on a city street. Think about it this way... in the summertime we wear light-colored clothes because they keep us cooler. Lighter colors reflect - rather than absorb - the heat of the sun. The video shows images of a white roof. It's the same with your roof. A cool roof is often light in color and made

368

Why Cool Roofs? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Why Cool Roofs? Why Cool Roofs? Why Cool Roofs? Addthis Description By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills. Speakers Secretary Steven Chu Duration 1:46 Topic Tax Credits, Rebates, Savings Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Fossil Oil Credit Energy Department Video SECRETARY OF ENERGY STEVEN CHU: The reason we wanted the Department of Energy to take the lead in cool roofs is to demonstrate that this really saves money. If you have a roof and it's black, it's absorbing energy from the sun

369

Cavity cooling of a single atom  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

All conventional methods to laser-cool atoms rely on repeated cycles of optical pumping and spontaneous emission of a photon by the atom. Spontaneous emission in a random direction is the dissipative mechanism required to remove entropy from the atom. However, alternative cooling methods have been proposed for a single atom strongly coupled to a high-finesse cavity; the role of spontaneous emission is replaced by the escape of a photon from the cavity. Application of such cooling schemes would improve the performance of atom cavity systems for quantum information processing. Furthermore, as cavity cooling does not rely on spontaneous emission, it can be applied to systems that cannot be laser-cooled by conventional methods; these include molecules (which do not have a closed transition) and collective excitations of Bose condensates, which are destroyed by randomly directed recoil kicks. Here we demonstrate cavity cooling of single rubidium atoms stored in an intracavity dipole trap. The cooling mechanism res...

Maunz, P; Schuster, I; Syassen, N; Pinkse, P W H; Rempe, G

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Passive cooling program element. [Skytherm system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An outline of the Passive Cooling R and D program element is presented with significant technical achievements obtained during FY 1978. Passive cooling mechanisms are enumerated and a survey of ongoing projects is made in the areas of cooling resource assessment and system development. Results anticipated within the next fiscal year are discussed and the direction of the R and D effort is indicated. Passive cooling system development has centered primarily about the Skytherm system. Two projects are underway to construct such systems in regions having a higher cooling load than the original Skytherm site at Atascadero, California. Component development and commercialization studies are major goals of these two projects and a third project at Atascadero. A two-story passive cooling test module has been built to study radiative, evaporative and convective cooling effects in a structure making use of the thermosiphon principle, but not equipped with a roof pond.

Wahlig, M.; Martin, M.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

ION-BY-ION COOLING EFFICIENCIES  

SciTech Connect

We present ion-by-ion cooling efficiencies for low-density gas. We use Cloudy (version 10.00) to estimate the cooling efficiencies for each ion of the first 30 elements (H-Zn) individually. We present results for gas temperatures between 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 8} K, assuming low densities and optically thin conditions. When nonequilibrium ionization plays a significant role the ionization states deviate from those that obtain in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE), and the local cooling efficiency at any given temperature depends on specific nonequilibrium ion fractions. The results presented here allow for an efficient estimate of the total cooling efficiency for any ionic composition. We also list the elemental cooling efficiencies assuming CIE conditions. These can be used to construct CIE cooling efficiencies for non-solar abundance ratios or to estimate the cooling due to elements not included in any nonequilibrium computation. All the computational results are listed in convenient online tables.

Gnat, Orly [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States) and Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Ferland, Gary J., E-mail: orlyg@tapir.caltech.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Cooling by Heat Conduction Inside Magnetic Flux Loops and the Moderate Cluster Cooling Flow Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I study non-radiative cooling of X-ray emitting gas via heat conduction along magnetic field lines inside magnetic flux loops in cooling flow clusters of galaxies. I find that such heat conduction can reduce the fraction of energy radiated in the X-ray band by a factor of 1.5-2. This non-radiative cooling joins two other proposed non-radiative cooling processes, which can be more efficient. These are mixing of cold and hot gas, and heat conduction initiated by magnetic fields reconnection between hot and cold gas. These processes when incorporated into the moderate cooling flow model lead to a general cooling flow model with the following ingredients. (1) Cooling flow does occur, but with a mass cooling rate about 10 times lower than in old versions of the cooling flow model. Namely, heating occurs such that the effective age of the cooling flow is much below the cluster age, but the heating can't prevent cooling altogether. (2) The cooling flow region is in a non-steady state evolution. (3) Non-radiative cooling of X-ray emitting gas can bring the model to a much better agreement with observations. (4) The general behavior of the cooling flow gas, and in particular the role played by magnetic fields, make the intracluster medium in cooling flow clusters similar in some aspects to the active solar corona.

Noam Soker

2003-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

373

Underground-desiccant cooling system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Underground-Desiccant Cooling System relies on the successful coordination of various components. The central feature of the system is a bed of silica gel which will absorb moisture from house air until the gel has become saturated. When this point has been reached, the silica gel must be regenerated by passing hot air through it. For this project, the hot air is produced by air-type solar collectors mounted on the roof and connected with the main air-handling system by means of ducts attached to the outside of the house. As the air is dehumidified its temperature is raised somewhat by the change of state. The dried but somewhat heated air, after leaving the silica gel bed, passes through a rock bin storage area and then past a water coil chiller before being circulated through the house by means of the previously existing ductwork. The cooling medium for both the rock bin and the chiller coil is water which circulates through underground pipes buried beneath the back yard at a depth of about 10 to 12 ft. When the silica gel is being regenerated by the solar collectors, house air bypasses the desiccant bed but still passes through the rock bin and the chiller coil and is cooled continuously. The system is designed for maximum flexibility so that full use can be made of the solar collectors. Ducting is arranged so that the collectors provide heat for the house in the winter and there is also a hot-water capability year-round.

Finney, O.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Cooling Fusion in a Flash | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cooling Fusion in a Flash American Fusion News Category: U.S. Universities Link: Cooling Fusion in a Flash...

375

Two-Phase Spray Cooling of Hybrid Vehicle Electronics: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Spray cooling is a feasible cooling technology for hybrid vehicle electronics; HFE 7100 is a promising coolant.

Mudawar, I.; Bharathan, D.; Kelly, K.; Narumanchi, S.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Utah Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Utah Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

377

Utah Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Utah Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

378

Utah Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Utah Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

379

California Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) California Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

380

California Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) California Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "floorspace cooled number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Ohio Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Ohio Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

382

Ohio Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Ohio Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

383

Ohio Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Ohio Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

384

Wisconsin Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Wisconsin Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

385

Wisconsin Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Wisconsin Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

386

Wisconsin Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Wisconsin Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

387

Michigan Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Michigan Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

388

Michigan Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Michigan Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

389

Idaho Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Idaho Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

390

Idaho Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Idaho Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

391

Idaho Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Idaho Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

392

Connecticut Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Connecticut Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

393

Hawaii Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Hawaii Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

394

Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

395

Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

396

Maryland Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Maryland Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

397

Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

398

Alabama Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Alabama Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

399

Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

400

Alaska Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Alaska Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "floorspace cooled number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Kansas Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Kansas Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

402

Illinois Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Illinois Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

403

Maine Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Maine Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

404

Florida Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Florida Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

405

Iowa Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Iowa Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

406

Georgia Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Georgia Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

407

Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

408

Missouri Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Missouri Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

409

Montana Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Montana Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

410

Nevada Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Nevada Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

411

Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

412

Arizona Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Arizona Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

413

Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

414

Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

415

Minnesota Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Minnesota Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

416

Massachusetts Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Massachusetts Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

417

Delaware Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Delaware Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

418

Vermont Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Vermont Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

419

Vermont Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Vermont Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

420

Vermont Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Vermont Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "floorspace cooled number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Colorado Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Colorado Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

422

Colorado Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Colorado Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

423

Colorado Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Colorado Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

424

Illinois Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Illinois Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

425

New Mexico Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) New Mexico Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

426

New Mexico Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

(Number of Elements) New Mexico Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

427

New Mexico Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

(Number of Elements) New Mexico Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's...

428

Texas Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Texas Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

429

Texas Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Texas Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

430

Efficient cooling: Making it happen  

SciTech Connect

This article presents a series of solutions that can help everyone to some basic questions about air conditioning: what`s the best way to size a residential air conditioner? to what extent do air conditioners tend to be oversized? how can energy research and programs help promote optimal sizing of cooling systems? Topics covered include the following: defining the debate over sizing of air conditioners; methods for sizing; evaluating simple {open_quotes}rules of thumb{close_quotes}; working with HVAC contractors; creating consumer demand for proper sizing. 1 fig. 1 tab.

Sherman, C.; Hildebrandt, E. [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, CA (United States)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Indirect evaporative cooling in retail  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

JCPenney Co., Inc., recently opened a 126,000-sq ft, two-level retail store in Albuquerque, NM. The project construction was accomplished using a design-build format. This process allows preliminary construction processes to begin while the design is finalized. Law/Kingdom, Inc. was assigned the architectural and engineering services for this building. During the process of design, the team decided to study the addition of evaporative cooling into the air system. This article reviews system design, selection, and performance using an indirect evaporative system in the HVAC system. It also demonstrates the company`s design approach on the original equipment selection for a typical anchor store.

Bartlett, T.A. [JCPenney Co., Plano, TX (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

District cooling and heating development in Stamford, CT. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the development options for introducing district cooling and heating in downtown Stamford, Connecticut. A district energy system as defined for the Stamford project is the production of chilled and hot water at a central energy plant, and its distribution underground to participating building in the vicinity. The objective of the study was to investigate implementation of a district energy system in conjunction with cogeneration as a means to encourage energy conservation and provide the city with an economic development tool. Analysis of the system configuration focused on selecting an arrangement which offered a realistic opportunity for implementation. Three main alternatives were investigated: (1) construction of an 82 MW cogeneration plant and a district heating and cooling system to serve downtown buildings, (2) construction of a small (4 MW) in-fence cogeneration plant combined with cooling and heating, and (3) construction of a district cooling and heating plant to supply selected buildings. Option (1) was determined to be unfeasible at this time due to low electricity prices. The analysis demonstrated that alternatives (2) and (3) were feasible. A number of recommendations are made for detailed cost estimates and ownership, leasing, and financial issues. 12 figs., 10 tabs.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Active solar heating-and-cooling system-development projects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) projects with industry and academic institutions directed toward the development of cost effective, reliable, and publically acceptable active solar heating and cooling systems are presented. A major emphasis of the program is to insure that the information derived from these projects is made available to all members of the solar community who will benefit from such knowledge. The purpose of this document is to provide a brief summary of each of the 214 projects that were active during Fiscal Year 1980, and to provide sufficient information to allow the reader to acquire further details on specific projects. For clarity and convenience, projects are organized by either the program element or technology group as follows: (1) Program elements - Rankine Solar Cooling Systems; Absorption Solar Cooling Systems; Desiccant Solar Cooling Systems; Solar Space Heating Systems; Solar Hot Water Systems; Special Projects; and (2) Technology Groups - Solar Collector Technology; Solar Storage Technology; Solar Controls Technology; Solar Analysis Technology; and Solar Materials Technology. For further convenience, this book contains three indices of contracts, with listings by (1) organization, (2) contract number and (3) state where the project is performed. A brief glossary of terms used is also included at the end of the book.

Not Available

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Description and cost analysis of a deluge dry/wet cooling system.  

SciTech Connect

The use of combined dry/wet cooling systems for large base-load power plants offers the potential for significant water savings as compared to evaporatively cooled power plants and significant cost savings in comparison to dry cooled power plants. The results of a detailed engineering and cost study of one type of dry/wet cooling system are described. In the ''deluge'' dry/wet cooling method, a finned-tube heat exchanger is designed to operate in the dry mode up to a given ambient temperature. To avoid the degradation of performance for higher ambient temperatures, water (the delugeate) is distributed over a portion of the heat exchanger surface to enhance the cooling process by evaporation. The deluge system used in this study is termed the HOETERV system. The HOETERV deluge system uses a horizontal-tube, vertical-plate-finned heat exchanger. The delugeate is distributed at the top of the heat exchanger and is allowed to fall by gravity in a thin film on the face of the plate fin. Ammonia is used as the indirect heat transfer medium between the turbine exhaust steam and the ambient air. Steam is condensed by boiling ammonia in a condenser/reboiler. The ammonia is condensed in the heat exchanger by inducing airflow over the plate fins. Various design parameters of the cooling system have been studied to evaluate their impact on the optimum cooling system design and the power-plant/utility-system interface. Annual water availability was the most significant design parameter. Others included site meteorology, heat exchanger configuration and air flow, number and size of towers, fan system design, and turbine operation. It was concluded from this study that the HOETERV deluge system of dry/wet cooling, using ammonia as an intermediate heat transfer medium, offers the potential for significant cost savings compared with all-dry cooling, while achieving substantially reduced water consumption as compared to an evaporatively cooled power plant. (LCL)

Wiles, L.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Braun, D.J.; Braun, D.J.; Faletti, D.W.; Willingham, C.E.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

DOE Science Showcase - Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE | OSTI, US Dept of  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE Science Accelerator returns cool roof documents from 6 DOE Databases Executive Order on Sustainability Secretary Chu Announces Steps to Implement One Cool Roof Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler Cities Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs DOE Cool Roof Calculator Visit the Science Showcase homepage. OSTI Homepage Mobile Gallery Subscribe to RSS OSTI Blog Get Widgets Get Alert Services OSTI Facebook OSTI Twitter OSTI Google+ Bookmark and Share (Link will open in a new window) Go to Videos Loading... Stop news scroll Most Visited Adopt-A-Doc DOE Data Explorer DOE Green Energy DOepatents DOE R&D Accomplishments .EDUconnections Energy Science and Technology Software Center E-print Network National Library of Energy OSTIblog Science.gov Science Accelerator

436

Optomechanical approach to cooling of small polarizable particles in a strongly pumped ring cavity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cavity cooling of an atom works best on a cyclic optical transition in the strong coupling regime near resonance, where small-cavity photon numbers suffice for trapping and cooling. A straightforward application to the cooling of the translational motion of other polarizable particles without sharply defined two-level transitions (such as molecules) fails as optical pumping transfers the particle into uncoupled states. An alternative operation in the far-off-resonant regime generates only very slow cooling due to the reduced field-particle coupling. We suggest one can overcome this by using a strongly driven ring cavity operated in the sideband cooling regime. The dynamics can be mapped onto the optomechanics setup with a movable mirror and allows one to take advantage of a collectively enhanced field-particle coupling by large photon numbers. A linearized analytical treatment confirmed by full numerical quantum simulations predicts fast cooling despite the off-resonant small single-particle-single-photon coupling. Even ground-state translational cooling (in the external potential) can be obtained by tuning the cavity field close to the Anti-stokes sideband for sufficiently high trapping frequency. Numerical simulations show quantum jumps of the particle between the lowest two trapping levels, which can be directly and continuously monitored via scattered light intensity detection.

Schulze, R. J.; Genes, C.; Ritsch, H. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, and Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

437

Climate Zone Number 5 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

5 5 Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard. Climate Zone Number 5 is defined as Cool- Humid(5A) with IP Units 5400 < HDD65ºF ≤ 7200 and SI Units 3000 < HDD18ºC ≤ 4000 Dry(5B) with IP Units 5400 < HDD65ºF ≤ 7200 and SI Units 3000 < HDD18ºC ≤ 4000 Marine(5C) with IP Units 5400 < HDD65ºF ≤ 7200 and SI Units 3000 < HDD18ºC ≤ 4000 . The following places are categorized as class 5 climate zones: Ada County, Idaho Adair County, Iowa Adair County, Missouri Adams County, Colorado Adams County, Illinois Adams County, Indiana Adams County, Iowa Adams County, Nebraska Adams County, Pennsylvania Adams County, Washington Albany County, New York Allegan County, Michigan Alleghany County, North Carolina

438

Cooling Evolution of Hybrid Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cooling of compact isolated objects for different values of the gravitational mass has been simulated for two alternative assumptions. One is that the interior of the star is purely hadronic and second that the star can have a rather large quark core. It has been shown that within a nonlocal chiral quark model the critical density for a phase transition to color superconducting quark matter under neutron star conditions can be low enough for these phases to occur in compact star configurations with masses below 1.3 M_sun. For a realistic choice of parameters the equation of state (EoS) allows for 2SC quark matter with a large quark gap ~ 100 MeV for u and d quarks of two colors that coexists with normal quark matter within a mixed phase in the hybrid star interior. We argue that, if in the hadronic phase the neutron pairing gap in 3P_2 channel is larger than few keV and the phases with unpaired quarks are allowed, the corresponding hybrid stars would cool too fast. Even in the case of the essentially supp...

Grigorian, H

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Heat pipe turbine vane cooling  

SciTech Connect

The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and a uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

Langston, L.; Faghri, A. [Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

440

STUDY OF MOTOR OIL COOLING AT LOW REYNOLDS NUMBER IN MULTI-PORT NARROW CHANNELS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Mini and micro-scale channels have drawn researchers' attention in the past three decades. The use of these channels in a heat exchanger is due to (more)

Saadi, Mohammed

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "floorspace cooled number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Mechanically-reattachable liquid-cooled cooling apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus comprising a rack having a row of shelves, each shelf supporting an electronics circuit board, each one of the circuit boards being manually removable from the shelve supporting the one of the circuit boards and having a local heat source thereon. The apparatus also comprises a cooler attached to the rack and being able to circulate a cooling fluid around a channel forming a closed loop. The apparatus further comprises a plurality of heat conduits, each heat conduit being located over a corresponding one of the circuit boards and forming a path to transport heat from the local heat source of the corresponding one of the circuit boards to the cooler. Each heat conduit is configured to be manually detachable from the cooler or the circuit board, without breaking a circulation pathway of the fluid through the cooler.

Arney, Susanne; Cheng, Jen-Hau; Kolodner, Paul R; Kota-Venkata, Krishna-Murty; Scofield, William; Salamon, Todd R; Simon, Maria E

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

442

Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:53pm Addthis Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. An illustration of an evaporative cooler. In this example of an evaporative cooler, a small motor (top) drives a large fan (center) which blows air out the bottom and into your home. The fan sucks air in through the louvers around the box, which are covered with water-saturated absorbent material. How Evaporative Coolers Work There are two types of evaporative coolers: direct and indirect. Direct evaporative coolers, also called swamp coolers, work by cooling outdoor air by passing it over water-saturated pads, causing the water to evaporate into it. The 15°-40°F-cooler air is then directed into the home

443

Cool Farm Tool | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cool Farm Tool Cool Farm Tool Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Cool Farm Tool Agency/Company /Organization: Unilever Sector: Land Focus Area: Agriculture Topics: Co-benefits assessment, Resource assessment Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.unilever.com/aboutus/supplier/sustainablesourcing/tools/?WT.LHNAV= Cost: Free Language: English Cool Farm Tool Screenshot References: Cool Farm Tool [1] Overview "The Cool Farm Tool is a new greenhouse gas calculator for farming. It's easy to use and gives instant results that invite users to try out alternatives and ask 'what if' questions. The tool was commissioned by Unilever from the University of Aberdeen The tool is ideal for farmers, supply chain managers and companies interested in quantifying their

444

Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:53pm Addthis Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. An illustration of an evaporative cooler. In this example of an evaporative cooler, a small motor (top) drives a large fan (center) which blows air out the bottom and into your home. The fan sucks air in through the louvers around the box, which are covered with water-saturated absorbent material. How Evaporative Coolers Work There are two types of evaporative coolers: direct and indirect. Direct evaporative coolers, also called swamp coolers, work by cooling outdoor air by passing it over water-saturated pads, causing the water to evaporate into it. The 15°-40°F-cooler air is then directed into the home

445

Microsoft PowerPoint - Cool Roofs_090804  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for: for: Quarterly Facilities and Infrastructure Meeting Presented by: The Office of Engineering and Construction Management Content Excerpted From Presentation of: Bob Schmidt - NNSA Kansas City Plant Cool Roofs - An Overview August 4, 2009 2 *The terms "white roof" and "cool roof" are often mistakenly used interchangeably. A white roof is not necessarily a cool roof and a cool roof is not necessarily white. *"Cool Roofs" come in many style as defined by industry standard and can include: Metal Single ply Modified bitumen Acrylic coated White Roof vs. Cool Roof 3 Solar reflectance alone can significantly influence surface temperature, with the white stripe on the brick wall about 5 to 10° F (3-5° C) cooler than the surrounding, darker

446

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy 101: Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs February 1, 2011 - 10:50am Addthis John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Editor's Note: This entry has been cross-posted from DOE's Energy Blog. In this edition of Energy 101 we take a look at one of Secretary Chu's favorite energy efficiency techniques, cool roofs. Traditional dark-colored roofing materials absorb a great deal of sunlight, which in turn transfers heat to a building. Cool roofs use light-colored, highly reflective materials to regulate building temperatures without increasing electricity demand, which can result in energy savings of up to 10 to 15 percent. Cool roofs can also reduce the "heat island" effect in cities and suburbs, a phenomenon that produces higher temperatures in densely populated areas

447

Abstract Radiative Cooling in Hot Humid Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Passive radiative cooling of buildings has been an underachieving concept for decades. The few deployments have generally been in dry climates with low solar angles. The greatest need for cooling is in the tropics. The high humidity endemic to many of these regions severely limits the passive cooling available per radiative area. To wrest temperature relief from humid climates, not just nocturnal cooling but solar irradiance, both direct and indirect, must be addressed. This investigation explores the extent to which thermal radiation can be used to cool buildings in the tropics. It concludes that inexpensive materials could be fabricated into roof panels providing passive cooling day and night in tropical locations with an unobstructed view of sky.

Aubrey Jaffer

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Definition: Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate.[1] References ↑ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evaporative_cooler Ret LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. rieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Evaporative_Cooling&oldid=601323" Category: Definitions What links here Related changes

449

Cool Roofs: An Introduction | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Roofs: An Introduction Roofs: An Introduction Cool Roofs: An Introduction August 9, 2010 - 4:43pm Addthis Erin R. Pierce Erin R. Pierce Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Lately, I've been hearing a lot about cool roof technologies, so I welcomed the chance to learn more at a recent seminar. Cool roofs, also referred to as white roofs, have special coatings that reflect sunlight and emit heat more efficiently than traditional roofs, keeping them cooler in the sun. Cool roofing technologies can be implemented quickly and at a relatively low cost, making it the fastest growing sector of the building industry. U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu is among the many cool roof enthusiasts. The Secretary recently announced plans to install cool roofs

450

Cooling of Neutron Stars. Hadronic Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the cooling of isolated neutron stars. The main cooling regulators are introduced: EoS, thermal transport, heat capacity, neutrino and photon emissivity, superfluid nucleon gaps. Neutrino emissivity includes main processes. A strong impact of medium effects on the cooling rates is demonstrated. With taking into account of medium effects in reaction rates and in nucleon superfluid gaps modern experimental data can be well explained.

D. Blaschke; H. Grigorian; D. N. Voskresensky

2004-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

451

A Comparative Demonstration of Alternative Milk Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A newly-designed groundwater-ice bank milk cooling system significantly reduces energy use and peak electric demand by about 30% over a conventional direct expansion bulk tank cooling system. This study compared the energy efficiency, electrical demands, and milk quality obtained using the new and conventional systems. Overall, the new system represents a viable, cost-effective alternative for dairy farms that are upgrading or replacing milk cooling equipment.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Wet/dry cooling tower and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A wet/dry cooling tower wherein a liquid to-be-cooled is flowed along channels of a corrugated open surface or the like, which surface is swept by cooling air. The amount of the surface covered by the liquid is kept small compared to the dry part thereof so that said dry part acts as a fin for the wet part for heat dissipation.

Glicksman, Leon R. (Lynnfield, MA); Rohsenow, Warren R. (Waban, MA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Solar cooling R and D overview  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The status of the principal solar energy conversion processes for cooling is reviewed; applications ready for demonstrations are identified; and directions for near term R and D efforts needed to bring other potentially successful cooling systems to the point of demonstration are recommended. The principal solar cooling methods are classified as: absorption, heat engine/vapor compression, desiccant, solar assisted heat pump, photovoltaic heat pump, and passive and others.

Auh, P.C.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Evaporative Enhancement for Air Cooled Condensers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes research into condenser air evaporative pre-cooling technologies and the associated potential for energy and peak power savings. The interest in this project is evaluation of the specific application of evaporative cooling to the inlet air of condenser coils, particularly for large roof-top type air cooled chillers. While the technology is established and understood particularly well for hot, dry climates, this report is intended to also examine evaporative ...

2013-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

456

Cool! Nanoparticle Research Points to Energy Savings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The double-bubble effect enhances boiling heat transfer and, ultimately, could help to boost the energy efficiency of industrial-sized cooling systems ...

2011-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

457

Magneto-Optical Cooling of Atoms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose an alternative method to laser cooling. Our approach utilizes the extreme brightness of a supersonic atomic beam, and the adiabatic atomic coilgun to slow atoms in the beam or to bring them to rest. We show how internal-state optical pumping and stimulated optical transitions, combined with magnetic forces can be used to cool the translational motion of atoms. This approach does not rely on momentum transfer from photons to atoms, as in laser cooling. We predict that our method can surpass laser cooling in terms of flux of ultra-cold atoms and phase-space density, with lower required laser power and reduced complexity.

Raizen, Mark G; Rochester, Simon; Narevicius, Julia; Narevicius, Edvardas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Cavity cooling of a single atom  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

All conventional methods to laser-cool atoms rely on repeated cycles of optical pumping and spontaneous emission of a photon by the atom. Spontaneous emission in a random direction is the dissipative mechanism required to remove entropy from the atom. However, alternative cooling methods have been proposed for a single atom strongly coupled to a high-finesse cavity; the role of spontaneous emission is replaced by the escape of a photon from the cavity. Application of such cooling schemes would improve the performance of atom cavity systems for quantum information processing. Furthermore, as cavity cooling does not rely on spontaneous emission, it can be applied to systems that cannot be laser-cooled by conventional methods; these include molecules (which do not have a closed transition) and collective excitations of Bose condensates, which are destroyed by randomly directed recoil kicks. Here we demonstrate cavity cooling of single rubidium atoms stored in an intracavity dipole trap. The cooling mechanism results in extended storage times and improved localization of atoms. We estimate that the observed cooling rate is at least five times larger than that produced by free-space cooling methods, for comparable excitation of the atom.

P. Maunz; T. Puppe; I. Schuster; N. Syassen; P. W. H. Pinkse; G. Rempe

2004-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

459

Failure of Cooling Tower West Virginia 1978  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The Willow Island disaster was the collapse of a cooling tower under ... In response to this request, NBS carried out field, laboratory and analytical ...

2011-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

460

Complete Muon Cooling Channel Design and Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Considerable progress has been made in developing promising subsystems for muon beam cooling channels to provide the extraordinary reduction of emittances required for an energy-frontier muon collider. However, it has not yet been demonstrated that the various proposed cooling subsystems can be consolidated into an integrated end-to-end design. Presented here are concepts to address the matching of transverse emittances between subsystems through an extension of the theoretical framework of the Helical Cooling Channel (HCC), which allows a general analytical approach to guide the transition from one set of cooling channel parameters to another.

Neuffer, D.V.; /Fermilab; Ankenbrandt, C.M.; Johnson, R.P.; Yoshikawa, C.Y.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia; Derbenev, Y.S.; Morozov, V.S.; /Jefferson Lab

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "floorspace cooled number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Complete Muon Cooling Channel Design and Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Considerable progress has been made in developing promising subsystems for muon beam cooling channels to provide the extraordinary reduction of emittances required for an energy-frontier muon collider. However, it has not yet been demonstrated that the various proposed cooling subsystems can be consolidated into an integrated end-to-end design. Presented here are concepts to address the matching of transverse emittances between subsystems through an extension of the theoretical framework of the Helical Cooling Channel (HCC), which allows a general analytical approach to guide the transition from one set of cooling channel parameters to another.

C. Y. Yoshikawa, C.M. Ankenbrandt, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, V.S. Morozov, D.V. Neuffer, K. Yonehara

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Modeling Satellite District Heating and Cooling Networks.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Satellite District Heating and Cooling (DHC) systems offer an alternative structure to conventional, centralized DHC networks. Both use a piping network carrying steam or water (more)

Rulff, David

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

The Greenest Way to Stay Cool - NREL  

Coolerado The Elevator Brief Patented Heat Exchanger that cools air using 50 -90% less energy peak demand and total KWh -than conventional AC

464

NIST Quantum Refrigerator Offers Extreme Cooling and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... NIST's prototype solid-state refrigerator uses quantum physics in the square chip mounted on the green circuit board to cool the much larger copper ...

2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

465

Energy Basics: Space Heating and Cooling  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

in common, such as thermostats and ducts, which provide opportunities for saving energy. Learn how these technologies and systems work. Learn about: Cooling Systems Heating...

466

Evaluation of the cooling fan efficiency index.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evaluation of the Cooling Fan Efficiency indexfor a desk fan anda computer fan Stefano Schiavon 1,2,* , M. Sc. PhD

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Dew-Point Evaporative Comfort Cooling (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Presentation on innovative indirect evaporative cooling technology developed by Coolerado Corporation given at the Rocky Mountain Chapter ASHRAE conference in April 2012.

Dean, J.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Bee Cool Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Solar Product Producer of polysilicon solar panels and solar trackers, and solar battery chargers. References Bee Cool Inc1 LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No...

469

Heat pipe cooling of metallurgical furnace equipment.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Current water-cooling technology used in the metallurgical industry poses a major safety concern. In addition, these systems are expensive to operate and result in significant (more)

Navarra, Pietro, 1979-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

AEDG Implementation Recommendations: Cool Roofs | Building Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

section of the guide and focus on cool roofs, which are recommended for metal building roofs and roofs with insulation entirely above deck. Publication Date: Wednesday,...

471

Green Cooling: Improving Chiller Efficiency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 Green Cooling: Improving Chiller Efficiency This new chiller simulation module being developed by Building Performance Assurance Project members will help building managers compare optimal and actual chiller efficiency. Chillers are the single largest energy consumers in commercial buildings. These machines create peaks in electric power consumption, typically during summer afternoons. In fact, 23% of electricity generation is associated with powering chillers that use CFCs and HCFCs, ozone-depleting refrigerants. Satisfying the peak demand caused by chillers forces utilities to build new power plants. However, because chiller plants run the most when the weather is hot and very little at other times, their load factors - and hence the utilities' load factors (the percentage of time the

472

Reactor core isolation cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom. 1 figure.

Cooke, F.E.

1992-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

473

Reactor core isolation cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom.

Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a modular liquid-metal pool breeder reactor, a radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system is disclosed for removing the residual heat resulting from the shutdown of a reactor by a completely passive heat transfer system. A shell surrounds the reactor and containment vessel, separated from the containment vessel by an air passage. Natural circulation of air is provided by air vents at the lower and upper ends of the shell. Longitudinal, radial and inwardly extending fins extend from the shell into the air passage. The fins are heated by radiation from the containment vessel and convect the heat to the circulating air. Residual heat from the primary reactor vessel is transmitted from the reactor vessel through an inert gas plenum to a guard or containment vessel designed to contain any leaking coolant. The containment vessel is conventional and is surrounded by the shell.

Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Cool CAVEs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CAVEs CAVEs Cool CAVEs January 5, 2011 - 6:18pm Addthis Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science What are the key facts? The Idaho National Laboratory's "CAVE" -- 3-D Computer-Assisted Virtual Environment -- allows scientists to literally walk into their data and look at it from multiple perspectives. Projectors, mounted behind the walls and on the ceiling, are manipulated by researchers using 3-D goggles and a handheld controller -- and allow them to study everything from terrain to applied nuclear research, to active sites of proteins. To escape the holiday chaos, many folks found refuge in caves - dark places with sticky floors, lumpy seating and Jeff Bridges playing scenes against a computer-enhanced younger version of himself . . . at least if

476

Number: 305 Most Dangerous Vehicles ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... top> Number: 314 Marine Vegetation Description: Commercial harvesting of marine vegetation such as algae, seaweed and ...

2002-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

477

Thermal conductivity of dense quark matter and cooling of stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The thermal conductivity of the color-flavor locked phase of dense quark matter is calculated. The dominant contribution to the conductivity comes from photons and Nambu-Goldstone bosons associated with breaking of baryon number which are trapped in the quark core. Because of their very large mean free path the conductivity is also very large. The cooling of the quark core arises mostly from the heat flux across the surface of direct contact with the nuclear matter. As the thermal conductivity of the neighboring layer is also high, the whole interior of the star should be nearly isothermal. Our results imply that the cooling time of compact stars with color-flavor locked quark cores is similar to that of ordinary neutron stars.

Igor A. Shovkovy; Paul J. Ellis

2002-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

478

Quench Protection for the MICE Cooling Channel Coupling Magnet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the passive quench protection system selected for the muon ionization cooling experiment (MICE) cooling channel coupling magnet. The MICE coupling magnet will employ two methods of quench protection simultaneously. The most important method of quench protection in the coupling magnet is the subdivision of the coil. Cold diodes and resistors are put across the subdivisions to reduce both the voltage to ground and the hot-spot temperature. The second method of quench protection is quench-back from the mandrel, which speeds up the spread of the normal region within the coils. Combining quench back with coil subdivision will reduce the hot spot temperature further. This paper explores the effect on the quench process of the number of coil sub-divisions, the quench propagation velocity within the magnet, and the shunt resistance.

Guo, Xing Long; Xu, Feng Yu; Wang, Li; Green, Michael A.; Pan, Heng; Wu, Hong; Liu, X.K.; Jia, Lin Xiang; Amm, Kathleen

2008-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

479

Comparison of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Power Electronics Cooling Options  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study quantifies the heat dissipation potential of three inverter package configurations over a range of control factors. These factors include coolant temperature, number of sides available for cooling, effective heat transfer coefficient, maximum semiconductor junction temperature, and interface material thermal resistance. Heat dissipation potentials are examined in contrast to a research goal to use 105..deg..C coolant and dissipate 200 W/cm2 heat across the insulated gate bipolar transistor and diode silicon area. Advanced double-sided cooling configurations with aggressive heat transfer coefficients show the possibility of meeting these targets for a 125..deg..C maximum junction temperature, but further investigation is needed. Even with maximum tolerable junction temperatures of 200..deg..C, effective heat transfer coefficients of 5,000 to 10,000 W/m2-K will be needed for coolant temperatures of 105..deg..C or higher.

O'Keefe, M.; Bennion, K.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Emergency cooling system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved emergency cooling system and method are disclosed that may be adapted for incorporation into or use with a nuclear BWR wherein a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) containing a nuclear core and a heat transfer fluid for circulation in a heat transfer relationship with the core is housed within an annular sealed drywell and is fluid communicable therewith for passage thereto in an emergency situation the heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and any noncondensibles present in the RPV, an annular sealed wetwell houses the drywell, and a pressure suppression pool of liquid is disposed in the wetwell and is connected to the drywell by submerged vents. The improved emergency cooling system and method has a containment condenser for receiving condensible heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and noncondensibles for condensing at least a portion of the heat transfer fluid. The containment condenser has an inlet in fluid communication with the drywell for receiving heat transfer fluid and noncondensibles, a first outlet in fluid communication with the RPV for the return to the RPV of the condensed portion of the heat transfer fluid and a second outlet in fluid communication with the drywell for passage of the noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles. The noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles passed to the drywell from the containment condenser are mixed with the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles from the RPV for passage into the containment condenser. A water pool is provided in heat transfer relationship with the containment condenser and is thermally communicable in an emergency situation with an environment outside of the drywell and the wetwell for conducting heat transferred from the containment condenser away from the wetwell and the drywell. 5 figs.

Oosterkamp, W.J.; Cheung, Y.K.

1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "floorspace cooled number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Condensation Under Controlled Cooling: A Simulation Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The formation, growth, structure and cluster size distribution (CSD) properties in a two-dimensional system of particles interacting with Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential under controlled cooling condition have been studied using Monte-Carlo (MC) method considering modified Metropolis algorithm to introduce realistic thermal motion of the particles. The system, initially at relatively higher temperature Ti, undergoes temperature reduction following exponential law with decay constant a to a lower temperature Tf and subsequently reaches equilibrium. The equilibrium phase configuration depends strongly on the number density c of particles and a. The root mean square particle displacement in the final equilibrium phase shows maximum value for a = ac ~ 10-3 for all c. The CSD properties obtained at a = 10-3 shows a sharp peak in the lower cluster size region for low c. The peak shifts towards higher cluster size for lower a. The CSD fits well with a modified Gamma distribution function. All of the particles in the system form a single cluster when c is larger than a critical value cc (~0.5). A compact well-defined ordered structure is obtained for c > cc and a << ac.

Barnana Pal

2013-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

482

Passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with backup coolant flow path  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactor plant having a passive auxiliary safety cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. This reactor plant is enhanced by a backup or secondary passive safety cooling system which augments the primary passive auxiliary cooling system when in operation, and replaces the primary system when rendered inoperable.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Cooling circuit for steam and air-cooled turbine nozzle stage  

SciTech Connect

The turbine vane segment includes inner and outer walls with a vane extending therebetween. The vane includes leading and trailing edge cavities and intermediate cavities. An impingement plate is spaced from the outer wall to impingement-cool the outer wall. Post-impingement cooling air flows through holes in the outer wall to form a thin air-cooling film along the outer wall. Cooling air is supplied an insert sleeve with openings in the leading edge cavity for impingement-cooling the leading edge. Holes through the leading edge afford thin-film cooling about the leading edge. Cooling air is provided the trailing edge cavity and passes through holes in the side walls of the vane for thin-film cooling of the trailing edge. Steam flows through a pair of intermediate cavities for impingement-cooling of the side walls. Post-impingement steam flows to the inner wall for impingement-cooling of the inner wall and returns the post-impingement cooling steam through inserts in other intermediate cavities for impingement-cooling the side walls of the vane.

Itzel, Gary Michael (Clifton Park, NY); Yu, Yufeng (Guilderland, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Method for passive cooling liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors, and system thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Busboom, Herbert J. (San Jose, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Comparative report: performance of active-solar space-cooling systems, 1981 cooling season  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report provides a detailed analysis of solar absorption cooling and solar Rankine cooling processes as represented by the National Solar Data Network (NSDN) systems. There is comprehensive data on four absorption chiller cooling systems and one Rankine cooling system. Three of these systems, including the Rankine system, demonstrated that solar cooling can be operated efficiently and provide energy savings. Good designs and operating procedures are discussed. Problems which reduce savings are identified. There is also a comparison of solar cooling by absorption, Rankine, and photovoltaic processes. Parameters and performance indices presented include overall system delivered loads, solar fraction of the load, coefficient of performance, energy collected and stored, and various subsystem efficiencies. The comparison of these factors has allowed evaluation of the relative performance of various systems. Analyses performed for which comparative data are provided include: energy savings and operating costs in terms of Btu; energy savings in terms of dollars; overall solar cooling efficiency and coefficient of performance; hourly building cooling loads; actual and long-term weather conditions; collector performance; collector area to tons of chiller cooling capacity; chiller performance; normalized building cooling loads per cooling degree-day and building area; and cooling solar fractions, design and measured.

Wetzel, P.; Pakkala, P.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

CHANGE OF NAME TIAA Annuity Number CREF Annuity Number TIAA Policy Number  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHANGE OF NAME TIAA Annuity Number CREF Annuity Number TIAA Policy Number Social Security Number and only use black or dark blue ink. Return this form to: TIAA-CREF P.O. Box 1264 Charlotte, NC 28201 NOTE City State Zip Code For TIAA-CREF USE ONLY Accepted -- Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association

Snider, Barry B.

487

Theory of cooling neutron stars versus observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review current state of neutron star cooling theory and discuss the prospects to constrain the equation of state, neutrino emission and superfluid properties of neutron star cores by comparing the cooling theory with observations of thermal radiation from isolated neutron stars.

Yakovlev, D G; Kaminker, A D; Potekhin, A Yu

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Performance of cross-cooled desiccant dehumidifiers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A cross-cooled silica gel desiccant dehumidifier model was designed, built and tested. The performance of the unit was studied as a function of inlet process stream dew point, process stream and cooling stream flowrates and regeneration stream temperature and dew point. The tests were also simulated by a computer program and were compared to the experimental results.

Mei, V.C.; Lavan, Z.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

2006 EPRI Cooling Tower Technology Conference Proceedings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling towers and associated systems cause significant loss of availability and heat rate degradation in both nuclear and fossil-fired power plants. Fifteen papers presented at a 2006 Conference in Des Moines, Iowa discussed industrial experience and provided case histories of cooling tower problems and solutions.

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Liquid cooled counter flow turbine bucket  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Means and a method are provided whereby liquid coolant flows radially outward through coolant passages in a liquid cooled turbine bucket under the influence of centrifugal force while in contact with countercurrently flowing coolant vapor such that liquid is entrained in the flow of vapor resulting in an increase in the wetted cooling area of the individual passages.

Dakin, James T. (Schenectady, NY)

1982-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

491

One Cool Roof | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

One Cool Roof One Cool Roof One Cool Roof November 9, 2010 - 10:28am Addthis Deputy Director Salmon Deputy Director, Resource Management The Office of Science occupies many buildings around the country, but it owns only two of them. One of them is making some news. The 134,629 sq. ft. (about 3 acres) roof of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) building in Oak Ridge, Tennessee is now officially a "Cool Roof" -- making it energy efficient in ways that darker roofs are not. Cool roofs are light in color, and therefore, reflect rather than absorb sunlight. The previous roof was black, but worse, it was leaky and those leaks, controlled for years in some very innovative ways by the OSTI staff, were going to cause significant problems if not addressed. OSTI needed to invest

492

Solar space cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cooling cooling Jump to: navigation, search Solarcooling.jpg Contents 1 Introduction 2 Solar Absorption Technology 3 Solar Desiccant Technology 4 Passive Solar Cooling 5 References Introduction There are many benefits to Solar Cooling systems. For one the sun is a clean energy resource that we should be using more often. It also produces no emissions and is replenished naturally, it reduces greenhouse gases, it saves the release of 1.6 lbs. of carbon dioxide (CO2) for each kilowatt-hour (kWh) produced, it saves the use of one-half gallon of water for each kWh of solar energy produced, it saves the release of other emissions that result from the burning of fossil fuels such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide or mercury and it provides customers with options to reduce their electric bills. But up to this point Solar Cooling systems are

493

Debris trap in a turbine cooling system  

SciTech Connect

In a turbine having a rotor and a plurality of stages, each stage comprising a row of buckets mounted on the rotor for rotation therewith; and wherein the buckets of at least one of the stages are cooled by steam, the improvement comprising at least one axially extending cooling steam supply conduit communicating with an at least partially annular steam supply manifold; one or more axially extending cooling steam feed tubes connected to the manifold at a location radially outwardly of the cooling steam supply conduit, the feed tubes arranged to supply cooling steam to the buckets of at least one of the plurality of stages; the manifold extending radially beyond the feed tubes to thereby create a debris trap region for collecting debris under centrifugal loading caused by rotation of the rotor.

Wilson, Ian David (Clifton Park, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs January 31, 2011 - 12:38pm Addthis This edition of Energy 101 takes a look at how switching to a cool roof can save you money and benefit the environment. John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs How does it work? Dark-colored roofing materials absorb a great deal of sunlight, which transfers heat into a building. This can also cause the "heat island" effect in cities and suburbs, a phenomenon that produces higher temperatures in densely populated areas due to extensive changes in the landscape. Cool roofs use light-colored, highly reflective materials to regulate building temperatures without increasing electricity demand, which can result in energy savings of up to 10 to 15 percent.

495

Ventilation Systems for Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling May 30, 2012 - 6:19pm Addthis Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Ventilation is the least expensive and most energy-efficient way to cool buildings. Ventilation works best when combined with methods to avoid heat buildup in your home. In some cases, natural ventilation will suffice for cooling, although it usually needs to be supplemented with spot ventilation, ceiling fans, and window fans. For large homes, homeowners might want to investigate whole house fans. Interior ventilation is ineffective in hot, humid climates where

496

Ventilation Systems for Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling May 30, 2012 - 6:19pm Addthis Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Ventilation is the least expensive and most energy-efficient way to cool buildings. Ventilation works best when combined with methods to avoid heat buildup in your home. In some cases, natural ventilation will suffice for cooling, although it usually needs to be supplemented with spot ventilation, ceiling fans, and window fans. For large homes, homeowners might want to investigate whole house fans. Interior ventilation is ineffective in hot, humid climates where

497

Cavity cooling of a single atom  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

All conventional methods to laser-cool atoms rely on repeated cycles of optical pumping and spontaneous emission of a photon by the atom. Spontaneous emission in a random direction is the dissipative mechanism required to remove entropy from the atom. However, alternative cooling methods have been proposed1, 2 for a single atom strongly coupled to a high-finesse cavity; the role of spontaneous emission is replaced by the escape of a photon from the cavity. Application of such cooling schemes would improve the performance of atom cavity systems for quantum information processing3, 4. Furthermore, as cavity cooling does not rely on spontaneous emission, it can be applied to systems that cannot be laser-cooled by conventional methods; these include molecules2 (which do not have a closed transition) and collective excitations of

P. Maunz; I. Schuster; N. Syassen; P. W. H. Pinkse; G. Rempe

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Cooling system for a nuclear reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cooling system for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed which includes at least one primary cooling loop adapted to pass coolant gas from the reactor core and an associated steam generator through a duct system having a main circulator therein, and at least one auxiliary cooling loop having communication with the reactor core and adapted to selectively pass coolant gas through an auxiliary heat exchanger and circulator. The main and auxiliary circulators are installed in a common vertical cavity in the reactor vessel, and a common return duct communicates with the reactor core and intersects the common cavity at a junction at which is located a flow diverter valve operative to effect coolant flow through either the primary or auxiliary cooling loops.

Amtmann, Hans H. (Rancho Santa Fe, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Reducing home heating and cooling costs  

SciTech Connect

This report is in response to a request from the House Committee on Energy and Commerce that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) undertake a neutral, unbiased analysis of the cost, safety, and health and environmental effects of the three major heating fuels: heating oil, natural gas, and electricity. The Committee also asked EIA to examine the role of conservation in the choice of heating and cooling fuel. To accommodate a wide audience, EIA decided to respond to the Committee`s request in the context of a report on reducing home heating and cooling costs. Accordingly, this report discusses ways to weatherize the home, compares the features of the three major heating and cooling fuels, and comments on the types of heating and cooling systems on the market. The report also includes a worksheet and supporting tables that will help in the selection of a heating and/or cooling system.

Not Available

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

A review of desiccant cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes recent published design advances that have been made in desiccant cooling systems. In desiccant cooling cycles, the desiccant reduces the humidity of the air by removing moisture from the air. Then the temperature is reduced by other components such as heat exchangers, evaporative coolers, or conventional cooling coils. The main advantage that desiccant cooling systems offer is the capability of using low-grade thermal energy. Desiccant cooling systems for residential and commercial applications are now being used to reduce energy-operating costs. However, the initial costs are comparatively high. The focus of research for the past decade has been to develop desiccant systems with a high coefficient of performance. Recent studies have emphasized computer modeling and hybrid systems that combine desiccant dehumidifiers with conventional systems.

Waugaman, D.G.; Kini, A.; Kettleborough, C.F. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z