Sample records for flooding steam flooding

  1. Subcooling Effects for Flooding Experiments with Steam and Water in a Large Diameter Vertical Tube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cullum, Wes

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A counter current annular flow experiment was performed to determine flooding conditions for varying degrees of subcooling using steam and water. The findings can be used in reactor safety codes to provide an improved model of flooding during...

  2. GEOPHYSICS, VOL. 63, NO. 4 (JULY-AUGUST 1998); P. 11371149, 10 FIGS., 1 TABLE. Electrical conductivity of steam-flooded,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knight, Rosemary

    conductivity of steam-flooded, clay-bearing geologic materials David B. Butler and Rosemary J. Knight ABSTRACT the conductivity of a steam zone by providing a surface conduction path that is enhanced strongly by temperature increases. Clay also increases the residual water saturation in a steam zone, further increasing

  3. TRANSPORT AND PHASE EQUILIBRIA PROPERITIES FOR STEAM FLOODING OF HEAVY OILS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrocarbon/water and CO{sub 2} systems are frequently found in petroleum recovery processes, petroleum refining, and gasification of coals, lignites and tar sands. Techniques to estimate the phase volume and phase composition are indispensable to design and improve oil recovery processes such as steam, hot water, or CO{sub 2}/steam combinations of flooding techniques typically used for heavy oils. An interdisciplinary research program to quantify transport, PVT, and equilibrium properties of selected oil/CO{sub 2}/water mixtures at pressures up to 10,000 psia and at temperatures up to 500 F has been put in place. The objectives of this research include experimental determination and rigorous modeling and computation of phase equilibrium diagrams, and volumetric properties of hydrocarbon/CO{sub 2}/water mixtures at pressures and temperatures typical of steam injection processes for thermal recovery of heavy oils. Highlighting the importance of phase behavior, researchers ([1], and [2]) insist on obtaining truly representative reservoir fluids samples for experimental analysis. The prevailing sampling techniques used for compositional analysis of the fluids have potential for a large source of error. These techniques bring the sample to atmospheric conditions and collect the liquid and vapor portion of the samples for further analysis. We developed a new experimental technique to determine phase volumes, compositions and equilibrium K-values at reservoir conditions. The new methodology is able to measure phase volume and composition at reservoir like temperatures and pressures. We use a mercury free PVT system in conjunction with a Hewlett Packard gas chromatograph capable of measuring compositions on line at high pressures and temperatures. This is made possible by an essentially negligible disturbance of the temperature and pressure equilibrium during phase volume and composition measurements. In addition, not many samples are withdrawn for compositional analysis because a negligible volume (0.1 {micro}l to 0.5 {micro}l) is sent directly to the gas chromatograph through sampling valves. These amounts are less than 1 x 10{sup -5} % of total volume and do not affect the overall composition or equilibrium of the system. A new method to compute multi-component phase equilibrium diagrams based on an improved version of the Peng-Robinson equation has been developed [3]. This new version of the Peng-Robinson equation uses a new volume translation scheme and new mixing rules to improve the accuracy of the calculations. Calculations involving multicomponent mixtures of CO{sub 2}/water and hydrocarbons have been completed. A scheme to lump multi-component materials such as, oils into a small set of ''pseudo-components'' according to the technique outlined by Whitson [4] has been implemented. This final report presents the results of our experimental and predicted phase behavior diagrams and calculations for mixtures of CO{sub 2}/water and real oils at high pressures and temperatures.

  4. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM HAUGHTON RIVER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenslade, Diana

    . The system provides early warning of heavy rainfall and river rises in the catchment and enables moreFLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the HAUGHTON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system Flooding Flood Forecasting Local Information Haughton ALERT System Flood Warnings and Bulletins

  5. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM JOHNSTONE RIVER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenslade, Diana

    Warning Centre in Brisbane. The system provides early warning of heavy rainfall and river risesFLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the JOHNSTONE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system ALERT System Flood Warnings and Bulletins Interpreting Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins Flood

  6. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NERANG RIVER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenslade, Diana

    ALERT System The Nerang River ALERT flood warning system was completed in the early 1990's as a coFLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NERANG RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated Nerang ALERT System Flood Warnings and Bulletins Interpreting Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins

  7. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid/vapor traffic that produce increased contact area and lead to substantial increases in separation efficiency – which translates to a 10% increase in energy efficiency on a BTU/bbl basis. The Flooding Predictor™ operates on the principle that between five to sixty minutes in advance of a flooding event, certain column variables experience an oscillation, a pre-flood pattern. The pattern recognition system of the Flooding Predictor™ utilizes the mathematical first derivative of certain column variables to identify the column’s pre-flood pattern(s). This pattern is a very brief, highly repeatable, simultaneous movement among the derivative values of certain column variables. While all column variables experience negligible random noise generated from the natural frequency of the process, subtle pre-flood patterns are revealed among sub-sets of the derivative values of column variables as the column approaches its hydraulic limit. The sub-set of column variables that comprise the pre-flood pattern is identified empirically through in a two-step process. First, 2ndpoint’s proprietary off-line analysis tool is used to mine historical data for pre-flood patterns. Second, the column is flood-tested to fine-tune the pattern recognition for commissioning. Then the Flooding Predictor™ is implemented as closed-loop advanced control strategy on the plant’s distributed control system (DCS), thus automating control of the column at its hydraulic limit.

  8. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BURDEKIN RIVER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenslade, Diana

    . The system provides early warning of heavy rainfall and river rises in the catchment below the DamFLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BURDEKIN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system Local Information Burdekin ALERT System Flood Warnings and Bulletins Interpreting Flood Warnings

  9. Flooding and Fire Ants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nester, Paul

    2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    of debris or in homes and other build- ings until they build new mounds in the soil. During flooding Avoid contact with floating mats of fire ants. If you are in a row boat, do not touch the ants with the oars. If you must work in flood water, try... within the first 15 to 20 minutes. Some people report that the irrita- tion of a fire ant sting can be relieved by applying a 50:50 solution of bleach and water. Other home remedies include ammonia, meat tenderizer, tea tree oil and camphor...

  10. Flooding Experiments with Steam and Water in a Large Diameter Vertical Tube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Susan Nicole

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    of the surge line and steam generator tubes. Currently no satisfactory mechanistic ooding models exist yet, so current safety analysis codes employ empirical correlations to predict ooding. With their default ooding models, the SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP...

  11. Experimental Study of Steam Surfactant Flood for Enhancing Heavy Oil Recovery After Waterflooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sunnatov, Dinmukhamed

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    /W) emulsions can also form under certain conditions with the addition of surfactants and/or alkali mixtures. 10 CHAPTER III EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS AND PROCEDURE 3.1. Apparatus The experimental equipment for steam surfactant injection used for this work...

  12. Experimental Study of Steam Surfactant Flood for Enhancing Heavy Oil Recovery After Waterflooding 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sunnatov, Dinmukhamed

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam injection with added surface active chemicals is one of general EOR processes aimed to recover residual oil after primary production processes. It has been demonstrated that, after waterflooding, an oil swept area ...

  13. Service Assessment Hurricane Floyd Floods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Service Assessment Hurricane Floyd Floods of September 1999 mm r u, /"' r U.S.DEPARTMENTOF COMMERCE: Hurricane Floyd Floods of September 1999. Aerial view of Grifton, North Carolina, with flooding from the Neuse River. (Photograph courtesy of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.) #12;Service Assessment Hurricane

  14. Transport and Phase Equilibria Properties for Steam Flooding of Heavy Oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabitto, Jorge; Barufet, Maria

    2002-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this research included experimental determination and rigorous modeling and computation of phase equilibrium diagrams, volumetric, and transport properties of hydrocarbon/CO2/water mixtures at pressures and temperatures typical of steam injection processes for thermal recovery of heavy oils.

  15. Transport and Phase Equilibria Properties for Steam Flooding of Heavy Oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabitto, Jorge; Barrufet, Maria

    2001-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this research included experimental determination and rigorous modeling and computation of phase equilibria, volumetric, and transport properties of hydrocarbon/CO2/water mixtures at pressures and temperatures typical of steam injection processes for thermal recovery of heavy oils.

  16. Alkaline flooding injection strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to improved alkali-surfactant flooding methods, and this includes determining the proper design of injection strategy. Several different injection strategies have been used or suggested for recovering heavy oils with surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding methods. Oil recovery was compared for four different injection strategies: (1) surfactant followed by polymer, (2) surfactant followed by alkaline polymer, (3) alkaline surfactant followed by polymer, and (4) alkali, surfactant, and polymer mixed in a single formulation. The effect of alkaline preflush was also studied under two different conditions. All of the oil recovery experiments were conducted under optimal conditions with a viscous, non-acidic oil from Hepler (KS) oil field. The coreflood experiments were conducted with Berea sandstone cores since field core was not available in sufficient quantity for coreflood tests. The Tucker sand of Hepler field is a Class I fluvial dominated deltaic reservoir, as classified by the Department of Energy, which has been selected as the site of a DOE-sponsored field pilot test.

  17. Environmental assessment of a proposed steam flood of the Shallow Oil Zone, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy proposes to develop a limited enhanced oil recovery project in the Shallow Oil Zone at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) Elk Hills. The project would employ steam forced into the oil-bearing formation through injector wells, and would involve two phases. The initiation of the second phase would be dependent on the economic success of the first phase. The total project would require the drilling of 22 new wells in a 45-acre area supporting seven existing production wells. It would also require construction of various surface facilities including a tank setting (gas-oil separation system), steam generators, and a water treatment plant. Adverse environmental impacts associated with the proposed steam flood project would include the effects on vegetation, wildlife and land-use resulting from the total reconfiguration of the topography within the project bondaries. Other adverse impacts include the emission of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and particulates from steam generators, vehicles and associated surface facilities. Minor adverse impacts include localized noise and dust during constuction, and reduction of visual quality. 48 refs., 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Improving Gas Flooding Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid Grigg; Robert Svec; Zheng Zeng; Alexander Mikhalin; Yi Lin; Guoqiang Yin; Solomon Ampir; Rashid Kassim

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study focuses on laboratory studies with related analytical and numerical models, as well as work with operators for field tests to enhance our understanding of and capabilities for more efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Much of the work has been performed at reservoir conditions. This includes a bubble chamber and several core flood apparatus developed or modified to measure interfacial tension (IFT), critical micelle concentration (CMC), foam durability, surfactant sorption at reservoir conditions, and pressure and temperature effects on foam systems.Carbon dioxide and N{sub 2} systems have been considered, under both miscible and immiscible conditions. The injection of CO2 into brine-saturated sandstone and carbonate core results in brine saturation reduction in the range of 62 to 82% brine in the tests presented in this paper. In each test, over 90% of the reduction occurred with less than 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected, with very little additional brine production after 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected. Adsorption of all considered surfactant is a significant problem. Most of the effect is reversible, but the amount required for foaming is large in terms of volume and cost for all considered surfactants. Some foams increase resistance to the value beyond what is practical in the reservoir. Sandstone, limestone, and dolomite core samples were tested. Dissolution of reservoir rock and/or cement, especially carbonates, under acid conditions of CO2 injection is a potential problem in CO2 injection into geological formations. Another potential change in reservoir injectivity and productivity will be the precipitation of dissolved carbonates as the brine flows and pressure decreases. The results of this report provide methods for determining surfactant sorption and can be used to aid in the determination of surfactant requirements for reservoir use in a CO{sub 2}-foam flood for mobility control. It also provides data to be used to determine rock permeability changes during CO{sub 2} flooding due to saturation changes, dissolution, and precipitation.

  19. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BREMER RIVER TO IPSWICH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenslade, Diana

    . The system provides early warning of heavy rainfalls and river rises throughout the catchment and enables. Flood ALERT System The initial Ipswich Creeks ALERT flood warning system was completed in the earlyFLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BREMER RIVER TO IPSWICH This brochure describes the flood warning

  20. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenslade, Diana

    's Flood Warning Centre in Brisbane. The system provides early warning of heavy rainfall and river risesFLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the DON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated Local Information Don ALERT System Flood Warnings and Bulletins Interpreting Flood Warnings and River

  1. Oilfield flooding polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Fred D. (Socorro, NM); Hatch, Melvin J. (Socorro, NM); Shepitka, Joel S. (Socorro, NM); Donaruma, Lorraine G. (Syosset, NY)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A monomer, polymers containing the monomer, and the use of the polymer in oilfield flooding is disclosed. The subject monomer is represented by the general formula: ##STR1## wherein: n is an integer from 0 to about 4; m is an integer from 0 to about 6; a is an integer equal to at least 1 except where m is equal to 0, a must equal 0 and where m is equal to 1, a must equal 0 or 1; p is an integer from 2 to about 10; b is an integer equal to at least 1 and is of sufficient magnitude that the ratio b/p is at least 0.2; and q is an integer from 0 to 2. The number of hydroxy groups in the monomer is believed to be critical, and therefore the sum of (a+b) divided by the sum (m+p) should be at least 0.2. The moieties linked to the acrylic nitrogen can be joined to provide a ringed structure.

  2. Optimum Reservoir Operation for Flood Control and Conservation Purposes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurbs, Ralph A.; Cabezas, L. Morris; Tibbets, Michael N.

    . With stringent flood plain management, susceptibility to flooding could actually decrease over time as existing activities choose to leave the flood plain and regulation prevents other activities from moving into the flood plain. Reservoir sedimentation reduces...

  3. Flooding and Recycling Authorizations Konstantin (Kosta) Beznosov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flooding and Recycling Authorizations Konstantin (Kosta) Beznosov Laboratory for Education delivery channels with speculatively pre- computed authorizations and actively recycling them on a just Security Keywords authorization recycling, authorization flooding, access con- trol, authorization, publish

  4. Flood Plain and Floodway Management Act (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The state regulates flood-prone lands and waters to prevent and alleviate flooding threats to life and health and reduce private and public economic losses. The purpose of 76-5 MCA, parts 1-4 is to...

  5. Blackland's flood warning system protects soldiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tx H2O | pg. 28 Story by Kathy Wythe | pg. 28 A flood warning system resulting from a Texas AgriLife Research water quality monitoring project at Fort Hood is potentially saving lives and property. The Flood Alert System via Telemetry... said they also hope to use real-time stream level and weather data to develop a flood prediction model to forecast the likelihood of flooding across Fort Hood. Blackland?s f lood warning system protects soldiers ...

  6. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM LOGAN & ALBERT RIVERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenslade, Diana

    . The system provides early warning of heavy rainfalls and river rises throughout the catchment and enablesFLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the LOGAN & ALBERT RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system of Meteorology operates a flood warning system for the Logan and Albert River catchments based on a rainfall

  7. Asphalt deposition in miscible floods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasan, Syed Mir Ahmed

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : Petroleum Engineering ASPHALT DEPOSITION IN MISCIBLE FLOODS A Thesis By SYED MIR AHMED HASAN Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) ommittee Member) Committee Member) Head of Department), (Co 'ttee Member) January, f964... Subject: Petroleum Engineering TABLE OF CONTENTS ABS TRAC T. Page 2. INTRODUCTION. 3 DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS. . . . . , . 6 4. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 5. INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS. . . . . . 13 6. CONCLUSIONS. 7...

  8. Irrigation, Navigation Flood Control and Recreation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irrigation,-Navigation-Flood-Control-and-Recreation- Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand...

  9. FEMA - National Flood Insurance Program Elevation Certificate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Instructions Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: FEMA - National Flood Insurance Program Elevation Certificate and Instructions...

  10. Los Alamos plants willows for flood recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plants willows Los Alamos plants willows for flood recovery The Laboratory's Corrective Actions Program (CAP) planted nearly 10,000 willows to help preserve the Pueblo Canyon...

  11. Flood Risk Management Every year floods sweep through communities across the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Flood Risk Management #12;Every year floods sweep through communities across the United States risk management activities of communities in both urban and rural areas throughout the United States management activities. At the direction of Congress, the Corps studies and implements flood risk management

  12. FLOOD WARNING This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Commonwealth Bureau of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenslade, Diana

    or stock to higher ground, or implement other temporary flood loss reduction measures. Warnings in the flood-threatened area believe the warning and take appropriate action in advance of being flooded. Roles below the floor level as well as bicycle and pedestrian paths. In rural areas removal of stock

  13. Flood protection in the swamps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reesby, Raymond George

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LIBRA R Y A S N COLLEGE OF TEXAS FLOOD PROTECTION IN THE SWAMPS A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical School of Texas In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Professi. onal Degree of Civil... Joining points b, o, o , e tl ~Ke is a vertical cut-off wall extending downward from the bottom of the heel at its r1verside end. It has the dual function of reducing the uplift and xeinforcing the structure against sliding, and is defined by lines...

  14. Federal Flood Risk Management Standard

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy Chinaof EnergyImpactOnSTATEMENT OF DAVIDThe data dashboardA A 1ChipSteven Bass,Flood

  15. Green Infrastructure and Flood Resiliency-Land Use Management...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Infrastructure and Flood Resiliency-Land Use Management as an Adaptation Strategy in the Built Environment Green Infrastructure and Flood Resiliency-Land Use Management as an...

  16. New Executive Order Establishes a Federal Flood Risk Management...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    New Executive Order Establishes a Federal Flood Risk Management Standard New Executive Order Establishes a Federal Flood Risk Management Standard February 5, 2015 - 10:55am Addthis...

  17. Kiran Maharjan Climate change and floods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    management processes by providing many kinds of information. The level of vulnerability of people towardsKiran Maharjan Climate change and floods Climate change and floods Vulnerability analysis of people, in the livelihoods of people. Hence, climate change is making everyone vulnerable to its impacts. Most of the people

  18. Laboratory studies of imbibition flooding using carbonated brine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharif, Qamar Javaid

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and pressures was a major part of the phase II studies. A high pressure core holder was developed and set inside a temperature regulated in-house constructed oven for this purpose. The core face flushing method was developed for conducting imbibition... and the field for improving oil recovery. The most common techniques used to increase oil recovery include water injection, steam injection, in-situ combustion, carbon dioxide (CO&) injection, chemical flooding and caustic injection. Currently, however, due...

  19. Flood Zone Building Permits (District of Columbia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Building permits are required for new construction and development in the Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA). All development projects in SFHA must comply with Title 12 DCMR and Title 20 DCMR...

  20. Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peru, Deborah A. (Bartlesville, OK)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of aqueous flooding of subterranean oil bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery involves injecting through a well into the formation a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution. The flooding solution's pH ranges from about 8.25 to 9.25 and comprises from 0.25 to 5 weight percent and preferably about 0.75 to 3.0 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate and includes a petroleum recovery surfactant of 0.05 to 1.0 weight percent and between 1 and 20 weight percent of sodium chloride. After flooding, an oil and water mixture is withdrawn from the well and the oil is separated from the oil and water mixture.

  1. Consequences of Flooding on Spectral Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torsten Rudolf; Normann Mertig; Steffen Löck; Arnd Bäcker

    2012-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We study spectral statistics in systems with a mixed phase space, in which regions of regular and chaotic motion coexist. Increasing their density of states, we observe a transition of the level-spacing distribution P(s) from Berry-Robnik to Wigner statistics, although the underlying classical phase-space structure and the effective Planck constant remain unchanged. This transition is induced by flooding, i.e., the disappearance of regular states due to increasing regular-to-chaotic couplings. We account for this effect by a flooding-improved Berry-Robnik distribution, in which an effectively reduced size of the regular island enters. To additionally describe power-law level repulsion at small spacings, we extend this prediction by explicitly considering the tunneling couplings between regular and chaotic states. This results in a flooding- and tunneling-improved Berry-Robnik distribution which is in excellent agreement with numerical data.

  2. A methodology for forecasting carbon dioxide flooding performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marroquin Cabrera, Juan Carlos

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A methodology was developed for forecasting carbon dioxide (CO2) flooding performance quickly and reliably. The feasibility of carbon dioxide flooding in the Dollarhide Clearfork "AB" Unit was evaluated using the methodology. This technique is very...

  3. Costs and Consequences of Flooding Camilo Sarmiento, Ph.D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Costs and Consequences of Flooding Camilo Sarmiento, Ph.D. Senior Economist Fannie Mae #12 the impact that the NFIP has had on the flooding costs and the distribution of these costs among payers the NFIP loss database, the model examines losses in known flood events, infers total losses by cost

  4. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BRISBANE RIVER ABOVE WIVENHOE DAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BRISBANE RIVER ABOVE WIVENHOE DAM This brochure describes the flood above Wivenhoe Dam. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood above Wivenhoe Dam drains an area of approximately 7,000 square kilometres. The Brisbane River rises

  5. Mitigating floods : reconstructing Lives : rehabilitating Thatta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gul, Marium

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pakistan was struck by floods in July 2010, the effects of which left 20.36 million people affected and 1.9 million homes damaged or destroyed'. In the province of Sindh in Pakistan, most of the affected population of the ...

  6. Improved Efficiency of Miscible CO2 Floods and Enhanced Prospects for CO2 Flooding Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigg, Reid B.; Schechter, David S.

    1999-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to improve the efficiency of miscible CO2 floods and enhance the prospects for flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. This report provides results of the second year of the three-year project that will be exploring three principles: (1) Fluid and matrix interactions (understanding the problems). (2) Conformance control/sweep efficiency (solving the problems. 3) Reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery (predicting results).

  7. Flood analyses for Department of Energy Y-12, ORNL and K-25 Plants. Flood analyses in support of flood emergency planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study involved defining the flood potential and local rainfall depth and duration data for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Y-12, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and K-25 plants. All three plants are subject to flooding from the Clinch River. In addition, the Y-12 plant is subject to flooding from East Fork Poplar and Bear Creeks, the ORNL plant from Whiteoak Creek and Melton Branch, and the K-25 plant from Poplar Creek. Determination of flood levels included consideration of both rainfall events and postulated failures of Norris and Melton Hill Dams in seismic events.

  8. Scale-up of miscible flood processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orr, F.M. Jr.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current project is a systematic research effort aimed at quantifying the interactions of physical mechanisms that control the scaling behavior of miscible floods. Displacement performance in a miscible flood is the result of a complex set of competing and interacting mechanisms. Phase behavior is of fundamental importance because the transfer of components from the oil to the injected fluid (as in most CO{sub 2} floods) or from the injected fluid to the oil (as in rich gas floods) can generate mixture compositions with displacement properties very different from those of pure CO{sub 2} and original oil. The goal of this project, is to make more accurate quantitative predictions of the impact of nonuniform flow, crossflow and phase behavior in flows in heterogeneous reservoir rocks. In past reports, we have discussed the instabilities arising from unfavorable mobility ratios that occur during injection of a solvent such as CO{sub 2}. In this report, two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) computations by a particle-tracking technique are compared for unstable displacements in homogeneous porous media, with and without gravity. In homogeneous porous media without gravity, 2D fingering patterns and the length of the transition zone are nearly the same as those obtained in 3D displacements. When gravity is added, however, calculated gravity tongues and fingering patterns can be very different when viscous and gravity forces are of comparable magnitude. We summarize results obtained by Ph.D. student Hamdi Tchelepi concerning 2D and 3D fingering in homogeneous media, and we compare displacements with and without gravity segregation. The computations show conclusively that there are some situations in which 2D simulations reproduce 3D behavior well and others for which they do not.

  9. Imbibition flooding with CO?-enriched water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grape, Steven George

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    performance for a typical Austin Chalk field. METHODOLOGY Imbibition flood testing in core samples is a "saturate and soak" process. Core samples are first dried, then saturated with water. After weighing, the sample is saturated with oil down to minimum... carbonated water. Any changes in saturation or permeability are noted. The procedure is then repeated using carbonated water. Two types of experiments were performed on core samples during this project. Field Core testing on 4" diameter cores...

  10. alkaline flooding: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    basins Edinburgh, University of - Research Archive Summary: To adapt to climate change which results in increasing flood frequency and intensity, the European Community has...

  11. alkaline flooding formulations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    basins Edinburgh, University of - Research Archive Summary: To adapt to climate change which results in increasing flood frequency and intensity, the European Community has...

  12. Willows Aid Flood Recovery in Los Alamos Desert

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    LOS ALAMOS, N.M. – Los Alamos National Laboratory’s Associate Directorate of Environmental Programs (ADEP) has been busy with various flood recovery activities since last fall. 

  13. Seasonally Flooded Grasslands -Grand CaymanSeasonally Flooded Grasslands -Grand Cayman 0 1 2 3 4 50.5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Exeter, University of

    Seasonally Flooded Grasslands - Little Cayman 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.50.25 Kilometers Cayman Islands National Biodiversity;Seasonally Flooded Grasslands - Cayman BracSeasonally Flooded Grasslands - Cayman Brac 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2-Modified Areas - Little CaymanUrban and Man-Modified Areas - Little Cayman 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.50.25 Kilometers

  14. Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 March 2011 vol 4 no 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 March 2011 vol 4 no 3 Focusing on ­ Asset Management Table of Contents New Flood Risk Management Program Leaders...........................................1 USACE USACE Flood Risk Management & Silver Jackets Workshop......................................... 16 MMC

  15. Imbibition flooding with CO?-enriched water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grape, Steven George

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    light weight, 25 - 35 degree API, diesel oil. Diesel oil was selected because CO, can cause asphaltene precipitation in some heavier crudes. Asphaltene precipitation would ruin the ability of the core to perform mulflple runs. The carbonated water... o e u e Q. 30 20 10 0 20 40 60 60 100 120 Effluent from Core Chamber, om3 Fig. 10. - Imbibition in Sandstone Field Core. 25 The results of the carbonated water flood show a higher initial production of oil. This may be a result of oil...

  16. Caring for Important Papers after a Flood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FCS Project Team - FDRM UNIT

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    process, it may be worth the effort. Separate the pages to prevent musty odors. ? When the books are thoroughly dry, close them and use C-clamps to help them retain their shape. Wipe vinyl and leather book covers with a light coating of petroleum jelly..., University of California Cooperative Extension. Caring for Important Papers after a Flood Produced by AgriLife Communications and Marketing, The Texas A&M System Extension publications can be found on the Web at: http://AgriLifebookstore.org Visit the Texas...

  17. A Decade of Changes in the Wildcat Creek Flood Control Channel, North Richmond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginsberg, Ben

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Changes in the Wildcat Creek Flood Control Channel, NorthAbstract: The lower Wildcat Creek flood control and ripariancontinue. Introduction Wildcat Creek Watershed is located in

  18. Geologic Assessment of Piedmont and Playa Flood Hazards in the Ivanpah Valley Area, Clark County, Nevada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    1 Geologic Assessment of Piedmont and Playa Flood Hazards in the Ivanpah Valley Area, Clark County..................................................................................................................................... 4 Piedmont Geomorphology and Related Flood Hazards..................... 6 The Field Area

  19. Human-induced climate change reduces chance of flooding in Okavango...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Human-induced climate change reduces chance of flooding in Okavango Delta Human-induced climate change reduces chance of flooding in Okavango Delta March 27, 2014 | Tags:...

  20. Were the 2010 Pakistan floods predictable? P. J. Webster,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Peter J.

    Were the 2010 Pakistan floods predictable? P. J. Webster,1 V. E. Toma,1 and H.M. Kim1 Received 30 July 2010, a series of monsoonal deluges over northern Pakistan resulted in catastrophic flooding, loss, especially in North Pakistan was exceptionally rare as deduced from limited data. The location of the deluges

  1. Environmental Impact Statement Truckee Meadows Flood Control Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    DRAFT Environmental Impact Statement for the Truckee Meadows Flood Control Project Nevada General Reevaluation Report Volume I ­ Draft Environmental Impact Statement prepared by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Sacramento District May 2013 #12;#12;DRAFT Environmental Impact Statement for the Truckee Meadows Flood

  2. Guidance on Microbial Contamination in Previously Flooded Outdoor Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guidance on Microbial Contamination in Previously Flooded Outdoor Areas Environmental Health Buford Highway NE (F-60) Atlanta, GA 30341 March 2011 #12;2 Guidance on Microbial Contamination in Previously Flooded Outdoor Areas Problem Statement Microbial contamination--both bacterial and viral

  3. Flooding of Industrial Facilities -Vulnerability Reduction in Practice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    any improvement. As human activities historically developed in river areas and floodplains, industrial-use planning in flood-prone areas and vulnerability reduction in flood-prone facilities. This paper focuses of hazardous material, soil or water pollutions by hazardous substances for the environment, fires, explosions

  4. Partial entrainment of gravel bars during floods Christopher P. Konrad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montgomery, David R.

    tracer particles and bed load samplers have demonstrated that partial entrain- ment rather than completePartial entrainment of gravel bars during floods Christopher P. Konrad U.S. Geological Survey a gravel bar during a flood, or partial entrainment, had an approximately normal distribution with respect

  5. Dam-Breach Flood Wave Propagation Using Dimensionless Parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    Dam-Breach Flood Wave Propagation Using Dimensionless Parameters Victor M. Ponce, M.ASCE1 ; Ahmad to study the sensitivity of dam-breach flood waves to breach-outflow hydrograph volume, peak discharge the channel. A dam-breach Froude number is defined to enable analysis through a wide range of site and flow

  6. A Mechanistic Model for Flooding in Vertical Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Kevin J.

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In a counter-current two-phase flow system, flooding can be defined as the onset of flow reversal of the liquid component which results in an upward co-current flow. Flooding in the surge line of pressurized water reactors poses a significant...

  7. Modelling downstream change in river flood power: a novel approach based on the UK Flood Estimation Handbook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birmingham, University of

    Modelling downstream change in river flood power: a novel approach based on the UK Flood Estimation" (McEwen, 1994: 359). Lawler (1992) recognised that little was known about the downstream change. It is suggested that downstream change in discharge is best represented as a power function in terms of channel

  8. A NEW GENERATION CHEMICAL FLOODING SIMULATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori; Mojdeh Delshad

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The premise of this research is that a general-purpose reservoir simulator for several improved oil recovery processes can and should be developed so that high-resolution simulations of a variety of very large and difficult problems can be achieved using state-of-the-art algorithms and computers. Such a simulator is not currently available to the industry. The goal of this proposed research is to develop a new-generation chemical flooding simulator that is capable of efficiently and accurately simulating oil reservoirs with at least a million gridblocks in less than one day on massively parallel computers. Task 1 is the formulation and development of solution scheme, Task 2 is the implementation of the chemical module, and Task 3 is validation and application. In this final report, we will detail our progress on Tasks 1 through 3 of the project.

  9. Scale-up of miscible flood processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orr, F.M. Jr.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of a wide-ranging investigation of the scaling of the physical mechanisms of miscible floods are reported. Advanced techniques for analysis of crude oils are considered in Chapter 2. Application of supercritical fluid chromatography is demonstrated for characterization of crude oils for equation-of-state calculations of phase equilibrium. Results of measurements of crude oil and phase compositions by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry are also reported. The theory of development of miscibility is considered in detail in Chapter 3. The theory is extended to four components, and sample solutions for a variety of gas injection systems are presented. The analytical theory shows that miscibility can develop even though standard tie-line extension criteria developed for ternary systems are not satisfied. In addition, the theory includes the first analytical solutions for condensing/vaporizing gas drives. In Chapter 4, methods for simulation of viscous fingering are considered. The scaling of the growth of transition zones in linear viscous fingering is considered. In addition, extension of the models developed previously to three dimensions is described, as is the inclusion of effects of equilibrium phase behavior. In Chapter 5, the combined effects of capillary and gravity-driven crossflow are considered. The experimental results presented show that very high recovery can be achieved by gravity segregation when interfacial tensions are moderately low. We argue that such crossflow mechanisms are important in multicontact miscible floods in heterogeneous reservoirs. In addition, results of flow visualization experiments are presented that illustrate the interplay of crossflow driven by gravity with that driven by viscous forces.

  10. Flood Risk Management Newsletter June 2014 vol 7 no 3 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Flood Risk Management Newsletter June 2014 · vol 7 no 3 1 Table of Contents Annual Spring Connecting Flood Risk, Emergency Managers and Silver Jackets: Annual Spring Flood Assessment Karen Durham; Flood Risk Management Newsletter June 2014 · vol 7 no 3 2 these areas of concern were attributed

  11. Flood Storage Allocation Rules for Parallel Reservoirs B.S. (Tsinghua University, China) 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lund, Jay R.

    i Flood Storage Allocation Rules for Parallel Reservoirs By RUI HUI B.S. (Tsinghua University and minimize flood damage. However, for different hydrograph shapes, corresponding flood storage volumes often differ for the same peak flow reductions. Meanwhile, it is often the case that flood storage volume

  12. The role of woodland in flood control: a landscape perspective T.R. Nisbet1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as part of a whole-catchment approach to sustainable flood management. Keywords: Woodland; water use; soil-125. IALE(UK), Oxford.] Abstract Sustainable flood management is increasingly looking to the role infiltration; hydraulic roughness; sustainable flood management Introduction A series of major floods across

  13. Quality assurance flood source and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisher, Darrell R [Richland, WA; Alexander, David L [West Richland, WA; Satz, Stanley [Surfside, FL

    2002-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a is an improved flood source, and method of making the same, which emits an evenly distributed flow of energy from a gamma emitting radionuclide dispersed throughout the volume of the flood source. The flood source is formed by filling a bottom pan with a mix of epoxy resin with cobalt-57, preferably at 10 to 20 millicuries and then adding a hardener. The pan is secured to a flat, level surface to prevent the pan from warping and to act as a heat sink for removal of heat from the pan during the curing of the resin-hardener mixture.

  14. Flood control reservoir operations for conditions of limited storage capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivera Ramirez, Hector David

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    ). Therefore, if the entire flood control capacity of a reservoir is available, only an extremely severe flood event would require the implementation of the EOS for most reservoir projects, and thus the bulk of the research has been focused on how to manage... operations objectives. In other words, the REOS provide a set of rules that reflect the risk of flooding upstream as well as downstream of the dams. The USACE and other reservoir management agencies may use the methodology proposed in this study...

  15. Determining Hydrological Controls on Flood Frequency | U.S. DOE...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Federal Emergency Management AgencyAndrea Booher Aerial view of homes inundated with water following a 2011 flood in Minot, N.D. Researchers have compared data from hundreds of...

  16. Protection of Coastal Infrastructure under Rising Flood Risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lickley, M.J.

    The 2005 hurricane season was particularly damaging to the United States, contributing to significant losses to energy infrastructure—much of it the result of flooding from storm surge during hurricanes Katrina and Rita. ...

  17. Multiobjective Design and Optimization of Polymer Flood Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ekkawong, Peerapong

    2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    (Pareto front) to maximize oil production while preserving polymer performance. Then an optimal polymer flood design can be considered from post-optimization analysis. A 2D synthetic example, and a 3D field-scale application, accounting for geologic...

  18. Chilean glacial lake outburst flood impacts on dam construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tauro, Flavia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF) occurred in the Colonia Glacier (Northern Patagonia Icefield, Chile) from April 2008 to March 2009. Lago Cachet 2 emptied four times producing a maximum excess discharge in the ...

  19. DROWNED AND DAMMED Colonial Capitalism and Flood Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussex, University of

    DROWNED AND DAMMED Colonial Capitalism and Flood Control in Eastern India ROHAN D, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. Drowned and Dammed comprehensively reconsiders the debate with physical infrastructure such as embankments, canal networks, and inevitably the Hirakud Dam. In seeking

  20. Multiobjective Design and Optimization of Polymer Flood Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ekkawong, Peerapong

    2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The multiobjective genetic algorithm can be used to optimize two conflicting objectives, oil production and polymer utility factor in polymer flood design. This approach provides a set of optimal solutions which can be considered as trade-off curve...

  1. The effect of flooding velocity and degree of reservoir depletion on the recovery of oil by water flooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Phillips C

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I3 at 110 F 19 Observed Variation of Gas Saturation and Residual Oil Saturation . 21 5, Observed Pressure and Gas-Oil Ratio Histories As A Function of the Cumulative Recovery. . . . . . . . . . . 21 Waterflood Recovery At A Constant Pressure... ~ ~ ( ~ ~ ~ ~ Waterflood Recovery As A Function of Initial Gas SB'turatlon ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ a ~ ~ ~ o o e ~ ~ ~ ~ 4 s a a a ~ 10. Residual Oil Saturation After Primary, Water. Flooding and Final Pressure Depletion. . . ~. . . . . ~ . . 30 Results of laboratory flooding...

  2. A NEW GENERATION CHEMICAL FLOODING SIMULATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori; Mojdeh Delshad

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The premise of this research is that a general-purpose reservoir simulator for several improved oil recovery processes can and should be developed so that high-resolution simulations of a variety of very large and difficult problems can be achieved using state-of-the-art algorithms and computers. Such a simulator is not currently available to the industry. The goal of this proposed research is to develop a new-generation chemical flooding simulator that is capable of efficiently and accurately simulating oil reservoirs with at least a million gridblocks in less than one day on massively parallel computers. Task 1 is the formulation and development of solution scheme, Task 2 is the implementation of the chemical module, and Task 3 is validation and application. We have made significant progress on all three tasks and we are on schedule on both technical and budget. In this report, we will detail our progress on Tasks 1 through 3 for the first six months of the second year of the project.

  3. Improvement of CO sub 2 flood performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, D.F.; Heller, J.P.

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a six-year research project devoted to the study of processes of oil displacement using dense carbon dioxide. The topics studied have included phase behavior and physical properties of mixtures of crude oil with CO{sub 2}, the phenomena involved in the displacement of oil through reservoir rock under oilfield conditions, the influence of stabilized lamella or CO{sub 2}-foam on this displacement and the development of computer programs to simulate the displacement. In addition, the occurrence of nonuniformities in the displacement pattern has also been considered. The effect on displacement of permeability heterogeneities in the reservoir have been studied geostatistically and by direct numerical modelling. Displacement nonuniformities that are induced by viscosity and density differences between displaced and displacing fluids have also been considered, and efforts are described for the development of two different types of additive for purposes of mobility control of CO{sub 2} floods. One of these is the so-called CO{sub 2}-foam, formed by simultaneous flow through the formation of dense CO{sub 2} with a water solution of a special surfactant. The second type under development in the project is known as direct thickener, and consists of a polymer that is soluble in dense CO{sub 2} and able to viscosify it. Significant progress is reported on all of the topics mentioned above. 174 refs., 186 figs., 41 tabs.

  4. POISON SPIDER FIELD CHEMICAL FLOOD PROJECT, WYOMING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas Arnell; Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reservoir engineering and geologic study concluded that approximate 7,852,000 bbls of target oil exits in Poison Spider. Field pore volume, OOIP, and initial oil saturation are defined. Potential injection water has a total dissolved solids content of 1,275 mg/L with no measurable divalent cations. If the Lakota water consistently has no measurable cations, the injection water does not require softening to dissolve alkali. Produced water total dissolved solids were 2,835 mg/L and less than 20 mg/L hardness as the sum of divalent cations. Produced water requires softening to dissolve chemicals. Softened produced water was used to dissolve chemicals in these evaluations. Crude oil API gravity varies across the field from 19.7 to 22.2 degrees with a dead oil viscosity of 95 to 280 cp at 75 F. Interfacial tension reductions of up to 21,025 fold (0.001 dyne/cm) were developed with fifteen alkaline-surfactant combinations at some alkali concentration. An additional three alkaline-surfactant combinations reduced the interfacial tension greater than 5,000 fold. NaOH generally produced the lowest interfacial tension values. Interfacial tension values of less than 0.021 dyne/cm were maintained when the solutions were diluted with produced water to about 60%. Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} when mixed with surfactants did not reduce interfacial tension values to levels at which incremental oil can be expected. NaOH without surfactant interfacial tension reduction is at a level where some additional oil might be recovered. Most of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions producing ultra low interfacial tension gave type II- phase behavior. Only two solutions produced type III phase behavior. Produced water dilution resulted in maintenance of phase type for a number of solutions at produced water dilutions exceeding 80% dilution. The average loss of phase type occurred at 80% dilution. Linear corefloods were performed to determine relative permeability end points, chemical-rock compatibility, polymer injectivity, dynamic chemical retention by rock, and recommended injected polymer concentration. Average initial oil saturation was 0.796 Vp. Produced water injection recovered 53% OOIP leaving an average residual oil saturation of 0.375 Vp. Poison Spider rock was strongly water-wet with a mobility ratio for produced water displacing the 280 cp crude oil of 8.6. Core was not sensitive to either alkali or surfactant injection. Injectivity increased 60 to 80% with alkali plus surfactant injection. Low and medium molecular weight polyacrylamide polymers (Flopaam 3330S and Flopaam 3430S) dissolved in either an alkaline-surfactant solution or softened produced water injected and flowed through Poison Spider rock. Recommended injected polyacrylamide concentration is 2,100 mg/L for both polymers for a unit mobility ratio. Radial corefloods were performed to evaluate oil recovery efficiency of different chemical solutions. Waterflood oil recovery averaged 46.4 OOIP and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery averaged an additional 18.1% OIP for a total of 64.6% OOIP. Oil cut change due to injection of a 1.5 wt% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} plus 0.05 wt% Petrostep B-100 plus 0.05 wt% Stepantan AS1216 plus 2100 mg/L Flopaam 3430S was from 2% to a peak of 23.5%. Additional study might determine the impact on oil recovery of a lower polymer concentration. An alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood field implementation outline report was written.

  5. Bridging the Gap between Chemical Flooding and Independent Oil Producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stan McCool; Tony Walton; Paul Willhite; Mark Ballard; Miguel Rondon; Kaixu Song; Zhijun Liu; Shahab Ahmend; Peter Senior

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ten Kanas oil reservoirs/leases were studied through geological and engineering analysis to assess the potential performance of chemical flooding to recover oil. Reservoirs/leases that have been efficiently waterflooded have the highest performance potential for chemical flooding. Laboratory work to identify efficient chemical systems and to test the oil recovery performance of the systems was the major effort of the project. Efficient chemical systems were identified for crude oils from nine of the reservoirs/leases. Oil recovery performance of the identified chemical systems in Berea sandstone rocks showed 90+ % recoveries of waterflood residual oil for seven crude oils. Oil recoveries increased with the amount of chemical injected. Recoveries were less in Indiana limestone cores. One formulation recovered 80% of the tertiary oil in the limestone rock. Geological studies for nine of the oil reservoirs are presented. Pleasant Prairie, Trembley, Vinland and Stewart Oilfields in Kansas were the most favorable of the studied reservoirs for a pilot chemical flood from geological considerations. Computer simulations of the performance of a laboratory coreflood were used to predict a field application of chemical flooding for the Trembley Oilfield. Estimates of field applications indicated chemical flooding is an economically viable technology for oil recovery.

  6. Hydropower at flood control reservoirs - the variable speed option

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurence, K.; Yale, J. [Stone & Webster Engineering Corp., Denver, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Application of hydroelectric turbine-generators to flood control has been limited due to the inability of a single turbine to operate efficiently over the wide head and flow ranges encountered. Multiple and different unit combinations have been applied to this problem, but the cost of the additional unit(s), powerhouse, and supporting facilities typically causes the project to become unfeasible. Variable speed operation can increase the operating range of a single turbine, and significantly improve efficiency over single speed units. This can make hydroelectric generation at flood control projects feasible. This paper presents a comparison of the application of variable speed units, two speed units, and single speed units at the Blue River Dam Hydroelectric Project. The project consists of the addition of a powerhouse to an existing Army Corps of Engineers flood control project. Efficiency data for the different types of units are compared and historical flow and release data are used in a computer model to simulate plant operation.

  7. Probable maximum flood control; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility.

  8. Hydrodynamic model of Fukushima-Daiichi NPP Industrial site flooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaschenko, V N; Gerasimenko, T V; Vachev, B

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While the Fukushima-Daiichi was designed and constructed the maximal tsunami height estimate was about 3 m based on analysis of statistical data including Chile earthquake in 1960. The NPP project industrial site height was 10 m. The further deterministic estimates TPCO-JSCE confirmed the impossibility of the industrial site flooding by a tsunami and therefore confirmed ecological safety of the NPP. However, as a result of beyond design earthquake of 11 March 2011 the tsunami height at the shore near the Fukushima-Daiichi NPP reached 15 m. This led to flooding and severe emergencies having catastrophic environmental consequences. This paper proposes hydrodynamic model of tsunami emerging and traveling based on conservative assumptions. The possibility of a tsunami wave reaching 15 m height at the Fukushima-Daiichi NPP shore was confirmed for deduced hydrodynamic resistance coefficient of 1.8. According to the model developed a possibility of flooding is determined not only by the industrial site height, magni...

  9. Precipitation analysis for a flood early warning system in the Manafwa River Basin, Uganda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cecinati, Francesca

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The communities living in the Manafwa River Basin experience frequent floods threatening their lives and property. Climate change and anthropogenic perturbations to the natural environment increase flooding frequency. This ...

  10. Feasibility analysis and design of a flood barrier concept for the City of New York

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingilis, Demetres

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flooding has always been a major concern for coastal communities. However, many parts of New York City never had to worry about flooding until Hurricane Sandy hit in October 2012. The hurricane brought a record level storm ...

  11. Simulation Study for Improving Seawater Polymer Flood Performance in Stratified High Temperature Reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Geng

    2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer flood has achieved technical and commercial success, especially for its large-scale application in the Daqing oilfield in China. However, previous field tests indicated polymer flood was not economically successful for high temperature...

  12. Soil Testing Following Flooding, Overland Flow of Wastewater and other Freshwater Disasters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provin, Tony; Feagley, Sam E.; Pitt, John L.; McFarland, Mark L.

    2009-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Freshwater flooding can seriously affect soil fertility and the physical and chemical properties of soil. This publication explains how to reclaim flooded soil. Having the soil tested for microbes, pesticides, hydrocarbons and other contaminants...

  13. Human-Induced Climate Change Reduces Chance of Flooding in Okavango...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Human-Induced Climate Change Reduces Chance of Flooding in Okavango Delta Human-Induced Climate Change Reduces Chance of Flooding in Okavango Delta Africa.gif Why it Matters: The...

  14. A first large-scale flood inundation forecasting model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumann, Guy J-P; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Voisin, Nathalie; Andreadis, Konstantinos M.; Pappenberger, Florian; Phanthuwongpakdee, Kay; Hall, Amanda C.; Bates, Paul D.

    2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    At present continental to global scale flood forecasting focusses on predicting at a point discharge, with little attention to the detail and accuracy of local scale inundation predictions. Yet, inundation is actually the variable of interest and all flood impacts are inherently local in nature. This paper proposes a first large scale flood inundation ensemble forecasting model that uses best available data and modeling approaches in data scarce areas and at continental scales. The model was built for the Lower Zambezi River in southeast Africa to demonstrate current flood inundation forecasting capabilities in large data-scarce regions. The inundation model domain has a surface area of approximately 170k km2. ECMWF meteorological data were used to force the VIC (Variable Infiltration Capacity) macro-scale hydrological model which simulated and routed daily flows to the input boundary locations of the 2-D hydrodynamic model. Efficient hydrodynamic modeling over large areas still requires model grid resolutions that are typically larger than the width of many river channels that play a key a role in flood wave propagation. We therefore employed a novel sub-grid channel scheme to describe the river network in detail whilst at the same time representing the floodplain at an appropriate and efficient scale. The modeling system was first calibrated using water levels on the main channel from the ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) laser altimeter and then applied to predict the February 2007 Mozambique floods. Model evaluation showed that simulated flood edge cells were within a distance of about 1 km (one model resolution) compared to an observed flood edge of the event. Our study highlights that physically plausible parameter values and satisfactory performance can be achieved at spatial scales ranging from tens to several hundreds of thousands of km2 and at model grid resolutions up to several km2. However, initial model test runs in forecast mode revealed that it is crucial to account for basin-wide hydrological response time when assessing lead time performances notwithstanding structural limitations in the hydrological model and possibly large inaccuracies in precipitation data.

  15. Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 December 2013 vol 7 no 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 December 2013 vol 7 no 2 Fstocoll Table of Contents Mark Roupas to Flood Risk Management, Emergency Management, and Critical Infrastructure Protection and Resilience for his role overseeing emergency management and flood risk management activities. Roupas served twenty

  16. Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 April 2014 vol 7 no 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 April 2014 vol 7 no 3 Fstocoll Table of Contents Reflections Conferences...................................................12 Reflections on the Flood Risk Management in a series of recurring messages to the flood risk management community of practice, my first thought was

  17. Flood Risk Management Newsletter October 2014 vol 8 no 1 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Flood Risk Management Newsletter October 2014 · vol 8 no 1 1 Table of Contents Informal Management and Flood Risk Management (FRM) Communities of Practice. For the purpose of this article of the USACE October 2014 · vol 8 no 1 Mark Roupas #12; Flood Risk Management Newsletter October 2014 · vol

  18. Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 March 2013 vol 6 no 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 March 2013 vol 6 no 3 Fstocoll Table of Contents Social-Cognitive Aspects of Risk and Performance Management in Flood Response is to be a system of models that will support decision making in emergency situations, like flood risk management

  19. Methane emission from flooded coal seams in abandoned mines, in the light of laboratory investigations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Methane emission from flooded coal seams in abandoned mines, in the light of laboratory of methane from flooded unexploited coal seams Field experience from the flooding operations of the abandoned gassy coal seams in abandoned mines. The tests included the following main stages: - Determining

  20. Flooding/storm/gale Force Wind Remove Anyone From Immediate Danger If Safe To Do So

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    Flooding/storm/gale Force Wind Remove Anyone From Immediate Danger If Safe To Do So Flooding 1/gale Force Wind 1. Move all people away from windows. 2. Close all curtains, drapes and blinds. 3. Shelter. If using a mobile phone, DiAl 0800 823-637. Flooding/storm/gale Force Wind #12;

  1. Forestflood relation still tenuous comment on `Global evidence that deforestation amplifies flood risk and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappell, Nick A

    Forest­flood relation still tenuous ­ comment on `Global evidence that deforestation amplifies cover change, and conclude that deforestation amplifies flood risk and severity in the developing world% of the variation in reported flood occurrences, considerably more than forest cover or deforestation (o10

  2. Water Visualization and Flooding in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Water Visualization and Flooding in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Brian Holsclaw West- 2H2O e- e- e- e- e- H+ H+ H+ Membrane + Schematic of a PEMFC Operation #12;PFR PEM Fuel Cell Plug for membrane Two-phase flow in channels #12;CSTR PEM Fuel Cell Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor (CSTR) "Perfect

  3. History of Floods in the South Platte River Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    History of Floods in the South Platte River Basin Nolan Doesken Colorado Climate Center Colorado State University 25th South Platte Forum Longmont, CO October 22, 2014 #12;Acknowledgment: Thanks is it -- the History Annual Peak Flows S. Platte River at Julesburg 1902-2013 #12;#12;#12;Now, let's head upstream

  4. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Responding to Power Outages and Floods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Mechell, Justin; Alexander, Rachel

    2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    People and the environment can be harmed if a home's onsite wastewater treatment system does not work properly after a flood or power outage. This publication explains the steps to take after such an event to get the system back into service. 4 pp...

  5. CEDAR RIVER, CEDAR RAPIDS, IOWA, FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT PROJECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    developed as standard designs in order to minimize estimated construction cost. The estimated total cost: The purpose of the Project is to provide cost effective, environmentally-sensitive, and technically feasible lies within the 100-year floodplain. Historically, major floods have resulted from a combination

  6. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BRISBANE RIVER BELOW WIVENHOE DAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BRISBANE RIVER BELOW WIVENHOE DAM TO BRISBANE CITY This brochure for the Brisbane River below Wivenhoe Dam to Brisbane City. It includes reference information which will be useful kilometres of which about half is below Wivenhoe Dam. The Lockyer-Laidley Valley drains into the Brisbane

  7. Mitigating Flood Loss through Local Comprehensive Planning in Florida

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jung Eun

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    and environment planning and policy. When sustainability was embraced by international organizations and governmental organizations managing development programs and projects, the term, ?sustainable development? became popular (Beatley, 1998). Currently...; and a more economically integrated and diverse population (Vale & Campanella, 2005). Based on previous literature (Beatley, 1998; Berke, 1995; Mileti, 1999), this study develops principles of sustainability that can be applied to flood mitigation...

  8. Development and verification of simplified prediction models for enhanced oil recovery applications. CO/sub 2/ (miscible flood) predictive model. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, G.W.

    1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A screening model for CO/sub 2/ miscible flooding has been developed consisting of a reservoir model for oil rate and recovery and an economic model. The reservoir model includes the effects of viscous fingering, reservoir heterogeneity, gravity segregation and areal sweep. The economic model includes methods to calculate various profitability indices, the windfall profits tax, and provides for CO/sub 2/ recycle. The model is applicable to secondary or tertiary floods, and to solvent slug or WAG processes. The model does not require detailed oil-CO/sub 2/ PVT data for execution, and is limited to five-spot patterns. A pattern schedule may be specified to allow economic calculations for an entire project to be made. Models of similar architecture have been developed for steam drive, in-situ combustion, surfactant-polymer flooding, polymer flooding and waterflooding. 36 references, 41 figures, 4 tables.

  9. Regional flood hazard assessment of the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, R.O.; Wang, J.C.; Lee, D.W.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Regional flood-hazard assessments performed for the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants are reviewed, compared, and contrasted to determine the relationship of probable maximum flood methodology with respect to US Department of Energy design and evaluation guidelines. The Paducah assessment was carried out using probable maximum flood methodology, while the Portsmouth assessment utilized probabilistic techniques. Results indicated that regional flooding along nearby rivers would not inundate either plant, and that the guidelines were satisfied. A comparison of results indicated that the probable maximum flood recurrence interval associated with the Paducah assessment exceeded the 10,000 years depending on the choice of the probabilistic model used to perform the assessment. It was concluded, based on an analysis of two data points, that smaller watersheds driven by single event storms could be assessed using probabilistic techniques, while probable maximum flood methodology could be applied to larger drainage basins flooded by storm sequences. 32 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Suggested Approaches for Probabilistic Flooding Hazard Assessment |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssues DOE's NuclearSpurringSteamDepartment4 RecoverySuccessful

  11. CO/sub 2/ foam flooding performance vs. rock wettability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lescure, B.M.; Claridge, E.L.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO/sub 2/ flooding projects have shown large potential for oil recovery, but in many cases the volumetric sweep efficiency is greatly limited by gravity tonguing and/or viscous fingering. To reduce these effects foam could be used as an alternative to WAG CO/sub 2/ injection. Experiments on the CO/sub 2/ foam process were conducted in a 1/4 5-spot reservoir model in order to investigate the effect of rock wetting state and total CO/sub 2/ slug size on secondary and tertiary extra-oil recovery. Laboratory model results show that the process is more successful in an oil-wet medium than in a water-wet medium due to larger surfactant adsorption in the water-wet medium. Also, requirements for optimal CO/sub 2/ slug size are smaller than in the WAG process, with larger extra oil recovery for both secondary and tertiary floods.

  12. Rebuilding your flooded home: Guidelines for incorporating energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Repairs to your flood-damaged home can add energy efficiency at the same time you address pressing structural needs, mainly by replacing and upgrading insulation in walls and floors, and checking your foundation for flood damage. Many energy efficiency options are available to you today that may not have been widely available when you built your house even if that was only a few years ago. Cost-effectiveness depends on several factors, including cost of fuel and materials, efficiency levels of the structure and components, and climate. This booklet offers some general tips to improve the efficiency of your home`s shell and equipment. Additional information on any issue covered in this booklet is available from various agencies within or near your community, including your state energy office, local community action agency, utilities, Red Cross and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) offices.

  13. Laboratory methods for enhanced oil recovery core floods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, E.P.; Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current research at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is investigating microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) systems for application to oil reservoirs. Laboratory corefloods are invaluable in developing technology necessary for a field application of MEOR. Methods used to prepare sandstone cores for experimentation, coreflooding techniques, and quantification of coreflood effluent are discussed in detail. A technique to quantify the small volumes of oil associated with laboratory core floods is described.

  14. Managing Floods and Resources at the Arroyo Las Positas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, L; Van Hattem, M; Mathews, S

    2002-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Engineers and water resource professionals are challenged with protecting facilities from flood events within environmental resource protection, regulatory, and economic constraints. One case in point is the Arroyo Las Positas (ALP), an intermittent stream that traverses the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. Increased runoff from post-drought rainfall, upstream development, and new perennial discharges from LLNL activities have resulted in increased dry weather flows and wetland vegetation. These new conditions have recently begun to provide improved habitat for the federally threatened California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii; CRLF), but the additional vegetation diminishes the channel's drainage capacity and increases flood risk. When LLNL proposed to re-grade the channel to reestablish the 100-year flood capacity, traditional dredging practices were no longer being advocated by environmental regulatory agencies. LLNL therefore designed a desilting maintenance plan to protect LLNL facility areas from flooding, while minimizing impacts to wetland resources and habitat. The result was a combination of structural upland improvements and the ALP Five Year Maintenance Plan (Maintenance Plan), which includes phased desilting in segments so that the entire ALP is desilted after five years. A unique feature of the Maintenance Plan is the variable length of the segments designed to minimize LLNL's impact on CRLF movement. State and federal permits also added monitoring requirements and additional constraints on desilting activities. Two years into the Maintenance Plan, LLNL is examining the lessons learned on the cost-effectiveness of these maintenance measures and restrictions and reevaluating the direction of future maintenance activities.

  15. A mathematical and experimental study of caustic flooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Tsu-Cheng

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : Dr. Ching Buang Wu A simple non-equilibrium chemical displacement model for continuous, linear, caustic flooding of crude oil is presented. The laboratory experiments were conducted to support the numerical simulation and to verify the results...-water fractional flow curves depending on its local concentration and water saturation. The numerical study was supported by caustic displacement testing of Sacroc crude oil. Quantitative agreements were found between the results from mathematical and experimen...

  16. GIS-BASED PREDICTION OF HURRICANE FLOOD INUNDATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JUDI, DAVID [Los Alamos National Laboratory; KALYANAPU, ALFRED [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BERSCHEID, ALAN [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A simulation environment is being developed for the prediction and analysis of the inundation consequences for infrastructure systems from extreme flood events. This decision support architecture includes a GIS-based environment for model input development, simulation integration tools for meteorological, hydrologic, and infrastructure system models and damage assessment tools for infrastructure systems. The GIS-based environment processes digital elevation models (30-m from the USGS), land use/cover (30-m NLCD), stream networks from the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and soils data from the NRCS (STATSGO) to create stream network, subbasins, and cross-section shapefiles for drainage basins selected for analysis. Rainfall predictions are made by a numerical weather model and ingested in gridded format into the simulation environment. Runoff hydrographs are estimated using Green-Ampt infiltration excess runoff prediction and a 1D diffusive wave overland flow routing approach. The hydrographs are fed into the stream network and integrated in a dynamic wave routing module using the EPA's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) to predict flood depth. The flood depths are then transformed into inundation maps and exported for damage assessment. Hydrologic/hydraulic results are presented for Tropical Storm Allison.

  17. Missoula flood dynamics and magnitudes inferred from sedimentology of slack-water deposits on the Columbia Plateau, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, G.A. (Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sedimentological study of late Wisconsin, Missoula-flood slack-water sediments deposited along the Columbia and Tucannon Rivers in southern Washington reveals important aspects of flood dynamics. Most flood facies were deposited by energetic flood surges (velocities>6 m/sec) entering protected areas along the flood tract, or flowing up and then directly out of tributary valleys. True still-water facies are less voluminous and restricted to elevations below 230 m. High flood stages attended the initial arrival of the flood wave and were not associated with subsequent hydraulic ponding upslope from channel constrictions. Among 186 flood beds studied in 12 sections, 57% have bioturbated tops, and about half of these bioturbated beds are separated from overlying flood beds by nonflood sediments. A single graded flood bed was deposited at most sites during most floods. Sequences in which 2-9 graded beds were deposited during a single flood are restricted to low elevations. These sequences imply complex, multi-peaked hydrographs in which the first flood surge was generally the largest, and subsequent surges were attenuated by water already present in slack-water areas. Slack-water - sediment stratigraphy suggests a wide range of flood discharges and volumes. Of >40 documented late Wisconsin floods that inundated the Pasco Basin, only about 20 crossed the Palouse-Snake divide. Floods younger than the set-S tephras from Mount St.Helens were generally smaller than earlier floods of late Wisconsin age, although most still crossed the Palouse-Snake divide. These late floods primarily traversed the Cheney-Palouse scabland because stratigraphy of slack-water sediment along the Columbia River implies that the largest flood volumes did not enter the Pasco Basin by way of the Columbia River. 47 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. The effect on oil recovery of water flooding at pressures above and below the bubble point

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bass, Daniel Materson

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ). Dykstra, H. ~ and Parsons, R. L. , "The Predict ion of Oil Recovery by Water Flooding", Secondar Recovery of Oil in the United States, API, (1950), Second Edition. (4}. Bzeston, J. N. , "A Survey of Injection of Natural Gas Before and During Water... Pictures of Equipment 4. Physical Characteristics of Fluid A Physical Characteristics of Fluid B P V behavior of Natural Gas Effect of Flooding Pressure on Oil Recovery, Fluid A Effect of Initial Gas Saturation on Residual Oil Saturation After Flood...

  19. Application of Polymer Gels as Conformance Control Agents for Carbon Dioxide for Floods in Carbonate Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Ali, Ali 1986-

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Images of Oil Saturated Core (Exp#7) ........................... 154 Fig. 4.64 ? CT Image of Oil Saturated Core Flooded With 1st PV of VW (Exp#7) ...... 155 Fig. 4.65 ? Vertical Slice CT Images of Oil Saturated Core Flooded With 1st PV of VW (Exp#7...) ........................................................................................... 157 xiv Fig. 4.68 ? CT Image of Oil Saturated Core Flooded With 2nd PV of VW (Exp#7) ..... 158 Fig. 4.69 ? Vertical Slice CT Images of Oil Saturated Core Flooded With 2nd PV of VW (Exp#7...

  20. Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex Natural Phenomena Hazards Flood Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald Sehlke; Paul Wichlacz

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of flood hazards analyses performed for the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and the adjacent Transient Reactor Experiment and Test Facility (TREAT) located at Idaho National Laboratory. The requirements of these analyses are provided in the U.S. Department of Energy Order 420.1B and supporting Department of Energy (DOE) Natural Phenomenon Hazard standards. The flood hazards analyses were performed by Battelle Energy Alliance and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The analyses addressed the following: • Determination of the design basis flood (DBFL) • Evaluation of the DBFL versus the Critical Flood Elevations (CFEs) for critical existing structures, systems, and components (SSCs).

  1. Evaluation and Enhancement of Carbon Dioxide Flooding Through Sweep Improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Richard

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide displacement is a common improved recovery method applied to light oil reservoirs (30-45{degrees}API). The economic and technical success of CO{sub 2} floods is often limited by poor sweep efficiency or large CO{sub 2} utilization rates. Projected incremental recoveries for CO{sub 2} floods range from 7% to 20% of the original oil in place; however, actual incremental recoveries range from 9% to 15% of the original oil in place, indicating the potential for significant additional recoveries with improved sweep efficiency. This research program was designed to study the effectiveness of carbon dioxide flooding in a mature reservoir to identify and develop methods and strategies to improve oil recovery in carbon dioxide floods. Specifically, the project has focused on relating laboratory, theoretical and simulation studies to actual field performance in a CO{sub 2} flood in an attempt to understand and mitigate problems of areal and vertical sweep efficiency. In this work the focus has been on evaluating the status of existing swept regions of a mature CO{sub 2} flood and developing procedures to improve the design of proposed floods. The Little Creek Field, Mississippi has been studied through laboratory, theoretical, numerical and simulation studies in an attempt to relate performance predictions to historical reservoir performance to determine sweep efficiency, improve the understanding of the reservoir response to CO{sub 2} injection, and develop scaling methodologies to relate laboratory data and simulation results to predicted reservoir behavior. Existing laboratory information from Little Creek was analyzed and an extensive amount of field data was collected. This was merged with an understanding of previous work at Little Creek to generate a detailed simulation study of two portions of the field – the original pilot area and a currently active part of the field. This work was done to try to relate all of this information to an understanding of where the CO{sub 2} went or is going and how recovery might be improved. New data was also generated in this process. Production logs were run to understand where the CO{sub 2} was entering the reservoir related to core and log information and also to corroborate the simulation model. A methodology was developed and successfully tested for evaluating saturations in a cased-hole environment. Finally an experimental and theoretical program was initiated to relate laboratory work to field scale design and analysis of operations. This work found that an understanding of vertical and areal heterogeneity is crucial for understanding sweep processes as well as understanding appropriate mitigation techniques to improve the sweep. Production and injection logs can provide some understanding of that heterogeneity when core data is not available. The cased-hole saturation logs developed in the project will also be an important part of the evaluation of vertical heterogeneity. Evaluation of injection well/production well connectivities through statistical or numerical techniques were found to be as successful in evaluating CO{sub 2} floods as they are for waterfloods. These are likely to be the lowest cost techniques to evaluate areal sweep. Full field simulation and 4D seismic techniques are other possibilities but were beyond the scope of the project. Detailed simulation studies of pattern areas proved insightful both for doing a “post-mortem” analysis of the pilot area as well as a late-term, active portion of the Little Creek Field. This work also evaluated options for improving sweep in the current flood as well as evaluating options that could have been successful at recovering more oil. That simulation study was successful due to the integration of a large amount of data supplied by the operator as well as collected through the course of the project. While most projects would not have the abundance of data that Little Creek had, integration of the available data continues to be critical for both the design and evaluation stages of CO{sub 2} floods. For cases w

  2. CityFIT Urban Guide: Modelling and Deploying indicators of Property Exposure to Flooding in Lagos using LIDAR DEM and DSM data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mosuro, Sulaiman

    2012-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    application was prototyped for disseminating time-series flood model information and for reporting details of flood events as they occur to serve for model calibration and enhancement, thereby completing the flood modelling lifecycle....

  3. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tucker sand from Hepler field, Crawford County, Kansas, was characterized using routine and advanced analytical methods. The characterization is part of a chemical flooding pilot test to be conducted in the field, which is classified as a DOE Class I (fluvial-dominated delta) reservoir. Routine and advanced methods of characterization were compared. Traditional wireline logs indicate that the reservoir is vertically compartmentalized on the foot scale. Routine core analysis, X-ray computed tomography (CT), minipermeameter measurement, and petrographic analysis indicate that compartmentalization and lamination extend to the microscale. An idealized model of how the reservoir is probably structured (complex layering with small compartments) is presented. There was good agreement among the several methods used for characterization, and advanced characterization methods adequately explained the coreflood and tracer tests conducted with short core plugs. Tracer and chemical flooding tests were conducted in short core plugs while monitoring with CT to establish flow patterns and to monitor oil saturations in different zones of the core plugs. Channeling of injected fluids occurred in laboratory experiments because, on core plug scale, permeability streaks extended the full length of the core plugs. A graphic example of how channeling in field core plugs can affect oil recovery during chemical injection is presented. The small scale of compartmentalization indicated by plugs of the Tucker sand may actually help improve sweep between wells. The success of field-scale waterflooding and the fluid flow patterns observed in highly heterogeneous outcrop samples are reasons to expect that reservoir flow patterns are different from those observed with short core plugs, and better sweep efficiency may be obtained in the field than has been observed in laboratory floods conducted with short core plugs.

  4. Erosion potential from Missoula floods in the Pasco Basin, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig, R.G.; Hanson, J.P.

    1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Localities within the Pasco Basin preserve evidence of Missoula floods. Deposits are 46% sand-sized, 36% gravel-sized, and 18% finer than sand-sized. Mean thickness is 39 meters. High water marks at Wallula Gap require a discharge of approximately 12.5 Mcms. At Sentinel Gap, the slope-area method shows that the high water marks require a discharge of 34.6 Mcms. Since this discharge greatly exceeds any estimated for Missoula floods, there must have been backwater ponding from Wallula Gap. Projecting the slope of the water surface at the upper end of Wallula Gap to the downstream cross section at Gable Mountain leads to a discharge of 9.5 Mcms at Sentinel Gap. The HEC-6 steady state code and four sediment transport equations were applied. Assuming sand-sized particles, DuBoys function estimated 4 to 9 meters of scour. Yang's equation estimated 3 to 4 meters of scour. These are a minimum. A hydrograph synthesized for the boundaries of the Pasco Basin shows the maxima of the flood would occur after 90 h at Sentinel Gap, and at 114 h at Wallula Gap. The 200 areas will remain inundated for four days and six hours. With a quasi-dynamic sediment transport computation, HEC-6 scour estimates range from 0.61 meters to 0.915 meters. This is a minimum amount and erosion is highly variable suggesting reworking of sediment. The Meyer-Peter Meuller equations show less than 1 meter of net scour in the 200 areas. More extensive erosion was achieved during particular time steps of this analysis suggesting that sediment re-working would occur.

  5. Geographic Visualization of the 1993 Midwest Flood Water Balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, W. Scott; Ridd, Merrill K.; Mizgalewicz, Pawel J.; Maidment, David R.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , flooding, and water storage. By the middle of July, large amounts of water were being stored in the southern part of the UMRB, particularly around the St. Louis area where the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers meet. Water was also being stored in larger...) includes the Mississippi River basin from the river’s headwaters in Minnesota to Cairo, Illinois, and the Lower Missouri River basin below Gavins Point dam, South Dakota, to St. Louis, Missouri (Figure 1.1). Using a digital elevation model of the study...

  6. FEMA - National Flood Insurance Program webpage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 NoEurope BV Jump to:FAS Technologies LLC JumpNational Flood

  7. Determining the optimal river gauge location for a flood early warning system in Uganda using HEC-RAS and AHP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheung, Joyce, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flooding of the Manafwa River in Eastern Uganda causes significant damage in the district of Butaleja, and often occurs without advance warning. In 2012, the American Red Cross in Uganda requested MIT to develop a flood ...

  8. Multiscale analysis of three consecutive years of anomalous flooding in Pakistan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houze Jr., Robert A.

    Multiscale analysis of three consecutive years of anomalous flooding in Pakistan By K. L. Rasmussen investigation into three years of anomalous floods in Pakistan provides insight into their formation, unifying for the formation of anomalous easterly midlevel flow across central India into Pakistan that advected deep

  9. Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 September 2011 vol 5 no 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 September 2011 vol 5 no 1 Table of Contents Awards for the NFRMP Risk Management Program Judy Soutiere, SPK In October 2011, we celebrate the 2nd anniversary of the guidance establishing the National Flood Risk Management Program in each Division and District of the Corps

  10. Uncertainty analysis of river flooding and dam failure risks using local sensitivity computations.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Uncertainty analysis of river flooding and dam failure risks using local sensitivity computations) for uncertainty analysis with respect to two major types of risk in river hydrodynamics: flash flood and dam failure. LSA is com- pared to a Global Uncertainty Analysis (GUA) consisting in running Monte Carlo

  11. The Geology and Geography of Floods Jim E. O'Connor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -documented dam-failure floods have been during Pleistocene ice ages when glaciers and changing hydrologic of ice caps and failures of ice and landslide Vlams. The fundamental limits to dam-failure floods of natural dam failures. In this paper, we outline some of the primary factors that influence the magnitude

  12. Links Between Flood Frequency and Annual Water Balance Behaviors: A Basis for Similarity and Regionalization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Jiali; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Guo, Shenglian; Liu, Pan; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a data based comparative study of several hundred catchments across continental United States belonging to the MOPEX dataset, which systematically explored the connection between the flood frequency curve and measures of mean annual water balance. Two different measures of mean annual water balance are used: (i) a climatic aridity index, AI, which is a measure of the competition between water and energy availability at the annual scale; and, (ii) baseflow index, BFI, the ratio of slow runoff to total runoff also at the annual time scale, reflecting the role of geology, soils, topography and vegetation. The data analyses showed that the aridity index, AI, has a first order control on both the mean and Cv of annual maximum floods. While mean annual flood decreases with increasing aridity, Cv increases with increasing aridity. BFI appeared to be a second order control on the magnitude and shape of the flood frequency curve. Higher BFI, meaning more subsurface flow and less surface flow leads to a decrease of mean annual flood whereas lower BFI leads to accumulation of soil moisture and increased flood magnitudes that arise from many events acting together. The results presented in this paper provide innovative means to delineate homogeneous regions within which the flood frequency curves can be assumed to be functionally similar. At another level, understanding the connection between annual water balance and flood frequency will be another building block towards developing comprehensive understanding of catchment runoff behavior in a holistic way.

  13. Novel anti-flooding poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) catalyst binder for microbial fuel cell cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novel anti-flooding poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) catalyst binder for microbial fuel cell cathodes) was tested as a catalyst binder in a microbial fuel cell. 2012 Keywords: Microbial fuel cell Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Anti-flooding Catalyst binder a b s t r a c

  14. Flood and Shield Basalts from Ethiopia: Magmas from the African Superswell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Flood and Shield Basalts from Ethiopia: Magmas from the African Superswell BRUNO KIEFFER1, ETHIOPIA 4 DEEPARTEMENT DES SCIENCES DE LA TERRE ET DE L'ENVIRONNEMENT, UNIVERSITEE LIBRE DE BRUXELLES 50 the shield volcanoes. KEY WORDS: Ethiopia; flood basalts; shield volcanism; superswell INTRODUCTION According

  15. Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 June 2010 vol 3 no 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    . He has also worked in private practice as well as in County and State government. Mr. Rabbon Operations...........2 Workshop on Beach Nourishment Design ..... 8 Who Looks Good in a Silver Jacket reviews; emergency management ­ inspection of completed works program, flood preparedness, and flood

  16. Location-Aided Flooding: An Energy-Efficient Data Dissemination Protocol for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    Location-Aided Flooding: An Energy-Efficient Data Dissemination Protocol for Wireless Sensor such as the broadcast storm problem [6]. In this paper, we present an energy-efficient flooding mechanism, termed of battery and, hence, any solution must be energy-efficient. . Self-configuration. Since it is not feasible

  17. Environmental Hazards 2 (2000) 157168 Modeling flooding extent from Hurricane Floyd in the coastal plains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Pitt County, North Carolina. The patterns of flood extent derived from the two models were compared of Pitt County, North Carolina. The patterns of flood extent derived from the two models were compared plains of North Carolina Jeffrey D. Colby*, Karen A. Mulcahy, Yong Wang Department of Geography, East

  18. A kinematic wave model for rivers with flood plains and other irregular geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tabak, Esteban G.

    A kinematic wave model for rivers with flood plains and other irregular geometries Pablo M. Jacovkis Esteban G. Tabak March 2006 Abstract A general kinematic wave model for flood propagation) This kinematic wave equation, which has been studied by [3], can be derived from the complete system (1, 2) under

  19. An optimal viscosity profile in enhanced oil recovery by polymer flooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daripa, Prabir

    An optimal viscosity profile in enhanced oil recovery by polymer flooding Prabir Daripa a,*, G in oil reservoir is one of the effective methods of enhanced (tertiary) oil recovery. A classical model reserved. Keywords: Enhanced oil recovery; Polymer flooding; Linear stability 0020-7225/$ - see front

  20. HighResolution Numerical Methods for MicellarPolymer Flooding and Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trangenstein, John A.

    been used to study the micellar­ polymer flooding process in enhanced oil recovery [12], [18], [19 in practical im­ plementation of enhanced oil recovery techniques at this time, there is increasing interestHigh­Resolution Numerical Methods for Micellar­Polymer Flooding and Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer

  1. Field Testing of Energy-Efficient Flood-Damage-Resistant Residential Envelope Systems Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aglan, H.

    2005-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary purpose of the project was to identify materials and methods that will make the envelope of a house flood damage resistant. Flood damage resistant materials and systems are intended to be used to repair houses subsequent to flooding. This project was also intended to develop methods of restoring the envelopes of houses that have been flooded but are repairable and may be subject to future flooding. Then if the house floods again, damage will not be as extensive as in previous flood events and restoration costs and efforts will be minimized. The purpose of the first pair of field tests was to establish a baseline for typical current residential construction practice. The first test modules used materials and systems that were commonly found in residential envelopes throughout the U.S. The purpose of the second pair of field tests was to begin evaluating potential residential envelope materials and systems that were projected to be more flood-damage resistant and restorable than the conventional materials and systems tested in the first pair of tests. The purpose of testing the third slab-on-grade module was to attempt to dry flood proof the module (no floodwater within the structure). If the module could be sealed well enough to prevent water from entering, then this would be an effective method of making the interior materials and systems flood damage resistant. The third crawl space module was tested in the same manner as the previous modules and provided an opportunity to do flood tests of additional residential materials and systems. Another purpose of the project was to develop the methodology to collect representative, measured, reproducible (i.e. scientific) data on how various residential materials and systems respond to flooding conditions so that future recommendations for repairing flood damaged houses could be based on scientific data. An additional benefit of collecting this data is that it will be used in the development of a standard test procedure which could lead to the certification of building materials and systems as flood damage resistant.

  2. 118 / JOURNAL OF WATER RESOURCES PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT / MAY/JUNE 2000 LINEAR PROGRAMMING FOR FLOOD CONTROL IN THE IOWA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    obtained by operating the three reservoirs independently for 8 of the 10 largest flood events on record for optimizing the operation of existing systems rather than proposing/designing new flood- control projects flood-control operations for the Iowa/Des Moines River Reservoir System and to pro- vide insight

  3. California climate change, hydrologic response, and flood forecasting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Norman L.

    2003-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    There is strong evidence that the lower atmosphere has been warming at an unprecedented rate during the last 50 years, and it is expected to further increase at least for the next 100 years. Warmer air mass implies a higher capacity to hold water vapor and an increased likelihood of an acceleration of the global water cycle. This acceleration is not validated and considerable new research has gone into understanding aspects of the water cycle (e.g. Miller et al. 2003). Several significant findings on the hydrologic response to climate change can be reported. It is well understood that the observed and expected warming is related to sea level rise. In a recent seminar at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, James Hansen (Director of the Institute for Space Studies, National Aeronautics and Space Administration) stressed that a 1.25 Wm{sup -2} increase in radiative forcing will lead to an increase in the near surface air temperature by 1 C. This small increase in temperature from 2000 levels is enough to cause very significant impacts to coasts. Maury Roos (Chief Hydrologist, California Department of Water Resources) has shown that a 0.3 m rise in sea level shifts the San Francisco Bay 100-year storm surge flood event to a 10-year event. Related coastal protection costs for California based on sea level rise are shown. In addition to rising sea level, snowmelt-related streamflow represents a particular problem in California. Model studies have indicated that there will be approximately a 50% decrease in snow pack by 2100. This potential deficit must be fully recognized and plans need to be put in place well in advance. In addition, the warmer atmosphere can hold more water vapor and result in more intense warm winter-time precipitation events that result in flooding. During anticipated high flow, reservoirs need to release water to maintain their structural integrity. California is at risk of water shortages, floods, and related ecosystem stresses. More research needs to be done to further improve our ability to forecast weather events at longer time scales. Seasonal predictions have been statistical and only recently have studies begun to use ensemble simulations and historical observations to constrain such predictions. Understanding the mechanisms of large-scale atmospheric dynamics and its local impacts remain topics of intensive research. The ability to predict extreme events and provide policy makers with this information, along with climate change and hydrologic response information, will help to guide planning to form a more resilient infrastructure in the future.

  4. Design-Basis Flood Estimation for Site Characterization at Nuclear Power Plants in the United States of America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, Rajiv; Hibler, Lyle F.; Coleman, Andre M.; Ward, Duane L.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to describe approaches and methods for estimation of the design-basis flood at nuclear power plant sites. Chapter 1 defines the design-basis flood and lists the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) regulations that require estimation of the design-basis flood. For comparison, the design-basis flood estimation methods used by other Federal agencies are also described. A brief discussion of the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency for estimation of the design-basis floods in its member States is also included.

  5. Problems with flooding in the Ronneburg mining district

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckart, M. [Wismut GmbH, Gera (Germany)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most important uranium deposits of Wismut, the biggest uranium producer of the eastern world, was the Ronneburg mining area, located 10 km east of Gera in the central part of Germany. 110,000 t of uranium were produced in this ore field from 1950 to 1989. Mining in the Ronneburg ore field requires a knowledge of the hydrodynamic relationships during and after ground water recharge and preplanning of the flooding sequence in the mine. The technology necessary for recharge of the ground water layer and the open pit were established by flow models. Calculations were made of the transport of radioisotopes in the ground water. Preliminary results of these calculations are reported in this paper.

  6. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding with weak alkalis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of Project BE4B in FY90 was to develop cost-effective and efficient chemical flooding formulations using surfactant-enhanced, lower pH (weak) alkaline chemical systems. Chemical systems were studied that mitigate the deleterious effects of divalent ions. The experiments were conducted with carbonate mixtures and carbonate/phosphate mixtures of pH 10.5, where most of the phosphate ions exist as the monohydrogen phosphate species. Orthophosphate did not further reduce the deleterious effect of divalent ions on interfacial tension behavior in carbonate solutions, where the deleterious effect of the divalent ions is already very low. When added to a carbonate mixture, orthophosphate did substantially reduce the adsorption of an atomic surfactant, which was an expected result; however, there was no correlation between the amount of reduction and the divalent ion levels. For acidic oils, a variety of surfactants are available commercially that have potential for use between pH 8.3 and pH 9.5. Several of these surfactants were tested with oil from Wilmington (CA) field and found to be suitable for use in that field. Two low-acid crude oils, with acid numbers of 0.01 and 0.27 mg KOH/g of oil, were studied. It was shown that surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding does have merit for use with these low-acid crude oils. However, each low-acid oil tested was found to behave differently, and it was concluded that the applicability of the method must be experimentally determined for any given low-acid crude oil. 19 refs., 10 figs. 4 tabs.

  7. Next Generation Surfactants for Improved Chemical Flooding Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laura Wesson; Prapas Lohateeraparp; Jeffrey Harwell; Bor-Jier Shiau

    2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The principle objective of this project was to characterize and test current and next generation high performance surfactants for improved chemical flooding technology, focused on reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian-aged (Penn) sands. In order to meet this objective the characteristic curvatures (Cc) of twenty-eight anionic surfactants selected for evaluation for use in chemical flooding formulations were determined. The Cc values ranged from -6.90 to 2.55 with the majority having negative values. Crude oil samples from nine Penn sand reservoirs were analyzed for several properties pertinent to surfactant formulation for EOR application. These properties included equivalent alkane carbon numbers, total acid numbers, and viscosity. The brine samples from these same reservoirs were analyzed for several cations and for total dissolved solids. Surfactant formulations were successfully developed for eight reservoirs by the end of the project period. These formulations were comprised of a tertiary mixture of anionic surfactants. The identities of these surfactants are considered proprietary, but suffice to say the surfactants in each mixture were comprised of varying chemical structures. In addition to the successful development of surfactant formulations for EOR, there were also two successful single-well field tests conducted. There are many aspects that must be considered in the development and implementation of effective surfactant formulations. Taking into account these other aspects, there were four additional studies conducted during this project. These studies focused on the effect of the stability of surfactant formulations in the presence of polymers with an associated examination of polymer rheology, the effect of the presence of iron complexes in the brine on surfactant stability, the potential use of sacrificial agents in order to minimize the loss of surfactant to adsorption, and the effect of electrolytes on surfactant adsorption. In these last four studies the effects of such things as temperature, electrolyte concentration and the effect of different types of electrolytes were taken into consideration.

  8. Scale-up of miscible flood processes. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orr, F.M. Jr.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of a wide-ranging investigation of the scaling of the physical mechanisms of miscible floods are reported. Advanced techniques for analysis of crude oils are considered in Chapter 2. Application of supercritical fluid chromatography is demonstrated for characterization of crude oils for equation-of-state calculations of phase equilibrium. Results of measurements of crude oil and phase compositions by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry are also reported. The theory of development of miscibility is considered in detail in Chapter 3. The theory is extended to four components, and sample solutions for a variety of gas injection systems are presented. The analytical theory shows that miscibility can develop even though standard tie-line extension criteria developed for ternary systems are not satisfied. In addition, the theory includes the first analytical solutions for condensing/vaporizing gas drives. In Chapter 4, methods for simulation of viscous fingering are considered. The scaling of the growth of transition zones in linear viscous fingering is considered. In addition, extension of the models developed previously to three dimensions is described, as is the inclusion of effects of equilibrium phase behavior. In Chapter 5, the combined effects of capillary and gravity-driven crossflow are considered. The experimental results presented show that very high recovery can be achieved by gravity segregation when interfacial tensions are moderately low. We argue that such crossflow mechanisms are important in multicontact miscible floods in heterogeneous reservoirs. In addition, results of flow visualization experiments are presented that illustrate the interplay of crossflow driven by gravity with that driven by viscous forces.

  9. Investigation of the scaling factor LVuw in the recovery of oil by water flooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McWilliams, Morris Hampton

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rnediuxn and. the Buid system, but also by the length of the flooded system and the x'ate of irjection. They further cor eluded that for floods performed in identical porous media and with the same oil-water viscosity ratio, the total length... water) as a scaling w coefficient. In other words, all floods conducted in a given porous rnediuxn, with a given oil-watex viscosity ratio and haVing the same value of this scalixxg coefficient must behave similarly and yield equal recoveries fax...

  10. Application of Polymer Gels as Conformance Control Agents for Carbon Dioxide for Floods in Carbonate Reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Ali, Ali 1986-

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ) .................................................... 203 Fig. 4.110 ? CT Image of Oil Saturated Core after Flooded with 1 PV of CO2 (CGI) .. 203 Fig. 4.111 ? CT Image of Oil Saturated Core after Flooded with 3 PV of CO2 (CGI) .. 203 Fig. 4.112 ? CT Image of Oil Saturated Core (CGI-Fracked...) ...................................... 204 Fig. 4.113 ? CT Image of Oil Saturated Core after Flooded with 1 PV of CO2 (CGI- Fracked) .................................................................................................. 204 Fig. 4.114 ? CT Image of Oil Saturated Core after...

  11. Flooding The Vote: Hurricane Katrina and Voter Participation in New Orleans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinclair, Betsy

    2008-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The flooding of New Orleans from Hurricane Katrina resulted in a massive and rapid exodus of individuals from New Orleans to locations around the United States. In the midst of the hurricane recovery, the City of New Orleans ...

  12. PROGRESSION OF STREAMBANK EROSION DURING A LARGE FLOOD, RIO PUERCO ARROYO, NEW MEXICO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PROGRESSION OF STREAMBANK EROSION DURING A LARGE FLOOD, RIO PUERCO ARROYO, NEW MEXICO Eleanor R includes uplands of north-central New Mexico. The Rio Puerco is the principal source of sediment

  13. Calibration of a Distributed Flood Forecasting Model with Input Uncertainty Using a Bayesian Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubbard, Susan

    Calibration of a Distributed Flood Forecasting Model with Input Uncertainty Using a Bayesian, Berkeley, CA, United States. In the process of calibrating distributed hydrological models, accounting in calibrating GBHM parameters and in estimating their associated uncertainty. The calibration ignoring input

  14. Sacrificial adsorbate for surfactants utilized in chemical floods of enhanced oil recovery operations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Westmoreland, C.G.

    1980-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a sacrificial or competitive adsorbate for surfactants contained in chemical flooding emulsions for enhanced oil recovery operations. The adsorbate to be utilized in the method of the present invention is a caustic effluent from the bleach stage or the weak black liquor from the digesters and pulp washers of the kraft pulping process. This effluent or weak black liquor is injected into an oil-bearing subterranean earth formation prior to or concurrent with the chemical flood emulsion and is adsorbed on the active mineral surfaces of the formation matrix so as to effectively reduce adsorption of surfactant in the chemical flood. Alternatively, the effluent or liquor can be injected into the subterranean earth formation subsequent to a chemical flood to displace the surfactant from the mineral surfaces for the recovery thereof.

  15. FLOODING AND GAS EMISSIONS OF OLD IRON MINES IN LORAIN LAGNY Candice1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    related to abandoned mine workings. This study has been extended to other sectors of the Lorraine basin reservoirs of "Rosselange", Franchepré and "Orne". Then, investigation was made in non-flooded reservoirs

  16. After the flood : crisis, voice and innovation in Maputo's solid waste management sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kruks-Wisner, Gabrielle (Gabrielle K.)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explores responses to the problem of solid waste management (SWM) in two neighborhoods of Maputo, Mozambique in the wake of catastrophic flooding in 2000. In these neighborhoods, small-scale service providers ...

  17. Resource Management Services: Land Use, Part 501: Use of Flood Control Lands (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    No regulated activity or development is allowed to take place on lands used for flood control purposes unless a permit is obtained. These regulations describe provisions for the application,...

  18. The effect of surface flooding on the physical-biogeochemical dynamics of a warm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baird, Mark

    Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia Abstract Warm core eddies (WCEs) formed from the East suggest that EAC WCEs with relatively shallow surface flooding contain more phy- toplankton biomass than

  19. Sacrificial adsorbate for surfactants utilized in chemical floods of enhanced oil recovery operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.S.; Westmoreland, C.G.

    1982-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a sacrificial or competitive adsorbate for surfactants contained in chemical flooding emulsions for enhanced oil recovery operations. The adsorbate to be utilized in the method of the present invention is a caustic effluent from the bleach stage or the weak black liquor from the digesters and pulp washers of the kraft pulping process. This effluent or weak black liquor is injected into an oil-bearing subterranean earth formation prior to or concurrent with the chemical flood emulsion and is adsorbed on the active mineral surfaces of the formation matrix so as to effectively reduce adsorption of surfactant in the chemical flood. Alternatively, the effluent or liquor can be injected into the subterranean earth formation subsequent to a chemical flood to displace the surfactant from the mineral surfaces for the recovery thereof.

  20. Sacrificial adsorbate for surfactants utilized in chemical floods of enhanced oil recovery operations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Jr., James S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Westmoreland, Clyde G. (Rockwood, TN)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a sacrificial or competitive adsorbate for surfactants contained in chemical flooding emulsions for enhanced oil recovery operations. The adsorbate to be utilized in the method of the present invention is a caustic effluent from the bleach stage or the weak black liquor from the digesters and pulp washers of the kraft pulping process. This effluent or weak black liquor is injected into an oil-bearing subterranean earth formation prior to or concurrent with the chemical flood emulsion and is adsorbed on the active mineral surfaces of the formation matrix so as to effectively reduce adsorption of surfactant in the chemical flood. Alternatively, the effluent or liquor can be injected into the subterranean earth formation subsequent to a chemical flood to displace the surfactant from the mineral surfaces for the recovery thereof.

  1. Flooding of the continental shelves as a contributor to deglacial CH4 rise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    Flooding of the continental shelves as a contributor to deglacial CH4 rise ANDY RIDGWELL,1 MARK of the continental shelves that were exposed and vegetated during the glacial sea-level low stand and that can help

  2. Estimated Benefits of IBWC Rio Grande Flood-Control Projects in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sturdivant, Allen W.; Lacewell, Ronald D.; Michelsen, Ari M.; Rister, M. Edward; Assadian, Naomi; Eriksson, Marian; Freeman, Roger; Jacobs, Jennifer H.; Madison, W. Tom; McGuckin, James T.; Morrison, Wendy; Robinson, John R.C.; Staats, Chris; Sheng, Zhuping; Srinivasan, R.; Villalobos, Joshua I.

    TR- 275 2004 Estimated Benefits of IBWC Rio Grande Flood-Control Projects in the United States Allen W. Sturdivant Ronald D. Lacewell Ari M. Michelsen M. Edward Rister Naomi Assadian Marian Eriksson Roger Freeman Jennifer H... Flood-Control Projects in the United States Prepared for: INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES SECTION EL PASO, TEXAS SEPTEMBER 2004 Prepared by: Texas Agriculture Experiment Station, and Texas Water Resources Institute of the Texas...

  3. Effects of fluid properties and initial gas saturation on oil recovery by water flooding 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Marion Denson

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECTS OF FLUID PROPERTIES AND INITIAL GAS SATURATION ON OIL RECOVERY BY WATER FLOODING A Thesis By MARION D. ARNOLD Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1959 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering EFFECTS OF FLUID PROPERTIES AND INITIAL GAS SATURATION ON OIL RECOVERY BY WATER FLOODING A Thesis By MARION D, ARNOLD Approved as to style and content by...

  4. Green River Formation Water Flood Demonstration Project. Annual report, April 1, 1994--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomax, J.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The successful water flood of the Green River Formation in the Monument Butte unit was analyzed in detail in the last yearly report. It was shown that primary recovery and the water flood in the unit were typical of oil production from an undersaturated oil reservoir close its bubble point. The reservoir performance of the smaller Travis unit was also analyzed. The Monument Butte unit is currently producing at around 300 barrels per day of oil. Two of the new wells drilled in the unit had zones pressurized by the water flood. The third well produced from pressurized as well as from zones which were unaffected by the water flood. The water flood response of the Travis unit is slow possibly due to problems of reservoir continuity. Plans for water flooding the Boundary unit were drawn. Core description and Formation Micro Imaging log of well 14a-28 provided insight about the important Lower Douglas Creek sandstone. It was determined that this sandstone was extensively fractured and detailed fracture characteristics were obtained through comprehensive interpretation of the FMI log. Reservoir modeling and simulation studies of all the three units were also continued. A larger, more detailed model of the Monument Butte unit was built in order to study the performance of the new development wells being drilled. Three alternate models developed to explain the performance of the Travis flood revealed that intersecting hydraulic fractures may have also provided paths for water channeling observed in this unit. The reservoir characterization activities identified new reservoirs in the Travis unit. Reservoir simulations helped design an injection program in Travis, unit expansion plans on the west and north sides of the Monument Butte until and to evaluate the infill drilling. The reservoir simulations are being used to examine the role of the aquifer underlying the oil bearing D2 sandstone in Boundary on water flood strategies and injection patterns.

  5. Effects of fluid properties and initial gas saturation on oil recovery by water flooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Marion Denson

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECTS OF FLUID PROPERTIES AND INITIAL GAS SATURATION ON OIL RECOVERY BY WATER FLOODING A Thesis By MARION D. ARNOLD Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1959 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering EFFECTS OF FLUID PROPERTIES AND INITIAL GAS SATURATION ON OIL RECOVERY BY WATER FLOODING A Thesis By MARION D, ARNOLD Approved as to style and content by...

  6. The effect of cross flow in a stratified reservoir during a water flood 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sommers, Gordon Edmund

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the displacement of oil by water in a porous medium. In most conventional engineer- ing methods used to predict the reservoir performance of a water- flood, crossflow between beds of different permeability is neglected, This study was concerned... in a water flood. Conventional engineering methods assuming no crossflow and the numerical model solution were in agreement when the effects of vertical communication were neglected. However, when vertical communication was considered, model...

  7. Green River Formation water flood demonstration project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennington, B.I.; Dyer, J.E.; Lomax, J.D. [Inland Resources, Inc. (United States); [Lomax Exploration Co., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M.D. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Fuels Engineering

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the project were to understand the oil production mechanisms in the Monument Butte unit via reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations and to transfer the water flooding technology to similar units in the vicinity, particularly the Travis and the Boundary units. The reservoir characterization activity in the project basically consisted of extraction and analysis of a full diameter core, Formation Micro Imaging (FMI) logs from several wells and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) logs from two wells. In addition, several side-wall cores were drilled and analyzed, oil samples from a number of wells were physically and chemically characterized (using high-temperature gas chromatography), oil-water relative permeabilities were measured and pour points and cloud points of a few oil samples were determined. The reservoir modeling activity comprised of reservoir simulation of all the three units at different scales and near well-bore modeling of the wax precipitation effects. The reservoir simulation activities established the extent of pressurization of the sections of the reservoirs in the immediate vicinity of the Monument Butte unit. This resulted in a major expansion of the unit and the production from this expanded unit increased from about 300 barrels per day to about 2,000 barrels per day.

  8. Electron Flood Charge Compensation Device for Ion Trap Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appelhans, Anthony David; Ward, Michael Blair; Olson, John Eric

    2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses of organophosphorous compounds adsorbed onto soils, the measured anion signals were lower than expected and it was hypothesized that the low signals could be due to sample charging. An electron flood gun was designed, constructed and used to investigate sample charging of these and other sample types. The flood gun was integrated into one end cap of an ion trap secondary ion mass spectrometer and the design maintained the geometry of the self-stabilizing extraction optics used in this instrument. The SIMION ion optics program was used to design the flood gun, and experimental results agreed with the predicted performance. Results showed the low anion signals from the soils were not due to sample charging. Other insulating and conducting samples were tested using both a ReO4- and a Cs+ primary ion beam. The proximity of the sample and electron source to the ion trap aperture resulted in generation of background ions in the ion trap via electron impact (EI) ionization during the period the electron gun was flooding the sample region. When using the electron gun with the ReO4- primary beam, the required electron current was low enough that the EI background was negligible; however, the high electron flood current required with the Cs+ beam produced background EI ions that degraded the quality of the mass spectra. The consequences of the EI produced cations will have to be evaluated on a sample-by-sample basis when using electron flood. It was shown that the electron flood gun could be intentionally operated to produce EI spectra in this instrument. This offers the opportunity to measure, nearly simultaneously, species evaporating from a sample, via EI, and species bound to the surface, via SIMS.

  9. Augmenting a Microbial Selective Plugging Technique with Polymer Flooding to Increase the Efficiency of Oil Recovery - A Search for Synergy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Lewis R.; Pittman Jr., Charles U.; Lynch, F. Leo; Vadie, A. Alex; French, W. Todd

    2003-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to determine if the effectiveness of a microbial permeability profile modification technique can be improved through polymer flooding.

  10. South African Association of Geomorphologists, Johannesburg, South Africa, 2000 Flood plain formation in semi-arid central Australia.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bourke, Mary C.

    South African Association of Geomorphologists, Johannesburg, South Africa, 2000 Flood plain of sediment waves and the close succession of a series of high-energy overbank flows contribute

  11. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2004, 6.26 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Carbon dioxide injection rates averaged about 250 MCFD. Carbon dioxide was detected in one production well near the end of May. The amount of carbon dioxide produced was small during this period. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February, increasing to an average of about 2.5 B/D in May and June. Operational problems encountered during the initial stages of the flood were identified and resolved.

  12. Effects of the Georgia flood of `94 on Lake Blackshear Dam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Findlay, R.C.; Northrop, J.H. [Northrop, Devine & Tarbell, Inc., Portland, ME (United States); Crisp, R.L. Jr. [and others

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Tropical Storm Alberto produced record rainfall in central Georgia in early July, 1994. The area drains into Lake Blackshear, formed in the Flint River by Lake Blackshear Dam. The level of the lake rose 3.5 m (11.5 ft) above normal and caused the worst flooding of the area in recorded history. The north embankment of the dam was overtopped, causing a 215 m (700 ft) breach. Prior to the breach, a few concentrated boils were observed in the tailwater downstream of the non-breached portion of the dam. This portion remained intact through the flood, but the presence of the boils raised questions regarding its integrity. The effects of the flood on the north embankment are discussed, as well as the geotechnical investigation conducted to assess subsurface conditions at the breach and intact portions and the plan for remediation.

  13. FLEXIBILITY IN WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT: REVIEW OF CONCEPTS AND DEVELOPMENT OF ASSESSMENT MEASURES FOR FLOOD MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    FLEXIBILITY IN WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT: REVIEW OF CONCEPTS AND DEVELOPMENT OF ASSESSMENT variability/change; risk assessment; flood management; water resources flexibility.) DiFrancesco, Kara N of Assessment Measures for Flood Management Systems. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA

  14. Palaeomagnetism of flood basalts in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia: Late Archaean continental drift and the oldest known

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Palaeomagnetism of flood basalts in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia: Late Archaean in the Nullagine Synclinorium (and Meentheena Centrocline) of the East Pilbara Basin, Western Australia, has been. Langereis, Palaeomagnetism of flood basalts in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia: Late Archaean

  15. A graphical method to study suspended sediment dynamics during flood events in the Wadi Sebdou, NW Algeria (19732004)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A graphical method to study suspended sediment dynamics during flood events in the Wadi Sebdou, NW sediment concentration Semiarid watershed Flood Wadi Algeria s u m m a r y Small sub-basins are numerous period (1973­2004) was analyzed at the outlet of the Wadi Sebdou basin (256 km2 ) in northwest Algeria

  16. Flood Assessment at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site and the Proposed Hazardous Waste Storage Unit, DOE/Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmeltzer, J. S., Millier, J. J., Gustafson, D. L.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A flood assessment at the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) and the proposed Hazardous Waste Storage Unit (HWSU) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was performed to determine the 100-year flood hazard at these facilities. The study was conducted to determine whether the RWMS and HWSU are located within a 100-year flood hazard as defined by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and to provide discharges for the design of flood protection.

  17. Simulation of flood flow in a river system using artificial neural networks Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 9(4), 313321 (2005) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulation of flood flow in a river system using artificial neural networks 313 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 9(4), 313321 (2005) © EGU Simulation of flood flow in a river system using artificial Artificial neural networks (ANNs) provide a quick and flexible means of developing flood flow simulation

  18. Building boundary is necessary for the real estate industry, flood management, and homeland security applications.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shan, Jie

    Abstract Building boundary is necessary for the real estate industry, flood management, and homeland security applications. The extraction of building boundary is also a crucial and difficult step, and Purdue University campus are evaluated. Introduction Airborne lidar (light detection and ranging

  19. The effect of surface and interfacial tensions upon the recovery of oil by water flooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerrero, Erasmo Trevino

    1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF SURFACE AND INTERFACIAL TENSIONS UPON THE RECOVERY OF OIL BY WATER FLOODING A Dissertation By ERASMO T . GUERRERO Approved as to style and content by: J t Q J w & U 7 T Chsfirman of Cfommittee f Head of Department TABLE....................................................................................................... .......... 25 Surface and Interfacial Tensions..........................................................26 Adsorption............................... .................. . ........................................ .......... 31 Flow Tests...

  20. Floods in Pakistan: Socio-political and 'techno-nature' challenges a first glance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    Floods in Pakistan: Socio-political and 'techno-nature' challenges ­ a first glance Urs Geiser 1. Over the coming days, rains continued not only in Northwest Pakistan, but in Baluchistan as well quarter of Pakistan's land area is inundated. The spatial spread of the disaster is well known

  1. Using Polymer to Maximize CO2 Flooding Performance in Light Oils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Weirong

    2014-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    -permeability zones and natural fractures, the condition is even worse. Two methods related to polymers are studied to improve CO2 flooding performance. One is adding polymers to water to increase water viscosity during the water-alternating-gas (WAG) process, named...

  2. ERDC/EL TN-11-1 Flood Risk Management: Insights from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    ERDC/EL TN-11-1 March 2011 Flood Risk Management: Insights from an Expert Modeling Process by M. D preparedness planning that harmonizes efforts of implementing agencies and stakeholders. Risk management are essential for effective risk management policy. Formal (versus ad hoc) analyses of risk manager and stake

  3. Culvert Design for Flood Routing considering Sediment Transport W.J. Rahmeyer PhD.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahmeyer, William J.

    Culvert Design for Flood Routing considering Sediment Transport W.J. Rahmeyer PhD.1 and W routing methodologies do not consider sediment bed-load transport through the culverts or pipelines of road crossings. Many practitioners either ignore the transport of sediment through a culvert or assume

  4. Calibration of a distributed flood forecasting model with input uncertainty using a Bayesian framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubbard, Susan

    Calibration of a distributed flood forecasting model with input uncertainty using a Bayesian; revised 20 June 2012; accepted 28 June 2012; published 15 August 2012. [1] In the process of calibrating that the developed method generally is effective in calibrating GBHM parameters and in estimating their associated

  5. UTILITIES PROBLEMS AND FAILURES Electrical or plumbing failure/Flooding/Water leak/Natural gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    UTILITIES PROBLEMS AND FAILURES Electrical or plumbing failure/Flooding/Water leak/Natural gas for electrical shock. NOTIFY University Police. What should I do if I smell natural or propane gas? LEAVE/Repair line, 7-6333, or CALL the Campus University Police or Security at (561) 297-3500 or 911

  6. UTILITIES PROBLEMS AND FAILURES ELECTRICAL OR PLUMBING FAILURE/FLOODING/WATER LEAK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    UTILITIES PROBLEMS AND FAILURES ELECTRICAL OR PLUMBING FAILURE/FLOODING/WATER LEAK NATURAL GAS - F 8a - 5p HBOI@FAU Security (772) 216-1124 Afterhours, Weekends or Holidays What should I do Police 911. · NOTIFY Building Safety personnel when possible. What should I do if I smell natural

  7. UTILITIES PROBLEMS AND FAILURES Electrical or plumbing failure/Flooding/Water leak/Natural gas or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    UTILITIES PROBLEMS AND FAILURES Electrical or plumbing failure/Flooding/Water leak/Natural gas Physical Plant (772) 242-2246 M - F 8a - 5p (954) 762-5040 HBOI@FAU Security (772) 216-1124 Afterhours University Police. NOTIFY Building Safety personnel when possible. What should I do if I smell natural

  8. Peak discharge of a Pleistocene lava-dam outburst flood in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Received 6 May 2005 Availble online 7 February 2006 Abstract The failure of a lava dam 165,000 yr ago dam-failure and unsteady flow modeling to estimate a peak discharge and flow hydrograph. FailurePeak discharge of a Pleistocene lava-dam outburst flood in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA Cassandra R

  9. Impact of relief accuracy on flood simulations and road network vulnerability analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    network by forcing users to take detours. In a risk preventive viewpoint, the network administrator has 1 Impact of relief accuracy on flood simulations and road network vulnerability analysis Jean in the water level and its consequences on the road network vulnerability. The first part focuses

  10. 7200 years of Rho^ne river flooding activity in Lake Le Bourget, France: a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    -level fluctuations. While the intensity of the MS signal might be widely affected by the human impact on soil conditions in the NW Alps. Key words: River discharge, floods, palaeohydrology, climate, human impact). In order to understand these natural oscillations and then to compare them to modern human-induced `global

  11. CO2 gas production understanding above a partly flooded coal post-mining area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - The Westphalian deposit is constituted by numerous exploited coal seams of different thicknesses. These seamsCO2 gas production understanding above a partly flooded coal post-mining area Candice Lagnya, a former coal mining area. To understand the origin of this production, a borehole of 90 meters deep

  12. High-speed Router Filter for Blocking TCP Flooding under DDoS Attack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao, Jonathan

    High-speed Router Filter for Blocking TCP Flooding under DDoS Attack Yoohwan Kim',Ju-Yeon Jo', H during the Distributed Denial-oJService (DDoS) attack. By allocating bandwidths separately for TCP.9% of the attack trafic while legitimate traflc showed nearly identical performance as in the non-attacked

  13. High-Speed Router Filter for Blocking TCP Flooding under DDoS Attack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merat, Francis L.

    1 High-Speed Router Filter for Blocking TCP Flooding under DDoS Attack Yoohwan Kim1 , Ju-Yeon Jo1 Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY 11201 ABSTRACT Protection from Distributed Denial-of-Service attacks has been of a great interest recently and substantial progress has been made for preventing some attack

  14. ach year across the US, mesoscale weather events--flash floods, tornadoes, hail,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plale, Beth

    E ach year across the US, mesoscale weather events--flash floods, tornadoes, hail, strong winds of mesoscale weather research; its disparate, high-volume data sets and streams; or the tremendous urgent need for a comprehensive national cyberinfrastructure in mesoscale meteorology--particularly one

  15. What You Should Do If Your Water Well Has Been Flooded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for at least 1 hour before the disinfection process. Household plumbing, including the water heater, alsoWhat You Should Do If Your Water Well Has Been Flooded Mark L. McFarland, Associate Professor and Extension Water Resources Specialist Diane E. Boellstorff, Program Specialist Water Quality Tony L. Provin

  16. Developing a GIS tool to assess potential damage of future floods J. Eleutrio1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    analysis, vulnerability assessment, natural hazard, decision support tool. 1 Introduction Flood risk brings and A. Rozan1 1 UMR Cemagref/ENGEES GESTE, Territorial Management of Water and Environment, France 2 UTR Urban Hydraulics - UMR CNRS/UdS/ ENGEES Mechanical Institute of Fluids and Solids, France Abstract

  17. Nutrient dynamics in marsh sediments contaminated by an oil spill following a flood 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Benjamin Cord

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research involves a study of the natural recovery of a brackish marsh impacted by an oil spill and fire in which the area was naturally enhanced with elevated nutrient levels. Flood waters during October, 1994, ruptured a group of pipelines...

  18. HYDROPOWER RESERVOIR FOR FLOOD CONTROL: A CASE STUDY ON RINGLET RESERVOIR, CAMERON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julien, Pierre Y.

    HYDROPOWER RESERVOIR FOR FLOOD CONTROL: A CASE STUDY ON RINGLET RESERVOIR, CAMERON HIGHLANDS, Malaysia 4 Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Colorado State University, USA ABSTRACT: Hydropower as possible for daily hydropower generation as well as to prevent any spillage at dam. However

  19. A Probabilistic Model of Flooding Loads on Transverse Watertight Bulkheads in the Event of Hull Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Baidurya

    -board explosions, weapons effects, and ex- treme wave environments. Although the structural loading or reliability WTB loads. Poisson arrival is assumed for damage events, and the maximum life-time load effect (Chan et al 2002), the effect of water in a flooded compartment on motions (Yildiz 1983, Chan et al 2002

  20. Flood Management This impromptu activity was contrived by playing with a storm drain that entered

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benitez-Nelson, Claudia

    waterways. Concept: Students practice with hydrology and flood control terms as well as measuring drainage sloped downward to other water sources, we decided that this might be a good as guess as any for practice that "real" people do on a regular basis in which the students will complete the task in 1-2 hours (except

  1. Changes in Crested Wheatgrass Root Exudation Caused by Flood, Drought, and Nutrient Stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doucette, William J.

    rather than stimulation of exudate production per gram of plant. Plant water status can alter exudation carbon (TOC) and organic acid content to compare treatment effects. Plants in the low K1 treatment exuded cumulative TOC exuded per gram dry plant by 71% (p 5 0.05). The flooded treatment increased TOC exuded per

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF REAL TIME FLOOD PREDICTION CAPABILITIES IN PUERTO RICO TO EVALUATE UNCERTAINTIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    DEVELOPMENT OF REAL TIME FLOOD PREDICTION CAPABILITIES IN PUERTO RICO TO EVALUATE UNCERTAINTIES of Electrical and Computer Engineering 1,2,3 University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez Abstract Due to the complex terrain and the tropical influence, Puerto Rico is characterized by small watersheds, high rainfall

  3. Impact of Jitter-based Techniques on Flooding over Wireless Ad hoc Networks: Model and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Impact of Jitter-based Techniques on Flooding over Wireless Ad hoc Networks: Model and Analysis Philippe.Jacquet@inria.fr Emmanuel Baccelli INRIA, France Emmanuel.Baccelli@inria.fr Abstract--Jitter. This paper investigates on the impact of the standardized jitter mechanism on network-wide packet

  4. Climate Change and Water Resources Management: Adaptations for Flood Control and Water Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lund, Jay R.

    of climate warming can be very significant. Integrated water resources management is a promising wayClimate Change and Water Resources Management: Adaptations for Flood Control and Water Supply climate warming impacts on surface runoff, groundwater inflows and reservoir evaporation for distributed

  5. Ecosystem effects of environmental flows: modelling and experimental floods in a dryland river

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    physical system using: (1) a reservoir operations model to simulate reservoir releases and reservoir water experimental floods on the differential mortality of native and exotic riparian trees, on beaver dam integrity of model applications and experimental flow releases are contributing to adaptive flow management

  6. The Impact of Climate Change on Hurricane Flooding Inundation, Property Damages, and Population Affected

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Ashley E.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Bret Low Estimate 2030 ... 58 19 Flood Building Loss Estimation ................................................................. 61 xiii FIGURE...) studied historical shoreline changes in the Gulf of Mexico. In addition to sea level, hurricanes and other strong storms can also greatly affect the morphology of barrier islands. This has been a popular topic of research in the past few years...

  7. A flow resistance model for assessing the impact of vegetation on flood routing mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katul, Gabriel

    control in urban storm water runoff [Kirby et al., 2005], and linking tidal hydrodynamic forcing to flow and field studies. The proposed model asymptotically recovers the flow resistance formulation when the waterA flow resistance model for assessing the impact of vegetation on flood routing mechanics Gabriel G

  8. FLUID DYNAMICAL AND MODELING ISSUES OF CHEMICAL FLOODING FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daripa, Prabir

    FLUID DYNAMICAL AND MODELING ISSUES OF CHEMICAL FLOODING FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY Prabir Daripa developed flows in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). In a recent exhaustive study [Transport in Porous Media, 93 fluid flows that occur in porous media during tertiary dis- placement process of chemical enhanced oil

  9. Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marzeion, Ben

    Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise Jochen Hinkela,1st century sea-level rise are assessed on a global scale taking into account a wide range- ment and sea-level rise. Uncertainty in global mean and regional sea level was derived from four

  10. Infilling and flooding of the Mekong River incised valley during deglacial sea-level rise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetzel, Andreas

    Infilling and flooding of the Mekong River incised valley during deglacial sea-level rise Rik is related with the low shelf gradient and a strong acceleration of the East Asian sea-level rise from 34 depositional systems change into estuaries and eventually drown when sea-level rise overtakes the sediment

  11. Preferential transport of nitrate to a tile drain in an intermittent-flood-irrigated field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Binayak P.

    Preferential transport of nitrate to a tile drain in an intermittent-flood-irrigated field: Model measured NO3 flux concentrations in a subsurface tile drain, several monitoring wells and nested reasonably well. However, NO3 flux concentrations in the subsurface tile drain and piezometers at the field

  12. COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES RESEARCH INSTITUTE (CSMRI) SITE FLOOD PLAIN AREA CLEANUP FACT SHEET & PROJECT SUMMARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . In 1992 a water main break at the Site flooded a tailings pond that overflowed into Clear Creek. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency excavated and stockpiled soil from the tailings pond and surrounding area at the west end of the former tailings pond area previously cleaned up by EPA was found to contain

  13. Multicriteria design of rain gauge networks for flash flood prediction in semiarid catchments with complex terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Troch, Peter

    events. Using weather radar observations and a dense network of 40 tipping bucket rain gauges, this studyMulticriteria design of rain gauge networks for flash flood prediction in semiarid catchments. [1] Despite the availability of weather radar data at high spatial (1 km2 ) and temporal (5­15 min

  14. Development of a HEC-HMS model to inform river gauge placement for a flood early warning system in Uganda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaatz, Joel Alan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Communities in the downstream region of the Manafwa River Basin in eastern Uganda experience floods caused by heavy precipitation upstream. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has partnered with the Red Cross ...

  15. Risk prevention and policy formulation : responding to the 1999 mud-floods catastrophe in El Litoral Central, Venezuela

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parisca-Blanco, Sonia

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fifteen days of constant and intense rainfall in Venezuela culminated on December 16 1999, in catastrophic landslides and flooding along 25 miles of the Vargas State coastal strip. This catastrophe ravaged the Caracas ...

  16. Simulation Study to Investigate the Effect of Natural Fractures on the Performance of Surfactant-Polymer Flood in Carbonate Reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sayedakram, Nawaf Ibrahim A

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    (Salehi 5 - 1? BN (>5) is -current of , 1999). -surfactant , 2009). 6 2. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The main objective of this research is to study the effect of natural fractures on surfactant polymer flood (SPF... SIMULATION STUDY TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECT OF NATURAL FRACTURES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SURFACTANT-POLYMER FLOOD IN CARBONATE RESERVOIRS A Thesis by NAWAF IBRAHIM A. SAYEDAKRAM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF MORE-EFFICIENT GAS FLOODING APPLICABLE TO SHALLOW RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William R. Rossen; Russell T. Johns; Gary A. Pope

    2003-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to widen the applicability of gas flooding to shallow oil reservoirs by reducing the pressure required for miscibility using gas enrichment and increasing sweep efficiency with foam. Task 1 examines the potential for improved oil recovery with enriched gases. Subtask 1.1 examines the effect of dispersion processes on oil recovery and the extent of enrichment needed in the presence of dispersion. Subtask 1.2 develops a fast, efficient method to predict the extent of enrichment needed for crude oils at a given pressure. Task 2 develops improved foam processes to increase sweep efficiency in gas flooding. Subtask 2.1 comprises mechanistic experimental studies of foams with N2 gas. Subtask 2.2 conducts experiments with CO{sub 2} foam. Subtask 2.3 develops and applies a simulator for foam processes in field application.

  18. Dambreak flood analyses and emergency action plan: West branch and main stem of the Penobscot River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wingert, R. [Northrop, Devine, & Tarbell, Inc., Portland, ME (United States); Paul, W. [Great Northern Paper Co., Millinocket, ME (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1994, Great Northern Paper (GNP) updated the Emergency Action Plan (EAP) for their hydro system on the Penobscot River in northern Maine. The EAP update incorporated results of dam failure analyses conducted to determine the extent of flooding resulting from the postulated failure of GNP dams under Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) conditions with the implementation of current operation and emergency response procedures. GNP hydro operators, in consultation with public safety agencies, reorganized and modified the EAP to make it easier to use by the actual planholders, thus improving its overall effectiveness. A key for the effectiveness of the EAP update was the development of new notification maps using the ARC/INFO Geographic Information System (GIS).

  19. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Annual report, 1992--1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasan, D.T.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, the authors present the results of experimental and theoretical studies in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. The overall objective of this work is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultralow interfacial tension. In addition, the authors have (1) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, (2) investigated the mechanisms for spontaneous emulsification, (3) developed a technique to monitor low water content in oil, and (4) developed a technique to study water-in-oil emulsion film properties.

  20. Analysis of core-concrete interaction event with flooding for the Advanced Neutron Source reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Georgevich, V.; Navarro-Valenti, S.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses salient aspects of the methodology, assumptions, and modeling of various features related to estimation of source terms from an accident involving a molten core-concrete interaction event (with and without flooding) in the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Various containment configurations are considered for this postulated severe accident. Several design features (such as rupture disks) are examined to study containment response during this severe accident. Also, thermal-hydraulic response of the containment and radionuclide transport and retention in the containment are studied. The results are described as transient variations of source terms, which are then used for studying off-site radiological consequences and health effects for the support of the Conceptual Safety Analysis Report for ANS. The results are also to be used to examine the effectiveness of subpile room flooding during this type of severe accident.

  1. Conditional Reliability, Sub-Monthly Time Step, Flood Control, and Salinity Features of WRAP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salazar, A.A.; Olmos, H.E.; Hoffpauir, R.J.; Wurbs, R.A.

    .................................................................... 9 2.1 Conditional Reliability CR Record ................................................................................. 14 2.2 Beginning of SIM Output CRM File for the CRM Example .......................................... 25 2.3 TABLES Input... record field 9 to provide beginning reservoir storage for program SALT and TABLES 5CR2 record routines root1.SUB SIMD sub-monthly time step simulation results root1.FFA SIMD flood frequency analysis file with annual series of peak flow and storage...

  2. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Rajesh Kunjithaya; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Niall Avison; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2002-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported for the period from January 1, 2002 to March 31, 2002. Technical design and budget for a larger (60-acre, 24.3 ha) CO2 demonstration project are being reviewed by the US DOE for approval. While this review process is being conducted, work is proceeding on well testing to obtain reservoir properties and on the VIP reservoir simulation model to improve model prediction and better understand the controls that certain parameters exert on predicted performance. In addition, evaluation of the economics of commercial application in the surrounding area was performed. In a meeting on January 14, 2002 the possibility of staging the demonstration, starting with a 10-acre sub-pattern flood was raised and the decision made to investigate this plan in detail. The influence of carbon dioxide on oil properties and the influence of binary interaction parameters (BIP) used in the VIP simulator were investigated. VIP calculated swelling factors are in good agreement with published values up to 65% mole-fraction CO2. Swelling factor and saturated liquid density are relatively independent of the BIP over the range of BIPs used (0.08-0.15) up to 65% mole-fraction CO2. Assuming a CO2 EOR recovery rate projected as being most likely by current modeling, commercial scale CO2 flooding at $20/BO is possible in the leases in Hall-Gurney field. Relatively small floods (240-320 acres, 4-6 patterns) are economically viable at $20/BO in areas of very high primary and secondary productivity (>14 MBO/net acre recovery). Leases with moderately high primary and secondary productivity (> 10 MBO/net acre recovery) can be economic when combined with high productivity leases to form larger floods (>640 acres, 9 or more patterns).

  3. Impact of Aluminum on Anticipated Corrosion in a Flooded SNF Multi Canister Overpack (MCO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion reactions in a flooded MCO are examined to determine the impact of aluminum corrosion products (from aluminum basket grids and spacers) on bound water estimates and subsequent fuel/environment reactions during storage. The mass and impact of corrosion products were determined to be insignificant, validating the choice of aluminum as an MCO component and confirming expectations that no changes to the Technical Databook or particulate mass or water content are necessary.

  4. The investigation of the effects of wettability on residual oil after water flooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burja, Edward Oscar

    1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flooding, " Producers Monthly, (1951), 15-16, 15. 6. Schilthuis, Ralph J. : "Connate Water in Oil and Gas Sands, " Trans. AIME. , (1938), 127, 199-214. 7. Bartell, F. E. : "Function of Water in the Production of Oil from Reservoirs?" Report, API...: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING 1953 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1. Summary . 2. Introduction 3. Review of Literature . 4. Description of Materials 16 Cores 16 Oil, Gas and Brine 18 Surface Active Chemicals 19 Crystals 22 5. Description of Procedure...

  5. The development of a flood routing model for the flow analyses of mine tailings materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rokohl, Don Richard

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF A FLOOD ROUTING MODEL FOR THE FLOW ANALYSES OF MINE TAILINGS MATERIALS A Thesis DON RICHARD ROKOHL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1984 Major Subject: Civil Engineering THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PLOOD ROUTING MODEL POR THE FLOW ANALTSES OF MINE TAILINGS MATERIALS A Thesis by DON RICHARD ROKOHL Approved as to style and content by: Harry M. Coyle (Co...

  6. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Rajesh Kunjithaya; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Niall Avison; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported for the period from July 1, 2002 to September 30, 2002. On September 27, 2002 the US DOE approved the proposed modified plan to flood a 10+-acre pattern. MV Energy has received informal notification that GE Capital will approve sale of the portion of the Colliver lease involved in the pilot. Murfin Drilling Company is seeking local small independent partners for the pilot and has received commitment from White Eagle Energy and John O. Farmer Oil Company to date. A Contract was signed between the Kansas Department of Commerce & Housing and Murfin formalizing the KSDOC&H contribution of $88,000 to the pilot project. This money will be used for well rework and testing. The results of this small flood will be used to evaluate the viability of performing a larger-scale demonstration and will be used by the partners to decide their role in a larger-scale demonstration. The 10+-acre pattern requires the least up-front expense to all parties to obtain the data required to accurately assess the viability and economics of CO2 flooding in the L-KC and of a larger-scale demonstration. Proposed modifications to the project plan were reviewed in the previous quarterly technical progress report.

  7. Evaluating the purity of a {sup 57}Co flood source by PET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiFilippo, Frank P., E-mail: difilif@ccf.org [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Flood sources of {sup 57}Co are commonly used for quality control of gamma cameras. Flood uniformity may be affected by the contaminants {sup 56}Co and {sup 58}Co, which emit higher energy photons. Although vendors specify a maximum combined {sup 56}Co and {sup 58}Co activity, a convenient test for flood source purity that is feasible in a clinical environment would be desirable. Methods: Both {sup 56}Co and {sup 58}Co emit positrons with branching 19.6% and 14.9%, respectively. As is known from {sup 90}Y imaging, a positron emission tomography (PET) scanner is capable of quantitatively imaging very weak positron emission in a high single-photon background. To evaluate this approach, two {sup 57}Co flood sources were scanned with a clinical PET/CT multiple times over a period of months. The {sup 56}Co and {sup 58}Co activity was clearly visible in the reconstructed PET images. Total impurity activity was quantified from the PET images after background subtraction of prompt gamma coincidences. Results: Time-of-flight PET reconstruction was highly beneficial for accurate image quantification. Repeated measurements of the positron-emitting impurities showed excellent agreement with an exponential decay model. For both flood sources studied, the fit parameters indicated a zero intercept and a decay half-life consistent with a mixture of {sup 56}Co and {sup 58}Co. The total impurity activity at the reference date was estimated to be 0.06% and 0.07% for the two sources, which was consistent with the vendor’s specification of <0.12%. Conclusions: The robustness of the repeated measurements and a thorough analysis of the detector corrections and physics suggest that the accuracy is acceptable and that the technique is feasible. Further work is needed to validate the accuracy of this technique with a calibrated high resolution gamma spectrometer as a gold standard, which was not available for this study, and for other PET detector models.

  8. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Rajesh Kunjithaya; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Niall Avison; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2002-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported for the period from July 1, 2002 to September 30, 2002. Assessment of the demonstration site has defined many aspects of the reservoir. Technical design and budget for a larger (60-acre, 24.3 ha) CO2 demonstration project are being reviewed by the US DOE for approval. Further analysis of the pilot site by the partners has indicated that a staged demonstration is considered optimal. A phased approach to implementation of the demonstration is proposed to reduce the risk of uncertainties as to whether the reservoir has basic properties (connectivity and ability to pressure-up) conducive to a meaningful CO2 flood demonstration. The proposed plan is to flood a 10+-acre pattern. The results of this small flood will be used to evaluate the viability of performing a larger-scale ({approx}60-acre) demonstration and will be used by the partners to decide their role in a larger-scale demonstration. The 10+-acre pattern requires the least up-front expense to all parties to obtain the data required to accurately assess the viability and economics of CO2 flooding in the L-KC and of a larger-scale demonstration. In general, the following significant modifications to the original Statement of Work are proposed: (1) The proposed plan would extend the period of Budget Period 1 to May 7, 2003. (2) Redefine the period of Budget Period 2 from 3/7/01-3/7/05 to 5/7/03-3/7/08. (3) Redefine the period of Budget Period 3 from 3/7/05-3/7/06 to 3/7/08-3/7/09. (4) To allow initial verification of the viability of the process before proceeding into the flood demonstration, move activities involved with preparing wells in the flood pattern (Task 5.1), repressurizing the pattern (Task 5.2), and constructing surface facilities (Task 5.3) from Budget Period 2 to Budget Period 1. (5) Allow US Energy Partners (USEP) to be a supplier of carbon dioxide from the ethanol plant in Russell, Kansas. (6) Change the pilot flood pattern, including the number and location of wells involved in the pilot. (7) Expenses are shifted from Budget Period 2 to Budget Period 1 to cover costs of additional reservoir characterization. All modified activities and tasks would maintain the existing required industry match of 55% in Budget Period 1, 65% in Budget Period 2, and 90% in Budget Period 3. Carbon dioxide supplied by the USEP ethanol facility would be valued such that the total cost of CO2 delivered to the demonstration site injection wellhead would not exceed the $3.00/MCF cost of supplying CO2 from Guymon, OK. Total cost of the modified project is $4,415,300 compared with $5,388,064 in the original project. The modified project would require no additional funding from US DOE.

  9. Oklahoma City Flash Flood Event, 31 May -1 June 2013 Annual Exceedance Probabilities (AEPs) for Worst Case 4-hour and 6-hour Rainfall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma City Flash Flood Event, 31 May - 1 June 2013 Annual Exceedance Probabilities (AEPs HOLDENVILLEHOLDENVILLE MIDWEST CITYMIDWEST CITY OKLAHOMA CITYOKLAHOMA CITY Hydrometeorological Design Studies Center

  10. Oil Recovery Increases by Low-Salinity Flooding: Minnelusa and Green River Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waterflooding is by far the most widely used method in the world to increase oil recovery. Historically, little consideration has been given in reservoir engineering practice to the effect of injection brine composition on waterflood displacement efficiency or to the possibility of increased oil recovery through manipulation of the composition of the injected water. However, recent work has shown that oil recovery can be significantly increased by modifying the injection brine chemistry or by injecting diluted or low salinity brine. This paper reports on laboratory work done to increase the understanding of improved oil recovery by waterflooding with low salinity injection water. Porous media used in the studies included outcrop Berea sandstone (Ohio, U.S.A.) and reservoir cores from the Green River formation of the Uinta basin (Utah, U.S.A.). Crude oils used in the experimental protocols were taken from the Minnelusa formation of the Powder River basin (Wyoming, U.S.A.) and from the Green River formation, Monument Butte field in the Uinta basin. Laboratory corefloods using Berea sandstone, Minnelusa crude oil, and simulated Minnelusa formation water found a significant relationship between the temperature at which the oil- and water-saturated cores were aged and the oil recovery resulting from low salinity waterflooding. Lower aging temperatures resulted in very little to no additional oil recovery, while cores aged at higher temperatures resulted in significantly higher recoveries from dilute-water floods. Waterflood studies using reservoir cores and fluids from the Green River formation of the Monument Butte field also showed significantly higher oil recoveries from low salinity waterfloods with cores flooded with fresher water recovering 12.4% more oil on average than those flooded with undiluted formation brine.

  11. A correlation between wettability and the recovery of oil by water flooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Robert Thomas

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in color and dispersible in hard watez. Petronate L (32) is a low molecular weight& highly refined petroleum sulfonate It is insoluble in waterz highly soluble in kerosene& and is a very viscous~ dark brown liquid. Ethofat 2/+2/60 (33) i. s a tall oil... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE ~ust 1~6 Major Subject Petroleum ineerin A COHRELAT ION BETWEEN WETTABILlTY AND THE RECOVERY CF OIL BY WATER FLOODING A Thesis ROBERT T KLLIK Approved as to style and content by...

  12. Grain sorghum response to different flooding periods at the early boot stage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zolezzi del Rio, Oscar

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following steps should be considered in this drainage research program: 1. Compile as much of the drainage data as is possible and publish it in one report, 2. Since there are so many parameters that effect drainage, try to work with models to eliminate... of inundations of different lengths at the sensitive early vegetative growth stage have been determined. The purpose of the research reported herein was to determine the effects of different lengths of flooding at the other sensitive stage, the early...

  13. Flooded First Street at Y-12 Plant | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.New MexicoFinancingProofWorking Outside theFlooded First Street at

  14. Optimized Control Of Steam Heating Coils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali, Mir Muddassir

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    cooling. II. Flooding of coils with condensate and its subsequent freezing when outside air temperature falls below 32?F. III. Increased maintenance cost due to water hammer, corrosion of coils in the presence of non-condensable gases and leaking steam... monotonically as the steam pressure increases, a higher steam pressure may lead to overheating of the air and result in simultaneous heating and cooling. In addition to energy waste due to simultaneous heating and cooling, an improper operating strategy can...

  15. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czirr, K.L.; Gaddis, M.P.; Moshell, M.K.

    2002-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The principle objective of this project is to demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of an innovative reservoir management and carbon dioxide (CO2) flood project development approach for improving CO2 flood project economics in shallow shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs.

  16. Discussion of "Development and Verification of an Analytical Solution for Fore-casting Nonlinear Kinematic Flood Waves" by Sergio E. Serrano

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Kinematic Flood Waves" by Sergio E. Serrano Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, July/August 2006, Vol. 11, No presents an interesting method to forecast nonlinear kinematic flood waves (Serrano, 2006). As a first to the Kinematic Wave Equation (KWE). The range of time lags for which this analytical solution is applicable being

  17. A technical and economic comparison of waterflood infill drilling and CO2 flooding for Monahans Clearfork Unit of West Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Guoping

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC COMPARISON OF WATERFIXK)D INFILL DRILLING AND CO2 FLOODING FOR MONAHANS CLEARFORK UNIT OF WEST TEXAS A Thesis by GUOPING XUE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1993 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering A TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC COMPARISON OF WATERFLOOD INFILL DRILLING AND CO2 FLOODING FOR MONAHANS CLEARFORK UNIT OF WEST TEXAS A Thesis by GUOPING XUE...

  18. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfn; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of December 2004, 11.39 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Carbon dioxide injection rates averaged about 242 MCFD. Vent losses were excessive during June as ambient temperatures increased. Installation of smaller plungers in the carbon dioxide injection pump reduced the recycle and vent loss substantially. Carbon dioxide was detected in one production well near the end of May and in the second production well in August. No channeling of carbon dioxide was observed. The GOR has remained within the range of 3000-4000 for most the last six months. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February, increasing to an average of about 2.35 B/D for the six month period between July 1 and December 31. Cumulative oil production was 814 bbls. Neither well has experienced increased oil production rates expected from the arrival of the oil bank generated by carbon dioxide injection.

  19. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: CO/sub 2/ miscible flood predictive model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, R.M.; Munoz, J.D.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The CO/sub 2/ Miscible Flood Predictive Model (CO2PM) was developed by Scientific Software-Intercomp for the US Department of Energy and was used in the National Petroleum Council's (NPC) 1984 survey of US enhanced oil recovery potential (NPC, 1984). The CO2PM is applicable to both secondary (mobile oil) and tertiary (residual oil) floods, and to either continuous CO/sub 2/ injection or water-alternating-gas (WAG) processes. In the CO2PM, an oil rate versus time function for a single pattern is computed, the results of which are passed to the economic calculations. To estimate multi-pattern project behavior a pattern development schedule is required. After-tax cash flow is computed by combining revenues with costs for drilling, conversion and well workovers, CO/sub 2/ compression and recycle, fixed and variable operating costs, water treating and disposal costs, depreciation, royalties, severance, state, federal and windfall profit taxes, cost and price inflation rates, and the discount rate. A lumped parameter uncertainty model is used to estimate risk, allowing for variation in computed project performance within an 80% confidence interval. The CO2PM is a three-dimensional (layered, five-spot), two-phase (aqueous and oleic), three component (oil, water, and CO/sub 2/) model. It computes oil and CO/sub 2/ breakthrough and recovery from fractional theory modified for the effects of viscous fingering, areal sweep, vertical heterogeneity and gravity segregation. 23 refs., 19 figs., 57 tabs.

  20. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Final report 1994--1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasan, D.T.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, the authors present the results of their experimental and theoretical studies in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. The overall objective of this work is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultralow interfacial tension. In addition, the authors have (1) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, (2) investigated the mechanisms for spontaneous emulsification, (3) developed a technique to monitor low water content in oil, and (4) developed a technique to study water-in-oil emulsion film properties, (5) investigated the effect of surfactant on the equilibrium and transient interfacial tension, (6) investigated the kinetics of oil removal from a silica surface, and (7) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, accounting for added surfactant. The results of the studies conducted during the course of this project are summarized.

  1. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasan, D.T.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, we present the results of our experimental and theoretical studies in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. The overall objective of this work is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12. 0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultralow interfacial tension. In addition, we have (1) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, (2) investigated the mechanisms for spontaneous emulsification, (3) developed a technique to monitor low water content in oil and (4) developed a technique to study water-in-oil emulsion film properties, (5) investigated the effect of surfactant on the equilibrium and transient interfacial tension, (6) investigated the kinetics of oil removal from a silica surface, and (7) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, accounting for added surfactant. The results of the studies conducted during the course of this project are discussed.

  2. CO2 flood tests on whole core samples of the Mt. Simon sandstone, Illinois Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, William K.; Rush, Gilbert E.

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geological sequestration of CO2, whether by enhanced oil recovery (EOR), coal-bed methane (CBM) recovery, or saline aquifer injection is a promising near-term sequestration methodology. While tremendous experience exists for EOR, and CBM recovery has been demonstrated in existing fields, saline aquifer injection studies have only recently been initiated. Studies evaluating the availability of saline aquifers suitable for CO2 injection show great potential, however, the long-term fate of the CO2 injected into these ancient aqueous systems is still uncertain. For the subject study, a series of laboratory-scale CO2 flood tests were conducted on whole core samples of the Mt. Simon sandstone from the Illinois Basin. By conducting these tests on whole core samples rather than crushed core, an evaluation of the impact of the CO2 flood on the rock mechanics properties as well as the geochemistry of the core and brine solution has been possible. This empirical data could provide a valuable resource for the validation of reservoir models under development for these engineered CO2 systems.

  3. Were the 2010 Pakistan floods predictable?2 P. J. Webster*, V.E. Toma and H-M Kim5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Peter J.

    1 1 Were the 2010 Pakistan floods predictable?2 3 4 P. J. Webster*, V.E. Toma and H-M Kim5 School During July 2010, a series of monsoonal deluges over northern Pakistan resulted in25 catastrophic31 July deluges, especially in North Pakistan was exceptionally rare as deduced from limited32 data

  4. Deep Placement Gel Bank as an Improved Oil Recovery Process: Modeling, Economic Analysis and Comparison to Polymer Flooding 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seyidov, Murad

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    that placement of a DDG in a high permeability zone provided a blockage that diverted water into lower permeability areas, thus increasing the sweep of target zones. Research results demonstrated that, although higher recovery can be achieved with a polymer flood...

  5. Evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flood performance, springer ''A'' sand, NE Purdy Unit, Garvin County, OK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, M.J.; Beaty, W.G.; Simlote, V.N.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes and presents results of an overall program of monitoring and evaluation of a carbon dioxide flood being conducted in the Northeast Purdy Springer ''A'' Sand Unit in Garvin County, Oklahoma. The response of one specific five-spot pattern is described through detailed reservoir simulation utilizing data from observation well logging, pressure transient analysis, carbon dioxide injection profiling, sampling of produced fluids, and monitoring of production rates. A reservoir description satisfying primary, secondary and tertiary performance is also described in detail. History matching of the carbon dioxide flood performance is being utilized to define the effects on reservoir performance of waterblocking, viscous fingering and residual oil saturation to carbon dioxide flooding. These parameters are not laboratory defined. Sensitivity work was conducted to design the best process. In-situ saturation changes obtained from an observation well logging program are presented and correlated with model calculated saturation changes and indicate that oil is being mobilized as predicted by the simulator. A comparison of carbon dioxide injection profiles to water injection profiles and the results of observation well logging indicates that the carbon dioxide is flooding certain reservoir layers that were not waterflooded. The model reservoir description was modified to include these layers. Results of compositional analyses of produced fluids are presented.

  6. Residual Fertilizer Nitrogen in a Flooded Rice Soil1 K. R. REDDY AND W. H. PATRICK, JR. 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    in the soil-water-plant system was measured. Approxi- Residual effects of 15 N-labelled fertilizer (ammoniumResidual Fertilizer Nitrogen in a Flooded Rice Soil1 K. R. REDDY AND W. H. PATRICK, JR. 2 ABSTRACT) to majntain jts identity in the soil during the top dressing. The uptake of residual labelled N (that present

  7. Proceedings of the 1998 USCOLD Annual Lecture, Buffalo, New York. August 1998 A FRAMEWORK FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTREME FLOODS FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowles, David S.

    on the probability of dam failure and the severity of the incremental consequences of dam failure. Past practice also FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTREME FLOODS FOR DAM SAFETY RISK ASSESSMENTS Robert E. Swain 1 , David Bowles 2 , and Dean extensive use of quantitative risk assessment in support of dam safety decision making (Von Thun and Smart

  8. Augmenting a Microbial Selective Plugging Technique with Polymer Flooding to Increase the Efficiency of Oil Recovery - A Search for Synergy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Lewis R.; Pittman Jr., Charles U.; Lynch, F. Leo; Vadie, A. Alex

    2003-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project was to improve the effectiveness of a microbial selective plugging technique of improving oil recovery through the use of polymer floods. More specifically, the intent was to increase the total amount of oil recovered and to reduce the cost per barrel of incremental oil.

  9. Field results of the polymer flooding pilot project in eastern Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCauley, R.T.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Moran field in Allen County, Kans., has been producing since the early 1900s. Flooding became the principal means of production in this pool in 1957. Inexco purchased the Moran field in 1968. In June of 1975, Inexco Oil Co. initiated a Polymer Pilot Project on the Kreiger Lease in the Moran field. In March of 1977, this project was expanded from it's original 20 acres to a 126-acre project. This case history addresses the financial and technical success of this project and is considered significant in terms of the future of enhanced recovery projects in this type of reservoir. Inexco has demonstrated the feasibility and successful recovery of additional oil from the Moran Pool by means of the addition of polymer to the existing waterflood. This work describes the operations and interpretation of the results.

  10. Control of microbiologically induced corrosion and accumulation of solids in a seawater flood system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewar, E.J.

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Control of sessile bacteria (mainly sulfate reducers) is important for controlling microbiologically-induced corrosion (MIC) and suspended solids in a large seawater flood system. Bactericide treatments and mechanical cleaning are the major bacteria control methods; when combined with oxygen removal, pH control, and flow maintenance, they permit relatively troublefree operation in terms of corrosion and water quality. Coupon corrosion rates decreased from monthly averages as high as 0.5 mm/y down to <0.05 mm/y when the sessile sulfate reducing bacteria counts decreased from about 4 x 10/sup 5/ cells/cm/sup 2/ down to 6 x 10/sup 2/. A suitable monitoring program is required for a timely detection of potential problems and for treatment evaluations. Sessile bacteria counts and bactericide demand are two of the techniques found useful.

  11. Evaluating resilience of DNP3-controlled SCADA systems against event buffer flooding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Guanhua [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nicol, David M [UNIV OF IL; Jin, Dong [UNIV OF IL

    2010-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The DNP3 protocol is widely used in SCADA systems (particularly electrical power) as a means of communicating observed sensor state information back to a control center. Typical architectures using DNP3 have a two level hierarchy, where a specialized data aggregator device receives observed state from devices within a local region, and the control center collects the aggregated state from the data aggregator. The DNP3 communication between control center and data aggregator is asynchronous with the DNP3 communication between data aggregator and relays; this leads to the possibility of completely filling a data aggregator's buffer of pending events, when a relay is compromised or spoofed and sends overly many (false) events to the data aggregator. This paper investigates how a real-world SCADA device responds to event buffer flooding. A Discrete-Time Markov Chain (DTMC) model is developed for understanding this. The DTMC model is validated by a Moebius simulation model and data collected on real SCADA testbed.

  12. Experimental investigation of caustic steam injection for heavy oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madhavan, Rajiv

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Overview Heavy oil is a part of the unconventional petroleum reserve. Heavy oil does not flow very easily and is classified as heavy because of its high specific gravity. With increasing demand for oil and with depleting... and success of the sodium carbonate and sodium silicate floods respectively. (5) Attainment of very low interfacial tension does not ensure improved oil recovery but a minimum value is necessary for a successful steam alkaline flood. Tiab, Okoye...

  13. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. [Quarterly] report, March 31--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasan, D.T.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a very cost- effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultra-low tension. In addition, the novel concept of pH gradient design to optimize flood water conditions will be tested. Last quarter we have investigated the mechanisms responsible for spontaneous emulsification in alkali/acidic crude oil systems with and without added surfactant. We have observed that the roll cell size and formation time depend strongly on the pH and ionic strength of the alkaline solution. For a particular roll cell size, the addition of surfactant causes the cells to take longer to form, causing an interfacial resistance to mass transfer and making the interface more rigid. We have shown that interfacial turbulence is a necessary but not sufficient condition for spontaneous emulsification. Low interfacial tension is also a necessary condition. This quarter a microwave interferometric procedure was developed for the determination of low water content (0. 5 to 10 vol%) of water-in-oil macroemulsions. The apparatus operates at a frequency of 23.48 GHz in the K-band microwave region. The procedure is based on the large differences in dielectric properties between water and oil, and it utilizes the variation in phase shift as sample path length is varied. Measurements are accurate to within 0.5 vol% water.

  14. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Richard Pancake; JyunSyung Tsau; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2010-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide was injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide was injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By March 7,2010, 8,736 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver A7, Colliver A3, Colliver A14 and Graham A4 located on adjacent leases. About 19,166 bbl of incremental oil were estimated to have been produced from these wells as of March 7, 2010. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Estimated oil recovery attributed to the CO2 flood is 27,902 bbl which is equivalent to a gross CO2 utilization of 4.8 MCF/bbl. The pilot project is not economic.

  15. Petrophysical and Geochemical Properties of Columbia River Flood Basalt: Implications for Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakharova, Natalia V.; Goldberg, David S.; Sullivan, E. C.; Herron, Michael M.; Grau, Jim A.

    2012-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract This study presents borehole geophysical data and sidewall core chemistry from the Wallula Pilot Sequestration Project in the Columbia River flood basalt. The wireline logging data were reprocessed, core-calibrated and interpreted in the framework of reservoir and seal characterization for carbon dioxide storage. Particular attention is paid to the capabilities and limitations of borehole spectroscopy for chemical characterization of basalt. Neutron capture spectroscopy logging is shown to provide accurate concentrations for up to 8 major and minor elements but has limited sensitivity to natural alteration in fresh-water basaltic reservoirs. The Wallula borehole intersected 26 flows from 7 members of the Grande Ronde formation. The logging data demonstrate a cyclic pattern of sequential basalt flows with alternating porous flow tops (potential reservoirs) and massive flow interiors (potential caprock). The log-derived apparent porosity is extremely high in the flow tops (20%-45%), and considerably overestimates effective porosity obtained from hydraulic testing. The flow interiors are characterized by low apparent porosity (0-8%) but appear pervasively fractured in borehole images. Electrical resistivity images show diverse volcanic textures and provide an excellent tool for fracture analysis, but neither fracture density nor log-derived porosity uniquely correlate with hydraulic properties of the Grande Ronde formation. While porous flow tops in these deep flood basalts may offer reservoirs with high mineralization rates, long leakage migration paths, and thick sections of caprock for CO2 storage, a more extensive multi- well characterization would be necessary to assess lateral variations and establish sequestration capacity in this reservoir.

  16. Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding: Spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somasundaran, P.

    1994-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this contract is to elucidate the mechanisms underlying adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effect of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations and other inorganic and polymeric species will also be determined. Solids of relevant mineralogy and a multi-pronged approach consisting of micro & nano spectroscopy, microcalorimetry, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability will be used to achieve the goals. The results of this study should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and also in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes.

  17. GEOPHYSICS, VOL. 60, NO. 4 (JULY-AUGUST 1995); P. 998-1006, 6 FIGS., 2 TABLES. The effect of steam quality on the electrical behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knight, Rosemary

    GEOPHYSICS, VOL. 60, NO. 4 (JULY-AUGUST 1995); P. 998-1006, 6 FIGS., 2 TABLES. The effect of steam quality on the electrical behavior of steam-flooded sands: A laboratory study David B. Butler* and Rosemary J. Knight* ABSTRACT Laboratory measurements of the effects of steam injection on the electrical

  18. Simulation and Economic Screening of Improved Oil Recovery Methods with Emphasis on Injection Profile Control Including Waterflooding, Polymer Flooding and a Thermally Activated Deep Diverting Gel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okeke, Tobenna

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    recovery of hydrocarbons and premature well or field abandonment. Water production can be more problematic during waterflooding in a highly heterogeneous reservoir with vertical communication between layers leading to unevenness in the flood front, cross...

  19. Scale-up of miscible flood processes for heterogeneous reservoirs. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orr, F.M. Jr.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current project is a systematic research effort aimed at quantifying relationships between process mechanisms that can lead to improved recovery from gas injection processes performed in heterogeneous Class 1 and Class 2 reservoirs. It will provide a rational basis for the design of displacement processes that take advantage of crossflow due to capillary, gravity and viscous forces to offset partially the adverse effects of heterogeneity. In effect, the high permeability zones are used to deliver fluid by crossflow to zones that would otherwise be flooded only very slowly. Thus, the research effort is divided into five areas: Development of miscibility in multicomponent systems; Design estimates for nearly miscible displacements; Design of miscible floods for fractured reservoirs; Compositional flow visualization experiments; Simulation of near-miscible flow in heterogeneous systems The status of the research effort in each area is reviewed briefly in the following section.

  20. Scale-up of miscible flood processes for heterogeneous reservoirs. Quarterly report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orr, F.M. Jr.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current project is a systematic research effort aimed at quantifying relationships between process mechanisms that can lead to improved recovery from gas injection processes performed in heterogeneous Class 1 and Class 2 reservoirs. It will provide a rational basis for the design of displacement processes that take advantage of crossflow due to capillary, gravity and viscous forces to offset partially the adverse effects of heterogeneity. In effect, the high permeability zones are used to deliver fluid by crossflow to zones that would otherwise be flooded only very slowly. Thus, the research effort is divided into five areas: Development of miscibility in multicomponent systems; Design estimates for nearly miscible displacements; Design of miscible floods for fractured reservoirs; Compositional flow visualization experiments; and Simulation of near-miscible flow in heterogeneous systems. The status of the research effort in each area is reviewed briefly in the following section.

  1. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Rajesh Kunjithaya; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Niall Avison; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2001-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported for the period from October 1, 2001 to December 31, 2001. Technical design and budget for a larger (60-acre) CO{sub 2} demonstration project are being reviewed by the US DOE for approval. While this review process is being conducted, work is proceeding on well testing to obtain reservoir properties and on the VIP reservoir simulation model to improve model prediction and better understand the controls that certain parameters exert on predicted performance. Testing of present Colliver lease injection water on Lansing-Kansas City (L-KC) oomoldic rock indicates that injection brine must be filtered to < {approx}3-5 um and <15 um to prevent plugging of rocks with permeability as low as 1 md (millidarcy; 0.001 um2) and 10 md (0.01 um2), respectively. Pressure build-up testing on the Carter-Colliver No.7 well is interpreted to indicate the L-KC reservoir surrounding this well is {approx}9 ft (2.7 m) thick having an average effective water permeability of 25-35 md (0.025-0.035 um2) that is connected to the wellbore by either a high permeability fracture, bed, or region with low skin. Reservoir simulation evaluation of gridcell size effect on model oil recovery prediction indicates that, based on the model prediction of distribution of produced oil and CO{sub 2} volumes, oil recovery is strongly influenced by gravity segregation of CO{sub 2} into the upper higher permeability layers and indicates the strong control that vertical permeability and permeability barriers between depositional flood cycles exert on the CO{sub 2} flooding process. Simulations were performed on modifications of the 60-acre, two-injector pattern to evaluate oil recovery using other large-scale patterns. Simulations indicated that several 73-acre patterns with a single injector located near the Colliver No.7 could provide improved economics without increasing the amount of CO{sub 2} injected. The US Energy Partners ethanol plant in Russell, KS began operations in October ahead of schedule.

  2. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite

    2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported for the period from July 1, 2003 to September 30, 2003. Conductivity testing between the CO{sub 2}I No.1 and CO{sub 2} No.13 was performed over the period 08/20/03 through 09/05/03. Observed response in CO{sub 2} 13 production rates to changes in CO{sub 2}I No.1 injection rates are consistent with sufficient permeability between CO{sub 2}I No.1 and CO{sub 2} No.13 for a viable CO{sub 2} flood with a sufficient Process Pore Volume Rate (PPV). Based on the permeabilities near the CO{sub 2} No.16, a 2-producing well pattern has been determined to be optimal but may be changed during the flood depending on the response observed in the CO{sub 2} No.16. Present inter-well test results indicate there is greater permeability architecture complexity than originally predicted and that a low-permeability region or barrier that restricts but does stop flow may exist between the CO{sub 2}I No.1 and the CO{sub 2} No.13. Pilot area repressurization began on 09/05/03, immediately after CO{sub 2}I No.1-CO{sub 2} No.13 conductivity testing was complete, by increasing injection in the CO{sub 2}I No.1, CO{sub 2} No.10, and CO{sub 2} No.18. Adequate reservoir pressure in the portion of the pilot area needed to be above minimum miscibility pressure should be reached in November at which time initial CO{sub 2} injection could begin. It is estimated the 2-producing well, 10+-acre (4.05 ha) producing pattern will produce 18,000-21,000 BO (barrels oil; 2,880-3,360 m{sup 3}). Depending primarily on surface facilities costs, operating expenses, and the price of oil, for the predicted range of oil recovery the pilot is estimated to either break-even or be profitable from this point forward. Final arrangements and agreements for CO{sub 2} supply and delivery are being worked on and will be finalized in the next month.

  3. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2007-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide has been injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By December 31, 2006, 79,072 bbls of water were injected into CO2 I-1 and 3,923 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Water injection rates into CO2 I-1, CO2 No.10 and CO2 No.18 were stabilized during this period. Oil production rates increased from 4.7 B/D to 5.5 to 6 B/D confirming the arrival of an oil bank at CO2 No.12. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver No.7, Colliver No.3 and possibly Graham A4 located on an adjacent property. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Our management plan is to continue water injection maintaining oil displacement by displacing the carbon dioxide remaining in the C zone,. If the decline rate of production from the Colliver Lease remains as estimated and the oil rate from the pilot region remains constant, we estimate that the oil production attributed to carbon dioxide injection will be about 12,000 bbl by December 31, 2007. Oil recovery would be equivalent to 12 MCF/bbl, which is consistent with field experience in established West Texas carbon dioxide floods. The project is not economic.

  4. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Rajesh Kunjithaya; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Niall Avison; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported for the period from April 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003. The pilot water injection plant became operational 4/18/03 and began long-term injection in the CO2I No.1 on 4/23/03. The CO2I No.1 exhibits sufficient injectivity for pilot requirements with average absolute permeability surrounding this well equal to {approx}85 millidarcies. Response to injection in the CO2I No.1 has established that conductivity between CO2I No.1 and CO2 No.12, No.10, No.18 and TB Carter No.5 is sufficient for the demonstration. Workovers of the CO2 No.16 and CO2 No.13 were completed in April and May, respectively. Pressure response indicates No.16 communicates with the flood pattern area but core, swab-test, and pressure response data indicate permeability surrounding No.16 is not adequate to maintain the production rates needed to support the original pattern as the well is presently completed. Decisions concerning possible further testing and stimulation have been postponed until after testing of the No.13 is complete. Production rates for the No.13 are consistent with a surrounding reservoir average absolute permeability of {approx}80 md. However, pressure and rate tests results, partially due to the nature of the testing conducted to date, have not confirmed the nature of the CO2I No.1-CO2 No.13 conductivity. A build-up test and conductivity test are planned to begin the first weeks of the next quarter to obtain reservoir properties data and establish the connectivity and conductivity between CO2 I-1 and CO2 No.13. A new geomodel of the pattern area has been developed based on core from No.16 and the new wireline logs from the No.10, No.12, No.16, and No.13. The new geomodel is currently being incorporated into the basic calculations of reservoir volume and flood design and predicted response as well as the reservoir simulators. Murfin signed a letter agreement with FLOCO2 of Odessa, TX for supply of CO2 storage and injection equipment. Technology transfer activities have included presentations to the Environmental Protection Agency, Prof. Accountants Soc. of KS, Am. Assoc. of Petroleum Geologists, and a US Congressional aide staff member. The Associated Press also released a story concerning the project that was picked up by many Kansas newspapers.

  5. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and two production wells on about 10 acre spacing. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide has been injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February 2004, increasing to an average of about 3.78 B/D for the six month period between January 1 and June 30, 2005 before declining. By the end of December 2005, 14,115 bbls of water were injected into CO2I-1 and 2,091 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Injection rates into CO2I-1 declined with time, dropping to an unacceptable level for the project. The injection pressure was increased to reach a stable water injection rate of 100 B/D. However, the injection rate continued to decline with time, suggesting that water was being injected into a region with limited leakoff and production. Oil production rates remained in the range of 3-3.5 B/D following conversion to water injection. There is no evidence that the oil bank generated by injection of carbon dioxide has reached either production well. Continued injection of water is planned to displace oil mobilized by carbon dioxide to the production wells and to maintain the pressure in the PPV region at a level that supports continued miscible displacement as the carbon dioxide is displaced by the injected water.

  6. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and two production wells on about 10 acre spacing. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide has been injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February 2004, increasing to an average of about 3.78 B/D for the six month period between January 1 and June 30, 2005 before declining. By June 30, 2006, 41,566 bbls of water were injected into CO2I-1 and 2,726 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Injection rates into CO2I-1 declined with time, dropping to an unacceptable level for the project. The injection pressure was increased to reach a stable water injection rate of 100 B/D. However, the injection rate continued to decline with time, suggesting that water was being injected into a region with limited leakoff and production. Oil production rates remained in the range of 3-3.5 B/D following conversion to water injection. Oil rates increased from about 3.3 B/D for the period from January through March to about 4.7 B/D for the period from April through June. If the oil rate is sustained, this may be the first indication of the arrival of the oil bank mobilized by carbon dioxide injection. A sustained fluid withdrawal rate of about 200 B/D from CO2 No.12 and CO2 No.13 appears to be necessary to obtain higher oil rates. There is no evidence that the oil bank generated by injection of carbon dioxide has reached either production well. Water injection will continue to displace oil mobilized by carbon dioxide to the production wells and to maintain the pressure in the PPV region at a level that supports continued miscible displacement as the carbon dioxide is displaced by the injected water.

  7. Scale-up of miscible flood processes. [Quarterly report], January 1--April 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orr, F.M. Jr.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient application of miscible floods to heterogeneous reservoirs requires the designer to take advantage of more than one of the physical mechanisms that act and interact to determine displacement performance. In this report, the investigators summarize the interactions of phase behavior, nonuniform flow, and crossflow and based on novel results obtained during the course of their experimental efforts. They suggest design opportunities for application of gas injection to near-miscible recovery processes, to enhanced gravity drainage, and even to fractured reservoirs. To design such processes intelligently, the quantitative scaling of the interplay of phase equilibria, reservoir heterogeneity, viscous fingering and particularly crossflow must be understood. In essence, they propose to make use of crossflow, i.e. transport in the direction transverse to the basic flow direction, to sweep portions of reservoirs that can be reached only very slowly by direct displacement. In this report, the core displacement and flow visualization experiments described suggest that the effects of low interfacial tensions (IFT`s) and gravity can be used to advantage in the design of multicontact miscible displacements for heterogeneous reservoirs, including fractured reservoirs.

  8. Fire flood method for recovering petroleum from oil reservoirs of low permeability and temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    1984-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method of enhanced oil recovery by fire flooding petroleum reservoirs characterized by a temperature of less than the critical temperature of carbon dioxide, a pore pressure greater than the saturated vapor pressure of carbon dioxide at said temperature (87.7.degree. F. at 1070 psia), and a permeability in the range of about 20 to 100 millidarcies. The in situ combustion of petroleum in the reservoir is provided by injecting into the reservoir a combustion supporting medium consisting essentially of oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof. The heat of combustion and the products of this combustion which consist essentially of gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor sufficiently decrease the viscosity of oil adjacent to fire front to form an oil bank which moves through the reservoir towards a recovery well ahead of the fire front. The gaseous carbon dioxide and the water vapor are driven into the reservoir ahead of the fire front by pressure at the injection well. As the gaseous carbon dioxide cools to less than about 88.degree. F. it is converted to liquid which is dissolved in the oil bank for further increasing the mobility thereof. By using essentially pure oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof as the combustion supporting medium in these reservoirs the permeability requirements of the reservoirs are significantly decreased since the liquid carbon dioxide requires substantially less voidage volume than that required for gaseous combustion products.

  9. ANALYSIS OF PWR SBO CAUSED BY EXTERNAL FLOODING USING THE RISMC TOOLKIT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandelli, Diego; Smith, Curtis; Prescott, Steven; Alfonsi, Andrea; Rabiti, Cristian; Cogliati, Joshua; Kinoshita, Robert

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The existing fleet of nuclear power plants is in the process of extending its lifetime and increasing the power generated from these plants via power uprates. In order to evaluate the impacts of these two factors on the safety of the plant, the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization project aims to provide insights to decision makers through a series of simulations of the plant dynamics for different initial conditions (e.g., probabilistic analysis and uncertainty quantification). This paper focuses on the impacts of power uprate on the safety margin of a boiling water reactor for a flooding induced station black-out event. Analysis is performed by using a combination of thermal-hydraulic codes and a stochastic analysis tool currently under development at the Idaho National Laboratory, i.e. RAVEN. We employed both classical statistical tools, i.e. Monte-Carlo, and more advanced machine learning based algorithms to perform uncertainty quantification in order to quantify changes in system performance and limitations as a consequence of power uprate. Results obtained give a detailed investigation of the issues associated with a plant power uprate including the effects of station black-out accident scenarios. We were able to quantify how the timing of specific events was impacted by a higher nominal reactor core power. Such safety insights can provide useful information to the decision makers to perform risk informed margins management.

  10. Potential Mississippi oil recovery and economic impact from CO sub 2 miscible flooding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moring, J.A.; Rogers, R.E. (Petroleum Engineering Dept., Mississippi State Univ., MS (US))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Maturing of Mississippi oil reservoirs has resulted in a steady decline in crude oil production in the state. This paper reports that, to evaluate the potential of enhanced recovery processes, particularly in the use of the state's large CO{sub 2} reserves, for arresting this trend, the subject study was performed. A computer data base of over 1315 Mississippi reservoirs was established. All reservoirs were screened for applicability of the carbon dioxide miscible process. With models developed by the National Petroleum Council and DOE, incremental oil that could be produced from the carbon dioxide miscible process was calculated. Under selected economic conditions, carbon dioxide miscible flooding with utilization of carbon dioxide from the state's Norphlet formation (3-7 tcf reserves of high-purity CO{sub 2}) could produce 120 million barrels of incremental oil in Mississippi. Incremental state revenues as a consequence of this production were calculated to be $45 million of severance taxes, $50 million of corporate income taxes, and $60 million of royalty payments, expressed as present values.

  11. EVALUATION OF THE FLOOD POTENTIAL OF THE SOUTH HOUSE (BLINEBRY) FIELD, LEA COUNTY, NEW MEXICO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. Stephen Melzer

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Blinebry (Permian) formation of eastern Lea County, NM has a long history of exploitation for petroleum and continues even today to be a strong target horizon for new drilling in the Permian Basin. Because of this long-standing interest it should be classified of strategic interest to domestic oil production; however, the formation has gained a reputation as a primary production target with limited to no flooding potential. In late May of 1999, a project to examine the feasibility of waterflooding the Blinebry formation was proposed to the U.S. Department of Energy's National Petroleum Technology Office (Tulsa, OK). A new well was proposed in one region (the South House area) to examine the reputation by acquiring core and borehole logging data for the collection of formation property data in order to conduct the waterflood evaluation. Notice of the DOE award was received on August 19, 1999 and the preparations for drilling, coring and logging were immediately made for a drilling start on 9/9/99. The Blinebry formation at 6000 feet, foot depth was reached on 9/16/99 and the coring of two 60 foot intervals of the Blinebry was completed on 9/19/99 with more than 98% core recovery. The well was drilled to a total depth of 7800 feet and the Blinebry interval was logged with spectral gamma ray, photoelectric cross section, porosity, resistivity, and borehole image logs on 8/24/99. The well was determined to be likely productive from the Blinebry interval and five & 1/2 inch casing was cemented in the hole on 9/25/99. Detailed core descriptions including environment of deposition have been accomplished. Whole core (a 4-inch diameter) and plug (1.5 inch diameter) testing for formation properties has been completed and are reported. Acquisition and analysis of the borehole logging results have been completed and are reported. Perforation of the Blinebry intervals was accomplished on November 8, 1999. The intervals were acidized and hydrofraced on 11/9 and 11/11 respectively. Production of oil and gas has been established with several months of production now available to make a reserve analysis. Production histories and reserves estimation are provided. An assessment of the flood potential for the South House project area has been completed with work concentrated on South House rock property and pay thickness characterization and analog studies. For the analogs, the North Robertson area, located twenty miles to the northeast, and the Teague Field, located 20 miles to the south, have been utilized due to their readily available database and previous waterflood studies. The South House area does appear to merit further examination as the rock quality compares favorably with both analog Fields; however, current well spacings of 40-acres will provide only marginal economics based upon $23.00/barrel oil prices. Permeability and porosity relationships are provided as a conditional demonstration that rock quality may be sufficient for successful waterflooding of the project area. Further rock property work and pay continuity studies are recommended.

  12. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan P. Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported for the period from October 1, 2002 to December 31, 2002. On September 27, 2002 the US DOE approved the proposed modified plan to flood a 10+-acre pattern. On November 1, 2002 Murfin Drilling Company purchased the 70-acre pilot area and will continue as the operator of the pilot. Murfin is seeking working interest partners and meetings with local small independents were conducted. To date, White Eagle Resources and John O. Farmer Oil Company have committed to working interest in the project. Arrangements have been made with Rein Operating to test the Rein No. 7 water supply well on the neighboring lease. Based on review of wellbore conditions in the Colliver No. 9 and No. 16 it has been decided to use the No. 16 in the pilot. A new tank battery was installed near the Colliver No. 10 well and the existing producers plumbed to the new tank battery to isolate production from the pilot area. Reservoir simulations have indicated that the low-permeability interval in the Carter-Colliver CO2I No. 1 injection well below 2,900 ft does not exhibit sufficient injectivity to warrant special stimulation or conformance treatment programs at the present time. Discussions have been initiated with FLOCO2 and preliminary conditions have been agreed upon for the exchange of CO2 for the use of storage and pump equipment at the pilot. A short-term injection test and the well reworks have been scheduled. Proposed modifications to the project plan were reviewed in the previous quarterly technical progress report. A presentation was given at the DOE Class II Review Meeting in Midland, TX on December 12, 2002.

  13. Scale-up of miscible flood processes for heterogeneous reservoirs. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orr, F.M. Jr.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of a wide-ranging investigation of the scaling of gas injection processes are reported. The research examines how the physical mechanisms at work during a gas injection project interact to determine process performance. In particular, the authors examine: the interactions of equilibrium phase behavior and two-phase flow that determine local displacement efficiency and minimum miscibility pressure, the combined effects of viscous fingering, gravity segregation and heterogeneity that control sweep efficiency in 2- and 3-dimensional porous media, the use of streamtube/streamline methods to create very efficient simulation technique for multiphase compositional displacements, the scaling of viscous, capillary and gravity forces for heterogeneous reservoirs, and the effects of the thin films and spreading behavior on three-phase flow. The following key results are documented: rigorous procedures for determination of minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) or minimum miscibility enrichment (MME) for miscibility have been developed for multicomponent systems; the complex dependence of MMP`s for nitrogen/methane floods on oil and injection gas composition observed experimentally is explained for the first time; the presence of layer-like heterogeneities strongly influences the interplay of gravity segregation and viscous fingering, as viscous fingers adapt to preferential flow paths and low permeability layers restrict vertical flow; streamtube/streamline simulation techniques are demonstrated for a variety of injection processes in 2 and 3 dimensions; quantitative scaling estimates for the transitions from capillary-dominated to gravity-dominated to viscous-dominated flows are reported; experimental results are given that demonstrate that high pressure CO{sub 2} can be used to generate low IFT gravity drainage in fractured reservoirs if fractures are suitably connected; and the effect of wetting and spreading behavior on three-phase flow is described. 209 refs.

  14. Origin of Scale-Dependent Dispersivity and Its Implications For Miscible Gas Flooding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Bryant; Russ Johns; Larry Lake; Thomas Harmon

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Dispersive mixing has an important impact on the effectiveness of miscible floods. Simulations routinely assume Fickian dispersion, yet it is well established that dispersivity depends on the scale of measurement. This is one of the main reasons that a satisfactory method for design of field-scale miscible displacement processes is still not available. The main objective of this project was to improve the understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of dispersion and mixing, particularly at the pore scale. To this end, microsensors were developed and used in the laboratory to measure directly the solute concentrations at the scale of individual pores; the origin of hydrodynamic dispersion was evaluated from first principles of laminar flow and diffusion at the grain scale in simple but geometrically completely defined porous media; techniques to use flow reversal to distinguish the contribution to dispersion of convective spreading from that of true mixing; and the field scale impact of permeability heterogeneity on hydrodynamic dispersion was evaluated numerically. This project solved a long-standing problem in solute transport in porous media by quantifying the physical basis for the scaling of dispersion coefficient with the 1.2 power of flow velocity. The researchers also demonstrated that flow reversal uniquely enables a crucial separation of irreversible and reversible contributions to mixing. The interpretation of laboratory and field experiments that include flow reversal provides important insight. Other advances include the miniaturization of long-lasting microprobes for in-situ, pore-scale measurement of tracers, and a scheme to account properly in a reservoir simulator (grid-block scale) for the contributions of convective spreading due to reservoir heterogeneity and of mixing.

  15. Water/sand flooded and immersed critical experiment and analysis performed in support of the TOPAZ-II Safety Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glushkov, E.S.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Bubelev, V.G.; Garin, V.P.; Gomin, E.A.; Kompanietz, G.V.; Krutoy, A.M.; Lobynstev, V.A.; Maiorov, L.V.; Polyakov, D.N. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presented is a brief description of the Narciss-M2 critical assemblies, which simulate accidental water/wet-sand immersion of the TOPAZ-II reactor as well as water-flooding of core cavities. Experimental results obtained from these critical assemblies, including experiments with several fuel elements removed from the core, are shown. These configurations with several extracted fuel elements simulate a proposed fuel-out anticriticality-device modification to the TOPAZ-II reactor. Preliminary computational analysis of these experiments using the Monte Carlo neutron-transport method is outlined. Nuclear criticality safety of the TOPAZ-II reactor with an incorporated anticriticality unit is demonstrated.

  16. Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding: Spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Quarterly technical progress report, September 30, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somasundaran, P.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this project is to elucidate the mechanisms of adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effect of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations and other inorganic and polymeric species will also be determined using solids of relevant mineralogy. A multi-pronged approach consisting of micro & nano spectroscopy, microcalorimetry, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability will be used to achieve the goals. The results of this study should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and also in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. Adsorption of selected individual surfactants on oxide minerals was determined. The aim was to characterize the microstructure of the adsorbed layers. Work was began with alkyl phenoxy polyoxyether type nonionic surfactants and anionic meta xylene sulfonates.

  17. Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding: Spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. [Alkyl phenoxy polyoxyether type nonionic surfactants and anionic meta xylene sulfonates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somasundaran, P.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this project is to elucidate the mechanisms of adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effect of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations and other inorganic and polymeric species will also be determined using solids of relevant mineralogy. A multi-pronged approach consisting of micro nano spectroscopy, microcalorimetry, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability will be used to achieve the goals. The results of this study should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and also in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. Adsorption of selected individual surfactants on oxide minerals was determined. The aim was to characterize the microstructure of the adsorbed layers. Work was began with alkyl phenoxy polyoxyether type nonionic surfactants and anionic meta xylene sulfonates.

  18. Modelling floods in theAmmer catchment:limitations and challenges with a coupled meteo-hydrological model approach Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(6), 833847 (2003) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modelling floods in theAmmer catchment:limitations and challenges with a coupled meteo-hydrological model approach 833 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(6), 833847 (2003) © EGU Modelling floods in the Ammer catchment: limitations and challenges with a coupled meteo-hydrological model approach R. Ludwig1

  19. Figure 1. The wet area is flooded by damming up a small stream adjacent to the study area once a year for a period of 2-3 months. By

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schierup, Mikkel Heide

    Figure 1. The wet area is flooded by damming up a small stream adjacent to the study area once. Figure 1.g The wet area is flooded by damming up a small streamded by damming up a smded by damwet area Vegetation data are obtained from two ri- parian grassland sites with strong hydro- logical gradients

  20. Flooding Experiments with Steam and Water in a Large Diameter Vertical Tube 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Susan Nicole

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    on the section of pipe connected to the pressurizer. Descriptions of the di user at the bottom of the pres- surizer tank, which determines the water ow con guration into the surge line, are di cult to obtain. As predicted by the SCDAP/RELAP5 code for a typical 4... impact on plant behavior. In a countercurrent, two-phase ow system, ooding is commonly de ned as the This thesis follows the style of International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. 2 onset of ow reversal which results in cocurrent ow [3]. In general...

  1. Artificial Geothermal Energy Potential of Steam-flooded Heavy Oil Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limpasurat, Akkharachai

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents an investigation of the concept of harvesting geothermal energy that remains in heavy oil reservoirs after abandonment when steamflooding is no longer economics. Substantial heat that has accumulated within reservoir rock and its...

  2. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating, combustion, and protection features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    For tertiary oil recovery, a downhole steam generator is designed which provides for efficient counterflow cooling of the combustion chamber walls and preheating of the fuel and water. Pressure-responsive doors are provided for closing and opening the outlet in response to flameout, thereby preventing flooding of the combustion chamber. (DLC)

  3. Operational hydro-meteorological warning and real-time flood forecasting:the Piemonte region case study Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 9(4), 457466 (2005) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Operational hydro-meteorological warning and real-time flood forecasting:the Piemonte region case study 457 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 9(4), 457466 (2005) © EGU Operational hydro forecasting system in the context of the Piemonte Regions hydro-meteorological operational alert procedure

  4. Post Waterflood CO2 Miscible Flood in Light Oil, Fluvial-Dominated Deltaic Reservoir (Pre-Work and Project Proposal - Appendix)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bou-Mikael, Sami

    2002-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of the Port Neches Project was to determine the feasibility and producibility of CO2 miscible flooding techniques enhanced with horizontal drilling applied to a Fluvial Dominated Deltaic reservoir. The second was to disseminate the knowledge gained through established Technology Transfer mechanisms to support DOE's programmatic objectives of increasing domestic oil production and reducing abandonment of oil fields.

  5. 814 IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN APPLIED EARTH OBSERVATIONS AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 4, NO. 4, DECEMBER 2011 Deriving Water Fraction and Flood Maps From

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Donglian

    -Spectral Scanner (MSS), Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR-flood studies may be classified into two types: 1) passive, in which the sensor receives energy naturally illumination and records the amount of incident energy returned from the imaged Manuscript received June 14

  6. North western Alps Holocene paleohydrology recorded by flooding activity in Lake Le Bourget, France and its relationship with Mont-Blanc glacier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , France and its relationship with Mont-Blanc glacier fluctuations M., Debret1, 2 , E., Chapron3, 2 , M large glaciers from the Mont Blanc Massif, and fluctuations in Rhone River flood supply in Lake Le Bourget is interpreted as resulting essentially from Mont Blanc Glacier activity during the Holocene

  7. A synergetic use of satellite imagery from SAR and optical sensors to improve coastal flood mapping in the Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Central Florida, University of

    A synergetic use of satellite imagery from SAR and optical sensors to improve coastal flood mapping for inundation mapping and have a great potential for evaluating wetting/drying algorithms of inland and coastal and near infrared domains. Images acquired in these wavelengths (i.e. visible and near infrared

  8. A Rock Physics Based Investigation of Pore Structure Variations Associated with a CO2 Flood in a Clastic Reservoir, Delhi, LA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, Daniel

    2013-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    ) flood at the Delhi Holt-Bryant reservoir can be measured with acoustic data. The pore property change is measured by using the Baechle ratio, the Gassmann model, and the Sun framework flexibility factor. The change in the pore properties of the formation...

  9. Combining remote sensing data and an inundation model to map tidal mudflat regions and improve flood predictions: A proof of concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ezer,Tal

    Combining remote sensing data and an inundation model to map tidal mudflat regions and improve mudflats. The remote sensing-based analysis provides for the first time a way to evaluate the flood., and H. Liu (2009), Combining remote sensing data and an inundation model to map tidal mudflat regions

  10. Post Waterflood CO2 Miscible Flood in Light Oil, Fluvial-Dominated Deltaic Reservoir (Pre-Work and Project Proposal), Class I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bou-Mikael, Sami

    2002-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This project outlines a proposal to improve the recovery of light oil from waterflooded fluvial dominated deltaic (FDD) reservoir through a miscible carbon dioxide (CO2) flood. The site is the Port Neches Field in Orange County, Texas. The field is well explored and well exploited. The project area is 270 acres within the Port Neches Field.

  11. Modelling the long-term evolution of groundwater's quality in a flooded iron-ore mine using a reactive transport pipe network model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modelling the long-term evolution of groundwater's quality in a flooded iron- ore mine using, groundwater quality, ePanet Introduction in lorraine (France), industrial mining began in the 19th century make classic groundwater modelling insuitable for predicting the impact of mining activities

  12. VNU Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Vol. 29, No. 1 (2013) 38-44 Development of an Online Supporting System Flood Warning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , and they are also the types causing most economic, social and environmental damages. According to recent fiveVNU Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Vol. 29, No. 1 (2013) 38-44 38 Development the affects of flood-related damage was provided to residents at risk in the low land areas of the Vu Gia

  13. Nevada Test Site probable maximum flood study, part of US Geological Survey flood potential and debris hazard study, Yucca Mountain Site for US Department of Energy, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullard, K.L.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), is conducting studies at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The purposes of these studies are to provide hydrologic and geologic information to evaluate the suitability of Yucca Mountain for development as a high-level nuclear waste repository, and to evaluate the ability of the mined geologic disposal system (MGDS) to isolate the waste in compliance with regulatory requirements. In particular, the project is designed to acquire information necessary for the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate in its environmental impact statement (EIS) and license application whether the MGDS will meet the requirements of federal regulations 10 CFR Part 60, 10 CFR Part 960, and 40 CFR Part 191. Complete study plans for this part of the project were prepared by the USGS and approved by the DOE in August and September of 1990. The US Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) was selected by the USGS as a contractor to provide probable maximum flood (PMF) magnitudes and associated inundation maps for preliminary engineering design of the surface facilities at Yucca Mountain. These PMF peak flow estimates are necessary for successful waste repository design and construction. The PMF technique was chosen for two reasons: (1) this technique complies with ANSI requirements that PMF technology be used in the design of nuclear related facilities (ANSI/ANS, 1981), and (2) the PMF analysis has become a commonly used technology to predict a ``worst possible case`` flood scenario. For this PMF study, probable maximum precipitation (PMP) values were obtained for a local storm (thunderstorm) PMP event. These values were determined from the National Weather Services`s Hydrometeorological Report No. 49 (HMR 49).

  14. Water/sand flooded and immersed critical experiment and analysis performed in support of the TOPAZ-II safety program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glushkov, E.S.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Bubelev, V.G.; Garin, V.P.; Gomin, E.A.; Kompanietz, G.V.; Krutov, A.M.; Lobynstev, V.A.; Maiorov, L.V.; Polyakov, D.N.; Chunyaev, E.I. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Marshall, A.C. [International Nuclear Safety, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Sapir, J.L.; Pelowitz, D.B. [Reactor Design and Analysis Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1995-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Presented is a brief description of the Narciss-M2 critical assemblies, which simulate accidental water/wet-sand immersion of the TOPAZ-II reactor as well as water-flooding of core cavities. Experimental results obtained from these critical assemblies, including experiments with several fuel elements removed from the core, are shown. These configurations with several extracted fuel elements simulate a proposed fuel-out anticriticality-device modification to the TOPAZ-II reactor. Preliminary computational analysis of these experiments using the Monte Carlo neutron-transport method is outlined. Nuclear criticality safety of the TOPAZ-II reactor with an incorporated anticriticality unit is demonstrated. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  15. Cheap Textile Dam Protection of Seaport Cities against Hurricane Storm Surge Waves, Tsunamis, and Other Weather-Related Floods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Author offers to complete research on a new method and cheap applicatory design for land and sea textile dams. The offered method for the protection of the USA's major seaport cities against hurricane storm surge waves, tsunamis, and other weather-related inundations is the cheapest (to build and maintain of all extant anti-flood barriers) and it, therefore, has excellent prospective applications for defending coastal cities from natural weather-caused disasters. It may also be a very cheap method for producing a big amount of cyclical renewable hydropower, land reclamation from the ocean, lakes, riverbanks, as well as land transportation connection of islands, and islands to mainland, instead of very costly over-water bridges and underwater tunnels.

  16. Scale-up of miscible flood processes for heterogeneous reservoirs. Quarterly report, 1 January--31 March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orr, F.M. Jr.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current project is a systematic research effort aimed at quantifying relationships between process mechanisms that can lead to improved recovery from gas injection processes performed in heterogeneous Class 1 and Class 2 reservoirs. It will provide a rational basis for the design of displacement processes that take advantage of crossflow due to capillary, gravity and viscous forces to offset partially the adverse effects of heterogeneity. In effect, the high permeability zones are used to deliver fluid by crossflow to zones that would otherwise be flooded only very slowly. Thus, the research effort is divided into five areas: Development of miscibility in multicomponent systems; design estimates for nearly miscible displacements; design of miscible floods for fractured reservoirs; compositional flow visualization experiments; simulation of near-miscible flow in heterogeneous systems. The status of the research effort in each area is reviewed briefly in the following section. From this work, we can make the following conclusions: (1) We demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that a linear combination of gravity and viscous forces can be used to correlate residual nonwetting phase saturations for both gravity-favorable and gravity-unfavorable displacements. (2) When gravity forces are comparable to or larger than the viscous forces) gravity unfavorable displacements have significantly higher residual nonwetting phase saturation than gravity-favorable displacements. (3) Because soils have much higher permeabilities than oil reservoirs, gravity effects on residual nonwetting phase saturations are much more significant in spilled-oil clean-up than in oil recovery processes. (4) The effective correlation length for a percolation process can be related to a linear combination of the gravity and viscous forces.

  17. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal floods during mid-loop operations. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohut, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The major objective of the Surry internal flood analysis was to provide an improved understanding of the core damage scenarios arising from internal flood-related events. The mean core damage frequency of the Surry plant due to internal flood events during mid-loop operations is 4.8E-06 per year, and the 5th and 95th percentiles are 2.2E-07 and 1.8E-05 per year, respectively. Some limited sensitivity calculations were performed on three plant improvement options. The most significant result involves modifications of intake-level structure on the canal, which reduced core damage frequency contribution from floods in mid-loop by about 75%.

  18. Investigating impacts of natural and human-induced environmental changes on hydrological processes and flood hazards using a GIS-based hydrological/hydraulic model and remote sensing data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lei

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    a GISbased hydrological and hydraulic modeling system, which incorporates state-of-the-art remote sensing data to simulate flood under various scenarios. The conceptual framework and technical issues of incorporating multi-scale remote sensing data...

  19. IMPROVED MISCIBLE NITROGEN FLOOD PERFORMANCE UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL LATERALS IN A CLASS I RESERVOIR - EAST BINGER (MARCHAND) UNIT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Sinner

    2002-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is two-fold. It will demonstrate use of nitrogen as a widely available, cost-effective and environmentally superior injectant for miscible floods. It will also demonstrate the effectiveness of horizontal wellbores in reducing gas breakthrough and cycling. It is expected that the demonstration will lead to implementation of nitrogen injection projects in areas without readily available carbon dioxide sources. Technology transfer will occur throughout the project.

  20. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wier, Don R. Chimanhusky, John S.; Czirr, Kirk L.; Hallenbeck, Larry; Gerard, Matthew G.; Dollens, Kim B.; Owen, Rex; Gaddis, Maurice; Moshell, M.K.

    2002-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO2) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO2 horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields.

  1. Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding: Spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somasundaran, P.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this project is to elucidate the mechanisms of adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effect of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations and other inorganic and polymeric species will be determined using solids of relevant mineralogy. A multi-pronged approach consisting of micro & nano spectroscopy, microcalorimetry, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability win be used to achieve the goals. The results of this study should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and also in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. Adsorption of selected individual surfactants on oxide minerals was studied. The aim was to determine the effect of structure on surfactant adsorption at the solid-liquid as well as at the liquid-air interface. Nonionic polyethoxylated alkyl phenols and anionic meta xylene sulfonates (MXS) were the surfactants studied. Electrokinetic behavior was also determined along with adsorption in order to determine the role of electrostatic forces in determining the adsorption. In addition, the effect of varying the number of ethylene oxide groups on the adsorption of polyethoxylated alkyl phenols on silica was determined since the ethoxyl groups offer unique opportunities to control adsorption as well as wettability. Effect of pH was studied both because it is a parameter with first order effect and also because pH effects can help in developing mechanisms.

  2. Chemical flood progress evaluation test, South Pass Block 27 field, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana. Final report, September 28, 1979-May 16, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, J. R.; Guillory, A. J.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A field test of a surfactant flooding process has been designed for a reservoir located in the South Pass Block 27 field, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana. The objectives of the test are to continue chemical flooding research by applying the process in a reservoir which is a candidate for this enhanced oil recovery technique if the process is proved economically viable. The plan is to acquire field data which will lead to a better understanding of how the process works under reservoir conditions at a well-to-well distance intermediate to laboratory floods and economic well spacing. The initial step in starting the field test began late in 1979 when the first pilot injection-residual oil saturation determination well was drilled and pressured cored in the selected test reservoir, the N/sub 4/ sand Reservoir B, at about 8000 feet. A log-inject-log measurement in this well has also been completed to provide an added evaluation. This report documents the results of the N/sub 4/, sand residual oil saturation measurements in Well SL 1011 No. 88. The Shell-DOE contract is restricted to this phase of the field test. Results indicate a waterswept residual oil saturation less than 20% at the objective location based on coring and PNC log-inject-log measurements. The value is lower than anticipated. Consequently, an alternate test site must be selected if the field test plans are continued.

  3. Development of an Advanced Simulator to Model Mobility Control and Geomechanics during CO{sub 2} Floods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delshad, Mojdeh; Wheeler, Mary; Sepehrnoori, Kamy; Pope, Gary

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The simulator is an isothermal, three-dimensional, four-phase, compositional, equation-of– state (EOS) simulator. We have named the simulator UTDOE-CO2 capable of simulating various recovery processes (i.e., primary, secondary waterflooding, and miscible and immiscible gas flooding). We include both the Peng-Robinson EOS and the Redlich-Kwong EOS models. A Gibbs stability test is also included in the model to perform a phase identification test to consistently label each phase for subsequent property calculations such as relative permeability, viscosity, density, interfacial tension, and capillary pressure. Our time step strategy is based on an IMPEC-type method (implicit pressure and explicit concentration). The gridblock pressure is solved first using the explicit dating of saturation-dependent terms. Subsequently, the material balance equations are solved explicitly for the total concentration of each component. The physical dispersion term is also included in the governing equations. The simulator includes (1) several foam model(s) for gas mobility control, (2) compositional relative permeability models with the hysteresis option, (3) corner point grid and several efficient solvers, (4) geomechanics module to compute stress field as the result of CO{sub 2} injection/production, (5) the format of commercial visualization software, S3graf from Science-soft Ltd., was implemented for user friendly visualization of the simulation results. All tasks are completed and the simulator was fully tested and delivered to the DOE office including a user’s guide and several input files and the executable for Windows Pcs. We have published several SPE papers, presented several posters, and one MS thesis is completed (V. Pudugramam, 2013) resulting from this DOE funded project.

  4. An Evaluation of the Feasibility of Combining Carbon Dioxide Flooding Technologies with Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery Technologies in Order To Sequester Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd French; Lew Brown; Rafael Hernandez; Magan Green; Lynn Prewitt; Terry Coggins

    2009-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The need for more energy as our population grows results in an increase in the amount of CO2 introduced into the atmosphere. The effect of this introduction is currently debated intensely as to the severity of the effect of this. The bjective of this investigation was to determine if the production of more energy (i.e. petroleum) and the sequestration of CO2 could be coupled into one process. Carbon dioxide flooding is a well-established technique that introduces Compressed CO2 into a subsurface oil-bearing formation to aide in liquefying harder to extract petroleum and enhancing its mobility towards the production wells.

  5. Chemical Method to Improve CO{sub 2} Flooding Sweep Efficiency for Oil Recovery Using SPI-CO{sub 2} Gels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, Lyle D.

    2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem in CO{sub 2} flooding lies with its higher mobility causing low conformance or sweep efficiency. This is an issue in oilfield applications where an injected fluid or gas used to mobilize and produce the oil in a marginal field has substantially higher mobility (function of viscosity and density and relative permeability) relative to the crude oil promoting fingering and early breakthrough. Conformance is particularly critical in CO{sub 2} oilfield floods where the end result is less oil recovered and substantially higher costs related to the CO{sub 2}. The SPI-CO{sub 2} (here after called “SPI”) gel system is a unique silicate based gel system that offers a technically effective solution to the conformance problem with CO{sub 2} floods. This SPI gel system remains a low viscosity fluid until an external initiator (CO{sub 2}) triggers gelation. This is a clear improvement over current technologies where the gels set up as a function of time, regardless of where it is placed in the reservoir. In those current systems, the internal initiator is included in the injected fluid for water shut off applications. In this new research effort, the CO{sub 2} is an external initiator contacted after SPI gel solution placement. This concept ensures in the proper water wet reservoir environment that the SPI gel sets up in the precise high permeability path followed by the CO{sub 2}, therefore improving sweep efficiency to a greater degree than conventional systems. In addition, the final SPI product in commercial quantities is expected to be low cost over the competing systems. This Phase I research effort provided “proof of concept” that SPI gels possess strength and may be formed in a sand pack reducing the permeability to brine and CO{sub 2} flow. This SPI technology is a natural extension of prior R & D and the Phase I effort that together show a high potential for success in a Phase II follow-on project. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a major by-product of hydrocarbon combustion for energy, chemical and fertilizer plants. For example, coal fired power plants emit large amounts of CO{sub 2} in order to produce electrical energy. Carbon dioxide sequestration is gaining attention as concerns mount over possible global climate change caused by rising emissions of greenhouse gases. Removing the CO{sub 2} from the energy generation process would make these plants more environmentally friendly. In addition, CO{sub 2} flooding is an attractive means to enhance oil and natural gas recovery. Capture and use of the CO{sub 2} from these plants for recycling into CO{sub 2} flooding of marginal reservoirs provides a “dual use” opportunity prior to final CO{sub 2} sequestration in the depleted reservoir. Under the right pressure, temperature and oil composition conditions, CO{sub 2} can act as a solvent, cleaning oil trapped in the microscopic pores of the reservoir rock. This miscible process greatly increases the recovery of crude oil from a reservoir compared to recovery normally seen by waterflooding. An Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) project that uses an industrial source of CO{sub 2} that otherwise would be vented to the atmosphere has the added environmental benefit of sequestering the greenhouse gas.

  6. Hardware Flooding (Preliminary Version)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kutten, Shay

    speed, this search becomes a bottleneck. There are two approaches to overcoming this bottleneck. The first approach is to implement the search described above directly in very high speed hardware,kutten@watson .ibm.com Abstract Traditional broadcast protocols for the high-speed networks of are inappropriate

  7. Decontaminating Flooded Wells (Spanish) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boellstorff, Diana; Dozier, Monty; Provin, Tony; Dictson, Nikkoal; McFarland, Mark L.

    2007-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    California, Extensi?n Cooperativa Producido por AgriLife Communications, El Sistema Texas A&M Las publicaciones de Texas AgriLife Extension se pueden encontrar en Internet en: http://AgriLifebookstore.org Los programas educativos de Texas AgriLife Extension...

  8. Decontaminating Flooded Wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boellstorff, Diana; Dozier, Monty; Provin, Tony; Dictson, Nikkoal; McFarland, Mark L.

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    ER-011 6-06 Mark L. McFarland, Associate Professor and Extension Water Resources Specialist; Diane E. Boellstorff, Program Specialist Water Quality; Tony L. Provin, Associate Professor and Extension Soil Chemist; Monty C. Dozier, Assistant... and local hospitals may also test water samples for bacteria. The cost of the test ranges from $8 to $30, depending on the lab. Well disinfection does not eliminate hydrocarbons (fuels, oils), pesticides, heavy metals or other types of nonbiological...

  9. Decontaminating Flooded Wells (Spanish)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boellstorff, Diana; Dozier, Monty; Provin, Tony; Dictson, Nikkoal; McFarland, Mark L.

    2007-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    , Profesor Adjunto y Especialista en Recursos H?dricos de Extensi?n; Nikkoal J. Dictson, Especialista en Programa Calidad de Agua Sistema Universitario Texas A&M Si se ha inundado su pozo, debe asumir que el agua en ?l se ha contaminado. No utilice el...ER-011S 10-07 Mark L. McFarland, Profesor Adjunto y Especialista en Recursos H?dricos de Extensi?n; Diane E. Boellstorff, Especialista en Programa Calidad de Agua; Tony L. Provin, Profesor Adjunto y Qu?mico de Suelos de Extensi?n; Monty C. Dozier...

  10. Flood Inundation Mapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearson, Wendy

    2009-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    . Validate these with historic data. “Water Predictions for Life Decisions” Page 11 2. Analyses • GIS Work – Inundation Library Creation – Use FEMA approved techniques to transform the hydraulic model water surface profiles into shapefiles representing... inundation area and rasters representing depth of flow. – Edit to remove unconnected polygons (ponds). – Shapefiles need attributes for water surface elevations. – Levees and bridges represented to NWS standards – Collect metatdata records for all GIS files...

  11. 1/18/11 1:21 PMNBMG Report XX, Geologic Assessment of Piedmont and Playa Flood Hazards in the Ivanpah Valley Area, Clark County, Nevada Page 1 of 58http://dev.nbmg.unr.edu/Pubs/Reports/rXX/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    of Contents NBMG Report XX Geologic Assessment of Piedmont and Playa Flood Hazards in the Ivanpah Valley Area management and more detailed studies related to hazard mitigation efforts in the area. Ideally, the maps `none', and nearly 53% of that area (125 mi2) is classified as having a hazard status high List

  12. Improved Miscible Nitrogen Flood Performance Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Laterals in a Class I Reservoir - East Binger (Marchand) Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Sinner

    2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE-sponsored project at the East Binger Unit is an investigation into the benefits of reservoir characterization and horizontal wells in this particular setting of geologic and recovery method. The geologic setting is a tight (average porosity of 7% and average permeability of less than 1 millidarcy) Pennsylvanian-age sandstone at about 10,000 feet, and the recovery method is a miscible nitrogen flood. The projected oil recovery of the East Binger Unit, prior to the initiation of this project, was about 25%. Gravity segregation of nitrogen and crude oil was believed to be the principal cause of the poor sweep efficiency, and it was envisioned that with horizontal producing wells in the lower portion of the reservoir and horizontal injection wells near the top, the process could be converted from a lateral displacement process to a vertical displacement/gravity assisted process. Through the characterization and field development work completed in Budget Periods 1 and 2, Binger Operations, LLC (BOL) has developed a different interpretation of the sweep problem as well as a different approach to improving recovery. The sweep problem is now believed to be one of an areal nature, due to a combination of natural and hydraulic fracturing. Vertical wells have provided a much better economic return than have the horizontal wells. The natural and hydraulic fracturing manifests itself as a direction of higher permeability, and the flood is being converted to a line drive flood aligned with this orientation. Consistent with this concept, horizontal wells have been drilled along the line of the fracture orientation, such that hydraulic fracturing leads to 'longitudinal' fractures, in line with the wellbore. As such, the hydraulically fractured horizontal wells are not significantly different than hydraulically fractured vertical wells - save for the potential for a much longer fracture face. This Topical Report contains data from new wells, plus new and updated production, pressure, and gas analysis data that was not included in the Topical Report provided at the end of Budget Period 1. The analysis and interpretation of these data are provided in the many technical reports submitted throughout this project.

  13. Reservoir Characterization of Bridgeport and Cypress Sandstones in Lawrence Field Illinois to Improve Petroleum Recovery by Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Flood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seyler, Beverly; Grube, John; Huff, Bryan; Webb, Nathan; Damico, James; Blakley, Curt; Madhavan, Vineeth; Johanek, Philip; Frailey, Scott

    2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the Illinois Basin, most of the oilfields are mature and have been extensively waterflooded with water cuts that range up to 99% in many of the larger fields. In order to maximize production of significant remaining mobile oil from these fields, new recovery techniques need to be researched and applied. The purpose of this project was to conduct reservoir characterization studies supporting Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Floods in two distinct sandstone reservoirs in Lawrence Field, Lawrence County, Illinois. A project using alkaline-surfactantpolymer (ASP) has been established in the century old Lawrence Field in southeastern Illinois where original oil in place (OOIP) is estimated at over a billion barrels and 400 million barrels have been recovered leaving more than 600 million barrels as an EOR target. Radial core flood analysis using core from the field demonstrated recoveries greater than 20% of OOIP. While the lab results are likely optimistic to actual field performance, the ASP tests indicate that substantial reserves could be recovered even if the field results are 5 to 10% of OOIP. Reservoir characterization is a key factor in the success of any EOR application. Reservoirs within the Illinois Basin are frequently characterized as being highly compartmentalized resulting in multiple flow unit configurations. The research conducted on Lawrence Field focused on characteristics that define reservoir compartmentalization in order to delineate preferred target areas so that the chemical flood can be designed and implemented for the greatest recovery potential. Along with traditional facies mapping, core analyses and petrographic analyses, conceptual geological models were constructed and used to develop 3D geocellular models, a valuable tool for visualizing reservoir architecture and also a prerequisite for reservoir simulation modeling. Cores were described and potential permeability barriers were correlated using geophysical logs. Petrographic analyses were used to better understand porosity and permeability trends in the region and to characterize barriers and define flow units. Diagenetic alterations that impact porosity and permeability include development of quartz overgrowths, sutured quartz grains, dissolution of feldspar grains, formation of clay mineral coatings on grains, and calcite cementation. Many of these alterations are controlled by facies. Mapping efforts identified distinct flow units in the northern part of the field showing that the Pennsylvanian Bridgeport consists of a series of thick incised channel fill sequences. The sandstones are about 75-150 feet thick and typically consist of medium grained and poorly sorted fluvial to distributary channel fill deposits at the base. The sandstones become indistinctly bedded distributary channel deposits in the main part of the reservoir before fining upwards and becoming more tidally influenced near their top. These channel deposits have core permeabilities ranging from 20 md to well over 1000 md. The tidally influenced deposits are more compartmentalized compared to the thicker and more continuous basal fluvial deposits. Fine grained sandstones that are laterally equivalent to the thicker channel type deposits have permeabilities rarely reaching above 250 md. Most of the unrecovered oil in Lawrence Field is contained in Pennsylvanian Age Bridgeport sandstones and Mississippian Age Cypress sandstones. These reservoirs are highly complex and compartmentalized. Detailed reservoir characterization including the development of 3-D geologic and geocellular models of target areas in the field were completed to identify areas with the best potential to recover remaining reserves including unswept and by-passed oil. This project consisted of tasks designed to compile, interpret, and analyze the data required to conduct reservoir characterization for the Bridgeport and Cypress sandstones in pilot areas in anticipation of expanded implementation of ASP flooding in Lawrence Field. Geologic and geocellular modeling needed for reservoir characterization and res

  14. Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDermott, Daniel J. (Export, PA); Schrader, Kenneth J. (Penn Hills, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

  15. Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDermott, D.J.; Schrader, K.J.; Schulz, T.L.

    1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

  16. Improvement of Carbon Dioxide Sweep Efficiency by Utilization of Microbial Permeability Profile Modification to Reduce the Amount of Oil Bypassed During Carbon Dioxide Flood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darrel Schmitz; Lewis Brown F. Leo Lynch; Brenda Kirkland; Krystal Collins; William Funderburk

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to couple microbial permeability profile modification (MPPM), with carbon dioxide flooding to improve oil recovery from the Upper Cretaceous Little Creek Oil Field situated in Lincoln and Pike counties, MS. This study determined that MPPM technology, which improves production by utilizing environmentally friendly nutrient solutions to simulate the growth of the indigenous microflora in the most permeable zones of the reservoir thus diverting production to less permeable, previously unswept zones, increased oil production without interfering with the carbon dioxide flooding operation. Laboratory tests determined that no microorganisms were produced in formation waters, but were present in cores. Perhaps the single most significant contribution of this study is the demonstration that microorganisms are active at a formation temperature of 115?C (239?F) by using a specially designed culturing device. Laboratory tests were employed to simulate the MPPM process by demonstrating that microorganisms could be activated with the resulting production of oil in coreflood tests performed in the presence of carbon dioxide at 66?C (the highest temperature that could be employed in the coreflood facility). Geological assessment determined significant heterogeneity in the Eutaw Formation, and documented relatively thin, variably-lithified, well-laminated sandstone interbedded with heavily-bioturbated, clay-rich sandstone and shale. Live core samples of the Upper Cretaceous Eutaw Formation from the Heidelberg Field, MS were quantitatively assessed using SEM, and showed that during MPPM permeability modification occurs ubiquitously within pore and throat spaces of 10-20 ?m diameter. Testing of the MPPM procedure in the Little Creek Field showed a significant increase in production occurred in two of the five production test wells; furthermore, the decline curve in each of the production wells became noticeably less steep. This project greatly extends the number of oil fields in which MPPM can be implemented.

  17. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A CO2 FLOOD UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL INJECTION WELLS IN A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE APPROACHING WATERFLOOD DEPLETION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.J. Harpole; Ed G. Durrett; Susan Snow; J.S. Bles; Carlon Robertson; C.D. Caldwell; D.J. Harms; R.L. King; B.A. Baldwin; D. Wegener; M. Navarrette

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO{sub 2} horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields. The Unit was a mature waterflood with water cut exceeding 95%. Oil must be mobilized through the use of a miscible or near-miscible fluid to recover significant additional reserves. Also, because the unit was relatively small, it did not have the benefit of economies of scale inherent in normal larger scale projects. Thus, new and innovative methods were required to reduce investment and operating costs. Two primary methods used to accomplish improved economics were use of reservoir characterization to restrict the flood to the higher quality rock in the unit and use of horizontal injection wells to cut investment and operating costs. The project consisted of two budget phases. Budget Phase I started in June 1994 and ended late June 1996. In this phase Reservoir Analysis, Characterization Tasks and Advanced Technology Definition Tasks were completed. Completion enabled the project to be designed, evaluated, and an Authority for Expenditure (AFE) for project implementation submitted to working interest owners for approval. Budget Phase II consisted of the implementation and execution of the project in the field. Phase II was completed in July 2001. Performance monitoring, during Phase II, by mid 1998 identified the majority of producing wells which under performed their anticipated withdrawal rates. Newly drilled and re-activated wells had lower offtake rates than originally forecasted. As a result of poor offtake, higher reservoir pressure was a concern for the project as it limited CO{sub 2} injectivity. To reduce voidage balance, and reservoir pressure, a disposal well was therefore drilled. Several injection surveys indicated the CO{sub 2} injection wells had severe conformance issues. After close monitoring of the project to the end of 1999, it was evident the project would not recover the anticipated tertiary reserves. The main reasons for under-performance were poor in zone CO{sub 2} injection into the upper San Andres layers, poorer offtake rates from newly drilled replacement wells and a higher than required reservoir pressure. After discussion internally within Phillips, externally with the Department of Energy (DOE) and SCU partners, a redevelopment of South Cowden was agreed upon to commence in year 2000. The redevelopment essentially abandoned the original development for Budget Phase II in favor of a revised approach. This involved conformance techniques to resolve out of zone CO{sub 2} injection and use of horizontal wells to improve in zone injectivity and productivity. A phased approach was used to ensure short radius lateral drilling could be implemented effectively at South Cowden. This involved monitoring drilling operations and then production response to determine if larger investments during the second phase were justified. Redevelopment Phase 1 was completed in May 2000. It was deemed a success in regard to finding suitable/cost-effective technology for drilling horizontal laterals and finding a technique that could sustain long-term productivity from the upper layers of the San Andres reservoir. Four existing vertical producing wells were isolated from their existing completions and sidetracked with horizontal laterals into the upper layers of the San Andres. Overall average offtake rates for the four wells increased by a factor of 12 during the first four months after completion of Phase 1. Phase 2 of the redevelopment focused on current CO{sub 2} vertical injection wells. Techniques were applied to resolve near well conformance concerns and then either single or dual laterals were dril

  18. East Vacuum Grayburg San Andres Unit CO2 flood ten year performance review: Evolution of a reservoir management strategy and results of WAG optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harpole, K.J.; Hallenbeck, L.D.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The East Vacuum Grayburg San Andres Unit (EVGSAU) recently completed ten years of successful CO{sub 2} miscible WAG injection. This paper briefly reviews the original CO{sub 2} project design and field performance over the past ten years, and discusses the evolution of a CO{sub 2} reservoir management strategy from the original, fixed 2:1 WAG design to the current flexible, performance-driven WAG strategy. Variations in the magnitude and character of CO{sub 2} flood response across the Unit due to variability in local reservoir geology presented numerous reservoir management challenges. Problems were encountered in areas such as injection conformance, pattern balancing and sweep efficiency; managing large swings in gas production rates, and changes in injection gas composition and MMP due to construction of an NGL recovery facility. These challenges required a re-evaluation of our understanding of the reservoir and prompted a review of the original project design and operating philosophy by an interdisciplinary study team. Significant elements of this effort included surveillance and data collection on selected infill wells, extensive reservoir characterization work, and use of operations-oriented simulation modeling. This work resulted in the evolution of a more flexible reservoir management strategy for EVGSAU utilizing selective, geologically-targeted infill drilling, well conversions, pattern realignment, and a performance-driven WAG management strategy. Operating changes implemented over the past two years have produced significant improvements in profitability and performance in terms of both increased oil production and reduced gas handling problems and expenses.

  19. Design and Implementation of a CO(2) Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells in Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The work reported herein covers select tasks in Budget Phase 11. The principle Task in Budget Phase 11 included in this report is Field Demonstration. Completion of many of the Field Demonstration tasks during the last report period enabled an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood project to be designed, economically evaluated, and implemented in the field. Field implementation of the project commenced during late 1995, with actual C0{sub 2} injection commencing in mid-July, 1996. This report summarizes activities incurred following initial project start-up, towards the goal of optimizing project performance. The current project has focused on reducing initial investment cost by utilizing horizontal injection wells and concentrating the project in the best productivity area of the field. An innovative C0{sub 2} purchase agreement (no take-or-pay provisions, C0{sub 2} purchase price tied to West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil price) and gas recycle agreement (expensing costs as opposed to a large upfront capital investment for compression) were negotiated to further improve the project economics. The Grayburg-San Andres section had previously been divided into multiple zones based on the core study and gamma ray markers that correlate wells within the Unit. Each zone was mapped as continuous across the field. Previous core studies concluded that the reservoir quality in the South Cowden Unit (SCU) is controlled primarily by the distribution of a bioturbated and diagenetically-altered rock type with a distinctive chaotic texture. The chaotic modifier is derived from the visual effect of pervasive, small-scale intermixing of tan oil-stained reservoir rock with tight gray non- reservoir rock. The chaotic reservoir rock extends from Zone C (4780`-4800`) to the lower part of Zone F (4640`-4680`). Zones D (4755`-4780`) and E (4680`-4755`) are considered the main floodable zones, though Zone F is also productive and Zone C is productive above the oil- water contact. During Budget Phase 1, the Stratamodel computer program was utilized as the primary tool to integrate the diverse geologic, petrophysical, and seismic data into a coherent three dimensional (3-D) model. The basic porosity model having been constructed, critiqued and modified based on field production and detailed cross-section displays, permeability data was imported into the model, and a 3-D interpolation of the permeability was completed.

  20. Flood events Dr. Andre Paquier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    over the banks of the main channel, direct runoff or failure of a levee or other structure. Flash, sediment load, bed morphology, hydraulic structures (design, operation, failure), wind, sea (or lake) level to a deepening of the main channel (such as downstream from a newly built dam), which means less overflows

  1. Flooding and Fire Ants (Spanish)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nester, Paul

    2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    ?rea seca o a un objeto en el que puedan trepar las hormigas. Cuando se retiran las aguas de la inundaci?n, es posible encontrar estas colonias de hormigas sobre escombros, en hogares y otros edificios hasta que construyan nuevos ni- dos en la..., religi?n, edad u origen nacional. Emitido para el desarrollo del Trabajo de la Extensi?n Cooperativa en Agricultura y Econom?a del Hogar, Leyes del Congreso del 8 de mayo de 1914 con sus reformas y del 30 de junio de 1914 junto con el Departamento de...

  2. Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential. Texas Pacific Bennett Ranch Unit well No. 310, Wasson (San Andres) Field, Yoakum County, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, T.E.; Goodrich, J.H.; Kumar, R.M.; McCoy, R.L.; Wilhelm, M.H.; Glascock, M.R.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The coring, logging and testing of Bennett Ranch Unit well No. 310 was a cooperative effort between Texas Pacific, owner of the well, and Gruy Federal, Inc. The requirements of the contract, which are summarized in Enclosure 1, Appendix A, include drilling and coring activities. The pressure-coring and associated logging and testing programs in selected wells are intended to provide data on in-situ oil saturation, porosity and permeability distribution, and other data needed for resource characterization of fields and reservoirs in which CO/sub 2/ injection might have a high probability of success. This report presents detailed information on the first such project. This project demonstrates the usefulness of integrating pressure core, log and production data to realistically evaluate a reservoir for carbon dioxide flood. The engineering of tests and analysis of such experimental data requires original thinking, but the reliability of the results is higher than data derived from conventional tests.

  3. Peculiarities of Environment Pollution as a Special Type of Radioactive Waste: Field Means for Comprehensive Characterization of Soil and Bottom Sediments and their Application in the Survey at the Flood plain of Techa River - 13172

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, Oleg; Danilovich, Alexey; Potapov, Victor; Stepanov, Vyacheslav; Smirnov, Sergey; Volkovich, Anatoly [National Research Centre - Kurchatov Institute, 1 Kurchatov Sq. (Russian Federation)] [National Research Centre - Kurchatov Institute, 1 Kurchatov Sq. (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contamination of natural objects - zone alarm fallout, zones and flood plains near production sites (the result of technological accidents and resource extraction) occupy large areas. Large area and volume of contaminated matter, moderate specific activity (as low - medium-level wastes) make such objects specific types of radioactive waste. These objects exist for a long time, now they are characterized by a bound state of nuclides with the matrix. There is no cost-effective ways to remove these waste, the only solution for the rehabilitation of such areas is their isolation and regular monitoring through direct and indirect measurements. The complex of instruments was developed to field mapping of contamination. It consists of a portable spectrometric collimated detector, collimated spectrometric borehole detector, underwater spectrometer detector, spectrometer for field measurements of the specific activity of Sr-90, connected to a portable MCA 'Colibry (Hummingbird)'. The complex was used in settlements of Bryansk region, rivers Techa and Yenisei. The effectiveness of the developed complex considered by the example of characterization of the reservoir 10 (artificial lake) in Techinsky cascade containing a huge amount of radioactive waste. The developed field means for comprehensive characterization of soil and bottom sediments contamination are very effective for mapping and monitoring of environment contamination after accidents. Especially in case of high non-uniformity of fallout and may be very actual in Fukushima area. (authors)

  4. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion. Annual report, July 1, 1996--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dollens, K.B.; Harpole, K.J.; Durrett, E.G.; Bles, J.S.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work reported herein covers select tasks in Budget Phase 2. The principle Task in Budget Phase 2 included in this report is Field Demonstration. Completion of many of the Field Demonstration tasks during the last report period enabled an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood project to be designed, economically evaluated, and implemented in the field. Field implementation of the project commenced during late 1995, with actual CO{sub 2} injection commencing in mid-July, 1996. This report summarizes activities incurred following initial project start-up, towards the goal of optimizing project performance. The current project has focused on reducing initial investment cost by utilizing horizontal injection wells and concentrating the project in the best productivity area of the field. An innovative CO{sub 2} purchase agreement (no take-or-pay provisions, CO{sub 2} purchase price tied to West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil price) and gas recycle agreement (expensing costs as opposed to a large upfront capital investment for compression) were negotiated to further improve the project economics.

  5. Steam Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, W.

    between the water level and the steam in a boiler, some water vapor will always tend to pass through the system with the steam. Hence, a continuing problem. If steam does carry water vapor past the separators it will tend to coalesce as a liquid...

  6. Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential, Conoco MCA unit well No. 358, Maljamar Field, Lea County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, T.E.; Marlow, R.E.; Wilhelm, M.H.; Goodrich, J.H.; Kumar, R.M.

    1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes part of the work done to fulfill a contract awarded to Gruy Federal, Inc., by the Department of Energy (DOE) on Feburary 12, 1979. The work includes pressure-coring and associated logging and testing programs to provide data on in-situ oil saturation, porosity and permeability distribution, and other data needed for resource characterization of fields and reservoirs in which CO/sub 2/ injection might have a high probability of success. This report details the second such project. Core porosities agreed well with computed log porosities. Core water saturation and computed log porosities agree fairly well from 3692 to 3712 feet, poorly from 3712 to 3820 feet and in a general way from 4035 to 4107 feet. Computer log analysis techniques incorporating the a, m, and n values obtained from Core Laboratories analysis did not improve the agreement of log versus core derived water saturations. However, both core and log analysis indicated the ninth zone had the highest residual hydrocarbon saturations and production data confirmed the validity of oil saturation determinations. Residual oil saturation, for the perforated and tested intervals were 259 STB/acre-ft for the interval from 4035 to 4055 feet, and 150 STB/acre-ft for the interval from 3692 to 3718 feet. Nine BOPD was produced from the interval 4035 to 4055 feet and no oil was produced from interval 3692 to 3718 feet, qualitatively confirming the relative oil saturations as calculated. The low oil production in the zone from 4022 to 4055 and the lack of production from 3692 to 3718 feet indicated the zone to be at or near residual waterflood conditions as determined by log analysis. This project demonstrates the usefulness of integrating pressure core, log, and production data to realistically evaluate a reservoir for carbon dioxide flood.

  7. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion. Annual Report, July 1, 1995--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chimahusky, J.S.; Hallenbeck, L.D.; Harpole, K.J.; Dollens, K.B.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work reported herein covers select tasks remaining in Budget Phase I and many of the tasks of Budget Phase II. The principal Tasks in Budget Phase I included in this report are Reservoir Analysis and Characterization; Advanced Technical Studies; and Technology Transfer, Reporting and Project Management Activities for Budget Phase I. The principle Task in Budget Phase II included in this report is Field Demonstration. Completion of these tasks has enabled an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood project to be designed, economically evaluated, and implemented in the field. Field implementation of the project commenced during late 1995, with actual CO{sub 2} injection scheduled for start-up in mid-July, 1996. The current project has focused on reducing initial investment cost by utilizing horizontal injection wells and concentrating the project in the best productivity area of the field. An innovative CO{sub 2} purchase agreement (no take-or-pay provisions, CO{sub 2} purchase price tied to West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil price) and gas recycle agreements (expensing costs as opposed to a large upfront capital investment for compression) were negotiated to further improve the project economics. The Grayburg-San Andres section had previously been divided into multiple zones based on the core study and gamma ray markers that correlate wells within the Unit. Each zone was mapped as continuous across the field. Previous core studies concluded that the reservoir quality in the South Cowden Unit (SCU) is controlled primarily by the distribution of a bioturbated and diagenetically-altered rock type with a distinctive {open_quotes}chaotic{close_quotes} texture. The {open_quotes}chaotic{close_quotes} modifier is derived from the visual effect of pervasive, small-scale intermixing of tan oil-stained reservoir rock with tight gray non-reservoir rock.

  8. Steam Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, K. C.

    . But he uses it to drive a steam turbine which in turn drives a pump. The turbine expands the steam to a lower pressure where it is then condensed and the condensate returned to the boiler house. Let's find out what the steam is worth to this user. His... while the 15 psig condensing turbine is a good candidate to be replaced with an electric motor. But, whatever the case is, the cost of the steam has nothing to do with its value. The point of the above is that this paper is about COST...

  9. Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raina, Ramesh

    Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam Operations Steven Richards Assistant Manager of Maintenance (Distribution) Deborah Moorhead Office Coordinator III Martin Bower Steam Plant Operator Richard Redfield Steam Plant Operator Bohdan Sawa Steam Plant Operator Robert Tedesco Steam Plant Operator James Bradley

  10. Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam Operations Steven Richards Assistant Manager of Maintenance Bourdon Steam Plant Operator Vincent Massara Steam Plant Operator Cliff Lescenski Steam Plant Operator Robert Tedesco Steam Plant Operator James Bradley Equipment Maintenance Robert Earle Equipment

  11. Steam Path Audits on Industrial Steam Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, D. R.

    in sellable power output as a result of improved turbine efficiency. The Lyondell facility is a combined cycle power plant where a gas turbine: heat recovery system supplies steam to the steam turbine. Since this steam is a bypropuct of the gas turbine...steam Path Audits on Industrial steam Turbines DOUGLAS R. MITCHELL. ENGINEER. ENCOTECH, INC., SCHENECTADY, NEW YORK ABSTRACT The electric utility industry has benefitted from steam path audits on steam turbines for several years. Benefits...

  12. Scale-up of miscible flood processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orr, F.M.

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes recent progress in a research effort to quantify the scaling of interactions of phase behavior of multicomponent mixtures with unstable flow in heterogeneous porous media. Results are presented in three areas: Phase behavior, fluid properties and characterization of crude oils; interactions of phase behavior and flow; viscous fingering and reservoir heterogeneity. In the first area, results of phase behavior experiments are reported for mixtures of CO{sub 2} with crude oil from the Means field. Detailed analyses of phase compositions are also reported for samples taken during the PVT experiments. Also reported are results of an investigation of crude oil compositions and phase compositions by gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. In the second area, the first detailed comparison is reported for displacements with and without volume change as components change phase. The solutions described were obtained by the method of characteristics. Also described is a transformation that allows radial flow solutions to be obtained from the linear solutions presented previously. Results of experiments and numerical computations that described the growth of viscous fingers are described in the third area. Results and simulations show clearly that even mild permeability heterogeneity can have a dramatic effect on the form and location of viscous fingers. They also show that the simulations reproduce with good accuracy the transition from flow dominated by viscous forces to flow dominated by the permeability distribution. The agreement between simulation and experiment is good enough that the particle-tracking simulation approach can be used with confidence to explore scaling questions. 54 refs., 126 figs., 23 tabs.

  13. Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman; (U of Wyoming)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

  14. Flood Control and Watershed Management (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Counties and towns are required to issue permits for development within the 100-year floodplain. Development is broadly defined to include any man-made change to land, including grading, filling,...

  15. Clear Creek, Texas Flood Risk Management Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    ) of 1996 requires four distinct steps for an evaluation of economic benefits and costs for projects for an evaluation of economic benefits and costs for projects were conducted and displayed in the Economic Appendix ­ Economic Evaluation. The non-Federal projects (FEMA buyout and detention on Marys Creek) augments

  16. Group Presentations: 1. Flooding Oct 29, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, Sylke

    . Smog Nov 15, 2010 5. Acid rain Nov 22, 2010 6. Monsoons Nov 24, 2010 7. El Nino/El Nina Nov 29, 2010 8, 2010 14. Carbon cycle tba 15. Rain Making tba 16. Ocean circulation tba 17. Atmosphere of Venus tba 18

  17. Injection pressure falloff with flooded zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ariadji, Tutuka

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Fracture half-length for the input data of the simulator, 4 Comparisons of static reservoir pressure and reservoir properties of Well No. I after matching with different drainage areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . 13 13 14 LIST... OF FIGURES Figure I Hazebroek, Rainbow, and Matthews method for determining static Page reservoir pressure 2 Reservoir model 3 Fracture well system 4 Water-oil and gas-oil relative permeability curve data 5 Matching result of Well No. I 15 6 Horner...

  18. Flood Protection and Dam Safety (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    All dams in Virginia are subject to the Dam Safety Act and Dam Safety Regulations unless specifically excluded. A dam is excluded if it: (a) is less than six feet high; (b) has a maximum capacity...

  19. Flash flooding events in south central Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utley, Tom Wilson

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is covered by radars at Hondo and Stephenville, Texas. This technique was developed exclusively for use in the designated study area. Extensive operational testing should be conducted prior to attempting to apply this forecasting technique to any other...

  20. Federal Flood Assessment Conference Recommendations and Proceedings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyes, Silvestre; Brock, Peter; Michelsen, Ari

    2006-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    for future research activities and modeling to improve the forecast of local events which in turn would benefit the public safety in characterizing those local areas prone to specific hazards. 9/15/06 David J. Novlan Meteorologist Climate Focal...

  1. Flood Plain or Floodway Development (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section describes situations when a permit is needed for the construction, reconstruction, or modification of dams, waste or water treatment facilities, and pipeline crossings, among others.

  2. Management of Specific Flood Plain Areas (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Floodplain management orders by the Iowa Department of Natural Resources as well as approved local ordinances designate an area as a regulated floodplain. These regulations establish minimum...

  3. Flood Fighting Research Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 NoEuropeStrat.pdfInactive JumpFirst WindWaterFloatingFighting

  4. Preliminary Flood Plain Characterization Appendix A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Characterization August 2010 Table of Contents 1 Introduction................................................................................................................................2 2.2 Grab Groundwater Sampling..................................................................................................3 2.5 Data Collection for Geochemical Modeling

  5. gas_flooding | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron4 Self-Scrubbing:,, , ., Decembergangh Ames Laboratory Profile GangGas

  6. National Flood Insurance Act | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarmsPower CoLongxingPartnersNRELAct Year 1969

  7. Irrigation, Navigation Flood Control and Recreation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |

  8. Los Alamos plants willows for flood recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is YourAwardspublicexceeds wasteNew insightsplants willows

  9. Steam Turbine Cogeneration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quach, K.; Robb, A. G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam turbines are widely used in most industrial facilities because steam is readily available and steam turbine is easy to operate and maintain. If designed properly, a steam turbine co-generation (producing heat and power simultaneously) system...

  10. Steam Turbine Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quach, K.; Robb, A. G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam turbines are widely used in most industrial facilities because steam is readily available and steam turbine is easy to operate and maintain. If designed properly, a steam turbine co-generation (producing heat and power simultaneously) system...

  11. Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McConnell, Terry

    Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam Operations Steven Richards Assistant Manager of Maintenance Supervisor (Distribution) Deborah Moorhead Office Coordinator III Martin Bower Steam Plant Operator Richard Redfield Steam Plant Operator SU Steam Station/Chilled Water Plant Bohdan Sawa Steam Plant Operator Robert

  12. University of California, Berkeley Hearst Memorial Mining Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Junqiao

    . Flooding, Plumbing or Steam Line Failure 15 12. Natural Gas Release or Leak 15 13. Ventilation Problem 15

  13. Steam and Condensate Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yates, W.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficiency and profit. Some important factors to consider in steam and condensate systems are: 1) Proper steam pressure 2) Adequate sized steam lines 3) Adequate sized condensate return lines 4) Utilization of flash steam 5) Properly sized... ! can cause system inefficiency. i Adequate sized steam lines assure the process will be furnished with sufficiertt i quantities of steam at the proper pressure. Adequate sized condensate return lines are essential to overall efficiency. lhese...

  14. Steam System Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R. A.

    flanges, control valves, steam turbines, manways, sections of piping, heads on vessels, etc. are uninsulated. If steam is in demand at the steam pressure level of the uninsulated piping and equipment, then the piping and equipment should be insulated... been developed, it is an excellent tool to identify the steam sources. Areas to first look for possible waste are steam turbines and steam let down stations. 161 ESL-IE-98-04-26 Proceedings from the Twentieth National Industrial Energy Technology...

  15. Steam System Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    opportunities. Often flanges, control valves, steam turbines, man ways, sections of piping, heads on vessels, etc. are bare and can significantly increase the steam demand. An insulation survey should be conducted of the steam, condensate... is being let down. Some projects are independent of the steam balance, such as eliminating high-pressure (HP) steam leaks, insulating HP steam piping, optimizing the boiler operation, and improving the performance of condensing turbines...

  16. Steam Path Audits on Industrial Steam Turbines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, D. R.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric utility industry has benefitted from steam path audits on steam turbines for several years. Benefits include the ability to identify areas of performance degradation during a turbine outage. Repair priorities can then be set...

  17. SteamMaster: Steam System Analysis Software 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, G.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    recommendations to increase steam system effic iency. Steam System Opportunities ]n nearly 400 industrial assessments, we have recommended 210 steam system improvements, excluding heat recovery, that would save $1.5 million/year with a O.4-year payback. 75...

  18. Evaluating Steam Trap Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, N. Y.

    EVALUATING STEAM TRAP PERFORMANCE Noel Y Fuller, P.E. Holston Defense Corporation Kingsport, Tennessee ABSTRACT Laboratory tests were conducted on several types of steam traps at Holston Defense Corporation in Kingsport, Tennessee. Data... that live steam loss is the heaviest contributor to the annual operating cost of any steam trap and that maintenance frequency and repair cost are also more important than a trap's first cost. INTRODUCTION Steam traps used on distribution line drip...

  19. Steam Oxidation of Advanced Steam Turbine Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power generation from coal using ultra supercritical steam results in improved fuel efficiency and decreased greenhouse gas emissions. Results of ongoing research into the oxidation of candidate nickel-base alloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines are presented. Exposure conditions range from moist air at atmospheric pressure (650°C to 800°C) to steam at 34.5 MPa (650°C to 760°C). Parabolic scale growth coupled with internal oxidation and reactive evaporation of chromia are the primary corrosion mechanisms.

  20. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  1. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Doyle, Edward F. (Dedham, MA); DiBella, Francis A. (Roslindale, MA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  2. Flash Steam Recovery Project 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bronhold, C. J.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    /condensate recovery system, resulting in condensate flash steam losses to the atmosphere. Using computer simulation models and pinch analysis techniques, the Operational Excellence Group (Six Sigma) was able to identify a project to recover the flash steam losses as a...

  3. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Muir, J.F.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1985-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to an empirical electrical method for remote sensing of steam quality utilizing flow-through grids which allow measurement of the electrical properties of a flowing two-phase mixture. The measurement of steam quality in the oil field is important to the efficient application of steam assisted recovery of oil. Because of the increased energy content in higher quality steam it is important to maintain the highest possible steam quality at the injection sandface. The effectiveness of a steaming operation without a measure of steam quality downhole close to the point of injection would be difficult to determine. Therefore, a need exists for the remote sensing of steam quality.

  4. Flash Steam Recovery Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bronhold, C. J.

    organic compounds, was targeted for improvement. This unit uses a portion of the high-pressure steam available from the plant's cogeneration facility. Continuous expansions within the unit had exceeded the optimum design capacity of the unit's steam...

  5. Steam Digest 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  6. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, David O. (Albuquerque, NM); Montoya, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Muir, James F. (Albuquerque, NM); Wayland, Jr., J. Robert (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An empirical method for the remote sensing of steam quality that can be easily adapted to downhole steam quality measurements by measuring the electrical properties of two-phase flow across electrode grids at low frequencies.

  7. SteamMaster: Steam System Analysis Software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, G.

    tool to facilitate the process. SteamMaster is based on an Excel spreadsheet with a Visual Basic interface to simplify system modeling and analysis. SteamMaster has many features and capabilities, including energy and cost savings calculations for five...

  8. Steam Trap Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, J. J.; Hirtner, H. H.

    problemA of water hammer and high back pressure. ? Exorbitantly hi~h percentage of cold trapA. ? External steam leaks within the steam trap stations, bypasA valves and/or strainer blowdown valvefl open, blowin~ steam. ! I ? Dirt nssociated... Trapping 2 Trap Installed Backwards 1 Misapplication of Technology 1 Strainer Blowdown Connections Capped 285 (*b) Test Tee Connections Capped 11 Trap Inlet Connected to Steam Line Strainer Blowdown Connection 3 Water Logged Coils (Vacuum Present) 7...

  9. HP Steam Trap Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascone, S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STEAM MONITORING HP Steam Trap Monitoring HP Steam Trap Monitoring ? 12-18 months payback! ? 3-5% permanent reduction in consumption ? LEED Pt.? Innovation in Operations EB O&M ? Saved clients over $1,000,000 Annual consumption... Steam Trap Monitoring ? Real-time monitoring for high-pressure critical traps (>15 PSIG) ? Average total system cost $25K - $50K ? Web-Based or Modbus/BMS Integration Basic Installation Wireless Signal Transmitter Receiver Repeater...

  10. Steam System Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refinery and chemical plant steam systems are complex and the fuel required to produce the steam represents a major expense. The incremental cost for generating a 1,000 lb./hr. of steam is typically $45,000 - $60,000/year. Most plants have...

  11. Steam System Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R. A.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    been developed, it is an excellent tool to identify the steam sources. Areas to first look for possible waste are steam turbines and steam let down stations. 161 ESL-IE-98-04-26 Proceedings from the Twentieth National Industrial Energy Technology... Conference, Houston, TX, April 22-23, 1998 The easiest solution to eliminating excess steam is to shut down steam turbines that exhaust into the header and start up the motor driven spare equipment. Often times this step will be enough to eliminate...

  12. Theoretical Study of Steam Condensation Induced Water Hammer Phenomena in Horizontal Pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barna, Imre Ferenc

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate steam condensation induced water hammer (CIWH) phenomena and present new theoretical results. We use the WAHA3 model based on two-phase flow six first-order partial differential equations that present one dimensional, surface averaged mass, momentum and energy balances. A second order accurate high-resolution shock-capturing numerical scheme was applied with different kind of limiters in the numerical calculations. The applied two-fluid model shows some similarities to Relap5 which is widely used in the nuclear industry to simulate nuclear power plant accidents. This model was validated with different CIWH experiments which were performed in the PMK-2 facility, which is a full-pressure thermo-hydraulic model of the nuclear power plant of VVER-440/312 type in the Energy Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Budapest and in the Rosa facility in Japan. In our recent study we show the first part of a planned large database which will give us the upper and lower flooding mass flow ...

  13. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, M.J.

    1987-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (a hot finger) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellow in providing an indication of total energy (steam + condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the hot and cold fingers subtracts the former from the latter to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning. 2 figs.

  14. Steam generator support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moldenhauer, J.E.

    1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

  15. Steam generator support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moldenhauer, James E. (Simi Valley, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

  16. Animal Industries - 4 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2006-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study on flooding with steam and water in a large diameter vertical tube was conducted. This research has been performed to provide a better prediction of flooding in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) ...

  17. Predicting Steam Turbine Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harriz, J. T.

    ," PREDICTING STEAM TURBINE PERFORMANCE James T. Harriz, EIT Waterland, Viar & Associates, Inc. Wilmington, Delaware ABSTRACT Tracking the performance of extraction, back pressure and condensing steam turbines is a crucial part... energy) and test data are presented. Techniques for deriving efficiency curves from each source are described. These techniques can be applied directly to any steam turbine reliability study effort. INTRODUCTION As the cost of energy resources...

  18. Steam System Data Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam System Data Management What Does It Include Safety In Motion Wal?Tech?Valve,?Inc. 251?438?2203 The Real Genius Behind Technology Is People ESL-IE-13-05-35 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New... ? Fabrication Training (Six Year Training) ? Welding Certifications ?Retired From Chevron After 25 Years ? Established A Steam System Program ? Planner For Routine Maintenance Work ? Planner For Steam System Improvements ? Wal-Tech Valve, Inc. ? Purchased...

  19. Steam reforming analyzed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, E.S. (KTI Corp., San Dimas, CA (US)); Froment, G.F. (Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium))

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that maximum steam reformer operation without excessive coking reactions requires careful control of thermodynamic and kinetic conditions. Regardless of the syngas-based feedstock composition, carbon formation problems can be avoided while increasing reformer CO or H{sub 2} production. Steam reforming technology is best understood via: Primary steam reformer developments, Kinetics of methane steam reforming, Simulation of an industrial steam/CO{sub 2} reformer, Example conditions (steam/CO{sub 2} reforming), Thermodynamic approach (minimum to steam ratio). Hydrogen and carbon monoxide are two of the most important building blocks in the chemical industry. Hydrogen is mainly used in ammonia and methanol synthesis and petroleum refining. Carbon monoxide is used to produce pains, plastics, foams, pesticides and insecticides, to name a few. Production of H{sub 2} and CO is usually carried out by the following processes: Steam reforming (primary and secondary) of hydrocarbons, Partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, Coal gasification. Coal gasification and partial oxidation do not use catalysts and depend on partial combustion of the feedstock to internally supply reaction heat. Secondary (autothermal) reforming is a type of steam reforming that also uses the heat of partial combustion but afterwards uses a catalyst of promote the production of hydrogen and CO.

  20. Downhole steam injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, A. Burl (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Donald E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved downhole steam injector has an angled water orifice to swirl the water through the device for improved heat transfer before it is converted to steam. The injector also has a sloped diameter reduction in the steam chamber to throw water that collects along the side of the chamber during slant drilling into the flame for conversion to steam. In addition, the output of the flame chamber is beveled to reduce hot spots and increase efficiency, and the fuel-oxidant inputs are arranged to minimize coking.

  1. Options for Generating Steam Efficiently

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    This paper describes how plant engineers can efficiently generate steam when there are steam generators and Heat Recovery Steam Generators in their plant. The process consists of understanding the performance characteristics of the various equipment...

  2. Streams of Steam The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Streams of Steam ­ The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study Manfred Broy, Franz Regensburger-tuned con- cepts of FOCUS by its application of the requirements specification of a steam boiler, see [Abr96-studies. In this context, applying FOCUS to the steam boiler case study ([Abr96]) led us to a couple of questions re- #12

  3. Ukraine Steam Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurvinder Singh

    2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ukraine Steam Partnership program is designed to implement energy efficiency improvements in industrial steam systems. These improvements are to be made by the private plants and local government departments responsible for generation and delivery of energy to end-users. One of the activities planned under this program was to provide a two-day training workshop on industrial steam systems focusing on energy efficiency issues related to the generation, distribution, and consumption of steam. The workshop was geared towards plant managers, who are not only technically oriented, but are also key decision makers in their respective companies. The Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology (ARENA-ECO), a non-governmental, not-for-profit organization founded to promote energy efficiency and environmental protection in Ukraine, in conjunction with the Alliance staff in Kiev sent out invitations to potential participants in all the regions of Ukraine. The purpose of this report is the describe the proceedings from the workshop and provide recommendations from the workshop's roundtable discussion. The workshop was broken down into two main areas: (1) Energy efficient boiler house steam generation; and Energy efficient steam distribution and consumption. The workshop also covered the following topics: (1) Ukrainian boilers; (2) Water treatment systems; (3) A profile of UKRESCO (Ukrainian Energy Services Company); (4) Turbine expanders and electricity generation; (5) Enterprise energy audit basics; and (6) Experience of steam use in Donetsk oblast.

  4. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, Michael J. (Plainfield, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (the combination of a hot finger and thermocouple well) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellows in providing an indication of total energy (steam+condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the thermocouple well hot and cold fingers subtracts the condensate energy as measured by the hot finger and thermocouple well from the total energy as measured by the cold finger to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning.

  5. Steam generator tube failures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  6. Materials Performance in USC Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; G. H. Meier; N. M. Yanar

    2011-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials Performance in USC Steam: (1) pressure effects on steam oxidation - unique capability coming on-line; (2) hydrogen evolution - hydrogen permeability apparatus to determine where hydrogen goes during steam oxidation; and (3) NETL materials development - steam oxidation resource for NETL developed materials.

  7. adjacent amazonian flooded: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    38 Reducing uncertainty in predictions of the response of Amazonian forests to climate change Edinburgh, University of - Research Archive Summary: Amazonia contains the largest...

  8. IMPLEMENTING A NOVEL CYCLIC CO2 FLOOD IN PALEOZOIC REEFS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James R. Wood; W. Quinlan; A. Wylie

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recycled CO2 will be used in this demonstration project to produce bypassed oil from the Silurian Dover 35 pinnacle reef (Otsego County) in the Michigan Basin. We began injecting CO2 in the Dover 35 field into the Salling-Hansen 4-35A well on May 6, 2004. Subsurface characterization is being completed using well log tomography animations and 3D visualizations to map facies distributions and reservoir properties in three reefs, the Belle River Mills, Chester 18, and Dover 35 Fields. The Belle River Mills and Chester 18 fields are being used as type-fields because they have excellent log and/or core data coverage. Amplitude slicing of the log porosity, normalized gamma ray, core permeability, and core porosity curves is showing trends that indicate significant heterogeneity and compartmentalization in these reservoirs associated with the original depositional fabric of the rocks. Digital and hard copy data continues to be compiled for the Niagaran reefs in the Michigan Basin. Technology transfer took place through technical presentations regarding visualization of the heterogeneity of the Niagaran reefs. Oral presentations were given at the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council workshop, Michigan Oil and Gas Association Conference, and Michigan Basin Geological Society meeting. A technical paper was submitted to the Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists on the characterization of the Belle River Mills Field.

  9. IMPLEMENTING A NOVEL CYCLIC CO2 FLOOD IN PALEOZOIC REEFS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James R. Wood; W. Quinlan; A. Wylie

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recycled CO2 will be used in this demonstration project to produce bypassed oil from the Silurian Dover 35 pinnacle reef (Otsego County) in the Michigan Basin. Contract negotiations by our industry partner to gain access to the CO2 supply have been completed and the State of Michigan has issued an order to allow operation of the project. Injection of CO2 is scheduled to begin in February, 2004. Subsurface characterization is being completed using well log tomography animations and 3D visualizations to map facies distributions and reservoir properties in two reefs, the Belle River Mills and Chester 18 Fields. The Belle River Mills and Chester18 fields are being used as type-fields because they have excellent log and/or core data coverage. Amplitude slicing of the normalized gamma ray and core permeability and core porosity curves is showing trends that indicate significant heterogeneity and compartmentalization in these reservoirs associated with the original depositional fabric of the rocks. Digital and hard copy data continues to be compiled for the Niagaran reefs in the Michigan Basin. Technology transfer took place through technical presentations regarding visualization of the heterogeneity of the Niagaran reefs. An oral presentation was given at the AAPG Eastern Section Meeting and a booth at the same meeting was used to meet one-on-one with operators.

  10. A FRAMEWORK TO DESIGN AND OPTIMIZE CHEMICAL FLOODING PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

  11. Theoretical study of water blocking in miscible flooding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, T. (BEB Erdgas and Erdol GmbH (DE)); Lake, L.W. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States))

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Miscible displacement processes can leave a substantial amount of residual oil behind the displacement front. This phenomenon has two general causes: instabilities caused by local heterogeneities or viscous fingering and water blocking. This paper describes a study of the latter. Numerous laboratory experiments have shown that significant blocking of oil from the solvent by mobile water can occur in water-wet media and at large water saturations. Despite this, water-blocking studies have been limited to either simple correction functions in numerical simulations or microscopic models. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no explicit theoretical model considers the macroscopic bypassing and subsequent interaction of the solvent stream with a trapped hydrocarbon phase. In this study, CO{sub 2} is the miscible solvent. A numerical model calculates the mass flux between flowing and stagnant regions separated by a water film. The model considers solvent diffusion and diffusional extraction of oil accompanied by swelling or shrinking of the stagnant hydrocarbon phase.

  12. California climate change, hydrologic response, and flood forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Norman L.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. Geological Survey, Water Res. Investigations Rep. 95-United States. J. Amer. Water Resources Assoc, 35, 1525-hydrology. J. American Water Resources Association, 39, 771-

  13. Climate Change and Flood Operations in the Sacramento Basin, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willis, Ann D.; Lund, Jay R.; Townsley, Edwin S.; Faber, Beth A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Yuba River, California: water control manual. Sacramento (River, California: water control manual. Sacramento (CA):Nov 9. [DWR] Department of Water Resources. 1969. California

  14. Caring for Important Papers after a Flood (Spanish) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FCS Project Team - FDRM UNIT

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    sustancias contenidas en el agua de inundaciones. Producido por AgriLife Communications, El Sistema Texas A&M Las publicaciones de Texas AgriLife Extension se pueden encontrar en Internet en: http://AgriLifebookstore.org Los programas educativos de Texas...

  15. Flood or Drought: How Do Aerosols Affect Precipitation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    by scattering and absorbing the solar radiation that energizes the formation of clouds (3­5). Because all cloud on clouds most- ly act to suppress precipitation, because they de- crease the amount of solar radiation

  16. Floods, health and climate change: a strategic review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    (Centre for Research on Epidemiology of Disasters, Belgium); Bas Jonkman (Road and Hydraulic Engineering

  17. Caring for Important Papers after a Flood (Spanish)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FCS Project Team - FDRM UNIT

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    sustancias contenidas en el agua de inundaciones. Producido por AgriLife Communications, El Sistema Texas A&M Las publicaciones de Texas AgriLife Extension se pueden encontrar en Internet en: http://AgriLifebookstore.org Los programas educativos de Texas...

  18. Analysis of density effect in probabilistic flooding in MANETs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bani Yassein, M.

    Bani Yassein,M. Ould-Khaoua,M. Papanastasiou,S. Al- Ayyoub,A. Proc. Int. Arab Conference on Information Technology (ACITâ??04), Mentouri University of Constantine, Algeria, December 12th-15th, 2004, to appear

  19. Climate Change and Flood Operations in the Sacramento Basin, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willis, Ann D.; Lund, Jay R.; Townsley, Edwin S.; Faber, Beth A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coast streamflow. Journal of Climate 5(12):1468–1483. [DWR]Washington, D.C. : Climate Change Science Program anddrier: The West’s changed climate. Denver ( CO): The Rocky

  20. Groundwater, Legacy Soil Cleanup and Flood Recovery Top Lab's...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and bioremediation. Chromium in the regional aquifer originated from its use as a corrosion inhibitor at the laboratory's main power plant between 1956 and 1972. The...

  1. IMPLEMENTING A NOVEL CYCLIC CO2 FLOOD IN PALEOZOIC REEFS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James R. Wood; W. Quinlan; A. Wylie

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recycled CO2 will be used in this demonstration project to produce bypassed oil from the Silurian Charlton 6 pinnacle reef (Otsego County) in the Michigan Basin. Contract negotiations by our industry partner to gain access to this CO2 that would otherwise be vented to the atmosphere are near completion. A new method of subsurface characterization, log curve amplitude slicing, is being used to map facies distributions and reservoir properties in two reefs, the Belle River Mills and Chester 18 Fields. The Belle River Mills and Chester18 fields are being used as typefields because they have excellent log-curve and core data coverage. Amplitude slicing of the normalized gamma ray curves is showing trends that may indicate significant heterogeneity and compartmentalization in these reservoirs. Digital and hard copy data continues to be compiled for the Niagaran reefs in the Michigan Basin. Technology transfer took place through technical presentations regarding the log curve amplitude slicing technique and a booth at the Midwest PTTC meeting.

  2. A FRAMEWORK TO DESIGN AND OPTIMIZE CHEMICAL FLOODING PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

  3. Pantex Facility 10-Year Natural Phenomena Flood Hazard Analysis

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and * Safeguards and Security Pantex (cont.) - Location Pantex (cont.) - Weather Patterns * Precipitation is typical for Southwest climate, mainly in the form of...

  4. IMPROVING URBAN FLOOD MANAGEMENT WITH AUTONOMOUS MINI-UAVS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giger, Christine

    . Markus Flückiger and Anton Miescher from Holinger AG were our hosts for the Lucerne case study, and Miriam Asanger from the city of Lucerne facilitated the flights on location. Reiner Gitzel from

  5. IMPLEMENTING A NOVEL CYCLIC CO2 FLOOD IN PALEOZOIC REEFS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James R. Wood; W. quinlan; A. Wylie

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recycled CO2 is being used in this demonstration project to produce bypassed oil from the Silurian Dover 35 Niagaran pinnacle reef located in Otsego County, Michigan. CO2 injection in the Dover 35 field into the Salling-Hansen 4-35A well began on May 6, 2004. A second injection well, the Salling-Hansen 1-35, commenced injection in August 2004. Oil production in the Pomerzynski 5-35 producing well increased from 9 BOPD prior to operations to an average of 165 BOPD in December, 2004 and has produced at an average rate of 61 BOPD (Jan-Dec, 2005). The Salling-Hansen 4-35A also produced during this reporting period an average of 29 BOPD. These increases have occurred as a result of CO2 injection and the production rate appears to be stabilizing. CO2 injection volume has reached approximately 2.18 BCF. The CO2 injection phase of this project has been fully operational since December 2004 and most downhole mechanical issues have been solved and surface facility modifications have been completed. It is anticipated that filling operations will run for another 6-12 months from July 1, 2005. In most other aspects, the demonstration is going well and hydrocarbon production has been stabilized at an average rate of 57 BOPD (July-Dec, 2005). Our industry partners continue to experiment with injection rates and pressures, various downhole and surface facility mechanical configurations, and the huff-n-puff technique to develop best practices for these types of enhanced recovery projects. Subsurface characterization was completed using well log tomography and 3D visualizations to map facies distributions and reservoir properties in the Belle River Mills, Chester 18, Dover 35, and Dover 36 Fields. The Belle River Mills and Chester 18 fields are being used as type-fields because they have excellent log and/or core data coverage. Amplitude slicing of the log porosity, normalized gamma ray, core permeability, and core porosity curves are showing trends that indicate significant heterogeneity and compartmentalization in these reservoirs associated with the original depositional fabric and pore types of the carbonate reservoir rocks. Accumulated pressure data supports the hypothesis of extreme heterogeneity in the Dover 35. Some intervals now have pressure readings over 2345 psig (April 29, 2005) in the A-1 Carbonate while nearby Niagaran Brown intervals only show 1030 psig (March 7, 2005). This is a pressure differential over 1300 psig and suggests significant vertical barriers in the reef, consistent with the GR tomography modeling. Digital and hard copy data have been compiled for the Niagaran reefs in the Michigan Basin, including a detailed summary of 20 fields in the vicinity of the demonstration well. Technology transfer took place through technical presentations regarding visualization of the reservoir heterogeneity in these Niagaran reefs. Oral presentations were given at two Petroleum Technology Transfer Council workshops, a Michigan Oil and Gas Association Conference, a Michigan Basin Geological Society meeting, and the Eastern American Association of Petroleum Geologist's Annual meeting. In addition, we met with our industry partners several times during the first half of 2005 to communicate and discuss the reservoir characterization and field site aspects of the demonstration project. A technical paper was published in the April 2005 issue of the AAPG Bulletin on the characterization of the Belle River Mills Field.

  6. Implementing A Novel Cyclic CO2 Flood In Paleozoic Reefs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James R. Wood; W. Quinlan; A. Wylie

    2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Recycled CO{sub 2} is being used in this demonstration project to produce bypassed oil from the Silurian Dover 35 Niagaran pinnacle reef located in Otsego County, Michigan. CO{sub 2} injection in the Dover 35 field into the Salling-Hansen 4-35A well began on May 6, 2004. A second injection well, the Salling-Hansen 1-35, commenced injection in August 2004. Oil production in the Pomerzynski 5-35 producing well increased from 9 BOPD prior to operations to an average of 165 BOPD in December, 2004 and is presently producing 52 BOPD. The Salling-Hansen 4-35A also produced during this reporting period an average of 21 BOPD. These increases have occurred as a result of CO{sub 2} injection and the production rate appears to be stabilizing. CO{sub 2} injection volume has reached approximately 1.6 BCF. The CO{sub 2} injection phase of this project has been fully operational since December 2004 and most downhole mechanical issues have been solved and surface facility modifications have been completed. It is anticipated that filling operations will run for another 6-12 months from July 1, 2005. In most other aspects, the demonstration is going well and hydrocarbon production has been successfully increased to a stable rate of 73 BOPD. Our industry partners continue to experiment with injection rates and pressures, various downhole and surface facility mechanical configurations, and the huff-n-puff technique to develop best practices for these types of enhanced recovery projects. Subsurface characterization is being completed using well log tomography and 3D visualizations to map facies distributions and reservoir properties in the Belle River Mills, Chester 18, Dover 35, and Dover 36 Fields. The Belle River Mills and Chester 18 fields are being used as type-fields because they have excellent log and/or core data coverage. Amplitude slicing of the log porosity, normalized gamma ray, core permeability, and core porosity curves is showing trends that indicate significant heterogeneity and compartmentalization in these reservoirs associated with the original depositional fabric and pore types of the carbonate reservoir rocks. Accumulated pressure data supports the hypothesis of extreme heterogeneity in the Dover 35. Some intervals now have pressure readings over 2345 psig (April 29, 2005) in the A-1 Carbonate while nearby Niagaran Brown intervals only show 1030 psig (March 7, 2005). This is a pressure differential over 1300 psig and suggests significant vertical barriers in the reef, consistent with the GR tomography modeling Digital and hard copy data continue to be compiled for the Niagaran reefs in the Michigan Basin. Technology transfer took place through technical presentations regarding visualization of the reservoir heterogeneity in these Niagaran reefs. Oral presentations were given at two Petroleum Technology Transfer Council workshops, a Michigan Oil and Gas Association Conference, a Michigan Basin Geological Society meeting, and the Eastern American Association of Petroleum Geologist's Annual meeting. In addition, we met with our industry partners several times during the first half of 2005 to communicate and discuss the reservoir characterization and field site aspects of the demonstration project. A technical paper was published in the April 2005 issue of the AAPG Bulletin on the characterization of the Belle River Mills Field.

  7. Matrix Acidizing Core Flooding Apparatus: Equipment and Procedure Description

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grabski, Elizabeth 1985-

    2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    ..................................................................... 3 1.4 Apparatus Requirements .................................................................................. 4 1.5 Objective and Approach .................................................................................. 7 II... ............................................................................ 10 2.3 Core Holders .................................................................................................. 15 2.4 Overburden Pump .......................................................................................... 17...

  8. LANL closes road, trails for safety reasons; flooding and erosion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory sits...

  9. Meal Preparation and Food Safety During and After a Flood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    temperature water. Air dry before opening. Or you can sanitize dishes, glassware, metal pans and utensils. s Hand can opener. s Battery-powered radio. s Extra batteries. s Camp stove or other emergency cooking

  10. IEEE Communications Magazine October 200242 Defending against Flooding-Based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Rocky Kow-Chuen

    , a large number of compromised hosts are amassed to send useless packets to jam a victim, or its Internet side, cur- rent technologies are still unable to withstand large-scale attacks. The main purpose in that a sufficient number of compromised hosts is amassed to send useless packets toward a victim around the same

  11. Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 NoEuropeStrat.pdfInactive JumpFirst WindWaterFloating

  12. ERDCTR-13-11 Flood and Coastal Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    and Real Vegetation EngineerResearchandDevelopment Center Mary E. Anderson, Jane McKee Smith, Duncan B through Artificial and Real Vegetation Mary E. Anderson, Jane McKee Smith, and Duncan B. Bryant Coastal

  13. 05679_ChemFlood | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032) - Energy Innovation Portal Advanced

  14. Groundwater, Legacy Soil Cleanup and Flood Recovery Top Lab's

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To: CongestionDevelopment of aLoggingsubscriber2008 | Department

  15. Federal Flood Risk Management Standard | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan| Department of.pdf6-OPAMDepartment6Awards » FederalFinance

  16. New Executive Order Establishes a Federal Flood Risk Management Standard |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy:Nanowire Solar541,9337, 2011R - 445 CU - 2 3NewNew3Energy,Department

  17. LANL completes high-priority flood and erosion control work

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your Home as ReadyAppointedKyungmin Ham,work under wayLANLLab

  18. Pantex Facility 10-Year Natural Phenomena Flood Hazard Analysis

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2UraniumEnergy City ofiManage-85(1).pdf MoreNeil F.83 STAT. 140andNEPantex

  19. Pantex Facility 10-Year Natural Phenomena Flood Hazard Analysis |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR - T en YMedicine -CERCLA Process & PublicPaige

  20. FEMA - National Flood Insurance Program Elevation Certificate and

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 NoEurope BV Jump to:FAS Technologies LLC Jump

  1. Email To Friend Steam Electricity Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . keymanengravables.com Steam Turbine Generator Info, Pictures And Deals For Steam turbine generator ediscountshoppingBack One Email To Friend Steam Electricity Generator Need Steam Electricity Generator? See Steam Electricity Generator. greenshieldsindustrial.com Steam Generators Deals on Steam Generators Find what you

  2. Predicting Steam Turbine Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harriz, J. T.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tracking the performance of extraction, back-pressure and condensing steam turbines is a crucial part of minimising energy and maintenance costs for large process industries. A thorough understanding of key equipment performance characteristics...

  3. Steam System Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buchanan, M. G.; Sneary, M. L.

    energy into the air. You might say that many of us are increasing the relative humidity of our respective cities. Before a conventional pump package can handle steam condensate, that fluid must be cooled to somewhere below 180 0 ? This cooling... are increasing the relative humidity of our respective cities. Before a conventional pump package can handle steam condensate, that fluid must be cooled to somewhere below 180 0 . This cooling is accomplished by venting the receiver to the atmosphere...

  4. The influence of free gas saturation on water flood performance - variations caused by changes in flooding rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandona, Anil Kumar

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    through 19. These 4. 0 FIGURE I ATER -OIL CAPILLARY PRESSURE CURVE W CA 0 I IJJ IK Pn 2. 0 CA UJ lL CL K o IO 0 . 20 . 40 . 60 . 80 I. O WATER SATURATION - FRACTION OF PORE VOLUME IO 0 . 20 . 40 . 60 . 80 I. O GAS SATURATION - FRACTION... injection of 0. 25 pore volumes of water. Except for the very low rates, all gas present in the system is trapped. At high water 0 u H 0 0 0 4J g 0 I-I I-1 M 0 z 0 0 Ql QJ 0 3 0 4J cd Q 'O QJ Q Ql 4J cd Q cc V Id 0 0 4J 0 cd O ca Ql...

  5. Steam System Tool Suite Introduction Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Steam System Tool Suite Introduction Guide Alternate Text Narratives and Graphic.............................................................................................................................6 Modules Steam System Scoping Tool (SSST)........................................................................................8 Steam System Assessment Tool (SSAT

  6. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Distribution Losses Module 1 June 29, 2010 Steam EndUser Training Steam Distribution System Losses Module Slide 1 pressure. #12;DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Distribution

  7. Steam System Improvements at a Manufacturing Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Compher, J.; Morcom, B.

    BWX Technologies, Naval Nuclear Fuel Division (NNFD) is a manufacturing company with a steam system consisting of two Babcock & Wilcox boilers and approximately 350 steam traps. The steam system is used to produce and distribute steam for space...

  8. Steam generator tube rupture study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Free, Scott Thomas

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes our investigation of steam generator behavior during a postulated tube rupture accident. Our study was performed using the steam generator, thermal-hydraulic analysis code THERMIT-UTSG. The purpose ...

  9. Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on deaerators in industrial steam systems provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  10. Reduction in Unit Steam Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gombos, R.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2001 the company's Arch-Brandenburg facility faced increased steam costs due to high natural gas prices and decreased production due to shutdown of a process. The facility was challenged to reduce unit steam consumption to minimize the effects...

  11. Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Andrew

    2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Corbett Lot Dunn Lot Chadbourne Merrill Aubert Hannibal Hamlin Steam Plant Crosby Machine Tool Lab Children's Center Rogers N

  12. Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Andrew

    2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Corbett Lot Dunn Lot Hamlin Steam Plant Crosby Machine Tool Lab Children's Center Rogers N S Estabrooke Memorial Gym Stevens

  13. Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylva, D. M.

    Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction is a technical paper that addresses the operating and economic advantages associated with the program to lower the steam operating pressure. Evaluation of a testing program will be discussed. The paper...

  14. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on inspecting and repairing steam traps provide how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  15. Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Andrew

    2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Gym Lot Corbett Lot Greenhouse Patch Oceanographic Operations 1 2 8 5 3 4 7 6 AMC Chadbourne Merrill Aubert Hannibal Hamlin Steam

  16. Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Andrew

    2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Corbett Lot Dunn Lot Oceanographic Operations 1 2 8 5 3 4 7 6 AMC Chadbourne Merrill Aubert Hannibal Hamlin Steam Plant Crosby

  17. Steam Condensation Induced Waterhammer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirsner, W.

    ,200 foot steam line to begin wanning it up. He'd been energizing the G-line for 3 weeks now at the end ofthe asbestos worker's shift and had never had the system warm up this quickly. It usually took from 30 to 45 minutes. When the handwheel spun... at Fort Wainwright, Alaska, the G and H Lines ran underground in narrow utilidors 2 filled with pipe. Originally, the contractor had tried to abate the steam main with the lines energized. This proved to be near impossible for the workers. Utilidor...

  18. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, L.C.; Simpson, M.L.

    1995-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically. 4 figures.

  19. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically.

  20. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Generation Efficiency Module Shell Losses - 1 8/27/2010 Steam End-User Training Steam Generation Efficiency Module Shell Losses-Section: Shell Losses] Banner: DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam Generation Efficiency Efficiency

  1. Steam Plant, 6% Irrigation,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Pei

    Steam Plant, 6% School of Medicine, 17% Irrigation, 3% Hospital, 22% Athletics, 2% Housing, 5 · Rainwater Cisterns · Reducing the number of once through cooling systems in labs · Expediting the connection for Irrigation ~15 million gallons Percent of Water Used for Irrigation that is Non-Potable ~10-15% Number

  2. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  3. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, R.C.; Kobsa, I.R.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof. 12 figures.

  4. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, Roy C. (Livermore, CA); Kobsa, Irvin R. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof.

  5. Steam Trap Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, J. J.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Equipment Collecting leg, same size as equip ment connection but not less than Install a Yarway Process Trap below be drained. Install a Provide vacuum strainer with a blow down valve. Use and Yarway Aldrain valves full ported stop valves, (gate... and Corrosion Problems Like any critical control device the steam trap should be protected from dirt and scale if optimum operation and adequate service life are to be attained. Strainers should be equipped with blowdown valves to provide an effective...

  6. Steam Power Partnership: Improving Steam System Efficiency Through Marketplace Partnerships 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, T.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    been great advances in boiler control technology as older pneumatic and analog electronic control systems have given way to digital, computer-based distributed control systems. These systems are more reliable and can extend boiler life. Modem... Several software tools are now available for individual steam technologies, such as steam traps, insulation, and boiler controls. The Partnership should investigate linking these software tools together and incorporating other steam "modules" (i...

  7. Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues; A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A BestPractices Technical Brief describing industrial steam generation systems and opportunities for reducing steam system operating pressure.

  8. Constant-Pressure Measurement of Steam-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    SGP-TR-169 Constant-Pressure Measurement of Steam- Water Relative Permeability Peter A. O by measuring in-situ steam saturation more directly. Mobile steam mass fraction was established by separate steam and water inlets or by correlating with previous results. The measured steam-water relative

  9. Steam condensate leakage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Midlock, E.B.; Thuot, J.R.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is a multi-program research and development center owned by the United States Department of Energy and operated by the University of Chicago. The majority of the buildings on site use steam for heating and other purposes. Steam is generated from liquid water at the site`s central boiler house and distributed around the site by means of large pipes both above and below the ground. Steam comes into each building where it is converted to liquid condensate, giving off heat which can be used by the building. The condensate is then pumped back to the boiler house where it will be reheated to steam again. The process is continual but is not perfectly efficient. A substantial amount of condensate is being lost somewhere on site. The lost condensate has both economic and environmental significance. To compensate for lost condensate, makeup water must be added to the returned condensate at the boiler house. The water cost itself will become significant in the future when ANL begins purchasing Lake Michigan water. In addition to the water cost, there is also the cost of chemically treating the water to remove impurities, and there is the cost of energy required to heat the water, as it enters the boiler house 1000 F colder than the condensate return. It has been estimated that only approximately 60% of ANL`s steam is being returned as condensate, thus 40% is being wasted. This is quite costly to ANL and will become significantly more costly in the future when ANL begins purchasing water from Lake Michigan. This study locates where condensate loss is occurring and shows how much money would be saved by repairing the areas of loss. Shortly after completion of the study, one of the major areas of loss was repaired. This paper discusses the basis for the study, the areas where losses are occurring, the potential savings of repairing the losses, and a hypothesis as to where the unaccounted for loss is occurring.

  10. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Charles T. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  11. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Generation Efficiency Module Efficiency Definition - 1 8/30/2010 Steam End-User Training Steam Generation Efficiency Module will be discussed. [Slide Visual ­ Contents of Module Sections] Banner: DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training

  12. DOE's BestPractices Steam End-User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End-User Training Steam End User Training Steam Generation Module Stack Losses 1 June 28, 2010 Steam EndUser Training Steam Generation Efficiency Module Stack Losses loss is almost always the largest boiler loss. [Slide Visual ­ Stack Loss Title Page] Steam

  13. Steam System Improvement: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkatesan, V. V.; Leigh, N.

    . For industries, this will result in the reduction of production cost. In industry where steam is utilized, the steam production and distribution system consumes a significant portion of energy. Therefore, optimization of steam system is among the biggest energy...

  14. Steam System Survey Guide

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretaryVideosSpringoutAPBF-DEC NOxBestPractices SteamOffice of1/263

  15. Steam Basics: Use Available Data to Lower Steam System Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risko, J. R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the 2011 Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, Louisiana, May 17-19, 2011 13. Is there never enough time or resource to periodically blow down strainers / drip pockets? 14. Is there a ?one size fits all? approach towards steam trap... selection; using the same model for all drip and tracer applications? 15. Does the site remove strainer screens from steam traps to prevent blockage? 16. Is at least the same amount of steam produced today as 4 years ago? 17. In the past 3 years, has...

  16. Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Pengcheng

    Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use at the Steam Plant #12;· Flagship campus region produce 14% of US coal (TN only 0.2%) Knoxville and the TN Valley #12;· UT is one of about 70 U.S. colleges and universities w/ steam plant that burns coal · Constructed in 1964, provides steam for

  17. Combined Heat and Power Plant Steam Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    Combined Heat and Power Plant Steam Turbine Steam Turbine Chiller Campus Heat Load Steam (recovered waste heat) Gas Turbine University Substation High Pressure Natural Gas Campus Electric Load Southern Generator Heat Recovery Alternative Uses: 1. Campus heating load 2. Steam turbine chiller to campus cooling

  18. Steam Load Reduction Guidance Emergency Management Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Steam Load Reduction Guidance Emergency Management Program v October 2014 Steam_Load_Reduction_Guidance_DSRDSR 1.0 PurposeandScope Utilities provides steam to the campus community for space heating, hot water in the steam distribution system or the Central Energy Plant, the preservation of building infrastructure

  19. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Welcome Module - 1 8/27/2010 Steam End User Training Welcome Module Slide 1 ­ Steam End User Training Welcome to the Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program BestPractices Steam End-User Training. The Department of Energy

  20. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Condensate recovery o Fuel unit cost o Total fuel consumption o Steam production Slide 6 ­ Boiler o PRV steam flows o o Steam consumers Turbine efficiencies Electrical unit cost o o CondensateDOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Conclusion Module 1 June 28

  1. Steam Power Partnership: Improving Steam System Efficiency Through Marketplace Partnerships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, T.

    The Alliance to Save Energy, a national nonprofit organization based in Washington DC, and the U.S. Department of Energy are working with energy efficiency suppliers to promote the comprehensive upgrade of industrial steam systems. Like EPA's Green...

  2. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voecks, Gerald E. (La Crescenta, CA)

    1990-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  3. Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gandler, T.

    & challenges in steam cracking ? Energy efficiency improvements Overview Baytown Olefins Plant Page 3 Baytown Complex ?One of world?s largest integrated, most technologically advanced petroleum/petrochemical complexes ?~3,400 acres along Houston Ship... wall temperatures Furnace tube hydrocarbon + steam 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1 2 time C o k e l a y e r Page 8 Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Efficiency ? Overall energy efficiency of furnace depends on ? Run length or % of time...

  4. Wet-steam erosion of steam turbine disks and shafts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Averkina, N. V. [JSC 'NPO TsKTI' (Russian Federation); Zheleznyak, I. V. [Leningradskaya AES branch of JSC 'Kontsern Rosenergoatom' (Russian Federation); Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G., E-mail: orlikvg@mail.ru [JSC 'NPO TsKTI' (Russian Federation); Shishkin, V. I. [Leningradskaya AES branch of JSC 'Kontsern Rosenergoatom' (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of wet-steam erosion of the disks and the rotor bosses or housings of turbines in thermal and nuclear power plants shows that the rate of wear does not depend on the diagrammed degree of moisture, but is determined by moisture condensing on the surfaces of the diaphragms and steam inlet components. Renovating the diaphragm seals as an assembly with condensate removal provides a manifold reduction in the erosion.

  5. Computer Optimization of Steam Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todd, C. H.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As fuel costs continued to rise sharply during the 1970' s, the staff at Exxon's Benicia Refinery realized there was a growing economic incentive to optimize the production of high pressure steam. A significant percentage of the Refinery's total...

  6. Foam Cleaning of Steam Turbines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foster, C.; Curtis, G.; Horvath, J. W.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency and power output of a steam turbine can be dramatically reduced when deposits form on the turbine blades. Disassembly and mechanical cleaning of the turbine is very time consuming and costly. Deposits can be removed from the turbine...

  7. Foam Cleaning of Steam Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foster, C.; Curtis, G.; Horvath, J. W.

    The efficiency and power output of a steam turbine can be dramatically reduced when deposits form on the turbine blades. Disassembly and mechanical cleaning of the turbine is very time consuming and costly. Deposits can be removed from the turbine...

  8. Steam Coal Import Costs - EIA

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Steam Coal Import Costs for Selected Countries U.S. Dollars per Metric Ton1 (Average Unit Value, CIF2) Country 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Belgium 46.96 39.34...

  9. Steam System Forecasting and Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mongrue, D. M.; Wittke, D. O.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    '. This and the complex and integrated nature of the plants energy balance makes steam system forecasting and management essential for optimum use of the plant's energy. This paper discusses the method used by Union carbide to accomplish effective forecasting...

  10. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial Technologies Program's BestPractices tip sheet on improving efficiency of industrial steam systems by recovery latent heat from low-pressure steam.

  11. Humidification Steam vs. Water-Spray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gidwani, B. N.; Weston, R. F.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently the HVAC systems which require winter humidification at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) utilize an economizer cycle with steam as the source for humidification. Due to the continuously increasing cost of producing steam, a feasibility...

  12. Steam Conservation and Boiler Plant Efficiency Advancements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiorino, D. P.

    This paper examines several cost-effective steam conservation and boiler plant efficiency advancements that were implemented during a recently completed central steam boiler plant replacement project at a very large semiconductor manufacturing...

  13. Compressor & Steam Turbine Efficiency Improvements & Revamping Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hata, S.; Horiba, J.; Sicker, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the plant and introduce the history of efficiency improvements for compressors and steam turbines in the Petrochemical Industry. Since heat balance configurations affect the plant's steam consumption, the authors will explain several cases of heat balance...

  14. Compressor & Steam Turbine Efficiency Improvements & Revamping Opportunities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hata, S.; Horiba, J.; Sicker, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the plant and introduce the history of efficiency improvements for compressors and steam turbines in the Petrochemical Industry. Since heat balance configurations affect the plant's steam consumption, the authors will explain several cases of heat balance...

  15. The Economics of Steam Electric Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ophaug, R. A.; Birget, C. D.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The economics of combining steam and electric generation for companies requiring both steam and electric services develop a challenge which few engineers and economists can realize. This paper outlines the general approach to this challenge...

  16. Training: Steam Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Steam Systems Training: Steam Systems April 16, 2014 - 6:31pm Addthis Learn about the diverse training sessions offered. The courses are taught by highly qualified instructors who...

  17. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Navigational Tutorial - 1 8/27/2010 Steam End User Training Navigational Tutorial Module Slide 1 ­ Introduction Hello, and welcome to the Steam End User Training. I would like to take a few minutes to show you how to navigate through

  18. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Introduction Module - 1 8/27/2010 Steam End User Training Introduction Module Slide 1 - Introduction Title Page Hello, and welcome to the Steam System End User training. In this training, we will investigate how to assess, evaluate

  19. Identifying Steam Opportunity "Impact" Inputs for the Steam System Assessment Tool (SSAT) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrell, G.; Jendrucko, R.; Wright, A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. DOE BestPractices Steam "Steam System Assessment Tool" (SSAT) is a powerful tool for quantifying potential steam improvement opportunities in steam systems. However, all assessment tools are only as good as the validity of the modeling...

  20. Optimisation of Fuel Usage and Steam Availability in the Power and Steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    the medium pressure manifold (nominally operated at 14 bar), through a steam turbine that can be usedOptimisation of Fuel Usage and Steam Availability in the Power and Steam Plant of a Paper Mill KEYWORDS: Model Predictive Control, Improved Efficiency, Optimisation, Power and Steam Supply System

  1. Steam Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssues DOE's NuclearSpurringSteam Systems Steam Systems Many

  2. Capturing Energy Savings with Steam Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bockwinkel, R. G.; French, S. A.

    , it's important to select and install the correct type and size steam trap for each application. This means a corruninnent must be made to training those who select, install, test and maintain steam traps on a. daily Scott A. French Application... generated. This paper will review each of these topics and then explore some of the new services, products, practices and technology available to help you maintain or improve the efficiency of your steam system. COSTLY STEAM LEAKS ENERGY RESOURCES...

  3. ProSteam- A Structured Approach to Steam System Improvement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eastwood, A.

    and of any operational constraints. It can also be used to determine the true cost of improvement projects, relating any changes in steam demand back to purchased utilities (fuel, power, and make-up water) at the site boundary. Example projects could include...

  4. Best Management Practice #8: Steam Boiler Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Boilers and steam generators are commonly used in large heating systems, institutional kitchens, or in facilities where large amounts of process steam are used. This equipment consumes varying amounts of water depending on system size, the amount of steam used, and the amount of condensate returned.

  5. STEAM-WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY A DISSERTATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    STEAM-WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM Laboratory. iv #12;ABSTRACT Steam-water relative permeability curves are required for mathematical models of two-phase geothermal reservoirs. In this study, drainage steam- water relative permeabilities were

  6. Steam Sterilization Cycles for Lab Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    Steam Sterilization Cycles for Lab Applications Presented by Gary Butler STERIS Life Sciences August 2009 #12;Early Steam Sterilizers Koch Upright Sterilizer · First Pressurized Sterilizer · First OPERATING END (NO PRINTER) PRIMARY OPERATING END WITH PRINTER SAFETY VALVE CHAMBER PRESSURE GAUGE Steam

  7. New downhole steam generator tested

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bleakley, W.B.

    1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Completion of 2 field tests of a new-model down-hole steam generator paves the way for further evaluation and development of a system destined to increase California's heavy oil production. Current air pollution restrictions there prevent installation of conventional steam generators in several areas of interest to oil operators. The current series of tests, conducted by Chemical Oil Recovery Co. (CORCO) of Bakersfield, California, follows an earlier prototype operation conducted by Sandia National Laboratories in conjunction with the US Department of Energy. The CORCO tests were conducted on the surface with the generator's output going into Tenneco Oil Exploration and Production Co.'s overland-Riokern Well No. 80, located in the Kern River field 4 miles north of Bakersfield. The first test was concluded with just under 1000 bbl of steam injected, less than planned due to a higher-than-expected injection pressure. The unit operated at less than 25% capacity because of the air compressor limitation. Compressor output was only 285 psi, not enough to inject the desired volumes into the reservoir. Test data shows that injection amounted to 150 bpd of 90 to 95% quality steam at 225-psi wellhead pressure. After injection, the well was shut in for 3 days to allow soaking, then put on production. Initial production was 40 bopd at 175 F.

  8. Geismar TDI Plant Steam Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baily, M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inlet isolation valve o Outlet isolation valve o Built-in strainer o Upstream blow down o Downstream blow down (or test port) o 2-bolt connection for K port steam trap ? Valves on V2 stations are bellows sealed valves ? high integrity seal...

  9. Generating Steam by Waste Incineration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, D. R.; Darrow, L. A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustible waste is a significant source of steam at the new John Deere Tractor Works assembly plant in Waterloo, Iowa. The incinerators, each rated to consume two tons of solid waste per hour, are expected to provide up to 100 percent of the full...

  10. Materials Performance in USC Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 °C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 °C).

  11. Steam cooling system for a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Ian David (Mauldin, SC); Barb, Kevin Joseph (Halfmoon, NY); Li, Ming Cheng (Cincinnati, OH); Hyde, Susan Marie (Schenectady, NY); Mashey, Thomas Charles (Coxsackie, NY); Wesorick, Ronald Richard (Albany, NY); Glynn, Christopher Charles (Hamilton, OH); Hemsworth, Martin C. (Cincinnati, OH)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The steam cooling circuit for a gas turbine includes a bore tube assembly supplying steam to circumferentially spaced radial tubes coupled to supply elbows for transitioning the radial steam flow in an axial direction along steam supply tubes adjacent the rim of the rotor. The supply tubes supply steam to circumferentially spaced manifold segments located on the aft side of the 1-2 spacer for supplying steam to the buckets of the first and second stages. Spent return steam from these buckets flows to a plurality of circumferentially spaced return manifold segments disposed on the forward face of the 1-2 spacer. Crossover tubes couple the steam supply from the steam supply manifold segments through the 1-2 spacer to the buckets of the first stage. Crossover tubes through the 1-2 spacer also return steam from the buckets of the second stage to the return manifold segments. Axially extending return tubes convey spent cooling steam from the return manifold segments to radial tubes via return elbows.

  12. Hurricane Surge Flooding Damage Assessment and Web-Based Game Development to Support K12 Education for Understanding Climate Change Impact on Hurricane Surge Flooding Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Chih-Hung

    2014-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    to extend my gratitude to the National Sea Grant of the U.S. Department of Commerce’s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, for funding this research (Grant No. NA 10OAR4170099). Special thanks to Dr. Irish in Virginia Tech University, her... .................................................................. 26 Figure 3-10 Shift of Central Pressure Deficit ................................................................... 32 Figure 3-11 Global Sea Level Rise Projection (Table5.5 in National Research Council (2012) p.93...

  13. DESIGN OF HYDRAULIC CONTROLS AND STRUCTURES 16.1. A spillway on a flood control dam is designed to pass a flood with an exceedance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowen, James D.

    · Lead-zinc mine · April 25, 1998, tailings dam failure · 4-5M m3 of tailings slurries into Rio Agrio

  14. Arnaud et al., 7200 years of Rhne River floods The Holocene, in press 7200 years of Rhne river flooding activity in Lake Le Bourget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to be widely affected by the human impact on soil stability, the timing of the period of enhanced hydrological, climate, human impact, magnetic susceptibility, major elements Introduction Although it appeared and then to compare them to modern human-induced "global warming", it is of prime importance to establish

  15. TYPES OF FLOODING IN AUSTRALIA Floods are part of the natural water cycle or a "Hydrologic Cycle". In this natural cycle, the energy of the sun causes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenslade, Diana

    to carry the water that has entered the river network, and the banks overflow. The area that gets inundated an emergency kit containing: o a first aid kit o a torch and portable radio with spare batteries o candles records, including wills, birth/marriage certificates, banking, financial records, etc · keep a list

  16. Changes in Flood Management along the Pajaro River: A Transition to Watershed Management Approaches and Lessons from the Water Framework Directive and Flood Directive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jagger, Stacie

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    human actions causing environmental damage and the full-costand include the environmental damage and recovery costs (

  17. Steam atmosphere drying concepts using steam exhaust recompression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiBella, F.A. (TECOGEN, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States))

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the US industrial drying accounts for approximately 1.5 quads of energy use per year. Annual industrial dryer expenditures are estimated to be in the $500 million range. Industrial drying is a significant energy and monetary expense. For the thermal drying processes in which water is removed via evaporation from the feedstock, attempts have been made to reduce the consumption of energy using exhaust waste heat recovery techniques, improved dryer designs, or even the deployment of advanced mechanical dewatering techniques. Despite these efforts, it is obvious that a large amount of thermal energy is often still lost if the latent heat of evaporation from the evaporated water cannot be recovered and/or in some way be utilized as direct heat input into the dryer. Tecogen Inc. is conducting research and development on an industrial drying concept. That utilizes a directly or indirectly superheated steam cycle atmosphere with exhaust steam recompression to recover the latent heat in the exhaust that would otherwise be lost. This approach has the potential to save 55 percent of the energy required by a conventional air dryer. Other advantages to the industrial dryer user include: A 35-percent reduction in the yearly cost per kg[sub evap] to dry wet feedstock, Reduced airborne emissions, Reduced dry dust fire/explosion risks, Hot product not exposed to oxygen thus, the product quality is enhanced, Constant rate drying in steam atmosphere, Reduced dryer size and cost, Reduced dryer heat losses due to lower dryer inlet temperatures. Tecogen has projected that the steam atmosphere drying system is most suitable as a replacement technology for state-of-the-art spray, flash, and fluidized bed drying systems. Such systems are utilized in the food and kindred products; rubber products; chemical and allied products; stone, clay, and glass; textiles; and pulp and paper industrial sectors.

  18. Steam atmosphere drying concepts using steam exhaust recompression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiBella, F.A. [TECOGEN, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the US industrial drying accounts for approximately 1.5 quads of energy use per year. Annual industrial dryer expenditures are estimated to be in the $500 million range. Industrial drying is a significant energy and monetary expense. For the thermal drying processes in which water is removed via evaporation from the feedstock, attempts have been made to reduce the consumption of energy using exhaust waste heat recovery techniques, improved dryer designs, or even the deployment of advanced mechanical dewatering techniques. Despite these efforts, it is obvious that a large amount of thermal energy is often still lost if the latent heat of evaporation from the evaporated water cannot be recovered and/or in some way be utilized as direct heat input into the dryer. Tecogen Inc. is conducting research and development on an industrial drying concept. That utilizes a directly or indirectly superheated steam cycle atmosphere with exhaust steam recompression to recover the latent heat in the exhaust that would otherwise be lost. This approach has the potential to save 55 percent of the energy required by a conventional air dryer. Other advantages to the industrial dryer user include: A 35-percent reduction in the yearly cost per kg{sub evap} to dry wet feedstock, Reduced airborne emissions, Reduced dry dust fire/explosion risks, Hot product not exposed to oxygen thus, the product quality is enhanced, Constant rate drying in steam atmosphere, Reduced dryer size and cost, Reduced dryer heat losses due to lower dryer inlet temperatures. Tecogen has projected that the steam atmosphere drying system is most suitable as a replacement technology for state-of-the-art spray, flash, and fluidized bed drying systems. Such systems are utilized in the food and kindred products; rubber products; chemical and allied products; stone, clay, and glass; textiles; and pulp and paper industrial sectors.

  19. Steam in Distribution and Use: Steam Quality Redefined

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deacon, W. T.

    in the system at regular intervals. 2) Control valves should be protected by a strainer which is free from condensate accumulation. Heat Transfer potential. 1) Use steam at the lowest possible pressure to take advantage of low pressure latent heat...) A special situation exists ahead of valves that are protected by a strainer. The strainer body is a low point and accumulates condensate naturally, reducing the effective area of the strainer screen. (See Figure 4.) KI!?: Fig. 4. Automatic...

  20. Chemical filtration for steam purity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovalcik, F.

    1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Few industrial process systems are as vulnerable to corrosion as the steam generating loop of an electric power plant. Impurities inevitably migrate into the steam cycle, and must be removed to prevent turbine blade corrosion. It is critical to understand the behavior of the condensate polishing resins used to remove the impurities. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) participated in investigations involving ion chromatography which identified chloride as a problem in studies of regeneration and polishing procedures. A modified regeneration procedure consists of ammonium sulfate treatment of the resin before and after ammonia recirculation, followed by a dilute ammonia rinse. A joint study with Southern California Edison also simulated condenser leaks to find the effect of cooling water intrusion.