Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flexible-fuel methanol dodge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

FTP Emissions Test Results from Flexible-Fuel Methanol Dodge Spirits and Ford Econoline Vans  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

FTP Emissions Test Results from Flexible-Fuel FTP Emissions Test Results from Flexible-Fuel Methanol Dodge Spirits and Ford Econoline Vans Kenneth J. Kelly, Brent K. Bailey, and Timothy C. Coburn National Renewable Energy Laboratory Wendy Clark Automotive Testing Laboratories, Inc. Leslie Eudy ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc. Peter Lissiuk Environmental Research and Development Corp. Presented at Society for Automotive Engineers International Spring Fuels and Lubricants Meeting Dearborn, MI May 6-8, 1996 The work described here was wholly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, a U.S. government agency. As such, this information is in the public domain, may be copied and otherwise accessed freely, and is not subject to copyright laws. These papers were previously published in hard copy form by the Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.

2

Dodge Caravan fact sheet  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been directed to conduct projects to evaluate the performance and acceptability of light-duty AFVs. This fact sheet describes the test results on a pair of 1998 Dodge Grand Caravans: a flexible-fuel vehicle (FFVs) operating on E85 (85{percent} ethanol and 15{percent} gasoline) and the other on gasoline only.

NREL

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Flexible Fuel Vehicles  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) are capable of operating on gasoline, E85 (85% ethanol, 15% gasoline), or a mixture of both. There are almost 8 million flexible fuel vehicles on U.S. roads today, but many FFV owners don't know their vehicle is one.

4

Energy Basics: Flexible Fuel Vehicles  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Flexible Fuel Vehicles Photo of a gray van with 'E85 Ethanol' written on the side. Flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) are capable of operating on gasoline, E85 (85%...

5

Energy Basics: Flexible Fuel Vehicles  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

& Fuels Printable Version Share this resource Fuels Vehicles Electric Vehicles Flexible Fuel Vehicles Fuel Cell Vehicles Hybrid Electric Vehicles Natural Gas Vehicles Propane...

6

Gas Mileage of 1986 Vehicles by Dodge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 Dodge Vehicles 6 Dodge Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 1986 Dodge 600 4 cyl, 2.2 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1986 Dodge 600 21 City 22 Combined 24 Highway 1986 Dodge 600 4 cyl, 2.2 L, Automatic 3-spd, Premium Gasoline Compare 1986 Dodge 600 18 City 19 Combined 22 Highway 1986 Dodge 600 4 cyl, 2.5 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1986 Dodge 600 20 City 21 Combined 23 Highway 1986 Dodge 600 Convertible 4 cyl, 2.2 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1986 Dodge 600 Convertible 21 City 22 Combined 24 Highway 1986 Dodge 600 Convertible 4 cyl, 2.2 L, Automatic 3-spd, Premium Gasoline Compare 1986 Dodge 600 Convertible 18 City 19 Combined 22 Highway 1986 Dodge 600 Convertible 4 cyl, 2.2 L, Manual 5-spd, Premium Gasoline Compare 1986 Dodge 600 Convertible 18

7

Gas Mileage of 1995 Vehicles by Dodge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 Dodge Vehicles 5 Dodge Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 1995 Dodge Avenger 4 cyl, 2.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1995 Dodge Avenger 18 City 21 Combined 27 Highway 1995 Dodge Avenger 4 cyl, 2.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1995 Dodge Avenger 19 City 22 Combined 29 Highway 1995 Dodge Avenger 4 cyl, 2.0 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1995 Dodge Avenger 19 City 23 Combined 30 Highway 1995 Dodge Avenger 4 cyl, 2.0 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1995 Dodge Avenger 19 City 23 Combined 29 Highway 1995 Dodge Avenger 6 cyl, 2.5 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1995 Dodge Avenger 18 City 21 Combined 26 Highway 1995 Dodge B1500/B2500 Van 2WD 6 cyl, 3.9 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1995 Dodge B1500/B2500 Van 2WD

8

Gas Mileage of 2014 Vehicles by Dodge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 Dodge Vehicles 4 Dodge Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 2014 Dodge Avenger 4 cyl, 2.4 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2014 Dodge Avenger 21 City 24 Combined 30 Highway 2014 Dodge Avenger 4 cyl, 2.4 L, Automatic 6-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2014 Dodge Avenger 20 City 24 Combined 31 Highway 2014 Dodge Avenger 6 cyl, 3.6 L, Automatic 6-spd, Regular Gas or E85 Compare 2014 Dodge Avenger Gas 19 City 22 Combined 29 Highway E85 14 City 16 Combined 21 Highway 2014 Dodge Challenger 6 cyl, 3.6 L, Automatic 5-spd, Midgrade Gasoline Compare 2014 Dodge Challenger 18 City 21 Combined 27 Highway 2014 Dodge Challenger 8 cyl, 5.7 L, Automatic 5-spd, Midgrade Gasoline Compare 2014 Dodge Challenger 15 City 18 Combined 25 Highway 2014 Dodge Challenger 8 cyl, 5.7 L, Manual 6-spd, Premium Gasoline

9

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Ethanol Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on AddThis.com... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Availability Conversions Emissions Laws & Incentives Flexible Fuel Vehicles Photo of a flexible fuel vehicle.

10

Gas Mileage of 2010 Vehicles by Dodge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

10 Dodge Vehicles 10 Dodge Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 2010 Dodge Avenger 4 cyl, 2.4 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2010 Dodge Avenger View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 21 City 24 Combined 30 Highway 2010 Dodge Avenger 6 cyl, 3.5 L, Automatic 6-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2010 Dodge Avenger 16 City 20 Combined 27 Highway 2010 Dodge Avenger 6 cyl, 2.7 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gas or E85 Compare 2010 Dodge Avenger Gas 19 City 22 Combined 27 Highway E85 14 City 16 Combined 20 Highway 2010 Dodge Caliber 4 cyl, 2.0 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2010 Dodge Caliber View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 23 City 26 Combined 31 Highway 2010 Dodge Caliber 4 cyl, 2.0 L, Automatic (variable gear ratios), Regular Gasoline Compare 2010 Dodge Caliber

11

Gas Mileage of 2012 Vehicles by Dodge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 Dodge Vehicles 2 Dodge Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 2012 Dodge Avenger 4 cyl, 2.4 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2012 Dodge Avenger View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 21 City 24 Combined 30 Highway 2012 Dodge Avenger 4 cyl, 2.4 L, Automatic 6-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2012 Dodge Avenger View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 20 City 24 Combined 31 Highway 2012 Dodge Avenger 6 cyl, 3.6 L, Automatic 6-spd, Regular Gas or E85 Compare 2012 Dodge Avenger Gas 19 City 22 Combined 29 Highway E85 14 City 16 Combined 21 Highway 2012 Dodge Caliber 4 cyl, 2.0 L, Automatic (variable gear ratios), Regular Gasoline Compare 2012 Dodge Caliber 23 City 24 Combined 27 Highway 2012 Dodge Caliber 4 cyl, 2.0 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2012 Dodge Caliber 24

12

Gas Mileage of 1999 Vehicles by Dodge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1999 Dodge Vehicles 1999 Dodge Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 1999 Dodge Avenger 4 cyl, 2.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1999 Dodge Avenger 19 City 22 Combined 27 Highway 1999 Dodge Avenger 4 cyl, 2.0 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1999 Dodge Avenger 19 City 23 Combined 29 Highway 1999 Dodge Avenger 6 cyl, 2.5 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1999 Dodge Avenger View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 17 City 20 Combined 25 Highway 1999 Dodge B1500 Van 2WD 6 cyl, 3.9 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1999 Dodge B1500 Van 2WD 14 City 15 Combined 16 Highway 1999 Dodge B1500 Van 2WD 8 cyl, 5.2 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1999 Dodge B1500 Van 2WD View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 12 City 14 Combined 18

13

Gas Mileage of 2011 Vehicles by Dodge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 Dodge Vehicles 1 Dodge Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 2011 Dodge Avenger 4 cyl, 2.4 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2011 Dodge Avenger View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 21 City 24 Combined 30 Highway 2011 Dodge Avenger 4 cyl, 2.4 L, Automatic 6-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2011 Dodge Avenger 20 City 24 Combined 31 Highway 2011 Dodge Avenger 6 cyl, 3.6 L, Automatic 6-spd, Regular Gas or E85 Compare 2011 Dodge Avenger View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners Gas 19 City 22 Combined 29 Highway E85 14 City 16 Combined 21 Highway 2011 Dodge Caliber 4 cyl, 2.0 L, Automatic (variable gear ratios), Regular Gasoline Compare 2011 Dodge Caliber 23 City 24 Combined 27 Highway 2011 Dodge Caliber 4 cyl, 2.4 L, Automatic (variable gear ratios), Regular Gasoline

14

Gas Mileage of 2008 Vehicles by Dodge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 Dodge Vehicles 8 Dodge Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 2008 Dodge Avenger 4 cyl, 2.4 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2008 Dodge Avenger View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 21 City 24 Combined 30 Highway 2008 Dodge Avenger 6 cyl, 3.5 L, Automatic 6-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2008 Dodge Avenger View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 16 City 19 Combined 26 Highway 2008 Dodge Avenger 6 cyl, 2.7 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gas or E85 Compare 2008 Dodge Avenger View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners Gas 19 City 22 Combined 27 Highway E85 13 City 16 Combined 20 Highway 2008 Dodge Avenger 6 cyl, 2.7 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2008 Dodge Avenger View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 19 City 22 Combined 27 Highway 2008 Dodge Avenger AWD 6 cyl, 3.5 L, Automatic 6-spd, Regular Gasoline

15

Gas Mileage of 2002 Vehicles by Dodge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 Dodge Vehicles 2 Dodge Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 2002 Dodge Caravan/Grand Caravan 2WD 4 cyl, 2.4 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2002 Dodge Caravan/Grand Caravan 2WD View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 17 City 19 Combined 23 Highway 2002 Dodge Caravan/Grand Caravan 2WD 4 cyl, 2.4 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2002 Dodge Caravan/Grand Caravan 2WD View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 17 City 20 Combined 24 Highway 2002 Dodge Caravan/Grand Caravan 2WD 6 cyl, 3.8 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2002 Dodge Caravan/Grand Caravan 2WD View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 16 City 18 Combined 22 Highway 2002 Dodge Caravan/Grand Caravan 2WD 6 cyl, 3.8 L, Automatic (S4), Regular Gasoline Compare 2002 Dodge Caravan/Grand Caravan 2WD

16

Gas Mileage of 1985 Vehicles by Dodge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 Dodge Vehicles 5 Dodge Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 1985 Dodge 600 4 cyl, 2.2 L, Automatic 3-spd, Premium Gasoline Compare 1985 Dodge 600 18 City 19 Combined 22 Highway 1985 Dodge 600 4 cyl, 2.2 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1985 Dodge 600 20 City 21 Combined 24 Highway 1985 Dodge 600 4 cyl, 2.6 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1985 Dodge 600 18 City 19 Combined 21 Highway 1985 Dodge 600 4 cyl, 2.2 L, Automatic 3-spd, Premium Gasoline Compare 1985 Dodge 600 17 City 19 Combined 22 Highway 1985 Dodge 600 4 cyl, 2.2 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1985 Dodge 600 19 City 21 Combined 23 Highway 1985 Dodge 600 4 cyl, 2.6 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1985 Dodge 600 18 City 19 Combined 21 Highway 1985 Dodge 600 Convertible 4 cyl, 2.2 L, Automatic 3-spd, Premium Gasoline

17

Gas Mileage of 1984 Vehicles by Dodge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

84 Dodge Vehicles 84 Dodge Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 1984 Dodge 600 4 cyl, 2.2 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1984 Dodge 600 21 City 23 Combined 26 Highway 1984 Dodge 600 4 cyl, 2.2 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1984 Dodge 600 21 City 24 Combined 29 Highway 1984 Dodge 600 4 cyl, 2.2 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1984 Dodge 600 20 City 22 Combined 25 Highway 1984 Dodge 600 4 cyl, 2.2 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1984 Dodge 600 18 City 19 Combined 22 Highway 1984 Dodge 600 4 cyl, 2.2 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1984 Dodge 600 19 City 22 Combined 28 Highway 1984 Dodge 600 4 cyl, 2.2 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1984 Dodge 600 18 City 20 Combined 25 Highway 1984 Dodge 600 4 cyl, 2.6 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline

18

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Flexible Fuel Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions on AddThis.com... Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions Updated July 29, 2011 Rising gasoline prices and concerns about climate change have greatly

19

Gas Mileage of 1989 Vehicles by Dodge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 Dodge Vehicles 9 Dodge Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 1989 Dodge 600 4 cyl, 2.2 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1989 Dodge 600 21 City 23 Combined 26 Highway 1989 Dodge 600 4 cyl, 2.5 L, Automatic 3-spd, Premium Gasoline Compare 1989 Dodge 600 17 City 19 Combined 22 Highway 1989 Dodge 600 4 cyl, 2.5 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1989 Dodge 600 20 City 22 Combined 26 Highway 1989 Dodge AD100/AD150 Ramcharger 2WD 8 cyl, 5.2 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1989 Dodge AD100/AD150 Ramcharger 2WD 11 City 12 Combined 13 Highway 1989 Dodge AD100/AD150 Ramcharger 2WD 8 cyl, 5.2 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1989 Dodge AD100/AD150 Ramcharger 2WD 11 City 13 Combined 16 Highway 1989 Dodge AD100/AD150 Ramcharger 2WD 8 cyl, 5.9 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline

20

Gas Mileage of 2013 Vehicles by Dodge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 Dodge Vehicles 3 Dodge Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 2013 Dodge Avenger 6 cyl, 3.6 L, Automatic 6-spd, Regular Gas or E85 Compare 2013 Dodge Avenger Gas 19 City 22 Combined 29 Highway E85 14 City 16 Combined 21 Highway 2013 Dodge Avenger 4 cyl, 2.4 L, Automatic 6-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2013 Dodge Avenger View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 20 City 23 Combined 31 Highway 2013 Dodge Avenger 4 cyl, 2.4 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2013 Dodge Avenger 21 City 24 Combined 29 Highway 2013 Dodge Challenger 8 cyl, 5.7 L, Automatic 5-spd, Midgrade Gasoline Compare 2013 Dodge Challenger 16 City 19 Combined 25 Highway 2013 Dodge Challenger 6 cyl, 3.6 L, Automatic 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2013 Dodge Challenger 18 City 21 Combined 27 Highway 2013 Dodge Challenger 8 cyl, 5.7 L, Manual 6-spd, Premium Gasoline

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flexible-fuel methanol dodge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Gas Mileage of 1988 Vehicles by Dodge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 Dodge Vehicles 8 Dodge Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 1988 Dodge 600 4 cyl, 2.2 L, Automatic 3-spd, Premium Gasoline Compare 1988 Dodge 600 18 City 20 Combined 23 Highway 1988 Dodge 600 4 cyl, 2.2 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1988 Dodge 600 21 City 23 Combined 26 Highway 1988 Dodge 600 4 cyl, 2.5 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1988 Dodge 600 20 City 22 Combined 26 Highway 1988 Dodge AD100/AD150 Ramcharger 2WD 8 cyl, 5.2 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1988 Dodge AD100/AD150 Ramcharger 2WD 11 City 12 Combined 13 Highway 1988 Dodge AD100/AD150 Ramcharger 2WD 8 cyl, 5.2 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1988 Dodge AD100/AD150 Ramcharger 2WD View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 12 City 14 Combined 16 Highway 1988 Dodge AD100/AD150 Ramcharger 2WD 8 cyl, 5.9 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline

22

Gas Mileage of 2009 Vehicles by Dodge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

20 Combined 27 Highway 2009 Dodge Avenger 6 cyl, 2.7 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gas or E85 Compare 2009 Dodge Avenger View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners Gas 19 City 22...

23

Gas Mileage of 2006 Vehicles by Dodge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2006 Dodge CaravanGrand Caravan 2WD 6 cyl, 3.3 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gas or E85 Compare 2006 Dodge CaravanGrand Caravan 2WD View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle...

24

Gas Mileage of 1997 Vehicles by Dodge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 Dodge Vehicles 7 Dodge Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 1997 Dodge Avenger 4 cyl, 2.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1997 Dodge Avenger 18 City 21 Combined 27 Highway 1997 Dodge Avenger 4 cyl, 2.0 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1997 Dodge Avenger 19 City 23 Combined 29 Highway 1997 Dodge Avenger 6 cyl, 2.5 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1997 Dodge Avenger View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 18 City 20 Combined 25 Highway 1997 Dodge B1500/B2500 Van 2WD 6 cyl, 3.9 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1997 Dodge B1500/B2500 Van 2WD 14 City 15 Combined 16 Highway 1997 Dodge B1500/B2500 Van 2WD 8 cyl, 5.2 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1997 Dodge B1500/B2500 Van 2WD View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners

25

Gas Mileage of 1994 Vehicles by Dodge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 Dodge Vehicles 4 Dodge Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 1994 Dodge B150/B250 Van 2WD 6 cyl, 3.9 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1994 Dodge B150/B250 Van 2WD 14 City 15 Combined 17 Highway 1994 Dodge B150/B250 Van 2WD 8 cyl, 5.2 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1994 Dodge B150/B250 Van 2WD View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 11 City 12 Combined 14 Highway 1994 Dodge B150/B250 Van 2WD 8 cyl, 5.2 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1994 Dodge B150/B250 Van 2WD 12 City 13 Combined 16 Highway 1994 Dodge B150/B250 Van 2WD 8 cyl, 5.9 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1994 Dodge B150/B250 Van 2WD 11 City 13 Combined 15 Highway 1994 Dodge B150/B250 Wagon 2WD 6 cyl, 3.9 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1994 Dodge B150/B250 Wagon 2WD 14

26

Gas Mileage of 1992 Vehicles by Dodge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 Dodge Vehicles 2 Dodge Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 1992 Dodge B150/B250 Van 2WD 6 cyl, 3.9 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1992 Dodge B150/B250 Van 2WD 14 City 14 Combined 16 Highway 1992 Dodge B150/B250 Van 2WD 6 cyl, 3.9 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1992 Dodge B150/B250 Van 2WD 12 City 14 Combined 17 Highway 1992 Dodge B150/B250 Van 2WD 8 cyl, 5.2 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1992 Dodge B150/B250 Van 2WD 11 City 12 Combined 12 Highway 1992 Dodge B150/B250 Van 2WD 8 cyl, 5.2 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1992 Dodge B150/B250 Van 2WD View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 11 City 13 Combined 15 Highway 1992 Dodge B150/B250 Van 2WD 8 cyl, 5.9 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1992 Dodge B150/B250 Van 2WD 10

27

Gas Mileage of 2000 Vehicles by Dodge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 Dodge Vehicles 0 Dodge Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 2000 Dodge Avenger 6 cyl, 2.5 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2000 Dodge Avenger View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 17 City 20 Combined 25 Highway 2000 Dodge B1500 Van 2WD 6 cyl, 3.9 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2000 Dodge B1500 Van 2WD View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 13 City 14 Combined 16 Highway 2000 Dodge B1500 Van 2WD 8 cyl, 5.2 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2000 Dodge B1500 Van 2WD 12 City 14 Combined 17 Highway 2000 Dodge B1500 Van 2WD 8 cyl, 5.9 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2000 Dodge B1500 Van 2WD 11 City 13 Combined 16 Highway 2000 Dodge B1500 Wagon 2WD 6 cyl, 3.9 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2000 Dodge B1500 Wagon 2WD 13

28

Gas Mileage of 1990 Vehicles by Dodge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

90 Dodge Vehicles 90 Dodge Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 1990 Dodge AD100/AD150 Ramcharger 2WD 8 cyl, 5.2 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1990 Dodge AD100/AD150 Ramcharger 2WD 11 City 13 Combined 15 Highway 1990 Dodge AD100/AD150 Ramcharger 2WD 8 cyl, 5.9 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1990 Dodge AD100/AD150 Ramcharger 2WD 10 City 11 Combined 13 Highway 1990 Dodge AW100/AW150 Ramcharger 4WD 8 cyl, 5.2 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1990 Dodge AW100/AW150 Ramcharger 4WD 10 City 11 Combined 13 Highway 1990 Dodge AW100/AW150 Ramcharger 4WD 8 cyl, 5.2 L, Manual 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1990 Dodge AW100/AW150 Ramcharger 4WD 11 City 12 Combined 14 Highway 1990 Dodge AW100/AW150 Ramcharger 4WD 8 cyl, 5.9 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline

29

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicle Availability  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Flexible Fuel Vehicle Flexible Fuel Vehicle Availability to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicle Availability on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicle Availability on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicle Availability on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicle Availability on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicle Availability on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicle Availability on AddThis.com... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Availability Conversions Emissions Laws & Incentives Flexible Fuel Vehicle Availability Flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs)-which can run on E85 (a gasoline-ethanol

30

Gas Mileage of 2003 Vehicles by Dodge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 Dodge Vehicles 3 Dodge Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 2003 Dodge Caravan/Grand Caravan 2WD 4 cyl, 2.4 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2003 Dodge Caravan/Grand Caravan 2WD View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 18 City 21 Combined 25 Highway 2003 Dodge Caravan/Grand Caravan 2WD 6 cyl, 3.8 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2003 Dodge Caravan/Grand Caravan 2WD View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 16 City 19 Combined 23 Highway 2003 Dodge Caravan/Grand Caravan 2WD 6 cyl, 3.3 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gas or E85 Compare 2003 Dodge Caravan/Grand Caravan 2WD View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners Gas 17 City 20 Combined 24 Highway E85 11 City 13 Combined 16 Highway 2003 Dodge Caravan/Grand Caravan AWD 6 cyl, 3.8 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline

31

Gas Mileage of 2005 Vehicles by Dodge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2005 Dodge CaravanGrand Caravan 2WD 6 cyl, 3.3 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gas or E85 Compare 2005 Dodge CaravanGrand Caravan 2WD Gas 16 City 19 Combined 23 Highway E85 12...

32

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV) Promotion and  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Flexible Fuel Vehicle Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV) Promotion and Vehicle Registry to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV) Promotion and Vehicle Registry on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV) Promotion and Vehicle Registry on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV) Promotion and Vehicle Registry on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV) Promotion and Vehicle Registry on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV) Promotion and Vehicle Registry on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV) Promotion and Vehicle Registry on AddThis.com... More in this section...

33

Flexible-Fuel Vehicle Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Flexible-Fuel Vehicle Basics Flexible-Fuel Vehicle Basics Flexible-Fuel Vehicle Basics August 20, 2013 - 9:05am Addthis Photo of a gray van with 'E85 Ethanol' written on the side. Flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) are capable of operating on gasoline, E85 (85% ethanol, 15% gasoline), or a mixture of both. There are almost 8 million flexible fuel vehicles on U.S. roads today, but many FFV owners don't know their vehicle is one. Unlike natural gas vehicles and propane bi-fuel vehicles, flexible fuel vehicles contain one fueling system, which is made up of ethanol-compatible components and is set to accommodate the higher oxygen content of E85. E85 should only be used in ethanol-capable FFVs. For more information, read Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Powered by a Renewable American Fuel. Download Adobe Reader.

34

Greyscale Photograph Geometry Informed by Dodging and Burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Greyscale Photograph Geometry Informed by Dodging and Burning Carlos Phillips and Kaleem Siddiqi the same negative may vary in inten- sity values due, in part, to the liberal use of dodging and burning to linear dodging and burning. 1 Introduction Photographs are often used as test data in the computer vision

Siddiqi, Kaleem

35

Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes aspects of flexible fuel vehicles such as use of E85, special features, benefits of use, costs, and fueling locations. It discusses performance and lists additional resources.

Not Available

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flexible Fuel vehicles are able to operate using more than one type of fuel. FFVs can be fueled with unleaded gasoline, E85, or any combination of the two. Today more than 7 million vehicles on U.S. highways are flexible fuel vehicles. The fact sheet discusses how E85 affects vehicle performance, the costs and benefits of using E85, and how to find E85 station locations.

Not Available

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

MotorWeek Video Transcript: Dodge Avenger FFV  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dodge Avenger FFV Dodge Avenger FFV The Avenger nameplate has dressed its share of metal over the years. Now, it finds it marquee on a midsize four-door that Dodge hopes will sway a meaningful slice of family sedan sales into their direction. But it will take more than powerfully carved curves and heady nameplate for this Avenger to become a hero. As Dodge aimed to build a replacement for its mid-size Stratus family sedan, they stepped forth with the same boldness that defines the rest of their line-up. Taking cues from tigers and boxing gloves, Dodge brings to fruition the all-new sport-infused 2008 Avenger sedan. Available in four trims, SE, SXT, our RT and RT AWD, the Avenger boasts the same Dodge "gotcha" attitude as the full-size Charger. Aggression oozes from the brand's signature crosshair grille and the

38

Flexible Fuel vehicle cost calculator | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Flexible Fuel vehicle cost calculator Flexible Fuel vehicle cost calculator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Flexible Fuel Vehicle Cost Calculator Agency/Company /Organization: United States Department of Energy Phase: "Evaluate Options and Determine Feasibility" is not in the list of possible values (Bring the Right People Together, Create a Vision, Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options, Develop Goals, Prepare a Plan, Get Feedback, Develop Finance and Implement Projects, Create Early Successes, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed) for this property. User Interface: Website Website: www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/progs/cost_anal.php?0/E85 Calculate the cost to drive a flex-fueled vehicle (one that can run on either E85 Ethanol or gasoline) on each fuel type.

39

Do You Own a Flexible-Fuel Vehicle?  

SciTech Connect

This two-page Clean Cities fact sheet describes flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) -- those that can run on ethanol, gasoline, or a combination of the two. It targets individual drivers and fleet operators who may not know they're already driving FFVs or who may want to purchase FFVs

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Do You Own a Flexible-Fuel Vehicle?  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This two-page Clean Cities fact sheet describes flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) -- those that can run on ethanol, gasoline, or a combination of the two. It targets individual drivers and fleet operators who may not know they're already driving FFVs or who may want to purchase FFVs

Not Available

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flexible-fuel methanol dodge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice (Revised)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Clean Cities fact sheet describing aspects of flexible fuel vehicles such as use of E85, special features, benefits of use, costs, and fueling locations. It includes discussion on performance and how to identify these vehicles as well as listing additional resources.

Not Available

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Fuel Economy and Emissions of a Vehicle Equipped with an Aftermarket Flexible-Fuel Conversion Kit  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) grants Certificates of Conformity for alternative fuel conversion systems and also offers other forms of premarket registration of conversion kits for use in vehicles more than two model years old. Use of alternative fuels such as ethanol, natural gas, and propane are encouraged by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Several original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) produce emissions-certified vehicles capable of using alternative fuels, and several alternative fuel conversion system manufacturers produce EPA-approved conversion systems for a variety of alternative fuels and vehicle types. To date, only one manufacturer (Flex Fuel U.S.) has received EPA certifications for ethanol fuel (E85) conversion kits. This report details an independent evaluation of a vehicle with a legal installation of a Flex Fuel U.S. conversion kit. A 2006 Dodge Charger was baseline tested with ethanol-free certification gasoline (E0) and E20 (gasoline with 20 vol % ethanol), converted to flex-fuel operation via installation of a Flex Box Smart Kit from Flex Fuel U.S., and retested with E0, E20, E50, and E81. Test cycles included the Federal Test Procedure (FTP or city cycle), the highway fuel economy test (HFET), and the US06 test (aggressive driving test). Averaged test results show that the vehicle was emissions compliant on E0 in the OEM condition (before conversion) and compliant on all test fuels after conversion. Average nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions exceeded the Tier 2/Bin 5 intermediate life NO{sub X} standard with E20 fuel in the OEM condition due to two of three test results exceeding this standard [note that E20 is not a legal fuel for non-flexible-fuel vehicles (non-FFVs)]. In addition, one E0 test result before conversion and one E20 test result after conversion exceeded the NOX standard, although the average result in these two cases was below the standard. Emissions of ethanol and acetaldehyde increased with increasing ethanol, while nonmethane organic gas and CO emissions remained relatively unchanged for all fuels and cycles. Higher fraction ethanol blends appeared to decrease NO{sub X} emissions on the FTP and HFET (after conversion). As expected, fuel economy (miles per gallon) decreased with increasing ethanol content in all cases.

Thomas, John F [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Powered by a Renewable U.S. Fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Clean Cities fact sheet describing aspects of flexible fuel vehicles such as use of E85, special features, benefits of use, costs, and fueling locations. It includes discussion on performance and how to identify these vehicles as well as listing additional resources.

Not Available

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Dodge Ram Wagon Van -- Hydrogen/CNG Operations Summary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle, a Dodge Ram Wagon Van, operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service’s Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents results of 22,816 miles of testing for the Dodge Ram Wagon Van, operating on CNG fuel, and a blended fuel of 15% hydrogen–85% CNG.

Don Karner; Francfort, James Edward

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Dodge Ram Wagon Van - Hydrogen/CNG Operations Summary - January 2003  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle, a Dodge Ram Wagon Van, operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service's Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents results of 22,816 miles of testing for the Dodge Ram Wagon Van, operating on CNG fuel, and a blended fuel of 15% hydrogen-85% CNG.

Karner, D.; Francfort, J.E.

2003-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

46

Methanol-Tolerant Cathode Catalyst Composite For Direct Methanol...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methanol-Tolerant Cathode Catalyst Composite For Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Methanol-Tolerant Cathode Catalyst Composite For Direct Methanol Fuel Cells A direct methanol fuel cell...

47

Methanol production from biomass and natural gas as transportation fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two processes are examined for production of methanol. They are assessed against the essential requirements of a future alternative fuel for road transport: that it (1) is producible in amounts comparable to the 19 EJ of motor fuel annually consumed in the US, (2) minimizes emissions of criteria pollutants, (3) reduces greenhouse gas emissions from production and use, (4) is cost-competitive with petroleum fuel, and (5) is compatible with the emerging vehicle technologies, especially those powdered by fuel cells. The methanol yield, production cost, and potential for reduction of overall fuel-cycle CO{sub 2} emissions were evaluated and compared to those of reformulated gasoline. The results show that a process utilizing natural gas and biomass as cofeedstocks can meet the five requirements more effectively than individual processes utilizing those feedstocks separately. When end-use efficiencies are accounted for, the cost per vehicle mile traveled would be less than that of gasoline used in current vehicles. CO{sub 2} emissions from the vehicle fleet would be reduced 66% by methanol used in fuel cell vehicles and 8--36% in flexible-fuel or dedicated-methanol vehicles during the transition period. Methanol produced from natural gas and biomass, together in one process, and used in fuel cell vehicles would leverage petroleum displacement by a factor of about 5 and achieve twice the overall CO{sub 2} emission reduction obtainable from the use of biomass alone.

Borgwardt, R.H. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). National Risk Management Research Lab.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Methanol fuel vehicle demonstration: Exhaust emission testing. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ford Motor Company converted four stock 1986 Ford Crown Victoria sedans to methanol flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). During 143,108 operational miles from 1987 to 1990, the FFVs underwent more than 300 dynamometer driving tests to measure exhaust emissions, catalytic activity, fuel economy, acceleration, and driveability with gasoline and methanol blend fuels. Dynamometer driving tests included the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test, and the New York City Cycle. Exhaust emission measurements included carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non- oxygenated hydrocarbons, organic material hydrocarbon equivalent (OMHCE), formaldehyde, and methanol. Catalytic activity was based on exhaust emissions data from active and inactive catalysts. OMHCE, CO, and NO{sub x} were usually lower with M85 (85% methanol, 15% gasoline) than with gasoline for both active and inactive catalysts when initial engine and catalyst temperatures were at or near normal operating temperatures. CO was higher with M85 than with gasoline when initial engine and catalyst temperatures were at or near ambient temperature. Formaldehyde and methanol were higher with M85. Active catalyst FTP OMHCE, CO, and NO{sub x} increased as vehicle mileage increased, but increased less with M85 than with gasoline. Energy based fuel economy remained almost constant with changes in fuel composition and vehicle mileage.

Hyde, J.D. [New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY (US). Automotive Emissions Lab.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Method for making methanol  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methanol is made in a liquid-phase methanol reactor by entraining a methanol-forming catalyst in an inert liquid and contacting said entrained catalyst with a synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Mednick, R. Lawrence (Roslyn Heights, NY); Blum, David B. (Wayne, NJ)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Method for making methanol  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methanol is made in a liquid-phase methanol reactor by entraining a methanol-forming catalyst in an inert liquid and contacting said entrained catalyst with a synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Mednick, R. Lawrence (Roslyn Heights, NY); Blum, David B. (Wayne, NJ)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

1995 world methanol conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 20 papers contained in this volume deal with the global markets for methanol, the production of MTBE, integrating methanol production into a coal-to-SNG complex, production of methanol from natural gas, catalysts for methanol production from various synthesis gases, combined cycle power plants using methanol as fuel, and economics of the methanol industry. All papers have been processed for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

52

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Methanol to someone by Methanol to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biobutanol Drop-In Biofuels Methanol P-Series Renewable Natural Gas xTL Fuels Methanol Methanol (CH3OH), also known as wood alcohol, is an alternative fuel under the Energy Policy Act of 1992. As an engine fuel, methanol has chemical and physical fuel properties similar to ethanol. Methanol use in vehicles has declined dramatically since the early 1990s, and automakers no longer

53

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

54

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

55

methanol.qxd  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Methanol One in a series of fact sheets United States Environmental Protection Agency EPA420-F-00-040 March 2002 www.epa.gov Transportation and Air Quality Transportation and Regional Programs Division C L E A N A L T E R N A T I V E F U E L S C L E A N E R A I R Because of the environ- mental advantages and cost savings, Arizona Checker Leasing Company purchased its first methanol-fueled vehicles in 1993 and cur- rently counts 300 in its fleet of nearly 450 automobiles. The company leases its M85 fuel-flexible vehicles to two cab companies in the Phoenix area. The company purchases its methanol from the California Energy Com- mission, which sells it at a lower, subsidized price. According to the company, methanol has performed just as well as gasoline, providing a safe, reliable, and cost- effective fuel source for the

56

The Development of Methanol Industry and Methanol Fuel in China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 2007, China firmly established itself as the driver of the global methanol industry. The country became the world's largest methanol producer and consumer. The development of the methanol industry and methanol fuel in China is reviewed in this article. China is rich in coal but is short on oil and natural gas; unfortunately, transportation development will need more and more oil to provide the fuel. Methanol is becoming a dominant alternative fuel. China is showing the rest of the world how cleaner transportation fuels can be made from coal.

Li, W.Y.; Li, Z.; Xie, K.C. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Methane to methanol conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to develop a novel process by which natural gas or methane from coal gasification products can be converted to a transportable liquid fuel. It is proposed that methanol can be produced by the direct, partial oxidation of methane utilizing air or oxygen. It is anticipated that, compared to present technologies, the new process might offer significant economic advantages with respect to capital investment and methane feedstock purity requirements. Results to date are discussed. 6 refs.

Finch, F.T.; Danen, W.C.; Lyman, J.L.; Oldenborg, R.C.; Rofer, C.K.; Ferris, M.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

A methanol sensor for portable direct methanol fuel cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An aqueous methanol sensor for portable direct methanol fuel cell applications is demonstrated. The design is based on current output limited by methanol diffusion through a Nafion 117 perfluorosulfonic acid membrane. Steady-state polarization measurements demonstrate sensitivity to concentrations of 0 to 4 M over a temperature range of 40 to 80C. Furthermore, a correlation that is first order in concentration and temperature is demonstrated for concentrations of 0 to 3 M, with an accuracy of {+-}0.1 M. Measurements of transient response to step concentration change indicate a response time of about 10 to 50 s, depending primarily on temperature.

Barton, S.A.C.; West, A.C. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry; Murach, B.L.; Fuller, T.F. [International Fuel Cells, South Windsor, CT (United States)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Methanol fuel cell model: Anode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An isothermal, steady-state model of an anode in a direct methanol feed, polymer electrolyte fuel cell is presented. The anode is considered to be a porous electrode consisting of an electronically conducting catalyst structure that is thinly coated with an ion-selective polymer electrolyte. The pores are filled with a feed solution of 2 M methanol in water. Four species are transported in the anode: water, methanol, hydrogen ions, and carbon dioxide. All four species are allowed to transport in the x-direction through the depth of the electrode. Species movement in the pseudo y-direction is taken into account for water, methanol, and carbon dioxide by use of an effective mass-transfer coefficient. Butler-Volmer kinetics are observed for the methanol oxidation reaction. Predictions of the model have been fitted with kinetic parameters from experimental data, and a sensitivity analysis was performed to identify critical parameters affecting the anode`s performance. Kinetic limitations are a dominant factor in the performance of the system. At higher currents, the polymer electrolyte`s conductivity and the anode`s thickness were also found to be important parameters to the prediction of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell anode`s behavior in the methanol oxidation region 0.5--0.6 V vs. a reversible hydrogen electrode.

Baxter, S.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Battaglia, V.S.; White, R.E. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flexible-fuel methanol dodge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spectral Intensity With 5% Coal (x ::: 86.9 cm) CalculatedPredictions B. Methanol/Coal Slurry as the Fuel TemperatureMethanol as the Fuel B. Methanol/Coal Slurry as the Fuel C.

Grosshandler, W.L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Rapid starting methanol reactor system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a methanol-to-hydrogen cracking reactor for use with a fuel cell vehicular power plant. The system is particularly designed for rapid start-up of the catalytic methanol cracking reactor after an extended shut-down period, i.e., after the vehicular fuel cell power plant has been inoperative overnight. Rapid system start-up is accomplished by a combination of direct and indirect heating of the cracking catalyst. Initially, liquid methanol is burned with a stoichiometric or slightly lean air mixture in the combustion chamber of the reactor assembly. The hot combustion gas travels down a flue gas chamber in heat exchange relationship with the catalytic cracking chamber transferring heat across the catalyst chamber wall to heat the catalyst indirectly. The combustion gas is then diverted back through the catalyst bed to heat the catalyst pellets directly. When the cracking reactor temperature reaches operating temperature, methanol combustion is stopped and a hot gas valve is switched to route the flue gas overboard, with methanol being fed directly to the catalytic cracking reactor. Thereafter, the burner operates on excess hydrogen from the fuel cells.

Chludzinski, Paul J. (38 Berkshire St., Swampscott, MA 01907); Dantowitz, Philip (39 Nancy Ave., Peabody, MA 01960); McElroy, James F. (12 Old Cart Rd., Hamilton, MA 01936)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

List of Methanol Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Methanol Incentives Methanol Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 22 Methanol Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 22) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active Alcohol Fuel Credit (Federal) Corporate Tax Credit United States Commercial Industrial Ethanol Methanol No Alternative Fuels Incentive Grant Fund (AFIG) (Pennsylvania) State Grant Program Pennsylvania Commercial Industrial Residential General Public/Consumer Nonprofit Schools Local Government Renewable Transportation Fuels Renewable Fuel Vehicles Other Alternative Fuel Vehicles Refueling Stations Ethanol Methanol Biodiesel No Biodiesel and Alcohol Fuel Blend Sales Tax Exemption (Washington) Sales Tax Incentive Washington Commercial Ethanol Methanol

64

Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for activating a membrane electrode assembly for a direct methanol fuel cell is disclosed. The method comprises operating the fuel cell with humidified hydrogen as the fuel followed by running the fuel cell with methanol as the fuel.

Ren; Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM)

2003-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

65

Methods of Conditioning Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methods of Conditioning Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Methods of Conditioning Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Methods of Conditioning Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Methods for conditioning the membrane electrode assembly of a direct methanol fuel cell ("DMFC") are disclosed. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Methods of Conditioning Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Methods for conditioning the membrane electrode assembly of a direct methanol fuel cell ("DMFC") are disclosed. In a first method, an electrical current of polarity opposite to that used in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is passed through the anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly. In a second method, methanol is supplied to an anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, allowed to cross over the polymer

66

Air breathing direct methanol fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source.

Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Enhanced methanol utilization in direct methanol fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The fuel utilization of a direct methanol fuel cell is enhanced for improved cell efficiency. Distribution plates at the anode and cathode of the fuel cell are configured to distribute reactants vertically and laterally uniformly over a catalyzed membrane surface of the fuel cell. A conductive sheet between the anode distribution plate and the anodic membrane surface forms a mass transport barrier to the methanol fuel that is large relative to a mass transport barrier for a gaseous hydrogen fuel cell. In a preferred embodiment, the distribution plate is a perforated corrugated sheet. The mass transport barrier may be conveniently increased by increasing the thickness of an anode conductive sheet adjacent the membrane surface of the fuel cell.

Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

68

Methanol production method and system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

Chen, Michael J. (Darien, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Bolingbrook, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Optimally Controlled Flexible Fuel Powertrain System  

SciTech Connect

A multi phase program was undertaken with the stated goal of using advanced design and development tools to create a unique combination of existing technologies to create a powertrain system specification that allowed minimal increase of volumetric fuel consumption when operating on E85 relative to gasoline. Although on an energy basis gasoline / ethanol blends typically return similar fuel economy to straight gasoline, because of its lower energy density (gasoline ~ 31.8MJ/l and ethanol ~ 21.1MJ/l) the volume based fuel economy of gasoline / ethanol blends are typically considerably worse. This project was able to define an initial engine specification envelope, develop specific hardware for the application, and test that hardware in both single and multi-cylinder test engines to verify the ability of the specified powertrain to deliver reduced E85 fuel consumption. Finally, the results from the engine testing were used in a vehicle drive cycle analysis tool to define a final vehicle level fuel economy result. During the course of the project, it was identified that the technologies utilized to improve fuel economy on E85 also enabled improved fuel economy when operating on gasoline. However, the E85 fueled powertrain provided improved vehicle performance when compared to the gasoline fueled powertrain due to the improved high load performance of the E85 fuel. Relative to the baseline comparator engine and considering current market fuels, the volumetric fuel consumption penalty when running on E85 with the fully optimized project powertrain specification was reduced significantly. This result shows that alternative fuels can be utilized in high percentages while maintaining or improving vehicle performance and with minimal or positive impact on total cost of ownership to the end consumer. The justification for this project was two-fold. In order to reduce the US dependence on crude oil, much of which is imported, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) under the Energy Policy Act of 2005. The RFS specifies targets for the amount of renewable fuel to be blended into petroleum based transportation fuels. The goal is to blend 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels into transportation fuels by 2022 (9 billion gallons were blended in 2008). The RFS also requires that the renewable fuels emit fewer greenhouse gasses than the petroleum fuels replaced. Thus the goal of the EPA is to have a more fuel efficient national fleet, less dependent on petroleum based fuels. The limit to the implementation of certain technologies employed was the requirement to run the developed powertrain on gasoline with minimal performance degradation. The addition of ethanol to gasoline fuels improves the fuels octane rating and increases the fuels evaporative cooling. Both of these fuel property enhancements make gasoline / ethanol blends more suitable than straight gasoline for use in downsized engines or engines with increased compression ratio. The use of engine downsizing and high compression ratios as well as direct injection (DI), dual independent cam phasing, external EGR, and downspeeding were fundamental to the fuel economy improvements targeted in this project. The developed powertrain specification utilized the MAHLE DI3 gasoline downsizing research engine. It was a turbocharged, intercooled, DI engine with dual independent cam phasing utilizing a compression ratio of 11.25 : 1 and a 15% reduction in final drive ratio. When compared to a gasoline fuelled 2.2L Ecotec engine in a Chevrolet HHR, vehicle drive cycle predictions indicate that the optimized powertrain operating on E85 would result in a reduced volume based drive cycle fuel economy penalty of 6% compared to an approximately 30% penalty for current technology engines.

Duncan Sheppard; Bruce Woodrow; Paul Kilmurray; Simon Thwaite

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

70

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

| Diesel Vehicles Electricity | Hybrid & Plug-In Electric Vehicles Ethanol | Flex Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen | Fuel Cell Vehicles Natural Gas | Natural Gas Vehicles Propane |...

71

Optimally Controlled Flexible Fuel Powertrain System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary objective of this project was to develop a true Flex Fuel Vehicle capable of running on any blend of ethanol from 0 to 85% with reduced penalty in usable vehicle range. A research and development program, targeting 10% improvement in fuel economy using a direct injection (DI) turbocharged spark ignition engine was conducted. In this project a gasoline-optimized high-technology engine was considered and the hardware and configuration modifications were defined for the engine, fueling system, and air path. Combined with a novel engine control strategy, control software, and calibration this resulted in a highly efficient and clean FFV concept. It was also intended to develop robust detection schemes of the ethanol content in the fuel integrated with adaptive control algorithms for optimized turbocharged direct injection engine combustion. The approach relies heavily on software-based adaptation and optimization striving for minimal modifications to the gasoline-optimized engine hardware system. Our ultimate objective was to develop a compact control methodology that takes advantage of any ethanol-based fuel mixture and not compromise the engine performance under gasoline operation.

Hakan Yilmaz; Mark Christie; Anna Stefanopoulou

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

72

Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Methods of Conditioning Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

while the catalyst on the anode surface is reduced. Surface oxides on the direct methanol fuel cell anode catalyst of the membrane electrode assembly are thereby reduced.

74

Photocatalytic Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The photocatalytic conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to methanol was investigated. The procedure for the carbon dioxide conversion was carried out using a small scale… (more)

Okpo, Emmanuel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Direct Methanol Fuel Cells - Energy Innovation Portal  

Our partners gain access to one of the most advanced and experienced direct methanol fuel cell ... The cured film is then transferred to the SPE ...

76

Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The technical feasibility of producing methanol from wood is demonstrated and sufficient cost data is provided to allow an assessment of the economic viability.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Partial oxidation reforming of methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methanol is an attractive fuel for fuel cell-powered vehicles because it has a fairly high energy density, can be pumped into the tank of a vehicle mush like gasoline, and is relatively easy to reform. For on-board reforming, the reformer must be compact and lightweight, and have rapid start-up and good dynamic response. Steam reforming reactors with the tube-and-shell geometry that was used on the prototype fuel cell-powered buses are heat transfer limited. To reach their normal operating temperature, these types of reactors need 45 minutes from ambient temperature start-up. The dynamic response is poor due to temperature control problems. To overcome the limitations of steam reforming, ANL explored the partial oxidation concept used in the petroleum industry to process crude oils. In contrast to the endothermic steam reforming reaction, partial oxidations is exothermic. Fuel and air are passed together over a catalyst or reacted thermally, yielding a hydrogen-rich gas. Since the operating temperature of such a reactor can be controlled by the oxygen-to- methanol ratio, the rates of reaction are not heat transfer limited. Start-up and transient response should be rapid, and the mass and volume are expected to be small by comparison.

Krumpelt, M.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Is Methanol the Transportation Fuel of the Future?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Richards, and L. Aruoux, "CNG Market DevelopmentStudy," Pub.with compressed natural gas (CNG). Weconclude that methanolrelative to methanol and CNG. ) )ASCENDANCE OF METHANOL

Sperling, Daniel; DeLuchi, Mark A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Portable Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A methanol fuel cell stack has at cl f is being incorporated a portable ions. 1 performance and flow rate for cell Water data, transport mechanisms fuel are discussed. Stack response has Implications slack performance and conditions addressed. Introduction 1 development a methanol fuel is presently pursued at 1 sponsorship from Research (1 A five methanol oxidizing stack has at stack incorporates liquiddirect methanol proton exchange membrane [1, 2], methanol (1 by oxidation an solution methanol at reduction at cathode. `1 focus results out stacks. form a n part of 1 cells have as storage but complicated systems to Upon of the methanol fuel many system simpler than before. In the can oxidized at thus is for fuel With the f mixture, electrolytes always at a of operation free-aqueous acid and thus corrosion issues addressed electrode assemblies consist main catalyzed cathode, and a polymer catalyst is the cathode catalyst is as a polymer `1 current state at the for is V at current d...

Narayanan Frank And; T. Valdez; S. R. Narayanan; H Frank; W. Chun

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

The Furnace combustion and radiation characteristics of methanol and a methanol/coal slurry  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An experimental facility has been built to study the combustion of methanol and a slurry of methanol plus 5% coal in an environment similar to industrial and utility boilers. The furnace is a horizontal water cooled cylinder, 20 cm in diameter by one meter long, with a firing rate of 60 kW. The measurements taken throughout the furnace include temperature and concentration of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, oxides of nitrogen, methanol and particulates. Spectral radiation intensity measurements are taken along the axis of the furnace burning methanol and the methanol/coal slurry. The effect of the fuel on flame structure is reported. The temperatures in the pure methanol flame are, in general, higher than in the methanol/coal flame. The levels of the oxides of nitrogen are low in the pure methanol flame (less than 20 ppM NO). Addition of 5% coal to the methanol causes NO concentration to increase to 100 ppM. This represents a conversion of 40% of the coal bound nitrogen to NO. Particulate levels increase from less than .001 g/m/sup 3/ for the pure methanol to over .25 g/m/sup 3/ when pulverized coal is added. The low levels of soot and particulates in the methanol flame have an effect on the spectral intensity. No continuous radiation is measured in the methanol flame, but small amounts of particulate radiation can be seen from the spectra of the methanol/coal flame. The total emittance of the flame is increased from about .10 to .135 with the addition of 5% pulverized coal, but the radiation intensity is reduced because of the lower flame temperatures. A numerical program has been written to calculate the spectral intensity from an inhomogeneous mixture of combustion products. Comparisons are made between the calculated intensity and the measured intensity for both fuel systems. The numerical results are about 25% lower than the measured results. Reasons for this are discussed.

Grosshandler, W.L.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flexible-fuel methanol dodge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Advanced direct methanol fuel cells. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of the program was an advanced proton-exchange membrane (PEM) for use as the electrolyte in a liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell which provides reduced methanol crossover while simultaneously providing high conductivity and low membrane water content. The approach was to use a membrane containing precross-linked fluorinated base polymer films and subsequently to graft the base film with selected materials. Over 80 different membranes were prepared. The rate of methanol crossover through the advanced membranes was reduced 90%. A 5-cell stack provided stable performance over a 100-hour life test. Preliminary cost estimates predicted a manufacturing cost at $4 to $9 per kW.

Hamdan, Monjid; Kosek, John A.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.-), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

Mahajan, Devinder (Port Jefferson, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); O' Hare, Thomas E. (Huntington Station, NY)

1991-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

83

Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.13 ), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

Mahajan, Devinder (Port Jefferson, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); O' Hare, Thomas E. (Huntington Station, NY)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Federal Methanol Fleet Project final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Federal Methanol Fleet Project concluded with the termination of data collection from the three fleet sites in February 1991. The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) completed five years of operation, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) completed its fourth year in the project, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) completed its third. Twenty of the thirty-nine vehicles in the fleet were powered by fuel methanol (typically M85, 85 % methanol, 15 % unleaded gasoline, although the LBL fleet used M88), and the remaining control vehicles were comparable gasoline vehicles. Over 2.2 million km (1.4 million miles) were accumulated on the fleet vehicles in routine government service. Data collected over the years have included vehicle mileage and fuel economy, engine oil analysis, emissions, vehicle maintenance, and driver acceptance. Fuel economies (on an energy basis) of the methanol and gasoline vehicles of the same type were comparable throughout the fleet testing. Engine oil analysis has revealed higher accumulation rates of iron and other metals in the oil of the methanol vehicles, although no significant engine damage has been attributed to the higher metal content. Vehicles of both fuel types have experienced degradation in their emission control systems, however, the methanol vehicles seem to have degraded their catalytic converters at a higher rate. The methanol vehicles have required more maintenance than their gasoline counterparts, in most cases, although the higher levels of maintenance cannot be attributed to ``fuel-related`` repairs. According to the daily driver logs and results from several surveys, drivers of the fleet vehicles at all three sites were generally satisfied with the methanol vehicles.

West, B.H.; McGill, R.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hillis, S.L.; Hodgson, J.W. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Federal Methanol Fleet Project final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Federal Methanol Fleet Project concluded with the termination of data collection from the three fleet sites in February 1991. The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) completed five years of operation, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) completed its fourth year in the project, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) completed its third. Twenty of the thirty-nine vehicles in the fleet were powered by fuel methanol (typically M85, 85 % methanol, 15 % unleaded gasoline, although the LBL fleet used M88), and the remaining control vehicles were comparable gasoline vehicles. Over 2.2 million km (1.4 million miles) were accumulated on the fleet vehicles in routine government service. Data collected over the years have included vehicle mileage and fuel economy, engine oil analysis, emissions, vehicle maintenance, and driver acceptance. Fuel economies (on an energy basis) of the methanol and gasoline vehicles of the same type were comparable throughout the fleet testing. Engine oil analysis has revealed higher accumulation rates of iron and other metals in the oil of the methanol vehicles, although no significant engine damage has been attributed to the higher metal content. Vehicles of both fuel types have experienced degradation in their emission control systems, however, the methanol vehicles seem to have degraded their catalytic converters at a higher rate. The methanol vehicles have required more maintenance than their gasoline counterparts, in most cases, although the higher levels of maintenance cannot be attributed to fuel-related'' repairs. According to the daily driver logs and results from several surveys, drivers of the fleet vehicles at all three sites were generally satisfied with the methanol vehicles.

West, B.H.; McGill, R.N. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Hillis, S.L.; Hodgson, J.W. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Assessment of methanol electro-oxidation for direct methanol-air fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Office of Energy Storage and Distribution of the US Department of Energy (DOE) supports the development of a methanol-air fuel cell for transportation application. The approach used at Los Alamos National Laboratory converts the methanol fuel to a hydrogen-rich gas in a reformer, then operates the fuel cell on hydrogen and air. The reformer tends to be bulky (raising vehicle packaging problems), has a long startup period, and is not well suited for the transient operation required in a vehicle. Methanol, however, can be oxidized electrochemically in the fuel cell. If this process can be conducted efficiently, a direct methanol-air fuel cell can be used, which does not require a reformer. The objective of this study is to assess the potential of developing a suitable catalyst for the direct electrochemical oxidation of methanol. The primary conclusion of this study is that no acceptable catalysts exist can efficiently oxidize methanol electrochemically and have the desired cost and lifetime for vehicle applications. However, recent progress in understanding the mechanism of methanol oxidation indicates that a predictive base can be developed to search for methanol oxidation catalysts and can be used to methodically develop improved catalysts. Such an approach is strongly recommended. The study also recommends that until further progress in developing high-performance catalysts is achieved, research in cell design and testing is not warranted. 43 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Fritts, S.D.; Sen, R.K.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Opportunities for coal to methanol conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The accumulations of mining residues in the anthracite coal regions of Pennsylvania offer a unique opportunity to convert the coal content into methanol that could be utilized in that area as an alternative to gasoline or to extend the supplies through blending. Additional demand may develop through the requirements of public utility gas turbines located in that region. The cost to run this refuse through coal preparation plants may result in a clean coal at about $17.00 per ton. After gasification and synthesis in a 5000 ton per day facility, a cost of methanol of approximately $3.84 per million Btu is obtained using utility financing. If the coal is to be brought in by truck or rail from a distance of approximately 60 miles, the cost of methanol would range between $4.64 and $5.50 per million Btu depending upon the mode of transportation. The distribution costs to move the methanol from the synthesis plant to the pump could add, at a minimum, $2.36 per million Btu to the cost. In total, the delivered cost at the pump for methanol produced from coal mining wastes could range between $6.20 and $7.86 per million Btu.

Not Available

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

and Methanol and Methanol Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol and Methanol Tax Ethyl alcohol and methyl alcohol motor fuels are taxed at a rate of $0.08 per gallon when used as a motor fuel. Ethyl alcohol is defined as a motor

89

Methanol sensor operated in a passive mode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sensor outputs a signal related to a concentration of methanol in an aqueous solution adjacent the sensor. A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is included with an anode side and a cathode side. An anode current collector supports the anode side of the MEA and has a flow channel therethrough for flowing a stream of the aqueous solution and forms a physical barrier to control access of the methanol to the anode side of the MEA. A cathode current collector supports the cathode side of the MEA and is configured for air access to the cathode side of the MEA. A current sensor is connected to measure the current in a short circuit across the sensor electrodes to provide an output signal functionally related to the concentration of methanol in the aqueous solution.

Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Thermally integrated staged methanol reformer and method  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A thermally integrated two-stage methanol reformer including a heat exchanger and first and second reactors colocated in a common housing in which a gaseous heat transfer medium circulates to carry heat from the heat exchanger into the reactors. The heat transfer medium comprises principally hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methanol vapor and water vapor formed in a first stage reforming reaction. A small portion of the circulating heat transfer medium is drawn off and reacted in a second stage reforming reaction which substantially completes the reaction of the methanol and water remaining in the drawn-off portion. Preferably, a PrOx reactor will be included in the housing upstream of the heat exchanger to supplement the heat provided by the heat exchanger.

Skala, Glenn William (Churchville, NY); Hart-Predmore, David James (Rochester, NY); Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY); Borup, Rodney Lynn (East Rochester, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Effect of methanol crossover in a liquid-feed polymer-electrolyte direct methanol fuel cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of a liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell employing a proton-exchange membrane electrolyte with Pt-Ru/C as anode and Pt/C as cathode is reported. The fuel cell can deliver a power density of ca. 0.2 W/cm{sup 2} at 95 C, sufficient to suggest that the stack construction is well worthwhile. Methanol crossover across the polymer electrolyte at concentrations beyond 2 M methanol affects the performance of the cell which appreciates with increasing operating temperature.

Ravikumar, M.K.; Shukla, A.K. [Indiana Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Liquid phase methanol reactor staging process for the production of methanol  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a process for the production of methanol from a syngas feed containing carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Basically, the process is the combination of two liquid phase methanol reactors into a staging process, such that each reactor is operated to favor a particular reaction mechanism. In the first reactor, the operation is controlled to favor the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide, and in the second reactor, the operation is controlled so as to favor the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide. This staging process results in substantial increases in methanol yield.

Bonnell, Leo W. (Macungie, PA); Perka, Alan T. (Macungie, PA); Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Methanol and hydrogen from biomass for transportation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methanol and hydrogen from biomass for transportation [1] Robert H. Williams, Eric D. Larson, Ryan from biomass via indirectly heated gasifiers and their use in fuel cell vehicles would make it possible for biomass to be used for road transportation, with zero or near-zero local air pollution and very low levels

94

Methanol Steam Reformer on a Silicon Wafer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study of the reforming rates, heat transfer and flow through a methanol reforming catalytic microreactor fabricated on a silicon wafer are presented. Comparison of computed and measured conversion efficiencies are shown to be favorable. Concepts for insulating the reactor while maintaining small overall size and starting operation from ambient temperature are analyzed.

Park, H; Malen, J; Piggott, T; Morse, J; Sopchak, D; Greif, R; Grigoropoulos, C; Havstad, M; Upadhye, R

2004-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

95

Counterflow Extinction of Premixed and Nonpremixed Methanol and Ethanol Flames  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of methanol. Combustion and Flame, 25:343, 1975. [6] A. Leeand nitrogen. Combustion and Flame, 33:197–215, 1978. [4] T.Methanol and Formaldehyde Flames. Ph.d thesis, University of

Seshadri, Kalyanasundaram

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Real-time mass spectrometric study of the methanol crossover in a direct methanol fuel cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The products of methanol crossover through the acid-doped polybenzimidazole polymer electrolyte membrane (PBI PEM) to the cathode of a prototype direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) were analyzed using multipurpose electrochemical mass spectrometry (MPEMS) coupled to the cathode exhaust gas outlet. It was found that the methanol crossing over reacts almost quantitatively to CO{sub 2} at the cathode with the platinum of the cathode acting as a heterogeneous catalyst. The cathode open-circuit potential is inversely proportional to the amount of CO{sub 2} formed. A poisoning effect on the oxygen reduction also was found. Methods for the estimation of the methanol crossover rate at operating fuel cells are suggested.

Wang, J.T.; Wasmus, S.; Savinell, R.F. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Liquid phase low temperature method for production of methanol ...  

Liquid phase low temperature method for production of methanol from synthesis gas and catalyst formulations therefor United States Patent

98

Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

A New Reference Correlation for the Viscosity of Methanol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and pharmaceutical appli- cations. The oldest use of methanol is in the conversion of biomass. This process is gaining ...

2010-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

100

The densities and reaction heat of methanol synthesis System from cornstalk syngas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methanol can be used as possibole replacement for conventional gasoline and Diesel fuel. In order to produce methanol

Ling?feng Zhu; Qing?ling Zhao; Jing Chen; Le Zhang; Run?tao Zhang; Li?li Liu; Zhao?yue Zhang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flexible-fuel methanol dodge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Dodge B2500 dedicated CNG van  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). To support this activity, DOE has directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct projects to evaluate the performance and acceptability of light-duty AFVs. The authors tested a 1999 B2500 dedicated CNG Ram Wagon with a 5.2L V8 engine. The vehicle was run through a series of tests explained briefly in this fact sheet.

Eudy, L.

2000-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

102

High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are spaced evenly around the perimeter to hold the fuel cell stack together. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet manifold

103

Technical-economic assessment of the production of methanol from biomass. Assessment of biomass resource and methanol market. Final research report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Detailed information is presented on the following: feasibility of biomass feedstocks for methanol production, biomass availability and costs, potential demand for methanol from biomass, comparison of potential methanol demand and supply, and market penetration assessment. (MHR)

Wan, E.I.; Simmons, J.A.; Price, J.D.; Nguyen, T.D.

1979-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

104

Quick-start catalyzed methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The catalytic methanol partial oxidation reformer described in this paper offers all the necessary attributes for use in transportation fuel cell systems. The bench-scale prototype methanol reformer developed at Argonne is a cylindrical reactor loaded with copper zinc oxide catalyst. Liquid methanol, along with a small amount of water, is injected as a fine spray into a flowing air stream, past an igniter onto the catalyst bed where the partial oxidation reaction takes place.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Wensheng He, David Mountz, Tao Zhang, Chris Roger July 17, 2012 2 Outline Background on Arkema's...

106

Design on Elevated-Temperature and Methanol-Blocking Proton ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Design on Elevated-Temperature and Methanol-Blocking Proton Exchange Membrane for Fuel Cell Application. Author(s), Yan Xiang.

107

Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment IV. Health and safety aspects of the eucalypt biomass to methanol energy system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The basic eucalyptus-to-methanol energy process is described and possible health and safety risks are identified at all steps of the process. The toxicology and treatment for exposure to these substances are described and mitigating measures are proposed. The health and safety impacts and risks of the wood gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to those of the coal liquefaction and conversion system. The scope of this report includes the health and safety risks of workers (1) in the laboratory and greenhouse, where eucalyptus seedlings are developed, (2) at the biomass plantation, where these seedlings are planted and mature trees harvested, (3) transporting these logs and chips to the refinery, (4) in the hammermill, where the logs and chips will be reduced to small particles, (5) in the methanol synthesis plant, where the wood particles will be converted to methanol, and (6) transporting and dispensing the methanol. Finally, the health and safety risks of consumers using methanol is discussed.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Study on Catalytic Experiments of Methanol Synthesis from Cornstalk Syngas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass energy is a renewable and potential resource. In order to research the conversion of cornstalk biomass (the agricultural residues) into the fuel methanol and the effective utilization of biomass energy, the low-heat-value cornstalk gas was produced ... Keywords: Cornstalk, Syngas, Catalyst, Methanol, Synthesis

Zhu Lingfeng; Gao Ruqin; Liu Lili; Wang Yan; Wang Yangyang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Electrolytic synthesis of methanol from CO.sub.2  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and system for synthesizing methanol from the CO.sub.2 in air using electric power. The CO.sub.2 is absorbed by a solution of KOH to form K.sub.2 CO.sub.3 which is electrolyzed to produce methanol, a liquid hydrocarbon fuel.

Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

The Equilibrium Compositions of Methanol Synthesis System by Cornstalk Syngas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methanol can be used as a promising alternative for conventional gasoline and Diesel fuel. It is necessary to decompose biomass such as cornstalks in order to produce methanol which is a raw material from agricultural residues. A promising route for processing cornstalks is firstly to gasify cornstalks with thermo?chemical method to prepare the syngas

Ling?feng Zhu; Qing?ling Zhao; Yang?yang Wang; Jing Chen; Le Zhang; Run?tao Zhang; Li?li Liu; Zhao?yue Zhang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Light-Duty Vehicle Program Emissions Results (Interim Results...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Procedure (FTP) emissions testing of flexible- fuel methanol, ethanol, and dedicated CNG vehicles from the U. S. Federal Fleet was completed in 1995. The vehicles tested in the...

112

Economic impact of an improved methanol catalyst. [Forecasting to 2000  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The economic future of methanol is reviewed in light of its potential uses as a substitute for traditional hydrocarbon fuels and feedstocks as well as some evolving new uses. Methanol's future market position will depend strongly on its production cost in comparison with competitive products. One promising way to reduce the production cost is by use of an improved catalyst in the process by which methanol is obtained from the feedstock - which can be either natural gas or a similar product such as synthesis gas from coal gasification. To estimate the potential cost savings with an improved catalyst, we have based our analysis on a recent study which assumed use of synthesis gas from underground coal gasification as a feedstock for making methanol. The improved catalyst we studied was an actinide oxide whose features include high tolerance to sulfur and heat, and a yield of about 4 mol% methanol per pass with a 2/1 mixture of H/sub 2//CO. We calculated the effect of this catalyst on methanol production costs in a 12,000-bbl/day plant. The result was a saving of from 1 cent to 2.5 cent per gallon on the total methanol synthesis cost of 23 cents per gallon (i.e., a saving in the conversion process of 4.4% to 10.9%), excluding the cost of the raw feed gas. We conclude from this study that the improved catalyst could bring important savings in methanol production. The estimated savings range from 4.4% to 10.9% in the cost of methanol synthesis from the feedstock material. Another possibility for lowering methanol production costs in the future may lie in switching from a natural-gas-based feedstock to a coal-based feedstock - for example, using synthesis gas from underground coal gasification as the raw material. Our projections suggest that coal will eventually become a less expensive feedstock than natural gas.

Grens, J.; Borg, I.; Stephens, D.; Colmenares, C.

1983-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

113

Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working Document 9. Economics of producing methanol from Eucalyptus in Central Florida  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A detailed feasibility study of producing methanol from Eucalyptus in Central Florida encompasses all phases of production - from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The project includes the following components: (1) production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; (2) establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; and (3) engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-year methanol production facility. In addition, the potential environmental impacts of the whole project were examined, safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol were analyzed, and site specific cost estimates were made. The economics of the project are presented here. Each of the three major components of the project - tissue culture lab, energy plantation, and methanol refinery - are examined individually. In each case a site specific analysis of the potential return on investment was conducted.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite for methanol synthesis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Anodic oxidation of methanol using a new base electrocatalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anodic oxidation of methanol, the reaction employed on the anode of the direct methanol fuel cell, is conventionally carried out using noble electrocatalysts. The best of these has been found to be a codeposited mixture of platinum and ruthenium. The use of base materials as anode catalysts requires, in addition to electrocatalytic activity, a low corrosion rate in the cell electrolyte. The authors present here some preliminary results of measurements of the anodic oxidation of methanol using a newly synthesized base electrocatalyst: this catalyst is passivated by the highly aggressive electrolyte.

Burstein, G.T.; Barnett, C.J.; Kucernak, A.R.J.; Williams, K.R. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgy

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Low temperature catalysts for methanol production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160.degree. C.) and preferably in the range 80.degree.-120.degree. C. used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen is disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH--RONa--M(OAc).sub.2 where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1-6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M=Ni and R=tertiary amyl). Mo(CO).sub.6 is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

Sapienza, Richard S. (1 Miller Ave., Shoreham, NY 11786); Slegeir, William A. (7 Florence Rd., Hampton Bays, NY 11946); O' Hare, Thomas E. (11 Geiger Pl., Huntington Station, NY 11746); Mahajan, Devinder (14 Locust Ct., Selden, NY 11784)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Low temperature catalysts for methanol production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160/sup 0/C) and preferably in the range 80 to 120/sup 0/C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen is disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH-RONa-M(OAc)/sub 2/ where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). Mo(CO)/sub 6/ is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O' Hare, T.E.; Mahajan, D.

1985-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

118

Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

* >50 mWmg precious group metal (PGM) in an MEA with 50% Pt reduction. Develop a second generation membrane with an areal * resistance <0.0375 cm 2 and a methanol permeation...

119

Is Methanol the Transportation Fuel of the Future?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the U.S. were coal, oil shale, and biomass. Natural gas (produced from coal and oil shale, methanol produced frommethanol was rated below oil shale and other coal-liquid

Sperling, Daniel; DeLuchi, Mark A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Corporation DMFCC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Methanol Fuel Cell Corporation DMFCC Methanol Fuel Cell Corporation DMFCC Jump to: navigation, search Name Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Corporation (DMFCC) Place Altadena, California Zip 91001 Product DMFCC is focused on providing intellectual property protection and disposable fuel cartridge for the direct methanol fuel cell industry. Coordinates 34.185405°, -118.131529° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":34.185405,"lon":-118.131529,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flexible-fuel methanol dodge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Demonstration of dissociated methanol as an automotive fuel: system performance  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results are presented of system performance testing of an automotive system devised to provide hydrogen-rich gases to an internal combustion engine by dissociating methanol on board the vehicle. The dissociation of methanol absorbs heat from the engine exhaust and increases the lower heating value of the fuel by 22%. The engine thermal efficiency is increased by raising the compression ratio and burning with excess air.

Finegold, J. G.; Karpuk, M. E.; McKinnon, J. T.; Passamaneck, R.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

The Federal Methanol Fleet: Summary of technical data  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Federal Methanol Fleet, initiated in 1985 with an appropriation from the US Congress, is now in its final stages of operation. A great deal has been learned while vehicles have accumulated approximately 1.4 million miles (2.2 million kilometers) in routine government fleet service. This paper summarizes those results that are technical in nature and that reveal the status of methanol engine technology. Specifically, results from emissions test, special lubricant tests, and cold-starting experiments are reported herein. Emissions control systems in methanol vehicles were found generally to decline somewhat in performance over time as compared to their gasoline counterpart vehicles, although this was not universally true. The severe effects on methanol engine lubricant performance resulting from cold-engine, short-trip service was demonstrated in a series of special tests of two cars, methanol and gasoline, in side-by-side service. Methanol fleet vehicles incorporated a variety of approaches to the cold-start problem -- ranging from no special engineering or systems to sophisticated systems designed to overcome the problem entirely. Cold-start systems specially designed for these vehicles did not perform as well as had been expected, probably because they were early prototype versions and were subject to some early, unforeseen problems.

McGill, R.N.; Graves, R.L.; West, B.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Hodgson, J.W. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of catalytic gasification of bagasse to produce methanol. In previous studies, a catalytic steam gasification process was developed which converted wood to methanol synthesis gas in one step using nickel based catalysts in a fluid-bed gasifier. Tests in a nominal 1 ton/day process development unit (PDU) gasifier with these same catalysts showed bagasse to be a good feedstock for fluid-bed gasifiers, but the catalysts deactivated quite rapidly in the presence of bagasse. Laboratory catalyst screening tests showed K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ doped on the bagasse to be a promising catalyst for converting bagasse to methanol synthesis gas. PDU tests with 10 wt % K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ doped on bagasse showed the technical feasibility of this type of catalyst on a larger scale. A high quality synthesis gas was produced and carbon conversion to gas was high. The gasifier was successfully operated without forming agglomerates of catalyst, ash, and char in the gasifier. There was no loss of activity throughout the runs because catalysts is continually added with the bagasse. Laboratory tests showed about 80% of the potassium carbonate could be recovered and recycled with a simple water wash. An economic evaluation of the process for converting bagasse to methanol showed the required selling price of methanol to be significantly higher than the current market price of methanol. Several factors make this current evaluaton using bagasse as a feedstock less favorable: (1) capital costs are higher due to inflation and some extra costs required to use bagasse, (2) smaller plant sizes were considered so economies of scale are lost, and (3) the market price of methanol in the US has fallen 44% in the last six months. 24 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs.

Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Robertus, R.J.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Direct methanol/air fuel cells: Systems considerations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Successful operation of a direct methanol/air fuel cell system depends upon appropriate integration of the fuel cell components and accommodation of the need for heat and mass transfer within the system. The features of the system that must be considered separately and in an interactive fashion are: (1) the physical state of the fuel feed stream, (2) electrode characteristics, (3) characteristics of the electrolyte, (4) product water removal, (5) heat transfer into our out of the stack, and (6) methanol loss modes. The operating temperature and pressure will be determined, to a large extent, by these features. An understanding of the component features and their interactions is necessary for initial system considerations for direct methanol/air fuel cells.

Huff, J.R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Density Functional Studies of Methanol Decomposition on Subnanometer Pd Clusters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A density functional theory study of the decomposition of methanol on subnanometer palladium clusters (primarily Pd4) is presented. Methanol dehydrogenation through C-H bond breaking to form hydroxymethyl (CH2OH) as the initial step, followed by steps involving formation of hydroxymethylene (CHOH), formyl (CHO), and carbon monoxide (CO), is found to be the most favorable reaction pathway. A competing dehydrogenation pathway with O-H bond breaking as the first step, followed by formation of methoxy (CH3O) and formaldehyde (CH2O), is slightly less favorable. In contrast, pathways involving C-O bond cleavage are much less energetically favorable, and no feasible pathways involving C-O bond formation to yield dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3) are found. Comparisons of the results are made with methanol decomposition products adsorbed on more extended Pd surfaces; all reaction intermediates are found to bind slightly more strongly to the clusters than to the surfaces.

Mehmood, Faisal; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Curtiss, Larry A.

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

126

Injector spray characterization of methanol in reciprocating engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report covers a study that addressed cold-starting problems in alcohol-fueled, spark-ignition engines by using fine-spray port-fuel injectors to inject fuel directly into the cylinder. This task included development and characterization of some very fine-spray, port-fuel injectors for a methanol-fueled spark-ignition engine. After determining the spray characteristics, a computational study was performed to estimate the evaporation rate of the methanol fuel spray under cold-starting and steady-state conditions.

Dodge, L.; Naegeli, D. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Direct methanol fuel cells at reduced catalyst loadings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We focus in this paper on the reduction of catalyst loading in direct methanol fuel cells currently under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Based on single-cell DMFC testing, we discuss performance vs. catalyst loading trade-offs and demonstrate optimization of the anode performance. We also show test data for a short five-cell DMFC stack with the average total platinum loading of 0.53 mg cm{sup -2} and compare performance of this stack with the performance of a single direct methanol fuel cell using similar total amount of precious metal.

Zelenay, P. (Piotr); Guyon, F. (Francois); Gottesfeld, Shimshon

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS AT REDUCED CATALYST LOADINGS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We focus in this paper on the reduction of catalyst loading in direct methanol fuel cells currently under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Based on single-cell DMFC testing, we discuss performance vs. catalyst loading trade-offs and demonstrate optimization of the anode performance. We also show test data for a short five-cell DMFC stack with the average total platinum loading of 0.53 mg cm{sup {minus}2} and compare performance of this stack with the performance of a single direct methanol fuel cell using similar total amount of precious metal.

P. ZELENAY; F. GUYON; SM. GOTTESFELD

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Environmental information volume: Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the commercial viability of the Liquid Phase Methanol Process using coal-derived synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This report describes the proposed actions, alternative to the proposed action, the existing environment at the coal gasification plant at Kingsport, Tennessee, environmental impacts, regulatory requirements, offsite fuel testing, and DME addition to methanol production. Appendices include the air permit application, solid waste permits, water permit, existing air permits, agency correspondence, and Eastman and Air Products literature.

NONE

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Evaluation of dissociated and steam-reformed methanol as automotive engine fuels  

SciTech Connect

Dissociated and steam reformed methanol were evaluated as automotive engine fuels. Advantages and disadvantages in using methanol in the reformed rather than liquid state are discussed. Engine dynamometer tests were conducted with a four cylinder, 2.3 liter, spark ignition automotive engine to determine performance and emission characteristics operating on simulated dissociated and steam reformed methanol (2H/sub 2/ + CO and 3H/sub 2/ + CO/sub 2/ respectively), and liquid methanol. Results are presented for engine performance and emissions as functions of equivalence ratio, at various throttle settings and engine speeds. Operation on dissociated and steam reformed methanol was characterized by flashback (violent propagation of a flame into the intake manifold) which limited operation to lower power output than was obtainable using liquid methanol. It was concluded that: an automobile could not be operated solely on dissociated or steam reformed methanol over the entire required power range - a supplementary fuel system or power source would be necessary to attain higher powers; the use of reformed methanol, compared to liquid methanol, may result in a small improvement in thermal efficiency in the low power range; dissociated methanol is a better fuel than steam reformed methanol for use in a spark ignition engine; and use of dissociated or steam reformed methanol may result in lower exhaust emissions compared to liquid methanol. 36 references, 27 figures, 3 tables.

Lalk, T.R.; McCall, D.M.; McCanlies, J.M.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Methanol tolerant oxygen reduction catalysts based on transition metal sulfides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The oxygen reduction activity and methanol tolerance of a range of transition metal sulfide electrocatalysts have been evaluated in half-cell experiments and in a liquid-feed solid polymer electrolyte direct methanol fuel cell. These catalysts were prepared in high surface area form by direct synthesis onto various surface-functionalized carbon blacks. Of the materials tested, mixed-metal catalysts based on ReRuS and MoRuS were observed to give the best oxygen reduction activities. In addition, significant increases in performance were observed when employing sulfur-functionalized carbon black, which were attributed to the preferential deposition of active Ru sites in the catalyst-preparation process. Although the intrinsic activity of the best material tested, namely, Mo{sub 2}Ru{sub 5}S{sub 5} on sulfur-treated XC-72, was lower than Pt (by ca. 1545 mV throughout the entire polarization curve), its activity relative to Pt increased significantly in methanol-contaminated electrolytes. This was due to methanol oxidation side reactions reducing the net activity of the Pt, especially at low overpotentials.

Reeve, R.W.; Christensen, P.A.; Hamnett, A.; Haydock, S.A.; Roy, S.C. [Univ. of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

The Production of Methanol by the Brookhaven National Laboratory Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An important issue for electric utility planners is the need for economically attractive and environmentally acceptable fuel energy sources. The delivery of fuel values to distant markets by means of methanol produced by a more efficient and lower capital cost process merits careful consideration.

1990-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

133

ATOM-ECONOMICAL PATHWAYS TO METHANOL FUEL CELL FROM BIOMASS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An economical production of alcohol fuels from biomass, a feedstock low in carbon and high in water content, is of interest. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a Liquid Phase Low Temperature (LPLT) concept is under development to improve the economics by maximizing the conversion of energy carrier atoms (C,H) into energy liquids (fuel). So far, the LPLT concept has been successfully applied to obtain highly efficient methanol synthesis. This synthesis was achieved with specifically designed soluble catalysts, at temperatures < 150 C. A subsequent study at BNL yielded a water-gas-shift (WGS) catalyst for the production of hydrogen from a feedstock of carbon monoxide and H{sub 2}O at temperatures < 120 C. With these LPLT technologies as a background, this paper extends the discussion of the LPLT concept to include methanol decomposition into 3 moles of H{sub 2} per mole of methanol. The implication of these technologies for the atom-economical pathways to methanol fuel cell from biomass is discussed.

MAHAJAN,D.; WEGRZYN,J.E.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

On direct and indirect methanol fuel cells for transportation applications  

SciTech Connect

Power densities in electrolyte Direct Methanol Fuel Cells have been achieved which are only three times lower than those achieved with similar reformate/air fuel cells. Remaining issues are: improved anode catalyst activity, demonstrated long-term stable performance, and high fuel efficiencies.

Ren, Xiaoming; Wilson, M.S.; Gottesfeld, S.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Neural Net Based Hybrid Modeling of the Methanol Synthesis Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Hybrid modeling approach, combining an analytical model with a radial basis function neural network is introduced in this paper. The modeling procedure is combined with genetic algorithm based feature selection designed to select informative variables ... Keywords: feature selection, genetic algorithms, hybrid modeling, methanol synthesis, neural networks

Primož Poto?nik; Marko Šetinc; Igor Grabec; Janez Levec

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

An Investigation of Different Methods of Fabricating Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Methanol Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methanol fuel cells are electrochemical conversion devices that produce electricity from methanol fuel. The current process of fabricating membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) is tedious and if it is not sufficiently ...

Hall, Kwame (Kwame J.)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Structure Sensitivity of Methanol Electrooxidation on Transition Metals  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have investigated the structure sensitivity of methanol electrooxidation on eight transition metals (Au, Ag, Cu, Pt, Pd, Ir, Rh, and Ni) using periodic, self-consistent density functional theory (DFTGGA). Using the adsorption energies of 16 intermediates on two different facets of these eight face-centeredcubic transition metals, combined with a simple electrochemical model, we address the differences in the reaction mechanism between the (111) and (100) facets of these metals. We investigate two separate mechanisms for methanol electrooxidation: one going through a CO* intermediate (the indirect pathway) and another that oxidizes methanol directly to CO2 without CO* as an intermediate (the direct pathway). A comparison of our results for the (111) and (100) surfaces explains the origin of methanol electrooxidation’s experimentally-established structure sensitivity on Pt surfaces. For most metals studied, on both the (111) and (100) facets, we predict that the indirect mechanism has a higher onset potential than the direct mechanism. Ni(111), Au(100), and Au(111) are the cases where the direct and indirect mechanisms have the same onset potential. For the direct mechanism, Rh, Ir, and Ni show a lower onset potential on the (111) facet, whereas Pt, Cu, Ag, and Au possess lower onset potential on the (100) facet. Pd(100) and Pd(111) have the same onset potential for the direct mechanism. These results can be rationalized by the stronger binding energy of adsorbates on the (100) facet versus the (111) facet. Using linear scaling relations, we establish reactivity descriptors for the (100) surface similar to those recently developed for the (111) surface; the free energies of adsorbed CO* and OH* can describe methanol electrooxidation trends on various metal surfaces reasonably well.

Ferrin, Peter A.; Mavrikakis, Manos

2009-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

138

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation is a summary of a Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts.

Dinh, H.; Gennett, T.

2010-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

139

Results from the first year of operation of the Federal Methanol Fleet at Argonne National Laboratory  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory, under the auspices of the Department of Energy's Alternative Fuels Utilization Program, has managed the Federal Methanol Fleet Project since its inception in fiscal year 1985. This congressionally-mandated project directed the Department of Energy to introduce methanol-fueled vehicles into civilian government fleet operations. This interim report describes the first year of operation of a methanol fleet at Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Illinois. The fleet consists of five methanol-fueled 1986 Chevrolet S-10 pickup trucks along with five Chevrolet S-10s for comparison, as well as five methanol-fueled 1986 Ford Crown Victorias paired with four gasoline Fords. Data have been collected and tabulated on fuel consumption, maintenance records, oil sample analyses, and driver perceptions of vehicle operability. Energy efficiency for the methanol vehicles was slightly greater than that for the counterpart gasoline vehicles. Maintenance records reveal that the methanol vehicles required substantially more service than the gasoline vehicles, but a large proportion of the difference was due to methanol component replacements where improvements or upgrades were scheduled to be implemented after the vehicles were in service. Oil sample analyses revealed that engine wear rates were higher in the methanol vehicles. Drivers indicated that the methanol vehicles are quite acceptable, but they rated the gasoline vehicles higher. The Argonne fleet serves as the cold-weather site of the Federal Methanol Fleet and, as such, the methanol vehicles have been outfitted with special systems to aid in cold-starting and driveability.

McGill, R.N.; Hillis, S.L.; Larsen, R.P.

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process. Peroxide formation of dimethyl ether in methanol mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Organic peroxides could form when dimethyl ether in methanol is stored for three to six months at a time. The objective of this work was to determine the level of peroxide formation from dimethyl ether in reagent grade methanol and raw methanol at room temperature under 3 atmospheres (45 psig) of air. Raw methanol is methanol made from syngas by the LPMEOH Process without distillation. Aliphatic ethers tend to react slowly with oxygen from the air to form unstable peroxides. However, there are no reports on peroxide formation from dimethyl ether. After 172 days of testing, dimethyl ether in either reagent methanol or raw methanol at room temperature and under 60--70 psig pressure of air does not form detectable peroxides. Lack of detectable peroxides suggests that dimethyl ether or dimethyl ether and methanol may be stored at ambient conditions. Since the compositions of {approximately} 1.3 mol% or {approximately} 4.5 mol% dimethyl ether in methanol do not form peroxides, these compositions can be considered for diesel fuel or an atmospheric turbine fuel, respectively.

Waller, F.J.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flexible-fuel methanol dodge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Material and Energy Balances for Methanol from Biomass Using Biomass Gasifiers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the Biomass to Methanol Systems Analysis Project is the determination of the most economically optimum combination of unit operations which will make the production of methanol from biomass competitive with or more economic than traditional processes with conventional fossil fuel feedstocks. This report summarizes the development of simulation models for methanol production based upon the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) ''Renugas'' gasifier and the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) gasifier. This report discusses methanol production technology, the IGT and BCL gasifiers, analysis of gasifier data for gasification of wood, methanol production material and energy balance simulations, and one case study based upon each of the gasifiers.

Bain, R. L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment V. The Florida eucalyptus energy farm: environmental impacts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall environmental impact of the eucalyptus to methanol energy system in Florida is assessed. The environmental impacts associated with the following steps of the process are considered: (1) the greenhouse and laboratory; (2) the eucalyptus plantation; (3) transporting the mature logs; (4) the hammermill; and (5) the methanol synthesis plant. Next, the environmental effects of methanol as an undiluted motor fuel, methanol as a gasoline blend, and gasoline as motor fuels are compared. Finally, the environmental effects of the eucalypt gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to the coal liquefaction and conversion system.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Technical-economic assessment of the production of methanol from biomass. Executive summary. Final research report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results are presented of a comprehensive systems study which assessed the engineering and economic feasibilities of the production of methanol from biomass utilizing existing technology. The three major components of the biomass to methanol system assessed are the availability of biomass feedstocks, the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol fuels, and the distribution and markets for methanol fuels. The results of this study show that methanol fuel can be produced from biomass using commercially available technology in the near term, and could be produced economically in significant quantities in the mid-to-late 1980's when advanced technology is available.

Wan, E.I.; Simmons, J.A.; Price, J.D.; Nguyen, T.D.

1979-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

144

Solar photocatalytic conversion of CO{sub 2} to methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the three-year LDRD program directed at developing catalysts based on metalloporphyrins to reduce carbon dioxide. Ultimately it was envisioned that such catalysts could be made part of a solar-driven photoredox cycle by coupling metalloporphyrins with semiconductor systems. Such a system would provide the energy required for CO{sub 2} reduction to methanol, which is an uphill 6-electron reduction. Molecular modeling and design capabilities were used to engineer metalloporphyrin catalysts for converting CO{sub 2} to CO and higher carbon reduction products like formaldehyde, formate, and methanol. Gas-diffusion electrochemical cells were developed to carry out these reactions. A tin-porphyrin/alumina photocatalyst system was partially developed to couple solar energy to this reduction process.

Ryba, G.; Shelnutt, J.; Prairie, M.R.; Assink, R.A.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Catalytic conversion of methanol to low molecular weight hydrocarbons. [Dissertation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The recent demands on the available energy have stimulated the search for alternatives to oil. Methanol, because of its abundance and the availability of technology to produce it from coal, is projected as an alternative source for producing low molecular weight olefins. Utilizing chabazite ion exchanged with ammonium and rare earth chlorides, methanol is converted to ethylene, propylene and propane with carbon yields of 70 to 90% at reaction temperatures of 633 to 723/sup 0/K and pressures from 1 to 18 atmospheres. X-ray diffraction studies, using Cu-K radiation, show no permanent structural changes after a long use. No permanent deactivation was observed even though the catalyst was overheated once, and have been deactivated and regenerated as many as 21 times. The ammonium exchange coupled with the water at high temperature suggest the formation of an ultrastable zeolite. Ethylene yields increase as the temperature increases from 633/sup 0/K to 723/sup 0/K.

Singh, B.B.

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Tax Refund for Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel Production to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel Production on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel Production on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel Production on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel Production on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel Production on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel Production on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search

147

Final technical report. Bimetallic complexes as methanol oxidation catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our work on the electrocatalyzed oxidation of methanol was initially motivated by the interest in methanol as an anodic reactant in fuel cells. The literature on electrochemical oxidation of alcohols can be roughly grouped into two sets: fuel cell studies and inorganic chemistry studies. Work on fuel cells primarily focuses on surface-catalyzed oxidation at bulk metal anodes, usually Pt or Pt/Ru alloys. In the surface science/electrochemistry approach to these studies, single molecule catalysts are generally not considered. In contrast, the inorganic community investigates the electrooxidation of alcohols in homogeneous systems. Ruthenium complexes have been the most common catalysts in these studies. The alcohol substrates are typically either secondary alcohols (e.g., isopropanol) such that the reaction stops after 2 e{sup -} oxidation to the aldehyde and 4 e{sup -} oxidation to the carboxylic acid can be observed. Methanol, which can also undergo 6 e{sup -} oxidation to CO{sub 2}, rarely appears in the homogeneous catalysis studies. Surface studies have shown that two types of metal centers with different functions result in more effective catalysts than a single metal; however, application of this concept to homogeneous systems has not been demonstrated. The major thrust of the work is to apply this insight from the surface studies to homogeneous catalysis. Even though homogeneous systems would not be appropriate models for active sites on Pt/Ru anodes, it is possible that heterobimetallic catalysts could also utilize two metal centers for different roles. Starting from that perspective, this work involves the preparation and investigation of heterobinuclear catalysts for the electrochemical oxidation of methanol.

McElwee-White, Lisa

2002-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

148

Methanol synthesis gas from catalytic steam reforming of wood  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Laboratory studies were successful in developing catalyst systems and operating conditions for generation of a methanol synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Some methane remained in the gas mixture. Wood was reacted with steam at a steam-to-wood weight ratio of about 0.9 and a temperature of 750/sup 0/C (1380/sup 0/F) in the presence of several catalysts. Results are presented for two different catalyst systems.

Mudge, L.K.; Mitchell, D.H.; Robertus, R.J.; Weber, S.L.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Methanol reformers for fuel cell powered vehicles: Some design considerations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel cells are being developed for use in automotive propulsion systems as alternatives for the internal combustion engine in buses, vans, passenger cars. The two most important operational requirements for a stand-alone fuel cell power system for a vehicle are the ability to start up quickly and the ability to supply the necessary power on demand for the dynamically fluctuating load. Methanol is a likely fuel for use in fuel cells for transportation applications. It is a commodity chemical that is manufactured from coal, natural gas, and other feedstocks. For use in a fuel cell, however, the methanol must first be converted (reformed) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture. The desired features for a methanol reformer include rapid start-up, good dynamic response, high fuel conversion, small size and weight, simple construction and operation, and low cost. In this paper the present the design considerations that are important for developing such a reformer, namely: (1) a small catalyst bed for quick starting, small size, and low weight; (2) multiple catalysts for optimum operation of the dissociation and reforming reactions; (3) reforming by direct heat transfer partial oxidation for rapid response to fluctuating loads; and (4) thermal independence from the rest of the fuel cell system. 10 refs., 1 fig.

Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Methanol as an alternative transportation fuel in the U.S.  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Methanol as an alternative transportation fuel in the US: Methanol as an alternative transportation fuel in the US: Options for sustainable and/or energy-secure transportation L. Bromberg and W.K. Cheng Prepared by the Sloan Automotive Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge MA 02139 September 27, 2010 Finalized November 2, 2010 Revised November 28, 2010 Final report UT-Battelle Subcontract Number:4000096701 1 Abstract Methanol has been promoted as an alternative transportation fuel from time to time over the past forty years. In spite of significant efforts to realize the vision of methanol as a practical transportation fuel in the US, such as the California methanol fueling corridor of the 1990s, it did not succeed on a large scale. This white paper covers all important aspects of methanol as a transportation fuel.

151

Interaction of alkanes with an amorphous methanol film at 15-180 K  

SciTech Connect

The hydrogen-bond imperfections and glass-liquid transition of the amorphous methanol film have been investigated on the basis of the film dewetting and the incorporation/desorption of alkane molecules adsorbed on the surface. The butane is incorporated completely in the bulk of the porous methanol film up to 70 K. At least two distinct states exist for the incorporated butane; one is assignable to solvated molecules in the bulk and the other is weakly bound species at the surface or in the subsurface site. For the nonporous methanol film, the uptake of butane in the bulk is quenched but butane forms a surface complex with methanol above 80 K. The butane incorporated in the bulk of the glassy methanol film is released at 120 K, where dewetting of the methanol film occurs simultaneously due to evolution of the supercooled liquid phase.

Souda, Ryutaro [Advanced Materials Laboratory, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

152

Catalytic steam gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) tested the catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol synthesis gas. The process uses steam, indirect heat, and a catalyst to produce synthesis gas in one step in fluidized bed gasifier. Both laboratory and process development scale (nominal 1 ton/day) gasifiers were used to test two different catalyst systems: (1) supported nickel catalysts and (2) alkali carbonates doped on the bagasse. This paper presents the results of laboratory and process development unit gasification tests and includes an economic evaluation of the process. 20 references, 6 figures, 9 tables.

Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Methanol production with elemental phosphorus byproduct gas: technical and economic feasibility  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The technical and economic feasibility of using a typical, elemental, phosphorus byproduct gas stream in methanol production is assessed. The purpose of the study is to explore the potential of a substitute for natural gas. The first part of the study establishes economic tradeoffs between several alternative methods of supplying the hydrogen which is needed in the methanol synthesis process to react with CO from the off gas. The preferred alternative is the Battelle Process, which uses natural gas in combination with the off gas in an economically sized methanol plant. The second part of the study presents a preliminary basic design of a plant to (1) clean and compress the off gas, (2) return recovered phosphorus to the phosphorus plant, and (3) produce methanol by the Battelle Process. Use of elemental phosphorus byproduct gas in methanol production appears to be technically feasible. The Battelle Process shows a definite but relatively small economic advantage over conventional methanol manufacture based on natural gas alone. The process would be economically feasible only where natural gas supply and methanol market conditions at a phosphorus plant are not significantly less favorable than at competing methanol plants. If off-gas streams from two or more phosphorus plants could be combined, production of methanol using only offgas might also be economically feasible. The North American methanol market, however, does not seem likely to require another new methanol project until after 1990. The off-gas cleanup, compression, and phosphorus-recovery system could be used to produce a CO-rich stream that could be economically attractive for production of several other chemicals besides methanol.

Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Dodge County, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wisconsin: Energy Resources Wisconsin: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 43.3994215°, -88.7108964° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.3994215,"lon":-88.7108964,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

155

Dodge County, Georgia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

°, -83.2077645° °, -83.2077645° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.1287268,"lon":-83.2077645,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

156

Dodge Center, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

4.0280197°, -92.8546377° 4.0280197°, -92.8546377° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":44.0280197,"lon":-92.8546377,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

157

Dodge County, Nebraska: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

472611°, -96.663812° 472611°, -96.663812° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.6472611,"lon":-96.663812,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

158

Dodge County, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

9°, -92.8577105° 9°, -92.8577105° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.9842889,"lon":-92.8577105,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

159

Formaldehyde yields from methanol electrochemical oxidation on carbon-supported platinum catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The formation of formaldehyde during methanol electrochemical oxidation on supported Pt and Pt-Ru catalysts was investigated. While on solid platinum electrodes, the formaldehyde yields from methanol oxidation are near 30% at low potentials; the yields fall below 2% for methanol electrochemical oxidation on carbon-supported catalysts in Nafion. The lower formaldehyde yields, which result from more complete methanol oxidation, are believed to arise from the ability of partial oxidation products to be transported to an array of active catalyst sites dispersed within the three-dimensional network of the Nafion film.

Childers, C.L.; Huang, H.; Korzeniewski, C. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

1999-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

160

Comparison of Methanol Exposure Routes Reported to Texas Poison Control Centers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

school students in Texas: prevalence and characteristics ofExposure Routes Reported to Texas Poison Control Centersof methanol cases reported to Texas Poison Centers. Methods:

Givens, Melissa; Kalbfleisch, Kristine; Bryson, Scott

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flexible-fuel methanol dodge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Process simulation, economic analysis and synthesis of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil using supercritical methanol.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biodiesel production using supercritical methanol received attention as an alternative method to replace the conventional alkali-catalyzed method being practiced in industry. Due to its flexibility… (more)

Lee, Soo Jin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Technical and Economic Assessment of Hydrogen and Methanol Poweredd Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this thesis is to assess and compare the technical and economic status and prospects of hydrogen and methanol powered fuel cell electric vehicles.

Patrick Jung; Chalmers Tekniska Hgskola; Kristian Lindgren; Ingrid Rde

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

NMR studies of methanol transport in membranes for fuel cell applications.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Characterization of the methanol diffusion process in Nafion 117 was achieved with the use of a modified pulsed field gradient NMR technique. To ensure that the concentration of methanol was constant throughout the entire experiment, the membrane was continually immersed in the methanol solution. When using the standard pulsed field gradient NMR method, the diffusion of the methanol in the membrane is strongly influenced by the diffusion of methanol in solution. Application of a filter gradient suppresses the signal from the methanol in solution, enabling the methanol diffusion in the membrane to be observed unambiguously. Complete suppression of the solution signal was achieved when a 60% filter gradient was employed. Under such circumstances, the coefficient for diffusion of methanol within the membrane was calculated to be 4x10-6cm2s-1, which is similar to the values reported in the literature. Consequently, the use of NMR filter gradient measurements is a valid method for studying the diffusion coefficient of methanol within fuel cell membranes.

Every, H. A. (Hayley A.); Zawodzinski, T. A. (Thomas A.), Jr.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Theoretical validation of chemical kinetic mechanisms : combustion of methanol.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new technique is proposed that uses theoretical methods to systematically improve the performance of chemical kinetic mechanisms. Using a screening method, the chemical reaction steps that most strongly influence a given kinetic observable are identified. The associated rate coefficients are then improved by high-level quantum chemistry and transition-state-theory calculations, which leads to new values for the coefficients and smaller uncertainty ranges. This updating process is continued as new reactions emerge as the most important steps in the target observable. The screening process employed is a global sensitivity analysis that involves Monte Carlo sampling of the full N-dimensional uncertainty space of rate coefficients, where N is the number of reaction steps. The method is applied to the methanol combustion mechanism of Li et al. (Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 2007, 39, 109.). It was found that the CH{sub 3}OH + HO{sub 2} and CH{sub 3}OH + O{sub 2} reactions were the most important steps in setting the ignition delay time, and the rate coefficients for these reactions were updated. The ignition time is significantly changed for a broad range of high-concentration methanol/oxygen mixtures in the updated mechanism.

Skodje, R. T.; Tomlin, A. S.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Harding, L. B.; Davis, M. J.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Univ. of Colorado; Univ. of Leeds

2010-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

165

Synthesis of cresols and xylenols from phenol and methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is the first of two reports that concern the manufacture of the same chemicals using two processes -- a conventional catalytic process and a solar photothermal catalytic process -- to determine the relative process economics. The results of a process study and evaluation for the synthesis of cresols and xylenols using a conventional catalytic process are presented in this report. (The solar photothermal catalytic process is evaluated in the second report, Synthesis of Cresols and Xylenols from Benzene and Methanol.) The process was a vapor-phase methylation of phenol using a high mole ratio of methanol over a solid acidic catalyst. An arbitrary base case plant size (fresh feed) of about 7 million kg/y (15.3 million lbm/y) was chosen and then escalated to a breakeven size. It was concluded that if a chemical company could obtain a fair share of the market, an estimated profitable operation would result for a plant size greater than 12.80 E6 kg/y of fresh feed.

Prengle, H.W. Jr.; van Tran, X.; Moinzadeh, K.; Bricout, F.A.; Alam, S. (Houston Univ., TX (United States))

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

High Resolution FIR and IR Spectroscopy of Methanol Isotopologues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New astronomical facilities such as HIFI on the Herschel Space Observatory, the SOFIA airborne IR telescope and the ALMA sub-mm telescope array will yield spectra from interstellar and protostellar sources with vastly increased sensitivity and frequency coverage. This creates the need for major enhancements to laboratory databases for the more prominent interstellar 'weed' species in order to model and account for their lines in observed spectra in the search for new and more exotic interstellar molecular 'flowers'. With its large-amplitude internal torsional motion, methanol has particularly rich spectra throughout the FIR and IR regions and, being very widely distributed throughout the galaxy, is perhaps the most notorious interstellar weed. Thus, we have recorded new spectra for a variety of methanol isotopic species on the high-resolution FTIR spectrometer on the CLS FIR beamline. The aim is to extend quantum number coverage of the data, improve our understanding of the energy level structure, and provide the astronomical community with better databases and models of the spectral patterns with greater predictive power for a range of astrophysical conditions.

Lees, R. M.; Xu, Li-Hong [Centre for Laser, Atomic and Molecular Studies (CLAMS), University of New Brunswick, 100 Tucker Park Road, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); Appadoo, D. R. T.; Billinghurst, B. [Canadian Light Source, Univ. of Saskatchewan, 101 Perimeter Rd, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X4 (Canada)

2010-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

167

Process Design and Integration of Shale Gas to Methanol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent breakthroughs in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology have made huge reservoirs of previously untapped shale gas and shale oil formations available for use. These new resources have already made a significant impact on the United States chemical industry and present many opportunities for new capital investments and industry growth. As in conventional natural gas, shale gas contains primarily methane, but some formations contain significant amounts of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons and inorganic gases such as nitrogen and carbon dioxide. These differences present several technical challenges to incorporating shale gas with current infrastructure designed to be used with natural gas. However, each shale presents opportunities to develop novel chemical processes that optimize its composition in order to more efficiently and profitably produce valuable chemical products. This paper is aimed at process synthesis, analysis, and integration of different processing pathways for the production of methanol from shale gas. The composition of the shale gas feedstock is assumed to come from the Barnett Shale Play located near Fort Worth, Texas, which is currently the most active shale gas play in the US. Process simulation and published data were used to construct a base-case scenario in Aspen Plus. The impact of different processing pathways was analyzed. Key performance indicators were assessed. These include overall process targets for mass and energy, economic performance, and environmental impact. Finally, the impact of several factors (e.g., feedstock composition, design and operating variables) is studied through a sensitivity analysis. The results show a profitable process above a methanol selling price of approximately $1.50/gal. The sensitivity analysis shows that the ROI depends much more heavily on the selling price of methanol than on the operating costs. Energy integration leads to a savings of $30.1 million per year, or an increase in ROI of 2% points. This also helps offset some of the cost required for the oxygen necessary for syngas generation through partial oxidation. For a sample shale gas composition with high levels of impurities, preprocessing costs require a price differential of $0.73/MMBtu from natural gas. The process is also environmentally desirable because shale gas does not lead to higher GHG emissions than conventional natural gas. More water is required for hydraulic fracturing, but some of these concerns can be abated through conservation techniques and regulation.

Ehlinger, Victoria M.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Planar micro-direct methanol fuel cell prototyped by rapid powder blasting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a planar micro-direct methanol fuel cell (@m-DMFC) fabricated by rapid prototyping-powder blasting technology. Using an elastomeric mask, we pattern two parallel microfluidic channels in glass. The anode and cathode of the fuel cell are formed ... Keywords: Direct methanol fuel cell, Microchannel, Nafion, Powder blasting

M. Shen; S. Walter; L. Dovat; M. A. M. Gijs

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Plenary lecture 6: influence of gasoline-methanol mixtures in a two-stroke engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the alternative fuels that are used is methanol. Methanol (CH3OH) is an alcohol that is produced from natural gas, biomass, coal and also municipal solid wastes and sewage. It is quite corrosive and poisonous and has lower volatility compared ...

Charalampos Arapatsakos

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Fabrication of silicon nanopillar arrays and application on direct methanol fuel cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a simple method that combines self-assembled nanosphere lithography (SANL) and photo-assisted electrochemical etching (PAECE) to fabricate near-perfect and orderly arranged nanopillar arrays for the direct methanol fuel cells electrode (DMFCs) ... Keywords: Direct methanol fuel cell, Nanopillar, Photo-assisted electrochemical etching, Self-assembled nanosphere lithography

Yu-Hsiang Tang; Mao-Jung Huang; Ming-Hua Shiao; Chii-Rong Yang

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

A carbon riveted Pt/Graphene catalyst with high stability for direct methanol fuel cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pt/Graphene catalyst was prepared by microwave-assisted polyol process, and carbonization was riveted onto the catalyst surface to enhance the catalyst stability. The physical properties of the obtained catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction ... Keywords: Direct methanol fuel cell, Methanol electrooxidation, Pt/Graphene, Stability

Xiaowei Liu, Jialin Duan, Hailong Chen, Yufeng Zhang, Xuelin Zhang

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Alkali compounds catalyzed low temperature methanol synthesis over Cu-based catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel mixed catalyst system containing alkali compounds over Cu/MgO-Na catalyst was developed to synthesize methanol from syngas via ethyl formate in a slurry reactor. The results exhibited that among the used alkali formates (HCOOM, M=Li, Na, Cs, ... Keywords: CuMgO-Na/HCOONa/catalysis system, low temperature methanol synthesis, slurry phase

Baoshan Hu

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Great Plains Coal Gasification Project will make 17. 5 tons/day of methanol  

SciTech Connect

The Great Plains Coal Gasification Project will make 17.5 tons/day of methanol in addition to 125 million cu ft/day of pipeline-quality substitute natural gas (SNG), making the facility the first commercial producer of methanol-from-coal in the United States, according to the consortium building the $1.5 billion facility in Beulah, North Dakota. As originally conceived, the plant would have used 17 tons/day of purchased methanol to clean the raw-gas product stream of impurities, primarily sulfur. But based on the cost of transporting methanol to the plant site and storing it for use, the consortium decided it was more economical to produce its own methanol from lignite. The construction started in July 1980, and the facility is to come on stream in 1984.

Not Available

1980-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

174

The Influence of Chain Dynamics on the Far Infrared Spectrum of Liquid Methanol-Water Mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Far-infrared absorption spectroscopy has been used to study the low frequency ({center_dot} 100 cm{sup -1}) intermolecular modes of methanol in mixtures with water. With the aid of a first principles molecular dynamics simulation on an equivalent system, a detailed understanding about the origin of the low frequency IR modes has been established. The total dipole spectrum from the simulation suggests that the bands appearing in the experimental spectra at approximately 55 cm{sup -1} and 70 cm{sup -1} in methanol and methanol-rich mixtures arise from both fluctuations and torsional motions occurring within the methanol hydrogen-bonded chains. The influence of these modes on both the solvation dynamics and the relaxation mechanisms in the liquid are discussed within the context of recent experimental and theoretical results that have emerged from studies focusing on the short time dynamics in the methanol hydrogen bond network.

Woods, K.N.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL

2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

175

Development and demonstration of advanced technologies for direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons (methanol, methane, propane)  

SciTech Connect

Direct methanol fuel cells use methanol directly as a fuel, rather than the reformate typically required by fuel cells, thus eliminating the reformer and fuel processing train. In this program, Giner, Inc. advanced development of two types of direct methanol fuel cells for military applications. Advancements in direct methanol proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (DMPEMFC) technology included developement of a Pt-Ru anode catalyst and an associated electrode structure which provided some of the highest DMPEMFC performance reported to date. Scale-up from a laboratory-scale single cell to a 5-cell stack of practical area, providing over 100 W of power, was also demonstrated. Stable stack performance was achieved in over 300 hours of daily on/off cycling. Direct methanol aqueous carbonate fuel cells were also advanced with development of an anode catalyst and successful operation at decreased pressure. Improved materials for the cell separator/matrix and the hardware were also identified.

Kosek, J.A.; LaConti, A.B.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

177

Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Modeling of the anode side of a direct methanol fuel cell with analytical solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, analytical solutions were derived (for any methanol oxidation reaction order) for the profiles of methanol concentration and proton current density by assuming diffusion mass transport mechanism, Tafel kinetics, and fast proton transport in the anodic catalyst layer of a direct methanol fuel cell. An expression for the Thiele modulus that allows to express the anodic overpotential as a function of the cell current, and kinetic and mass transfer parameters was obtained. For high cell current densities, it was found that the Thiele modulus ($\\phi^2$) varies quadratically with cell current density; yielding a simple correlation between anodic overpotential and cell current density. Analytical solutions were derived for the profiles of both local methanol concentration in the catalyst layer and local anodic current density in the catalyst layer. Under the assumptions of the model presented here, in general, the local methanol concentration in the catalyst layer cannot be expressed as an explicit fun...

Mosquera, Martín A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dinh (PI) Dinh (PI) Thomas Gennett National Renewable Energy Laboratory October 1, 2009 Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Objectives Develop cost-effective, reliable, durable fuel cells for portable power applications (e.g., cell phones, computers, etc.) that meet all DOE targets. Note that the energy density (Wh/L), volumetric (W/L), and specific power (W/kg) all depend on knowing the weight and volume of the entire DMFC system as well as the volume and concentration of fuel, which are system specific (power application and manufacturer dependent). In our model study the surface power density levels on HOPG will allow for indirect evaluation of our system to DOE's energy density

180

Membrane reactor advantages for methanol reforming and similar reactions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Membrane reactors achieve efficiencies by combining in one unit a reactor that generates a product with a semipermeable membrane that extracts it. One well-known benefit of this is greater conversion, as removal of a product drives reactions toward completion, but there are several potentially larger advantages that have been largely ignored. Because a membrane reactor tends to limit the partial pressure of the extracted product, it fundamentally changes the way that total pressure in the reactor affects equilibrium conversion. Thus, many gas-phase reactions that are preferentially performed at low pressures in a conventional reactor are found to have maximum conversion at high pressures in a membrane reactor. These higher pressures and reaction conversions allow greatly enhanced product extraction as well. Further, membrane reactors provide unique opportunities for temperature management which have not been discussed previously. These benefits are illustrated for methanol reforming to hydrogen for use with PEM (polymer electrolyte membrane) fuel cells.

Buxbaum, R.E. [REB Research and Consulting Co., Ferndale, MI (United States)

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flexible-fuel methanol dodge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Removal of sulfur contaminants in methanol for fuel cell applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Equilibrium adsorption isotherm and breakthrough data were used to assess feasibility of developing a granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorber for use as a sulfur removal subsystem in transportation fuel cell systems. Results suggest that an on-board GAC adsorber may not be attractive due to size and weight constraints. However, it may be feasible to install this GAC adsorber at methanol distribution stations, where space and weight are not a critical concern. Preliminary economic analysis indicated that the GAC adsorber concept will be attractive if the spent AC can be regenerated for reuse. These preliminary analyses were made on basis of very limited breakthrough data obtained from the bench-scale testing. Optimization on dynamic testing parameters and study on regeneration of spent AC are needed.

Lee, S.H.D.; Kumar, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Sederquist, R. [International Fuel Cells Corp., South Windsor, CT (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

182

A novel process for methanol synthesis. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of methanol (MeOH) as a fuel additive and in MTBE production has renewed interest in the search for improved MeOH processes. Commercial processes are characterized by high pressures and temperatures with low per pass conversion (10--12%). Efforts are underway to find improved MeOH synthesis processes. A slurry phase ``concurrent`` synthesis of MeOH/methyl formate (MeF) which operates under relatively mild conditions (100{degrees}C lower than present commercial processes) was the subject of investigation in this work. Evidence for a reaction scheme involving the carbonylation of MeOH to MeF followed by the hydrogenolysis of MeF to two molecules of MeOH -- the net result being the reaction of H{sub 2} with CO to give MeOH via MeF, is presented. Up to 90% per pass conversion and 98% selectivity to methanol at rates comparable to commercial processes have been obtained in spite of the presence of as much as 10,000 ppM CO{sub 2} and 3000 ppM H{sub 2}O in the gas and liquid respectively. The effect of process parameters such as temperature, pressure, H{sub 2}/CO ratio in the reactor, flow rate and catalyst loading were also investigated. The use of temperatures above 170{degrees}C at a pressure of 50 atm results in MeF being the limiting reactant. Small amounts of CH{sub 4} are also formed. Significant MeOH synthesis rates at a pressure in the range of 40--50 atm makes possible the elimination of an upstream shift reactor and the use of an air-blown syngas generator. The nature of the catalysts was studied and correlated with the behavior of the various species in the concurrent synthesis.

Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.

1994-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

183

Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT Project Title: Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing PROJECT OBJECTIVE The objective of the project was to advance portable fuel cell system technology towards the commercial targets of power density, energy density and lifetime. These targets were laid out in the DOE’s R&D roadmap to develop an advanced direct methanol fuel cell power supply that meets commercial entry requirements. Such a power supply will enable mobile computers to operate non-stop, unplugged from the wall power outlet, by using the high energy density of methanol fuel contained in a replaceable fuel cartridge. Specifically this project focused on balance-of-plant component integration and miniaturization, as well as extensive component, subassembly and integrated system durability and validation testing. This design has resulted in a pre-production power supply design and a prototype that meet the rigorous demands of consumer electronic applications. PROJECT TASKS The proposed work plan was designed to meet the project objectives, which corresponded directly with the objectives outlined in the Funding Opportunity Announcement: To engineer the fuel cell balance-of-plant and packaging to meet the needs of consumer electronic systems, specifically at power levels required for mobile computing. UNF used existing balance-of-plant component technologies developed under its current US Army CERDEC project, as well as a previous DOE project completed by PolyFuel, to further refine them to both miniaturize and integrate their functionality to increase the system power density and energy density. Benefits of UNF’s novel passive water recycling MEA (membrane electrode assembly) and the simplified system architecture it enabled formed the foundation of the design approach. The package design was hardened to address orientation independence, shock, vibration, and environmental requirements. Fuel cartridge and fuel subsystems were improved to ensure effective fuel containment. PROJECT OVERVIEW The University of North Florida (UNF), with project partner the University of Florida, recently completed the Department of Energy (DOE) project entitled “Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing”. The primary objective of the project was to advance portable fuel cell system technology towards the commercial targets as laid out in the DOE R&D roadmap by developing a 20-watt, direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), portable power supply based on the UNF innovative “passive water recovery” MEA. Extensive component, sub-system, and system development and testing was undertaken to meet the rigorous demands of the consumer electronic application. Numerous brassboard (nonpackaged) systems were developed to optimize the integration process and facilitating control algorithm development. The culmination of the development effort was a fully-integrated, DMFC, power supply (referred to as DP4). The project goals were 40 W/kg for specific power, 55 W/l for power density, and 575 Whr/l for energy density. It should be noted that the specific power and power density were for the power section only, and did not include the hybrid battery. The energy density is based on three, 200 ml, fuel cartridges, and also did not include the hybrid battery. The results show that the DP4 system configured without the methanol concentration sensor exceeded all performance goals, achieving 41.5 W/kg for specific power, 55.3 W/l for power density, and 623 Whr/l for energy density. During the project, the DOE revised its technical targets, and the definition of many of these targets, for the portable power application. With this revision, specific power, power density, specific energy (Whr/kg), and energy density are based on the total system, including fuel tank, fuel, and hybridization battery. Fuel capacity is not defined, but the same value is required for all calculations. Test data showed that the DP4 exceeded all 2011 Technical Status values; for example, the DP4 energy density was 373 Whr/l versus the DOE 2011 status of 200 Whr/l. For the

Fletcher, James H. [University of North Florida; Cox, Philip [University of North Florida; Harrington, William J [University of North Florida; Campbell, Joseph L [University of North Florida

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

184

Electron-Stimulated Reactions and O-2 Production in Methanol-Covered Amorphous Solid Water Films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The low-energy, electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) of molecular products from amorphous solid water (ASW) films capped with methanol is investigated versus methanol coverage (0 - 4 x 1015 cm-2) at 50 K using 100 eV incident electrons. The major ESD products from a monolayer of methanol on ASW are quite similar to the ESD products from bulk methanol film: H2, CH4, H2O, C2H6, CO, CH2O, and CH3OH. For 40 ML ASW films, the molecular oxygen, hydrogen, and water ESD yields from the ASW are suppressed with increasing methanol coverage, while the CH3OH ESD yield increases proportionally to the methanol coverage. The suppression of the water ESD products by methanol is consistent with the non-thermal reactions occurring preferentially at or near the ASW/vacuum interface and not in the interior of the film. The water and molecular hydrogen ESD yields from the water layer decrease exponentially with the methanol cap coverage with 1/e constants of ~ 0.6 x 1015 cm-2 and 1.6 x 1015 cm-2, respectively. In contrast, the O2 ESD from the water layer is very efficiently quenched by small amounts of methanol (1/e ~ 6.5 x 1013 cm-2). The rapid suppression of O2 production by small amounts of methanol is due to reactions between CH3OH and the precursors for the O2 - mainly OH radicals. A kinetic model for the O2 ESD which semi-quantitatively accounts for the observations is presented.

Akin, Minta C.; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Kimmel, Gregory A.

2009-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

185

Results from the second year of operation of the federal methanol fleet at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This interim report describes the second year's operation of the methanol fleet at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) in Berkeley, California. The fleet consists of five 1984 methanol-fueled Chevrolet Citation sedans paired with five comparable gasoline-fueled Citations for comparison. Data have been collected and tabulated on fuel consumption, maintenance records, oil sample analyses, and driver perceptions of vehicle operability. Fuel efficiency was slightly improved as compared to the first year for both the methanol and gasoline vehicles. The methanol vehicles continued to experience slightly less energy efficiency than the gasoline vehicles. Maintenance data reveal that the methanol vehicles required substantially more service than the gasoline vehicles, which may be due partially to a greater sensitivity on the part of users about methanol vehicle problems. Oil sample analyses revealed that engine wear rates are lower for the second year as compared to the first year and are probably not cause for great alarm. Drivers still rate all of the vehicles quite highly, but the methanol vehicles were rated not as highly during the second year of operation as in the first year. 5 refs., 1 figs., 16 tabs.

McGill, R.N.; Hillis, S.L.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

THE ROLE OF METHANOL IN THE CRYSTALLIZATION OF TITAN'S PRIMORDIAL OCEAN  

SciTech Connect

A key parameter that controls the crystallization of primordial oceans in large icy moons is the presence of anti-freeze compounds, which may have maintained primordial oceans over the age of the solar system. Here we investigate the influence of methanol, a possible anti-freeze candidate, on the crystallization of Titan's primordial ocean. Using a thermodynamic model of the solar nebula and assuming a plausible composition of its initial gas phase, we first calculate the condensation sequence of ices in Saturn's feeding zone, and show that in Titan's building blocks methanol can have a mass fraction of {approx}4 wt% relative to water, i.e., methanol can be up to four times more abundant than ammonia. We then combine available data on the phase diagram of the water-methanol system and scaling laws derived from thermal convection to estimate the influence of methanol on the dynamics of the outer ice I shell and on the heat transfer through this layer. For a fraction of methanol consistent with the building blocks composition we determined, the vigor of convection in the ice I shell is strongly reduced. The effect of 5 wt% methanol is equivalent to that of 3 wt% ammonia. Thus, if methanol is present in the primordial ocean of Titan, the crystallization may stop, and a sub-surface ocean may be maintained between the ice I and high-pressure ice layers. A preliminary estimate indicates that the presence of 4 wt% methanol and 1 wt% ammonia may result in an ocean of thickness at least 90 km.

Deschamps, Frederic [Institute of Geophysics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Mousis, Olivier [Universite de Franche-Comte, Institut UTINAM, CNRS/INSU, UMR 6213, 25030 Besancon Cedex (France); Sanchez-Valle, Carmen [Institute of Geochemistry and Petrology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Lunine, Jonathan I., E-mail: frederic.deschamps@erdw.ethz.c [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Roma 'Tor Vergata', Rome (Italy)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Characterization and research investigation of methanol and methyl fuels. Final progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Work on several aspects of using pure methanol as an alternate fuel are reported. A stock (OEM) Pinto engine mounted on a dynamometer was used to compare methanol with Indolene in terms of power, efficiency, and emissions for a variety of speeds and loads. Although the engine was designed for use with gasoline, it was found that methanol was generally superior in power, thermal efficiency and reduced emissions with the exception of aldehydes. Three different fuel metering systems were tested for a variety of speeds and loads using the dynamometer mounted engine. They were all found to provide superior steady state performance on methanol when compared with the OEM carburetor system with enlarged fuel jets for methanol. Mileage and emissions from a Pinto vehicle equipped with the various fuel metering systems were computer predicted for the Federal emissions test procedure using laboratory engine measurements. A computer was used to simulate the test engine's thermokinetic combustion events. The computer model predicts power, fuel economy and emissions with air-fuel ratio, compression ratio, spark advance and speed as parameters. A small (60 hp) gas turbine was converted to run on methanol. The conversion was easily accomplished, but atomization of the fuel was found to be important in obtaining a reduction in CO and NO/sub x/ for methanol in comparison with jet engine fuel. Environmental factors of marine and aquatic methanol spills and photochemical smog are under study. Preliminary experimentation relative to marine spills indicates that methanol is naturally present in that environment. It appears at this early stage of investigation that damage to the ecosystem from a major coastal spill may be localized and of short duration.

Pefley, R.K.; Browning, L.H.; Hornberger, M.L.; Likos, W.E.; McCormack, M.C.; Pullman, B.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Wensheng He, David Mountz, Tao Zhang, Chris Roger July 17, 2012 2 Outline Background on Arkema's polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) blend membrane technology Overview of membrane properties and performance Summary 3 Membrane Technology Polymer Blend * Kynar ® PVDF * Chemical and electrochemical stability * Mechanical strength * Excellent barrier against methanol * Polyelectrolyte * H + conduction and water uptake Flexible Blending Process  PVDF can be compatibilized with a number of polyelectrolytes  Process has been scaled to a pilot line Property Control * Morphology: 10-100s nm domains * Composition can be tailored to minimize methanol permeation, while optimizing

189

X-ray absorption and electrochemical studies of direct methanol fuel cell catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order for polymer electrolyte fuel cells to operate directly on methanol instead of hydrogen, methanol oxidation must be catalyzed in the acidic cell environment. Pt-Ru and Pt-Ru oxide are considered to be the most active catalysts for this purpose; Ru enhances the Pt activity for reasons not yet fully understood. XAS and electrochemical techniques were used to study this enhancement. Preliminary results indicate that Ru does effect the d-band occupancy of Pt, which in turn may effect the kinetics of the methanol oxidation reaction on this metal by altering the strength of the Pt-CO bond. Further research is needed.

Zurawski, D.J.; Aldykiewicz, A.J. Jr.; Baxter, S.F.; Krumpelt, M.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

190

SHAPE SELECTIVE NANOCATALYSTS FOR DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

While gold and platinum have long been recognized for their beauty and value, researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) are working on the nano-level to use these elements for creative solutions to our nation's energy and security needs. Multiinterdisciplinary teams consisting of chemists, materials scientists, physicists, computational scientists, and engineers are exploring unchartered territories with shape-selective nanocatalysts for the development of novel, cost effective and environmentally friendly energy solutions to meet global energy needs. This nanotechnology is vital, particularly as it relates to fuel cells.SRNL researchers have taken process, chemical, and materials discoveries and translated them for technological solution and deployment. The group has developed state-of-the art shape-selective core-shell-alloy-type gold-platinum nanostructures with outstanding catalytic capabilities that address many of the shortcomings of the Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC). The newly developed nanostructures not only busted the performance of the platinum catalyst, but also reduced the material cost and overall weight of the fuel cell.

Murph, S.

2012-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

191

Results from the second year of operation of the Federal Methanol Fleet at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has completed its second year of operation of ten vehicles for the Federal Methanol Fleet Project; five of the vehicles are fueled with methanol. Over 56,000 miles were accumulated on the vehicles in the second year bringing the total to over 152,000 miles. Energy consumption for the methanol cars was slightly higher than that of the gasoline cars again this year, most likely as a result of shorter average trip lengths for the methanol gas. Iron and lead have accumulated at greater rates in the lubricating oil of the methanol cars. Driver's ratings of vehicles reflected some dissatisfaction with the cold-weather performance of the methanol cars, but the cars have no special provisions for cold weather starting, and the fuel vapor pressure has not been tailored to the season as at other test sites. Otherwise, drivers' opinions of the methanol cars have been favorable. 13 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

West, B.H.; McGill (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Hillis, S.L. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Design of high-ionic conductivity electrodes for direct methanol fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon-supported porous electrodes are used in low-temperature fuel cells to provide maximum catalyst surface area, while taking up little volume and using minimum catalyst material. In Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs), ...

Schrauth, Anthony J

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Synthesis and characterization of 1D ceria nanomaterials for CO oxidation and steam reforming of methanol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Novel one-dimensional (1D) ceria nanostructure has been investigated as a promising and practical approach for the reforming of methanol reaction. Size and shape of the ceria nanomaterials are directly involved with the catalytic activities. Several ...

Sujan Chowdhury; Kuen-Song Lin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Dieselzymes: development of a stable and methanol tolerant lipase for biodiesel production by directed evolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MAR, Metzger JO, Schäfer HJ: Oils and fats as renewable rawJ, Liu DH: Conversion of soybean oil to biodiesel fuel usingdielectric environment of the oil and methanol mixture used

Korman, Tyler P; Sahachartsiri, Bobby; Charbonneau, David M; Huang, Grace L; Beauregard, Marc; Bowie, James U

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

CH Activation and Oxidation of Methane to Methanol in High Yield...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CH Activation and Oxidation of Methane to Methanol in High Yield with Novel Pt Complexes Speaker(s): Roy Periana Date: April 27, 1999 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host...

196

WATER AND METHANOL MASER ACTIVITIES IN THE NGC 2024 FIR 6 REGION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The NGC 2024 FIR 6 region was observed in the water maser line at 22 GHz and the methanol class I maser lines at 44, 95, and 133 GHz. The water maser spectra displayed several velocity components and month-scale time variabilities. Most of the velocity components may be associated with FIR 6n, while one component was associated with FIR 4. A typical lifetime of the water maser velocity components is about eight months. The components showed velocity fluctuations with a typical drift rate of about 0.01 km s{sup -1} day{sup -1}. The methanol class I masers were detected toward FIR 6. The methanol emission is confined within a narrow range around the systemic velocity of the FIR 6 cloud core. The methanol masers suggest the existence of shocks driven by either the expanding H II region of FIR 6c or the outflow of FIR 6n.

Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Byun, Do-Young [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Eun, E-mail: minho@kasi.re.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

197

The Influence of Chain Dynamics on theFar-Infrared Spectrum of Liquid Methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Far-infrared absorption spectroscopy is used to investigate the low frequency ({center_dot} 100 cm{sup -1}) intermolecular interactions in liquid methanol. Using an intense source of far-infrared radiation, modes are elucidated at approximately 30 cm{sup -1} and 70 cm{sup -1} in the absorption spectrum. These modes are believed to arise from intermolecular bending and librational motions respectively and are successfully reproduced in an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of methanol.

Woods, K.N.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL

2005-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

198

Conversion of biomass to methanol and its effect on CO sub 2 emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose for this report is to present a preliminary analysis of various processes for conversion of biomass to methanol fuel with the objective of determining the effect of these processes on net CO{sub 2} emissions. The analysis is made primarily on the basis of first principles of mass and energy balances. There are at least four systems that can produce methanol from biomass (defined as wood or lignocellulose). These are reviewed and assessed. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Steinberg, M.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment III. Florida's eucalyptus energy farm and methanol refinery: the background environment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A wide array of general background information is presented on the Central Florida area in which the eucalyptus energy plantation and methanol refinery will be located. Five counties in Central Florida may be affected by the project, DeSoto, Hardee, Hillsborough, Manatee, and Polk. The human resources of the area are reviewed. Included are overviews of population demographic and economic trends. Land use patterns and the transportation are system described, and the region's archeological and recreational resources are evaluated. The region's air quality is emphasized. The overall climate is described along with noise and air shed properties. An analysis of the region's water resources is included. Ground water is discussed first followed by an analysis of surface water. Then the overall quality and water supply/demand balance for the area is evaluated. An overview of the region's biota is presented. Included here are discussions of the general ecosystems in Central Florida, and an analysis of areas with important biological significance. Finally, land resources are examined.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Integrated system for coal-methanol liquefaction and slurry pipeline transportation. Final report. [In slurry transport  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The engineering economics of an integrated coal-to-methanol conversion system and coal-in-methanol transportation system are examined, under the circumstances of the western coalfields, i.e., long distances from major markets and scarcity of water in the vicinity of the mines. The transportation economics are attractive, indicating tariffs of approximately 40 cents per million Btu per thousand miles for the coal-methanol pipeline vs 60 cents via coal-water pipelines and upwards of a dollar via rail. Energy consumption is also less in the coal-methanol pipeline than in the coal-water pipeline, and about equal to rail. It is also concluded that, by a proper marriage of the synthetic fuel (methanolization) plant to the slurrification plant, most, and in some cases all, of the water required by the synthetic fuel process can be supplied by the natural moisture of the coal itself. Thus, the only technology which presently exists and by which synthetic fuel from western coal can displace petroleum in the automotive fuel market is the integrated methanol conversion and tranportation system. The key element is the ability of the methanol slurry pipeline to accept and to deliver dry (1 to 5% moisture) coal, allowing the natural coal moisture to be used as synthesis feedstock in satisfaction of the large water requirement of any synthetic fuel plant. By virtue of these unique properties, this integrated system is seen as the only means in the foreseeable future whereby western coal can be converted to synthetic fuel and moved to distant markets.

Banks, W.F.; Davidson, J.K.; Horton, J.H.; Summers, C.W.

1980-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flexible-fuel methanol dodge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Density Functional Theory Study of Methanol Decomposition on the CeO2(110) Surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methanol decomposition on the stoichiometric CeO2(110) surface has been investigated using density functional theory slab calculations. Three possible initial steps to decompose methanol by breaking one of three bonds (O?H, C?O and C?H) of methanol were examined. The relative order of thermodynamic stability for the three possible bond scission steps is: C?H > O?H > C?O. We further isolated transition state and determined activation energy for each bond-breaking mode using the nudged elastic method. The activation barrier for the most favorable dissociation mode, the O?H bond scission, is 0.3 eV on the (110) surface. An even lower activation barrier ( C?O > C?H. Our results are consistent with the previous experimental observation that methoxy is the dominant surface species after a stoichiometric CeO2 surface was exposed to methanol. The experimentally observed methanol chemistry was determined by the kinetics of initial dissociation steps rather than the thermodynamic stability of product states. Surface coverage of methanol was found to affect the relative stability between molecular and dissociative adsorption modes. Dissociative adsorption modes are preferred thermodynamically for methanol coverage up to 0.5 ML but only molecular adsorption was stable at full monolayer coverage. This work was supported by a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The computations were performed using the Molecular Science Computing Facility in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), which is a U.S. Department of Energy national scientific user facility located at PNNL in Richland, Washington. Computing time was made under a Computational Grand Challenge “Computational Catalysis”. Part of the computing time was also granted by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC).

Mei, Donghai; Deskins, N. Aaron; Dupuis, Michel; Ge, Qingfeng

2008-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

202

Importance of Diffusion in Methanol Photochemistry on TiO2(110)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The photoactivity of methanol on the rutile TiO2(110) surface is shown to depend on the ability of methanol to diffuse on the surface and find sites active for its thermal dissociation to methoxy. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) results show that the extent of methanol photodecomposition to formaldehyde is negligible on the clean TiO2(110) surface at 100 K due to a scarcity of sites that can convert (photoinactive) methanol to (photoactive) methoxy. The extent of photoactivity at 100 K significantly increases when methanol is coadsorbed with oxygen, however only those molecules able to adsorb near (next to) a coadsorbed oxygen species are active. Preannealing coadsorbed methanol and oxygen to above 200 K prior to UV irradiation results in a significant increase in photoactivity. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images clearly show that the advent of increased photoactivity in TPD correlates with the onset of methanol diffusion along the surface’s Ti4+ rows at ~200 K. These results demonstrate that optimizing thermal processes (such as diffusion or proton transfer reactions) can be critical to maximizing photocatalytic reactivity on TiO2 surfaces. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle under contract DEAC05-76RL01830. The research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

Shen, Mingmin; Acharya, Danda P.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Henderson, Michael A.

2012-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

203

Direct methanol fuel cells for transportation applications. Quarterly technical report, April--June 1997  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this research and development effort is to advance the performance and viability of direct methanol fuel cell technology for light-duty transportation applications. For fuel cells to be an attractive alternative to conventional automotive power plants, the fuel cell stack combined with the fuel processor and ancillary systems must be competitive in terms of both performance and costs. A major advantage for the direct methanol fuel cell is that a fuel processor is not required. A direct methanol fuel cell has the potential of satisfying the demanding requirements for transportation applications, such as rapid start-up and rapid refueling. The preliminary goals of this effort are: (1) 310 W/l, (2) 445 W/kg, and (3) potential manufacturing costs of $48/kW. In the twelve month period for phase 1, the following critical areas will be investigated: (1) an improved proton-exchange membrane that is more impermeable to methanol, (2) improved cathode catalysts, and (3) advanced anode catalysts. In addition, these components will be combined to form membrane-electrode assemblies (MEA`s) and evaluated in subscale tests. Finally a conceptual design and program plan will be developed for the construction of a 5 kW direct methanol stack in Phase 2 of the program. Progress in these areas is described.

Fuller, T.F. [International Fuel Cells Corp., South Windsor, CT (United States); Kunz, H.R. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Moore, R. [Univ. of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Methanol electro-oxidation on unsupported Pt-Ru alloys at different temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A wide compositional range of unsupported platinum-ruthenium alloy catalysts were prepared by thermal decomposition of the chlorides and chloroacids. The electrocatalysts were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The BET surface area of the electrocatalysts increases with increasing Ru content up to {approximately}70 atomic percent (a/o) and then reaches a plateau value. Electrodes fabricated from the electrocatalysts were also evaluated as anodes for methanol electro-oxidation in sulfuric acid over a range of temperatures. Unlike the situation for pure Pt, Ru is inactive for methanol electro-oxidation at 25 C but becomes active at higher temperatures. The peak current observed during an anodic potential scan gradually shifts to more cathodic potentials with increasing temperature. When a comparison is made on the basis of electrode geometric surface area, a {approximately}50 a/o ruthenium electrocatalyst provides the highest activity for methanol electro-oxidation at both 25 and 60C. The methanol electro-oxidation rate is 0.5 orders with respect to methanol concentration (between 0.1 and 2 M) for the Pt-Ru ({approximately}50:50) electrode.

Chu, D.; Gilman, S. [Army Research Lab., Fort Monmouth, NJ (United States). Physical Sciences Directorate

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Automotive storage of hydrogen as a mixture of methanol and water. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The concept of steam-reforming methanol on-board an automobile was evaluated as a candidate method of storing fuel for the hydrogen engine. This method uses low-temperature, engine waste heat to evaporate a 1:1 molar water-methanol mixture at 373/sup 0/K (212/sup 0/F) and to provide endothermic reaction heat at 505/sup 0/K (450/sup 0/F) to convert this mixture to hydrogen and carbon dioxide. By using engine waste heat, a fuel combustion enrichment of 8% (LHV) or 18% (HHV) is obtained when the reactor effluents are compared with those from the tanked fuel. Defining system efficiency as the product of the generator chemical efficiency (108%) and the engine thermal efficiency (assumed to be 30%) yields a value of 32.4%. Conservative estimates indicate that an additional volume of 44 to 49 liters and an additional weight of 110 to 140 kg would be required, compared with a conventional 20 gal gasoline tank. A 500 hour endurance test of this system with a Girdler G-66B catalyst was conducted at 505/sup 0/K (450/sup 0/F), atmospheric pressure, and low space velocity--compared with automotive requirements--at wide-open-throttle conditions with laboratory-grade methanol; there was no loss of activity. However, when fuel-grade methanol containing small amounts of higher alcohols was substituted for the laboratory-grade methanol, significant catalyst deactivation occurred. (auth)

Kester, F.L.; Konopka, A.J.; Camara, E.

1975-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Direct methanol fuel cells for transportation applications. Quarterly technical report, June 1996--September 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this research and development effort is to advance the performance and viability of direct methanol fuel cell technology for light-duty transportation applications. For fuel cells to be an attractive alternative to conventional automotive power plants, the fuel cell stack combined with the fuel processor and ancillary systems must be competitive in terms of both performance and costs. A major advantage for the direct methanol fuel cell is that a fuel processor is not required. A direct methanol fuel cell has the potential of satisfying the demanding requirements for transportation applications, such as rapid start-up and rapid refueling. The preliminary goals of this effort are: (1) 310 W/l, (2) 445 W/kg, and (3) potential manufacturing costs of $48/kW. In the twelve month period for phase 1, the following critical areas will be investigated: (1) an improved proton-exchange membrane that is more impermeable to methanol, (2) improved cathode catalysts, and (3) advanced anode catalysts. In addition, these components will be combined to form membrane-electrode assemblies (MEA`s) and evaluated in subscale tests. Finally a conceptual design and program plan will be developed for the construction of a 5 kW direct methanol stack in phase II of the program.

Fuller, T.F.; Kunz, H.R.; Moore, R.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Low temperature methanol catalyst--some aspects of process scale-up  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The low temperature liquid phase methanol synthesis technology continues to be developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The heart of this process is a new catalyst consisting of two components: a transition metal complex (TMC) and a structured base. On dissolution in methanol, preferably methanol diluted with a cosolvent (e.g. glymes), the two components yield an active catalytic species which achieves >90% per pass syngas conversion at <150{degree}C with >95% selectivity to methanol. The catalyst performance evaluation and the process parameters optimization continue. A mimic recycle multicharge batch run has established the catalytic nature of the system and the stability of the glyme cosolvent under reaction conditions. An empirical kinetic model based on the Ultramax{reg sign} program has been proposed by solving a set of algebraic equations involving six reaction variables. Twelve additional kinetic runs were completed to test the proposed model. With prediction error of 0.031 min{sup {minus} 1} for the rate constant (k) and the R-squared of 98.5, a good agreement between actual versus predicted k values was obtained. Work continues to address other uncertainties associated with the overall methanol synthesis process scheme suggested for the new catalyst system. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Mahajan, D.; Spaienza, R.S.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Proton and methanol transport in poly(perfluorosulfonate) membranes containing Cs{sup +} and H{sup +} cations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Poly(perfluorosulfonate acid) membranes were doped with cesium ions to several degrees. These, along with the H{sup +}-form membrane, were investigated in relation to methanol permeability as well as hydrogen ion conductivity. While retaining considerable conductivity, the cesium-doped membranes are highly impermeable to methanol. The author found that methanol permeability in the membrane reduced by over one order of magnitude, owing to the presence of cesium ions. These findings are discussed on the basis of alterations produced by cesium in the membrane microstructure. Also discussed is the potential implication of these results in the direct methanol fuel cell technology.

Tricoli, V. [Univ. of Pisa (Italy)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol on polypyrrole film modified with platinum microparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol on polypyrrole (PPy) film modified with platinum microparticles has been studied by means of electrochemical and in situ Fourier transform infrared techniques. The Pt microparticles, which were incorporated in the PPy film by the technique of cyclic voltammetry, were uniformly dispersed. The modified electrode exhibits significant electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of methanol. The catalytic activities were found to be dependent on Pt loading and the thickness of the PPy film. The linearly adsorbed CO species is the only intermediate of electrochemical oxidation of methanol and can be readily oxidized at the modified electrodes. The enhanced electrocatalytic activities may be due to the uniform dispersion of Pt microparticles in the PPy film and the synergistic effects of the highly dispersed Pt microparticles and the PPy film. Finally, a reaction mechanism is suggested.

Yang, H.; Lu, T. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun (China). Changchun Inst. of Applied Chemistry; Xue, K. [Nanjing Normal Univ. (China). Dept. of Chemistry; Sun, S.; Lu, G.; Chen, S. [Xiamen Univ. (China). Dept. of Chemistry

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol.

Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY); Grohse, Edward W. (Port Jefferson, NY)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the second report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1--March 31, 2004. This quarter saw progress in five areas. These areas are: (1) Internal and external evaluations of coal based methanol and the fuel cell grade baseline fuel; (2) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation; (3) Design and set up of the autothermal reactor; (4) Steam reformation of Coal Based Methanol; and (5) Initial catalyst degradation studies. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol. 3 figs.

Steinberg, M.; Grohse, E.W.

1995-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

213

Polymer electrolyte direct methanol fuel cells: an option for transportation applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

PEFCs most frequently considered for electric vehicles have been based on either hydrogen carried aboard, or steam-reforming of methanol on board to produce H2 + CO2. Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), which use a liquid methanol fuel feed, completely avoid the complexity and weight penalties of the reformer, but have not been considered a serious option until recently, because of much lower power densities. Recent advances in DMFCs have been dramatic, however, with the DMFC reaching power densities which are significant fractions of those provided by reformate/air fuel cells. Use of established Pt-Ru anode electrocatalysts and Pt cathode electrocatalysts in polymer electrolyte DMFCs has resulted in enhanced DMFC performance, particularly when operated above 100 C and when catalyst layer composition and structure are optimized. The higher DMFC power densities recently achieved provide a new basis for considering DMFCs for transportation applications.

Gottesfeld, S.; Cleghorn, S.J.C.; Ren, X.; Springer, T.E.; Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, T.A.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Using Rare Gas Permeation to Probe Methanol Diffusion near the Glass Transition Temperature  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The permeation of rare-gas atoms through deeply supercooled metastable liquid methanol films is used to probe the diffusivity. The technique allows for measurement of supercooled liquid self-diffusion at temperatures just above the glass transition. The diffusivity near the glass transition is characterized by an activation energy and prefactor that are seven and 1030 times greater, respectively, than those of the room temperature liquid. The temperature dependence of the diffusivity is well-described by a Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT) equation. These new measurements, their kinetic parameters, and temperature dependence provide clear evidence that methanol is a fragile liquid.

Matthiesen, Jesper; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.

2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

215

Controlling combustion characteristics using a slit nozzle in a direct-injection methanol engine  

SciTech Connect

A new type of fuel injection nozzle, called a `slit nozzle,` has been developed to improve poor ignitability and to stabilize combustion under low load conditions in direct-injection methanol diesel engines manufactured for medium-duty trucks. This nozzle has a single oblong vent like a slit. Engine test results indicate that the slit nozzle can improve combustion and thermal efficiency, especially at low loads and no load. This can be explained by the fact that the slit nozzle forms a more highly concentrated methanol spray around the glow-plug than do multi-hole nozzles. As a result, this nozzle improves flame propagation. 3 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

Kusaka, Jin; Daisho, Yasuhiro; Saito, Takeshi; Kihara, Ryoji

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the sixth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1-March 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in four areas. These areas are: (1) Autothermal reforming of coal derived methanol, (2) Catalyst deactivation, (3) Steam reformer transient response, and (4) Catalyst degradation with bluff bodies. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Comparative study of heavy-duty engine operation with diesel fuel and ignition-improved methanol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methanol can be made suitable for compression ignition engines by ignition-improving additives. The ignition improver demand can be minimized by increasing the compression ratio. The technical suitability of this fuel can be regarded as proven, since most of the problems connected with its use have been solved. Its economic viability, however, has still to be doubted. From an environmental point of view, ignition-improved methanol deserves great interest due to the total absence of soot in the exhaust and the considerably reduced NO/sub x/ emission.

Hardenberg, H.O.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Technical-economic assessment of the production of methanol from biomass. Conversion process analysis. Final research report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A comprehensive engineering system study was conducted to assess various thermochemical processes suitable for converting biomass to methanol. A summary of the conversion process study results is presented here, delineating the technical and economic feasibilities of producing methanol fuel from biomass utilizing the currently available technologies. (MHR)

Wan, E.I.; Simmons, J.A.; Price, J.D.; Nguyen, T.D.

1979-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

219

Liquid-Phase Methanol (LPMeOHTM) Process Development Unit (PDU)--40-Day Run at LaPorte, Texas (1984)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sustained catalyst life is a key to improved methanol synthesis from coal gasification products. A demonstration of scaled-up PDU operation--first using a large-particle catalyst and then a liquid-entrained slurry in a single run--produced a significant amount of crude methanol.

1986-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

220

Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) (Fact Sheet)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

an FFV? an FFV? An FFV, as its name implies, has the flex- ibility of running on more than one type of fuel. FFVs can be fueled with unleaded gasoline, E85, or any combination of the two. Like conventional gasoline vehicles, FFVs have a single fuel tank, fuel system, and engine. And they are available in a wide range of models such as sedans, pickups, and minivans. Light-duty FFVs are designed to operate with at least 15% gasoline in the fuel, mainly to ensure they start in cold weather. FFVs are equipped with modified components designed specifically to be compatible with ethanol's chemical properties. In the illustration on the back, the main modifications for FFVs are

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flexible-fuel methanol dodge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Direct methanol oxidation on platinum electrodes with ruthenium adatoms in hot phosphoric acid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Enhancement of the electrocatalytic activity of platinum for direct methanol oxidation by Ru adatoms and by the elevation of operating temperatures was investigated in hot phosphoric acid (60 to 190 C). It is clear that a higher temperature operation (>100 C) is advantageous for the enhancement of methanol oxidation and a maximum enhancement by Ru adatoms at each operating temperature is obtained at Pt/Ru = 1/1. These results are quite similar to those obtained at low temperatures in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The mechanism of the electrocatalysis on platinum electrodes with Ru adatoms in hot H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is discussed based on the experimental data in comparison with those in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The rate of methanol oxidation is proportional to Ru coverage ({theta}{sub Ru}{sup Pt}) by the introduction of Ru sites contributing to the adsorption of oxygen species required for the oxidation of the organic species absorbed on Pt sites in a Ru coverage region of {theta} {le} 0.5, but it is reduced inversely proportional to {theta} due to the reduction of a dissociative adsorption rate of methanol on the platinum sites in the region of {theta} > 0.5, where the coverage of organic species becomes zero.

Watanabe, Masahiro; Genjima, Yasuhiro [Yamanashi Univ., Kofu (Japan); Turumi, Kazunori [Tanaka Kikinzoku Kogyo Technical Center, Hiratsuka (Japan)

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Direct methanol fuel cell cathodes with sulfur and nitrogen-based carbon functionality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of carbon functionality on the electrocatalytic performance of carbon black-supported, Pt-based, direct methanol fuel cell cathodes was investigated. Polarization data show that cathodes with nitrogen and sulfur functionality have enhanced catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction. Transmission electron microscopy results indicate that this behavior may be ascribed to a platinum particle size effect.

Roy, S.C.; Christensen, P.A.; Hamnett, A.; Thomas, K.M.; Trapp, V. [Univ. of Newcastle, Newcastle-upon-Tyne (United Kingdom)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Direct methane conversion to methanol. Final report, July 19, 1990--May 18, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One objective of this project was to demonstrate the effectiveness of a catalytic membrane reactor (a ceramic membrane combined with a catalyst) to selectively produce methanol by partial oxidation of methane. Methanol is used as a chemical feed stock, gasoline additive, and turbine fuel. Methane partial oxidation using a catalytic membrane reactor has been determined as one of the promising approaches for methanol synthesis from methane. Methanol synthesis and separation in one step would also make methane valuable for producing chemicals and fuels. Another valuable fuel product is H{sub 2}. Its separation from other gasification products would make it very valuable as a chemical feedstock and clean fuel for fuel cells. Gasification of coal or other organic fuels as a source of H{sub 2} produces compounds (CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O) that require high temperature (1000-1500{degrees}F) and high pressure (600-1000 psia) separations. A zeolite membrane layer on a mechanically stable ceramic or stainless steel support would have ideal applications for this type of separation. Separations using zeolite membrane was also evaluated for use in the production in the above fuels. 20 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

224

Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the fourth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of July 1-Sept 30, 2004 along with a recap of progress from the start of the project on Oct 1, 2003 to Sept 30, 2004. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule. This year saw progress in several areas. These areas are: (1) External and internal evaluation of coal based methanol and a fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design set up and initial testing of three laboratory scale steam reformers, (3) Design, set up and initial testing of a laboratory scale autothermal reactor, (4) Hydrogen generation from coal-derived methanol using steam reformation, (5) Experiments to determine the axial and radial thermal profiles of the steam reformers, (6) Initial catalyst degradation studies with steam reformation and coal based methanol, and (7) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

225

Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

50,000 mile methanol/gasoline blend fleet study: a progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Seven current production automobiles are being used in a fleet study to obtain operational experience in using 10% methanol/90% gasoline blends as an automotive fuel. Data from chassis dynamometer tests (run according to the 1975--1978 Federal test procedure) have been obtained, showing fuel economy and exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, unburned fuel, methanol, and aldehydes. These data are shown for each of the vehicles when operated on the 10% methanol blend, and on unleaded low octane Indolene. Chassis dynamometer tests were run at 5,000-mile intervals during the 35,000 miles accumulated on each of the four 1977 model-year vehicles and at 5,000 and 10,000 mile accumulation levels for each of the three 1978 model-year vehicles. These data show an average decrease in volumetric fuel economy (approx. = 5%) and a reduction in carbon monoxide emissions associated with the use of the 10% methanol blend. Exhaust emission deterioration factors are projected from the Federal test procedure urban cycle data. The most severe driveability problems that have been encountered thus far into the program are related to operating on a phase separated fuel and materials compatibility problems with an elastomer in the air-fuel control hardware of one vehicle.

Stamper, K R

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Hynol -- An economic process for methanol production from biomass and natural gas with reduced CO{sub 2} emission  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Hynol process is proposed to meet the demand for an economical process for methanol production with reduced CO{sub 2} emission. This new process consists of three reaction steps: (a) hydrogasification of biomass, (b) steam reforming of the produced gas with additional natural gas feedstock, and (c) methanol synthesis of the hydrogen and carbon monoxide produced during the previous two steps. The H{sub 2}-rich gas remaining after methanol synthesis is recycled to gasify the biomass in an energy neutral reactor so that there is no need for an expensive oxygen plant as required by commercial steam gasifiers. Recycling gas allows the methanol synthesis reactor to perform at a relatively lower pressure than conventional while the plant still maintains high methanol yield. Energy recovery designed into the process minimizes heat loss and increases the process thermal efficiency. If the Hynol methanol is used as an alternative and more efficient automotive fuel, an overall 41% reduction in CO{sub 2} emission can be achieved compared to the use of conventional gasoline fuel. A preliminary economic estimate shows that the total capital investment for a Hynol plant is 40% lower than that for a conventional biomass gasification plant. The methanol production cost is $0.43/gal for a 1085 million gal/yr Hynol plant which is competitive with current U.S. methanol and equivalent gasoline prices. Process flowsheet and simulation data using biomass and natural gas as cofeedstocks are presented. The Hynol process can convert any condensed carbonaceous material, especially municipal solid waste (MSW), to produce methanol.

Steinberg, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Dong, Yuanji [Hynol Corp., New York, NY (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF THE LIQUID PHASE METHANOL (LPMEOH) PROCESS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Technology Program to demonstrate the production of methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas), has completed the 69-month operating phase of the program. The purpose of this Final Report for the ''Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process'' is to provide the public with details on the performance and economics of the technology. The LPMEOH{trademark} Demonstration Project was a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the DOE and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). The DOE's cost share was $92,708,370 with the remaining funds coming from the Partnership. The LPMEOH{trademark} demonstration unit is located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport, Tennessee. The technology was the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOH{trademark} Process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern coal gasifiers. Originally tested at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU), a small, DOE-owned process development facility in LaPorte, Texas, the technology provides several improvements essential for the economic coproduction of methanol and electricity directly from gasified coal. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst, and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates. The LPMEOH{trademark} Demonstration Project accomplished the objectives set out in the Cooperative Agreement with DOE for this Clean Coal Technology project. Overall plant availability (defined as the percentage of time that the LPMEOH{trademark} demonstration unit was able to operate, with the exclusion of scheduled outages) was 97.5%, and the longest operating run without interruption of any kind was 94 days. Over 103.9 million gallons of methanol was produced; Eastman accepted all of the available methanol for use in the production of methyl acetate, and ultimately cellulose acetate and acetic acid.

E.C. Heydorn; B.W. Diamond; R.D. Lilly

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the ninth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1, 2005-December 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in four areas. These areas are: (1) reformate purification, (2) heat transfer enhancement, (3) autothermal reforming coal-derived methanol degradation test; and (4) model development for fuel cell system integration. The project is on schedule and is now shifting towards the design of an integrated PEM fuel cell system capable of using the coal-derived product. This system includes a membrane clean up unit and a commercially available PEM fuel cell.

Paul A. Erickson

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the tenth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1-March 31, 2006. This quarter saw progress in six areas. These areas are: (1) The effect of catalyst dimension on steam reforming, (2) Transient characteristics of autothermal reforming, (3) Rich and lean autothermal reformation startup, (4) Autothermal reformation degradation with coal derived methanol, (5) Reformate purification system, and (6) Fuel cell system integration. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the third report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of April 1-June 30, 2004. This quarter saw progress in five areas. These areas are: (1) External evaluation of coal based methanol and the fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design, set up and initial testing of the autothermal reactor, (3) Experiments to determine the axial and radial thermal profiles of the steam reformers, (4) Catalyst degradation studies, and (5) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

232

Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the seventh report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of April 1-June 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in these areas. These areas are: (1) Steam reformer transient response, (2) Heat transfer enhancement, (3) Catalyst degradation, (4) Catalyst degradation with bluff bodies, and (5) Autothermal reforming of coal-derived methanol. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

233

Adaptive kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of methanol decomposition on Cu(100)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The adaptive kinetic Monte Carlo method was used to calculate the dynamics of methanol decomposition on Cu(100) at room temperature over a time scale of minutes. Mechanisms of reaction were found using min-mode following saddle point searches based upon forces and energies from density functional theory. Rates of reaction were calculated with harmonic transition state theory. The dynamics followed a pathway from CH3-OH, CH3-O, CH2-O, CH-O and finally C-O. Our calculations confirm that methanol decomposition starts with breaking the O-H bond followed by breaking C-H bonds in the dehydrogenated intermediates until CO is produced. The bridge site on the Cu(100) surface is the active site for scissoring chemical bonds. Reaction intermediates are mobile on the surface which allows them to find this active reaction site. This study illustrates how the adaptive kinetic Monte Carlo method can model the dynamics of surface chemistry from first principles.

Xu, Lijun; Mei, Donghai; Henkelman, Graeme A.

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

234

Economic feasibility study of a wood gasification-based methanol plant: A subcontract report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents an economic feasibility study for a wood-gasification-based methanol plant. The objectives were to evaluate the current commercial potential of a small-scale, wood-fed methanol plant using the SERI oxygen-blown, pressurized, down-draft gasifier technology and to identify areas requiring further R and D. The gasifier gas composition and material balance were based on a computer model of the SERI gasifier since acceptable test data were not available. The estimated capital cost was based on the Nth plant constructed. Given the small size and commercial nature of most of the equipment, N was assumed to be between 5 and 10. Only large discrepancies in gasifier output would result in significant charges in capital costs. 47 figs., 55 tabs.

Not Available

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

WABASH RIVER IMPPCCT, INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In a joint effort with the U.S. Department of Energy, working under a Cooperative Agreement Award from the ''Early Entrance Coproduction Plant'' (EECP) initiative, the Gasification Engineering Corporation and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the application of synthesis gas from the E-GAS{trademark} technology to a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, financial, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals Inc., The Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility Study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility and for fence-line commercial plants operated at The Dow Chemical Company or Dow Corning Corporation chemical plant locations (i.e. the Commercial Embodiment Plant or CEP) (2) Research, development, and testing to address any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Ltd., plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. During the reporting period work was furthered to support the development of capital and operating cost estimates associated with the installation of liquid or gas phase methanol synthesis technology in a Commercial Embodiment Plant (CEP) utilizing the six cases previously defined. In addition, continued development of the plant economic model was accomplished by providing combined cycle performance data. Performance and emission estimates for gas turbine combined cycles was based on revised methanol purge gas information. The economic model was used to evaluate project returns with various market conditions and plant configurations and was refined to correct earlier flaws. Updated power price projections were obtained and incorporated in the model. Sensitivity studies show that break-even methanol prices which provide a 12% return are 47-54 cents/gallon for plant scenarios using $1.25/MM Btu coal, and about 40 cents/gallon for most of the scenarios with $0.50/MM Btu petroleum coke as the fuel source. One exception is a high power price and production case which could be economically attractive at 30 cents/gallon methanol. This case was explored in more detail, but includes power costs predicated on natural gas prices at the 95th percentile of expected price distributions. In this case, the breakeven methanol price is highly sensitive to the required project return rate, payback period, and plant on-line time. These sensitivities result mainly from the high capital investment required for the CEP facility ({approx}$500MM for a single train IGCC-methanol synthesis plant). Finally, during the reporting period the Defense Contractor Audit Agency successfully executed an accounting audit of Global Energy Inc. for data accumulated over the first year of the IMPPCCT project under the Cooperative Agreement.

Doug Strickland

2001-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

236

Prediction of Transport Properties by Molecular Simulation: Methanol and Ethanol and their mixture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transport properties of liquid methanol and ethanol are predicted by molecular dynamics simulation. The molecular models for the alcohols are rigid, non-polarizable and of united-atom type. They were developed in preceding work using experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium data only. Self- and Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients as well as the shear viscosity of methanol, ethanol and their binary mixture are determined using equilibrium molecular dynamics and the Green-Kubo formalism. Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics is used for predicting the thermal conductivity of the two pure substances. The transport properties of the fluids are calculated over a wide temperature range at ambient pressure and compared with experimental and simulation data from the literature. Overall, a very good agreement with the experiment is found. For instance, the self-diffusion coefficient and the shear viscosity are predicted with average deviations of less 8% for the pure alcohols and 12% for the mixture. The predicted thermal...

Guevara-Carrion, Gabriela; Vrabec, Jadran; Hasse, Hans

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), a company of Global Energy Inc., and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over several years, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana.

Albert Tsang

2003-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

238

A Methanol Steam Reforming Micro Reactor for Proton Exchange Membrane Micro Fuel Cell System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The heat, mass and momentum transfer from a fuel reforming packed bed to a surrounding silicon wafer has been simulated. Modeling showed quantitatively reasonable agreement with experimental data for fuel conversion efficiency, hydrogen production rate, outlet methanol mole fraction and outlet steam mole fraction. The variation in fuel conversion efficiency with the micro reformer thermal isolation can be used to optimize fuel-processing conditions for micro PEM fuel cells.

Park, H G; Piggott, W T; Chung, J; Morse, J D; Havstad, M; Grigoropoulos, C P; Greif, R; Benett, W; Sopchak, D; Upadhye, R

2003-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

239

Direct methanol fuel cells: Developments for portable power and for potential transportation applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The authors describe here results of recent efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), devoted to potential application of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs) as (1) portable power sources at the 50 W level, and (2) primary power sources for electric vehicles. In general, DMFC R and D efforts focus on further improvements in anode catalytic activity, fuel utilization (as related to methanol crossover) and air cathode performance in the presence of the presence of the significant flux of aqueous methanol from anode to cathode. There are significant differences between technical parameters and targets for the two different DMFC applications, which the authors have addressed. They include the lower cell temperature (about 60 C) preferred in portable power vs. operation around 100 C as target temperature for transportation applications, and the much stronger concern for cost of catalyst and any other stack materials in DMFCs developed for potential transportation applications. Most, if not all, recent DMFC work for either portable power or potential transportation applications has strongly focused on cells with polymeric (primarily PFSA) membrane electrolytes. In work at LANL, thin film catalysts bonded to the membrane, e.g., by the decal method, provided best results in terms of catalyst utilization and overall cell performance. In most tests, the single DMFC hardware consisted of uncatalyzed carbon-cloth gas-diffusion backings and graphite blocks with machined serpentine flow channels--quite similar to hardware employed in work with hydrogen/air PEFCs. However, the machined graphite hardware has recently been replaced by alternative, non-machined flow-field/bipolar plates, which enables effective air and aqueous methanol solution distribution along an active area of 50 cm{sup 2}, at a pitch per cell of 2 mm.

Ren, X.; Thomas, S.C.; Zelenay, P.; Gottesfeld, S.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

240

Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Oxidation to Formaldehyde on Isolated Vanadate Sites Supported on Mcm-48  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The mechanism of methanol oxidation to formaldehyde catalyzed by isolated vanadate species supported on silica has been investigated by in situ Raman and TPD/TPO experiments. Raman, XANES, and EXAFS were used to characterize the V-MCM-48 sample, prepared with a loading of 0.3 V/nm{sup 2}, and it is concluded that the oxidized form of the vanadium is isolated VO{sub 4} units. The VO{sub 4} species consist of one V=O bond and three V-O-Si bonds in a distorted tetrahedral geometry. Methanol reacts reversibly, at a ratio of approximately 1 methanol per V, with one V-O-Si to produce both V-OCH{sub 3}/Si-OH and V-OH/Si-OCH{sub 3} group pairs in roughly equivalent concentrations. Formaldehyde is formed from the methyl group of V-OCH{sub 3}, most likely by the transfer of one H atom to the V=O bond of the vanadium containing the methoxide group. Formaldehyde is formed in nearly equal concentrations both in the presence and in the absence of gas-phase oxygen. CO and H{sub 2} are produced by the decomposition of CH{sub 2}O at higher temperature. In the absence of O{sub 2}, Si-OCH{sub 3} groups undergo hydrogenation to form CH{sub 4}, and in the presence of O{sub 2}, these groups are oxidized to COx (x = 1, 2) and H{sub 2}O above 650 K. Under steady-state reaction conditions, CH{sub 2}O is produced as the dominant product of methanol oxidation at temperatures below 650 K with an apparent activation energy of 23 kcal/mol. Schemes for the product flows during both TPD and TPO experiments, along with proposed surface intermediates, are presented.

Bronkema, J.L.; Bell, A.T.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley, Chem. Eng. Dept.

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flexible-fuel methanol dodge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Technoeconomic Comparison of Biofuels: Ethanol, Methanol, and Gasoline from Gasification of Woody Residues (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation provides a technoeconomic comparison of three biofuels - ethanol, methanol, and gasoline - produced by gasification of woody biomass residues. The presentation includes a brief discussion of the three fuels evaluated; discussion of equivalent feedstock and front end processes; discussion of back end processes for each fuel; process comparisons of efficiencies, yields, and water usage; and economic assumptions and results, including a plant gate price (PGP) for each fuel.

Tarud, J.; Phillips, S.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase methanol (LPMEOH) Process A DOE Assessment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program seeks to offer the energy marketplace more efficient and environmentally benign coal utilization technology options by demonstrating them in industrial settings. This document is a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of one of the projects selected in Round III of the CCT Program, the commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process, initially described in a Report to Congress by DOE in 1992. Methanol is an important, large-volume chemical with many uses. The desire to demonstrate a new process for the production of methanol from coal, prompted Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) to submit a proposal to DOE. In October 1992, DOE awarded a cooperative agreement to Air Products to conduct this project. In March 1995, this cooperative agreement was transferred to Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership), a partnership between Air Products and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman). DOE provided 43 percent of the total project funding of $213.7 million. Operation of the LPMEOH Demonstration Unit, which is sited at Eastman's chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport, Tennessee, commenced in April 1997. Although operation of the CCT project was completed in December 2002, Eastman continues to operate the LPMEOH Demonstration Unit for the production of methanol. The independent evaluation contained herein is based primarily on information from Volume 2 of the project's Final Report (Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Co., L.P. 2003), as well as other references cited.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2003-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

243

Advanced system analysis for indirect methanol fuel cell power plants for transportation applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The indirect methanol cell fuel concept actively pursued by the USDOE and General Motors Corporation proposes the development of an electrochemical engine'' (e.c.e.), an electrical generator capable for usually efficient and clean power production from methanol fuel for the transportation sector. This on-board generator works in consort with batteries to provide electrical power to drive propulsion motors for a range of electric vehicles. Success in this technology could do much to improve impacted environmental areas and to convert part of the transportation fleet to natural gas- and coal-derived methanol as the fuel source. These developments parallel work in Europe and Japan where various fuel cell powered vehicles, often fueled with tanked or hydride hydrogen, are under active development. Transportation applications present design challenges that are distinctly different from utility requirements, the thrust of most of previous fuel cell programs. In both cases, high conversion efficiency (fuel to electricity) is essential. However, transportation requirements dictate as well designs for high power densities, rapid transients including short times for system start up, and consumer safety. The e.c.e. system is formed from four interacting components: (1) the fuel processor; (2) the fuel cell stack; (3) the air compression and decompression device; and (4) the condensing cross flow heat exchange device. 2 figs.

Vanderborgh, N.E.; McFarland, R.D.; Huff, J.R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Roles of Surface Step on Pt Nanoparticles in Electro-oxidation of Carbon Monoxide and Methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Design of highly active nanoscale catalysts for electro-oxidation of small organic molecules is of great importance to the development of efficient fuel cells. Increasing steps on single-crystal Pt surfaces is shown to enhance the activity of CO and methanol electro-oxidation up to several orders of magnitude. However, little is known about the surface atomic structure of nanoparticles with sizes of practical relevance, which limits the application of fundamental understanding in the reaction mechanisms established on single-crystal surfaces to the development of active, nanoscale catalysts. In this study, we reveal the surface atomic structure of Pt nanoparticles supported on multiwall carbon nanotubes, from which the amount of high-index surface facets on Pt nanoparticles is quantified. Correlating the surface steps on Pt nanoparticles with the electrochemical activity and stability clearly shows the significant role of surface steps in enhancing intrinsic activity for CO and methanol electro-oxidation. Here, we show that increasing surface steps on Pt nanoparticles of {approx}2 nm can lead to enhanced intrinsic activity up to {approx}200% (current normalized to Pt surface area) for electro-oxidation of methanol.

Lee, S.W.; Vescovo, E.; Chen, S.; Sheng, W.; Yabuuchi, N.; Kim, Y.T.; Mitani, T.; Shao-Horn, Y.

2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

245

A comparative experimental and computational study of methanol, ethanol, and n-butanol flames  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laminar flame speeds and extinction strain rates of premixed methanol, ethanol, and n-butanol flames were determined experimentally in the counterflow configuration at atmospheric pressure and elevated unburned mixture temperatures. Additional measurements were conducted also to determine the laminar flame speeds of their n-alkane/air counterparts, namely methane, ethane, and n-butane in order to compare the effect of alkane and alcohol molecular structures on high-temperature flame kinetics. For both propagation and extinction experiments the flow velocities were determined using the digital particle image velocimetry method. Laminar flame speeds were derived through a non-linear extrapolation approach based on direct numerical simulations of the experiments. Two recently developed detailed kinetics models of n-butanol oxidation were used to simulate the experiments. The experimental results revealed that laminar flame speeds of ethanol/air and n-butanol/air flames are similar to those of their n-alkane/air counterparts, and that methane/air flames have consistently lower laminar flame speeds than methanol/air flames. The laminar flame speeds of methanol/air flames are considerably higher compared to both ethanol/air and n-butanol/air flames under fuel-rich conditions. Numerical simulations of n-butanol/air freely propagating flames, revealed discrepancies between the two kinetic models regarding the consumption pathways of n-butanol and its intermediates. (author)

Veloo, Peter S.; Wang, Yang L.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N. [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1453 (United States); Westbrook, Charles K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

246

Advanced system analysis for indirect methanol fuel cell power plants for transportation applications  

SciTech Connect

The indirect methanol cell fuel concept actively pursued by the USDOE and General Motors Corporation proposes the development of an electrochemical engine'' (e.c.e.), an electrical generator capable for usually efficient and clean power production from methanol fuel for the transportation sector. This on-board generator works in consort with batteries to provide electrical power to drive propulsion motors for a range of electric vehicles. Success in this technology could do much to improve impacted environmental areas and to convert part of the transportation fleet to natural gas- and coal-derived methanol as the fuel source. These developments parallel work in Europe and Japan where various fuel cell powered vehicles, often fueled with tanked or hydride hydrogen, are under active development. Transportation applications present design challenges that are distinctly different from utility requirements, the thrust of most of previous fuel cell programs. In both cases, high conversion efficiency (fuel to electricity) is essential. However, transportation requirements dictate as well designs for high power densities, rapid transients including short times for system start up, and consumer safety. The e.c.e. system is formed from four interacting components: (1) the fuel processor; (2) the fuel cell stack; (3) the air compression and decompression device; and (4) the condensing cross flow heat exchange device. 2 figs.

Vanderborgh, N.E.; McFarland, R.D.; Huff, J.R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Isobutanol-methanol mixtures from synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 January--31 March 1995  

SciTech Connect

The contract objectives are: to design a catalytic material for the synthesis of isobutanol with a productivity of 200 g isoalcohols/g-cat-h and a molar isobutanol/methanol ratio near unity; and to develop structure-function rules for the design of catalysts for the selective conversion of synthesis gas to isoalcohols. Several catalyst samples have been prepared by controlled co-precipitation from aqueous mixtures of metal nitrates. The composition of these materials is based on reports of best available catalysts for methanol synthesis, for isobutanol synthesis, and for methanol coupling reactions. The mechanical construction and pressure testing of the microreactor system has been completed. The in-situ infrared spectrophotometer equipped with a nitrogen purge is fully operational. The temperature-programmed surface reaction (TPSR) unit has been designed; construction will begin during the third quarter FY`95. Air Products and Chemicals has provided us with a sample of a BASF isobutanol synthesis catalyst and with catalytic data obtained on this catalyst in a LaPorte test run. This catalyst will serve as a benchmark for the certification of our new microreactor system.

Iglesia, E.

1995-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

248

TUNING OF SIZE AND SHAPE OF AU-PT NANOCATALYST FOR DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this paper, we report the precise control of the size, shape and surface morphology of Au-Pt nanocatalysts (cubes, blocks, octahedrons and dogbones) synthesized via a seed-mediated approach. Gold 'seeds' of different aspect ratios (1 to 4.2), grown by a silver-assisted approach, were used as templates for high-yield production of novel Au-Pt nanocatalysts at a low temperature (40 C). Characterization by electron microscopy (SEM, TEM, HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), UV-Vis spectroscopy, zeta-potential (surface charge), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to better understand their physico-chemical properties, preferred reactivities and underlying nanoparticle growth mechanism. A rotating disk electrode was used to evaluate the Au-Pt nanocatalysts electrochemical performance in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) of direct methanol fuel cells. The results indicate the Au-Pt dogbones are partially and in some cases completely unaffected by methanol poisoning during the evaluation of the ORR. The ORR performance of the octahedron particles in the absence of MeOH is superior to that of the Au-Pt dogbones and Pt-black, however its performance is affected by the presence of MeOH.

Murph, S.

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

249

Effects of residence time distribution and packing on methanol oxidation in biotrickling filter  

SciTech Connect

The effects of residence time distribution (RTD) on biotrickling filter systems and the comparison of the maximum elimination capacity (EC) and poisoning limits as functions of loadings of two packing media, Celite Biocatalyst Carrier R-635 and a subbituminous coal (Hat Creek coal from British Columbia), were studied. To alter the RTD patterns in the two reactor columns, two baffle designs were chosen. The RTD tests were done under dry conditions, over a range of airflow rates, with zero baffle, one baffle, and two baffles added into each column. Mixed culture from compost was used to acclimate the bed for the methanol removal efficiency study. No nutrients were added in the coal column. To study the poisoning limit, the inlet methanol concentration was randomly increased until a severe drop in removal efficiency occurred. From the RTD tests and the removal efficiency runs, which did not result in 100% conversion, number of tank-in-series (N) values, maximum EC values, and rate constants of each column with different baffle configurations could be obtained. Results from duplicate runs showed that addition of baffles decreased the N values of the columns and increased the back mixing in both systems. Maximum EC values, critical loadings, and poisoning limits also increased with increasing back mixing. Coal was superior to Celite Biocatalyst Carrier R-635 because it gave good conversions without additional nutrients. In all runs, the rate of methanol removal was controlled by a zero order process. 14 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

Yuanita W. Hutomo; K.L. Pinder [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Chemical and Biological Engineering Department

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

250

A Theoretical Study of Methanol Synthesis from CO(2) Hydrogenation on Metal-doped Cu(111) Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Density functional theory (DFT) calculations and Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations were employed to investigate the methanol synthesis reaction from CO{sub 2} hydrogenation (CO{sub 2} + 3H{sub 2} {yields} CH{sub 3}OH + H{sub 2}O) on metal-doped Cu(111) surfaces. Both the formate pathway and the reverse water-gas shift (RWGS) reaction followed by a CO hydrogenation pathway (RWGS + CO-Hydro) were considered in the study. Our calculations showed that the overall methanol yield increased in the sequence: Au/Cu(111) Hydro pathway is much faster than that via the formate pathway. Further kinetic analysis revealed that the methanol yield on Cu(111) was controlled by three factors: the dioxomethylene hydrogenation barrier, the CO binding energy, and the CO hydrogenation barrier. Accordingly, two possible descriptors are identified which can be used to describe the catalytic activity of Cu-based catalysts toward methanol synthesis. One is the activation barrier of dioxomethylene hydrogenation, and the other is the CO binding energy. An ideal Cu-based catalyst for the methanol synthesis via CO{sub 2} hydrogenation should be able to hydrogenate dioxomethylene easily and bond CO moderately, being strong enough to favor the desired CO hydrogenation rather than CO desorption but weak enough to prevent CO poisoning. In this way, the methanol production via both the formate and the RWGS + CO-Hydro pathways can be facilitated.

Liu P.; Yang, Y.; White, M.G.

2012-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

251

An Experimental Investigation of Microexplosion in Emulsified Vegetable-Methanol Blend  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vegetable oil is one of the most widely available renewable sources of energy that can be used to meet the world’s demands. Many vegetable oils also have the advantage of containing little to no detectable amounts of nitrogen. Recently, research studies have revealed that when two liquids with different vapor pressure values are formed into droplet-like emulsions, a micro-explosion effect can happen under specific environmental conditions. Understanding the micro-explosion phenomena can help increase the efficiency of bio-emulsion combustion as well as reduce pollution levels. Many researchers have conducted experiments to find the optimal condition that induces microexplosion effects. Microexplosion is also associated with the formation of shock waves characteristic of explosions at larger scales. However, little is known about how emulsion composition and droplet size affect the micro-explosion process. Through this research, methanol-in-vegetable oil emulsion has been studied from the microexplosion point of view using custom made electric furnace equipment with a high speed camera system and an acoustic sensor system. The main goal of this study is to understand the effect of emulsion compositions, chamber temperatures, and droplet sizes on the characteristics of microexplosion. First, an n-hexadecane-in-water emulsion was prepared to validate the performance of the custom-made experimental apparatus using previous published data. Methanol-in-canola oil emulsions with different compositions were also prepared and used to compare the micro-explosion phenomena with water as a volatile compound. Microexplosion events of the blended fuels were captured using a high speed camera and an acoustic sensor. The wave signals generated by the microexplosion were analyzed after converting the signals using a Fast Fourier Transform coded in Matlab. One of the major findings of this research work was that higher temperatures and higher concentrations of high vapor pressure fluids such as methanol and water in emulsions causes a high probability of microexplosion event due to the sudden expansion of the emulsified fluid. Also, the effect of size on microexplosion was evident in the greater probability of explosion. Methanol-in-canola oil emulsion with 15 % methanol with droplets size of 200 ?m placed in a furnace chamber heated to 980 ?C showed optimal microexplosion behavior based on the formation of fine droplets. Also, smaller droplets produced higher frequencies, which could be used to detect microexplosion without high speed imaging. When large droplets microexploded, lower frequencies were detected in all the blends.

Nam, Hyungseok

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project was established to evaluate integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project was under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP), after it acquired Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC) and the E-Gas gasification technology from Global Energy Inc. in July 2003. The project has completed both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of development. The two project phases include the following: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at SG Solutions LLC (SGS), previously the Wabash River Energy Limited, Gasification Facility located in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plant (CEP) operated at the Dow Chemical Company or Dow Corning Corporation chemical plant locations. (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. Phase 1 of this project was supported by a multi-industry team consisting of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., The Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while Phase 2 was supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The SGS integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other carbonaceous fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas (syngas) is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now acquired and offered commercially by COP as the E-Gas technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC, and later COP and the industrial partners investigated the use of syngas produced by the E-Gas technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort were to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from syngas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The intended result of the project was to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that would be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. The EECP study conducted in Phase 1 of the IMPPCCT Project confirmed that the concept for the integration of gasification-based (E-Gas) electricity generation from coal and/or petroleum coke and methanol production (Liquid Phase Methanol or LPMEOH{trademark}) processes was feasible for the coproduction of power and chemicals. The results indicated that while there were minimal integration issues that impact the deployment of an IMPPCCT CEP, the major concern was the removal of sulfur and other trace contaminants, which are known methanol catalyst poisons, from the syngas. However, economic concerns in the domestic methanol market which is driven by periodic low natural gas prices and cheap offshore supplies limit the commercial viability of this more capital intensive concept. The objective of Phase 2 was to conduct RD&T as outlined in the Phase 1 RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. Studies were designed to address the technical concerns that would mak

Conocophillips

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

253

WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLGIES (IMPPCCT)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP), after it acquired Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC) and the E-Gas gasification technology from Global Energy in July 2003. The project has completed Phase I, and is currently in Phase II of development. The two project phases include: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at Global Energy's existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations; and (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The Phase I of this project was supported by a multi-industry team consisting of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while Phase II is supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The WREL integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now acquired and offered commercially by COP as the E-Gas technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC, and now COP and the industrial partners are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-Gas technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. The early entrance coproduction plant study conducted in Phase I of the IMPPCCT project confirmed that the concept for the integration of gasification-based (E-Gas) electricity generation from coal and/or petroleum coke and methanol production (Liquid Phase Methanol or LPMEOH{trademark}) processes was feasible for the coproduction of power and chemicals. The results indicated that while there are minimal integration issues that impact the deployment of an IMPPCCT CEP, the major concern was the removal of sulfur and other trace contaminants, which are known methanol catalyst poisons, from the synthesis gas (syngas). However, economic concerns in the domestic methanol market which is driven by periodic low natural gas prices and cheap offshore supplies limit the commercial viability of this more capital intensive concept. The objective of Phase II is to conduct RD&T as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. Studies will address the technical concerns that will make the IMPPCCT concept competitive with natural

Albert C. Tsang

2004-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

254

WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLGIES (IMPPCCT)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP), after it acquired Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC) and the E-Gas gasification technology from Global Energy in July 2003. The project has completed Phase I, and is currently in Phase II of development. The two project phases include: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at Global Energy's existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations; and (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The Phase I of this project was supported by a multi-industry team consisting of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while Phase II is supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The WREL integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now acquired and offered commercially by COP as the E-Gas technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC, and now COP and the industrial partners are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-Gas technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. The early entrance coproduction plant study conducted in Phase I of the IMPPCCT project confirmed that the concept for the integration of gasification-based (E-Gas) electricity generation from coal and/or petroleum coke and methanol production (Liquid Phase Methanol or LPMEOH{trademark}) processes was feasible for the coproduction of power and chemicals. The results indicated that while there are minimal integration issues that impact the deployment of an IMPPCCT CEP, the major concern was the removal of sulfur and other trace contaminants, which are known methanol catalyst poisons, from the synthesis gas (syngas). However, economic concerns in the domestic methanol market which is driven by periodic low natural gas prices and cheap offshore supplies limit the commercial viability of this more capital intensive concept. The objective of Phase II is to conduct RD&T as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. Studies will address the technical concerns that will make the IMPPCCT concept competitive with natural

Albert C. Tsang

2004-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

255

Dynamic response of steam-reformed, methanol-fueled, polymer electrolyte fuel cell systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Analytical models were developed for the dynamic response of steam-reformed, methanol-fueled, polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for transportation applications. Focus is on heat transfer effects likely to limit rapid response of PEFC systems. Depending on the thermal mass, the heat exchangers and steam reformer can have time constants on the order of several seconds to many minutes. On the other hand, the characteristic time constants associated with pressure/density disturbances arising from flow rate fluctuations are on the order of milliseconds. In vehicular applications, the response time of the turbomachinery, which is determined by rotational inertia, can be on the order of seconds or less. Dynamic reformer model was used to examine methanol conversion efficiency and thermal performance during a cold start. Response times are determined to achieve 50-100% of the steady-state methanol conversion for two catalyst tube diameters. Thermal performance is considered in terms of the approach to steady-state temperature, possibility of catalyst overheating, and penalty in system efficiency incurred during startup time. For the complete reference PEFC system, various turn-down scenarios were simulated by varying the relative rates of change of fuel cell loading and system flows. Depending on relative rates of cell loading changes to flow rate changes, overheating of the catalyst can occur due to excess heat transfer in the reformer preheater; this can be controlled by an additional water quench between catalyst bed and preheater, but only if the flow rate change is sufficiently fast relative to load changes.

Geyer, H.K.; Ahluwalia, R.K.; Kumar, R.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

The flash pyrolysis and methanolysis of biomass (wood) for production of ethylene, benzene and methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The process chemistry of the flash pyrolysis of biomass (wood) with the reactive gases, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} and with the non-reactive gases He and N{sub 2} is being determined in a 1 in. downflow tubular reactor at pressures from 20 to 1000 psi and temperatures from 600 to 1000{degrees}C. With hydrogen, flash hydropyrolysis leads to high yields of methane and CO which can be used for SNG and methanol fuel production. With methane, flash methanolysis leads to high yields of ethylene, benzene and CO which can be used for the production of valuable chemical feedstocks and methanol transportation fuel. At reactor conditions of 50 psi and 1000{degrees}C and approximately 1 sec residence time, the yields based on pine wood carbon conversion are up to 25% for ethylene, 25% for benzene, and 45% for CO, indicating that over 90% of the carbon in pine is converted to valuable products. Pine wood produces higher yields of hydrocarbon products than Douglas fir wood; the yield of ethylene is 2.3 times higher with methane than with helium or nitrogen, and for pine, the ratio is 7.5 times higher. The mechanism appears to be a free radical reaction between CH{sub 4} and the pyrolyzed wood. There appears to be no net production or consumption of methane. A preliminary process design and analysis indicates a potentially economical competitive system for the production of ethylene, benzene and methanol based on the methanolysis of wood. 10 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Hydrogen production from the steam reforming of Dinethyl Ether and Methanol  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for fuel cell applications. Methanol has long been considered as a fuel for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds due to its high energy density, low reforming temperature, and zero impurity content. However, it has not been accepted as the fuel of choice due its current limited availability, toxicity and corrosiveness. While methanol steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds has been extensively studied, the steam reforming of DME, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + 3H{sub 2}O = 2CO{sub 2} + 6H{sub 2}, has had limited research effort. DME is the simplest ether (CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}) and is a gas at ambient conditions. DME has physical properties similar to those of LPG fuels (i.e. propane and butane), resulting in similar storage and handling considerations. DME is currently used as an aerosol propellant and has been considercd as a diesel substitute due to the reduced NOx, SOx and particulate emissions. DME is also being considered as a substitute for LPG fuels, which is used extensively in Asia as a fuel for heating and cooking, and naptha, which is used for power generation. The potential advantages of both methanol and DME include low reforming temperature, decreased fuel proccssor startup energy, environmentally benign, visible flame, high heating value, and ease of storage and transportation. In addition, DME has the added advantages of low toxicity and being non-corrosive. Consequently, DME may be an ideal candidate for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for both automotive and portable power applications. The steam reforming of DME has been demonstrated to occur through a pair of reactions in series, where the first reaction is DME hydration followed by MeOH steam reforming to produce a hydrogen rich stream.

Semelsberger, T. A. (Troy A.); Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.)

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LOMEOH(TM)) Process  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOEP") Demonstration Project at K.ingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L, P. (the Partnership). The LPMEOHY Process Demonstration Unit is being built at a site located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) complex in Kingsport. On 4 October 1994, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and signed the agreements that would form the Partnership, secure the demonstration site, and provide the financial commitment and overall project management for the project. These partnership agreements became effective on 15 March 1995, when DOE authorized the commencement of Budget Period No. 2 (Mod. AO08 to the Cooperative Agreement). The Partnership has subcontracted with Air Products to provide the overall management of the project, and to act as the primary interface with DOE. As subcontractor to the Partnership, Air Products will also provide the engineering design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the LPMEOHTM Process Demonstration Unit, and will provide the technical and engineering supervision needed to conduct the operational testing program required as part of the project. As subcontractor to Air Products, Eastman will be responsible for operation of the LPMEOHTM Process Demonstration Unit, and for the interconnection and supply of synthesis gas, utilities, product storage, and other needed sewices. The project involves the construction of an 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons-per-day (TPD)) methanol unit utilizing coal-derived synthesis gas fi-om Eastman's integrated coal gasification facility. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression facilities, the liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation facilities, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOHTM process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern day coal gasifiers. Originally tested at a small 3,200 gallons per day, DOE-owned experimental unit in LaPorte, Texas, the technology provides several improvements essential for the economic coproduction of methanol and electricity directly from gasified coal. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates.

1996-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

259

Durability testing of a Toyota LCS-M (lean combustion system-methanol) Carina. Technical report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the exhaust emissions, fuel economy, and oil-sample analysis from a Toyota LCS-M Carina motor vehicle fueled with M100 fuel. The vehicle accumulated 6,000 miles driven over the AMA durability driving schedule in order to determine if exhaust-emissions levels increase during the first 5,000-15,000 miles of driving with a light-duty methanol-fueled vehicle. The program description, test-vehicle description, test facilities, and the test-vehicle specifications are included.

Piotrowski, G.K.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Synthesis of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether from Syngas over Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

A Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was developed for the synthesis of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas. Studied were temperatures of operation ranging from 250°C to 380°C. High temperatures (e.g. 380°C) are necessary when combining methanol and DME synthesis with a methanol to gasoline (MTG) process in a single reactor bed. A commercial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst, utilized industrially for the synthesis of methanol at 220-280°C, suffers from a rapid deactivation when the reaction is conducted at high temperature (>320°C). On the contrary, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was found to be highly stable for methanol and DME synthesis at 380°C. The Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was thus further investigated for methanol and DME synthesis at P=34-69 bars, T= 250-380°C, GHSV= 5 000-18 000 h-1, and molar feeds H2/CO= 1, 2, and 3. Selectivity to DME increased with decreasing operating temperature, and increasing operating pressure. Increased GHSV’s and H2/CO syngas feed ratios also enhanced DME selectivity. Undesirable CH4 formation was observed, however, can be minimized through choice of process conditions and by catalyst design. By studying the effect of the Pd loading and the Pd:Zn molar ratio the formulation of the Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was optimized. A catalyst with 5% Pd and a Pd:Zn molar ratio of 0.25:1 has been identified as the preferred catalyst. Results indicate that PdZn particles are more active than Pdº particles for the synthesis of methanol and less active for CH4 formation. A correlation between DME selectivity and the concentration of acid sites of the catalysts has been established. Hence, two types of sites are required for the direct conversion of syngas to DME: 1) PdZn particles are active for the synthesis of methanol from syngas, and 2) acid sites which are active for the conversion of methanol to DME. Additionally, CO2 formation was problematic as PdZn was found to be active for the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction, under all the conditions evaluated.

Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Dagle, Robert A.; Kovarik, Libor; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Palo, Daniel R.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flexible-fuel methanol dodge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

The development and fabrication of miniaturized direct methanol fuel cells and thin-film lithium ion battery hybrid system for portable applications .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this work, a hybrid power module comprising of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and a Li-ion battery has been proposed for low power… (more)

Prakash, Shruti

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Comparison of Bond Scission Sequence of Methanol on Tungsten Monocarbide and Pt-Modified Tungsten Monocarbide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ability to control the bond scission sequence of O-H, C-H, and C-O bonds is of critical importance in the effective utilization of oxygenate molecules, such as in reforming reactions and in alcohol fuel cells. In the current study, we use methanol as a probe molecule to demonstrate the possibility to control the decomposition pathways by supporting monolayer coverage of Pt on a tungsten monocarbide (WC) surface. Density functional theory (DFT) results reveal that on the WC and Pt/WC surfaces CH{sub 3}OH decomposes via O-H bond scission to form the methoxy (*CH{sub 3} O) intermediate. The subsequent decomposition of methoxy on the WC surface occurs through the C-O bond scission to form *CH{sub 3}, which reacts with surface *H to produce CH{sub 4}. In contrast, the decomposition of methoxy on the Pt/WC surface favors the C-H bond scission to produce *CH{sub 2} O, which prevents the formation of the *CH{sub 3} species and leads to the formation of a *CO intermediate through subsequent deprotonation steps. The DFT predictions are validated using temperature programmed desorption to quantify the gas-phase product yields and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy to determine the surface intermediates from methanol decomposition on Pt, WC, and Pt/WC surfaces.

Liu, P.; Stottlemyer, A.L.; Chen, J.G.

2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

263

Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the eighth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1, 2004-September 30, 2005 and includes an entire review of the progress for year 2 of the project. This year saw progress in eight areas. These areas are: (1) steam reformer transient response, (2) steam reformer catalyst degradation, (3) steam reformer degradation tests using bluff bodies, (4) optimization of bluff bodies for steam reformation, (5) heat transfer enhancement, (6) autothermal reforming of coal derived methanol, (7) autothermal catalyst degradation, and (8) autothermal reformation with bluff bodies. The project is on schedule and is now shifting towards the design of an integrated PEM fuel cell system capable of using the coal-derived product. This system includes a membrane clean up unit and a commercially available PEM fuel cell.

Paul A. Erickson

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

264

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the first such report that will be submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1--December 31, 2003. This quarter saw progress in three areas. These areas are: (1) Evaluations of coal based methanol and the fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design and set up of the autothermal reactor, as well as (3) Set up and data collection of baseline performance using the steam reformer. All of the projects are proceeding on schedule. During this quarter one conference paper was written that will be presented at the ASME Power 2004 conference in March 2004, which outlines the research direction and basis for looking at the coal to hydrogen pathway.

Paul A. Erickson

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Under the influence of alcohol: The effect of ethanol and methanol on lipid bilayers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extensive microscopic molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to study the effects of short-chain alcohols, methanol and ethanol, on two different fully hydrated lipid bilayer systems in the fluid phase at 323 K. It is found that ethanol has a stronger effect on the structural properties of the membranes. In particular, the bilayers become more fluid and permeable: Ethanol molecules are able to penetrate through the membrane in typical time scales of about 200 ns whereas for methanol that time scale is considerably longer, at least of the order of microseconds. We find good agreement with NMR and micropipette studies. We have also measured partitioning coefficients and the rate of crossing events for alcohols, i.e., typical time scale it takes for a molecule to cross the lipid bilayer and to move from one leaflet to the other. For structural properties, two-dimensional centre of mass radial-distribution functions indicate the possibility for quasi long-range order for ethanol-ethanol correlations in contrast to liquid-like behaviour for all other combinations.

Michael Patra; Emppu Salonen; Emma Terama; Roland Faller; Bryan W. Lee; Juha Holopainen; Mikko Karttunen

2004-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

266

Charcoal-methanol adsorption refrigerator powered by a compound parabolic concentrating solar collector  

SciTech Connect

A compound parabolic concentrating solar collector (CPC) of concentration ratio 3.9 and aperture area 2.0 m[sup 2] was used to power an intermittent solid adsorption refrigerator and ice maker using activated charcoal (carbon) as the adsorbing medium and methanol as the working fluid. The copper tube receiver of the CPC was packed with 2.5 kg of imported adsorbent 207E3, which was only utilized when the performance of activated charcoal (ACJ1, produced from local coconut shells) was found to be inferior to the imported adsorbent. Up to 1 kg of ice at an evaporator temperature of [minus]6[degrees]C was produced, with the net solar coefficient of performance (COP) being of the order of 0.02. Maximum receiver/adsorbent temperature recorded was 154[degrees]C on a day when the insolation was 26.8 MJ/m[sup [minus]2]. Temperatures in excess of 150[degrees]C are undesirable since they favour the conversion of methanol to dimethyl ether, a noncondensable gas which inhibits both condensation and adsorption. The major advantage of this system is its ability to produce ice even on overcast days (insolation [approximately] 10 MJ/m[sup [minus]2]).

Headley, O.StC.; Kothdiwala, A.F.; McDoom, I.A. (Univ. of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago))

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Mixing it up - Measuring diffusion in supercooled liquid solutions of methanol and ethanol at temperatures near the glass transition  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Do liquid mixtures, cooled to temperatures below their freezing point, behave as normal liquids? We address this question using nanoscale films of methanol and ethanol supercooled liquid solutions of varying composition (7 -93% methanol) at temperatures near their glass transition,Tg. The permeation of Kr through these films is used to determine the diffusivities of the supercooled liquid mixtures. We find that the temperature dependent diffusivities of the mixtures are well-fit by a Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman equation indicating that the mixtures exhibit fragile behavior at temperatures just above their Tg. Further, for a given temperature, the composition dependent diffusivity is well-fit by a Vignes-type equation, i.e. the diffusivity of any mixture can be predicted using an exponential weighting of the diffusion of the pure methanol and ethanol diffusivities. These results show that deeply supercooled liquid mixtures can be used to provide valuable insight into the properties of normal liquid mixtures.

Matthiesen, Jesper; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.

2011-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

268

Trends in Methanol Decomposition on Transition Metal Alloy Clusters from Scaling and Brønsted–Evans–Polanyi Relationships  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combination of ?rst principles Density Functional Theory calculations and thermochemical scaling relationships are employed to estimate the thermochemistry and kinetics of methanol decomposition on unsupported subnanometer metal clusters. The approach uses binding energies of various atomic and molecular species, determined on the pure metal clusters, to develop scaling relationships that are then further used to estimate the methanol decomposition thermodynamics for a series of pure and bimetallic clusters with four atoms per cluster. Additionally, activation energy barriers are estimated from Brønsted–Evans–Polanyi plots relating transition and ?nal state energies on these clusters. The energetic results are combined with a simple, microkineticallyinspired rate expression to estimate reaction rates as a function of important catalytic descriptors, including the carbon and atomic oxygen binding energies to the clusters. Based on these analyses, several alloy clusters are identi?ed as promising candidates for the methanol decomposition reaction.

Mehmood, Faisal; Rankin, Rees B.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Curtiss, Larry A.

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

269

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHTM) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOIYM Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, comments from the DOE on the Topical Report "Economic Analysis - LPMEOHTM Process as an Add-on to IGCC for Coproduction" were received. A recommendation to continue with design verification testing for the coproduction of dimethyl ether (DIME) and methanol was made. DME design verification testing studies show the liquid phase DME (LPDME) process will have a significant economic advantage for the coproduction of DME for local markets. An LPDME catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stability is being developed. A recommendation document summarizing catalyst targets, experimental results, and the corresponding economics for a commercially successful LPDME catalyst was issued on 30 June 1997. The off-site, product-use test plan was updated in June of 1997. During this quarter, Acurex Environmental Corporation and Air Products screened proposals for this task by the likelihood of the projects to proceed and the timing for the initial methanol requirement. Eight sites from the list have met these criteria. The formal submission of the eight projects for review and concurrence by the DOE will be made during the next reporting period. The site paving and final painting were completed in May of 1997. Start-up activities were completed during the reporting period, and the initial methanol production from the demonstration unit occurred on 02 April 1997. The first extended stable operation at the nameplate capacity of 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons per day) took place on 06 April 1997. Pressure drop and resistance coefficient across the gas sparger at the bottom of the reactor increased over this initial operating period. The demonstration unit was shut down from 08 May -17 June 1997 as part of a scheduled complex outage for the Kingsport site. During this outage, the gas sparger was removed, cleaned, and reinstalled. After completion of other maintenance activities, the demonstration unit was restarted, and maintained stable operation through the remainder of the reporting period. Again, the gas sparger showed an increase in pressure drop and resistance since the restart, although not as rapidly as during the April-May operation. Fresh oil was introduced online for the first time to a new flush connection on the gas inlet line to the reactov the flush lowered the pressure drop by 1 psi. However, the effects were temporary, and the sparger resistance coefficient continued to increase. Additional flushing with both fresh oil and entrained slurry recovered in the cyclone and secondary oil knock-out drum will be attempted in order to stabilize the sparger resistance coefficient.

None

1997-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

270

Production economics for hydrogen, ammonia, and methanol during the 1980--2000 period  

SciTech Connect

Refinery hydrogen, ammonia, and methanol, the principal industrial hydrogen products, are now manufactured mainly by catalytic steam reforming of natural gas or some alternative light-hydrocarbon feed stock. Anticipated increases in the prices of hydrocarbons are expected to exceed those for coal, thus gradually increasing the incentive to use coal gasification as a source of industrial hydrogen during the 1980 to 2000 period. Although the investment in industrial hydrogen plants will exceed those for reforming by a factor of 2 or more, coal gasification will provide lower production costs (including 20%/y before tax return) for methanol manufacture in the early 1980's and for ammonia 5 years or so later. However, high costs for transporting coal to major refining centers will make it difficult to justify coal gasification for refinery hydrogen production during the 1980 to 2000 period. By the year 2000, 40 to 50% of the U.S. industrial hydrogen requirements will be provided by coal gasification thus conserving natural gas and light hydrocarbon feed stocks equivalent to about 600,000 B/D of crude oil. Electrolytic hydrogen production costs will be reduced by improved electrolysis technology such as the solid-polymer-electrolyte process. These improved processes will reduce electrolysis plant investments by a factor of 2 or more and reduce electricity requirements by about 20%. Although the production cost, including return for electrolytic hydrogen, will continue to exceed those for reforming and coal gasification, the use of electrolytic hydrogen will be attractive for many small users when the new technology is available in the early 1980's. Electrolytic hydrogen now about 0.7% of total U.S. industrial hydrogen requirements will probably increase to about 1.2% of the total by the year 2000.

Corneil, H G; Heinzelmann, F J; Nicholson, E W.S.

1977-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Synthesis via Methanol and Dimethyl Ether Intermediates: Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the work was to enhance price-competitive, synthesis gas (syngas)-based production of transportation fuels that are directly compatible with the existing vehicle fleet (i.e., vehicles fueled by gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc.). To accomplish this, modifications to the traditional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process were investigated. In this study, we investigated direct conversion of syngas to distillates using methanol and dimethyl ether intermediates. For this application, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 (PdZnAl) catalyst previously developed for methanol steam reforming was evaluated. The PdZnAl catalyst was shown to be far superior to a conventional copper-based methanol catalyst when operated at relatively high temperatures (i.e., >300°C), which is necessary for MTG-type applications. Catalytic performance was evaluated through parametric studies. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas-hour-space velocity, and syngas feed ratio (i.e., hydrogen:carbon monoxide) were investigated. PdZnAl catalyst formulation also was optimized to maximize conversion and selectivity to methanol and dimethyl ether while suppressing methane formation. Thus, a PdZn/Al2O3 catalyst optimized for methanol and dimethyl ether formation was developed through combined catalytic material and process parameter exploration. However, even after compositional optimization, a significant amount of undesirable carbon dioxide was produced (formed via the water-gas-shift reaction), and some degree of methane formation could not be completely avoided. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 used in combination with ZSM-5 was investigated for direct syngas-to-distillates conversion. High conversion was achieved as thermodynamic constraints are alleviated when methanol and dimethyl are intermediates for hydrocarbon formation. When methanol and/or dimethyl ether are products formed separately, equilibrium restrictions occur. Thermodynamic relaxation also enables the use of lower operating pressures than what would be allowed for methanol synthesis alone. Aromatic-rich hydrocarbon liquid (C5+), containing a significant amount of methylated benzenes, was produced under these conditions. However, selectivity control to liquid hydrocarbons was difficult to achieve. Carbon dioxide and methane formation was problematic. Furthermore, saturation of the olefinic intermediates formed in the zeolite, and necessary for gasoline production, occurred over PdZnAl. Thus, yield to desirable hydrocarbon liquid product was limited. Evaluation of other oxygenate-producing catalysts could possibly lead to future advances. Potential exists with discovery of other types of catalysts that suppress carbon dioxide and light hydrocarbon formation. Comparative techno-economics for a single-step syngas-to-distillates process and a more conventional MTG-type process were investigated. Results suggest operating and capital cost savings could only modestly be achieved, given future improvements to catalyst performance. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increased single-pass yield to hydrocarbon liquid is a primary need for this process to achieve cost competiveness.

Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Zhu, Yunhua; Gray, Michel J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Wang, Yong; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Palo, Daniel R.

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

272

Catalytic conversion of oxygenated compounds to low molecular weight olefins. Progress report, January 1-July 31, 1979. [Methanol from synthesis gas from coal gasification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An attractive route for producing ethylene and propylene from coal is to gasify the coal to produce synthesis gas, convert the synthesis gas to methanol, and then convert methanol to the olefins. During this report period the reactions of methanol over chabazite ion exchanged with rare earth chlorides have been studied at reciprocal liquid hourly space velocities of 1.5 to 15, at temperatures of 259, 271, 304, 352, and 427/sup 0/C, and at pressure 2.7 atm. At 259 and 271/sup 0/C the principle product was dimethyl ether. As the temperature was increased the conversion of methanol to olefins and alkanes increased to 54% and 32%, respectively. A mixture of dimethyl ether, water, and methanol was fed to the Berty reactor. This mixture was near the equilibrium concentrations for converting pure methanol to dimethyl ether and water at 275/sup 0/C. The Berty reactor temperature was 427/sup 0/C. Initially the yields were similar to those obtained when feeding pure methanol. However, the catalyst activity decreased at a faster rate. Rate models are being developed to correlate the catalyst activity and rate as a function of time on stream and partial pressures. A promising model is presented.

Anthony, R.G.

1979-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

273

WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over a three year period, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial plants operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations; (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues; and (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. This report describes management planning, work breakdown structure development, and feasibility study activities by the IMPPCCT consortium in support of the first project phase. Project planning activities have been completed, and a project timeline and task list has been generated. Requirements for an economic model to evaluate the West Terre Haute implementation and for other commercial implementations are being defined. Specifications for methanol product and availability of local feedstocks for potential commercial embodiment plant sites have been defined. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the fifth phase solicitation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the U.S. Department of Energy, working under a Cooperative Agreement Award from the ''Early Entrance Coproduction Plant'' (EECP) initiative, the GEC and an Industrial Consortia are investigating the application of synthesis gas from the E-GAS{trademark} technology to a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry.

Doug Strickland; Albert Tsang

2002-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

274

WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)  

SciTech Connect

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., parent company of GEC and WREL, as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-GAS{trademark} technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. During the reporting period, effort continues on identifying potential technologies for removing contaminants from synthesis gas to the level required by methanol synthesis. A liquid phase Claus process and a direct sulfur oxidation process were evaluated. Preliminary discussion was held with interested parties on cooperating on RD&T in Phase II of the project. Also, significant progress was made during the period in the submission of project deliverables. A meeting was held at DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory in Morgantown between GEC and the DOE IMPPCCT Project Manager on the status of the project, and reached an agreement on the best way to wrap up Phase I and transition into the Phase II RD&T. Potential projects for the Phase II, cost, and fund availability were also discussed.

Albert Tsang

2003-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

275

WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Two project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., parent company of GEC and WREL, as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-GAS{trademark} technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. During the reporting period, DOE approved the RD&T Plan submitted in the previous quarter. The RD&T Plan forms the basis for the Continuation Application to initiate the transition of the project from Phase I to Phase II. Potential technologies for removing contaminants from synthesis gas to the level required by methanol synthesis will be tested in slipstream units at the WREL facility during Phase II. A supplemental information package consisting of a revised Work Breakdown Structure and Budget Plan for Phase II and other necessary forms was also submitted. Agreement is being reached with DOE's patent attorney on the scope of the limited rights data to be provided under the Cooperative Agreement. Preparation of a comprehensive Final Report for Phase I of the project, which will consolidate the remaining deliverables including the Initial Feasibility Report, Concept Report, Site Analysis Report, Economic Analysis, and Preliminary Project Financing Plan, continued during the reporting period. Significant progress was made in the Subsystem Design Specification section of the report.

Albert Tsang

2003-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

276

WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., parent company of GEC and WREL, as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-GAS{trademark} technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. During the reporting period, effort continues on identifying potential technologies for removing contaminants from synthesis gas to the level required by methanol synthesis. A liquid phase Claus process and a direct sulfur oxidation process were evaluated. Preliminary discussion was held with interested parties on cooperating on RD&T in Phase II of the project. Also, significant progress was made during the period in the submission of project deliverables. A meeting was held at DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory in Morgantown between GEC and the DOE IMPPCCT Project Manager on the status of the project, and reached an agreement on the best way to wrap up Phase I and transition into the Phase II RD&T. Potential projects for the Phase II, cost, and fund availability were also discussed.

Albert Tsang

2003-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

277

Selective oxidation of methanol and ethanol on supported ruthenium oxide clusters at low temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

RuO2 domains supported on SnO2, ZrO2, TiO2, Al2O3, and SiO2 catalyze the oxidative conversion of methanol to formaldehyde, methylformate, and dimethoxymethane with unprecedented rates and high combined selectivity (>99 percent) and yield at low temperatures (300-400 K). Supports influence turnover rates and the ability of RuO2 domains to undergo redox cycles required for oxidation turnovers. Oxidative dehydrogenation turnover rates and rates of stoichiometric reduction of RuO2 in H2 increased in parallel when RuO2 domains were dispersed on more reducible supports. These support effects, the kinetic effects of CH3OH and O2 on reaction rates, and the observed kinetic isotope effects with CH3OD and CD3OD reactants are consistent with a sequence of elementary steps involving kinetically relevant H-abstraction from adsorbed methoxide species using lattice oxygen atoms and with methoxide formation in quasi-equilibrated CH3OH dissociation on nearly stoichiometric RuO2 surfaces. Anaerobic transient experiments confirmed that CH3OH oxidation to HCHO requires lattice oxygen atoms and that selectivities are not influenced by the presence of O2. Residence time effects on selectivity indicate that secondary HCHO-CH3OH acetalization reactions lead to hemiacetal or methoxymethanol intermediates that convert to dimethoxymethane in reactions with CH3OH on support acid sites or dehydrogenate to form methylformate on RuO2 and support redox sites. These conclusions are consistent with the tendency of Al2O3 and SiO2 supports to favor dimethoxymethane formation, while SnO2, ZrO2, and TiO2 preferentially form methylformate. These support effects on secondary reactions were confirmed by measured CH3OH oxidation rates and selectivities on physical mixtures of supported RuO2 catalysts and pure supports. Ethanol also reacts on supported RuO2 domains to form predominately acetaldehyde and diethoxyethane at 300-400 K. The bifunctional nature of these reaction pathways and the remarkable ability of RuO2-based catalysts to oxidize CH3OH to HCHO at unprecedented low temperatures introduce significant opportunities for new routes to complex oxygenates, including some containing C-C bonds, using methanol or ethanol as intermediates derived from natural gas or biomass.

Liu, Haichao; Iglesia, Enrique

2004-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

278

WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), a company of Global Energy Inc., and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over a three year period, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-GAS{trademark} technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. During the reporting period, various methods to remove low-level contaminants for the synthesis gas were reviewed. In addition, there was a transition of the project personnel for GEC which has slowed the production of the outstanding project reports.

Gary Harmond; Albert Tsang

2003-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

279

WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead previously by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC). The project is now under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP) after it acquired GEC and the E-Gas{trademark} gasification technology from Global Energy in July 2003. The Phase I of this project was supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while the Phase II is supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research, Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The two project phases planned for execution include: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at Global Energy's existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The WREL facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now acquired and offered commercially by COP as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC, and now COP and the industrial partners are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-GAS{trademark} technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry.

Thomas Lynch

2004-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

280

Vehiculos de Combustible Flexible: Brindando Opciones en Combustible Renovable (Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice) (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The fact sheet discusses how E85 affects vehicle performance, the costs and benefits of using E85, and how to find E85 station locations.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flexible-fuel methanol dodge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Isobutanol-methanol mixtures from synthesis gas. Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of CuMgCeO{sub x} catalysts have been prepared by coprecipitating the corresponding metal nitrates with a mixed solution of potassium carbonate and potassium hydroxide. The bulk composition of the catalyst has been measured by atomic absorption (AA) analysis and the Cu dispersion has been determined by N{sub 2}O titration at 90 {degrees}C. CeO{sub x} does not contribute to the measured copper dispersion in K-CuO{sub 0.5}Mg{sub 5}CeO{sub x} samples and the high dispersion value indeed reflects the presence of Cu metal small crystallites. Kinetic studies of methanol and propionaldehyde coupling reactions on K-Cu/MgO/CeO{sub 2} and MgO/CeO{sub 2} catalysts indicate that Cu enhances the rates of alcohol dehydrogenation. High-pressure isobutanol synthesis from CO/H{sub 2} has been studied on CuO{sub 0.5}Mg{sub 5}O{sub x} catalysts at 593 K and 4.5 MPa. CuO{sub 0.5}Mg{sub 5}O{sub x} catalysts show high hydrocarbon and low isobutanol selectivities compared to K-CuO{sub 0.5}Mg{sub 5}CeO{sub x}, suggesting the presence of residual acidity in CuO{sub 0.5}Mg{sub 5}O{sub x}.

Iglesia, E.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Liquid phase fluid dynamic (methanol) run in the LaPorte alternative fuels development unit  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A fluid dynamic study was successfully completed in a bubble column at DOE's Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) in LaPorte, Texas. Significant fluid dynamic information was gathered at pilot scale during three weeks of Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOJP) operations in June 1995. In addition to the usual nuclear density and temperature measurements, unique differential pressure data were collected using Sandia's high-speed data acquisition system to gain insight on flow regime characteristics and bubble size distribution. Statistical analysis of the fluctuations in the pressure data suggests that the column was being operated in the churn turbulent regime at most of the velocities considered. Dynamic gas disengagement experiments showed a different behavior than seen in low-pressure, cold-flow work. Operation with a superficial gas velocity of 1.2 ft/sec was achieved during this run, with stable fluid dynamics and catalyst performance. Improvements included for catalyst activation in the design of the Clean Coal III LPMEOH{trademark} plant at Kingsport, Tennessee, were also confirmed. In addition, an alternate catalyst was demonstrated for LPMEOH{trademark}.

Bharat L. Bhatt

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Isobutanol-methanol mixtures from synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of Cu{sub 0.5}CeMe(II)O{sub x} catalysts (Me refers to Group II alkali earth elements) have been prepared by coprecipitating the corresponding metal nitrates with potassium carbonate. The bulk composition of the catalyst has been determined by atomic absorption (AA) analysis. High-pressure isobutanol synthesis studies have been carried out over a standard BASF Cs-promoted Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. At a CO conversion level of 32%, the isobutanol carbon selectivity is about 5%; whereas that of methanol is 40.2%. A 100% selectivity sum has now been obtained as a result of using response factors measured by the laboratory. The reactions of ethanol and acetic acid over a number of catalysts have been investigated using a temperature programmed surface reaction (TPSR) technique. Ethanol and acetone are the only desorption products observed over Cs-promoted Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. Surface acetate ion is believed to be the precursor for acetone formation. Over calcined hydrotalcites, i.e., MgO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ethylene is formed instead of acetone. The amount of ethylene formed decreases as Mg/Al ratio increases, suggesting a role of aluminum ions in ethanol dehydration reactions.

Iglesia, E.

1996-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

284

Development of vanidum-phosphate catalysts for methanol production by selective oxidation of methane. Quarterly technical progress report, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Activities this past quarter, focused on acquisition of kinetic data for oxidation of formaldehyde and methanol on these catalysts. In the next quarter these results will be used to propose a simple reaction network and kinetic model. To date we have completed Task 1: Laboratory Setup and Task 2: Process Variable Study. Activities in the current quarter focused on finalizing these tasks and on Task 3: Promoters and Supports, this task is approximately 50% completed. Task 4: Advanced Catalysts is to be initiated in the next quarter. Specific accomplishments this quarter include: finalizing and calibrating a new reaction product analytical system with markedly improved precision and accuracy relative to older. approaches; development of procedures for accurately feeding formaldehyde to the reactor; examination of formaldehyde and methanol oxidation kinetics over vanadyl pyrophosphate at a range of temperatures; and preliminary studies of methane oxidation over a silica support.

McCormick, R.L.; Alptekin, G.O.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Cobalt catalysts, and use thereof for the conversion of methanol to hydrocarbons, and for Fisher-Tropsch synthesis  

SciTech Connect

A process useful for the conversion or methanol feed to hydrocarbons is described which comprises contacting the feed at reaction conditions with a catalyst which comprises cobalt, or cobalt and thoria in catalytically active amount composited with an inorganic oxide support, to which is added sufficient rhenium to obtain, with a similar feed at corresponding process conditions, improved activity, as contrasted with a catalyst composition otherwise similar except that it does not contain rhenium.

Mauldin, C.H.

1988-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

286

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol process. Technical progress report number 8, April 1--June 30, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project involves the construction of an 80,000 gallon per day (260 tons per day (TPD)) methanol unit utilizing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman`s integrated coal gasification facility. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression facilities, the liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation facilities, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOH{trademark} process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern-day coal gasifiers. Originally tested at a small (10 TPD), DOE-owned experimental unit in LaPorte, Texas, the technology provides several improvements essential for the economic coproduction of methanol and electricity directly from gasified coal. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates. At the Eastman complex, the technology is being integrated with existing coal-gasifiers. A carefully developed test plan will allow operations at Eastman to simulate electricity demand load-following in coal-based IGCC facilities. The operations will also demonstrate the enhanced stability and heat dissipation of the conversion process, its reliable on/off operation, and its ability to produce methanol as a clean liquid fuel without additional upgrading.

NONE

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

287

Development of vanadium-phosphate catalysts for methanol production by selective oxidation of methane. Quarterly report, July - September 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document covers the period July-September, 1996. Activities included studies of the oxidation of dimethyl ether over vanadyl pyrophosphate and synthesis of all previously acquired kinetic data. This synthesis revealed the need for additional data on methane and methanol oxidation and these experiments were performed. A further series of methanol oxidation/dehydration experiments was conducted on samples with varying surface acidity that have been described in earlier reports. Oxidation of methane over Cr- promoted VPO was also reinvestigated. The kinetic studies performed to date allow us to determine optimum conditions for methanol and formaldehyde production from methane using VPO catalysts, and in particular determine the effect of lean conditions (excess oxygen), oxygen deficient conditions (used in most other methane oxidation studies), and the potential of using the catalyst as a stoichiometric oxidant or oxygen carrier. However, unpromoted VPO yields only CO as the primary oxidation product. Studies of promoters have shown improvements in the formaldehyde selectivity but no methanol has been observed. The best promoters tested have been Fe and Cr (results for Cr are described in this report). We have also examined the use of iron phosphate for the methane conversion reaction. FePO{sub 4}is a more selectivity catalyst than the promoted VPO materials. Support of this iron phosphate on silica results in further improvements in selectivity. Current work is directed at understanding the improved selectivity for promoted VPO and at obtaining a knowledge of the optimum conditions for methane conversion of iron phosphate. 15 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

McCormick, R.L.; Alptekin, G.O.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

A density functional theory study of the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde over vanadia supported on silica, titania, and zirconia  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Density functional theory was used to investigate the mechanism and kinetics of methanol oxidation to formaldehyde over vanadia supported on silica, titania, and zirconia. The catalytically active site was modeled as an isolated VO{sub 4} unit attached to the support. The calculated geometry and vibrational frequencies of the active site are in good agreement with experimental measurements both for model compounds and oxide-supported vanadia. Methanol adsorption is found to occur preferentially with the rupture of a V-O-M bond (M = Si, Ti, Zr) and with preferential attachment of a methoxy group to V. The vibrational frequencies of the methoxy group are in good agreement with those observed experimentally as are the calculated isobars. The formation of formaldehyde is assumed to occur via the transfer of an H atom of a methoxy group to the O atom of the V=O group. The activation energy for this process is found to be in the range of 199-214 kJ/mol and apparent activation energies for the overall oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde are predicted to lie in the range of 112-123 kJ/mol, which is significantly higher than that found experimentally. Moreover, the predicted turnover frequency (TOF) for methanol oxidation is found to be essentially independent of support composition, whereas experiments show that the TOF is 10{sup 3} greater for titania- and zirconia-supported vanadia than for silica-supported vanadia. Based on these findings, it is proposed that the formation of formaldehyde from methoxy groups may require pairs of adjacent VO{sub 4} groups or V{sub 2}O{sub 7} dimer structures.

Khaliullin, Rustam Z.; Bell, Alexis T.

2002-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

289

Application of the GRI 1.2 methane oxidation model to methane and methanol oxidation in supercritical water  

SciTech Connect

The GRI 1.2 mechanism is used to predict the oxidation rates of methane and methanol by oxygen in supercritical water at 250 bar and temperatures ranging from 420--630 C. Using the Chemkin II computational package which assumes an ideal gas equation of state, the GRI model does very well in representing the available experimental results on methane over a wide temperature and concentration rate. However, the model may lack key CH{sub 3}O{sub 2} reactions needed for a complete description in the < 450 C region. The oxidation of methanol and formation of formaldehyde is not well represented by the GRI mechanism when left unchanged. If two important modifications are made to the reactivity of HO{sub 2}, good agreement with the methanol oxidation results is achieved. This paper illustrates that the carefully-assembled GRI 1.2 mechanism, although designed for conventional combustion conditions, can be successfully extended with very little modification to much lower temperature and extreme pressure conditions. The purpose of this study is to understand the operative chemical kinetics of supercritical water oxidation required for the more efficient application of this technology to treatment of hazardous wastes, obsolete munitions, rocket motors, and chemical warfare agents.

Rice, S.F. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Investigations on catalyzed steam gasification of biomass. Appendix B: feasibility study of methanol production via catalytic gasification of 2000 tons of wood per day  

SciTech Connect

A study has been made of the economic feasibility of producing fuel grade methanol from wood via catalytic gasification with steam. The plant design in this study was developed from information on gasifier operation supplied by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), operated by Battelle. PNL obtained this information from laboratory and process development unit testing. The plant is designed to process 2000 tons per day of dry wood to methanol. Plant production is 997 tons per day of methanol with a HHV of 9784 Btu per pound. All process and support facilities necessary to convert wood to methanol are included in this study. The plant location is Newport, Oregon. The capital cost for the plant is $120,830,000 - September 1980 basis. Methanol production costs which allow for return on capital have been calculated for various wood prices for both utility and private investor financing. These wood costs include delivery to the plant. For utility financing, the methanol production costs are respectively $.45, $.48, $.55, and $.69 per gallon for wood costs of $5, $10, $20, and $40 per dry ton. For private investor financing, the corresponding product costs are $.59, $.62, $.69, and $.83 per gallon for the corresponding wood costs. Both calculation methods include a return on equity capital in the costs. The thermal efficiency of the plant is 52.9%.

Mudge, L.K.; Weber, S.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Robertus, R.J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

The Carnol System for methanol production and CO{sub 2} mitigation from coal fired power plants and the transportation sector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Carnol System consists of methanol production by C0{sub 2} recovered from coal fired power plants and natural gas and the use of the methanol as an alternative automotive fuel. The Carnol process produces hydrogen by the thermal decomposition of natural gas and reacting the hydrogen with C0{sub 2} recovered from the power plant. The carbon produced can be stored or used as a materials commodity. A design and economic evaluation of the process is presented and compared to gasoline as an automotive fuel. An evaluation of the C0{sub 2} emission reduction of the process and system is made and compared to other conventional methanol production processes is including the use of biomass feedstock and methanol fuel cell vehicles. The C0{sub 2} for the entire Carnol System using methanol in automotive IC engines can be reduced by 56% compared to conventional system of coal plants and gasoline engines and by as much as 77% C0{sub 2} emission reduction when methanol is used in fuel cells in automotive engines. The Carnol System is shown to be an environmentally attractive and economically viable system connecting the power generation sector with the transportation sector which should warrant further development.

Steinberg, M.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

The Carnol System for methanol production and CO{sub 2} mitigation from coal fired power plants and the transportation sector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Carnol System consists of methanol production by CO{sub 2} recovered from coal fired power plants and natural gas and the use of the methanol as an alternative automotive fuel. The Carnol Process produces hydrogen by the thermal decomposition of natural gas and reacting the hydrogen with CO{sub 2} recovered from the power plant. The carbon produced can be stored or used as a materials commodity. A design and economic evaluation of the Carnol System is presented and compared to gasoline as an automotive fuel. An evaluation of the CO{sub 2} emission reduction of the process and system is made and compared to other conventional methanol production processes is including the use of biomass feedstock and methanol fuel cell vehicles. The CO{sub 2} for the entire Carnol System using methanol in automotive IC engines can be reduced by 56% compared to conventional system of coal plants and gasoline engines and by as much as 77% CO{sub 2} emission reduction when methanol is used in fuel cells in automotive engines. The Carnol System is shown to be an environmentally attractive and economically viable system connecting the power generation sector with the transportation sector which should warrant further development.

Steinberg, M.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Isobutanol-methanol mixtures from synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 April--30 June 30 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of CuMgCeO{sub x} catalysts have been prepared by coprecipitating the corresponding metal nitrates with a mixed solution of potassium carbonate and potassium hydroxide. Kinetic studies of methanol and ethanol coupling reactions on K-Cu/MgO/CeO{sub 2} and MgO/CeO{sub 2} catalysts indicate that Cu enhances the rates of alcohol dehydrogenation. The cross-coupling reactions of acetaldehyde and {sup 13}C-labeled methanol produce singly-labeled propionaldehyde, suggesting that it forms by the condensation of acetaldehyde and a reactive intermediate derived from methanol. Isobutyraldehyde, a precursor to isobutanol, forms via the condensation of propionaldehyde and a reactive C{sub 1} intermediate resulting from methanol. CO{sub 2}, one of the reaction products, poisons both basic and metal sites on Ce-containing CuMgO{sub x} catalysts, resulting in decreases in the rates of both alcohol dehydrogenation (Cu sites) and chain-growth condensation reactions (basic sites). CO{sub 2} inhibits ethanol dehydrogenation on both low-Cu and high-Cu CuMgCeO{sub x} catalysts; however, CO{sub 2} has no effect on the activity of low-Cu Ce-free Cu-MgO{sub x} catalysts, suggesting that the Cu on CuMgCeO{sub x} catalysts is more likely to be oxidized by CO{sub 2} to Cu{sup +} species that can be subsequently stabilized by CeO{sub 2}. CO{sub 2} effects on high-pressure isobutanol synthesis from CO/H{sub 2} have been studied on low- and high-Cu CuMgCeO{sub x} catalysts at 320{degrees}C and 4.5 MPa. CO{sub 2} addition and removal on low- and high-Cu catalysts show similar directional effects on CO conversion. CO conversion is lower at all space velocities in the presence of CO{sub 2}, and removal Of CO{sub 2} from the feed partially recovers CO conversion. CO{sub 2} decreases methanol and isobutanol productivities on both catalysts. Addition of 1-propanol to CO/H{sub 2} feed increases isobutanol production, suggesting that 1-propanol is a precursor to isobutanol.

NONE

1996-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

294

Liquid Phase Methanol LaPorte Process Development Unit: Modification, operation, and support studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A gas phase and a slurry phase radioactive tracer study was performed on the 12 ton/day Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Process Development Unit (PDU) in LaPorte, Texas. To study the gas phase mixing characteristics, a radioactive argon tracer was injected into the feed gas and residence time distribution was generated by measuring the response at the reactor outlet. Radioactive manganese oxide powder was independently injected into the reactor to measure the slurry phase mixing characteristics. A tanks-in-series model and an axial dispersion model were applied to the data to characterize the mixing in the reactor. From the axial dispersion model, a translation to the number of CSTR's (continuous stirred tank reactors) was made for comparison purposes with the first analysis. Dispersion correlations currently available in the literature were also compared. The tanks-in-series analysis is a simpler model whose results are easily interpreted. However, it does have a few drawbacks; among them, the lack of a reliable method for scaleup of a reactor and no direct correlation between mixing in the slurry and gas phases. The dispersion model allows the mixing in the gas and slurry phases to be characterized separately while including the effects of phase transfer. This analysis offers a means for combining the gas and slurry phase dispersion models into an effective dispersion coefficient, which, in turn, can be related to an equivalent number of tanks-in-series. The dispersion methods reported are recommended for scaleup of a reactor system. 24 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.

Not Available

1990-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

295

Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and alternative fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.

Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and alternative fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R&D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.

Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Liquid phase methanol LaPorte process development unit: Modification, operation, and support studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Liquid-entrained operations at the LaPorte Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Process Development Unit (PDU) continued during June and July 1988 under Tasks 2.1 and 2.2 of Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC90005 for the US Department of Energy. The primary focus of this PDU operating program was to prepare for a confident move to the next scale of operation with an optimized and simplified process. Several new design options had been identified and thoroughly evaluated in a detailed process engineering study completed under the LPMEOH Part-2 contract (DE-AC22-85PC80007), which then became the basis for the current PDU modification/operating program. The focus of the Process Engineering Design was to optimize and simplifications focused on the slurry loop, which consists of the reactor, vapor/liquid separator, slurry heat exchanger, and slurry circulation pump. Two-Phase Gas Holdup tests began at LaPorte in June 1988 with nitrogen/oil and CO- rich gas/oil systems. The purpose of these tests was to study the hydrodynamics of the reactor, detect metal carbonyl catalyst poisons, and train operating personnel. Any effect of the new gas sparger and the internal heat exchanger would be revealed by comparing the hydrodynamic data with previous PDU hydrodynamic data. The Equipment Evaluation'' Run E-5 was conducted at the LaPorte LPMEOH PDU in July 1988. The objective of Run E-5 was to systematically evaluate each new piece of equipment (sparger, internal heat exchanger, V/L disengagement zone, demister, and cyclone) which had been added to the system, and attempt to run the reactor in an internal-only mode. In addition, a successful catalyst activation with a concentrated (45 wt % oxide) slurry was sought. 9 refs., 26 figs., 15 tabs.

Not Available

1991-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

298

Analysis of the structure and mechanisms of extinction of a counterflow methanol-air diffusion flame  

SciTech Connect

Numerical calculations were performed to determine the structure and to clarify the extinction mechanisms of diffusion flames stabilized between counterflowing streams of methanol and air. The calculations were performed at a value of the thermodynamic pressure equal to 1 atmosphere, with different values for the rate of strain and with two different chemical kinetic mechanisms, mechanism a and mechanism b. Mechanism a and mechanism b have the same set of elementary reactions, but the rate constants for these elementary reactions were obtained from two different references. If mechanism a is used, the authors conclude that at low rates of strain the concentration of CH/sub 2/OH and HCO are in steady state and, if partial equilibrium is assumed for certain reactions, there exist algebraic relations among the concentrations of the radicals OH, H, and O. As the rate of strain is increased, HCO is no longer in steady state and no solution was obtained for a strain rate greater than 521 s/sup -1/. However, if mechanism b is used, the concentration of HCO alone is in steady state, and there also exist algebraic relations among the concentrations of the radicals OH, H, and O. As the rate of strain is increased, no solution was obtained for a strain rate greater than 168 s/sup -1/, and the authors speculate that extinction of the flame is due to a large value of the activation energy for a reaction controlling the pyrolysis of CH/sub 2/OH to CH/sub 2/O.

Seshadri, K.; Trevino, C.; Smooke, M.D.

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Conversion of methanol to light olefins on SAPO-34: kinetic modeling and reactor design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, the reaction scheme of the MTO process was written in terms of elementary steps and generated by means of a computer algorithm characterizing the various species by vectors and Boolean relation matrices. The number of rate parameters is very large. To reduce this number the rate parameters related to the steps on the acid sites of the catalyst were modeled in terms of transition state theory and statistical thermodynamics. Use was made of the single event concept to account for the effect of structure of reactant and activated complex on the frequency factor of the rate coefficient of an elementary step. The Evans-Polanyi relation was also utilized to account for the effect of the structure on the change in enthalpy. The structure was determined by means of quantum chemical software. The number of rate parameters of the complete reaction scheme to be determined from experimental data is thus reduced from 726 to 30. Their values were obtained from the experimental data of Abraha by means of a genetic algorithm involving the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and combined with sequential quadratic programming. The retained model yields an excellent fit of the experimental data. All the parameters satisfy the statistical tests as well as the rules of carbenium ion chemistry. The kinetic model also reproduces the experimental data of Marchi and Froment, also obtained on SAPO-34. Another set of their data was used to introduce the deactivation of the catalyst into the kinetic equations. This detailed kinetic model was used to investigate the influence of the operating conditions on the product distribution in a multi-bed adiabatic reactor with plug flow. It was further inserted into riser and fluidized bed reactor models to study the conceptual design of an MTO reactor, accounting for the strong exothermicity of the process. Multi-bed adiabatic and fluidized bed technologies show good potential for the industrial process for the conversion of methanol into olefins.

Al Wahabi, Saeed M. H.

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons (Biomimetic catalysis of the conversion of methane to methanol). Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In addition to inorganic catalysts that react with methane, it is well-known that a select group of aerobic soil/water bacteria called methanotrophs can efficiently and selectively utilize methane as the sole source of their energy and carbon for cellular growth. The first reaction in this metabolic pathway is catalyzed by the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO) forming methanol. Methanol is a technology important product from this partial oxidation of methane since it can be easily converted to liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuels (gasoline), used directly as a liquid fuel or fuel additive itself, or serve as a feedstock for chemicals production. This naturally occurring biocatalyst (MMO) is accomplishing a technologically important transformation (methane directly to methanol) for which there is currently no analogous chemical (non-biological) process. The authors approach has been to use the biocatalyst, MMO, as the initial focus in the development of discrete chemical catalysts (biomimetic complexes) for methane conversion. The advantage of this approach is that it exploits a biocatalytic system already performing a desired transformation of methane. In addition, this approach generated needed new experimental information on catalyst structure and function in order to develop new catalysts rationally and systematically. The first task is a comparative mechanistic, biochemical, and spectroscopic investigation of MMO enzyme systems. This work was directed at developing a description of the structure and function of the catalytically active sites in sufficient detail to generate a biomimetic material. The second task involves the synthesis, characterization, and chemical reactions of discrete complexes that mimic the enzymatic active site. These complexes were synthesized based on their best current understanding of the MMO active site structure.

Watkins, B.E.; Taylor, R.T.; Satcher, J.H. [and others

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flexible-fuel methanol dodge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Theoretical study of syngas hydrogenation to methanol on the polar Zn-terminated ZnO(0001) surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methanol synthesis from syngas (CO/CO2/H2) hydrogenation on the perfect Zn–terminated polar ZnO(0001) surface have been investigated using periodic density functional theory calculations. Our results show that direct CO2 hydrogenation to methanol on the perfect ZnO(0001) surface is unlikely because in the presence of surface atomic H and O the highly stable formate (HCOO) and carbonate (CO3) readily produced from CO2 with low barriers 0.11 and 0.09 eV will eventually accumulate and block the active sites of the ZnO(0001) surface. In contrast, methanol synthesis from CO hydrogenation is thermodynamically and kinetically feasible on the perfect ZnO(0001) surface. CO can be consecutively hydrogenated into formyl (HCO), formaldehyde (H2CO), methoxy (H3CO) intermediates, leading to the final formation of methanol (H3COH). The reaction route via hydroxymethyl (H2COH) intermediate, a previously proposed species on the defected O–terminated ZnO( ) surface, is kinetically inhibited on the perfect ZnO(0001) surface. The rate-determining step in the consecutive CO hydrogenation route is the hydrogenation of H3CO to H3COH. We also note that this last hydrogenation step is pronouncedly facilitated in the presence of water by lowering the activation barrier from 1.02 to 0.55 eV. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Biosciences and Geosciences, and performed at EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Computational resources were provided at EMSL and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. J. Li and Y.-F. Zhao were also financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 20933003 and 91026003) and the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2011CB932400). Y.-F. Zhao acknowledges the fellowship from PNNL.

Zhao, Ya-Fan; Rousseau, Roger J.; Li, Jun; Mei, Donghai

2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

302

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report number 2, July 1--September 30, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project involves the construction of a 260 tons-per-day (TPD) or 80,000 gallon per day methanol demonstration unit utilizing an existing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression, liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated was developed by Air Products in a DOE sponsored program that started in 1981. Originally tested at a small, DOE-owned experimental facility in LaPorte, Texas, the LPMEOH{trademark} process offers several advantages over current methods of making methanol. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The liquid dissipates heat from the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst and allowing the gas-to-methanol reaction to proceed at higher rates. The process is ideally suited to the type of gas produced by modern coal gasifiers. At the Eastman Chemical complex, the technology will be integrated with existing coal gasifiers to demonstrate the commercially important aspects of the operation of the LPMEOH{trademark} Process to produce methanol. A four-year demonstration will prove the commercial applicability of the process. An off-site product-use test program will prove the suitability of the methanol as a transportation fuel and as a fuel for stationary applications in the power industry.

NONE

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

303

Development of vanadium-phosphate catalysts for methanol production by selective oxidation of methane. Quarterly technical progress report 10, July 1, 1995--September 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document is the tenth quarterly technical progress report under Contract No. DE-AC22-92PC92110 {open_quotes}Development of Vanadium-Phosphate Catalysts for Methanol Production by Selective Oxidation of Methane{close_quotes}. Activities focused on testing of additional modified and promoted catalysts and characterization of these materials. Attempts at improving the sensitivity of our GC based analytical systems were also made with some success. Methanol oxidation studies were initiated. These results are reported. Specific accomplishments include: (1) Methane oxidation testing of a suite of catalysts promoted with most of the first row transition metals was completed. Several of these materials produced low, difficult to quantify yields of formaldehyde. (2) Characterization of these materials by XRD and FTIR was performed with the goal of correlating activity and selectivity with catalyst properties. (3) We began to characterize catalysts prepared via modified synthesis methods designed to enhance acidity using TGA measurements of acetonitrile chemisorption and methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether as a test reaction. (4) A catalyst prepared in the presence of naphthalene methanol as a structural disrupter was tested for activity in methane oxidation. It was found that this material produced low yields of formaldehyde which were difficult to quantify. (5) Preparation of catalysts with no Bronsted acid sites. This was accomplished by replacement of exchangeable protons with potassium, and (6) Methanol oxidation studies were initiated to provide an indication of catalyst activity for decomposition of this desired product and as a method of characterizing the catalyst surface.

McCormick, R.L.

1995-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

304

Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

305

Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Electro-osmotic drag of water in ionomeric membranes. New measurements employing a direct methanol fuel cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) employing a proton conducting membrane was used to determine the electro-osmotic drag coefficient of water in the ionomeric membrane. Water flux across the membrane in such a cell (operated with 1.0 M aqueous methanol at the anode and dry O{sub 2} at the cathode) is driven by protonic drag exclusively at sufficiently high current densities. This is evidenced experimentally by a linear relationship between cell current and flux of water measured crossing the membrane. Application of the DMFC for such water-drag measurements is significantly simpler experimentally than the approach described by the authors before, particularly so for measurements above room temperature. In measurements the authors performed in the DMFC configuration on Nafion 117 membranes, the water drag coefficient was found to increase with temperature, from 2.0 H{sub 2}O/H{sup +} at 15 C to 5.1 H{sub 2}O/H{sup +} at 130 C. Implications of these new results on water management in DMFCs are briefly discussed.

Ren, X.; Henderson, W.; Gottesfeld, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

EXPANDED VERY LARGE ARRAY DETECTION OF 44.1 GHz CLASS I METHANOL MASERS IN SAGITTARIUS A  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on the detection of 44 GHz Class I methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) maser emission in the Sagittarius A (Sgr A) complex with the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA). These EVLA observations show that the Sgr A complex harbors at least four different tracers of shocked regions in the radio regime. The 44 GHz masers correlate with the positions and velocities of previously detected 36 GHz CH{sub 3}OH masers, but less with 1720 MHz OH masers. Our detections agree with theoretical predictions that the densities and temperatures conducive for 1720 MHz OH masers may also produce 36 and 44 GHz CH{sub 3}OH maser emission. However, many 44 GHz masers do not overlap with 36 GHz methanol masers, suggesting that 44 GHz masers also arise in regions too hot and too dense for 36 GHz masers to form. This agrees with the non-detection of 1720 MHz OH masers in the same area, which are thought to be excited under even cooler and less dense conditions. We speculate that the geometry of the 36 GHz masers outlines the current location of a shock front.

Pihlstroem, Y. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, MSC07 4220, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Sjouwerman, L. O. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Rd., Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Fish, V. L., E-mail: ylva@unm.edu [MIT Haystack Observatory, Route 40, Westford, MA 01886 (United States)

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

308

The effect of Ru and Sn additions to Pt on the electrocatalysis of methanol oxidation: An in situ XAS investigation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Elements such as Ru and Sn used as ad-atoms or as alloying elements are known to enhance methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). Ru, both as alloying element as well as upd deposited on Pt/C is widely acknowledged for enhancing MOR. Sn on the other hand is more controversial, with evidence indicating enhancements for MOR when present as upd layer and marginally effective when present as an alloying element. In situ XAS is used to investigate some of these inconsistencies in the electrocatalysis of MOR. Results indicate that alloying Sn with Pt (Pt{sub 3}Sn primary phase) causes partial filling of the Pt 5 d-band vacancies and increase in the Pt-Pt bond distances which is directly opposite to a similar situation with Ru. Upd Sn however does not perturb Pt structurally or electronically. Ru and Sn (both as alloying element and as upd ad-layer) are associated with oxygenated species, the nature and strength of the Ru. and Sn - oxygen interactions are potential dependent. Hence alloying with Sn renders Pt surface unfavorable for methanol adsorption in contrast to alloying with Ru. Both Ru and Sn however promote MOR via their ability to nucleate oxygenated species on their surface at lower potentials as compared to pure Pt.

Mukerjee, S.; McBreen, J.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Long-term methanol vehicle test program. Final subcontract report, 1 November 1992--1 February 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Work was sperformed to determine effects of methanol fuel on engine performance and exhaust emissions during long-term use in a 1988 Chevrolet Corsica. Engine wear, gasket performance, fuel economy, emissions level, oil consumption, and overall vehicle performance were monitored over 22,000 miles. Baselines were established at the beginning for comparison: engine was disassembled, bearing/ring clearances and cam profiles were measured. Higher flow rate fuel injectors from AC Rochester were installed and the computer system calibrated for M100 fuel. The vehicle durability test increased oil consumption by 26% under cold-start conditions, 9% under hot start. Oil consumption under hot start was higher than under cold start by as much as 56%; effect of component temperatures on oil viscosity appears to be the cause. It is recommended that oil consumption of a gasoline-fueled vehicle be measured in order to normalize the effect of methanol operation on oil consumption, and to study the effect of steady-state and transient conditions on oil consumption.

Jones, J.C.; Maxwell, T.T.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Conceptual design of a coal-to-methanol-to-gasoline commercial plant. Volume V. Alternate design studies. Second interim final report, August 31, 1977-March 1, 1979  

SciTech Connect

Three design cases have been investigated for converting methanol to gasoline using the Mobil process. These are defined as Case A, which produces gasoline and byproduct LPG; Case B, which produces gasoline, high Btu gas, and byproduct LPG; and Case C which produces gasoline only. The LPG includes propane LPG and high purity isobutane. Base Case B is described in Volumes I and IV of this report. Alternate Cases A and C are described in part I of Volume V. Part II of this volume (V) contains additional process studies. Under Contract EX-76-C-01-2416 Modification No. A006, item (4) of the General Requirements requires economy of scale evaluations, and item (24) of the Scope of Work includes studies of Lurgi methanol synthesis recommendations, integration of Methanol-to-Gasoline facilities with a refinery, and recovery of aromatics from stabilized synthetic gasoline.

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Development of vanadium-phosphate catalysts for methanol production by selective oxidation of methane. Quarterly technical progress report 11, October--December 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Activities during this report period focused on testing of additional modified and promoted catalysts and characterization of these materials. Methanol oxidation studies were performed as a method of acid site characterization. Improvements to the product gas analysis system continued to be developed. These results are reported. Specific accomplishments include: (1) Obtaining and interpreting infrared spectra of modified catalysts prepared to enhance surface acidity. (2) Testing of these catalysts in methanol oxidation as a method of acid site characterization and to determine catalytic activity for conversion of this desired product. Catalysts were quite active for methanol conversion to dimethyl ether. Two of the modified catalysts prepared in this work exhibited the highest activity for this reaction, presumably because of their higher surface areas. (3) Determination that acidity modifications had no effect on activity for methane conversion.

McCormick, R.L.

1996-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

312

Clean air program: Design guidelines for bus transit systems using alcohol fuel (methanol and ethanol) as an alternative fuel. Final report, July 1995-April 1996  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides design guidelines for the safe use of alcohol fuel (Methanol or Ethanol). It is part of a series of individual monographs being published by the FTA providing guidelines for the safe use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and alcohol fuels (Methanol and Ethanol). Each report in this series describes, for the subject fuel, the important fuel properties, guidelines for the design and operation of bus fueling, storage and maintenance facilities, issues on personnel training and emergency preparedness.

Raj, P.K.; DeMarco, V.R.; Hathaway, W.T.; Kangas, R.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Material Handling Equipment Demonstration - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Todd Ramsden National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, CO 80401 Phone: (303) 275-3704 Email: todd.ramsden@nrel.gov DOE Manager HQ: Peter Devlin Phone: (202) 586-4905 Email: Peter.Devlin@ee.doe.gov Subcontractor: Oorja Protonics, Inc., Fremont, CA Project Start Date: June 1, 2010 Project End Date: March 31, 2013 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Operate and maintain fuel-cell-powered material * handling equipment (MHE) using direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) technology. Compile operational data of DMFCs and validate their * performance under real-world operating conditions. Provide an independent technology assessment that * focuses on DMFC system performance, operation, and

314

Methanol oxidation on PtRu electrodes. Influence of surface structure and Pt-Ru atom distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The activities of different types of PtRu catalysts for methanol oxidation are compared. Materials used were: UHV-cleaned PtRu alloys, UHV-evaporated Ru onto Pt(111) as well as adsorbed Ru on Pt(111) prepared with and without additional reduction by hydrogen. Differences in the catalytic activity are observed to depend on the preparation procedure of the catalysts. The dependence of the respective catalytic activities upon the surface composition is reported. UHV-STM data for Pt(111)/Ru show the formation of two- and three-dimensional structures depending on surface coverage. A molecular insight on the electrochemical reaction is given via in situ infrared spectroscopy. Analysis of the data indicates that the most probable rate-determining step is the reaction of adsorbed CO with Ru oxide.

Iwasita, T.; Hoster, H.; John-Anacker, A.; Lin, W.F.; Vielstich, W.

2000-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

315

Methanol Synthesis over Cu/ZnO/Al2O3: The Active Site in Industrial Catalysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Unlike homogeneous catalysts, heterogeneous catalysts that have been optimized through decades are typically so complex and hard to characterize that the nature of the catalytically active site is not known. This is one of the main stumbling blocks in developing rational catalyst design strategies in heterogeneous catalysis. We show here how to identify the crucial atomic structure motif for the industrial Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} methanol synthesis catalyst. Using a combination of experimental evidence from bulk-, surface-sensitive and imaging methods collected on real high-performance catalytic systems in combination with DFT calculations. We show that the active site consists of Cu steps peppered with Zn atoms, all stabilized by a series of well defined bulk defects and surface species that need jointly to be present for the system to work.

Behrens, Malte

2012-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

316

Utilization of coal mine methane for methanol and SCP production. Topical report, May 5, 1995--March 4, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of utilizing a biological process to reduce methane emissions from coal mines and to produce valuable single cell protein (SCP) and/or methanol as a product has been demonstrated. The quantities of coal mine methane from vent gas, gob wells, premining wells and abandoned mines have been determined in order to define the potential for utilizing mine gases as a resource. It is estimated that 300 MMCFD of methane is produced in the United States at a typical concentration of 0.2-0.6 percent in ventilation air. Of this total, almost 20 percent is produced from the four Jim Walter Resources (JWR) mines, which are located in very gassy coal seams. Worldwide vent gas production is estimated at 1 BCFD. Gob gas methane production in the U.S. is estimated to be 38 MMCFD. Very little gob gas is produced outside the U.S. In addition, it is estimated that abandoned mines may generate as much as 90 MMCFD of methane. In order to make a significant impact on coal mine methane emissions, technology which is able to utilize dilute vent gases as a resource must be developed. Purification of the methane from the vent gases would be very expensive and impractical. Therefore, the process application must be able to use a dilute methane stream. Biological conversion of this dilute methane (as well as the more concentrated gob gases) to produce single cell protein (SCP) and/or methanol has been demonstrated in the Bioengineering Resources, Inc. (BRI) laboratories. SCP is used as an animal feed supplement, which commands a high price, about $0.11 per pound.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

317

Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Gasoline from coal in the state of Illinois: feasibility study. Volume I. Design. [KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Volume 1 describes the proposed plant: KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process, and also with ancillary processes, such as oxygen plant, shift process, RECTISOL purification process, sulfur recovery equipment and pollution control equipment. Numerous engineering diagrams are included. (LTN)

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Self-diffusion measurements of methanol and 1-decanol in supercritical CO{sub 2} by {sup 13}C pulsed field gradient NMR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A small amount of a highly polar compound, such as methanol, is frequently added to supercritical fluid (SCF) carbon dioxide to enhance its ability to dissolve polar molecules in SCF separation technology. Few diffusion coefficients in SCF mixtures have been reported in the literature. The pulsed field gradient spin-echo technique (PGSE) has been used extensively to measure self-diffusion in neat monohydric alcohols under pressure. Hurle et al. and Luedemann et al. showed that the experimental diffusion coefficients of methanol may be explained by a rough hard-sphere model (RHS) with a roughness parameter, A. In this paper, diffusion measurements are reported for CO{sub 2}-methanol and CO{sub 2}-decanol mixtures in supercritical fluids. Since methanol in CO{sub 2} is primarily monomeric at low concentration, the RHS model, that is accurate for most simple, non-associated liquids, should apply. Previous nuclear spin-lattice relaxation studies in SCF CO{sub 2} suggest a large local solvent density enhancement, or solvent clustering, near a alcohol solute molecule under SCF conditions. If solvent clustering occurs in the vicinity of alcohol solute molecules, it should affect the diffusion coefficients. The authors have made the requisite measurements and found that they corroborate their previous spin-relaxation data.

Bai, S.; Mayne, C.L.; Grant, D.M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Taylor, C.M.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Organic Analytical Chemistry Group

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Investigations on catalyzed steam gasification of biomass: feasibility study of methanol production via catalytic gasification of 200 tons of wood per day  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is a result of an additional study made of the economic feasibility of producing fuel grade methanol from wood via catalytic gasification with steam. The report has as its basis the original 2000 tons of wood per day study generated from process development unit testing performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The goal of this additional work was to determine the feasibility of a smaller scale plant one tenth the size of the original or 200 tons of dry wood feed per day. Plant production based on this wood feed is 100 tons per day of methanol with a HHV of 9784 Btu per pound. All process and support facilities necessary to convert wood to methanol are included in this study. The plant location is Newport, Oregon. The capital cost for the plant is $34,830,000 - September 1980 basis. Methanol production costs which allow for return on capital have been calculated for various wood prices for both utility and private investor financing. These wood costs include delivery to the plant. For utility financing, the methanol production costs are, respectively, $1.20, $1.23, $1.30, and $1.44 per gallon for wood costs of $5, $10, $20, and $40 per dry ton. For private investor financing, the corresponding product costs are $1.60, $1.63, $1.70, and $1.84 per gallon for the corresponding wood costs. The costs calculated by the utility financing method include a return on equity of 15% and an interest rate of 10% on the debt. The private investor financing method, which is 100% equity financing, incorporates a discounted cash flow (DCF) return on equity of 12%. The thermal efficiency of the plant is 52.0%.

Mudge, L.K.; Weber, S.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Robertus, R.J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flexible-fuel methanol dodge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Commercial-scale demonstration of the liquid phase methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report No. 4, 1 April--30 June 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) demonstration project at Kingsport, Tennessee is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L. P.(the Partnership). A facility producing 260 TPD of methanol will be designed and constructed at a site located at the Eastman Chemical complex in Kingsport, Tennessee. The Partnership will own and operate the facility for the four-year demonstration facility operational period. This project is sponsored under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, and its primary objective is to ``demonstrate the production of methanol using the LPMEOH{trademark} process in conjunction with an integrated coal gasification facility.`` The project will also demonstrate the suitability of the methanol produced for use as a chemical feedstock or as a low sulfur dioxide, low nitrogen oxides alternative fuel in stationary and transportation applications. The project may also demonstrate the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed coproduct with methanol, if laboratory- and pilot-scale research shows promising results. If implemented, the DME would be produced during the last six months of the operations phase. During this last quarter the project transitioned to the design phase. the project requires review under the National environmental Policy Act to move to the construction phase, which is scheduled to begin in August of 1995. DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment, and a Finding of No Significant Impact was issued during this quarter. The facility is scheduled to be mechanically complete in November of 1996.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

322

Theoretical study of the molecular and electronic structure of methanol on a TiO2(110) surface  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present density-functional-theory calculations of the molecular and electronic structure of methanol adsorption on stoichiometric TiO2(110) surface. We have investigated 11 different molecular and dissociated adsorption structures of CH3OH at 1 monolayer coverage. The relative stabilities of different structures depend on the chemisorption-induced charge transfer, the relative strengths of different types of hydrogen bonds, the steric hindrance between methyl groups and the surface stress. We found the intermolecular hydrogen bonding to play an important role in stabilizing the overlayer. We also investigated the occupied and unoccupied surface electronic structure, and the adsorbate-induced surface dipole moment and work-function changes. The electronic structures show that the highest-occupied molecular orbital of CH3OH is near the valance-band maximum, which reflects the character of CH3OH as a hole scavenger on TiO2 surfaces. The unoccupied partially solvated or “wet” electron states for CH3OH on TiO2 are primarily distributed on H atoms of methyl groups. Despite many different structural motifs, the wet-electron-state energy primarily correlates with the surface dipole moment.

Zhao, Jin; Yang, Jinlong; Petek, Hrvoje

2009-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

323

Electronically conducting proton exchange polymers as catalyst supports for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction, hydrogen oxidation, and methanol oxidation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A variety of supported catalysts were prepared by the chemical deposition of Pt and Pt-Ru particles on chemically prepared poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene-4-sulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) and PEDOT/polyvinylsulfate (PVS) composites. The polymer particles were designed to provide a porous, proton-conducting and electron-conducting catalyst support for use in fuel cells. These polymer-supported catalysts were characterized by electron microscopy, impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and conductivity measurements. Their catalytic activities toward hydrogen and methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction were evaluated in proton exchange membrane fuel-cell-type gas diffusion electrodes. Activities for oxygen reduction comparable to that obtained with a commercial carbon-supported catalyst were observed, whereas those for hydrogen and methanol oxidation were significantly inferior, although still high for prototype catalysts.

Lefebvre, M.C.; Qi, Z.; Pickup, P.G. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Role of hydrous ruthenium oxide in Pt-Ru direct methanol fuel cell anode electrocatalysts: The importance of mixed electron/proton conductivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pt-Ru is the favored anode catalyst for the oxidation of methanol in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The nanoscale Pt-Ru blacks are accepted to be bimetallic alloys as based on their X-ray diffraction patterns. These bulk and surface analyses show that although practical Pt-Ru blacks have diffraction patterns consistent with an alloy assignment, they are primarily a mix of Pt metal and Ru oxides plus some Pt oxides and only small amounts of Ru metal. Thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of as-received Pt-Ru electrocatalysts indicate that DMFC materials contain substantial amounts of hydrous ruthenium oxide (RuO{sub x}H{sub y}). A potential misidentification of nanoscale Pt-Ru blacks arises because RuO{sub x}H{sub y} is amorphous and cannot be discerned by X-ray diffraction. Hydrous ruthenium oxide is a mixed proton and electron conductor and innately expresses Ru-OH speciation. These properties are of key importance in the mechanism of methanol oxidation, in particular, Ru-OH is a critical component of the bifunctional mechanism proposed for direct methanol oxidation in that it is the oxygen-transfer species that oxidatively dissociates {single_bond}C{triple_bond}O fragments from the Pt surface. The catalysts and membrane-electrode assemblies of DMFCs should not be processed at or exposed to temperatures >150 C, as such conditions deleteriously lower the proton conductivity of hydrous ruthenium oxide and thus affect the ability of the Ru component of the electrocatalyst to dissociate water. With this analytical understanding of the true nature of practical nanoscale Pt-Ru electrocatalysts, the authors can now recommend that hydrous ruthenium oxide, rather than Ru metal or anhydrous RuO{sub 2}, is the preferred Ru speciation in these catalysts.

Rolison, D.R.; Hagans, P.L.; Swider, K.E.; Long, J.W. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Surface Chemistry Branch

1999-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

325

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report number 6, October 1--December 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project involves the construction of an 80,000 gallons per day (260 TPD) methanol unit utilizing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman`s integrated coal gasification facility. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression facilities, the liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation facilities, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOH{trademark} process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern-day coal gasifiers. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface protecting the catalyst and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates. At the Eastman complex, the technology will be integrated with existing coal-gasifiers. A carefully developed test plan will allow operations at Eastman to simulate electricity demand load-following in coal-based IGCC facilities. The operations will also demonstrate the enhanced stability and heat dissipation of the conversion process, its reliable on/off operation, and its ability to produce methanol as a clean liquid fuel without additional upgrading. An off-site product testing program will be conducted to demonstrate the suitability of the methanol product as a transportation fuel and as a fuel for stationary applications for small modular electric power generators for distributed power.

NONE

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

326

One-pot, high-yield synthesis of titanate nanotube bundles decorated by Pd (Au) clusters for stable electrooxidation of methanol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Titanate nanotube bundles assembled by several simple nanotubes were synthesized through a simple reaction between TiO{sub 2} crystallites and highly concentrated NaOH in the presence of Au or Pd sols. Due to the unique scrolling growth mechanism of titanate nanotubes (TNTs), Au or Pd clusters were encapsulated in situ by TNTs, and titanate/Au and titanate/Pd nanotube bundles were formed. In comparison with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or active carbon that was widely used as carriers to support metal clusters, TNTs bundles can immobilize the metal clusters tightly and overcome the shortcoming of exfoliation of metal clusters from the carriers. The as-prepared titanate/metal hybrids possess mesoporosity and high surface area. The electrochemical oxidation of methanol demonstrates that titanate/Pd hybrids exhibit high electrocatalytic activity and excellent stability, and hence they should be ideal catalyst candidates in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). - Graphical abstract: Titanate/Au and titanate/Pd nanotube bundles have been fabricated by taking advantage of the unique scrolling growth mechanism of titanate tubes. The titanate/Pd hybrids show stable catalytic effects toward the electrooxidation of methanol.

Xue Xiudong [Key Lab of Organic Synthesis of Jiangsu Province and Department of Chemistry, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Gu Li [College of Biology and Chemical Engineering, Jiaxing University, Jiaxing, Zhejiang 314001 (China); Cao Xuebo, E-mail: xbcao@suda.edu.c [Key Lab of Organic Synthesis of Jiangsu Province and Department of Chemistry, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Song Yingying; Zhu Lianwen; Chen Peng [Key Lab of Organic Synthesis of Jiangsu Province and Department of Chemistry, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

327

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report number 5, July 1--September 30, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project involves the construction of an 80,000 gallons per day (260 TPD) methanol unit utilizing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman`s integrated coal gasification facility. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression facilities, the liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation facilities, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOH{trademark} process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern-day coal gasifiers. Originally tested at a small, DOE-owned experimental unit in LaPorte, Texas, the technology provides several improvements essential for the economic coproduction of methanol and electricity directly from gasified coal. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

328

Vapor pressure measurements on non-aqueous electrolyte solutions. Part 2. Tetraalkylammonium salts in methanol. Activity coefficients of various 1-1 electrolytes at high concentrations  

SciTech Connect

Precise vapor pressure data for solutions of Et/sub 4/NBr, Bu/sub 4/NBr, Bu/sub 4/Nl, Bu/sub 4/NClO/sub 4/, and Am/sub 4/NBr in methanol at 25/sup 0/C in the concentration range 0.04 < m(mol-(kg of solvent)/sup -1/) < 1.6 are communicated and discussed. Polynomials in molalities are given which may be used for calculating precise vapor pressure depressions of these solutions. Osmotic coefficients are calculated by taking into account the second virial coefficient of methanol vapor. Discussion of the data at low concentrations is based on the chemical model of electrolyte solutions taking into account non-coulombic interactions; ion-pair association constants are compared to those of conductance measurements. Pitzer equations are used to reproduce osmotic and activity coefficient at high concentrations; the set of Pitzer parameters b = 3.2, ..cap alpha../sub 1/ = 2.0 and ..cap alpha../sub 2/ = 20.0 is proposed for methanol solutions.

Barthel, J.; Lauermann, G.; Neueder, R.

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report number 9, July 1--September 30, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). The LPMEOH{trademark} Process Demonstration Unit is being built at a site located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) complex in Kingsport. The project involves the construction of an 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons per day (TPD)) methanol unit utilizing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman`s integrated coal gasification facility. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression facilities, the liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation facilities, and utilities. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates. At the Eastman complex, the technology is being integrated with existing coal-gasifiers.

NONE

1997-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

330

Research guidance studies to assess gasoline from coal by methanol-to-gasoline and sasol-type Fischer--Tropsch technologies. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study provides a technical and economic comparison between the new Mobil methanol-to-gasoline technology under development and the commercially available Fischer--Tropsch technology for the production of motor gasoline meeting U.S. quality standards. Conceptual plant complexes, sited in Wyoming, are complete grass-roots facilities. The Lurgi dry-ash, pressure technology is used to gasify sub-bituminous strip coal. Except for the Mobil process, processes used are commercially available. Coproduction of products, namely SNG, LPG and gasoline, is practiced. Four sensitivity cases have also been developed in less detail from the two base cases. In all areas, the Mobil technology is superior to Fischer--Tropsch: process complexity, energy usage, thermal efficiency, gasoline selectivity, gasoline quality, investment and gasoline selectivity, gasoline quality, investment and gasoline cost. Principal advantages of the Mobil process are its selective yield of excellent quality gasoline with minimum ancillary processing. Fischer--Tropsch not only yields a spectrum of products, but the production of a gasoline meeting U.S. specifications is difficult and complex. This superiority results in about a 25% reduction in the gasoline cost. Sensitivity study conclusions include: (1) the conversion of methanol into gasoline over the Mobil catalyst is highly efficient, (2) if SNG is a valuable product, increased gasoline yield via the reforming of SNG is uneconomical, and (3) fluid-bed operation is somewhat superior to fixed-bed operation for the Mobil methanol conversion technology.

Schreiner, M.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

The solvent dependent shift of the amide I band of a fully solvated peptide in methanol/water mixtures as a local probe for the solvent composition in the peptide/solvent interface  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We determine the shift and line-shape of the amide I band of a model AK-peptide from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the peptide dissolved in methanol/water mixtures with varying composition. The IR-spectra are determined from a transition dipole coupling exciton model. A simplified empirical model Hamiltonian is employed, taking both the effect of hydrogen bonding, as well as intramolecular vibrational coupling into account. We consider a single isolated AK-peptide in a mostly helical conformation, while the solvent is represented by 2600 methanol or water molecules, simulated for a pressure of 1 bar and a temperature of 300 K. Over the course of the simulations minor reversible conformational changes at the termini are observed, which are found to only slightly affect the calculated spectral properties. Over the entire composition range, varying from pure water to the pure methanol solvent, a monotonous blue-shift of the IR amide I band of about 8 wavenumbers is observed. The shift is found to be caused by two counter-compensating effects: An intramolecular red-shift of about 1.2 wavenumbers, due to stronger intramolecular hydrogen-bonding in a methanol-rich environment. Dominating, however, is the intermolecular solvent-dependent blue-shift of about 10 wavenumbers, being attributed to the less effective hydrogen bond donor capabilities of methanol compared to water. The importance of solvent-contribution to the IR-shift, as well as the significantly different hydrogen formation capabilities of water and methanol make the amide I band sensitive to composition changes in the local environment close the peptide/solvent interface. This allows, in principle, an experimental determination of the composition of the solvent in close proximity to the peptide surface. For the AK-peptide case they observe at low methanol concentrations a significantly enhanced methanol concentration at the peptide/solvent-interface, supposedly promoted by the partially hydrophobic character of the AK-peptide's solvent accessible surface.

Gnanakaran, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Crow Tribe of Indians: synfuels feasibility study. Volume II. Process design and cost estimate. Book III. Sections 6. 5 through 6. 9. [Crow Synfuels Project; coproducts (methanol and SNG)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The principal difference in the design for the Coproduction Case is that methanol and substitute natural gas (SNG) are the major products as opposed to only SNG in the Base Case. The pure syngas is fed to a methanol synthesis unit producing methanol which is purified. The purge gas from the Methanol Synthesis unit is converted to SNG by methanation. Other process and utility/offsite units are similar to the Base Case except there is no requirement for a CO Shift unit and there is a slight variation in size of some units to accommodate the change in processing scheme. Coal feed to gasification and boilers is identical to the Base Case. Feed and product rates for this case are given in Section 6.5.2. Other than the methanol and SNG products, the byproduct rates are only marginally different from the Base Case. Power available for export is less than the Base Case, due mainly to the additional energy consumed in the Methanol Synthesis unit.

Not Available

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Effects of piston surface treatments on performance and emissions of a methanol-fueled, direct injection, stratified charge engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of thermal barrier coatings and/or surface treatments on the performance and emissions of a methanol-fueled, direct-injection, stratified-charge (DISC) engine. A Ricardo Hydra Mark III engine was used for this work and in previous experiments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The primary focus of the study was to examine the effects of various piston insert surface treatments on hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions. Previous studies have shown that engines of this class have a tendency to perform poorly at low loads and have high unburned fuel emissions. A blank aluminum piston was modified to employ removable piston bowl inserts. Four different inserts were tested in the experiment: aluminum, stainless steel with a 1.27-mm (0.050-in.) air gap (to act as a thermal barrier), and two stainless steel/air-gap inserts with coatings. Two stainless steel inserts were dimensionally modified to account for the coating thickness (1.27-mm) and coated identically with partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ). One of the coated inserts then had an additional seal-coat applied. The coated inserts were otherwise identical to the stainless steel/air-gap insert (i.e., they employed the same 1.27-mm air gap). Thermal barrier coatings were employed in an attempt to increase combustion chamber surface temperatures, thereby reducing wall quenching and promoting more complete combustion of the fuel in the quench zone. The seal-coat was applied to the zirconia to reduce the surface porosity; previous research suggested that despite the possibly higher surface temperatures obtainable with a ceramic coating, the high surface area of a plasma-sprayed coating may actually allow fuel to adhere to the surface and increase the unburned fuel emissions and fuel consumption.

West, B.; Green, J.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Thermophilic Methanol Utilization by  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: acetate ADH: alcohol dehydrogenase Bio-FGD: biological flue-gas desulfurization COD: chemical oxygen desulfurization In sub-section 1.1.1, sulfur dioxide emission and general aspects of the flue gas desulfurization heaters, metallurgical operations, roasting and sintering, coke oven plants, processing of titanium

Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit

335

Methane conversion to methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of a catalytic membrane reactor for the partial oxidation of methane. The specific goals are to demonstrate that we can improve product yield, demonstrate the optimal conditions for membrane reactor operation, determine the transport properties of the membrane, and provide demonstration of the process at the pilot plant scale. The last goal will be performed by Unocal, Inc., our industrial partner, upon successful completion of this study.

Noble, R.D.; Falconer, J.L.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Vehiculos de combustible flexible: brindando opciones en combustible renovable (Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice), Programa de Technologias de Vehiculos (Vehicle Technologies Program - VTP) (Fact Sheet)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Mayo 2010 Mayo 2010 la Junta de Recursos del Aire de California. El uso de conversiones no certificadas es ilegal y puede afectar la garantía de su vehículo. Para obtener más información sobre el pro- ceso de conversión de vehículos, consulte la Guía de certificación actualizada para convertidores de combustible alternativo de la EPA en su sitio web, www.epa.gov/otaq/ cert/dearmfr/cisd0602.pdf. ¿El E85 afecta el desempeño del vehículo?

337

Reactivity of Hydrogen and Methanol on (001) Surfaces of WO3, ReO3, WO3/ReO3 and ReO3/WO3  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Bulk tungsten trioxide (WO3) and rhenium trioxide (ReO3) share very similar structures but display different electronic properties. WO3 is a wide bandgap semiconductor while ReO3 is an electronic conductor. With the advanced molecular beam epitaxy techniques, it is possible to make heterostructures comprised of layers of WO3 and ReO3. These heterostructures might display reactivity different than pure WO3 and ReO3. The interactions of two probe molecules (hydrogen and methanol) with the (001) surfaces of WO3, ReO3, and two heterostructures ReO3/WO3 and WO3/ReO3 were investigated at the density functional theory level. Atomic hydrogen prefers to adsorb at the terminal O1C sites forming a surface hydroxyl on four surfaces. Dissociative adsorption of a hydrogen molecule at the O1C site leads to formation of a water molecule adsorbed at the surface M5C site. This is thermodynamically the most stable state. A thermodynamically less stable dissociative state involves two surface hydroxyl groups O1CH and O2CH. The interaction of molecular hydrogen and methanol with pure ReO3 is stronger than with pure WO3 and the strength of the interaction substantially changes on the WO3/ReO3 and ReO3/WO3 heterostructures. The reaction barriers for decomposition and recombination reactions are sensitive to the nature of heterostructure. The calculated adsorption energy of methanol on WO3(001) of -65.6 kJ/mol is consistent with the previous experimental estimation of -67 kJ/mol. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

Ling, Sanliang; Mei, Donghai; Gutowski, Maciej S.

2011-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

338

Development of vanadium-phosphate catalysts for methanol production by selective oxidation of methane. Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, April 1995--June 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document is the ninth quarterly technical progress report under Contract No. DE-AC22-92PC92110 {open_quotes}Development of Vanadium-Phosphate Catalysts for Methanol Production by Selective Oxidation of Methane{close_quotes}. Activities were focused on fine tuning of the microreactor system by elimination of transport effects and improvements in the analytical system. Process variable studies were conducted on vanadyl pyrophosphate and screening studies were conducted on several modified catalyst. One additional catalyst was prepared and characterization studies continued. These results are reported.

McCormick, R.L.

1995-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

339

Measurement and inspection of engines operated 50,000 miles on methanol/gasoline blends. Final report No. MED 120, December 1979-December 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The inspection of 6 commercial designed engines which were operated 50,000 miles on 10% methanol/90% unleaded gasoline blend were covered. The program was conducted at the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center, Department of Energy, Bartlesville, Oklahoma with the Mobile Energy Division, Southwest Research Institute providing the technical expertise for the technical inspection of the engines following program completion. These vehicles operated throughout this program with minimal or no operational problems, this report will only indicate engine wear and deposits as determined by standard CRC rating techniques.

Brown, J.G.; Tosh, J.D.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Development of vanadium-phosphate catalysts for methanol production by selective oxidation of methane. Quarterly technical progress report 13, April--June, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The specific objectives of this project are: to determine optimum conditions for methanol and formaldehyde production from methane using VPO catalysts, in particular to determine the effect of lean conditions (excess oxygen), oxygen deficient conditions (used in most other methane oxidation studies), and the potential of using the catalyst as a stoichiometric oxidant or oxygen carrier; to utilize promoters and catalyst supports to improve oxygenate yield relative to the base case catalysts; to provide a preliminary understanding of how these promoters and supports actually effect catalyst properties; and use the information obtained to prepare advanced catalysts which will be tested for activity, selectivity, and stability. Activities this quarter included analysis of all previously acquired data for methane, methanol, and formaldehyde oxidation over vanadyl pyrophosphate and testing of supported, promoted, and iron phosphate catalysts. Some experiments have been conducted with a small percentage of butane in the feed gas to help retain the catalyst in a reduced state and these results are reported. Iron phosphate, and iron phosphate supported on silica have also been tested in a preliminary way.

McCormick, R.L.; Alptekin, G.O.

1996-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flexible-fuel methanol dodge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Research guidance studies to assess gasoline from coal by methanol-to-gasoline and Sasol-type Fischer--Tropsch technologies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary purpose of this study is to provide a technical and economic comparison between the commercial Fischer-Tropsch technology and the new Mobil methanol-to-gasoline technology for the production of motor gasoline. Several technical sensitivity cases are also part of the study and will be included in the final report. Two conceptual plant complexes - Base Case I: Mobil Technology and Base Case II: Fischer-Tropsch Technology--have been developed. They are self-supporting, grass roots facilities assumed to be located in a Wyoming coal field. Plant size is equivalent to the proposed large commercial SNG plants. Except for the Mobil methanol conversion technology, all processes used are commercial. Co-production of all products has been assumed. Products have been upgraded to meet U.S. market specifications. A summary comparison of the two base cases shows that the Mobil technology is somewhat more efficient and more effective in producing gasoline. Moreover, the number of processing steps required is considerably fewer. All products meet the target specifications.

Schreiner, M.

1977-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Feasibility analysis of ternary feed mixtures of methane with oxygen, steam, and carbon dioxide for the production of methanol synthesis gas  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of ternary feed mixtures of CH{sub 4} with O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and CO{sub 2} is analyzed in relation to the production of methanol syngas. Stoichiometric constraints are formulated in terms of three parameters characterizing the steam, partial oxidation, and carbon dioxide reforming reactions of methane. The equilibrium analysis is conducted using the methanol balance ratio {mu} and methane slip fraction {chi} as explicit design parameters. General results are derived for the feasibility of each ternary feed combination as a function of pressure and temperature in the range 1 < {mu} < 3 under carbon-free conditions. Numerical calculations indicate that CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} feeds can be used in single-stage adiabatic reformers at low values of {mu}, but the produced syngas requires further treatment. Reforming based on CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O feeds is endothermic at {mu} {ge} 2 under typical reaction conditions, thus requiring the application of a two-stage process involving primary and secondary reformers. Utilization of CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O feeds in single-stage adiabatic reactors is feasible for {mu} = 1.7--1.9, yielding syngas which can be upgraded by partial CO{sub 2} removal. The endothermic CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O feed combination is always feasible for 1 < {mu} < 3.

Tjatjopoulos, G.J. [Chemical Process Engineering Research Inst., Thessaloniki (Greece). Foundation for Research and Technology; Vasalos, I.A. [Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Broadening and shifting of the methanol 119 {mu}m gain line of linear and circular polarization by collision with chiral molecules  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evidence of circular dichroism has been observed in the spectral properties of a gas of left-right symmetric molecules. This dichroism comes about as the result of collisions of the symmetric molecules with left-right asymmetric molecules introduced as a buffer gas. In this sense, the dichroism can be said to have been transferred from the chiral buffer molecules to the symmetric, non-chiral molecules of the background vapor. This transferred dichroism appears as broadening in the gain line of the symmetric molecule which is asymmetric with respect to the right or left handedness of a circularly polarized probe. The broadening of the 119 {mu}m line of the methanol molecule was observed using infrared-far infrared double resonance spectroscopy.

J.S. Bakos; G. Djotyan; Zsuzsa Soerlei; J. Szigeti; D. K. Mansfield; J. Sarkozi

2000-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

344

Measuring Diffusivity in Supercooled Liquid Nanoscale Films using Inert Gas Permeation: II. Diffusion of AR, KR, Xe, and CH4 through Methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present an experimental technique to measure the diffusivity of supercooled liquids at temperatures near their Tg. The approach uses the permeation of inert gases through supercooled liquid overlayers as a measure of the diffusivity of the supercooled liquid itself. The desorption spectra of the probe gas is used to extract the low temperature supercooled liquid diffusivities. In the preceding companion paper, we derived equations using ideal model simulations from which the diffusivity could be extracted using the desorption peak times for isothermal or peak temperatures for TPD experiments. Here, we discuss the experimental conditions for which these equations are valid and demonstrate their utility using amorphous methanol with Ar, Kr, Xe, and CH4 as probe gases. The approach offers a new method by which the diffusivities of supercooled liquids can be measured in the experimentally challenging temperature regime near the glass transition temperature.

Matthiesen, Jesper; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.

2010-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

345

Breaking through the Glass Ceiling: The Correlation Between the Self-Diffusivity in and Krypton Permeation through Deeply Supercooled Liquid Nanoscale Methanol Films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Molecular beam techniques, temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) are used to explore the relationship between krypton permeation through and the self-diffusivity of supercooled liquid methanol at temperatures near (100-115 K) the glass transition temperature, Tg (103 K). Layered films, consisting of CH3OH and CD3OH, are deposited ontop of a monolayer of Kr on a graphene covered Pt(111) substrate at 25 K. Concurrent Kr TPD and RAIRS spectra are acquired during the heating of the composite film to temperatures above Tg. The CO vibrational stretch is sensitive to the local molecular environment and is used to determine the supercooled liquid diffusivity from the intermixing of the isotopic layers. We find that the Kr permeation and the diffusivity of the supercooled liquid are directly and quantitatively correlated. These results validate the rare gas permeation technique as a tool for probing the diffusivity of supercooled liquids.

Smith, R. Scott; Matthiesen, Jesper; Kay, Bruce D.

2010-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

346

The Accurate Computer Simulation of Phase Equilibrium for Complex Fluid Mixtures. Application to Binaries Involving isobutene, methanol, MTBE, and n-butane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed a new method, called the Reaction Gibbs Ensemble Monte Carlo (RGEMC) method for the computer simulation of the phase equilibria for multicomponent mixtures, given an intermolecular potential model for the constituent molecular species. The approach treats the phase equilibrium conditions as a special type of chemical reaction, and incorporates knowledge of the pure-substance vapor pressure data into the simulations. Unlike macroscopic thermodynamic-based approaches like the Wilson and the UNIFAC approximations, no experimental information concerning the mixtures is required. In addition to the PTxy phase equilibrium data, the volumetric properties of the mixture are calculated. We developed intermolecular potential models based on the OPLS potential models of Jorgensen, and used the RGEMC method to predict phase equilibrium data for the binary systems isobutene+MTBE and the binaries formed by methanol with isobutene, MTBE, and n-butane. The predictions are excellent, ...

Martin Lísal; William R. Smith; Ivo Nezbeda

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Methanol Decomposition over Palladium Particles Supported on Silica: Role of Particle Size and Co-Feeding Carbon Dioxide on the Catalytic Properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monodisperse palladium particles of six distinct and controlled sizes between 4-16 nm were synthesized in a one-pot polyol process by varying the molar ratios of the two palladium precursors used, which contained palladium in different oxidation states. This difference permitted size control by regulation of the nucleation rate because low oxidation state metals ions nucleate quickly relative to high oxidation state ions. After immobilization of the Pd particles on silica by mild sonication, the catalysts were characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and applied toward catalytic methanol decomposition. This reaction was determined as structure sensitive with the intrinsic activity (turnover frequency) increasing with increasing particle size. Moreover, observed catalytic deactivation was linked to product (carbon monoxide) poisoning. Co-feeding carbon dioxide caused the activity and the amount of deactivation to decrease substantially. A reaction mechanism based on the formation of the {pi}-bond between carbon and oxygen as the rate-limiting step is in agreement with antipathetic structure sensitivity and product poisoning by carbon monoxide.

Hokenek, Selma; Kuhn, John N. (USF)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

348

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report number 11, January 1--March 31, 1997  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During this quarter, the third draft of the Topical Report on Process Economics Studies was issued for review. A recommendation to continue with design verification testing on the coproduction of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) was made. A liquid phase dimethyl ether (LPDME) catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stability is being developed, and a decision to proceed with a proof-of-concept test run at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) is pending the release of a memo from Air Products on the catalyst targets and corresponding economics for a commercially successful LPDME catalyst. The off-site product-use test plan is to be updated in June of 1997. During this quarter, Air Products and Acurex Environmental Corporation continued developing the listing of product-use test participants who are involved in fuel cell, transportation, and stationary power plant applications. Start-up activities (Task 3.1) began during the reporting period, and coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas) was introduced to the demonstration unit. The recycle compressor was tested successfully on syngas at line pressure of 700 psig, and the reactor loop reached 220 C for carbonyl burnout. Iron carbonyl in the balanced gas feed remained below the 10 ppbv detection limit for all samples but one. Within the reactor loop, iron carbonyl levels peaked out near 200 ppbv after about 40 hours on-stream, before decreasing to between 10--20 ppbv at 160 hours on -stream. Nickel carbonyl measurements reached a peak of about 60 ppbv, and decreased at all sampling locations to below the 10 ppbv detection limit by 70 hours on-stream. Catalyst activation of the nine 2,250 lb batches required for the initial catalyst charge began and concluded. All batches met or slightly exceeded the theoretical maximum uptake of 2.82 SCF of reducing gas/lb catalyst.

NONE

1997-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

349

Enhanced methanol utilization in direct methanol fuel cell ...  

Solar Photovoltaic; Solar Thermal; Startup America; Vehicles and Fuels; ... The Regents of the University of California (Los Alamos, NM) Application Number: 09/ 472,387:

350

Methanol tailgas combustor control method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for controlling the power and temperature and fuel source of a combustor in a fuel cell apparatus to supply heat to a fuel processor where the combustor has dual fuel inlet streams including a first fuel stream, and a second fuel stream of anode effluent from the fuel cell and reformate from the fuel processor. In all operating modes, an enthalpy balance is determined by regulating the amount of the first and/or second fuel streams and the quantity of the first air flow stream to support fuel processor power requirements.

Hart-Predmore, David J. (Rochester, NY); Pettit, William H. (Rochester, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

A methodological approach for the construction of a radiation hybrid map of bovine chromosome 5  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mark the spots where the mendied.Butafterseveralterrifyingmin- utes Dodge emerged from the ashes, vir

Taylor, Jerry

352

Development of alternative fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas: Final topical report, demonstration of one-step slurry-phase process for the co-production of methanol and isobutanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Liquid phase co-production of methanol and isobutanol (LPIBOH) was de, demonstrated at DOE`s Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) in LaPorte, Texas. Methanol and isobutanol are key intermediates in a synthesis gas-based route to methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE). The technology was demonstrated in a new 18 in. slurry bubble-column reactor that was designed to demonstrate higher pressures and temperatures,higher gas superficial velocities, and lower gas hourly space velocities--all of which are conducive to obtaining optimal isobutanol yield. The integration of the new reactor into the AFDU included the addition of a high-pressure synthesis gas compressor, a high-pressure hydrogen feed source, and a closed-loop methanol- solvent absorption system to remove CO{sub 2} from the unconverted synthesis gas. These modifications were completed in January 1994. The LPIBOH run followed after a short turnaround. It employed a cesium- promoted Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst developed in Air Products` laboratories and subsequently scaled up to a production- sized batch. Over a thirteen day campaign on simulated Shell gasifier gas, the catalyst and reactor system were tested at a matrix of pressures (750, 1300, 1735 psig) and space velocities (3000, 5000, 8200 sL/kg-hr), representing numerous first-of-a-kind run conditions for the AFDU. Inlet gas superficial velocities spanned an impressive 0.16 to 1.0 ft/sec. Stable reactor performance for a full twelve-hour data period at 1.0 ft/sec was another significant milestone for the liquid phase technology program. Apart from the catalyst deactivation, the run successfully demonstrated mixed alcohol synthesis in a slurry bubble-column reactor, as well as all of the new equipment installed for the trial. Although the full capabilities of the new oxygenates system will not be tested until future runs, the design objectives for the modifications were met with respect to the LPIBOH run.

NONE

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 1988 the Department of Energy (DOE) undertook a comprehensive technical analysis of a flexible-fuel transportation system in the United States. During the next two decades, alternative fuels such as alcohol (methanol or ethanol), compressed natural gas (CNG), and electricity could become practical alternatives to oil-based fuels in the US transportation sector. The DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment is aimed directly at questions of energy security and fuel availability. To keep interested parties informed about the progress of the DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment, the Department periodically publishes reports dealing with particular aspects of this complex study. This report provides an analysis of the expected costs to produce methanol from biomass feedstock.

Not Available

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Federal Alternative Fuel Program Light Duty Vehicle Operations. Second annual report to Congress for fiscal year 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This annual report to Congress details the second year of the Federal light duty vehicle operations as required by Section 400AA(b)(1)(B) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act as amended by the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, Public Law 100-494. In 1992, the Federal alternative fuel vehicle fleet expanded significantly, from the 65 M85 (85 percent methanol and 15 percent unleaded gasoline) vehicles acquired in 1991 to an anticipated total of 3,267 light duty vehicles. Operating data are being collected from slightly over 20 percent, or 666, of these vehicles. The 601 additional vehicles that were added to the data collection program in 1992 include 75 compressed natural gas Dodge full-size (8-passenger) vans, 25 E85 (85 percent denatured ethanol and 15 percent unleaded gasoline) Chevrolet Lumina sedans, 250 M85 Dodge Spirit sedans (planned to begin operation in fiscal year 1993), and 251 compressed natural gas Chevrolet C-20 pickup trucks. Figure ES-1 illustrates the locations where the Federal light duty alternative fuel vehicles that are participating in the data collection program are operating. The primary criteria for placement of vehicles will continue to include air quality attainment status and the availability of an alternative fuel infrastructure to support the vehicles. This report details the second year of the Federal light duty vehicle operations, from October 1991 through September 1992.

Not Available

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Capital and operating cost estimates. Volume I. Preliminary design and assessment of a 12,500 BPD coal-to-methanol-to-gasoline plant. [Grace C-M-G Plant, Henderson County, Kentucky  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Deliverable No. 18b - Capital and Operating Cost Estimates includes a detailed presentation of the 12,500 BPD coal-to-methanol-to-gasoline plant from the standpoint of capital, preoperations, start-up and operations cost estimation. The base capital cost estimate in June 1982 dollars was prepared by the Ralph M. Parsons Company under the direction of Grace. The escalated capital cost estimate as well as separate estimates for preoperations, startup and operations activities were developed by Grace. The deliverable consists of four volumes. Volume I contains details of methodology used in developing the capital cost estimate, summary information on a base June 1982 capital cost, details of the escalated capital cost estimate and separate sections devoted to preoperations, start-up, and operations cost. The base estimate is supported by detailed information in Volumes II, III and IV. The degree of detail for some units was constrained due to proprietary data. Attempts have been made to exhibit the estimating methodology by including data on individual equipment pricing. Proprietary details are available for inspection upon execution of nondisclosure and/or secrecy agreements with the licensors to whom the data is proprietary. Details of factoring certain pieces of equipment and/or entire modules or units from the 50,000 BPD capital estimate are also included. In the case of the escalated capital estimate, Grace has chosen to include a sensitivity analysis which allows for ready assessment of impacts of escalation rates (inflation), contingency allowances and the construction interest financing rates on the escalated capital cost. Each of the estimates associated with bringing the plant to commercial production rates has as a basis the schedule and engineering documentation found in Deliverable No. 14b - Process Engineering and Mechanical Design Report, No. 28b - Staffing Plans, No. 31b - Construction Plan, and No. 33b - Startup and Operation Plan.

Not Available

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

The Target Market for Methanol Fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be to place a surcharge on dirtier fuels (e.g. gasoline) assurcharge was specifically targeted to supporting cleaner fuels and

Sperling, Daniel; Setiawan, Winardi; Hungerford, David

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

The Target Market for Methanol Fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be to place a surcharge on dirtier fuels (e g gasoline) as asurcharge specifically targeted to supporting cleaner fuels and

Sperling, Daniel

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Radiation Transport Measurements in Methanol Pool Fires ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and b) CH stretching (with methane) .... ... within a coal flame with ... The test bed, illustrated in ...

2009-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

359

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Light-Duty Vehicle Search  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Type Fuel Type All Bi-Fuel Natural Gas (16) Bi-Fuel Propane (12) Biodiesel (B20) (11) Electric (13) Flex Fuel (E85) (91) Hybrid Electric (36) Hydrogen (3) Methanol (0) Natural Gas (4) Plug-in Hybrid Electric (10) Propane (2) Manufacturer All Acura (2) Audi (6) BMW (6) Bentley Motors (4) Buick (2) Cadillac (4) Chevrolet (25) Chrysler (3) Coda Automotive (0) Dodge (7) Fiat (1) Fisker Automotive (0) Ford (48) GMC (19) General Motors EV (0) HUMMER (0) Honda (8) Hyundai (2) Infiniti (4) Jaguar (6) Jeep (1) Kia (2) Land Rover (4) Lexus (5) Lincoln (2) Mazda (0) Mazda (0) McLaren (1) Mercedes-Benz (8) Mercury (0) Mitsubishi (1) Nissan (4) Plymouth (0) Porsche (2) QUANTUM-PROCON (0) Ram (5) Saab (0) Saturn (0) Scion (1) Smart (1) Solectria (0) Subaru (1) Tesla (1) Tesla Motors (0) Toyota (10) Vehicle

360

Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The DOE is conducting a comprehensive technical analysis of a flexible-fuel transportation system in the United States -- that is, a system that could easily switch between petroleum and another fuel, depending on price and availability. The DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment is aimed directly at questions of energy security and fuel availability, but covers a wide range of issues. This report examines environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with a switch to alternative- and flexible-fuel vehicles. Three potential alternatives to oil-based fuels in the transportation sector are considered: methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and electricity. The objective is to describe and discuss qualitatively potential environmental, health, and safety issues that would accompany widespread use of these three fuels. This report presents the results of exhaustive literature reviews; discussions with specialists in the vehicular and fuel-production industries and with Federal, State, and local officials; and recent information from in-use fleet tests. Each chapter deals with the end-use and process emissions of air pollutants, presenting an overview of the potential air pollution contribution of the fuel --relative to that of gasoline and diesel fuel -- in various applications. Carbon monoxide, particulate matter, ozone precursors, and carbon dioxide are emphasized. 67 refs., 6 figs. , 8 tabs.

Not Available

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flexible-fuel methanol dodge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Development of alternative fuels from coal derived syngas. Topical report: Task 2.2, Demonstration of a one-step slurry-phase process for the production of dimethyl ether/methanol mixtures at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit  

SciTech Connect

This report documents engineering, modification, and operations efforts of demonstration of dimethyl-ether/methanol coproduction in a slurry-phase reactor, carried out in a 2-ft diameter bubble column reactor. Equipment modifications made it possible to remove the product DME and by-product CO{sub 2} from the reactor effluent. Coproduction of dimethyl-ether (DME) and methanol (MeOH) was accomplished in the slurry reactor by physically mixing two different catalysts. The catalyst used to produce MeOH from syngas was manufactured by BASF (type S3-86); the catalyst used to convert MeOH to DME was Catapal {gamma}-alumina. Ratio of MeOH to DME catalysts determined the selectivity towards DME. The demonstration sought to study effect of cocatalyst ratio on product selectivity. Three different proportions of DME catalyst were examined: 0, 6.6, and 19.3 wt % alumina. At each catalyst proportion, the plant was operated at two different gas space velocities. Some process variables were maintained at fixed conditions; most important variables included: reactor temperature (482F), reactor pressure (750 psig), and reactor feed gas composition (35% H{sub 2}, 51% CO,13% CO{sub 2} 1% other, nominal-molar basis).

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Light-Duty Vehicle Search  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

GTC (2014) Fuel: Flex Fuel (E85) (Flexible Fuel) Class: SedanWagon Fuel Economy (Gasoline): 12 mpg city, 20...

363

G. Uniform Engine Fuels and Automotive Lubricants ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... dherence to automotive manufacturers' recommended requirements ... in Flexible Fuel Vehicles (FFV) Only ... states, “Consult Vehicle Manufacturer Fuel ...

2013-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

364

Hawaii alternative fuels utilization program. Phase 3, final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Hawaii Alternative Fuels Utilization Program originated as a five-year grant awarded by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) to the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The overall program included research and demonstration efforts aimed at encouraging and sustaining the use of alternative (i.e., substitutes for gasoline and diesel) ground transportation fuels in Hawaii. Originally, research aimed at overcoming technical impediments to the widespread adoption of alternative fuels was an important facet of this program. Demonstration activities centered on the use of methanol-based fuels in alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). In the present phase, operations were expanded to include flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) which can operate on M85 or regular unleaded gasoline or any combination of these two fuels. Additional demonstration work was accomplished in attempting to involve other elements of Hawaii in the promotion and use of alcohol fuels for ground transportation in Hawaii.

Kinoshita, C.M.; Staackmann, M.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Alternative Fuels Data Center: P-Series  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

P-Series to someone by P-Series to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: P-Series on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: P-Series on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: P-Series on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: P-Series on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: P-Series on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: P-Series on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biobutanol Drop-In Biofuels Methanol P-Series Renewable Natural Gas xTL Fuels P-Series P-Series fuels are blends of natural gas liquids (pentanes plus), ethanol, and methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF), a biomass co-solvent. P-Series fuels are clear, colorless, 89-93 octane, liquid blends used either alone or mixed with gasoline in any proportion in flexible fuel vehicles. These fuels are

366

Engines - Spark Ignition Engines - Direct Injection - Omnivorous Engine  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Injection, Spark-Ignited Engines Direct Injection, Spark-Ignited Engines Omnivorous Engine Omnivorous Engine Setup Omnivorous Engine Setup New engine technology has made possible engines that will operate on a wide variety of fuel inputs, from gasoline to naptha to ethanol to methanol, without driver intervention. Although flexible fuel vehicles have been produced in the millions, their engines have always been optimized for gasoline operation while accepting significant performance and efficiency degradations when using the alternative fuel. This project seeks to combine in-cylinder measurement technology, and advanced controls to optimize spark timing, the quantity and timing of injected fuel, to produce an "omnivorous engine"--one that will be able to run on any liquid spark ignition fuel with optimal efficiency and low

367

REQUEST BY CATERPILLAR INC. FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN RIGHTS IN  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SUBCONTRACT NO. 85X-SW973C UNDER SUBCONTRACT NO. 85X-SW973C UNDER CONTRACT NO. DE-AC05-960R22464; DOE WAIVER DOCKET W(A)-97-013 [ORO-657] Caterpillar, Inc. (Caterpillar) has made a timely request for an advance waiver to worldwide rights in Subject Inventions made in the course of or under Subcontract No. 85X-SW973C under Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC05-960R22464. The scope of the work calls for the development of flexible fuel engine technology to a direct injection multi-cylinder medium duty engine to bum gasoline, methanol 85 fuel, ethanol 85 fuel, and other alternative fuels, that meets both 1998 emission regulations and Caterpillar production diesel engine performance. The work is sponsored by the Office of Transportation Technologies. The dollar amount of the subcontract is $1,101,101 with Caterpillar cost sharing

368

Methanol-tolerant cathode catalyst composite for direct methanol fuel cells  

oxidation catalyst adjacent the anode electrode and the membrane, an oxidant reduction catalyst adjacent the cathode electrode and the membrane, comprises an oxidant reduction catalyst layer of a platinum-chromium alloy so that oxidation at the ...

369

THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1973) Enthalpies of Combustion and Maximum Temperatures ofBurner Assembly Combustion Chamber Exhaust System. . CHAPTERIlMeasurement of NO and N02 in Combustion Systems," Western

Grosshandler, W.L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Advanced hydrogen/methanol utilization technology demonstration. Phase II: Hydrogen cold start of a methanol vehicle  

SciTech Connect

This is the Phase 11 Final Report on NREL Subcontract No. XR-2-11175-1 {open_quotes}Advanced Hydrogen/Methane Utilization Demonstration{close_quotes} between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Alternative Fuels Utilization Program, Golden, Colorado and Hydrogen Consultants, Inc. (HCI), Littleton, Colorado. Mr. Chris Colucci was NREL`s Technical Monitor. Colorado State University`s (CSU) Engines and Energy Conversion Laboratory was HCI`s subcontractor. Some of the vehicle test work was carried out at the National Center for Vehicle Emissions Control and Safety (NCVECS) at CSU. The collaboration of the Colorado School of Mines is also gratefully acknowledged. Hydrogen is unique among alternative fuels in its ability to burn over a wide range of mixtures in air with no carbon-related combustion products. Hydrogen also has the ability to burn on a catalyst, starting from room temperature. Hydrogen can be made from a variety of renewable energy resources and is expected to become a widely used energy carrier in the sustainable energy system of the future. One way to make a start toward widespread use of hydrogen in the energy system is to use it sparingly with other alternative fuels. The Phase I work showed that strong affects could be achieved with dilute concentrations of hydrogen in methane (11). Reductions in emissions greater than the proportion of hydrogen in the fuel provide a form of leverage to stimulate the early introduction of hydrogen. Per energy unit or per dollar of hydrogen, a greater benefit is derived than simply displacing fossil-fueled vehicles with pure hydrogen vehicles.

NONE

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

The effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on FFV exhaust emissions using M85  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents results of emission tests of a flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) powered by an SI engine, fueled by M85 (methanol), and supplied with oxygen-enriched intake air containing 21, 23, and 25 vol% O2. Engine-out total hydrocarbons (THCs) and unburned methanol were considerably reduced in the entire FTP cycle when the O2 content of the intake air was either 23 or 25%. However, CO emissions did not vary much, and NOx emissions were higher. HCHO emissions were reduced by 53% in bag 1, 84% in bag 2, and 59% in bag 3 of the FTP cycle with 25% oxygen-enriched intake air. During cold-phase FTP,reductions of 42% in THCs, 40% in unburned methanol, 60% in nonmethane hydrocarbons, and 45% in nonmethane organic gases (NMOGs) were observed with 25% enriched air; NO{sub x} emissions increased by 78%. Converter-out emissions were also reduced with enriched air but to a lesser degree. FFVs operating on M85 that use 25% enriched air during only the initial 127 s of cold-phase FTP or that use 23 or 25% enriched air during only cold-phase FTP can meet the reactivity-adjusted NMOG, CO, NO{sub x}, and HCHO emission standards of the transitional low-emission vehicle.

Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.; Ng, H.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Baudino, J.H. [Autoresearch Labs., Inc., Chicago, IL (United States); Colucci, C.P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Project DE-EE0000727 Dodge City Unified School District Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Retrofit with Ground Source...

373

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: American Recovery and Reinvestme...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Project DE-EE0000727 Dodge City Unified School District Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Retrofit with Ground Source...

374

Search by Model for 2007 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW BMW Alpina Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hummer Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia...

375

Search by Model for 2006 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW Bugatti Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hummer Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia...

376

Search by Make for 2010 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

10 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW Bugatti Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hummer Hyundai Infiniti Jaguar Jeep Kia Lamborghini...

377

Search by Make for 2011 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW Bugatti Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Jaguar Jeep Kia Lamborghini Land Rover...

378

Search by Model for 2014 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW Bugatti Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Dodge Ferrari Fiat Ford GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Jaguar Jeep Kia Lamborghini Land...

379

Search by Make for 1994 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 Select Make... Acura Alfa Romeo Audi BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Dodge Eagle Ferrari Ford Geo GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia Lamborghini Land Rover...

380

Search by Model for 2003 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW BMW Alpina Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Daewoo Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flexible-fuel methanol dodge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Search by Make for 1996 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 Select Make... Acura Audi BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Dodge Eagle Ferrari Ford Geo GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia Lamborghini Land Rover Lexus Lincoln...

382

Search by Make for 2006 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW Bugatti Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hummer Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia...

383

Search by Model for 1993 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 Select Make... Acura Alfa Romeo Aston Martin Audi Autokraft Limited BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler CX Automotive Dodge Eagle Ferrari Ford Geo GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti...

384

Search by Make for 2007 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW BMW Alpina Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hummer Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia...

385

Search by Model for 1990 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

90 Select Make... Acura Alfa Romeo Audi BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Consulier Industries Inc Daihatsu Dodge Eagle Evans Automobiles Ferrari Ford Geo GMC Honda Hyundai...

386

Search by Make for 2005 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia Lamborghini Land Rover...

387

Search by Make for 2002 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Daewoo Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia Lamborghini Land...

388

Search by Make for 1997 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Dodge Eagle Ferrari Ford Geo GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia Lamborghini Land Rover...

389

Search by Make for 1989 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 Select Make... Acura Alfa Romeo Aston Martin Audi Bertone BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler CX Automotive Daihatsu Dodge Eagle Environmental Rsch and Devp Corp Evans...

390

Search by Model for 1989 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 Select Make... Acura Alfa Romeo Aston Martin Audi Bertone BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler CX Automotive Daihatsu Dodge Eagle Environmental Rsch and Devp Corp Evans...

391

Search by Model for 1994 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 Select Make... Acura Alfa Romeo Audi BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Dodge Eagle Ferrari Ford Geo GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia Lamborghini Land Rover...

392

Search by Make for 1993 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 Select Make... Acura Alfa Romeo Aston Martin Audi Autokraft Limited BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler CX Automotive Dodge Eagle Ferrari Ford Geo GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti...

393

Search by Model for 2002 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Daewoo Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia Lamborghini Land...

394

Search by Model for 2010 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

10 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW Bugatti Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hummer Hyundai Infiniti Jaguar Jeep Kia Lamborghini...

395

Search by Make for 2013 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW Bugatti Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler CODA Automotive Dodge Ferrari Fiat Ford GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Jaguar Jeep Kia...

396

Search by Model for 1995 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 Select Make... Acura Alfa Romeo Audi BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Dabryan Coach Builders Inc Dodge Eagle Federal Coach Ferrari Ford Geo GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu...

397

Search by Model for 1988 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 Select Make... Acura Alfa Romeo Aston Martin Audi Aurora Cars Ltd Bertone BMW Buick Cadillac CCC Engineering Chevrolet Chrysler CX Automotive Dacia Daihatsu Dodge Eagle Ferrari...

398

Search by Make for 1999 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1999 Select Make... Acura Audi Bentley BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Daewoo Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia Lamborghini Land Rover Lexus...

399

Search by Make for 2000 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2000 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Daewoo Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia Land Rover...

400

Search by Model for 1985 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 Select Make... Alfa Romeo AM General American Motors Corporation Aston Martin Audi Bertone Bill Dovell Motor Car Company BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Dodge E. P. Dutton,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flexible-fuel methanol dodge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Search by Model for 2008 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW BMW Alpina Bugatti Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hummer Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia...

402

Search by Model for 1986 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 Select Make... Acura Alfa Romeo American Motors Corporation Audi Autokraft Limited Bertone Bitter Gmbh and Co. Kg BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC...

403

Search by Model for 2000 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2000 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Daewoo Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia Land Rover...

404

Search by Make for 1998 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Daewoo Dodge Eagle Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia Lamborghini...

405

Search by Make for 2003 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW BMW Alpina Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Daewoo Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia...

406

Search by Model for 2004 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Daewoo Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia Lamborghini Land...

407

Search by Make for 1985 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 Select Make... Alfa Romeo AM General American Motors Corporation Aston Martin Audi Bertone Bill Dovell Motor Car Company BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Dodge E. P. Dutton,...

408

Search by Make for 1988 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 Select Make... Acura Alfa Romeo Aston Martin Audi Aurora Cars Ltd Bertone BMW Buick Cadillac CCC Engineering Chevrolet Chrysler CX Automotive Dacia Daihatsu Dodge Eagle Ferrari...

409

Search by Model for 2001 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 Select Make... Acura Audi Bentley BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Daewoo Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia Lamborghini Land Rover Lexus...

410

Search by Make for 1992 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 Select Make... Acura Alfa Romeo Aston Martin Audi Autokraft Limited BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Consulier Industries Inc CX Automotive Daihatsu Dodge Eagle Ferrari Ford...

411

Search by Model for 1996 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 Select Make... Acura Audi BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Dodge Eagle Ferrari Ford Geo GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia Lamborghini Land Rover Lexus Lincoln...

412

Search by Make for 2014 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW Bugatti Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Dodge Ferrari Fiat Ford GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Jaguar Jeep Kia Lamborghini Land...

413

Search by Model for 1999 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 Select Make... Acura Audi Bentley BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Daewoo Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia Lamborghini Land Rover Lexus...

414

Search by Make for 1986 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 Select Make... Acura Alfa Romeo American Motors Corporation Audi Autokraft Limited Bertone Bitter Gmbh and Co. Kg BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC...

415

Search by Model for 2012 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi Azure Dynamics Bentley BMW Bugatti Buick BYD Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler CODA Automotive Dodge Ferrari Fiat Fisker Ford GMC Honda Hyundai...

416

Search by Model for 1991 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 Select Make... Acura Alfa Romeo Aston Martin Audi BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Consulier Industries Inc CX Automotive Daihatsu Dodge Eagle Evans Automobiles Ferrari Ford...

417

Search by Model for 1992 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 Select Make... Acura Alfa Romeo Aston Martin Audi Autokraft Limited BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Consulier Industries Inc CX Automotive Daihatsu Dodge Eagle Ferrari Ford...

418

Search by Model for 1998 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Daewoo Dodge Eagle Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia Lamborghini...

419

Search by Model for 2005 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia Lamborghini Land Rover...

420

Search by Model for 2009 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

09 Select Make... Acura Alfa Romeo Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hummer Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flexible-fuel methanol dodge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Search by Model for 1997 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Dodge Eagle Ferrari Ford Geo GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia Lamborghini Land Rover...

422

Search by Make for 2012 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi Azure Dynamics Bentley BMW Bugatti Buick BYD Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler CODA Automotive Dodge Ferrari Fiat Fisker Ford GMC Honda Hyundai...

423

Search by Make for 1990 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

90 Select Make... Acura Alfa Romeo Audi BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Consulier Industries Inc Daihatsu Dodge Eagle Evans Automobiles Ferrari Ford Geo GMC Honda Hyundai...

424

Search by Make for 2001 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 Select Make... Acura Audi Bentley BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Daewoo Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia Lamborghini Land Rover Lexus...

425

Search by Make for 2009 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

09 Select Make... Acura Alfa Romeo Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hummer Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia...

426

Search by Make for 1991 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 Select Make... Acura Alfa Romeo Aston Martin Audi BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Consulier Industries Inc CX Automotive Daihatsu Dodge Eagle Evans Automobiles Ferrari Ford...

427

Search by Make for 2008 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW BMW Alpina Bugatti Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hummer Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia...

428

Search by Model for 2011 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW Bugatti Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Jaguar Jeep Kia Lamborghini Land Rover...

429

Search by Make for 1995 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 Select Make... Acura Alfa Romeo Audi BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Dabryan Coach Builders Inc Dodge Eagle Federal Coach Ferrari Ford Geo GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu...

430

Search by Make for 2004 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler Daewoo Dodge Ferrari Ford GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Isuzu Jaguar Jeep Kia Lamborghini Land...

431

Search by Model for 2013 Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 Select Make... Acura Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW Bugatti Buick Cadillac Chevrolet Chrysler CODA Automotive Dodge Ferrari Fiat Ford GMC Honda Hyundai Infiniti Jaguar Jeep Kia...

432

INEEL/EXT-97-  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

162 vehicles replaced 156 gasoline vehicles, 1 diesel vehicle, and 5 compressed natural gas vehicles, as follows: * Dodge Ram and Dakota gasoline pickups, 15 * S-10 gasoline...

433

INEEL/EXT-97-  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

158 vehicles replaced 152 gasoline vehicles, 1 diesel vehicle, and 5 compressed natural gas vehicles, as follows: * Dodge Ram and Dakota pickups, 15 * S-10 pickup retrofit, 21 *...

434

Is Methanol the Transportation Fuel of the Future?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent Developmentof Alcohol Fuels in of the United States,"and L. S. Sullivan, Proc. Int. Alcohol Fuel Syrup.on Alcohol Fuel Technol. , Ottawa, Canada, pp. 2-373 to 2-

Sperling, Daniel; DeLuchi, Mark A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Is Methanol the Transportation Fuel of the Future?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coal, oil shale, and biomass. Natural gas (NG)was virtuallytight gas-bearing sands, coal seams, shales, geopressurtzed

Sperling, Daniel; DeLuchi, Mark A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Failure Analysis and Remaining Life Assessment of Methanol ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of a Bucketwheel Stacker Reclaimer Structural Failure · Analysis of Glass Breakage · Analysis of Sealed, Integrated, Automotive Wheel Bearings.

437

Air breathing direct methanol fuel cell - Energy Innovation Portal  

Solar Photovoltaic; Solar Thermal; Startup America; Vehicles and Fuels; ... The Regents of the University of California (Los Alamos, NM) Application Number: 09/ 713,149:

438

Methods of conditioning direct methanol fuel cells - Energy ...  

Solar Photovoltaic; Solar Thermal; ... Contract Number W-7405-ENG-36 awarded by the United States Department of Energy to The Regents of the University of California.

439

Solubility Modeling of Methanol Aqueous Solutions in Nafion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Proceedings Inclusion? Planned: A CD-only volume ... Studies on Vibrational Entropy in Alloys Using Inelastic Neutron Scattering at ORNL · Surface Prefreezing ...

440