National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for flat-plate solar collectors

  1. Low-cost, high-performance solar flat-plate collectors for applications in northern latitudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Solar flat plate collector designs have been developed which incorporate high performance polymer film and laminate technology that have a projected manufacturing cost approaching $15/m/sup 2/ and potential thermal performance consistent with the best commercial solar flat plate collectors available today.

  2. Low-cost solar flat-plate-collector development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Cost goals were developed for the collector which led to the rejection of conventional approaches and to the exploration of thin-film technology. A thin-film sola absorber suited for high-speed continous-roll manufacture at low cost was designed. The absorber comprises two sheets of aluminum-foil/polymeric-material laminate bonded together at intervals to form channels with water as the heat transfer fluid. Several flat-plate panels were fabricated and tested. (MHR)

  3. Annual collectible energy of a two-axis tracking flat-plate solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Attalage, R.A.; Reddy, T.A. )

    1992-01-01

    A correlation for annual collectible energy of a two-axis tracking flat-plate solar collector has been developed using simulated results based on typical meteorological year (TMY) data for 26 US locations. A preliminary validation of this correlation has been carried out with data from four Australian locations. With the advent of increasing interest in photovoltaic systems, there are a number of advantages of using a two-axis flat-plate collector. Since the tracking system is generally much cheaper than the collector panel, such a mode permits the incident solar radiation to be collected more efficiently. Incidence angle effects are minimized and, moreover, contrary to concentrating collectors, such a mode enables both the diffuse and beam components of solar radiation to be collected. In tropical locations where the diffuse fraction is generally high, this may be a great advantage. The objective of this study was to develop a correlation for the annual collectible energy of a two-axis tracking flat-plate collector.

  4. Thin-film flat-plate solar collectors for low-cost manufacture and installation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J.W.; Wilhelm, W.G.

    1980-03-01

    A flat-plate solar energy collector design using thin-film plastics in both the absorber and glazing is described. The design approach proceeded in two steps. First, cost constraints on solar collectors were determined using reasonable economic projections. Second, engineering was applied only to those ideas which had hope of falling within those cost boundaries. The use of thin-film plastics appeared most attractive according to these criteria. The nature of the marketing and distribution network can be expected to have a strong impact on the final installed cost of the collector; the proposed design has characteristics which could make possible a reduced price markup.

  5. Corrugated cover plate for flat plate collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hollands, K. G. Terry (Elora, CA); Sibbitt, Bruce (Waterloo, CA)

    1978-01-01

    A flat plate radiant energy collector is providing having a transparent cover. The cover has a V-corrugated shape which reduces the amount of energy reflected by the cover away from the flat plate absorber of the collector.

  6. Flat-plate solar collectors utilizing polymeric film for high performance and very low cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Polymeric films are used in the construction of the absorber and window portions of a flat plate solar collector. The absorber heat exchanger consists of a channeled liquid envelope constructed using a polymeric film and metal foil laminate. In addition, the composite films and light frame monocoque construction contribute to very light weight and low cost. The use of high-performance polymers permits low-loss designs with high thermal performance. The construction concepts are consistent with high speed mass production and installation with manufacturing cost projections of $15/m/sup 2/. Tests performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and elsewhere indicate performance potential consistent with applications incorporating solar absorption air conditioning.

  7. Experimental analysis of thermal performance of flat plate and evacuated tube solar collectors in stationary standard and daily conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zambolin, E.; Del Col, D.

    2010-08-15

    New comparative tests on two different types of solar collectors are presented in this paper. A standard glazed flat plate collector and an evacuated tube collector are installed in parallel and tested at the same working conditions; the evacuated collector is a direct flow through type with external compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) reflectors. Efficiency in steady-state and quasi-dynamic conditions is measured following the standard and it is compared with the input/output curves measured for the whole day. The first purpose of the present work is the comparison of results in steady-state and quasi-dynamic test methods both for flat plate and evacuated tube collectors. Besides this, the objective is to characterize and to compare the daily energy performance of these two types of collectors. An effective mean for describing and analyzing the daily performance is the so called input/output diagram, in which the collected solar energy is plotted against the daily incident solar radiation. Test runs have been performed in several conditions to reproduce different conventional uses (hot water, space heating, solar cooling). Results are also presented in terms of daily efficiency versus daily average reduced temperature difference: this allows to represent the comparative characteristics of the two collectors when operating under variable conditions, especially with wide range of incidence angles. (author)

  8. Solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassidy, V.M.

    1981-11-01

    Practical applications of solar energy in commercial, industrial and institutional buildings are considered. Two main types of solar collectors are described: flat plate collectors and concentrating collectors. Efficiency of air and hydronic collectors among the flat plate types are compared. Also several concentrators are described, including their sun tracking mechanisms. Descriptions of some recent solar installations are presented and a list representing the cross section of solar collector manufacturers is furnished.

  9. Solar Radiation Data Manual for Flat-Plate and Concentrating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    S. Kabins, and Jon Leedholm Warren Gretz Mary Anne Dunlap For designers and engineers of solar energy-related systems, the Solar Radiation Data Manualfor Flat- Plate and...

  10. Solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1982-05-04

    The field of this invention is solar collectors, and more particularly, the invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame. A thin film window is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  11. Solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    The invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame. A thin film window is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  12. Structurally integrated steel solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Stanley W.

    1977-03-08

    Herein is disclosed a flat plate solar heat collector unit. The solar collector is integrated as a structural unit so that the collector also functions as the building roof. The functions of efficient heat collection, liquid coolant flow passages, roof structural support and building insulation are combined into one unit.

  13. Solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, William G. (Cutchogue, NY)

    1982-01-01

    The field of this invention is solar collectors, and more particularly, the invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame (14). A thin film window (42) is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber (24) of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers (24a, 24b) that are sealed perimetrically. The layers (24a, 24b) define a fluid-tight planar envelope (24c) of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber (24) is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  14. Thin polymer film collectors as a contribution to the solar industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1984-06-01

    Achievements made in research on thin polymer film solar flat-plate collectors using monocoque construction techniques are briefly discussed. The significance of these achievements for cost reduction of flat-plate collectors without compromising performance is briefly discussed.

  15. Tracking system for solar collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, B.

    1980-10-01

    A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

  16. Tracking system for solar collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, Barry L. (Golden, CO)

    1984-01-01

    A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

  17. Proceedings of the flat-plate solar array project research forum on photovoltaic metallization systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1983-11-15

    A Photovoltaic Metallization Research Forum, under the sponsorship of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Flat-Plate Solar Array Project and the US Department of Energy, was held March 16-18, 1983 at Pine Mountain, Georgia. The Forum consisted of five sessions, covering (1) the current status of metallization systems, (2) system design, (3) thick-film metallization, (4) advanced techniques and (5) future metallization challenges. Twenty-three papers were presented.

  18. Low-cost solar collectors using thin-film plastics absorbers and glazings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    The design, fabrication, performance, cost, and marketing of flat plate solar collectors using plastic absorbers and glazings are described. Manufacturing cost breakdowns are given for single-glazed and double-glazed collectors. (WHK)

  19. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on the design of flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1983-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array Project, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, has focused on advancing technologies relevant to the design and construction of megawatt-level central-station systems. Photovoltaic modules and arrays for flat-plate central-station or other large-scale electric power production facilities require the establishment of a technical base that resolves design issues and results in practical and cost-effective configurations. The Central Station Research Forum addressed design, qualification and maintenance issues related to central-station arrays derived from the engineering and operating experiences of early applications and parallel laboratory research activities. Technical issues were examined from the viewpoint of the utility engineer, architect-engineer and laboratory researcher. The forum included presentations on optimum source-circuit designs, module insulation design for high system voltages, array safety, structural interface design, measurements and array operation and maintenance. The Research Forum focused on current capabilities as well as design difficulties requiring additional technological thrusts and/or continued research emphasis. Session topic summaries highlighting major points during group discussions, identifying promising technical approaches or areas of future research, are presented.

  20. Solar energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brin, Raymond L.; Pace, Thomas L.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar energy collector comprising solar energy absorbing material within chamber having a transparent wall, solar energy being transmitted through the transparent wall, and efficiently absorbed by the absorbing material, for transfer to a heat transfer fluid. The solar energy absorbing material, of generally foraminous nature, absorbs and transmits the solar energy with improved efficiency.

  1. Solar collector array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  2. Internal absorber solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sletten, Carlyle J.; Herskovitz, Sheldon B.; Holt, F. S.; Sletten, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

  3. Efficiency of a solar collector with internal boiling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeper, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The behavior of a solar collector with a boiling fluid is analyzed to provide a simple algebraic model for future systems simulations, and to provide guidance for testing. The efficiency equation is developed in a form linear in the difference between inlet and saturation (boiling) temperatures, whereas the expression upon which ASHRAE Standard 109P is based utilizes the difference between inlet and ambient temperatures. The coefficient of the revised linear term is a weak function of collector parameters, weather, and subcooling of the working fluid. For a glazed flat-plate collector with metal absorber, the coefficient is effectively constant. Therefore, testing at multiple values of insolation and subcooling, as specified by ASHRAE 109P, should not be necessary for most collectors. The influences of collector properties and operating conditions on efficiency are examined.

  4. Design considerations for solar industrial process heat systems: nontracking and line focus collector technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1981-03-01

    Items are listed that should be considered in each aspect of the design of a solar industrial process heat system. The collector technologies covered are flat-plate, evacuated tube, and line focus. Qualitative design considerations are stressed rather than specific design recommendations. (LEW)

  5. Structurally integrated steel solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, S.W.

    1975-06-03

    Herein is disclosed a flate plate solar heat collector unit. The solar collector is integrated as a structural unit so that the collector also functions as the building roof. The functions of efficient heat collection, liquid coolant flow passages, roof structural support, and building insulation are combined into one unit.

  6. Integrated solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tchernev, Dimiter I. (9 Woodman Rd., Chestnut Hill, MA 02167)

    1985-01-01

    A solar collector having a copper panel in a contiguous space relationship with a condenser-evaporator heat exchanger located under the panel, the panel having a honeycomb-like structure on its interior defining individual cells which are filled with zeolite loaded, in its adsorbed condition, with 18 to 20% by weight of water. The interior of the panel and heat exchanger are maintained at subatmospheric pressure of about 0.1 to 1 psia. The panel and heat exchanger are insulated on their lateral sides and bottoms and on the top of the heat exchange. The panel has a black coating on its top which is exposed to and absorbs solar energy. Surrounding the insulation (which supports the panel) is an extruded aluminum framework which supports a pair of spaced-apart glass panels above the solar panel. Water in conduits from a system for heating or cooling or both is connected to flow into an inlet and discharge from outlet of a finned coil received within the heat exchanger. The collector panel provides heat during the day through desorption and condensing of water vapor from the heated solar panel in the heat exchanger and cools at night by the re-adsorption of the water vapor from the heat exchanger which lowers the absolute pressure within the system and cools the heat exchange coils by evaporation.

  7. Shenandoah parabolic dish solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of the Shenandoah, Georgia, Solar Total Energy System are to design, construct, test, and operate a solar energy system to obtain experience with large-scale hardware systems for future applications. This report describes the initial design and testing activities conducted to select and develop a collector that would serve the need of such a solar total energy system. The parabolic dish was selected as the collector most likely to maximize energy collection as required by this specific site. The fabrication, testing, and installation of the parabolic dish collector incorporating improvements identified during the development testing phase are described.

  8. SOLAR NANTENNA ELECTROMAGNETIC COLLECTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven D. Novack; Dale K. Kotter; Dennis Slafer; Patrick Pinhero

    2008-08-01

    This research explores a new efficient approach for producing electricity from the abundant energy of the sun. A nanoantenna electromagnetic collector (NEC) has been designed, prototyped, and tested. Proof of concept has been validated. The device targets mid-infrared wavelengths where conventional photovoltaic (PV) solar cells do not respond but is abundant in solar energy. The initial concept of designing NEC antennas was based on scaling of radio frequency antenna theory. This approach has proven unsuccessful by many due to not fully understanding and accounting for the optical behavior of materials in the THz region. Also until recent years the nanofabrication methods were not available to fabricate the optical antenna elements. We have addressed and overcome both technology barriers. Several factors were critical in successful implementation of NEC including: 1) frequency-dependent modeling of antenna elements, 2) selection of materials with proper THz properties and 3) novel manufacturing methods that enable economical large-scale manufacturing. The work represents an important step toward the ultimate realization of a low-cost device that will collect as well as convert this radiation into electricity, which will lead to a wide spectrum, high conversion efficiency, and low cost solution to complement conventional PVs.

  9. Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Module Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Module Basics Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Module Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:25pm Addthis Flat-plate photovoltaic (PV) modules are made of several components, including the front surface materials, encapsulant, rear surface, and frame. Front Surface Materials The front surface of a flat-plate PV module must have a high transmission in the wavelengths that can be used by the solar cells in the module. For example, for silicon solar cells, the top surface must have high transmission of light with

  10. Thin film solar energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aykan, Kamran (Monmouth Beach, NJ); Farrauto, Robert J. (Westfield, NJ); Jefferson, Clinton F. (Millburn, NJ); Lanam, Richard D. (Westfield, NJ)

    1983-11-22

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  11. Thin film solar energy collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrauto, R.J.; Myers, H.; Williams, J.C.

    1982-03-23

    A solar energy collector has improved absorptance and emissivity levels comprising: (1) a silver-copper oxide-rhodium oxide solar absorption film, (2) a cerium oxide interlayer and a substrate of quartz, silica glass or metal. The cerium oxide interlayer minimizes agglomeration of the metal particles, maintains a relatively low thermal emittance and improves overall stability.

  12. Transpired Solar Collector - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Transpired Solar Collector National Renewable Energy ...

  13. Sea shell solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabl, Ari

    1976-01-01

    A device is provided for the collection and concentration of solar radiant energy including a longitudinally extending structure having a wall for directing radiant energy. The wall is parabolic with its focus along a line parallel to an extreme ray of the sun at one solstice and with its axis along a line parallel to an extreme ray of the sun at the other solstice. An energy absorber is positioned to receive the solar energy thereby collected.

  14. Renewable energy technologies for federal facilities: Solar water heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    This sheet presents information on solar water heaters (passive and active), solar collectors (flat plate, evacuated tube, parabolic trough), lists opportunities for use of solar water heating, and describes what is required and the costs. Important terms are defined.

  15. Alternative energy sources. IV. Proceedings of the Fourth Miami International Conference, Miami Beach, FL, December 14-16, 1981. Volume 1 - Solar Collectors Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veziroglu, T.N.

    1982-01-01

    Aspects of solar measurements, solar collectors, selective coatings, thermal storage, phase change storage, and heat exchangers are discussed. The analysis and testing of flat-plate solar collectors are addressed. The development and uses of plastic collectors, a solar water heating system, solar energy collecting oil barrels, a glass collector panel, and a two-phase thermosyphon system are considered. Studies of stratification in thermal storage, of packed bed and fluidized bed systems, and of thermal storage in solar towers, in wall passive systems, and in reversible chemical reactions are reported. Phase change storage by direct contact processes and in residential solar space heating and cooling is examined, as are new materials and surface characteristics for solar heat storage. The use of R-11 and Freon-113 in heat exchange is discussed.

  16. Automated solar collector installation design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2014-08-26

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre-defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives.

  17. Next-Generation Solar Collectors for CSP

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This fact sheet on Next-Generation Collectors for CSP highlights a solar energy program awarded through the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D awards. The team is developing new solar collector base technologies for next-generation heliostats used in power tower systems. If successful, this project will result in a 50% reduction in solar field equipment cost and a 30% reduction in field installation cost compared to existing heliostat designs.

  18. Integrated solar thermal energy collector system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.D.

    1987-08-18

    A solar thermal collector system is described one of a class of devices which converts solar radiation into heat and transmits this heat to storage from whence it is utilized, comprising: an evacuated glass solar collector, the evacuated glass solar collector having a glass vacuum envelope, the upper portion of the glass vacuum envelope also serving as window to pass solar radiation, the evacuated glass solar collector having a multiplicity of substantially parallel linear adjacent concentrating troughs, each trough shaped and mirror surfaced so as concentrate solar radiation in the vacuum, the mirror surface inside the vacuum and the concentration approximately ideal, the multiplicity of substantially parallel linear adjacent troughs extending substantially over the entire length and width of the evacuated glass solar collector; a heat storage system, the heat storage system adjacent to the evacuated glass solar collector, the heat storage system having a heat storage tank which is thermally insulated, the heat storage tank containing a heat storage medium, and the heat storage system including means of removal of heat from the heat storage tank for utilization.

  19. OUT Success Stories: Solar Hot Water Technology

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Clyne, R.

    2000-08-01

    Solar hot water technology was made great strides in the past two decades. Every home, commercial building, and industrial facility requires hot water. DOE has helped to develop reliable and durable solar hot water systems. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used in residential hot water systems and can be integrated into the architectural design of the building.

  20. Centerless-drive solar collector system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, B. L.

    1985-12-24

    A parabolic-trough solar collector system is disclosed, with each collector driven to track the sun using a ring driven in centerless fashion. The parabolic troughs are made of laminated plywood or molded or formed of plastics or metals. The drive motor moves a flexible belt, i.e., chain or cable, which is routed about the drive ring on each collector. The motion of the cable moves all drive rings together to track the sun. A photodetector senses the position of the sun and provides the signal needed to drive the collectors in the correct direction.

  1. Tilt assembly for tracking solar collector assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Almy, Charles; Peurach, John; Sandler, Reuben

    2012-01-24

    A tilt assembly is used with a solar collector assembly of the type comprising a frame, supporting a solar collector, for movement about a tilt axis by pivoting a drive element between first and second orientations. The tilt assembly comprises a drive element coupler connected to the drive element and a driver, the driver comprising a drive frame, a drive arm and a drive arm driver. The drive arm is mounted to the drive frame for pivotal movement about a drive arm axis. Movement on the drive arm mimics movement of the drive element. Drive element couplers can extend in opposite directions from the outer portion of the drive arm, whereby the assembly can be used between adjacent solar collector assemblies in a row of solar collector assemblies.

  2. Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molnar, Attila; Charles, Ruth

    2014-07-31

    The intent of “Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP” program was to develop key technology elements for collectors in Phase 1 (Budget Period 1), design these elements in Phase 2 (Budget Period 2) and to deploy and test the final collector in Phase 3 (Budget Period 3). 3M and DOE mutually agreed to terminate the program at the end of Budget Period 1, primarily due to timeline issues. However, significant advancements were achieved in developing a next generation reflective material and panel that has the potential to significantly improve the efficiency of CSP systems.

  3. Solar Air Collectors: How Much Can You Save?

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Newburn, J. D.

    1985-04-01

    A collector efficiency curve is used to determine the output of solar air collectors based on the testing of seven solar collectors sold in Iowa. In this application the solar heater is being used as a space heater for a house. The performance of the solar air heater was analyzed and an 8% savings in energy was achieved over a one year period using two 4 x 8 collectors in a typical house.

  4. Solar collector with blackened layer facing insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brugger, R.

    1981-05-12

    A solar collector has a surface turned toward the sun and forms a heat exchange cell which has at least one wall composed of sheet aluminum. A tramsmitting layer of such a wall or the absorption layer thereof is a black layer of aluminum oxide containing Ag or Sn and formed unitarily on the aluminum sheet, e.g. By a chemical or electrochemical process.

  5. Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Balance of System Basics | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Balance of System Basics Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Balance of System Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:29pm Addthis Complete photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are ...

  6. Flat-Plate Photovoltaic System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System Basics Flat-Plate Photovoltaic System Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:03pm Addthis The most common photovoltaic (PV) array design uses flat-plate PV modules or panels. These ...

  7. ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR COLLECTORS |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR COLLECTORS ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR COLLECTORS This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. PDF icon csp_review_meeting_042313_molnar.pdf More Documents & Publications Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP - FY13 Q1 POLYMERIC MIRROR FILMS: DURABILITY IMPROVEMENT AND

  8. Fluidic Solar Collectors New Materials and Mechanisms for Heliostats |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Fluidic Solar Collectors New Materials and Mechanisms for Heliostats Fluidic Solar Collectors New Materials and Mechanisms for Heliostats This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. PDF icon csp_review_meeting_042513_madrone.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-010565: Categorical Exclusion Determination Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP - FY12 Q4 Next

  9. Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McConnell, Robert D. (Lakewood, CO); Vansant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  10. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, William G. (Cutchogue, NY)

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  11. Commercialization of BNL design solar collector in India: Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.; Mubayi, V.

    1985-09-01

    The present market for solar thermal energy technologies in India is almost completely restricted to solar hot water and, in a smaller number, hot air systems. A few projects utilizing concentrating systems for producing steam and/or thermally generated electric power have been carried out but these are restricted to the R and D stage. Similarly, a few projects employing solar space heating have also been done in remote, mountainous areas but these are also at the R and D level. Based on interviews with knowledgeable observers, including officials of DNES/STEC, state ''nodal'' agencies responsible for implementing solar energy projects in different states, and flat plate collector/hot water systems manufacturers, it has been roughly estimated that between 90 to 95% of the hot water systems installed or under installation have been funded by government programs. This includes systems funded under Central Government programs by DNES and systems installed under State Government projects. The remaining 5 to 10% of the installations are in the private sector and are believed to be mostly small, domestic systems (100 liters per day of hot water at 60/sup 0/C).

  12. Project Profile: Next-Generation Solar Collectors for CSP

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    3M Company, under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D FOA, is developing high-reflectivity films and high-rigidity structures that can replace current solar collectors that use heavy glass mirrors. Solar collectors represent the most expensive component of a CSP system.

  13. Solar collector apparatus having increased energy rejection during stagnation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Stanley W.

    1983-07-12

    The disclosure relates to an active solar collector having increased energy rejection during stagnation. The collector's glazing is brought into substantial contact with absorber during stagnation to increase re-emittance and thereby to maintain lower temperatures when the collector is not in operation.

  14. Solar collector apparatus having increased energy rejection during stagnation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, S.W.

    1981-01-16

    An active solar collector having increased energy rejection during stagnation is disclosed. The collector's glazing is brought into substantial contact with absorber during stagnation to increase re-emittance and thereby to maintan lower temperatures when the collector is not in operation.

  15. Solar Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 3:01pm Addthis Illustration of an active, closed loop solar water heater. A large, flat panel called a flat plate collector is connected to a tank called a solar storage/backup water heater by two pipes. One of these pipes runs through a cylindrical pump into the bottom of the tank, where it becomes a coil called a double-wall heat exchanger. This coil runs up through the tank and out again to the flat plate collector.

  16. Solar heat pump systems with refrigerant-filled collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Dell, M.P.; Beckman, W.A.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The heat pump system with a refrigerant-filled evaporator consists of a standard air-to-air or air-to-liquid heat pump that utilizes a solar panel as the evaporator. A combination of solar energy and convection heat transfer acts as the ''free'' energy absorbed by the collector/evaporator. In this paper, the seasonal performance of such systems for industrial applications will be presented. Performance of collector/evaporator heat pumps will be compared with alternative heat pump and solar systems. The benefits of covered and coverless collector/evaporators will be discussed. Results to date have shown that refrigerant-filled collector heat pumps do not perform as well as conventional heat pumps at small collector areas but have as much as 15% performance improvement over conventional heat pumps at an appropriate collector area.

  17. Performance of a double pass solar air collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramani, B.M.; Gupta, Akhilesh; Kumar, Ravi

    2010-11-15

    Double pass counter flow solar air collector with porous material in the second air passage is one of the important and attractive design improvement that has been proposed to improve the thermal performance. This paper presents theoretical and experimental analysis of double pass solar air collector with and without porous material. A mathematical model has been developed based on volumetric heat transfer coefficient. Effects of various parameters on the thermal performance and pressure drop characteristics have been discussed. Comparison of results reveals that the thermal efficiency of double pass solar air collector with porous absorbing material is 20-25% and 30-35% higher than that of double pass solar air collector without porous absorbing material and single pass collector respectively. (author)

  18. Alignment method for solar collector arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Driver, Jr., Richard B

    2012-10-23

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for establishing camera fixture location for aligning mirrors on a solar collector array (SCA) comprising multiple mirror modules. The method aligns the mirrors on a module by comparing the location of the receiver image in photographs with the predicted theoretical receiver image location. To accurately align an entire SCA, a common reference is used for all of the individual module images within the SCA. The improved method can use relative pixel location information in digital photographs along with alignment fixture inclinometer data to calculate relative locations of the fixture between modules. The absolute locations are determined by minimizing alignment asymmetry for the SCA. The method inherently aligns all of the mirrors in an SCA to the receiver, even with receiver position and module-to-module alignment errors.

  19. Thermal efficiency of single-pass solar air collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibrahim, Zamry; Ibarahim, Zahari; Yatim, Baharudin; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz

    2013-11-27

    Efficiency of a finned single-pass solar air collector was studied. This paper presents the experimental study to investigate the effect of solar radiation and mass flow rate on efficiency. The fins attached at the back of absorbing plate to improve the thermal efficiency of the system. The results show that the efficiency is increased proportional to solar radiation and mass flow rate. Efficiency of the collector archived steady state when reach to certain value or can be said the maximum performance.

  20. Solar collector panels having coated fibrous filling for fire inhibition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinert, C.P.

    1982-04-13

    Solar collector panels filled with porous fiber mats have the fibers coated with a pigmented intumescent paint which expands to partially fill the spaces between the fibers for retarding convective fluid flow through the fiber mat in the case of a fire in the structure with which the collector is associated.

  1. Theoretical and experimental investigation of heat pipe solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azad, E.

    2008-09-15

    Heat pipe solar collector was designed and constructed at IROST and its performance was measured on an outdoor test facility. The thermal behavior of a gravity assisted heat pipe solar collector was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A theoretical model based on effectiveness-NTU method was developed for evaluating the thermal efficiency of the collector, the inlet, outlet water temperatures and heat pipe temperature. Optimum value of evaporator length to condenser length ratio is also determined. The modelling predictions were validated using experimental data and it shows that there is a good concurrence between measured and predicted results. (author)

  2. Low cost bare-plate solar air collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maag, W.L.; Wenzler, C.J.; Rom, F.E.; VanArsdale, D.R.

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a low cost, bare-plate collector, determine its performance for a variety of climatic conditions, analyze the economics of this type of solar collector and evaluate specific applications. Two prototype collectors were designed, fabricated and installed into an instrumented test system. Tests were conducted for a period of five months. Results of the tests showed consistent operating efficiencies of 60% or greater with air preheat temperature uses up to 20/sup 0/F for one of the prototypes. The economic analyses indicated that an installed cost of between $5 and $10 per square foot would make this type of solar system economically viable. For the materials of construction and the type of fabrication and installation perceived, these costs for the bare-plate solar collector are believed to be attainable. Specific applications for preheating ventilation air for schools were evaluated and judged to be economically viable.

  3. NREL: Dynamic Maps, GIS Data, and Analysis Tools - Solar Maps

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MapSearch Searching for maps has never been easier. A screen capture of the MapSearch Map view option Solar Maps Solar maps provide monthly average daily total solar resource information on grid cells. The insolation values represent the resource available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal to equal to the latitude of the collector location. This is typical practice for PV system installation, although other orientations are

  4. Performance evaluation of a low-temperature solar Rankine cycle system utilizing R245fa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, X.D.; Zhao, L.; Wang, J.L.; Zhang, W.Z.; Zhao, X.Z.; Wu, W.

    2010-03-15

    A low-temperature solar Rankine system utilizing R245fa as the working fluid is proposed and an experimental system is designed, constructed and tested. Both the evacuated solar collectors and the flat plate solar collectors are used in the experimental system; meanwhile, a rolling-piston R245fa expander is also mounted in the system. The new designed R245fa expander works stably in the experiment, with an average expansion power output of 1.73 kW and an average isentropic efficiency of 45.2%. The overall power generation efficiency estimated is 4.2%, when the evacuated solar collector is utilized in the system, and with the condition of flat plate solar collector, it is about 3.2%. The experimental results show that using R245fa as working fluid in the low-temperature solar power Rankine cycle system is feasible and the performance is acceptable. (author)

  5. Research and Development of a Low Cost Solar Collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ansari, Asif; Philip, Lee; Thouppuarachchi, Chirath

    2012-08-01

    This is a Final Technical Report on the Research and Development completed towards the development of a Low Cost Solar Collector conducted under the DOE cost-sharing award EE-0003591. The objective of this project was to develop a new class of solar concentrators with geometries and manufacturability that could significantly reduce the fully installed cost of the solar collector field for concentrated solar thermal power plants. The goal of the project was to achieve an aggressive cost target of $170/m2, a reduction of up to 50% in the total installed cost of a solar collector field as measured against the current industry benchmark of a conventional parabolic trough. The project plan, and the detailed activities conducted under the scope of the DOE Award project addressed all major drivers that affect solar collector costs. In addition to costs, the study also focused on evaluating technical performance of new collector architectures and compared them to the performance of the industry benchmark parabolic trough. The most notable accomplishment of this DOE award was the delivery of a full-scale integrated design, manufacturing and field installation solution for a new class of solar collector architecture which has been classified as the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector (BPFC) and may be considered as a viable alternative to the conventional parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collectors. This was in part accomplished through the design and development, all the way through fabrication and test validation of a new class of Linear Planar Fresnel Collector architecture. This architecture offers a number of key differentiating features which include a planar light-weight frame geometry with small mass-manufacturable elements utilizing flat mirror sections. The designs shows significant promise in reducing the material costs, fabrication costs, shipping costs, and on-site field installation costs compared to the benchmark parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collector. The noteworthy design features of the BPFC architecture include the use of relatively cheaper flat mirrors and a design which allows the mirror support beam sections to act as load-bearing structural elements resulting in more than a 36% reduction in the overall structural weight compared to an optimized parabolic trough. Also, it was shown that the utilization of small mass-produced elements significantly lowers mass-production and logistics costs that can more quickly deliver economies of scale, even for smaller installations while also reducing shipping and installation costs. Moreover, unlike the traditional Fresnel trough the BPFC architecture does not require complex articulating drive mechanisms but instead utilizes a standard parabolic trough hydraulic drive mechanism. In addition to the development of the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector, an optimized conventional space-frame type parabolic trough was also designed, built, analyzed and field-tested during the first phase of this award. The design of the conventional space-frame parabolic collector was refined with extensive FEA and CFD analysis to reduce material costs and re-designed for simpler fabrication and more accurate lower-cost field assembly. This optimized parabolic trough represented an improvement over the state-of-the art of the traditional parabolic trough architecture and also served as a more rigorous and less subjective benchmark that was used for comparison of new candidate design architectures. The results of the expanded 1st phase of the DOE award project showed that both the Optimized Parabolic Trough and the new Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector design concepts failed to meet the primary objectives for the project of achieving a 50% cost reduction from the industry reference total installed cost of $350/m2. Results showed that the BPFC came in at projected total installed cost of $237/m2 representing a 32% savings compared to the industry benchmark conventional parabolic trough. And the cost reduction obtained by the Optimized Parabolic Trough compared to the

  6. Transpired Solar Collectors: Office of Power Technologies (OPT) Success Stories Series Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2000-08-01

    Transpired solar collectors are a reliable, low-cost way to preheat ventilation air in commercial buildings.

  7. Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

  8. Lightweight diaphragm mirror module system for solar collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, Barry L. (Golden, CO)

    1985-01-01

    A mirror module system is provided for accurately focusing solar radiation on a point or a line as defined by an array of solar collectors. Each mirror module includes a flexible membrane stretched over a frame in a manner similar to that of a drum or a trampoline and further includes a silvered glass or plastic mirror for forming an optical reflecting surface. The configuration of the optical reflecting surface is variably adjustable to provide for the accurate focusing of the solar energy on a given collector array, e.g., a point or a linear array arrangement. The flexible mirror-membrane combination is lightweight to facilitate installation and reduce system cost yet structurally strong enough to provide for the precise focusing of the incident solar radiation in a semi-rigid reflector system in which unwanted reflector displacement is minimized.

  9. Lightweight diaphragm mirror module system for solar collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    A mirror module system is provided for accurately focusing solar radiation on a point or a line as defined by an array of solar collectors. Each mirror module includes a flexible membrane stretched over a frame in a manner similar to that of a drum or a trampoline and further includes a silvered glass or plastic mirror for forming an optical reflecting surface. The configuration of the optical reflecting surface is variably adjustable to provide for the accurate focusing of the solar energy on a given collector array, e.g., a point or a linear array arrangement. The flexible mirror-membrane combination is lightweight to facilitate installation and reduce system cost yet structurally strong enough to provide for the precise focusing of the incident solar radiation in a semi-rigid reflector system in which unwanted reflector displacement is minimized.

  10. Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP - FY13 Q1 | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP - FY13 Q1 Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP - FY13 Q1 This document summarizes the progress of this 3M project, funded by SunShot, for the first quarter of fiscal year 2013. PDF icon progress_report_sunshot_3m_fy13_q1.pdf More Documents & Publications Next-Generation Solar Collectors for CSP - FY13 Q2 Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP - FY12 Q4 ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR COLLECTORS

  11. Method Of Making Solar Collectors By In-Situ Encapsulation Of Solar Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carrie, Peter J.; Chen, Kingsley D. D.

    2000-10-24

    A method of making solar collectors by encapsulating photovoltaic cells within a base of an elongated solar collector wherein heat and pressure are applied to the cells in-situ, after an encapsulating material has been applied. A tool is fashioned having a bladder expandable under gas pressure, filling a region of the collector where the cells are mounted. At the same time, negative pressure is applied outside of the bladder, enhancing its expansion. The bladder presses against a platen which contacts the encapsulated cells, causing outgassing of the encapsulant, while heat cures the encapsulant. After curing, the bladder is deflated and the tool may be removed from the collector and base and reflective panels put into place, if not already there, thereby allowing the solar collector to be ready for use.

  12. Review of state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes. Task 1 of solar collector studies for solar heating and cooling applications. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, J E; Diegle, R B

    1980-04-11

    The state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes is reviewed, and Task 1 of a current research program on use of aqueous heat transfer fluids for solar heating and cooling is summarized. The review of available published literature has indicated that lack of quantitative information exists relative to collector corrosion at the present time, particularly for the higher temperature applications of solar heating and cooling compared to domestic water heating. Solar collector systems are reviewed from the corrosion/service life viewpoint, with emphasis on various applications, collector design, heat transfer fluids, and freeze protection methods. Available information (mostly qualitative) on collector corrosion technology is reviewed to indicate potential corrosion problem areas and corrosion prevention practices. Sources of limited quantitative data that are reviewed are current solar applications, research programs on collector corrosion, and pertinent experience in related applications of automotive cooling and non-solar heating and cooling. A data bank was developed to catalog corrosion information. Appendix A of this report is a bibliography of the data bank, with abstracts reproduced from presently available literature accessions (about 220). This report is presented as a descriptive summary of information that is contained in the data bank.

  13. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, K.C.

    1992-12-08

    This invention is a novel solar tracking mechanism incorporating a number of practical features that give it superior environmental resilience and exceptional tracking accuracy. The mechanism comprises a lightweight space-frame assembly supporting an array of point-focus Fresnel lenses in a two-axis tracking structure. The system is enclosed under a glass cover which isolates it from environmental exposure and enhances tracking accuracy by eliminating wind loading. Tracking accuracy is also enhanced by the system's broad-based tracking support. The system's primary intended application would be to focus highly concentrated sunlight into optical fibers for transmission to core building illumination zones, and the system may also have potential for photovoltaic or photothermal solar energy conversion. 16 figs.

  14. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Kenneth C. (201 W. California Ave. #705, Sunnyvale, CA 94086)

    1992-01-01

    This invention is a novel solar tracking mechanism incorporating a number of practical features that give it superior environmental resilience and exceptional tracking accuracy. The mechanism comprises a lightweight space-frame assembly supporting an array of point-focus Fresnel lenses in a two-axis tracking structure. The system is enclosed under a glass cover which isolates it from environmental exposure and enhances tracking accuracy by eliminating wind loading. Tracking accuracy is also enhanced by the system's broad-based tracking support. The system's primary intended application would be to focus highly concentrated sunlight into optical fibers for transmission to core building illumination zones, and the system may also have potential for photovoltaic or photothermal solar energy conversion.

  15. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Kenneth C. (201 W. California Ave., #401, Sunnyvale, CA 94086)

    1990-01-01

    This invention is a novel solar tracking mechanism incorporating a number of practical features that give it superior environmental resilience and exceptional tracking accuracy. The mechanism comprises a lightweight space-frame assembly supporting an array of point-focus Fresnel lenses in a two-axis tracking structure. The system is enclosed under a glass cover which isolates it from environmental exposure and enhances tracking accuracy by eliminating wind loading. Tracking accuracy is also enhanced by the system's broad-based tracking support. The system's primary intended application would be to focus highly concentrated sunlight into optical fibers for transmission to core building illumination zones, and the system may also have potential for photovoltaic or photothermal solar energy conversion.

  16. Thin-film absorber for a solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1982-02-09

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  17. Attaching solar collectors to a structural framework utilizing a flexible clip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kruse, John S

    2014-03-25

    Methods and apparatuses described herein provide for the attachment of solar collectors to a structural framework in a solar array assembly. A flexible clip is attached to either end of each solar collector and utilized to attach the solar collector to the structural framework. The solar collectors are positioned to allow a member of the framework to engage a pair of flexible clips attached to adjacent solar collectors during assembly of the solar array. Each flexible clip may have multiple frame-engaging portions, each with a flange on one end to cause the flexible clip to deflect inward when engaged by the framework member during assembly and to guide each of the frame-engaging portions into contact with a surface of the framework member for attachment.

  18. Use of economical off-shelf vacuumware bottles (hot soup type) as solar evacuated tubes. Final technical report, 1 January 1981-31 July 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novinger, H.E.

    1982-08-01

    Three air type solar collector modules using vacuum insulated bottles and three different absorbers were designed, built, and simultaneously tested for comparison of performance. One absorber was flat black paint on cylinders, one was black chrome on copper cylinders and one was ordinary dark brown house insulation known as rock wool. A liquid type solar collector was also designed, built, and tested, which employed similar components of the air type collectors except for painted cans inserted in the short vacuumware bottles serving as the evacuated-tubes. Similar tests were made of flat plate type solar collectors using similar absorbers. The results of these tests are presented.

  19. Fuel cell current collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Murray (Newington, CT); Bonk, Stanley P. (West Willington, CT); Maricle, Donald L. (Glastonbury, CT); Abrams, Martin (Glastonbury, CT)

    1991-01-01

    A fuel cell has a current collector plate (22) located between an electrode (20) and a separate plate (25). The collector plate has a plurality of arches (26, 28) deformed from a single flat plate in a checkerboard pattern. The arches are of sufficient height (30) to provide sufficient reactant flow area. Each arch is formed with sufficient stiffness to accept compressive load and sufficient resiliently to distribute the load and maintain electrical contact.

  20. Project Profile: Low-Cost Solar Thermal Collector | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Solar Thermal Collector Project Profile: Low-Cost Solar Thermal Collector SunTrough Energy logo SunTrough, under the Baseload CSP FOA, is developing a new class of solar concentrators with geometries and manufacturability that can significantly reduce the fully installed cost of the solar collector field. Approach Rendering of an L-shaped metal frame faced to the sky. SunTrough Energy is working to develop a single-axis tracking, line-focus solar concentrator and a pilot manufacturing

  1. Cable tensioned membrane solar collector module with variable tension control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Lawrence M. (Lakewood, CO)

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar collector comprising a membrane for concentrating sunlight, a plurality of elongated structural members for suspending the membrane member thereon, and a plurality of control members for adjustably tensioning the membrane member, as well as for controlling a focus produced by the membrane members. Each control member is disposed at a different corresponding one of the plurality of structural members. The collector also comprises an elongated flexible tensioning member, which serves to stretch the membrane member and to thereafter hold it in tension, and a plurality of sleeve members, which serve to provide the membrane member with a desired surface contour during tensioning of the membrane member. The tensioning member is coupled to the structural members such that the tensioning member is adjustably tensioned through the structural members. The tensioning member is also coupled to the membrane member through the sleeve members such that the sleeve members uniformly and symmetrically stretch the membrane member upon applying tension to the tensioning member with the control members.

  2. Cable tensioned membrane solar collector module with variable tension control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, L.M.

    1984-01-09

    Disclosed is a solar collector comprising a membrane member for concentrating sunlight, a plurality of elongated structural members for suspending the membrane member thereon, and a plurality of control members for adjustably tensioning the membrane member, as well as for controlling a focus produced by the membrane members. Each control member is disposed at a different corresponding one of the plurality of structural members. The collector also comprises an elongated flexible tensioning member, which serves to stretch the membrane member and to thereafter hold it in tension, and a plurality of sleeve members which serve to provide the membrane member with a desired surface contour during tensioning of the membrane member. The tensioning member is coupled to the structural members such that the tensioning member is adjustably tensioned through the structural members. The tensioning member is also coupled to the membrane member through the sleeve members such that the sleeve members uniformly and symmetrically stretch the membrane member upon applying tension to the tensioning member with the control members.

  3. Slope Error Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed an optical measurement tool for parabolic solar collectors that measures the combined errors due to absorber misalignment and reflector slope error. The combined absorber alignment and reflector slope errors are measured using a digital camera to photograph the reflected image of the absorber in the collector. Previous work using the image of the reflection of the absorber finds the reflector slope errors from the reflection of the absorber and an independent measurement of the absorber location. The accuracy of the reflector slope error measurement is thus dependent on the accuracy of the absorber location measurement. By measuring the combined reflector-absorber errors, the uncertainty in the absorber location measurement is eliminated. The related performance merit, the intercept factor, depends on the combined effects of the absorber alignment and reflector slope errors. Measuring the combined effect provides a simpler measurement and a more accurate input to the intercept factor estimate. The minimal equipment and setup required for this measurement technique make it ideal for field measurements.

  4. System Advisor Model: Flat Plate Photovoltaic Performance Modeling Validation Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, J.; Whitmore, J.; Kaffine, L.; Blair, N.; Dobos, A. P.

    2013-12-01

    The System Advisor Model (SAM) is a free software tool that performs detailed analysis of both system performance and system financing for a variety of renewable energy technologies. This report provides detailed validation of the SAM flat plate photovoltaic performance model by comparing SAM-modeled PV system generation data to actual measured production data for nine PV systems ranging from 75 kW to greater than 25 MW in size. The results show strong agreement between SAM predictions and field data, with annualized prediction error below 3% for all fixed tilt cases and below 8% for all one axis tracked cases. The analysis concludes that snow cover and system outages are the primary sources of disagreement, and other deviations resulting from seasonal biases in the irradiation models and one axis tracking issues are discussed in detail.

  5. Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-08

    The transpired solar collector was installed on NREL's Waste handling Facility (WHF) in 1990 to preheat ventilation air. The electrically heated WHF was an ideal candidate for the this technology - requiring a ventilation rate of 3,000 cubic feet per meter to maintain safe indoor conditions.

  6. Focusing solar collector and method for manufacturing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Lawrence M. (Lakewood, CO)

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar collector comprising an annular-shaped frame and a composite membrane member for concentrating and focusing sun radiation. The composite membrane member is supported and tensioned by the frame and consists of first and second differentially pretensioned sheet members which are integrally bonded to one another. The frame and one of the two sheet members are adapted to allow tensions in both of the sheets to be adjusted. Subsequent to bonding and upon adjusting a tension in one of the two sheet members, both of the two bonded sheet members react with one another so as to cause the composite membrane member to have a contoured configuration, which enables the membrane member to be focusable. Additionally, adjusting the tension in one of the two sheet members provides a reciprocal adjustment in a focus provided by the membrane member.

  7. Focusing solar collector and method for manufacturing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar collector comprising an annular-shaped frame and a composite membrane member for concentrating and focusing sun radiation. The composite membrane member is supported and tensioned by the frame and consists of first and second differentially pretensioned sheet members which are integrally bonded to one another. The frame and one of the two sheet members are adapted to allow tensions in both of the two sheets to be adjusted. Subsequent to bonding and upon adjusting a tension in one of the two sheet members, both of the two bonded sheet members react with one another so as to cause the composite membrane member to have a contoured configuration, which enables the membrane member to be focusable. Additionally, adjusting the tension in one of the two sheet members provides a reciprocal adjustment in a focus provided by the membrane member.

  8. Development of polymer film solar collectors: a status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.; Andrews, J.W.

    1982-08-01

    Solar energy collector panels using polymer film and laminate technology have been developed which demonstrate low cost and high thermal performance for residential and commercial applications. This device uses common water in the absorber/heat exchanger which is constructed with polymer film adhesively laminated to aluminum foil as the outer surfaces. Stressed polymer films are also used for the outer window and back surface of the panel forming a high strength structural composite. Rigid polymer foam complements the design by contributing insulation and structural definition. This design has resulted in very low weight (3.5 kg/m/sup 2/), potentially very low manufacturing cost (approx. $11/m/sup 2/), and high thermal performance. The development of polymer materials for this technology will be a key to early commercial success. This report summarizes the current status of development and discusses the information gained from system tests are summarized.

  9. Solar heating and cooling system installed at RKL Controls Company, Lumberton, New Jersey. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-03-01

    Solar heating and cooling of a 40,000 square foot manufacturing building, sales offices and the solar computer control center/display room are described. Information on system description, test data, major problems and resolutions, performance, operation and maintenance manual, manufacturer's literature and as-built drawings are provided also. The solar system is composed of 6000 square feet of Sunworks double glazed flat plate collectors, external above ground storage subsystem, controls, ARKLA absorption chiller, heat recovery and a cooling tower.

  10. Open cycle liquid desiccant dehumidifier and hybrid solar/electric absorption refrigeration system. Annual report, January 1993--December 1993. Calendar year 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimmo, B.G.; Thornbloom, M.D.

    1995-04-01

    This annual report presents work performed during calendar year 1993 by the Florida Solar Energy Center under contract to the US Department of Energy. Two distinctively different solar powered indoor climate control systems were analyzed: the open cycle liquid desiccant dehumidifier, and an improved efficiency absorption system which may be fired by flat plate solar collectors. Both tasks represent new directions relative to prior FSEC research in Solar Cooling and Dehumidification.

  11. Wind Tunnel Tests of Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors: March 2001--August 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosoya, N.; Peterka, J. A.; Gee, R. C.; Kearney, D.

    2008-05-01

    Conducted extensive wind-tunnel tests on parabolic trough solar collectors to determine practical wind loads applicable to structural design for stress and deformation, and local component design for concentrator reflectors.

  12. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Collector R&D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    performance issues with existing parabolic trough collectors and to ensure that lower-cost designs maintain high performance. NREL is also working on innovative, low-cost...

  13. Low cost solar energy collection for cooling applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1981-06-01

    Solar energy collector designs utilizing thinfilm polymeric materials in the absorber and glazing are now under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The objective is dramatic cost reduction consistent with acceptable performance and life. Originally intended for low temperature applications (< 100/sup 0/F), these collectors now appear capable of high temperature applications including desiccant and absorption cooling (150/sup 0/ to 200/sup 0/ F). The performance and economics of the thin-film collector are compared with those of conventional flat-plate designs in cooling applications.

  14. Low-cost evacuated-tube solar collector. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beecher, D. T.

    1981-02-10

    A prototype design for an evacuated tube air cooled solar collector module has been completed. A product cost study, based on the production of 60,000 of the prototype modules per year (approx. 1,000,000 square feet annually), estimates that the module as shipped would have a cost at inventory of $7.09 to $7.40 per square foot of aperture. Computer programs were developed to predict the optical and thermal performance of the module. Antireflective coatings (porous aluminum oxide) which could be formed by spraying or dipping were demonstrated but degraded more rapidly when exposed to a high humidity ambient than acid etched films. A selective black chromium oxide multi-layered graded film was vapor deposited which had an absorptivity of about 0.9 and an emissivity of 0.03. When the film was heated to temperatures of 400/sup 0/C in a gettered vacuum for as little as 24 hours, however, irreversible changes took place both between and within coating layers which resulted in ..cap alpha.. decreasing to about 0.73 and epsilon increasing to 0.14. The product cost studies indicate that module design changes are warranted to reduce product cost prior to tooling for production.

  15. Self-Cleaning CSP Collectors, Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Boston University is one of the 2012 SunShot CSP R&D awardees for their advanced collectors. This fact sheet explains the motivation, description, and impact of the project.

  16. Means of increasing efficiency of CPC solar energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chao, B.T.; Rabl, A.

    1975-06-27

    A device is provided for improving the thermal efficiency of a cylindrical radiant energy collector. A channel is placed next to and in close proximity to the nonreflective side of an energy reflective wall of a cylindrical collector. A coolant is piped through the channel and removes a portion of the nonreflective energy incident on the wall which is absorbed by the wall. The energy transferred to the coolant may be utilized in a useful manner.

  17. Means of increasing efficiency of CPC solar energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chao, Bei Tse; Rabl, Ari

    1977-02-15

    A device is provided for improving the thermal efficiency of a cylindrical radiant energy collector. A channel is placed next to and in close proximity to the nonreflective side of an energy reflective wall of a cylindrical collector. A coolant is piped through the channel and removes a portion of the nonreflective energy incident on the wall which is absorbed by the wall. The energy transferred to the coolant may be utilized in a useful manner.

  18. Compendium of information on identification and testing of materials for plastic solar thermal collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGinniss, V.D.; Sliemers, F.A.; Landstrom, D.K.; Talbert, S.G.

    1980-07-31

    This report is intended to organize and summarize prior and current literature concerning the weathering, aging, durability, degradation, and testing methodologies as applied to materials for plastic solar thermal collectors. Topics covered include (1) rate of aging of polymeric materials; (2) environmental factors affecting performance; (3) evaluation and prediction of service life; (4) measurement of physical and chemical properties; (5) discussion of evaluation techniques and specific instrumentation; (6) degradation reactions and mechanisms; (7) weathering of specific polymeric materials; and (8) exposure testing methodology. Major emphasis has been placed on defining the current state of the art in plastics degradation and on identifying information that can be utilized in applying appropriate and effective aging tests for use in projecting service life of plastic solar thermal collectors. This information will also be of value where polymeric components are utilized in the construction of conventional solar collectors or any application where plastic degradation and weathering are prime factors in material selection.

  19. Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, Craig B. (Boulder, CO); Kutscher, Charles F. (Golden, CO); Gawlik, Keith M. (Boulder, CO)

    1997-01-01

    An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprising an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution.

  20. Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, C.B.; Kutscher, C.F.; Gawlik, K.M.

    1997-12-02

    An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprises an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution. 3 figs.

  1. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaffe, L.D.

    1983-08-15

    In parabolic dish solar collectors, walk-off of the spot of concentrated sunlight can be a hazard if a malfunction causes the concentration to stop following the sun. Therefore, a test program was carried out to evaluate the behavior of various ceramics, metals, and polymers under solar irradiation of about 7000 kW/m/sup 2/ (peak) for 15 minutes. The only materials that did not slump or shatter were two grades of medium-grain extruded graphite. High-purity, slip-cast silica might be satisfactory at somewhat lower flux. Oxidation of the graphite appeared acceptable during tests simulating walk-off, acquisition (2000 cycles on/off sun), and spillage (continuous on-sun operation).

  2. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  3. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-06-29

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  4. Automated solar collector installation design including ability to define heterogeneous design preferences

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2014-04-29

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre -defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives. Embodiments may also include definition of one or more design apertures, each of which may correspond to boundaries in which solar collector layouts should comply with distinct sets of user-defined design preferences. Distinct apertures may provide heterogeneous regions of collector layout according to the user-defined design preferences.

  5. Automated solar collector installation design including ability to define heterogeneous design preferences

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2013-01-08

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre-defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives. Embodiments may also include definition of one or more design apertures, each of which may correspond to boundaries in which solar collector layouts should comply with distinct sets of user-defined design preferences. Distinct apertures may provide heterogeneous regions of collector layout according to the user-defined design preferences.

  6. Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-09-01

    The transpired solar collector was installed on NREL's Waste handling Facility (WHF) in 1990 to preheat ventilation air. The electrically heated WHF was an ideal candidate for the this technology - requiring a ventilation rate of 3,000 cubic feet per meter to maintain safe indoor conditions.

  7. Low cost, bare plate solar air collector. Semi-annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A low cost, bare plate solar collector that is specifically designed to preheat ambient air with solar energy is discussed. Two prototype solar collector test systems have been designed, fabricated and assembled. Each system has been instrumented to provide instantaneous and average thermal performance data by means of a computerized data logger system. This data logger system is currently being made operational. Data collection is scheduled to begin March 1, 1980 and continue until the project completion date of June 17, 1980. Some preliminary test data have been obtained for both prototype systems. The results showed that ambient air was preheated between 5/sup 0/F and 10/sup 0/F with the systems achieving a thermal performance of between 15% and 30% efficiency.

  8. Copper corrosion and its relationship to solar collectors:a compendium.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menicucci, David F.; Mahoney, Alan Roderick

    2007-07-01

    Copper has many fine qualities that make it a useful material. It is highly conductive of both heat and electricity, is ductile and workable, and reasonably resistant to corrosion. Because of these advantages, the solar water heating industry has been using it since the mid-1970s as the material of choice for collectors, the fundamental component of a solar water heating system. In most cases copper has performed flawlessly, but in some situations it has been known to fail. Pitting corrosion is the usual failure mode, but erosion can also occur. In 2000 Sandia National Laboratories and the Copper Development Association were asked to analyze the appearance of pin-hole leaks in solar collector units installed in a housing development in Arizona, and in 2002 Sandia analyzed a pitting corrosion event that destroyed a collector system at Camp Pendleton. This report includes copies of the reports and accounts of these corrosion failures, and provides a bibliography with references to many papers and articles that might be of benefit to the solar community. It consolidates in a single source information that has been accumulated at Sandia relative to copper corrosion, especially as it relates to solar water heaters.

  9. Internal (Annular) and Compressible External (Flat Plate) Turbulent Flow Heat Transfer Correlations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dechant, Lawrence; Smith, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Here we provide a discussion regarding the applicability of a family of traditional heat transfer correlation based models for several (unit level) heat transfer problems associated with flight heat transfer estimates and internal flow heat transfer associated with an experimental simulation design (Dobranich 2014). Variability between semi-empirical free-flight models suggests relative differences for heat transfer coefficients on the order of 10%, while the internal annular flow behavior is larger with differences on the order of 20%. We emphasize that these expressions are strictly valid only for the geometries they have been derived for e.g. the fully developed annular flow or simple external flow problems. Though, the application of flat plate skin friction estimate to cylindrical bodies is a traditional procedure to estimate skin friction and heat transfer, an over-prediction bias is often observed using these approximations for missile type bodies. As a correction for this over-estimate trend, we discuss a simple scaling reduction factor for flat plate turbulent skin friction and heat transfer solutions (correlations) applied to blunt bodies of revolution at zero angle of attack. The method estimates the ratio between axisymmetric and 2-d stagnation point heat transfer skin friction and Stanton number solution expressions for sub-turbulent Reynolds numbers %3C1x10 4 . This factor is assumed to also directly influence the flat plate results applied to the cylindrical portion of the flow and the flat plate correlations are modified by

  10. Finite element modeling of concentrating solar collectors for evauation of gravity loads, bending, and optical characterization.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, Joshua M.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2010-04-01

    Understanding the effects of gravity and wind loads on concentrating solar power (CSP) collectors is critical for performance calculations and developing more accurate alignment procedures and techniques. This paper presents a rigorous finite-element model of a parabolic trough collector that is used to determine the impact of gravity loads on bending and displacements of the mirror facets and support structure. The geometry of the LUZ LS-2 parabolic trough collector was modeled using SolidWorks, and gravity-induced loading and displacements were simulated in SolidWorks Simulation. The model of the trough collector was evaluated in two positions: the 90{sup o} position (mirrors facing upward) and the 0{sup o} position (mirrors facing horizontally). The slope errors of the mirror facet reflective surfaces were found by evaluating simulated angular displacements of node-connected segments along the mirror surface. The ideal (undeformed) shape of the mirror was compared to the shape of the deformed mirror after gravity loading. Also, slope errors were obtained by comparing the deformed shapes between the 90{sup o} and 0{sup o} positions. The slope errors resulting from comparison between the deformed vs. undeformed shape were as high as {approx}2 mrad, depending on the location of the mirror facet on the collector. The slope errors resulting from a change in orientation of the trough from the 90{sup o} position to the 0{sup o} position with gravity loading were as high as {approx}3 mrad, depending on the location of the facet.

  11. Solar space heating installed at Kansas City, Kansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    The solar energy system was constructed with the new 48,800 square feet warehouse to heat the warehouse area of about 39,000 square feet while the auxiliary energy system heats the office area of about 9800 square feet. The building is divided into 20 equal units, and each has its own solar system. The modular design permits the flexibility of combining multiple units to form offices or warehouses of various size floor areas as required by a tenant. Each unit has 20 collectors which are mounted in a single row. The collectors, manufactured by Solaron Corporation, are double glazed flat plate collectors with a gross area of 7800 ft/sup 2/. Air is heated either through the collectors or by the electric resistance duct coils. No freeze protection or storage is required for this system. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  12. Fluidic Solar Collectors New Materials and Mechanisms for Heliostats...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. PDF icon cspreviewmeeting042513...

  13. Evaluating the Performance and Economics of Transpired Solar Collectors for Commercial Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Deru, M.; Slayzak, S.; Norton, P.; Barker, G.; McClendon, J,

    2008-07-01

    Using transpired solar collectors to preheat ventilation air has recently become recognized as an economic alternative for integrating renewable energy into commercial buildings in heating climates. The collectors have relatively low installed costs and operate on simple principles. Theory and performance testing have shown that solar collection efficiency can exceed 70% of incident solar. However, implementation and current absorber designs have adversely affected the efficiency and associated economics from this initial analysis. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has actively studied this technology and monitored performance at several installations. A calibrated model that uses typical meteorological weather data to determine absorber plate efficiency resulted from this work. With this model, an economic analysis across heating climates was done to show the effects of collector size, tilt, azimuth, and absorptivity. The analysis relates the internal rate of return of a system based on the cost of the installed absorber area. In general, colder and higher latitude climates return a higher rate of return because the heating season extends into months with good solar resource.

  14. Optical performance of the TBC-2 solar collector before and after the 1993 mirror lustering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houser, R.; Strachan, J.

    1995-02-01

    In 1993, the mirror facets of one of Sandia`s point-focusing solar collectors, the Test Bed Concentrator {number_sign}2 (TBC-2), were reconditioned. The concentrator`s optical performance was evaluated before and after this operation. This report summarizes and compares the results of these tests. The tests demonstrated that the concentrator`s total power and peak flux were increased while the overall flux distribution in the focal plane remained qualitatively the same.

  15. Development of low-cost polymer film solar collectors. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J.W.; Le Doux, P.; Metz, P.D.; Wilhelm, W.G.

    1983-09-01

    This report covers work performed on the Brookhaven National Laboratory polymer film collector project during the period October 1, 1981 to November 1, 1982, in four major areas of endeavor: materials, engineering, economics, and testing. It also describes the search for solutions to the major problem - delamination of the polymer and metal sheets in the absorber - which occurred during the severe conditions associated with solar cooling applications. Finally, it outlines the plan of work for fiscal year 1983.

  16. Performance of a double-effect absorption chiller driven by ICPC solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergquam, J.B.; Duff, W.S.; Brezner, J.M.; Henkel, E.T.; Winston, R.; O'Gallagher, J.; Sethi, P.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents experimental data and analytical results describing the performance of a 70 kW (20 ton), water-fired, double-effect absorption chiller. The chiller is driven by a 106 m{sup 2} array of integrated compound parabolic concentrator (ICPC) solar collectors. For this project, an existing gas-fired chiller was modified to operate on hot water. The water was heated by an array of 336 evacuated ICPC tubes. Each tube has an effective area of 0.317 m{sup 2}. The chiller and collector array are part of a complete solar HVAC system that provides air conditioning and space heating for a 743 m{sup 2} (8,000 ft{sup 2}) commercial building in Sacramento, CA. The other components of the HVAC system are a high temperature storage tank, a cooling tower, a gas-fired back-up boiler and five 14 kW (4 ton) cooling/heating fan coil units. The experimental data are used to determine; (1) the efficiency of the collectors; (2) the coefficient of performance of the chiller; and (3) the overall energy balance on the system. Computer models have also been developed to predict the performance and to optimize the design and operating characteristics of the HVAC system.

  17. Next-Generation Solar Collectors for CSP, Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    3M Company is one of the 2012 SunShot CSP R&D awardees for their advanced collectors. This fact sheet explains the motivation, description, and impact of the project.

  18. Cleaning strategies for parabolic-trough solar-collector fields; guidelines for decisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergeron, K.D.; Freese, J.M.

    1981-06-01

    This report is intended to assist the owner or operator of a parabolic trough solar collector system to decide on a cleaning strategy (equipment, materials, procedures, and schedules). The guidelines are based on information obtained in past research studies, as well as interviews with vendors and users of cleaning and water treatment equipment. The basic procedure recommended utilizes high pressure portable washing equipment. However, since the cleaning problem is so site-specific, no single, detailed approach can be specified. A systematic procedure for evaluating the particular requirements of a site is therefore given. This will allow the solar energy system operator to develop a cleaning strategy which is cost-effective because it is suited to local conditions.

  19. Theory and Manufacturing Processes of Solar NanoAntenna Electromagnetic Collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale K. Kotter; Steven D. Novack

    2010-02-01

    DRAFT For Submittal to Journal of Solar Energy - Rev 10.1 ---SOL-08-1091 SOLAR Nantenna Electromagnetic Collectors Dale K. Kotter Idaho National Laboratory Steven D. Novack Idaho National Laboratory W. Dennis Slafer MicroContinuum, Inc. Patrick Pinhero University of Missouri ABSTRACT The research described in this paper explores a new and efficient approach for producing electricity from the abundant energy of the sun, using nanoantenna (nantenna) electromagnetic collectors (NECs). NEC devices target mid-infrared wavelengths, where conventional photovoltaic (PV) solar cells are inefficient and where there is an abundance of solar energy. The initial concept of designing NECs was based on scaling of radio frequency antenna theory to the infrared and visible regions. This approach initially proved unsuccessful because the optical behavior of materials in the terahertz (THz) region was overlooked and, in addition, economical nanofabrication methods were not previously available to produce the optical antenna elements. This paper demonstrates progress in addressing significant technological barriers, including: 1) development of frequency-dependent modeling of double-feedpoint square spiral nantenna elements; 2) selection of materials with proper THz properties; and 3) development of novel manufacturing methods that could potentially enable economical large-scale manufacturing. We have shown that nantennas can collect infrared energy and induce THz currents, and we have also developed cost-effective proof-of-concept fabrication techniques for the large-scale manufacture of simple square loop nantenna arrays. Future work is planned to embed rectifiers into the double-feedpoint antenna structures. This work represents an important first step toward the ultimate realization of a low-cost device that will collect as well as convert this radiation into electricity. This could lead to a broadband, high conversion efficiency low-cost solution to complement conventional PV devices.

  20. Low-cost evacuated-tube solar collector appendices. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beecher, D.T.

    1980-05-31

    A low cost solar heat energy collector module and array has been designed using the evacuated tube, selective absorber, air cooled concept. Glass tubing as used in fluorescent lamps with automatic sealing methods is a key feature of the evacuated tube design. A molded fiber glass concentrating reflector panel and sheet metal header assembly are proposed. Major design problems involved included the cost of materials and labor, thermal expansion and distortion problems, high stagnation and operating temperatures, isolation, thermal efficiency, sealing, joining, air pressure drop, and weight of the preassembled module. A cost of less than $5 per active square foot of collecting surface has been estimated for materials and labor of the module and its mounting frame.

  1. Technical evaluation of a solar heating system having conventional hydronic solar collectors and a radiant panel slab. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starr, R.J.

    1984-04-01

    A simple innovative solar heating design (Solar Option One) using conventional hydronic solar collectors and a radiant panel slab was constructed. An objective of hybrid solar design is to combine the relative advantages of active and passive design approaches while minimizing their respective disadvantages. A test house using the Solar Option One heating system was experimentally monitored to determine its energy based performance during the 1982-83 heating season. The test residence is located in Lyndonville, Vermont, an area which has a characteristically cold and cloudy climate. The two story residence has a floor area of about 1400 square feet and is constructed on a 720 square foot 5.5 inch thick floor slab. A 24 inch packed gravel bed is located beneath the slab and the slab-gravel bed is insulated by two inches of polystyrene insulation. The test building is of frame construction and uses insulation levels which have become commonplace throughout the country. The structure would not fall into the superinsulated category but was tightly constructed so as to have a low infiltration level. The building is sun-tempered in that windows were concentrated somewhat on the South side and all but avoided on the North. A solar greenhouse on the South side of the building was closed off from the structure permanently throughout the testing so as to better observe the solar heating invention without confounding variables. The monitoring equipment generated an internal gain of about 17,000 BTUs per day, roughly the equivalent of occupancy by two persons. A full description of the experimental testing program is given. System efficiency and performance are reported.

  2. Climatically Diverse Data Set for Flat-Plate PV Module Model Validations (Presentation), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climatically Diverse Data Set for Flat-Plate PV Module Model Validations Bill Marion 2013 Sandia PV Performance Modeling Workshop Santa Clara, CA, May 1-2, 2013 NREL/PR-5200-58600 2 Background * Work began in FY2011 to fulfill a FY2014 milestone for DOE's System Integration Technology Validation Project o "Comprehensive data set, with low measurement uncertainty, of I-V curves and associated meteorological data for PV modules representing all flat-plate technologies and for weather

  3. Advances in Concentrating Solar Power Collectors: Mirrors and Solar Selective Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenendy, C. E.

    2007-10-10

    The intention is to explore the feasibility of depositing the coating by lower-cost methods and to perform a rigorous cost analysis after a viable high-temperature solar-selective coating is demonstrated by e-beam.

  4. Table 10.6 Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Type, Price, and Trade, 1974-2009 (Thousand Square Feet, Except as Noted)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Type, Price, and Trade, 1974-2009 (Thousand Square Feet, Except as Noted) Year Low-Temperature Collectors 1 Medium-Temperature Collectors 2 High-Temperature Collectors 3 Total Shipments Trade Number of U.S. Manu- facturers Quantity Shipped Shipments per Manu- facturer Price 4 (dollars 5 per square foot) Number of U.S. Manu- facturers Quantity Shipped Shipments per Manu- facturer Price 4 (dollars 5 per square foot) Quantity Shipped Price 4 (dollars 5 per

  5. Potential for Development of Solar and Wind Resource in Bhutan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilman, P.; Cowlin, S.; Heimiller, D.

    2009-09-01

    With support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) produced maps and data of the wind and solar resources in Bhutan. The solar resource data show that Bhutan has an adequate resource for flat-plate collectors, with annual average values of global horizontal solar radiation ranging from 4.0 to 5.5 kWh/m2-day (4.0 to 5.5 peak sun hours per day). The information provided in this report may be of use to energy planners in Bhutan involved in developing energy policy or planning wind and solar projects, and to energy analysts around the world interested in gaining an understanding of Bhutan's wind and solar energy potential.

  6. High temperature solar thermal technology: The North Africa Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    High temperature solar thermal (HTST) technology offers an attractive option for both industrialized and non-industrialized countries to generate electricity and industrial process steam. The purpose of this report is to assess the potential market for solar thermal applications in the North African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. North Africa was selected because of its outstanding solar resource base and the variety of applications to be found there. Diminishing oil and gas resources, coupled with expanding energy needs, opens a large potential market for the US industry. The US high temperature solar trough industry has little competition globally and could build a large market in these areas. The US is already familiar with certain solar markets in North Africa due to the supplying of substantial quantities of US-manufactured flat plate collectors to this region.

  7. Convective heat transfer with buoyancy effects from thermal sources on a flat plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, S.S.; Jaluria, Y. )

    1991-06-01

    An experimental study is carried out on the thermal interaction between two finite-size heat sources, located on a flat plate that is well insulated on the back. Both the horizontal and the vertical orientations of the surface are studied by measuring the flow velocities, the temperature field, and the local heat flux. The investigation is directed at the pure natural convection circumstance (no forced flow velocity) and the buoyancy-dominated mixed-convection circumstance (presence of a relatively small forced flow velocity). Large temperature gradients occur in the vicinity of the heat sources, resulting in a substantial diffusion of heat along the plate length. However, the effect of conduction is found to be highly localized. The orientation of the surface has a very strong effect on the interaction of the wakes from the heat sources for the circumstances considered. An upstream source is found to have a very strong influence on the temperature of a downstream source in the vertical surface orientation but has a much weaker influence in the horizontal orientation. In the latter circumstance the presence of a small forced flow velocity may actually increase the temperature of a downstream source by tilting the wake from the upstream source toward the downstream source. 25 refs.

  8. Performance analysis of a latent heat storage system with phase change material for new designed solar collectors in greenhouse heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benli, Hueseyin; Durmus, Aydin

    2009-12-15

    The continuous increase in the level of greenhouse gas emissions and the rise in fuel prices are the main driving forces behind the efforts for more effectively utilize various sources of renewable energy. In many parts of the world, direct solar radiation is considered to be one of the most prospective sources of energy. In this study, the thermal performance of a phase change thermal storage unit is analyzed and discussed. The storage unit is a component of ten pieced solar air collectors heating system being developed for space heating of a greenhouse and charging of PCM. CaCl{sub 2}6H{sub 2}O was used as PCM in thermal energy storage with a melting temperature of 29 C. Hot air delivered by ten pieced solar air collector is passed through the PCM to charge the storage unit. The stored heat is utilized to heat ambient air before being admitted to a greenhouse. This study is based on experimental results of the PCM employed to analyze the transient thermal behavior of the storage unit during the charge and discharge periods. The proposed size of collectors integrated PCM provided about 18-23% of total daily thermal energy requirements of the greenhouse for 3-4 h, in comparison with the conventional heating device. (author)

  9. Numerical study on coupled fluid flow and heat transfer process in parabolic trough solar collector tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Y.B.; He, Y.L.

    2010-10-15

    A unified two-dimensional numerical model was developed for the coupled heat transfer process in parabolic solar collector tube, which includes nature convection, forced convection, heat conduction and fluid-solid conjugate problem. The effects of Rayleigh number (Ra), tube diameter ratio and thermal conductivity of the tube wall on the heat transfer and fluid flow performance were numerically analyzed. The distributions of flow field, temperature field, local Nu and local temperature gradient were examined. The results show that when Ra is larger than 10{sup 5}, the effects of nature convection must be taken into account. With the increase of tube diameter ratio, the Nusselt number in inner tube (Nu{sub 1}) increases and the Nusselt number in annuli space (Nu{sub 2}) decreases. With the increase of tube wall thermal conductivity, Nu{sub 1} decreases and Nu{sub 2} increases. When thermal conductivity is larger than 200 W/(m K), it would have little effects on Nu and average temperatures. Due to the effect of the nature convection, along the circumferential direction (from top to down), the temperature in the cross-section decreases and the temperature gradient on inner tube surface increases at first. Then, the temperature and temperature gradients would present a converse variation at {theta} near {pi}. The local Nu on inner tube outer surface increases along circumferential direction until it reaches a maximum value then it decreases again. (author)

  10. Discrimination and quantification of contamination and implanted solar wind in Genesis collector shards using grazing incidence synchrotron x-ray techniqies: Initial results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitts, K.; Sutton, S.; Eng, P.; Ghose, S.; Burnett, D.

    2006-12-13

    Grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence is a non-destructive technique that can differentiate the embedded solar wind component from surface contamination and collector background in the Genesis shards. Initial solar Fe abundance in D30554 is 8 x 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2}. Accurate knowledge of the composition of the Sun provides a baseline, which allows an understanding of how the solar system has evolved over time and how solar processes and solar wind mechanics behave. Unfortunately, the errors in photospheric abundances are too large for many planetary science problems and this hampers our understanding of these different processes. Analyses of solar wind implanted in meteorites or lunar soils have provided more precise data but alteration processes on these bodies may complicate such information. In response to this need for pristine solar wind samples, NASA developed and launched the Genesis Probe. Unfortunately, the probe smashed into the Utah desert shattering the 300 collector plates into 15,000+ pieces all of which are now coated in a both a fine terrestrial dust and Si and Ge powder from the disrupted collectors themselves. The solar wind penetration depth is 100-200 nm and the superposed contamination layers are typically 40-50 nm. Stringent cleaning regimes have the potential of removing the solar wind itself. The best solution is to have sufficient spatial resolution to separately analyze the surface contamination and penetrated solar wind. To that end, three Genesis collector array shards and their appropriate flight spares were characterized via grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence and x-ray reflectivity. The goals were (1) to evaluate the various cleaning methods used to eliminate contamination, (2) to identify the collector substrates most suited for this technique, (3) to determine whether the solar wind signature could be deconvolved from the collector background signature, and (4) to measure the relative abundances of Ca to Ge in the embedded solar wind.

  11. Collector sealants and breathing. Final Report, 25 September 1978-31 December 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendelsohn, M A; Luck, R M; Yeoman, F A; Navish, Jr, F W

    1980-02-20

    The objectives of this program were: (1) to investigate the pertinent properties of a variety of possible sealants for solar collectors and identify the most promising candidates, and (2) to study the effect of breathing in flat-plate, thermal solar collector units. The study involved two types of sealants, Class PS which includes preformed seals or gaskets and Class SC which includes sealing compounds or caulks. It was the intent of the study to obtain data regarding initial properties of candidate elastomers from manufacturers and from the technical literature and to use those sources to provide data pertaining to endurance of these materials under environmental service conditions. Where necessary, these data were augmented by experimental measurements. Environmental stresses evaluated by these measurements included elevated temperatures, moisture, ultraviolet light, ozone and oxygen, and fungus. The second major area of the work involved a study of the effects of materials used and design on the durability of solar collectors. Factors such as design, fabrication, materials of construction, seals and sealing techniques and absorber plate coatings were observed on actual field units removed from service. Such phenomena as leakage, corrosion and formation of deposits on glazing and absorber plate were noted. An evaluation of the properties of several desiccants was made in order to providemeans to mitigate the deleterious effects of water on collector life. Adsorbents for organic degradation products of sealants were also investigated in order to protect the glazing and absorber plate from deposited coatings. Since adsorbents and desiccants in general tend to take up both water and organic decomposition products, relative affinities of a number of these agents for water and for organic compounds were determined . Results are presented in detail.

  12. Wisconsin collector-efficiency study, phase two

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abright, B.L.

    1982-01-15

    The collector efficiency study developed a solar collector rating methodology specific to Wisconsin conditions. Existing rating programs were researched and a collector methodology was developed. A computer program was written to calculate the collector ratings and 25 collector models were rated. The accuracy of the proposed rating methodology was evaluated for 16 collectors placed in 11 domestic hot water systems. One liquid space heating analysis with storage and one air space heating analysis without storage were completed. A solar assisted heat pump in which the solar collectors function as evaporators was also analyzed.

  13. Design of solar cells for use in photovoltaic/thermal collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, C.H. III

    1980-01-01

    A promising design development for combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors is one in which the photovoltaic cell is both the conversion device for electrical energy and the absorber of thermal energy. To accomplish this, the PV cell design is modified to use the approximately 25 percent of the air mass 1 spectrum at lambda > 1.1 ..mu..m that is currently rejected by the cell. The parameters investigated are: cell back metallization, back surface field, texture etching and anti-reflective coating. A model indicating the increase in absorptance as a function of these parameters is presented, together with the results of experimental measurements. Discussion closes with the presentation of a PV/T collector design that incorporates the improved cells, has 10 percent greater thermal output than current PV/T collectors, and exhibits no degradation in electrical output.

  14. Graybox and adaptative dynamic neural network identification models to infer the steady state efficiency of solar thermal collectors starting from the transient condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberto, Baccoli; Ubaldo, Carlini; Stefano, Mariotti; Roberto, Innamorati; Elisa, Solinas; Paolo, Mura

    2010-06-15

    This paper deals with the development of methods for non steady state test of solar thermal collectors. Our goal is to infer performances in steady-state conditions in terms of the efficiency curve when measures in transient conditions are the only ones available. We take into consideration the method of identification of a system in dynamic conditions by applying a Graybox Identification Model and a Dynamic Adaptative Linear Neural Network (ALNN) model. The study targets the solar collector with evacuated pipes, such as Dewar pipes. The mathematical description that supervises the functioning of the solar collector in transient conditions is developed using the equation of the energy balance, with the aim of determining the order and architecture of the two models. The input and output vectors of the two models are constructed, considering the measures of 4 days of solar radiation, flow mass, environment and heat-transfer fluid temperature in the inlet and outlet from the thermal solar collector. The efficiency curves derived from the two models are detected in correspondence to the test and validation points. The two synthetic simulated efficiency curves are compared with the actual efficiency curve certified by the Swiss Institute Solartechnik Puffung Forschung which tested the solar collector performance in steady-state conditions according to the UNI-EN 12975 standard. An acquisition set of measurements of only 4 days in the transient condition was enough to trace through a Graybox State Space Model the efficiency curve of the tested solar thermal collector, with a relative error of synthetic values with respect to efficiency certified by SPF, lower than 0.5%, while with the ALNN model the error is lower than 2.2% with respect to certified one. (author)

  15. Reducing heat loss from the energy absorber of a solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chao, Bei Tse; Rabl, Ari

    1976-01-01

    A device is provided for reducing convective heat loss in a cylindrical radiant energy collector. It includes a curved reflective wall in the shape of the arc of a circle positioned on the opposite side of the exit aperture from the reflective side walls of the collector. Radiant energy exiting the exit aperture is directed by the curved wall onto an energy absorber such that the portion of the absorber upon which the energy is directed faces downward to reduce convective heat loss from the absorber.

  16. Efficiency of plasma actuator ionization in shock wave modification in a rarefied supersonic flow over a flat plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joussot, Romain; Lago, Viviana; Parisse, Jean-Denis

    2014-12-09

    This paper describes experimental and numerical investigations focused on the shock wave modification, induced by a dc glow discharge, of a Mach 2 flow under rarefied regime. The model under investigation is a flat plate equipped with a plasma actuator composed of two electrodes. The glow discharge is generated by applying a negative potential to the upstream electrode, enabling the creation of a weakly ionized plasma. The natural flow (i.e. without the plasma) exhibits a thick laminar boundary layer and a shock wave with a hyperbolic shape. Images of the flow obtained with an ICCD camera revealed that the plasma discharge induces an increase in the shock wave angle. Thermal effects (volumetric, and at the surface) and plasma effects (ionization, and thermal non-equilibrium) are the most relevant processes explaining the observed modifications. The effect induced by the heating of the flat plate surface is studied experimentally by replacing the upstream electrode by a heating element, and numerically by modifying the thermal boundary condition of the model surface. The results show that for a similar temperature distribution over the plate surface, modifications induced by the heating element are lower than those produced by the plasma. This difference shows that other effects than purely thermal effects are involved with the plasma actuator. Measurements of the electron density with a Langmuir probe highlight the fact that the ionization degree plays an important role into the modification of the flow. The gas properties, especially the isentropic exponent, are indeed modified by the plasma above the actuator and upstream the flat plate. This leads to a local modification of the flow conditions, inducing an increase in the shock wave angle.

  17. Design of a photovoltaic central power station: flat-plate array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    A design for a photovoltaic central power station using fixed flat-panel arrays has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes high-efficiency photovoltaic modules using dendritic web cells. The modules are arranged in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic output is connected to the existing 115 kV utility switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

  18. Review of Consensus Standard Spectra for Flat Plate and Concentrating Photovoltaic Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D.

    2011-09-01

    Consensus standard reference terrestrial solar spectra are used to establish nameplate ratings for photovoltaic device performance at standard reporting conditions. This report describes reference solar spectra developed in the United States and international consensus standards community which are widely accepted as of this writing (June 2011).

  19. Experimental study of the influence of collector height on the steady state performance of a passive solar air heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, D.; Burek, S.A.M.

    2010-09-15

    Passive solar air heaters, such as solar chimneys and Trombe Walls, rely on solar-induced buoyancy-driven (natural) convection to produce the flow of air. Although buoyancy-driven convection is well understood for a single vertical plate, buoyancy-driven convection in an asymmetrically-heated channel is more problematic, and in particular, the effects of the channel height on the flow rate and heat transfer. This paper reports on experiments on test rigs resembling lightweight passive solar air-heating collectors. The test rigs were of heights 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 m, with adjustable channel depths (20-150 mm) and heat inputs (up to 1000 W/m{sup 2}). Measurements were made of the air, plate and cover temperatures, and air velocities. Results are presented as dimensionless correlations of mass flow (as Reynolds number) and efficiency against heat input (as Rayleigh number), channel depth and height. Thermal efficiency is shown to be a function of the heat input and the system height, but not of the channel depth; mass flow is shown to be a dependent on all three parameters. (author)

  20. Solar energy system demonstration project at Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This document is the Final Report of the Solar Energy System located at the Wilmington, Swim School, New Castle, Delaware. This active solar system is composed of 2,700 square feet of Revere liquid flat plate collectors piped to a 2,800 gallon concrete storage tank located below ground near the building. A micro-computer based control system selects the optimal applications of the stored energy among space, domestic water and pool alternatives. The controlled logic is planned for serving the heat loads in the following order: space heat-new addition, domestic water-entire facility, and pool heating-entire facility. A modified trombe wall passive operation the active system will bypass the areas being served passively. The system was designed for a 40 percent heating and a 30 percent hot water solar contribution.

  1. Performance of evacuated tubular solar collectors in a residential heating and cooling system. Final report, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duff, W.S.; Loef, G.O.G.

    1981-03-01

    Operation of CSU Solar House I during the heating season of 1978-1979 and during the 1979 cooling season was based on the use of systems comprising an experimental evacuated tubular solar collector, a non-freezing aqueous collection medium, heat exchange to an insulated conventional vertical cylindrical storage tank and to a built-up rectangular insulated storage tank, heating of circulating air by solar heated water and by electric auxiliary in an off-peak heat storage unit, space cooling by lithium bromide absorption chiller, and service water heating by solar exchange and electric auxiliary. Automatic system control and automatic data acquisition and computation are provided. This system is compared with others evaluated in CSU Solar Houses I, II and III, and with computer predictions based on mathematical models. Of the 69,513 MJ total energy requirement for space heating and hot water during a record cold winter, solar provided 33,281 MJ equivalent to 48 percent. Thirty percent of the incident solar energy was collected and 29 percent was delivered and used for heating and hot water. Of 33,320 MJ required for cooling and hot water during the summer, 79 percent or 26,202 MJ were supplied by solar. Thirty-five percent of the incident solar energy was collected and 26 percent was used for hot water and cooling in the summer. Although not as efficient as the Corning evacuated tube collector previously used, the Philips experimental collector provides solar heating and cooling with minimum operational problems. Improved performance, particularly for cooling, resulted from the use of a very well-insulated heat storage tank. Day time (on-peak) electric auxiliary heating was completely avoided by use of off-peak electric heat storage. A well-designed and operated solar heating and cooling system provided 56 percent of the total energy requirements for heating, cooling, and hot water.

  2. Energy and economic assessment of desiccant cooling systems coupled with single glazed air and hybrid PV/thermal solar collectors for applications in hot and humid climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beccali, Marco; Finocchiaro, Pietro; Nocke, Bettina

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the energy and economic performance of desiccant cooling systems (DEC) equipped with both single glazed standard air and hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/t) collectors for applications in hot and humid climates. The use of 'solar cogeneration' by means of PV/t hybrid collectors enables the simultaneous production of electricity and heat, which can be directly used by desiccant air handling units, thereby making it possible to achieve very energy savings. The present work shows the results of detailed simulations conducted for a set of desiccant cooling systems operating without any heat storage. System performance was investigated through hourly simulations for different systems and load combinations. Three configurations of DEC systems were considered: standard DEC, DEC with an integrated heat pump and DEC with an enthalpy wheel. Two kinds of building occupations were considered: office and lecture room. Moreover, three configurations of solar-assisted air handling units (AHU) equipped with desiccant wheels were considered and compared with standard AHUs, focusing on achievable primary energy savings. The relationship between the solar collector's area and the specific primary energy consumption for different system configurations and building occupation patterns is described. For both occupation patterns, sensitivity analysis on system performance was performed for different solar collector areas. Also, this work presents an economic assessment of the systems. The cost of conserved energy and the payback time were calculated, with and without public incentives for solar cooling systems. It is worth noting that the use of photovoltaics, and thus the exploitation of related available incentives in many European countries, could positively influence the spread of solar air cooling technologies (SAC). An outcome of this work is that SAC systems equipped with PV/t collectors are shown to have better performance in terms of primary energy saving than conventional systems fed by vapour compression chillers and coupled with PV cells. All SAC systems present good figures for primary energy consumption. The best performances are seen in systems with integrated heat pumps and small solar collector areas. The economics of these SAC systems at current equipment costs and energy prices are acceptable. They become more interesting in the case of public incentives of up to 30% of the investment cost (Simple Payback Time from 5 to 10 years) and doubled energy prices. (author)

  3. Finite element strategies for the efficient analysis and evaluation of solar collector structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koteras, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Concentrating or reflecting structures for solar energy systems must be evaluated as to their structural integrity and optical performance. Computer studies can be used as an integral part of these evaluations. The computer studies make use of finite element structural codes coupled with post-processors that calculate optical data. If the analysis of a solar structure is to be carried out in an efficient manner, these computer codes must have certain capabilities. A number of solar energy projects at Sandia National Laboratories have made extensive use of finite element analyses. The analyses have been useful in evaluating design concepts which hold promise for large scale use in solar energy projects. Analysis procedures have been developed for some structures so that evaluations can be carried out in a straightforward manner.

  4. U.S. Solar Resource Maps and Tools from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Solar maps provide monthly average daily total solar resource information on grid cells. The insolation values represent the resource available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal to equal to the latitude of the collector location. [Copied from http://www.nrel.gov/gis/solar.html] Several types of solar maps are made available. The U.S. Solar resource maps show the resource potential for energy from photovoltaics and from concentrating solar power (CSP). Both sets of maps are available in low or high resolution. A dynamic map based on version 2 of PVWATTS calculates electrical energy performance estimates for a grid-connected photovoltaic system. The map of U.S. Solar Measurement Station Locations is also dynamic, showing the spatial distribution of measurement stations across the U.S. that are monitored by programs and agencies such as DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program or NREL's Cooperative Network for Renewable Resource Measurements (CONFRRM). Clicking on a station location will take the user to the website of that station. Finally, static map images providing solar resource information averaged by month are also available.

  5. Fire characterization and object thermal response for a large flat plate adjacent to a large JP-4 fuel fire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gritzo, L.A.; Moya, J.L.; Murray, D.

    1997-01-01

    A series of three 18.9 m diameter JP-4 pool fire experiments with a large (2.1 m X 4.6 m), flat plate calorimeter adjacent to the fuel pool were recently performed. The objectives of these experiments were to: (1) gain a better understanding of fire phenomenology, (2) provide empirical input parameter estimates for simplified, deterministic Risk Assessment Compatible Fire Models (RACFMs), (3) assist in continuing fire field model code validation and development, and (4) enhance the data base of fire temperature and heat flux to object distributions. Due to different wind conditions during each experiment, data were obtained for conditions where the plate was not engulfed, fully-engulfed and partially engulfed by the continuous flame zone. Results include the heat flux distribution to the plate and flame thermocouple temperatures in the vicinity of the plate and at two cross sections within the lower region of the continuous flame zone. The results emphasize the importance of radiative coupling (i.e. the cooling of the flames by a thermally massive object) and convective coupling (including object-induced turbulence and object/wind/flame interactions) in determining the heat flux from a fire to an object. The formation of a secondary flame zone on an object adjacent to a fire via convective coupling (which increases the heat flux by a factor of two) is shown to be possible when the object is located within a distance equal to the object width from the fire.

  6. Project Profile: Improved Large Aperture Collector Manufacturing |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Improved Large Aperture Collector Manufacturing Project Profile: Improved Large Aperture Collector Manufacturing Abengoa logo Abengoa Solar, under the Solar Manufacturing Technology (SolarMat) program, will be investigating the use of an automotive-style high-rate fabrication and automated assembly techniques to achieve a substantial reduction in the deployment cost of their new SpaceTube advanced large aperture parabolic trough collector. Approach Abengoa is developing

  7. A steady state thermal duct model derived by fin-theory approach and applied on an unglazed solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stojanovic, B.; Hallberg, D.; Akander, J.

    2010-10-15

    This paper presents the thermal modelling of an unglazed solar collector (USC) flat panel, with the aim of producing a detailed yet swift thermal steady-state model. The model is analytical, one-dimensional (1D) and derived by a fin-theory approach. It represents the thermal performance of an arbitrary duct with applied boundary conditions equal to those of a flat panel collector. The derived model is meant to be used for efficient optimisation and design of USC flat panels (or similar applications), as well as detailed thermal analysis of temperature fields and heat transfer distributions/variations at steady-state conditions; without requiring a large amount of computational power and time. Detailed surface temperatures are necessary features for durability studies of the surface coating, hence the effect of coating degradation on USC and system performance. The model accuracy and proficiency has been benchmarked against a detailed three-dimensional Finite Difference Model (3D FDM) and two simpler 1D analytical models. Results from the benchmarking test show that the fin-theory model has excellent capabilities of calculating energy performances and fluid temperature profiles, as well as detailed material temperature fields and heat transfer distributions/variations (at steady-state conditions), while still being suitable for component analysis in junction to system simulations as the model is analytical. The accuracy of the model is high in comparison to the 3D FDM (the prime benchmark), as long as the fin-theory assumption prevails (no 'or negligible' temperature gradient in the fin perpendicularly to the fin length). Comparison with the other models also shows that when the USC duct material has a high thermal conductivity, the cross-sectional material temperature adopts an isothermal state (for the assessed USC duct geometry), which makes the 1D isothermal model valid. When the USC duct material has a low thermal conductivity, the heat transfer course of events adopts a 1D heat flow that reassembles the conditions of the 1D simple model (for the assessed USC duct geometry); 1D heat flow through the top and bottom fins/sheets as the duct wall reassembles a state of adiabatic condition. (author)

  8. Spearfish High School, Sparfish, South Dakota solar energy system performance evaluation, September 1980-June 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, B.D.

    1981-01-01

    Spearfish High School in South Dakota contains 43,000 square feet of conditioned space. Its active solar energy system is designed to supply 57% of the space heating and 50% of the hot water demand. The system is equipped with 8034 square feet of flat plate collectors, 4017 cubic feet of rock bin sensible heat storage, and auxiliary equipment including 8 heat pumps, 6 of which are solar supplied and instrumented, air conditioning units, and natural-gas-fired boilers. Performance data are given for the system including the solar fraction, solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor and solar system coefficient of performance. Insolation, solar energy utilization and operation data are also given. The performance of the collector, storage, domestic hot water and space heating subsystems, the operating energy, energy savings, and weather conditions are also evaluated. Appended are a system description, performance evaluation techniques and equations, site history, long-term weather data, sensor technology, and typical monthly data. (LEW)

  9. Thermal model of solar absorption HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergquam, J.B.; Brezner, J.M.

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents a thermal model that describes the performance of solar absorption HVAC systems. The model considers the collector array, the building cooling and heating loads, the absorption chiller and the high temperature storage. Heat losses from the storage tank and piping are included in the model. All of the results presented in the paper are for an array of flat plate solar collectors with black chrome (selective surface) absorber plates. The collector efficiency equation is used to calculate the useful heat output from the array. The storage is modeled as a non-stratified tank with polyurethane foam insulation. The system is assumed to operate continuously providing air conditioning during the cooling season, space heating during the winter and hot water throughout the year. The amount of heat required to drive the chiller is determined from the coefficient of performance of the absorption cycle. Results are presented for a typical COP of 0.7. The cooling capacity of the chiller is a function of storage (generator) temperature. The nominal value is 190 F (88 C) and the range of values considered is 180 F (82 C) to 210 F (99 C). Typical building cooling and heating loads are determined as a function of ambient conditions. Performance results are presented for Sacramento, CA and Washington, D.C. The model described in the paper makes use of National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) data and results are presented for these two locations. The uncertainties in the NSRDB are estimated to be in a range of 6% to 9%. This is a significant improvement over previously available data. The model makes it possible to predict the performance of solar HVAC systems and calculate quantities such as solar fraction, storage temperature, heat losses and parasitic power for every hour of the period for which data are available.

  10. Table 10.7 Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Market Sector, End Use, and Type, 2001-2009 (Thousand Square Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Market Sector, End Use, and Type, 2001-2009 (Thousand Square Feet) Year and Type By Market Sector By End Use Total Residential Commercial 1 Industrial 2 Electric Power 3 Other 4 Pool Heating Water Heating Space Heating Space Cooling Combined Heating 5 Process Heating Electricity Generation Total Shipments 6<//td> 2001 Total 10,125 1,012 17 1 35 10,797 274 70 0 12 34 2 11,189 Low 7 9,885 987 12 0 34 10,782 42 61 0 0 34 0 10,919 Medium 8 240 24 5 0 1 16

  11. Assessment of Unglazed Solar Domestic Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.; Hillman, T.

    2005-12-01

    Conference paper investigating cost-performance tradeoffs in replacing glazed collectors with unglazed collectors in solar domestic water heating systems.

  12. Concentrating solar heat collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fattor, A.P.

    1980-09-23

    A heat storage unit is integrated with a collection unit providing a heat supply in off-sun times, and includes movable insulation means arranged to provide insulation during off-sun times for the heat storage unit.

  13. Project Profile: Advanced High Temperature Trough Collector Development |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy High Temperature Trough Collector Development Project Profile: Advanced High Temperature Trough Collector Development Solar Millennium logo The Solar Millennium Group and its subsidiary Flagsol, under the CSP R&D FOA, are completing work on an advanced parabolic trough collector that uses molten salt as a heat transfer fluid. Approach Solar Millenium's Flagsol SKAL-ET heliotrough. Solar Millennium has developed a preliminary design of an advanced geometry parabolic

  14. Performance evaluation of an active solar cooling system utilizing low cost plastic collectors and an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lof, G.O.G.; Westhoff, M.A.; Karaki, S.

    1984-02-01

    During the summer of 1982, air conditioning in Solar House III at Colorado State University was provided by an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller. The single-effect lithium bromide chiller provided by Arkla Industries is an experimental three-ton unit from which heat is rejected by direct evaporative cooling of the condenser and absorber walls, thereby eliminating the need for a separate cooling tower. Domestic hot water was also provided by use of a double-walled heat exchanger and 300-l (80-gal) hot water tank. For solar heat supply to the cooling system, plastic thin film collectors developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory were installed on the roof of Solar House III. Failure to withstand stagnation temperatures forced replacement of solar energy with an electric heat source. Objectives of the project were: (1) evaluation of system performance over the course of one cooling season in Fort collins, Colorado; (2) optimization of system operation and control; (3) development of a TRNSYS compatible model of the chiller; and (4) determination of cooling system performance in several US climates by use of the model.

  15. Laser-driven flat plate impacts to 100 GPA with sub-nanosecond pulse duration and resolution for material property studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.; Warnes, R.H.; Kopp, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Miniature laser-driven flat plates (<1-mm diam {times} 0.5--10{mu}m thick, typical) of aluminum, cooper, tungsten, and other materials are accelerated to {le}5 km/s. These miniature plates are used to generate one-dimensional shock waves in solids, liquids, and crystals. Dynamic measurements of spall strength at strain rates {le}10{sup 7} s{sup {minus}1}, elastic-plastic shock wave profiles in 10-{mu}m-thick targets, shocked free-surface acceleration of 10{sup 12} m/s{sup 2}, and laser-driven plate launch accelerations of 10{sup 10} m/s{sup 2} are routinely obtained. The small size of the sample of and projectile mass permits recovery of targets without additional unintended damage or energy deposited into the test specimen. These miniature plates can be launched with conventional 1-J laboratory lasers. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  16. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-08-04

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  17. Solar Success Story at Moanalua Terrace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1999-03-01

    Solar systems prove to be the environmentally and economically sound choice for heating water in U.S. Navy housing at Moanalua Terrace in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Hawaii is a perfect environment for solar water heating,'' according to Alan Ikeda, a Housing Management Specialist with the Pacific Naval Facility Engineering Command Housing Department in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. ''The sun shines most of the time, we don't have to worry about freezing, the state offers a 35% solar tax credit, and our local utility supports the purchase and installation of solar systems with generous rebates.'' The Hawaiian Electric Company's (HECO's) $1,500 per unit rebate for solar water heaters installed on new construction helped persuade the Navy to take advantage of Hawaii's solar resource and install solar water heaters on family housing units. At Moanalua Terrace, the Navy had demolished 752 units of family housing, which they are rebuilding in four phases. Designers decided to use the opportunity to give the solar systems a try. When the 100 homes in Phase I were built, money was not available for solar water heaters. However, Ikeda subsequently secured a $130,000 grant from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to retrofit the Phase I homes with solar systems. In retrofit applications, HECO rebates $800 per unit ($80,000 total) on approved equipment, and Pearl Harbor Family Housing will pay the difference of the estimated $340,000 total cost, or about $130,000. The 136 units built during Phase II of the Moanalua Terrace project included solar systems in their specifications, so the Navy was able to take advantage of the $1,500 per system HECO rebate for approved solar water heaters in new construction. The Navy chose direct (open-loop) active systems that circulate potable water through flat-plate collectors coated with a black chrome selective surface. Each system consists of a 4-foot by 8-foot (1.2-m by 2.4-m) collector made by American Energy Technologies, Ltd., and an 80-gallon (302-liter) Rheem tank containing an electric backup element.

  18. Project Profile: Next-Generation Parabolic Trough Collectors and Components

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for CSP Applications | Department of Energy Parabolic Trough Collectors and Components for CSP Applications Project Profile: Next-Generation Parabolic Trough Collectors and Components for CSP Applications Abengoa logo Abengoa Solar, under the CSP R&D FOA, is developing the technology needed to build a competitive parabolic trough industry for the U.S. utility market. Approach Rows of parabolic trough collectors The research team aims to develop alternative collector structures,

  19. Solar space heating for the visitors' center, Stephens College, Columbia, Missouri. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henley, Marion

    1980-06-01

    This document is the final report of the solar energy system located at the Visitors' Center on the Stephens College Campus, Columbia, Missouri. The system is installed in a four-story, 15,000 square foot building designed to include the college's Admission Office, nine guest rooms for overnight lodging for official guests of the college, a two-story art gallery, and a Faculty Lounge. The solar energy system is an integral design of the building and utilizes 176 Honeywell/Lennox hydronic flat-plate collectors which use a 50% water-ethylene glycol solution and water-to-water heat exchanger. Solar heated water is stored in a 5000 gallon water storage tank located in the basement equipment room. A natural gas fired hot water boiler supplies hot water when the solar energy heat supply fails to meet the demand. The designed solar contribution is 71% of the heating load. The demonstration period for this project ends June 30, 1984.

  20. NREL: Energy Analysis - Solar Technology Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Technology Analysis NREL conducts analysis to support research and development done by the Solar Energy Technologies Program in three major technology areas: concentrating solar power; solar electricity, also known as photovoltaics or PV; and solar heating and lighting. For example, in the area of photovoltaics, EERE's systems modeling and analysis activity rigorously assesses the performance, reliability, installed costs, and levelized energy costs (LECs) of a wide variety of flat-plate

  1. Corona Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Corona Solar Place: Tholey-Theley, Germany Zip: D 66636 Sector: Solar Product: Engaged in solar passive large-size collectors. References:...

  2. Proceedings of the flat-plate solar array project workshop on low-cost polysilicon for terrestrial photovoltaic solar-cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 21 papers in this workshop proceedings. Topics covered include: polysilicon material requirements; economics; process developments in the USA and internationally; and the polysilicon market and forecasts. (LEW)

  3. Self-Cleaning CSP Collectors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet details the efforts of a Boston University-led team which is working on a DOE SunShot Initative project. The concentrated solar power industry needs an automated, efficient cleaning process that requires neither water nor moving parts to keep the solar collectors clean for maximum reflectance and energy output. This project team is working to develop a transparent electrodynamic screen as a self-cleaning technology for solar concentrators; cleaning is achieved without water, moving parts, or manual labor. Because of these features, it has a strong potential for worldwide deployment.

  4. Project Profile: Self-Cleaning CSP Collectors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Boston University and its partners, under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D FOA, are working to develop a new method to keep solar collectors dirt- and dust-free and thereby maintain high optical efficiency.

  5. Premier Solar Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Premier Solar Technologies Name: Premier Solar Technologies Place: Dubai, United Arab Emirates Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Integrated Storage Collector Website:...

  6. Apparatus for collecting solar energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wildenrotter, K.

    1981-08-18

    Apparatus is described for collecting solar energy comprises a collector having a solar-energy collector surface. The collector is mounted on a support and is pivotable between an exposed position in which the collector surface faces the sun and a substantially horizontal sheltered position in which the collector surface faces the earth, thereby protecting the collector surface from the elements and facilitating access thereto for maintenance.

  7. Ultracapacitor current collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jerabek, Elihu Calfin (Glenmont, NY); Mikkor, Mati (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2001-10-16

    An ultracapacitor having two solid, nonporous current collectors, two porous electrodes separating the collectors, a porous separator between the electrodes and an electrolyte occupying the pores in the electrodes and separator. At least one of the current collectors comprises a conductive metal substrate coated with a metal nitride, carbide or boride coating.

  8. Stress in shaped glass evacuated collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.D.; Fischer-Cripps, A.

    1997-02-01

    Shaped glass evacuated collectors have the lower vacuum envelope formed with a CPC shape. The internal surface is silvered. This surface concentrates solar radiation onto an internal absorbing tube. The upper part of the vacuum envelope is a window to pass the solar radiation in to the absorbing tube. A computer program using analytical equations is used to design these collectors while keeping the glass tensile stress arising from evacuation below acceptable limits. A finite element computer program is used to test the accuracy of the stress calculated analytically. The calculations agree within about 1 MPa. Wind and thermal stresses in the glass are lower than the stresses caused by evacuation.

  9. Pulsed depressed collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kemp, Mark A

    2015-11-03

    A high power RF device has an electron beam cavity, a modulator, and a circuit for feed-forward energy recovery from a multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The electron beam cavity include a cathode, an anode, and the multi-stage depressed collector, and the modulator is configured to provide pulses to the cathode. Voltages of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are allowed to float as determined by fixed impedances seen by the electrode stages. The energy recovery circuit includes a storage capacitor that dynamically biases potentials of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector and provides recovered energy from the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The circuit may also include a step-down transformer, where the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are electrically connected to separate taps on the step-down transformer.

  10. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.8 Active Solar Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 Thermal Solar Collector Manufacturer Statistics - Number of Manufacturers in 2008: 88 - Companies with 90% of their revenue coming from solar collector sales: 56 - Percentage of shipped solar collectors produced by top 5 manufacturers: 79% Source(s): EIA, Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities 2009, Dec. 2010, p. 2, Table 2.17, p. 24, Table 2.20, p. 27.

  11. Modeling the performance of small capacity lithium bromide-water absorption chiller operated by solar energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saman, N.F.; Sa`id, W.A.D.K.

    1996-12-31

    An analysis of the performance of a solar operated small capacity (two-ton) Lithium Bromide-Water (LiBr-H{sub 2}O) absorption system is conducted. The analysis is based on the first law of thermodynamics with lithium bromide as the absorbent and water as the refrigerant. The effect of various parameters affecting the machine coefficient of performance under various operating conditions is reported. Coefficient of performance of up to 0.8 can be obtained using flat plate solar collectors with generator temperatures in the range of 80--95 C (176--203 F). Liquid heat exchangers with effectiveness based on an NTU of the order of one would be a good design choice. The chiller can save approximately 3,456 kWh/yr per a two-ton unit, and it will reduce emissions by 19 lb of NO{sub x}, 5,870 lb of CO{sub 2}, and 16 lb of SO{sub x} per year per machine.

  12. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cities and counties in North Carolina generally may not adopt ordinances prohibiting the installation of "a solar collector that gathers solar radiation as a substitute for traditional energy for...

  13. Collectors R&D for CSP Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power » Collectors R&D for CSP Systems Collectors R&D for CSP Systems Collectors-whether for trough, tower (heliostat), linear Fresnel or dish systems-comprise up to 40% of the total system costs for concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. The DOE SunShot CSP Program seeks to dramatically reduce the cost of the collector field while improving optical accuracy and ensuring durability. The SunShot Initiative funds research and development (R&D) on collector

  14. Dimas Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Argos, Greece Sector: Solar Product: Makes solar passive systems, particularly collectors and absorbers. Coordinates: 41.23725, -86.245919 Show Map Loading map......

  15. Solar wind samples give insight into birth of solar system

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar wind samples Solar wind samples give insight into birth of solar system Most of the Genesis payload consisted of fragile solar-wind collectors, which had been exposed to the ...

  16. Biological sample collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Gloria A.

    2010-09-07

    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  17. Optimization of solar-selective paint coatings. Final report, September 15, 1980-June 15, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McChesney, M.A.; Zimmer, P.B.; Lin, R.J.H.

    1982-06-01

    The objective of this program was the development of low-cost, high-performance, solar-selective paint coatings for solar flat-plate collector (FPC) use and passive thermal wall application. Thickness-sensitive selective paint (TSSP) coating development was intended to demonstrate large-scale producibility. Thickness-insensitive selective paint (TISP) coating development was intended to develop and optimize the coating for passive solar systems and FPC applications. Low-cost, high-performance TSSP coatings and processes were developed to demonstrate large-scale producibility and meet all program goals. Dip, spray, roll, laminating and gravure processes were investigated and used to produce final samples. High-speed gravure coating was selected as the most promising process for solar foil fabrication. Development and optimization of TISP coatings was not completely successful. A variation in reflective metal pigment was suspected of being the primary problem, although other variables may have contributed. Consistent repeating of optical properties of these coatings achieved on the previous program was not achieved. However, a new method of achieving better control of coating components was conceived and preliminary development initiated. The new concept was described as an engineered pigment approach. The engineered pigment approach uses TSSP-coated metal foil particles instead of uncoated aluminum flakes in a liquid TSSP coating. The approach offers many advantages over the use of uncoated aluminum flakes: control of particle flatness, size, and thickness; control of the optical selectivity of each particle; and control of the liquid TSSP coating surrounding the coated particles.

  18. Shenzhen Prosunpro PengSangPu Solar Industrial Products Corporation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Zip: 518055 Sector: Solar Product: Shenzhen Prosunpro makes and installs flat panel solar passive energy collectors and engineers central solar hot water systems....

  19. Multiple discharge cylindrical pump collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, Charlton (Calabasas, CA); Bremner, Robert J. (Woodland Hills, CA); Meng, Sen Y. (Reseda, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A space-saving discharge collector 40 for the rotary pump 28 of a pool-type nuclear reactor 10. An annular collector 50 is located radially outboard for an impeller 44. The annular collector 50 as a closed outer periphery 52 for collecting the fluid from the impeller 44 and producing a uniform circumferential flow of the fluid. Turning means comprising a plurality of individual passageways 54 are located in an axial position relative to the annular collector 50 for receiving the fluid from the annular collector 50 and turning it into a substantially axial direction.

  20. Korea Solar Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc Place: Seoul, Korea (Republic) Sector: Solar Product: Manufacturer of solar collectors, modules, and water heaters. Coordinates: 37.557121, 126.977379 Show Map Loading...

  1. Analytically calculating shading in regular arrays of sun-pointing collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meller, Yosef

    2010-11-15

    A method is presented for deriving an algorithm for analytically calculating shading of sun-pointing solar collectors by other identical collectors in the field. The method is particularly suited to regularly-spaced collectors, with convex aperture shapes. Using this method, an algorithm suitable for circular-aperture collectors is derived. The algorithm is validated against results obtained using an existing algorithm, and an example for usage of the algorithm as a tool for validating assumptions of an existing algorithm is presented. (author)

  2. Tensioning device for a stretched membrane collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Lawrence M. (Lakewood, CO)

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar concentrating collector comprising an elastic membrane member for concentrating sunlight, a frame for holding the membrane member in plane and in tension, and a tensioning means for varying the tension of the membrane member. The tensioning means is disposed at the frame and is adapted to releasably attach the membrane member thereto. The tensioning means is also adapted to uniformly and symmetrically subject the membrane member to stretching forces such that membrane stresses produced thereby are distributed uniformly over a thickness of the membrane member and reciprocal twisting moments are substantially prevented from acting about said frame.

  3. Tensioning device for a stretched membrane collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar concentrating collector comprising an elestic membrane member for concentrating sunlight, a frame for holding the membrane member in plane and in tension, and a tensioning means for varying the tension of the membrane member. The tensioning means is disposed at the frame and is adapted to releasably attach the membrane member thereto. The tensioning means is also adapted to uniformly and symmetrically subject the membrane member to stretching forces such that membrane stresses produced thereby are distributed uniformly over a thickness of the membrane member and reciprocal twisting moments are substantially prevented from acting about said frame.

  4. Assess the Efficacy of an Aerial Distant Observer Tool Capable of Rapid Analysis of Large Sections of Collector Fields: FY 2008 CSP Milestone Report, September 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgensen, G.; Burkholder, F.; Gray, A.; Wendelin, T.

    2009-02-01

    We assessed the feasibility of developing an aerial Distant Observer optical characterization tool for collector fields in concentrating solar power plants.

  5. Radiant energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntire, William R.

    1983-01-01

    A cylindrical radiant energy collector is provided which includes a reflector spaced apart from an energy absorber. The reflector is of a particular shape which ideally eliminates gap losses. The reflector includes a plurality of adjacent facets of V shaped segments sloped so as to reflect all energy entering between said absorber and said reflector onto said absorber. The outer arms of each facet are sloped to reflect one type of extremal ray in a line substantially tangent to the lowermost extremity of the energy absorber. The inner arms of the facets are sloped to reflect onto the absorber all rays either falling directly thereon or as a result of reflection from an outer arm.

  6. Biobriefcase aerosol collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Perry M.; Christian, Allen T.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Willis, Ladona; Masquelier, Donald A.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2009-09-22

    A system for sampling air and collecting particles entrained in the air that potentially include bioagents. The system comprises providing a receiving surface, directing a liquid to the receiving surface and producing a liquid surface. Collecting samples of the air and directing the samples of air so that the samples of air with particles entrained in the air impact the liquid surface. The particles potentially including bioagents become captured in the liquid. The air with particles entrained in the air impacts the liquid surface with sufficient velocity to entrain the particles into the liquid but cause minor turbulence. The liquid surface has a surface tension and the collector samples the air and directs the air to the liquid surface so that the air with particles entrained in the air impacts the liquid surface with sufficient velocity to entrain the particles into the liquid, but cause minor turbulence on the surface resulting in insignificant evaporation of the liquid.

  7. AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  8. FRACTIONATING COLUMN PRODUCT COLLECTOR CONTROL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paxson, G.D. Jr.

    1964-03-10

    Means for detecting minute fluid products from a chemical separation column and for advancing a collector tube rack in order to automatically separate and collect successive fractionated products are described. A charge is imposed on the forming drops at the column orifice to create an electric field as the drop falls in the vicinity of a sensing plate. The field is detected by an electrometer tube coupled to the plate causing an output signal to actuate rotation of a collector turntable rack, thereby positioning new collectors under the orifice. The invention provides reliable automatic collection independent of drop size, rate of fall, or chemical composition. (AEC)

  9. Radiant energy collector. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntire, W.R.

    1980-02-14

    A cylindrical radiant energy collector is provided which includes a reflector spaced apart from an energy absorber. The reflector is of a particular shape which ideally eliminates gap losses.

  10. Radiant energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland

    1977-01-11

    An electromagnetic energy collection device is provided which does not require a solar tracking capability. It includes an energy receiver positioned between two side walls which reflect substantially all incident energy received over a predetermined included angle directly onto the energy receiver.

  11. Solar water heating technical support. Technical report for November 1997--April 1998 and final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggins, J.

    1998-10-01

    This progress report covers the time period November 1, 1997 through April 30, 1998, and also summarizes the project as the final report. The topics of the report include certification of solar collectors for water heating systems, modeling and testing of solar collectors and gas water heater backup systems, ratings of collectors for specific climates, and solar pool heating systems.

  12. Photovoltaic-thermal collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, III, Charles H. (Carlisle, MA)

    1984-04-24

    A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

  13. Low-cost, Modular, Building-integrated Photovoltaic-Thermal Collector -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Low-cost, Modular, Building-integrated Photovoltaic-Thermal Collector University of Colorado Contact CU About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication CU2225B (Integrated Thermal-Photovoltaic) Marketing Summary.pdf (111 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Buildings consume approximately 40% of the

  14. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in its CSP deployment efforts in the following areas: Collectors Receivers Power block Thermal energy storage Analysis. NREL received funding from DOE for concentrating solar...

  15. Active Solar Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Active Solar Heating Basics Active Solar Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:23pm Addthis There are two basic types of active solar heating systems based on the type of fluid-either liquid or air-that is heated in the solar energy collectors. The collector is the device in which a fluid is heated by the sun. Liquid-based systems heat water or an antifreeze solution in a "hydronic" collector, whereas air-based systems heat air in an "air collector." Both of these systems

  16. Low-Cost Self-Cleaning Coatings for CSP Collectors | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Self-Cleaning Coatings for CSP Collectors Low-Cost Self-Cleaning Coatings for CSP Collectors This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. PDF icon csp_review_meeting_042413_hunter.pdf More Documents & Publications PowerPoint Presentation - FY13 Q1 Low-Cost Self-Cleaning Reflector Coatings for CSP Collectors - FY13 Q2 Urban Heat Islands: Anti-Soiling Cool Roof Coatings

  17. Development of an Advanced, Low-Cost parabolic Trough Collector for

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Baseload Operation | Department of Energy Development of an Advanced, Low-Cost parabolic Trough Collector for Baseload Operation Development of an Advanced, Low-Cost parabolic Trough Collector for Baseload Operation This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. PDF icon csp_review_meeting_042413_hoste.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-008586: Categorical Exclusion Determination

  18. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be caused by electrical effects. Subsequently, extensive theoretical, bench-scale, and pilot-scale investigations were completed to find an approach to prevent bag damage without compromising AHPC performance. Results showed that the best bag protection and AHPC performance were achieved by using a perforated plate installed between the discharge electrodes and bags. This perforated-plate design was then installed in the 2.5-MW AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant in Big Stone City, South Dakota, and the AHPC was operated from March to June 2001. Results showed that the perforated-plate design solved the bag damage problem and offered even better AHPC performance than the previous design. All of the AHPC performance goals were met, including ultrahigh collection efficiency, high air-to-cloth ratio, reasonable pressure drop, and long bag-cleaning interval.

  19. Multiple discharge cylindrical pump collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, C.; Bremmer, R.J.; Meng, S.Y.

    1989-10-17

    This patent describes an improvement in a method for circulating fluid coolant through a reactor core of a pool-type nuclear reactor having a sealed containment vessel containing a reactor core submersed in a body of liquid coolant. The method for circulating coolant including utilization of a rotary pump including an impeller for producing a highly circumferential flow of cooling fluid and a method for collecting and discharging coolant fluid, the improvement to the method of collecting and discharging coolant fluid including the steps of: producing a substantially uniform circumferential flow of the fluid by directing the flow through a plurality of diffuser vanes and into an annular collector located radially outboard from the impeller. The annular collector having an entirely closed outer periphery; and turning the flow of cooling fluid into a substantially axially direction while maintaining a substantially constant average flow velocity by directing the coolant flow from the annular collector into a plurality of individual passageways located in an axial position relative to the annular collector.

  20. Portable solar water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borodulin, G.; Baron, R.; Shkolnik, A.

    1985-11-12

    A combined table and portable solar water heater comprises a suitcase-like rigid casing molded from a rigid plastic material which contains a pair of solar collector panels and connected in series. The panels can be exposed to solar radiation when the casing is opened. Each collector panel or is formed by a copper plate with the solar radiation absorbing surface and copper pipe coil or in heat-transferring relationship with said copper plate. The casing is provided with compartments for accessories, such as adjustable legs for supporting the casing, adjusting its angle to incident sunlight, and for converting the casing into a table; containers for feeding cold water to the solar collector and for receiving hot water from the collector; and a tripod stand for supporting the feeding container at the level above the collector and for arranging a shower set. Temperature-insulating layers of the collectors are formed by separate pieces of rigid material which can be removed from the casing and assembled into a box-shaped container which can be utilized for maintaining water heated by means of the solar water heater at an elevated temperature.

  1. Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Illustration of a solar water heater. Illustration of a solar water heater. Heat-transfer fluids carry heat through solar collectors and a heat exchanger to the heat storage tanks...

  2. Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins Print New studies of space dust captured by NASA's Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector have shown that interstellar...

  3. Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Linear concentrating solar power (CSP) collectors capture the sun's energy with large mirrors that reflect and ... In the future, troughs may be integrated with existing or new ...

  4. Solar/Wind Construction Permitting Standards | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to wind turbines in the code) 10 kilowatts or less: Licensing Requirements Any person bidding or contracting for the installation of a solar collector system must possess a...

  5. Wind Issues in Solar Thermal Performance Ratings: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Casey, R.

    2009-04-01

    We suggest that wind bias against unglazed solar water heaters be mitigated by using a calibrated collector model to derive a wind correction to the measured efficiency curve.

  6. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell current collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bischoff, Brian L. (Knoxville, TN); Sutton, Theodore G. (Kingston, TN); Armstrong, Timothy R. (Clinton, TN)

    2010-07-20

    An internal current collector for use inside a tubular solid oxide fuel cell (TSOFC) electrode comprises a tubular coil spring disposed concentrically within a TSOFC electrode and in firm uniform tangential electrical contact with the electrode inner surface. The current collector maximizes the contact area between the current collector and the electrode. The current collector is made of a metal that is electrically conductive and able to survive under the operational conditions of the fuel cell, i.e., the cathode in air, and the anode in fuel such as hydrogen, CO, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2O or H.sub.2S.

  7. Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ... Hydrogen Infrastructure Hydrogen Production Market Transformation Fuel Cells ...

  8. Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water ... Infrastructure Hydrogen Production Market Transformation ... Tribal Energy Program Intellectual Property Current EC ...

  9. Solar tracking device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyland, R.R.

    1981-01-20

    A solar tracking device having a plurality of reflector banks for reflecting the sun rays onto collector tubes and heating a fluid circulated therethrough. The reflector banks synchronized to follow the sun during the daily and yearly cycle of the earth as the earth orbits around the sun. The device by accurately following the sun provides a more efficient means of collecting solar energy.

  10. Portable solar heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilar, L.J.

    1981-08-18

    A portable solar heater combines a self-contained hot air and heat storage system having a collector area with adjustable reflectors in a unit that can be moved from room to room as needed. The heater has fans for circulation of the solar heater air and provides both direct and indirect heat transfer to the ambient room air.

  11. Portable solar heater structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holley, D.; Holley, D.E.

    1981-09-08

    Portable solar heater structure is described. A substantially rectangular frame has a back with openings therethrough for permitting air to be drawn into the solar heater. A layer of insulating materials is in contact with the back. A plurality of cupshaped solar collectors open toward the front of the solar heater structure are positioned adjacent the insulating material. A cover is over the front of the solar heater having openings therein adjacent the top thereof through which air heated by the solar heater is passed. A passage is between the openings in the back and cover of the solar heater through which relatively cool air is drawn through the openings in the back over the collectors to be heated for subsequent withdrawal through the openings in the cover.

  12. Solar Hot Water Hourly Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-12-31

    The Software consists of a spreadsheet written in Microsoft Excel which provides an hourly simulation of a solar hot water heating system (including solar geometry, solar collector efficiency as a function of temperature, energy balance on storage tank and lifecycle cost analysis).

  13. Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas ...

  14. NREL: Learning - Solar Process Heat Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Process Heat Basics Photo of part of one side of a warehouse wall, where a perforated metal exterior skin is spaced about a foot out from the main building wall to form part of the transpired solar collector system. A transpired collector is installed at a FedEx facility in Denver, Colorado. Commercial and industrial buildings may use the same solar technologies-photovoltaics, passive heating, daylighting, and water heating-that are used for residential buildings. These nonresidential

  15. Detailed analysis of the energy yield of systems with covered sheet-and-tube PVT collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santbergen, R.; Rindt, C.C.M.; van Zolingen, R.J.Ch.; Zondag, H.A.

    2010-05-15

    Solar cells have a typical efficiency in the range of 5-20%, implying that 80% or more of the incident solar energy can be harvested in the form of heat and applied for low-temperature heating. In a PVT collector one tries to collect this heat. In this work, the electrical and thermal yield of solar domestic hot water systems with one-cover sheet-and-tube PVT collectors were considered. Objectives of the work were to understand the mechanisms determining these yields, to investigate measures to improve these yields and to investigate the yield consequences if various solar cell technologies are being used. The work was carried out using numerical simulations. A detailed quantitative understanding of all loss mechanisms was obtained, especially of those being inherent to the use of PVT collectors instead of PV modules and conventional thermal collectors. The annual electrical efficiencies of the PVT systems investigated were up to 14% (relative) lower compared to pure PV systems and the annual thermal efficiencies up to 19% (relative) lower compared to pure thermal collector systems. The loss of electrical efficiency is mainly caused by the relatively high fluid temperature. The loss of thermal efficiency is caused both by the high emissivity of the absorber and the withdrawal of electrical energy. However, both the loss of electrical and thermal efficiency can be reduced further by the application of anti-reflective coatings. The thermal efficiency can be improved by the application of a low-emissivity coating on the absorber, however at the cost of a reduced electrical efficiency. (author)

  16. Project Profile: Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), with funding from the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D FOA, is designing an optimized solar thermal collector structure using a lightweight collector structure capable of lowering structural costs, simplifying installation, and leading to mass-manufacturability.

  17. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.8 Active Solar Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3 2009 Top Five Destinations of Thermal Solar Collector Shipments Percent of Domestic State U.S. Shipments Thousand SF Florida 27% California 26% Arizona 5% Hawaii 4% Oregon 3% Note(s): Source(s): EIA, Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities 2009, Dec. 2010, Table 2.4, p. 10. 3771 3537 745 520 387

  18. South River EMC- Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    South River Electric Membership Corporation (EMC) is providing rebates to encourage their customers to install solar water heating systems. To be eligible for the rebate solar collectors must have...

  19. Collector/Receiver Characterization (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities for collector/receiver characterization: determining optical efficiency, measuring heat loss, developing and testing concentrators, concentrating the sun's power, and optically characterizing CSP plants.

  20. Solar energy collection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hummel, R.L.

    1982-04-06

    A solar energy collection system for a building is described. A solar energy collector is disposed at the exterior surface of the building and includes a solar energy absorbent body having a surface which is exposed to sunlight and from which solar energy can be transmitted as sensible heat. A panel which is transparent to sunlight is spaced from the said surface of the absorbent body so as to define therewith a passageway in which air contacts at least a substantial area of said surface so that air in said passageway absorbs heat transmitted from said surface when the collector is in use. The passageway has an inlet and an outlet and the absorbent body and panel are arranged with the outlet higher than the inlet so that heated air in the passageway tends to rise by convection towards the outlet. The building is provided with heating means including a circulation circuit for a heating fluid. Heat exchange means are coupled to said air passageway outlet of the solar energy collector for passage of heated air therethrough. The heat exchange means are also coupled to the circulation circuit of the building heating means and are arranged to permit heat transfer between said heated air and the heating fluid. A return air flow conduit is coupled between the heat exchange means and the inlet of the air passageway of the solar energy collector for returning heated air from the heat exchange means to the air passageway for recirculation.

  1. solar

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    2%2A en Solar power purchase for DOE laboratories http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasessolarpower

  2. Solar reflection panels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diver, Jr., Richard B. (Albuquerque, NM); Grossman, James W. (Albuquerque, NM); Reshetnik, Michael (Boulder, CO)

    2006-07-18

    A solar collector comprising a glass mirror, and a composite panel, wherein the back of the mirror is affixed to a front surface of the composite panel. The composite panel comprises a front sheet affixed to a surface of a core material, preferably a core material comprising a honeycomb structure, and a back sheet affixed to an opposite surface of the core material. The invention may further comprise a sealing strip, preferably comprising EPDM, positioned between the glass mirror and the front surface of the composite panel. The invention also is of methods of making such solar collectors.

  3. A prototype photovoltaic/thermal system integrated with transpired collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Athienitis, Andreas K.; Bambara, James; O'Neill, Brendan; Faille, Jonathan

    2011-01-15

    Building-integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T) systems may be utilized to produce useful heat while simultaneously generating electricity from the same building envelope surface. A well known highly efficient collector is the open-loop unglazed transpired collector (UTC) which consists of dark porous cladding through which outdoor air is drawn and heated by absorbed solar radiation. Commercially available photovoltaic systems typically produce electricity with efficiencies up to about 18%. Thus, it is beneficial to obtain much of the normally wasted heat from the systems, possibly by combining UTC with photovoltaics. Combination of BIPV/T and UTC systems for building facades is considered in this paper - specifically, the design of a prototype facade-integrated photovoltaic/thermal system with transpired collector (BIPV/T). A full scale prototype is constructed with 70% of UTC area covered with PV modules specially designed to enhance heat recovery and compared to a UTC of the same area under outdoor sunny conditions with low wind. The orientation of the corrugations in the UTC is horizontal and the black-framed modules are attached so as to facilitate flow into the UTC plenum. While the overall combined thermal efficiency of the UTC is higher than that of the BIPV/T system, the value of the generated energy - assuming that electricity is at least four times more valuable than heat - is between 7% and 17% higher. Also, the electricity is always useful while the heat is usually utilized only in the heating season. The BIPV/T concept is applied to a full scale office building demonstration project in Montreal, Canada. The ratio of photovoltaic area coverage of the UTC may be selected based on the fresh air heating needs of the building, the value of the electricity generated and the available building surfaces. (author)

  4. Integral collector storage system with heat exchange apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Richard O.

    2004-04-20

    The present invention relates to an integral solar energy collector storage systems. Generally, an integral collector storage system includes a tank system, a plurality of heat exchange tubes with at least some of the heat exchange tubes arranged within the tank system, a first glazing layer positioned over the tank system and a base plate positioned under the tank system. In one aspect of the invention, the tank system, the first glazing layer an the base plate each include protrusions and a clip is provided to hold the layers together. In another aspect of the invention, the first glazing layer and the base plate are ribbed to provide structural support. This arrangement is particularly useful when these components are formed from plastic. In yet another aspect of the invention, the tank system has a plurality of interconnected tank chambers formed from tubes. In this aspect, a supply header pipe and a fluid return header pipe are provided at a first end of the tank system. The heat exchange tubes have inlets coupled to the supply header pipe and outlets coupled to the return header pipe. With this arrangement, the heat exchange tubes may be inserted into the tank chambers from the first end of the tank system.

  5. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.8 Active Solar Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    Solar Collector Shipments, by Type and Market (Thousand SF, unless noted) (1) Type 1980 1990 2000 2009 Solar Thermal Collectors (2) Residential N.A. Commercial N.A. Industrial N.A. Utility N.A. Other N.A. (4) Photovoltaics (kW) (5) Note(s): Source(s): (6) 6,897 13,837 88,221 1,282,560 1) Shipments for 1980-2000 include imports and exports; 2008 shipments are domestic only. 2) Solar thermal collectors: receive solar radiation, convert it to thermal energy, and are typically used forspace

  6. Active Solar Heating | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    heat transfer and delivery to storage and zones of the house. It is possible to use a solar panel to power low voltage, direct current (DC) blowers (for air collectors) or...

  7. Integrated main rail, feed rail, and current collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petri, R.J.; Meek, J.; Bachta, R.P.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1994-11-08

    A separator plate is described for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced. 9 figs.

  8. Final test results for the Schott HCE on a LS-2 collector.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, Timothy A.; Brosseau, Douglas A.

    2005-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed thermal performance testing on the Schott parabolic trough receiver using the LS-2 collector on the Sandia rotating platform at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility in Albuquerque, NM. This testing was funded as part of the US DOE Sun-Lab USA-Trough program. The receiver tested was a new Schott receiver, known as Heat Collector Elements (HCEs). Schott is a new manufacturer of trough HCEs. The Schott HCEs are 4m long; therefore, two were joined and mounted on the LS-2 collector module for the test. The Schott HCE design consists of a 70mm diameter high solar absorptance coated stainless steel (SS) tube encapsulated within a 125mm diameter Pyrex{reg_sign} glass tube with vacuum in the annulus formed between the SS and glass tube to minimize convection heat losses. The Schott HCE design is unique in two regards. First, the bellows used to compensate for the difference in thermal expansion between the metal and glass tube are inside the glass envelope rather than outside. Second, the composition of materials at the glass-to-metal seal has very similar thermal expansion coefficients making the joint less prone to breakage from thermal shock. Sandia National Laboratories provided both the azimuth and elevation collector module tracking systems used during the tests. The test results showed the efficiency of the Schott HCE to be very similar to current HCEs being manufactured by Solel. This testing provided performance verification for the use of Schott tubes with Solargenix trough collector assemblies at currently planned trough power plant projects in Arizona and Nevada.

  9. Pv-Thermal Solar Power Assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ansley, Jeffrey H. (El Cerrito, CA); Botkin, Jonathan D. (El Cerrito, CA); Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Piedmont, CA)

    2001-10-02

    A flexible solar power assembly includes a flexible photovoltaic device attached to a flexible thermal solar collector. The solar power assembly can be rolled up for transport and then unrolled for installation on a surface, such as the roof or side wall of a building or other structure, by use of adhesive and/or other types of fasteners.

  10. Solar absorption surface panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  11. Utility-scale flat-plate thin film photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The thin-film photovoltaics section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  12. Stabilization of solar films against hi temperature deactivation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jefferson, Clinton F. (Millburn, NJ)

    1984-03-20

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a solar absorptive film consisting essentially of copper oxide, cobalt oxide and manganese oxide; (2) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass or a stainless steel; and (3) an interlayer of platinum, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of platinum to obtain a stable conductor-dielectric tandem.

  13. PROJECT PROFILE: Abengoa Solar, LLC - ATLAS | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ATLAS PROJECT PROFILE: Abengoa Solar, LLC - ATLAS Funding Opportunity: CSP APOLLO SunShot Subprogram: CSP Location: Lakewood, CO Amount Awarded: $1,221,015 Awardee Cost Share: $1,221,015 Abengoa will re-optimize the collector as an entire system to enable the use of molten salt in the collector field, detailing and validating innovative improvements in the concentrator design, drive and controls, manufacturing, installation, plant operation, and optical performance. APPROACH The new collector

  14. Annual DOE active solar heating and cooling contractors' review meeting. Premeeting proceedings and project summaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None,

    1981-09-01

    Ninety-three project summaries are presented which discuss the following aspects of active solar heating and cooling: Rankine solar cooling systems; absorption solar cooling systems; desiccant solar cooling systems; solar heat pump systems; solar hot water systems; special projects (such as the National Solar Data Network, hybrid solar thermal/photovoltaic applications, and heat transfer and water migration in soils); administrative/management support; and solar collector, storage, controls, analysis, and materials technology. (LEW)

  15. A Self-Biasing Pulsed Depressed Collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemp, Mark A.; Jensen, Aaron; Neilson, Jeff; /SLAC

    2014-05-29

    Depressed collectors have been utilized successfully for many years to improve the electrical efficiency of vacuum electron devices. Increasingly, pulsed, high-peak power accelerator applications are placing a premium on electrical efficiency. As RF systems are responsible for a large percentage of the overall energy usage at accelerator laboratories, methods to improve upon the state-of-the-art in pulsed high-power sources are desired. This paper presents a technique for self-biasing the stages in a multistage depressed collector. With this technique, the energy lost during the rise and fall times of the pulse can be recovered, separate power supplies are not needed, and existing modulators can be retrofitted. Calculations show that significant cost savings can be realized with the implementation of this device in high-power systems. In this paper, the technique is described along with experimental demonstration. (auth)

  16. Collector main replacement at Indianapolis Coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sickle, R.R. Van

    1997-12-31

    Indianapolis Coke is a merchant coke producer, supplying both foundry and blast furnace coke to the industry. The facility has three coke batteries: two 3 meter batteries, one Wilputte four divided and one Koppers Becker. Both batteries are underjet batteries and are producing 100% foundry coke at a net coking time of 30.6 hours. This paper deals with the No. 1 coke battery, which is a 72 oven, gun fired, 5 meter Still battery. No. 1 battery produces both foundry and blast furnace coke at a net coking rate of 25.4 hours. No. 1 battery was commissioned in 1979. The battery is equipped with a double collector main. Although many renovations have been completed to the battery, oven machinery and heating system, to date no major construction projects have taken place. Deterioration of the collector main was caused in part from elevated levels of chlorides in the flushing liquor, and temperature fluctuations within the collector main. The repair procedures are discussed.

  17. Progress in solar engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yogi Goswami, D.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents reviews of various areas of solar energy technology, including wind energy technology and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). It also identifies and suggests needs and future directions of research and development. The subjects covered in this book include solar thermal power technology, solar thermal storage, solar ponds, industrial process heat, solar water heating, active and passive solar cooling methods, low-cost collector development, photovoltaic research and applications, wind energy technology, and OTEC. Also covered are the status of the technology, basic and applied research, design and analysis methods, and performance and operational experiences of various systems. The book will thus be helpful as a review of various solar, wind, and OTEC technologies.

  18. Receiver for solar energy collector having improved aperture aspect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntire, William R.

    1984-01-01

    A secondary concentrator for use in receiver systems for linear focusing primary concentrators is provided with reflector wings at each end. The wings increase the capture of light rays reflected from areas adjacent the rim of a primary concentrator, increasing the apparent aperture size of the absorber as viewed from the rim of the primary concentrator. The length, tilt, and curvature of the wing reflectors can be adjusted to provide an absorber having a desired aperture aspect.

  19. Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP- FY12 Q4

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document summarizes the progress of this 3M project, funded by SunShot, for the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2012.

  20. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Collector R&D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Energy Storage R&D Featured Resource Learn more about NREL's capabilities in thermal storage and advanced heat transfer fluids. Thermal energy storage (TES) research at ...

  1. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar water heating systems use heat exchangers to transfer solar energy absorbed in solar collectors to the liquid or air used to heat water or a space. Heat exchangers can be made of steel, copper, bronze, stainless steel, aluminum, or cast iron. Solar heating systems usually use copper,

  2. Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Water Heaters » Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems Illustration of a solar water heater. Illustration of a solar water heater. Heat-transfer fluids carry heat through solar collectors and a heat exchanger to the heat storage tanks in solar water heating systems. When selecting a heat-transfer fluid, you and your solar heating contractor should consider the following criteria: Coefficient of expansion - the fractional

  3. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators "This fact sheet describes a scattering solar thermal concentrators project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Pennsylvania State University, is working to demonstrate a new, scattering-based approach to concentrating sunlight that aims to improve the overall performance and reliability of the collector field. The research team aims to show

  4. Flexible Assembly Solar Technology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Flexible Assembly Solar Technology Flexible Assembly Solar Technology The Flexible Assembly Solar Technology Fact Sheet explains a 2012 SunShot CSP R&D award project led by a team from BrightSource Industries. They will design and deploy a prototype of FAST, which is an automated collector-assembly platform that can be used for rapid assembly and installation of heliostats at a solar power tower plant. FAST has the potential to decrease costs related to permitting, construction, maintenance,

  5. Texas Gas Service- Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Only active systems with panels (or collectors) that are certified OG-100 by the Solar Rating Certification Corporation (SRCC) qualify for this rebate. Work must be completed by a licensed contra...

  6. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research Home Page

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power Research A collage of Concentrating Solar Power photographs. The first photo shows a dish-engine solar system. The second is of a SAIC Stirling dish collector. And the third photo shows a SkyTrough solar concentrator located on a mesa top. NREL collaborates with industry to further the research and development (R&D) of concentrating solar power (CSP) plant and solar thermal technologies. NREL's projects in concentrating solar power focus on components R&D and

  7. Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins Print New studies of space dust captured by NASA's Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector have shown that interstellar particles may be much more complex in structure and composition than previously thought. -The tiny particles could give scientists chemical clues about the origins of our solar system. Amateur Enthusiasts Key to Research Progress The space dust that was captured by NASA's Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector landed in

  8. Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins Print New studies of space dust captured by NASA's Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector have shown that interstellar particles may be much more complex in structure and composition than previously thought. -The tiny particles could give scientists chemical clues about the origins of our solar system. Amateur Enthusiasts Key to Research Progress The space dust that was captured by NASA's Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector landed in

  9. Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins Print New studies of space dust captured by NASA's Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector have shown that interstellar particles may be much more complex in structure and composition than previously thought. -The tiny particles could give scientists chemical clues about the origins of our solar system. Amateur Enthusiasts Key to Research Progress The space dust that was captured by NASA's Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector landed in

  10. Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins Print New studies of space dust captured by NASA's Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector have shown that interstellar particles may be much more complex in structure and composition than previously thought. -The tiny particles could give scientists chemical clues about the origins of our solar system. Amateur Enthusiasts Key to Research Progress The space dust that was captured by NASA's Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector landed in

  11. Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins Print New studies of space dust captured by NASA's Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector have shown that interstellar particles may be much more complex in structure and composition than previously thought. -The tiny particles could give scientists chemical clues about the origins of our solar system. Amateur Enthusiasts Key to Research Progress The space dust that was captured by NASA's Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector landed in

  12. Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins Print New studies of space dust captured by NASA's Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector have shown that interstellar particles may be much more complex in structure and composition than previously thought. -The tiny particles could give scientists chemical clues about the origins of our solar system. Amateur Enthusiasts Key to Research Progress The space dust that was captured by NASA's Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector landed in

  13. Solar water heating: FEMP fact sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clyne, R.

    1999-09-30

    Using the sun to heat domestic water makes sense in almost any climate. Solar water heaters typically provide 40 to 80{percent} of a building's annual water-heating needs. A solar water-heating system's performance depends primarily on the outdoor temperature, the temperature to which the water is heated, and the amount of sunlight striking the collector.

  14. OUT Success Stories: Solar Trough Power Plants

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Jones, J.

    2000-08-01

    The Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) plants use parabolic-trough solar collectors to capture the sun's energy and convert it to heat. The SEGS plants range in capacity from 13.8 to 80 MW, and they were constructed to meet Southern California Edison Company's periods of peak power demand.

  15. Combined current collector and electrode separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerenser, R.J.; Littauer, E.L.

    1983-08-23

    This relates to reactive metal cells wherein there is a cathode and a consumable anode. It is necessary to separate the cathode from the anode so that an electrolyte may constantly flow over the face of the anode opposing the cathode. It has been found that this separator may also beneficially function as a current collector. The combined current collector and separator includes a peripheral supporting frame of which a portion may function as a bus-bar. A plurality of bars or ribs extend in parallel relation across the opening defined by the supporting frame and are electrically connected to the bus-bar portion. It is preferred that each bar or rib have a pointed or line edge which will engage and slightly bite into the associated anode to maintain the bar or rib in electrical contact with the anode. This abstract forms no part of the specification of this application and is not to be construed as limiting the claims of the application. 6 figs.

  16. Combined current collector and electrode separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerenser, Robert J. (Milpitas, CA); Littauer, Ernest L. (Los Altos Hills, CA)

    1983-01-01

    This relates to reactive metal cells wherein there is a cathode and a consumable anode. It is necessary to separate the cathode from the anode so that an electrolyte may constantly flow over the face of the anode opposing the cathode. It has been found that this separator may also beneficially function as a current collector. The combined current collector and separator includes a peripheral supporting frame of which a portion may function as a bus-bar. A plurality of bars or ribs extend in parallel relation across the opening defined by the supporting frame and are electrically connected to the bus-bar portion. It is preferred that each bar or rib have a pointed or line edge which will engage and slightly bite into the associated anode to maintain the bar or rib in electrical contact with the anode. This abstract forms no part of the specification of this application and is not to be construed as limiting the claims of the application.

  17. Comparative study of different solar cooling systems for buildings in subtropical city

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fong, K.F.; Chow, T.T.; Lee, C.K.; Lin, Z.; Chan, L.S.

    2010-02-15

    In recent years, more and more attention has been paid on the application potential of solar cooling for buildings. Due to the fact that the efficiency of solar collectors is generally low at the time being, the effectiveness of solar cooling would be closely related to the availability of solar irradiation, climatic conditions and geographical location of a place. In this paper, five types of solar cooling systems were involved in a comparative study for subtropical city, which is commonly featured with long hot and humid summer. The solar cooling systems included the solar electric compression refrigeration, solar mechanical compression refrigeration, solar absorption refrigeration, solar adsorption refrigeration and solar solid desiccant cooling. Component-based simulation models of these systems were developed, and their performances were evaluated throughout a year. The key performance indicators are solar fraction, coefficient of performance, solar thermal gain, and primary energy consumption. In addition, different installation strategies and types of solar collectors were compared for each kind of solar cooling system. Through this comparative study, it was found that solar electric compression refrigeration and solar absorption refrigeration had the highest energy saving potential in the subtropical Hong Kong. The former is to make use of the solar electric gain, while the latter is to adopt the solar thermal gain. These two solar cooling systems would have even better performances through the continual advancement of the solar collectors. It will provide a promising application potential of solar cooling for buildings in the subtropical region. (author)

  18. March 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Renewable Energy Sources | OSTI, US

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information 4 Most Viewed Documents for Renewable Energy Sources Science Subject Feed Chapter 6. Drilling and Well Construction Culver, Gene (1998) 299 /> Chapter 11. Heat Exchangers Rafferty, Kevin D.; Culver, Gene (1998) 184 /> Chapter 17. Engineering cost analysis Higbee, Charles V. (1998) 124 /> Solar radiation data manual for flat-plate and concentrating collectors Dunlap, M.A. [ed.]; Marion, W.; Wilcox, S. (null) 74 />

  19. Passive solar construction handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-08-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  20. Solar absorption cooling plant in Seville

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bermejo, Pablo; Pino, Francisco Javier; Rosa, Felipe

    2010-08-15

    A solar/gas cooling plant at the Engineering School of Seville (Spain) was tested during the period 2008-2009. The system is composed of a double-effect LiBr + water absorption chiller of 174 kW nominal cooling capacity, powered by: (1) a pressurized hot water flow delivered by mean of a 352 m{sup 2} solar field of a linear concentrating Fresnel collector and (2) a direct-fired natural gas burner. The objective of the project is to indentify design improvements for future plants and to serve as a guideline. We focused our attention on the solar collector size and dirtiness, climatology, piping heat losses, operation control and coupling between solar collector and chiller. The daily average Fresnel collector efficiency was 0.35 with a maximum of 0.4. The absorption chiller operated with a daily average coefficient of performance of 1.1-1.25, where the solar energy represented the 75% of generator's total heat input, and the solar cooling ratio (quotient between useful cooling and insolation incident on the solar field) was 0.44. (author)

  1. Selective flotation of phosphate minerals with hydroxamate collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Jan D.; Wang, Xuming; Li, Minhua

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for separating phosphate minerals from a mineral mixture, particularly from high-dolomite containing phosphate ores. The method involves conditioning the mineral mixture by contacting in an aqueous in environment with a collector in an amount sufficient for promoting flotation of phosphate minerals. The collector is a hydroxamate compound of the formula; ##STR1## wherein R is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms. M is a cation, typically hydrogen, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. Preferably, the collector also comprises an alcohol of the formula, R'--OH wherein R' is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties so that it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms.

  2. Conservation and solar: working together

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology is developed for optimally allocating resources between conservation and solar strategies in building design. Formulas are presented for a constrained optimum in which the initial investment is limited. A global optimum procedure is also described in which life-cycle cost is minimized. The procedure is amenable to hand analysis if tables are available which give the Solar Savings Fraction as a function of the Load Collector Ratio for the locality. A numerical example is given.

  3. Passive-solar construction handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-02-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

  4. PV/thermal solar power assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ansley, Jeffrey H.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2004-01-13

    A flexible solar power assembly (2) includes a flexible photovoltaic device (16) attached to a flexible thermal solar collector (4). The solar power assembly can be rolled up for transport and then unrolled for installation on a surface, such as the roof (20, 25) or side wall of a building or other structure, by use of adhesive and/or other types of fasteners (23).

  5. Siting Your Solar Water Heating System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Before you buy and install a solar water heating system, you need to first consider your site's solar resource, as well as the optimal orientation and tilt of your solar collector. The efficiency and design of a solar water heating system depends on how much of the sun's energy reaches your building site. Solar water heating systems use both direct and diffuse solar radiation. Even if you don't live in a climate that's

  6. Conductivity fuel cell collector plate and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braun, James C. (Juno Beach, FL)

    2002-01-01

    An improved method of manufacturing a PEM fuel cell collector plate is disclosed. During molding a highly conductive polymer composite is formed having a relatively high polymer concentration along its external surfaces. After molding the polymer rich layer is removed from the land areas by machining, grinding or similar process. This layer removal results in increased overall conductivity of the molded collector plate. The polymer rich surface remains in the collector plate channels, providing increased mechanical strength and other benefits to the channels. The improved method also permits greater mold cavity thickness providing a number of advantages during the molding process.

  7. Electron beam collector for a microwave power tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dandl, Raphael A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a cylindrical, electron beam collector that efficiently couples the microwave energy out of a high power microwave source while stopping the attendant electron beam. The interior end walls of the collector are a pair of facing parabolic mirrors and the microwave energy from an input horn is radiated between the two mirrors and reassembled at the entrance to the output waveguide where the transmitted mode is reconstructed. The mode transmission through the collector of the present invention has an efficiency of at least 94%.

  8. Increasing the solar photovoltaic energy capture on sunny and cloudy days

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Nelson A.; Gibson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-15

    This report analyzes an extensive set of measurements of the solar irradiance made using four identical solar arrays and associated solar sensors (collectively referred to as solar collectors) with different tilt angles relative to the earth's surface, and thus the position of the sun, in order to determine an optimal tracking algorithm for capturing solar radiation. The study included a variety of ambient conditions including different seasons and both cloudy and cloud-free conditions. One set of solar collectors was always approximately pointed directly toward the sun (DTS) for a period around solar noon. These solar collectors thus captured the direct beam component of the solar radiation that predominates on sunny days. We found that on sunny days, solar collectors with a DTS configuration captured more solar energy in accordance with the well-known cosine dependence for the response of a flat-surfaced solar collector to the angle of incidence with direct beam radiation. In particular, a DTS orientation was found to capture up to twice as much solar energy as a horizontal (H) orientation in which the array is tilted toward the zenith. Another set of solar collectors always had an H orientation, and this best captured the diffuse component of the solar radiation that predominates on cloudy days. The dependence of the H/DTS ratio on the solar-collector tilt angle was in approximate agreement with the Isotropic Diffuse Model derived for heavily overcast conditions. During cloudy periods, we found that an H configuration increased the solar energy capture by nearly 40% compared to a DTS configuration during the same period, and we estimate the solar energy increase of an H configuration over a system that tracks the obscured solar disk could reach 50% over a whole heavily-overcast day. On an annual basis the increase is predicted to be much less, typically only about 1%, because the contribution of cloudy days to the total annual solar energy captured by a photovoltaic system is small. These results are consistent with the solar tracking algorithm optimized for cloudy conditions that we proposed in an earlier report and that was based on a much smaller data set. Improving the harvesting of solar energy on cloudy days deserves wider attention due to increasing efforts to utilize renewable solar energy. In particular, increasing the output of distributed solar power systems on cloudy days is important to developing solar-powered home fueling and charging systems for hydrogen-powered fuel-cell electric and battery-powered vehicles, respectively, because it reduces the system size and cost for solar power systems that are designed to have sufficient energy output on the worst (cloudy) days. (author)

  9. Project Profile: Advanced High Temperature Trough Collector Developmen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The NTPro design has three primary goals: higher performance, lower cost, and the potential ... Implement a prototype loop test of the NTPro-MS (molten salt HTF) collector. Innovation ...

  10. Positive electrode current collector for liquid metal cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimotake, Hiroshi (Hinsdale, IL); Bartholme, Louis G. (Joliet, IL)

    1984-01-01

    A current collector for the positive electrode of an electrochemical cell with a positive electrode including a sulfide. The cell also has a negative electrode and a molten salt electrolyte including halides of a metal selected from the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals in contact with both the positive and negative electrodes. The current collector has a base metal of copper, silver, gold, aluminum or alloys thereof with a coating thereon of iron, nickel, chromium or alloys thereof. The current collector when subjected to cell voltage forms a sulfur-containing compound on the surface thereby substantially protecting the current collector from further attack by sulfur ions during cell operation. Both electroless and electrolytic processes may be used to deposit coatings.

  11. Positive-electrode current collector for liquid-metal cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimotake, H.; Bartholme, L.G.

    1982-09-27

    A current collector for the positive electrode of an electrochemical cell with a positive electrode including a sulfide. The cell also has a negative electrode and a molten salt electrolyte including halides of a metal selected from the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals in contact with both the positive and negative electrodes. The current collector has a base metal of copper, silver, gold, aluminum or alloys thereof with a coating thereon of iron, nickel, chromium or alloys thereof. The current collector when subjected to cell voltage forms a sulfur-containing compound on the surface thereby substantially protecting the current collector from further attack by sulfur ions during cell operation. Both electroless and electrolytic processes may be used to deposit coatings.

  12. High air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masquelier, Donald A. (Tracy, CA); Milanovich, Fred P. (Lafayette, CA); Willeke, Klaus (Cincinnati, OH)

    2003-01-01

    A high air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector. A high volume flow of aerosol particles is drawn into an annular, centripetal slot in a collector which directs the aerosol flow into a small volume of liquid pool contained is a lower center section of the collector. The annular jet of air impinges into the liquid, imbedding initially airborne particles in the liquid. The liquid in the pool continuously circulates in the lower section of the collector by moving to the center line, then upwardly, and through assistance by a rotating deflector plate passes back into the liquid at the outer area adjacent the impinging air jet which passes upwardly through the liquid pool and through a hollow center of the collector, and is discharged via a side outlet opening. Any liquid droplets escaping with the effluent air are captured by a rotating mist eliminator and moved back toward the liquid pool. The collector includes a sensor assembly for determining, controlling, and maintaining the level of the liquid pool, and includes a lower centrally located valve assembly connected to a liquid reservoir and to an analyzer for analyzing the particles which are impinged into the liquid pool.

  13. Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrator | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrator Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrator This fact sheet describes a low-cost, lightweight solar conductor project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is working develop a solar collector structure using lightweight materials that cost less and are easier to install. The ease of manufacturability, installation, and replacement make JPL's proposed technology a compelling one to

  14. NREL Supports Development of World's Largest Solar Electric Power Plant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Project in 14 Years - News Releases | NREL NREL Supports Development of World's Largest Solar Electric Power Plant Project in 14 Years October 19, 2005 Golden, Colo. - Researchers with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have collaborated with Solargenix Energy on the solar collector technology to be used in the development of Nevada Solar One, a 64-megawatt (MW) Solar Thermal Electric Generating Plant in Boulder City, Nev. "We are excited

  15. Project Profile: Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators Project Profile: Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators Pennsylvania State University logo Pennsylvania State University, under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D FOA, is designing and testing a novel solar collector system that relies on stationary optics, avoiding the need for mirror movement. The system is capable of achieving optical performance equal to state-of-the-art parabolic trough systems, but at a lower cost.

  16. Submission Format for IMS2004 (Title in 18-point Times font)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the earliest days of the industry. This dominance has resulted in robust and low-cost balance of system (BOS) components for flat-plate PV panels. However, flat-plate solar...

  17. Optimum mix of conservation and solar energy in buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology is developed for optimally allocating resources between conservation and solar strategies in building design. Formulas are presented for a constrained optimum in which the initial investment is limited. The procedure is amenable to hand analysis if tables are available which give the Solar Savings Fraction as a function of the Load Collector Ratio for the locality. A numerical example is given.

  18. Outdoor Outfitter Gets Greener With Solar Water Heater

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Using Recovery Act funding, L.L. Bean, the popular outdoor apparel company, recently installed a 180-tube solar hot water collector array on the roof of their flagship store in Freeport, Maine. Find out some how much energy and money they're saving thanks to the new solar installation.

  19. Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, S.J.

    1995-11-01

    As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

  20. Method of making a back contacted solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gee, J.M.

    1995-11-21

    A back-contacted solar cell is described having laser-drilled vias connecting the front-surface carrier-collector junction to an electrode grid on the back surface. The structure may also include a rear surface carrier-collector junction connected to the same grid. The substrate is connected to a second grid which is interdigitated with the first. Both grids are configured for easy series connection with neighboring cells. Several processes are disclosed to produce the cell. 2 figs.

  1. Method of making a back contacted solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gee, James M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A back-contacted solar cell having laser-drilled vias connecting the front-surface carrier-collector junction to an electrode grid on the back surface. The structure may also include a rear surface carrier-collector junction connected to the same grid. The substrate is connected to a second grid which is interdigitated with the first. Both grids are configured for easy series connection with neighboring cells. Several processes are disclosed to produce the cell.

  2. Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators FY13 Q2 | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    document summarizes the progress of this Jet Propulsion Laboratory project, funded by SunShot, for the second quarter of fiscal year 2013. PDF icon progress_report_sunshot_jpl_fy13_q2.pdf More Documents & Publications Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrator Next-Generation Solar Collectors for CSP Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators - FY13 Q1

  3. Solar heating and cooling diode module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maloney, Timothy J. (Winchester, VA)

    1986-01-01

    A high efficiency solar heating system comprising a plurality of hollow modular units each for receiving a thermal storage mass, the units being arranged in stacked relation in the exterior frame of a building, each of the units including a port for filling the unit with the mass, a collector region and a storage region, each region having inner and outer walls, the outer wall of the collector region being oriented for exposure to sunlight for heating the thermal storage mass; the storage region having an opening therein and the collector region having a corresponding opening, the openings being joined for communicating the thermal storage mass between the storage and collector regions by thermosiphoning; the collector region being disposed substantially below and in parallel relation to the storage region in the modular unit; and the inner wall of the collector region of each successive modular unit in the stacked relation extending over the outer wall of the storage region of the next lower modular unit in the stacked relation for reducing heat loss from the system. Various modifications and alternatives are disclosed for both heating and cooling applications.

  4. Become One In A Million: Partnership Updates. Million Solar Roofs and Interstate Renewable Energy Council Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., October 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tombari, C.

    2005-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Million Solar Roofs Initiative (MSR) is a unique public-private partnership aimed at overcoming market barriers for photovoltaics (PV), solar water heating, transpired solar collectors, solar space heating and cooling, and pool heating. This report contains annual progress reports from 866 partners across the United States.

  5. An improved absorption generator for solar-thermal powered heat pumps. Part 2: Energy and economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fineblum, S.

    1997-12-31

    Solar heated absorption chiller installations have been very expensive for their rating. To enhance collector thermal efficiency the liquid flowing within the collectors must be kept as cool as possible. However, there is also a need to operate the absorption reported earlier. The compromise usually results in poor collector efficiency as well as a relatively poor specific chiller effect. The proposed vortex generator permits a heat pump to operate efficiently with relatively low temperature solar heated fluid (70--80 C). As a result, the collectors are cooler and more efficient. As noted in Part 1, the specific heat pumping capacity is about 27% greater than conventional systems operating at the same reduced generator temperatures. Therefore, a smaller, less expensive chiller is required. The reduced investment in solar arrays and absorption chillers is estimated along with a range of paybacks.

  6. Fuel cell collector plate and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braun, James C. (Juno Beach, FL); Zabriskie, Jr., John E. (Port St. Lucie, FL); Neutzler, Jay K. (Palm Beach Gardens, FL); Fuchs, Michel (Boynton Beach, FL); Gustafson, Robert C. (Palm Beach Gardens, FL)

    2001-01-01

    An improved molding composition is provided for compression molding or injection molding a current collector plate for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. The molding composition is comprised of a polymer resin combined with a low surface area, highly-conductive carbon and/or graphite powder filler. The low viscosity of the thermoplastic resin combined with the reduced filler particle surface area provide a moldable composition which can be fabricated into a current collector plate having improved current collecting capacity vis-a-vis comparable fluoropolymer molding compositions.

  7. Solar Energy: The Chicago Connection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winston, Roland

    2009-05-15

    Utilization of solar energy was significantly advanced with the invention of nonimaging solar concentrators. This has enabled practical uses of solar energy for such purposes as heating and cooling of buildings and power generation without the requirement for complicated tracking. What began as a method for efficiently collecting cerenkov light in high energy physics has become the means for producing from solar energy, high temperature for many societal applications as well as ultra-high temperature for research. This talk will describe the optical principles underlying the technology and illustrate with projects and laboratories from around the world. Examples will be drawn from a number of areas: cooling a commercial building in Sacramento, California, advanced collector development in China, NASA's plans for space propulsion by heating hydrogen, and from our own City of Chicago, a commitment to be a global leader in renewable energy production and manufacturing including solar power.

  8. Solar heating and cooling system installed at Leavenworth, Kansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, R. M.

    1980-06-01

    The solar heating and cooling system installed at the headquarters of Citizens Mutual Savings Association in Leavenworth, Kansas, is described in detail. The project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program and became operational in March, 1979. The designer was TEC, Inc. Consulting Engineers, Kansas City, Missouri and contractor was Norris Brothers, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. The solar system is expected to furnish 90 percent of the overall heating load, 70 percent of the cooling load and 100 percent of the domestic hot water load. The building has two floors with a total of 12,000 square feet gross area. The system has 120 flat-plate liquid solar panels with a net area of 2200 square feet. Five, 3-ton Arkla solar assisted absorption units provide the cooling, in conjunction with a 3000 gallon chilled water storage tank. Two, 3000 gallon storage tanks are provided with one designated for summer use, whereas both tanks are utilized during winter.

  9. NREL Develops New Optical Evaluation Approach for Parabolic Trough Collectors (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-08-01

    New analytical method makes it possible to carry out fast evaluation of trough collectors for design purposes.

  10. Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins Print Thursday, 18 September 2014 12:34 New studies of space dust captured by NASA's Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector have shown that interstellar particles may be much more complex in structure and composition than previously thought. -The tiny particles could give scientists chemical clues about the origins of our solar system. Amateur Enthusiasts Key to Research

  11. Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power August 20, 2013 - 4:45pm Addthis Photo of numerous parallel rows of parabolic trough collectors tracking the sun. Cooling towers and other generator equipment are in the midst of the troughs, and two water tanks are in the background. The Solar Electric Generating Station IV power plant in California consists of many parallel rows of parabolic

  12. Concentrating Solar Power Competitive Awards | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Power » Concentrating Solar Power Competitive Awards Concentrating Solar Power Competitive Awards The SunShot Initiative supports the development of novel concentrating solar power (CSP) research and development projects that will reduce the levelized cost of energy to $0.06 per kilowatt hour or less without subsidies by the end of the decade. These projects aim to engineer new concepts in the collector, receiver, thermal storage, heat transfer fluids and power cycle subsystems, including

  13. Solar heating and hot water system installed at St. Louis, Missouri. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    Information is provided on the solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao and Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri. The information consists of description, photos, maintenance and construction problems, final drawing, system requirements and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50% of the hot water requirements and 45% of the space heating needs for a 900 square foot office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 square foot of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  14. Inverse Marx modulators for self-biasing klystron depressed collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemp, Mark A.

    2014-07-31

    A novel pulsed depressed collector biasing scheme is proposed. This topology feeds forward energy recovered during one RF pulse for use on the following RF pulse. The presented ''inverse'' Marx charges biasing capacitors in series, and discharges them in parallel. Simulations are shown along with experimental demonstration on a 62kW klystron.

  15. Wind load design methods for ground-based heliostats and parabolic dish collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterka, J A; Derickson, R G

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this design method is to define wind loads on flat heliostat and parabolic dish collectors in a simplified form. Wind loads are defined for both mean and peak loads accounting for the protective influence of upwind collectors, wind protective fences, or other wind-blockage elements. The method used to define wind loads was to generalize wind load data obtained during tests on model collectors, heliostats or parabolic dishes, placed in a modeled atmospheric wind in a boundary-layer wind-tunnel at Colorado State University. For both heliostats and parabolic dishes, loads are reported for solitary collectors and for collectors as elements of a field. All collectors were solid with negligible porosity; thus the effects of porosity in the collectors is not addressed.

  16. Green Systems UK | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems UK Jump to: navigation, search Name: Green Systems UK Place: Cambridge, United Kingdom Sector: Solar Product: Design and installation of vacuum tube & flat plate solar hot...

  17. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  18. An improved absorption generator for solar-thermal powered heat pumps. Part 1: Feasibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fineblum, S.

    1997-12-31

    Solar heated absorption chiller installations have been, typically, very expensive for their rating. The need to keep the liquid flowing within the collectors as cool as possible to enhance collector thermal efficiency, conflicts with the need to operate the absorption chiller at a higher temperature. The compromise usually results in poor collector efficiency as well as a relatively poor specific chiller effect. The proposed vortex generator permits a heat pump to operate efficiently with relatively low temperature solar heated fluid (70--80 C). As a result, the collectors are cooler and much more efficient. In addition, the specific heat pumping capacity is about 27% greater than conventional systems operating at the same reduced generator temperatures and, therefore, a smaller chiller is required. The economic consequences of these benefits will be presented in Part 2.

  19. Multi-stage depressed collector for small orbit gyrotrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Amarjit (Greenbelt, MD); Ives, R. Lawrence (Saratoga, CA); Schumacher, Richard V. (Campbell, CA); Mizuhara, Yosuke M. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A multi-stage depressed collector for receiving energy from a small orbit gyrating electron beam employs a plurality of electrodes at different potentials for sorting the individual electrons on the basis of their total energy level. Magnetic field generating coils, for producing magnetic fields and magnetic iron for magnetic field shaping produce adiabatic and controlled non-adiabatic transitions of the incident electron beam to further facilitate the sorting.

  20. Metal Current Collector Protected by Oxide Film - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Current Collector Protected by Oxide Film Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummarySteven Visco, Craig Jacobson, and Lutgard DeJonghe have designed a cost-efficient, structurally sound technology for current collection and cell-to-cell interconnection of high temperature (>600 C) planar electrochemical devices. Current collection is normally achieved using expensive metal oxides or metals such as platinum or nickel.

  1. Multi-stage depressed collector for small orbit gyrotrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, A.; Ives, R.L.; Schumacher, R.V.; Mizuhara, Y.M.

    1998-07-14

    A multi-stage depressed collector for receiving energy from a small orbit gyrating electron beam employs a plurality of electrodes at different potentials for sorting the individual electrons on the basis of their total energy level. Magnetic field generating coils, for producing magnetic fields and magnetic iron for magnetic field shaping produce adiabatic and controlled non-adiabatic transitions of the incident electron beam to further facilitate the sorting. 9 figs.

  2. SOLAR POWERING OF HIGH EFFICIENCY ABSORPTION CHILLER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randy C. Gee

    2004-11-15

    This is the Final Report for two solar cooling projects under this Cooperative Agreement. The first solar cooling project is a roof-integrated solar cooling and heating system, called the Power Roof{trademark}, which began operation in Raleigh, North Carolina in late July 2002. This system provides 176 kW (50 ton) of solar-driven space cooling using a unique nonimaging concentrating solar collector. The measured performance of the system during its first months of operation is reported here, along with a description of the design and operation of this system. The second solar cooling system, with a 20-ton capacity, is being retrofit to a commercial office building in Charleston, South Carolina but has not yet been completed.

  3. Solar Circuitry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Circuitry" with the Solar Powered Energy Kit Curriculum: Solar Power- (lightelectromagnetic radiation, electricity, circuitry, efficiency, energy transformation, subatomic ...

  4. Solar collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, S.L.

    1984-08-01

    This report contains summaries and pictures of projects funded by the Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program which include the following solar technologies: solar dish; photovoltaics; passive solar building and solar hot water system; Trombe wall; hot air panel; hybrid solar heating system; solar grain dryer; solar greenhouse; solar hot water workshops; and solar workshops.

  5. Boston solar retrofits: studies of solar access and economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, M.

    1980-11-01

    Studies of solar access and solar retrofit economics are described for residential applications in the City of Boston. The study of solar access was based upon a random sample of 94 buildings; the sample was stratified to ensure a broad geographic representation from the city's various sections. Using available data on the heights and orientations of the sampled structures and surrounding buildings, each building's hourly access to sunlight was computed separately for the roof and south facing walls. These data were then aggregated by broad structural classifications in order to provide general measures of solar access. The second study was a comparative analysis of the economics of several solar heating and hot water systems. An active hot water system, installed using pre-assembled, commercially purchased equipment, was selected as a reference technology. A variety of measures of economic performance were computed for this system, with and without existing tax credits and under various financing arrangements. Next, a number of alternative approaches for solar space and water heating were identified from interviews with individuals and groups involved in solar retrofit projects in the Boston area. The objective was to identify approaches that many of those interviewed believe to be low-cost means of applying solar energy in residential settings. The approaches selected include thermal window covers, wall collectors, bread box water heaters, and sun spaces. Preliminary estimates of the performance of several representative designs were developed and the economics of these designs evaluated.

  6. Performance of the biose cascade-INEL manufactured solar home

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, A S; Liebelt, K H; Scofield, M P; Shinn, N R

    1980-01-01

    Two manufactured active solar homes using air collectors and rock storage were designed, bult and are being tested. The cooperative, DOE-funded project involves. Boise Cascade Corporation and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The two primary goals of the project are to develop an active solar heating system that is cost-effective now, and to provide significant market penetration through the involvement of Boise Cascade, a major manufacturer of factory built houses. A brief discussion of the houses and solar systems is included, with more detailed discussion of the desktop-computer based data acquisition system and initial performance results. The 1979 cooling season data indicated a need for modifications to achieve adequate cooling system performance. Data from the heating season showed good agreement with calculations, especially the house heat loss coefficient. However, solar heating fractions were lower than predicted and an examination of the collector operating efficiency showed the collector losses to be approximately three times higher than predicted. Tests are underway to better understand the large collection losses. Comparison of the performance data and f-chart predictions shows significant differences, with predicted solar fractions being lower than actual. The solar domestic hot water preheating system performed reasonably well, with significant thermal losses noticed from the auxiliary hot water heater. Recommendations are made for the design of solar air-heating systems.

  7. Depth profiling analysis of solar wind helium collected in diamond-like carbon film from Genesis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bajo, Ken-ichi; Olinger, Chad T.; Jurewicz, Amy J.G.; Burnett, Donald S.; Sakaguchi, Isao; Suzuki, Taku; Itose, Satoru; Ishihara, Morio; Uchino, Kiichiro; Wieler, Rainer; et al

    2015-10-01

    The distribution of solar-wind ions in Genesis mission collectors, as determined by depth profiling analysis, constrains the physics of ion solid interactions involving the solar wind. Thus, they provide an experimental basis for revealing ancient solar activities represented by solar-wind implants in natural samples. We measured the first depth profile of ⁴He in a collector; the shallow implantation (peaking at <20 nm) required us to use sputtered neutral mass spectrometry with post-photoionization by a strong field. The solar wind He fluence calculated using depth profiling is ~8.5 x 10¹⁴ cm⁻². The shape of the solar wind ⁴He depth profile ismore » consistent with TRIM simulations using the observed ⁴He velocity distribution during the Genesis mission. It is therefore likely that all solar-wind elements heavier than H are completely intact in this Genesis collector and, consequently, the solar particle energy distributions for each element can be calculated from their depth profiles. Ancient solar activities and space weathering of solar system objects could be quantitatively reproduced by solar particle implantation profiles.« less

  8. New Optical Evaluation Approach for Parabolic Trough Collectors: First-Principle OPTical Intercept Calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, G.; Lewandowski, A.

    2012-11-01

    A new analytical method -- First-principle OPTical Intercept Calculation (FirstOPTIC) -- is presented here for optical evaluation of trough collectors. It employs first-principle optical treatment of collector optical error sources and derives analytical mathematical formulae to calculate the intercept factor of a trough collector. A suite of MATLAB code is developed for FirstOPTIC and validated against theoretical/numerical solutions and ray-tracing results. It is shown that FirstOPTIC can provide fast and accurate calculation of intercept factors of trough collectors. The method makes it possible to carry out fast evaluation of trough collectors for design purposes. The FirstOPTIC techniques and analysis may be naturally extended to other types of CSP technologies such as linear-Fresnel collectors and central-receiver towers.

  9. Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar PV Racking System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peek, Richard T.

    2015-01-23

    The objective of this project was to reduce the cost of racking for PV solar on flat commercial rooftops. Cost reductions would come from both labor savings and material savings related to the installation process. The rack would need to accommodate the majority of modules available on the market. Cascade Engineering has a long history of converting traditional metal type applications over to plastic. Injection molding of plastics have numerous advantages including selection of resin for the application, placing the material exactly where it is needed, designing in features that will speed up the installation process, and weight reduction of the array. A plastic rack would need to meet the requirements of UL2703, Mounting systems, mounting devices, clamping/retention devices, and ground lugs for use with flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels. Comparing original data to the end of project racking design, racking material costs were reduced 50% and labor costs reduced 64%. The racking product accommodates all 60 and 72 cell panels on the market, meets UL2703 requirements, contributes only 1.3 pounds per square foot of weight to the array, requires little ballast to secure the array, automatically grounds the module when the module is secured, stacks/nests well for shipping/fewer lifts to the roof, provides integrated wire routing, allows water to drain on the roof, and accommodates various seismic roof connections. Project goals were achieved as noted in the original funding application.

  10. Passive solar design handbook. Volume III. Passive solar design analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.W.; Balcomb, J.D.; Kosiewicz, C.E.; Lazarus, G.S.; McFarland, R.D.; Wray, W.O.

    1982-07-01

    Simple analytical methods concerning the design of passive solar heating systems are presented with an emphasis on the average annual heating energy consumption. Key terminology and methods are reviewed. The solar load ratio (SLR) is defined, and its relationship to analysis methods is reviewed. The annual calculation, or Load Collector Ratio (LCR) method, is outlined. Sensitivity data are discussed. Information is presented on balancing conservation and passive solar strategies in building design. Detailed analysis data are presented for direct gain and sunspace systems, and details of the systems are described. Key design parameters are discussed in terms of their impact on annual heating performance of the building. These are the sensitivity data. The SLR correlations for the respective system types are described. The monthly calculation, or SLR method, based on the SLR correlations, is reviewed. Performance data are given for 9 direct gain systems and 15 water wall and 42 Trombe wall systems. (LEW)

  11. Solar heating system installed at Jackson, Tennessee. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-10-01

    The solar energy heating system installed at the Coca-Cola Bottling Works in Jackson, Tennessee is described. The system consists of 9480 square feet of Owens-Illinois evacuated tubular solar collectors with attached specular cylindrical reflectors and will provide space heating for the 70,000 square foot production building in the winter, and hot water for the bottle washing equipment the remainder of the year. Component specifications and engineering drawings are included. (WHK)

  12. Grid collector: An event catalog with automated file management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Kesheng; Zhang, Wei-Ming; Sim, Alexander; Gu, Junmin; Shoshani, Arie

    2003-10-17

    High Energy Nuclear Physics (HENP) experiments such as STAR at BNL and ATLAS at CERN produce large amounts of data that are stored as files on mass storage systems in computer centers. In these files, the basic unit of data is an event. Analysis is typically performed on a selected set of events. The files containing these events have to be located, copied from mass storage systems to disks before analysis, and removed when no longer needed. These file management tasks are tedious and time consuming. Typically, all events contained in the files are read into memory before a selection is made. Since the time to read the events dominate the overall execution time, reading the unwanted event needlessly increases the analysis time. The Grid Collector is a set of software modules that works together to address these two issues. It automates the file management tasks and provides ''direct'' access to the selected events for analyses. It is currently integrated with the STAR analysis framework. The users can select events based on tags, such as, ''production date between March 10 and 20, and the number of charged tracks > 100.'' The Grid Collector locates the files containing relevant events, transfers the files across the Grid if necessary, and delivers the events to the analysis code through the familiar iterators. There has been some research efforts to address the file management issues, the Grid Collector is unique in that it addresses the event access issue together with the file management issues. This makes it more useful to a large variety of users.

  13. Fuel cell collector plates with improved mass transfer channels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gurau, Vladimir (Miami, FL); Barbir, Frano (Palm Beach Gardens, FL); Neutzler, Jay K. (Palm Beach Gardens, FL)

    2003-04-22

    A fuel cell collector plate can be provided with one or more various channel constructions for the transport of reactants to the gas diffusion layer and the removal of water therefrom. The outlet channel can be arranged to have a reduced volume compared to the inlet channel, in both interdigitated and discontinuous spiral applications. The land width between an inlet channel and outlet channel can be reduced to improved mass flow rate in regions of deleted reactant concentrations. Additionally or alternatively, the depth of the inlet channel can be reduced in the direction of flow to reduce the diffusion path as the concentration of reactant is reduced.

  14. Long-Life Self-Renewing Solar Reflector Stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, Barry Lynn (Solana Beach, CA)

    1997-07-08

    A long-life solar reflector includes a solar collector substrate and a base layer bonded to a solar collector substrate. The first layer includes a first reflective layer and a first acrylic or transparent polymer layer covering the first reflective layer to prevent exposure of the first reflective layer. The reflector also includes at least one upper layer removably bonded to the first acrylic or transparent polymer layer of the base layer. The upper layer includes a second reflective layer and a second acrylic or transparent polymer layer covering the second reflective layer to prevent exposure of the second reflective layer. The upper layer may be removed from the base reflective layer to expose the base layer, thereby lengthening the useful life of the solar reflector. A method of manufacturing a solar reflector includes the steps of bonding a base layer to a solar collector substrate, wherein the base reflective layer includes a first reflective layer and a first transparent polymer or acrylic layer covering the first reflective layer; and removably bonding a first upper layer to the first transparent polymer or acrylic layer of the base layer. The first upper layer includes a second reflective layer and a second transparent polymer or acrylic layer covering the second reflective layer to prevent exposure of the second reflective layer.

  15. Directory of Solar Energy Research Activities in the United States: First Edition, May 1980. [1220 projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-05-01

    Information covering 1220, FY 1978 and FY 1979 solar energy research projects is included. In addition to the title and text of project summaries, the directory contains the following indexes: subject index, investigator index, performing organization index, and supporting organization index. This information was registered with the Smithsonian Science Information Exchange by Federal, State, and other supporting organizations. The project summaries are categorized in the following areas: biomass, ocean energy, wind energy,photovoltaics, photochemical energy conversion, photobiological energy conversion, solar heating and cooling, solar process heat, solar collectors and concentrators, solar thermal electric generation, and other solar energy conversion. (WHK)

  16. Passive test cell data for the solar laboratory, Winter 1980-81

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, R.D.

    1982-05-01

    Testing was done during the 1980-81 winter in 400 ft/sup 3/ test cells at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Solar Lab. This testing was done primarily to determine the relative efficiency of various passive solar heating concepts and to obtain data that could be used to validate computer simulation programs. The passive solar systems tested were Trombe wall with and without selective absorber, water wall, phase-change wall, direct gain, a heat-pipe collector, and two sunspace geometries. The heating load coefficient of these cells was roughly 26 Btu/h /sup 0/F and the collector area was 23.4 ft/sup 2/, giving a load collector ratio of approximately 27 Btu//sup 0/F day ft/sup 2/. The test cell configurations and instrumentation are detailed herein, and the resulting data and cell efficiencies are discussed.

  17. Performance of a drain-back solar heating and hot water system with auxiliary heat pump. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karaki, S.

    1984-03-01

    The principal objective of the project was to test and evaluate the BNL collectors in a space heating system. When the BNL collectors delaminated under stagnation conditions, they were replaced with the Chamberlain collectors which were previously used on solar house III, and tests were continued to evaluate performance of a drain-back system. Results leading to the following conclusions are discussed. (1) The Chamberlain collectors have deteriorated in performance compared to previous seasons. Where daily efficiency of 41% were attained in 1978 to 1979 and 1979 to 1980, efficiency was 37%. System efficiency of 29% compares to 30% in prior years. (2) Solar contribution to DHW heating is low, and is probably the result of the artificially imposed load profile and the low recovery rate of the double-wall heat exchanger. (3) System efficiency can be improved by reducing thermal losses from storage.

  18. Experimental investigation and modeling of a direct-coupled PV/T air collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahsavar, A.; Ameri, M.

    2010-11-15

    Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) systems refer to the integration of photovoltaic and solar thermal technologies into one single system, in that both useful heat energy and electricity are produced. The impetus of this paper is to model a direct-coupled PV/T air collector which is designed, built, and tested at a geographic location of Kerman, Iran. In this system, a thin aluminum sheet suspended at the middle of air channel is used to increase the heat exchange surface and consequently improve heat extraction from PV panels. This PV/T system is tested in natural convection and forced convection (with two, four and eight fans operating) and its unsteady results are presented in with and without glass cover cases. A theoretical model is developed and validated against experimental data, where good agreement between the measured values and those calculated by the simulation model were achieved. Comparisons are made between electrical performance of the different modes of operation, and it is concluded that there is an optimum number of fans for achieving maximum electrical efficiency. Also, results show that setting glass cover on photovoltaic panels leads to an increase in thermal efficiency and decrease in electrical efficiency of the system. (author)

  19. Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film Solar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reflector | Department of Energy Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film Solar Reflector Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film Solar Reflector This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. PDF icon csp_review_meeting_042313_jorgensen.pdf More Documents & Publications POLYMERIC MIRROR FILMS: DURABILITY IMPROVEMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION IN NEW COLLECTOR DESIGNS

  20. Prototype Development for Self-Cleaning CSP Collectors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  1. Improved solar heating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

    1980-05-16

    An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

  2. Solar heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schreyer, James M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Concord, TN)

    1982-01-01

    An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

  3. NREL Solar Technology Will Warm Air at 'Home' - News Feature | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Solar Technology Will Warm Air at 'Home' July 30, 2010 Photo of a building coved in perforated metal, with two men standing next to it. Enlarge image NREL's Craig Christensen and Chuck Kutscher stand next to a wall at the RSF that uses their award-winning transpired air collector technology. Credit: Dennis Schroeder Sometimes the way back home isn't straightforward. But once you find your way, you know you'll be welcomed with open arms. Transpired solar air collector technology PDF ,

  4. Validation of Multiple Tools for Flat Plate Photovoltaic Modeling Against Measured Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, J.; Whitmore, J.; Blair, N.; Dobos, A. P.

    2014-08-01

    This report expands upon a previous work by the same authors, published in the 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists conference. In this validation study, comprehensive analysis is performed on nine photovoltaic systems for which NREL could obtain detailed performance data and specifications, including three utility-scale systems and six commercial scale systems. Multiple photovoltaic performance modeling tools were used to model these nine systems, and the error of each tool was analyzed compared to quality-controlled measured performance data. This study shows that, excluding identified outliers, all tools achieve annual errors within +/-8% and hourly root mean squared errors less than 7% for all systems. It is further shown using SAM that module model and irradiance input choices can change the annual error with respect to measured data by as much as 6.6% for these nine systems, although all combinations examined still fall within an annual error range of +/-8.5%. Additionally, a seasonal variation in monthly error is shown for all tools. Finally, the effects of irradiance data uncertainty and the use of default loss assumptions on annual error are explored, and two approaches to reduce the error inherent in photovoltaic modeling are proposed.

  5. Climatically Diverse Data Set for Flat-Plate PV Module Model Validations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marion, B.

    2013-05-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) module I-V curves were measured at Florida, Colorado, and Oregon locations to provide data for the validation and development of models used for predicting the performance of PV modules.

  6. Depth profiling analysis of solar wind helium collected in diamond-like carbon film from Genesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajo, Ken-ichi; Olinger, Chad T.; Jurewicz, Amy J.G.; Burnett, Donald S.; Sakaguchi, Isao; Suzuki, Taku; Itose, Satoru; Ishihara, Morio; Uchino, Kiichiro; Wieler, Rainer; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2015-10-01

    The distribution of solar-wind ions in Genesis mission collectors, as determined by depth profiling analysis, constrains the physics of ion solid interactions involving the solar wind. Thus, they provide an experimental basis for revealing ancient solar activities represented by solar-wind implants in natural samples. We measured the first depth profile of ⁴He in a collector; the shallow implantation (peaking at <20 nm) required us to use sputtered neutral mass spectrometry with post-photoionization by a strong field. The solar wind He fluence calculated using depth profiling is ~8.5 x 10¹⁴ cm⁻². The shape of the solar wind ⁴He depth profile is consistent with TRIM simulations using the observed ⁴He velocity distribution during the Genesis mission. It is therefore likely that all solar-wind elements heavier than H are completely intact in this Genesis collector and, consequently, the solar particle energy distributions for each element can be calculated from their depth profiles. Ancient solar activities and space weathering of solar system objects could be quantitatively reproduced by solar particle implantation profiles.

  7. Progress in passive solar energy systems. Volume 8. Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, J.; Andrejko, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference sponsored by the US DOE, the Solar Energy Research Institute, SolarVision, Inc., and the Southern California Solar Energy Society. The topics considered at the conference included sizing solar energy systems for agricultural applications, a farm scale ethanol production plant, the EEC wind energy RandD program, the passive solar performance assessment of an earth-sheltered house, the ARCO 1 MW photovoltaic power plant, the performance of a dendritic web photovoltaic module, second generation point focused concentrators, linear fresnel lens concentrating photovoltaic collectors, photovoltaic conversion efficiency, amorphous silicon thin film solar cells, a photovoltaic system for a shopping center, photovoltaic power generation for the utility industry, spectral solar radiation, and the analysis of insolation data.

  8. Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    An oil/gas collector/separator for recovery of oil leaking, for example, from an offshore or underwater oil well. The separator is floated over the point of the leak and tethered in place so as to receive oil/gas floating, or forced under pressure, toward the water surface from either a broken or leaking oil well casing, line, or sunken ship. The separator is provided with a downwardly extending skirt to contain the oil/gas which floats or is forced upward into a dome wherein the gas is separated from the oil/water, with the gas being flared (burned) at the top of the dome, and the oil is separated from water and pumped to a point of use. Since the density of oil is less than that of water it can be easily separated from any water entering the dome.

  9. Rim-drive cable-aligned heliostat collector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dolan, J.E.; Sands, T.D.

    1982-09-30

    Disclosed is a heliostat collector apparatus comprising at least one heliostat suspended from a plurality of longitudinally extending linkage means. An enclosure structure is disposed adjacent the heliostat and provides a means for allowing the heliostat to be substantially protected from weathering. A first drive means is operatively connected to the heliostat to effect steering thereof in at least one of first and second predetermined directions. Finally, a frame member is adapted for supporting the heliostat at an inner portion thereof. The frame includes a plurality of outer expandable portions. Each one of the expandable portions is adapted to slidably engage a corresponding one of the plurality of linkage means. The expandable portions are further adapted to allow the heliostat to be slidably moved along the linkage means in directions away from and towards the enclosure structure and to substantially reduce stress acting on the heliostat during steering.

  10. Solar Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ... Sciences Applications National Solar Thermal Test Facility Nuclear Energy ...

  11. Method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tischer, Ragnar P. (Birmingham, MI); Winterbottom, Walter L. (Farmington Hills, MI); Wroblowa, Halina S. (West Bloomfield, MI)

    1987-01-01

    This specification is directed to a method of making a current collector (14) for a sodium/sulfur battery (10). The current collector so-made is electronically conductive and resistant to corrosive attack by sulfur/polysulfide melts. The method includes the step of forming the current collector for the sodium/sulfur battery from a composite material (16) formed of aluminum filled with electronically conductive fibers selected from the group of fibers consisting essentially of graphite fibers having a diameter up to 10 microns and silicon carbide fibers having a diameter in a range of 500-1000 angstroms.

  12. Method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tischer, R.P.; Winterbottom, W.L.; Wroblowa, H.S.

    1987-03-10

    This specification is directed to a method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery. The current collector so-made is electronically conductive and resistant to corrosive attack by sulfur/polysulfide melts. The method includes the step of forming the current collector for the sodium/sulfur battery from a composite material formed of aluminum filled with electronically conductive fibers selected from the group of fibers consisting essentially of graphite fibers having a diameter up to 10 microns and silicon carbide fibers having a diameter in a range of 500--1,000 angstroms. 2 figs.

  13. Development of an Advanced, Low-Cost parabolic Trough Collector...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. PDF icon cspreviewmeeting042413...

  14. Electrolytic/fuel cell bundles and systems including a current collector in communication with an electrode thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawkes, Grant L.; Herring, James S.; Stoots, Carl M.; O'Brien, James E.

    2013-03-05

    Electrolytic/fuel cell bundles and systems including such bundles include an electrically conductive current collector in communication with an anode or a cathode of each of a plurality of cells. A cross-sectional area of the current collector may vary in a direction generally parallel to a general direction of current flow through the current collector. The current collector may include a porous monolithic structure. At least one cell of the plurality of cells may include a current collector that surrounds an outer electrode of the cell and has at least six substantially planar exterior surfaces. The planar surfaces may extend along a length of the cell, and may abut against a substantially planar surface of a current collector of an adjacent cell. Methods for generating electricity and for performing electrolysis include flowing current through a conductive current collector having a varying cross-sectional area.

  15. Next-Generation Solar Collectors for CSP- FY13 Q2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document summarizes the progress of this 3M project, funded by SunShot, for the second quarter of fiscal year 2013.

  16. Tracking heat flux sensors for concentrating solar applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andraka, Charles E; Diver, Jr., Richard B

    2013-06-11

    Innovative tracking heat flux sensors located at or near the solar collector's focus for centering the concentrated image on a receiver assembly. With flux sensors mounted near a receiver's aperture, the flux gradient near the focus of a dish or trough collector can be used to precisely position the focused solar flux on the receiver. The heat flux sensors comprise two closely-coupled thermocouple junctions with opposing electrical polarity that are separated by a thermal resistor. This arrangement creates an electrical signal proportional to heat flux intensity, and largely independent of temperature. The sensors are thermally grounded to allow a temperature difference to develop across the thermal resistor, and are cooled by a heat sink to maintain an acceptable operating temperature.

  17. Solar Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power/Energy Conversion Efficiency/Solar Energy/Solar Newsletter - Solar NewsletterTara Camacho-Lopez2016-02-08T15:41:23+00:00

  18. Solar Easements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Hampshire's "solar skyspace easement" provisions allow property owners to create solar easements in order to create and preserve a right to unobstructed access to solar energy. Easements remain...

  19. The absorption chiller in large scale solar pond cooling design with condenser heat rejection in the upper convecting zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsilingiris, P.T. )

    1992-07-01

    The possibility of using solar ponds as low-cost solar collectors combined with commercial absorption chillers in large scale solar cooling design is investigated. The analysis is based on the combination of a steady-state solar pond mathematical model with the operational characteristics of a commercial absorption chiller, assuming condenser heat rejection in the upper convecting zone (U.C.Z.). The numerical solution of the nonlinear equations involved leads to results which relate the chiller capacity with pond design and environmental parameters, which are also employed for the investigation of the optimum pond size for a minimum capital cost. The derived cost per cooling kW for a 350 kW chiller ranges from about 300 to 500 $/kW cooling. This is almost an order of magnitude lower than using a solar collector field of evacuated tube type.

  20. Solar Power Beaming: From Space to Earth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubenchik, A M; Parker, J M; Beach, R J; Yamamoto, R M

    2009-04-14

    Harvesting solar energy in space and power beaming the collected energy to a receiver station on Earth is a very attractive way to help solve mankind's current energy and environmental problems. However, the colossal and expensive 'first step' required in achieving this goal has to-date stifled its initiation. In this paper, we will demonstrate that recent advance advances in laser and optical technology now make it possible to deploy a space-based system capable of delivering 1 MW of energy to a terrestrial receiver station, via a single unmanned commercial launch into Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Figure 1 depicts the overall concept of our solar power beaming system, showing a large solar collector in space, beaming a coherent laser beam to a receiving station on Earth. We will describe all major subsystems and provide technical and economic discussion to support our conclusions.

  1. Radial electron collection in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinson, A. B. B.; Elam, J. W.; Liu, J.; Pellin, M. J.; Marks, T. J.; Hupp, J. T.; Materials Science Division; Northwestern Univ.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a new photoelectrode architecture consisting of concentric conducting and semiconducting nanotubes for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Atomic layer deposition is employed to grow indium tin oxide (ITO) within a porous template and subsequently coat the high area photoelectrode with amorphous TiO2. Compared with control devices lacking a current collector within the pores, the new photoelectrode geometry exhibits dramatically higher current densities, an effect attributed to the radial collection of electrons.

  2. Cooperative passive-solar commercial retrofit. Final report, September 1, 1980-December 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, W.T.

    1982-12-01

    The primary objectives of this project were: the conversion of an existing south-facing storefront into a trombe'-wall passive solar collector, the sharing of information on simple low-cost energy alternatives with the local community, and the reduction of the store building's dependence on non-renewable fossil fuel for space heating. Six 6' wide pre-assembled collector glazing panels were mounted on a 12' high by 36' long portion of the south-facing masonry wall. Vent-holes were cut through the wall at each panel to provide air inlets and outlets for the collector and monitoring equipment was installed to record performance. A series of hands-on construction workshops were attended by Co-op and community members. During these sessions, collector components were assembled. The panels were installed on April 22, 1981 in celebration of Earth Day. Additional sessions were held to complete the project, make necessary modifications and install sensors. Project personnel participated in several energy-education activities, including workshops, seminars and alternative energy home tours. A community-based energy resource council was founded with the assistance of several key Co-op project members and a fully-illustrated How-To manual, entitled Passive Solar Collector: A Trombe'-Wall Retrofit Guide was published. Finally, a variety of energy conservation measures were undertaken. These included a new airlock store entry, insulated store ceiling, destratification ceiling fans and wood-burning furnaces have combined with the passive solar collector to substantially reduce the use of fuel oil for heat.

  3. Region Solar Inc Solar Inc California Renewable Energy Solar...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Point Drive Fort Collins Colorado Solar Solar cell passive solar architectural glass solar grid tie inverter semiconductor flat panel display data storage http www advanced...

  4. Community Shared Solar with Solarize

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An overview of the concept behind The Solarize Guidebook, which offers neighborhoods a plan for getting volume discounts when making group purchases of rooftop solar energy systems.

  5. Optimization of solar assisted heat pump systems via a simple analytic approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J W

    1980-01-01

    An analytic method for calculating the optimum operating temperature of the collector/storage subsystem in a solar assisted heat pump is presented. A tradeoff exists between rising heat pump coefficient of performance and falling collector efficiency as this temperature is increased, resulting in an optimum temperature whose value increases with increasing efficiency of the auxiliary energy source. Electric resistance is shown to be a poor backup to such systems. A number of options for thermally coupling the system to the ground are analyzed and compared.

  6. Starwood Solar I Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Starwood Solar I Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Starwood Solar I Solar Power Plant Facility Starwood Solar I Sector Solar Facility Type Concentrating Solar...

  7. Nevada Solar One Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar One Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Nevada Solar One Solar Power Plant Facility Nevada Solar One Sector Solar Facility Type Concentrating Solar Power...

  8. Mojave Solar Park Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Park Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Mojave Solar Park Solar Power Plant Facility Mojave Solar Park Sector Solar Facility Type Concentrating Solar Power...

  9. Passive solar design handbooks: Vol III: passive solar design analysis and supplement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Jones, R.W.; Kosciewicz, C.E.; Lazarus, G.S.; McFarland, R.D.; Wray, W.O.

    1983-01-01

    This book applies the Los Alamos Solar Load Ratio (SLR) method to the design of passive solar heating systems, with an emphasis on the average annual heating energy consumption. Recommendations are given on minimizing heating energy consumption by appropriate choices of conservation level and solar system parameters. Analytical methods and supporting tables are presented which enable simple, fast estimates of the heating energy consumption as part of the design process. Topics considered include SLR correlations, the load collector ratio (LCR) method, sensitivity data, cooling considerations, conservation formulas, design procedure, life-cycle costs, high-mass direct gain buildings, low-mass sun-tempered buildings, sunspaces, off-reference night insulation, correlation equations, and mixed systems.

  10. Performance of active solar space-heating systems, 1980-1981 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welch, K.; Kendall, P.; Pakkala, P.; Cramer, M.

    1981-01-01

    Data are provided on 32 solar heating sites in the National Solar Data Network (NSDN). Of these, comprehensive data are included for 14 sites which cover a range of system types and solar applications. A brief description of the remaining sites is included along with system problems experienced which prevented comprehensive seasonal analyses. Tables and discussions of individual site parameters such as collector areas, storage tank sizes, manufacturers, building dimensions, etc. are provided. Tables and summaries of 1980-1981 heating season data are also provided. Analysis results are presented in graphic form to highlight key summary information. Performance indices are graphed for two major groups of collectors - liquid and air. Comparative results of multiple NSDN systems' operation for the 1980-1981 heating season are summarized with discussions of specific cases and conclusions which may be drawn from the data. (LEW)

  11. Operating characteristics of a cartridge collector utilizing medium-pressure purge air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, J. )

    1993-11-01

    For over 20 years, dust collectors equipped with cleanable paper cartridge pulse-jet cleaning mechanisms. Applications have been limited primarily to light inlet dust loads of 2 grains/dscf (4.6g/m[sup 3] or less). One manufacturer has successfully tested and operated a dust collector utilizing a full-scale, medium-pressure (6 to 8 psig, 4.0 to 5.5 MPa), utilizing 6-in. (150-mm) diameter by 50-in. (1,270-mm) cellulose cartridge filter elements, under high inlet dust load conditions.

  12. ImagineSolar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Workforce training, Corporate consulting - Solar projects, Solar sales, Solar marketing, Solar business development, Solar policy, Solar advocacy, Solar government...

  13. High temperature solar selective coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Cheryl E

    2014-11-25

    Improved solar collectors (40) comprising glass tubing (42) attached to bellows (44) by airtight seals (56) enclose solar absorber tubes (50) inside an annular evacuated space (54. The exterior surfaces of the solar absorber tubes (50) are coated with improved solar selective coatings {48} which provide higher absorbance, lower emittance and resistance to atmospheric oxidation at elevated temperatures. The coatings are multilayered structures comprising solar absorbent layers (26) applied to the meta surface of the absorber tubes (50), typically stainless steel, topped with antireflective Savers (28) comprising at least two layers 30, 32) of refractory metal or metalloid oxides (such as titania and silica) with substantially differing indices of refraction in adjacent layers. Optionally, at least one layer of a noble metal such as platinum can be included between some of the layers. The absorbent layers cars include cermet materials comprising particles of metal compounds is a matrix, which can contain oxides of refractory metals or metalloids such as silicon. Reflective layers within the coating layers can comprise refractory metal silicides and related compounds characterized by the formulas TiSi. Ti.sub.3SiC.sub.2, TiAlSi, TiAN and similar compounds for Zr and Hf. The titania can be characterized by the formulas TiO.sub.2, Ti.sub.3O.sub.5. TiOx or TiO.sub.xN.sub.1-x with x 0 to 1. The silica can be at least one of SiO.sub.2, SiO.sub.2x or SiO.sub.2xN.sub.1-x with x=0 to 1.

  14. Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Power Project Opportunities Abound in the Region The WIPP site is receives abundant solar energy with 6-7 kWhsq meter power production potential As the accompanying map of ...

  15. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the context of this law, a solar energy device is a system "manufactured and sold for the sole purpose of facilitating the collection and beneficial use of solar energy, including passive...

  16. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A solar energy system is defined as "a system affixed to a building or buildings that uses solar devices, which are thermally isolated from living space or any other area where the energy is used...

  17. Solar Blog

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    96426 Solar Blog en Solar Energy Jobs Outpace U.S. Economy http:energy.govarticlessolar-energy-jobs-outpace-us-economy

  18. Solar Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ... Hydrogen Infrastructure Hydrogen Production Market Transformation Fuel Cells ...

  19. Solar Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    probablistic solar forecast produced with PRESCIENT. Permalink Gallery Sandia Develops Stochastic Production Cost Model ... Grid Integration, Energy, Facilities, Grid ...

  20. Electron emission in a source-collector sheath system: A kinetic study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rizopoulou, N. Coppins, M.; Bacharis, M.; Robinson, A. P. L.

    2014-10-15

    The classical source-collector sheath system describes a plasma that forms between a Maxwellian source and an absorbing wall. The plasma is assumed to be collisionless and without ionization. Two distinct areas are being formed: the collector sheath, an ion-rich region in contact with the absorbing boundary, and the source sheath, which is an electron-rich area near the Maxwellian source. In this work, we study a modified version of the classical source-collector sheath system, where the wall is no longer absorbing but emits electrons. As a result, we have two different types of collector sheath, one where a potential well is formed and one without a potential well. We examine the effect of electron emission for a range of conditions for the plasma and the emitted electrons. In the first part of this work, we study the problem analytically, and in the second, using our kinetic Vlasov code, Yggdrasil. The simulation results are in very good agreement with the predictions of our theoretical model.

  1. Supplemental grounding of extended emp collectors. Final report, 1 May 1980-31 January 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denny, H.W.; Acree, D.W.; Melson, G.B.; Millard, D.P.

    1982-01-31

    The external conductors of a facility, particularly long, above ground types, pose a severe EMP threat. A primary purpose of this program was to investigate the premise that supplemental ground connections in these types of conductors could serve to reduce this threat. To support this investigation an External Collector Analysis Model (ECAM) was developed. ECAM was applied to analyzing the EMP-induced current levels appearing at a facility under various conditions of line length, line height, and number of grounds. From the results, approaches to the treatment of external collector penetrations are suggested. In addition to the external collector assessments, preliminary studies of internal collector responses are reported. Supplemental studies of techniques for measuring the responses of earth electrode systems over the EMP power spectrum are described. A successful technique utilizing currently available instrumentation was used to validate a test probe and to evaluate scaled models of various commonly used earth electrode geometries. From the measurements, observations relating to the behavior of various geometries up to 500 MHz are made.

  2. Planar fuel cell utilizing nail current collectors for increased active surface area

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    George, Thomas J.; Meacham, G. B. Kirby

    2002-03-26

    A plurality of nail current collector members are useful in the gas flow passages of an electrochemical device to optimize the active surfaces of the device and to provide structural support. In addition, the thicknesses of cathode and anode layers within the electrochemical device are varied according to current flow through the device to reduce resistance and increase operating efficiency.

  3. Internal thermal coupling in direct-flow coaxial vacuum tube collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glembin, J.; Rockendorf, G.; Scheuren, J.

    2010-07-15

    This investigation covers the impact of low flow rates on the efficiency of coaxial vacuum tube collectors. Measurements show an efficiency reduction of 10% if reducing the flow rate from 78 kg/m{sup 2} h to 31 kg/m{sup 2} h for a collector group with 60 parallel vacuum tubes with a coaxial flow conduit at one-sided connection. For a more profound understanding a model of the coaxial tube was developed which defines the main energy fluxes including the internal thermal coupling. The tube simulations show a non-linear temperature profile along the tube with the maximum temperature in the outer pipe. Due to heat transfer to the entering flow this maximum is not located at the fluid outlet. The non-linearity increases with decreasing flow rates. The experimentally determined flow distribution allows simulating the measured collector array. The simulation results confirm the efficiency decrease at low flow rates. The flow distribution has a further impact on efficiency reduction, but even at an ideal uniform flow, a considerable efficiency reduction at low flow rates is to be expected. As a consequence, low flow rates should be prevented for coaxial tube collectors, thus restricting the possible operation conditions. The effect of constructional modifications like diameter or material variations is presented. Finally the additional impact of a coaxial manifold design is discussed. (author)

  4. Collector surface for a microwave tube comprising a carbon-bonded carbon-fiber composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Johnson, A.C.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1998-07-28

    In a microwave tube, an improved collector surface coating comprises a porous carbon composite material, preferably a carbon-bonded carbon fiber composite having a bulk density less than about 2 g/cc. Installation of the coating is readily adaptable as part of the tube manufacturing process. 4 figs.

  5. Collector surface for a microwave tube comprising a carbon-bonded carbon-fiber composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); McMillan, April D. (Knoxville, TN); Johnson, Arvid C. (Lake in the Hills, IL); Moorhead, Arthur J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01

    In a microwave tube, an improved collector surface coating comprises a porous carbon composite material, preferably a carbon-bonded carbon fiber composite having a bulk density less than about 2 g/cc. Installation of the coating is readily adaptable as part of the tube manufacturing process.

  6. Handbook of experiences in the design and installation of solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.

    1980-07-01

    A large array of problems encountered are detailed, including design errors, installation mistakes, cases of inadequate durability of materials and unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in the performance and operation of different solar systems. Durability, reliability, and design problems are reviewed for solar collector subsystems, heat transfer fluids, thermal storage, passive solar components, piping/ducting, and reliability/operational problems. The following performance topics are covered: criteria for design and performance analysis, domestic hot water systems, passive space heating systems, active space heating systems, space cooling systems, analysis of systems performance, and performance evaluations. (MHR)

  7. Solar Home Tour and Exhibitor Showcase Open Doors to Renewable Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Solar Home Tour and Exhibitor Showcase Open Doors to Renewable Energy Information Golden, Colo., Oct. 4, 2001 - Since renovating his 2,700 square-foot 1950s style home to include such energy efficient features as passive cooling and an active solar collector that pumps warm air into the lower levels of the home, Steve Andrews has saved $1,000 each year in utility costs. To see how Andrews and 15 others are tapping into the energy of the sun, take the Denver Metro Tour of Solar

  8. Low-cost thin-material solar technology, the key to a viable energy alternative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.; Ripel, B.D.

    1985-08-01

    The creation of a solar technology based on a dramatic reduction in material intensity and greater simplicity of design is the result of a cost-guided research approach. It takes advantage of a progressive material science based on polymer films and unique construction methods that optimize material requirements, performance and durability. The current level of technical maturity has revealed a solar collector design that has the potential for a dramatic reduction in installed cost while maintaining high thermal performance and durability. In addition, the same methodology has guided total solar system designs with similar economies and performance advantages.

  9. Integrated Modeling of Building Energy Requirements IncorporatingSolar Assisted Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Wang, Juan

    2005-08-10

    This paper expands on prior Berkeley Lab work on integrated simulation of building energy systems by the addition of active solar thermal collecting devices, technology options not previously considered (Siddiqui et al 2005). Collectors can be used as an alternative or additional source of hot water to heat recovery from reciprocating engines or microturbines. An example study is presented that evaluates the operation of solar assisted cooling at a large mail sorting facility in southern California with negligible heat loads and year-round cooling loads. Under current conditions solar thermal energy collection proves an unattractive option, but is a viable carbon emission control strategy.

  10. Brookhaven National Laboratory's low cost solar technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1984-09-01

    The problems identified in early study - cost, architectural compatibility, and reliability - were not likely to be solved with conventional practices in the solar industry. BNL then embarked upon an iterative development process towards a solution founded on the methodology which establish a set of key guidelines for the research. With the derivation of cost goals ($5 to $6 per square foot, installed) and performance targets (consistent with conventional technology) it was considered important to use sophisticated industrial product development technologies to achieve the desired results. The normal industrial practice to reduce cost, for example, is to reduce material intensity, strive for simplicity in design and apply as much mass production as possible. This approach revealed the potential of polymer films as a basic construction material for solar collectors. Further refinements to reduce cost were developed, including the perfection of a non-pressurized absorber/heat exchanger and the adaptability of a printable optical selective surface. Additional significant advantages were acquired through application of a monocoque construction technique borrowed from the aircraft industry. The procedures used, including important support from industry to help identify materials and guide fabrication techniques, eventually resulted in construction and successful testing of a thin polymer film solar collector. To achieve the overall objectives of viable solar economics some system concepts have been explored by BNL. Consistent with the cost goals mentioned, it is believed that the low pressure designs pursued will be successful. Designs for the storage tank and distribution system that have been pursued include the use of polymer film lined sheet metal for the storage tanks and plastic pipe.

  11. ISOTOPIC MASS FRACTIONATION OF SOLAR WIND: EVIDENCE FROM FAST AND SLOW SOLAR WIND COLLECTED BY THE GENESIS MISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heber, Veronika S.; Baur, Heinrich; Wieler, Rainer; Bochsler, Peter; McKeegan, Kevin D.; Neugebauer, Marcia; Reisenfeld, Daniel B.; Wiens, Roger C.

    2012-11-10

    NASA's Genesis space mission returned samples of solar wind collected over {approx}2.3 years. We present elemental and isotopic compositions of He, Ne, and Ar analyzed in diamond-like carbon targets from the slow and fast solar wind collectors to investigate isotopic fractionation processes during solar wind formation. The solar wind provides information on the isotopic composition for most volatile elements for the solar atmosphere, the bulk Sun and hence, on the solar nebula from which it formed 4.6 Ga ago. Our data reveal a heavy isotope depletion in the slow solar wind compared to the fast wind composition by 63.1 {+-} 2.1 per mille for He, 4.2 {+-} 0.5 per mille amu{sup -1} for Ne and 2.6 {+-} 0.5 per mille amu{sup -1} for Ar. The three Ne isotopes suggest that isotopic fractionation processes between fast and slow solar wind are mass dependent. The He/H ratios of the collected slow and fast solar wind samples are 0.0344 and 0.0406, respectively. The inefficient Coulomb drag model reproduces the measured isotopic fractionation between fast and slow wind. Therefore, we apply this model to infer the photospheric isotopic composition of He, Ne, and Ar from our solar wind data. We also compare the isotopic composition of oxygen and nitrogen measured in the solar wind with values of early solar system condensates, probably representing solar nebula composition. We interpret the differences between these samples as being due to isotopic fractionation during solar wind formation. For both elements, the magnitude and sign of the observed differences are in good agreement with the values predicted by the inefficient Coulomb drag model.

  12. Optimization of a solar powered absorption cycle under Abu Dhabi's weather conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Alili, A.; Hwang, Y.; Radermacher, R.; Kubo, I.

    2010-12-15

    In order for the solar absorption air conditioners to become a real alternative to the conventional vapour compression systems, their performance has to be improved and their total cost has to be reduced. A solar powered absorption cycle is modeled using the Transient System Simulation (TRNSYS) program and Typical Meteorological Year 2 data of Abu Dhabi. It uses evacuated tube collectors to drive a 10 kW ammonia-water absorption chiller. Firstly, the system performance and its total cost are optimized separately using single objective optimization algorithms. The design variables considered are: the collector slope, the collector mass flow rate, the collector area and the storage tank volume. The single objective optimization results show that MATLAB global optimization methods agree with the TRNSYS optimizer. Secondly, MATLAB is used to solve a multi-objective optimization problem to improve the system's performance and cost, simultaneously. The optimum designs are presented using Pareto curve and show the potential improvements of the baseline system. (author)

  13. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giebink, Noel C.

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the concentrator optical efficiency was found to decrease significantly with increasing aperture width beyond 0.5 m due to parasitic waveguide out-coupling loss and low-level absorption that become dominant at larger scale. A heat transfer model was subsequently implemented to predict collector fluid heat gain and outlet temperature as a function of flow rate using the optical model as a flux input. It was found that the aperture width size limitation imposed by the optical efficiency characteristics of the waveguide limits the absolute optical power delivered to the heat transfer element per unit length. As compared to state-of-the-art parabolic trough CPV system aperture widths approaching 5 m, this limitation leads to an approximate factor of order of magnitude increase in heat transfer tube length to achieve the same heat transfer fluid outlet temperature. The conclusion of this work is that scattering solar thermal concentration cannot be implemented at the scale and efficiency required to compete with the performance of current parabolic trough CSP systems. Applied within the alternate context of CPV, however, the results of this work have likely opened up a transformative new path that enables quasi-static, high efficiency CPV to be implemented on rooftops in the form factor of traditional fixed-panel photovoltaics.

  14. Deming Solar Plant Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Deming Solar Plant Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Deming Solar Plant Solar Power Plant Facility Deming Solar Plant Sector Solar Facility Type Photovoltaic...

  15. SES Calico Solar One Project Solar Power Plant | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Calico Solar One Project Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name SES Calico Solar One Project Solar Power Plant Facility SES Calico Solar One Project Sector Solar...

  16. Nvision.Solar - Ravnishte Solar PV Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar - Ravnishte Solar PV Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Nvision.Solar - Ravnishte Solar PV Plant Facility Ravishte roof and facade mounted solar power plant Sector Solar...

  17. Solar Millenium Palen Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Palen Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Solar Millenium Palen Solar Power Plant Facility Solar Millenium Palen Sector Solar Facility Type Concentrating Solar Power...

  18. SES Solar Two Project Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Two Project Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name SES Solar Two Project Solar Power Plant Facility SES Solar Two Project Sector Solar Facility Type Concentrating Solar...

  19. Prescott Airport Solar Plant Solar Power Plant | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Prescott Airport Solar Plant Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Prescott Airport Solar Plant Solar Power Plant Facility Prescott Airport Solar Plant Sector Solar...

  20. Beacon Solar Energy Project Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Energy Project Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Beacon Solar Energy Project Solar Power Plant Facility Beacon Solar Energy Project Sector Solar Facility...

  1. Carrizo Energy Solar Farm Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carrizo Energy Solar Farm Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Carrizo Energy Solar Farm Solar Power Plant Facility Carrizo Energy Solar Farm Sector Solar Facility...

  2. El Dorado Solar Project Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Project Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name El Dorado Solar Project Solar Power Plant Facility El Dorado Solar Project Sector Solar Facility Type Photovoltaic...

  3. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Concentrating Solar...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power Resource Maps These direct-normal solar radiation maps-filtered by solar resource and land availability-identify the most economically suitable lands ...

  4. Solar Mapper

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Interactive, online mapping tool providing access to spatial data related to siting utility-scale solar facilities in the southwestern United States.

  5. Solar Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water ...

  6. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ordinances, bylaws, or regulations may reasonably restrict the installation and use of solar energy devices to protect public health and safety, buildings from damage, historic/aesthetic values (...

  7. Solar Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas ...

  8. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andrews, John W.

    1983-06-28

    A water heater or system which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  9. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andrews, J.W.

    1980-06-25

    A water heater or system is described which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  10. Advanced Lithium Battery Cathodes Using Dispersed Carbon Fibers as the Current Collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martha, Surendra K; Kiggans, Jim; Nanda, Jagjit; Dudney, Nancy J

    2011-01-01

    To fabricate LiFePO4 battery cathodes, highly conductive carbon fibers of 10-20 m in diameter have been used to replace a conventional aluminum (Al) foil current collector. This disperses the current collector throughout the cathode sheet and increases the contact area with the LiFePO4 (LFP) particles. In addition, the usual organic binder plus carbon-black can be replaced by a high temperature binder of <5 weight % carbonized petroleum pitch (P-pitch). Together these replacements increase the specific energy density and energy per unit area of the electrode. Details of the coating procedure, characterization and approach for maximizing the energy density are discussed. In a side-by-side comparison with conventional cathodes sheets of LFP on Al foil, the carbon fiber composite cathodes have a longer cycle life, higher thermal stability, and high capacity utilization with little sacrifice of the rate performance.

  11. Discovery of Non-random Spatial Distribution of Impacts in the Stardust Cometary Collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westphal, A J; Bastien, R K; Borg, J; Bridges, J; Brownlee, D E; Burchell, M J; Cheng, A F; Clark, B C; Djouadi, Z; Floss, C; Franchi, I; Gainsforth, Z; Graham, G; Green, S F; Heck, P R; Horanyi, M; Hoppe, P; Horz, F P; Huth, J; Kearsley, A; Leroux, H; Marhas, K; Nakamura-Messenger, K; Sandford, S A; See, T H; Stadermann, F J; Teslich, N E; Tsitrin, S; Warren, J L; Wozniakiewicz, P J; Zolensky, M E

    2007-04-06

    We report the discovery that impacts in the Stardust cometary collector are not distributed randomly in the collecting media, but appear to be clustered on scales smaller than {approx} 10 cm. We also report the discovery of at least two populations of oblique tracks. We evaluated several hypotheses that could explain the observations. No hypothesis was consistent with all the observations, but the preponderance of evidence points toward at least one impact on the central Whipple shield of the spacecraft as the origin of both clustering and low-angle oblique tracks. High-angle oblique tracks unambiguously originate from a non-cometary impact on the spacecraft bus just forward of the collector.

  12. Electron beam simulation from gun to collector: Towards a complete solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mertzig, R. Shornikov, A. Wenander, F.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.

    2015-01-09

    An electron-beam simulation technique for high-resolution complete EBIS/T modelling is presented. The technique was benchmarked on the high compression HEC{sup 2} test-stand with an electron beam current, current density and energy of 10 A, 10 kA/cm{sup 2} and 49.2 keV, and on the immersed electron beam at REXEBIS for electron beam characteristics of 0.4 A, 200 A/cm{sup 2} and 4.5 keV. In both Brillouin-like and immersed beams the electron-beam radius varies from several millimeters at the gun, through some hundreds of micrometers in the ionization region to a few centimeters at the collector over a total length of several meters. We report on our approach for finding optimal meshing parameters, based on the local beam properties such as magnetic field-strength, electron energy and beam radius. This approach combined with dividing the problem domain into sub-domains, and subsequent splicing of the local solutions allowed us to simulate the beam propagation in EBISes from the gun to the collector using a conventional PC in about 24–36 h. Brillouin-like electron beams propagated through the complete EBIS were used to analyze the beam behavior within the collector region. We checked whether elastically reflected paraxial electrons from a Brillouin-like beam will escape from the collector region and add to the loss current. We have also studied the power deposition profiles as function of applied potentials using two electrode geometries for a Brillouin-like beam including the effects of backscattered electrons.

  13. Performance Modeling of an Air-Based Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) Collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, R. D.; Brandemuehl, M. J.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies a collector design that utilizes unglazed photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors preheating air for glazed air heating modules. The performance modeling of these collectors is examined both individually and in series. For each collector type, a dynamic, finite difference, first-law model has been created using literature correlations for friction. The models were compared to performance data, calibrating the models by scaling of friction terms for best fit. The calibrated models generally agree well with the experimental data; even during sudden changes to ambient conditions. The root mean square error between the unglazed PV/T model and experiment results for the useful thermal energy gain and the outlet air temperature are 7.12 W/m{sup 2} and 1.07 C, respectively. The annual source energy performance of the building-integrated PV/T (BIPV/T) array is then simulated for residential applications in seven climate zones of the United States of America. The performance of the BIPV/T array is characterized by the amount of net electrical energy and useful thermal energy produced. The useful thermal energy is defined as the amount of energy offset by the BIPV/T system for water heating and space conditioning. A BIPV/T system composed 87.5% of PV modules, and 12.5% of glazed air heating modules, offsets the same amount of source energy as a roof-mounted PV system of the same area. This array composition increases the thermal energy gain by 47% over a BIPV/T array composed solely of PV modules.

  14. Unified Solar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Unified Solar is an MIT startup that is commercializing an integrated circuit solution that eliminates most of the adverse effects caused by partial shading in photovoltaic power systems. With its patent-pending design, Unified Solar's solution is smaller, cheaper and more powerful than any competing power optimizer in the market.

  15. Sandia Energy - Solar Resource Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Resource Assessment Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Resource Assessment Solar Resource AssessmentTara...

  16. Sandia Energy - Solar Market Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Market Transformation Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Market Transformation Solar Market TransformationTara...

  17. Hybrid Solar Lighting Provides Energy Savings and Reduces Waste Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lapsa, Melissa Voss; Maxey, L Curt; Earl, Dennis Duncan; Beshears, David L; Ward, Christina D; Parks, James Edgar

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT Artificial lighting is the largest component of electricity use in commercial U.S. buildings. Hybrid solar lighting (HSL) provides an exciting new means of reducing energy consumption while also delivering significant ancillary benefits associated with natural lighting in buildings. As more than half of all federal facilities are in the Sunbelt region (defined as having an average direct solar radiation of greater than 4 kWh/m2/day) and as more than half of all square footage available in federal buildings is also in the Sunbelt, HSL is an excellent technology fit for federal facilities. The HSL technology uses a rooftop, 4-ft-wide dish and secondary mirror that track the sun throughout the day (Fig. 1). The collector system focuses the sunlight onto 127 optical fibers. The fibers serve as flexible light pipes and are connected to hybrid light fixtures that have special diffusion rods that spread out the light in all directions. One collector powers about eight hybrid light fixtures-which can illuminate about 1,000 square feet. The system tracks at 0.1 accuracy, required by the two-mirror geometry to keep the focused beam on the fiber bundle. When sunlight is plentiful, the optical fibers in the luminaires provide all or most of the light needed in an area. During times of little or no sunlight, a sensor controls the intensity of the artificial lamps to maintain a desired illumination level. Unlike conventional electric lamps, the natural light produces little to no waste heat and is cool to the touch. This is because the system's solar collector removes the infrared light-the part of the spectrum that generates a lot of the heat in conventional bulbs-from the sunlight.

  18. Concentrating Solar Program; Session: Thermal Storage - Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatzmaier, G.; Mehos, M.; Mancini, T.

    2008-04-01

    The project overview of this presentation is: (1) description--(a) laboratory R and D in advanced heat transfer fluids (HTF) and thermal storage systems; (b) FOA activities in solar collector and component development for use of molten salt as a heat transfer and storage fluid; (c) applications for all activities include line focus and point focus solar concentrating technologies; (2) Major FY08 Activities--(a) advanced HTF development with novel molten salt compositions with low freezing temperatures, nanofluids molecular modeling and experimental studies, and use with molten salt HTF in solar collector field; (b) thermal storage systems--cost analysis and updates for 2-tank and thermocline storage and model development and analysis to support near-term trought deployment; (c) thermal storage components--facility upgrade to support molten salt component testing for freeze-thaw receiver testing, long-shafted molten salt pump for parabolic trough and power tower thermal storage systems; (d) CSP FOA support--testing and evaluation support for molten salt component and field testing work, advanced fluids and storage solicitation preparation, and proposal evaluation for new advanced HTF and thermal storage FOA.

  19. Solar thermal enhanced oil recovery (STEOR). Sections 2-8. Final report, October 1, 1979-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elzinga, E.; Arnold, C.; Allen, D.; Garman, R.; Joy, P.; Mitchell, P. Shaw, H.

    1980-11-01

    The program objectives were: (1) determine the technical, economic, operational, and environmental feasibility of solar thermal enhanced oil recovery using line focusing distributed collectors at Exxon's Edison Field, and (2) estimate the quantity of solar heat which might be applied to domestic enhanced oil recovery. This volume of the report summarizes all of the work done under the contract Statement of Work. Topics include the selection of the solar system, trade-off studies, preliminary design for steam raising, cost estimate for STEOR at Edison Field, the development plan, and a market and economics analysis. (WHK)

  20. 1980 annual report of the Coolidge Solar Irrigation Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torkelson, L.; Larson, D. L.

    1981-02-01

    The Coolidge Solar Irrigation Facility at Coolidge, Arizona, consists of a 2136.8-m/sup 2/ (23,000-ft/sup 2/) line-focus parabolic trough collector subsystem, a 113.55-m/sup 3/ (30,000-gallon) thermal storage subsystem, and a 150-kW/sub e/ (142.2-Btu/s) organic Rankine cycle power generation unit. The performance of the facility and its operational and maintenance requirements are reported. The period from the the facility's initial operation in October 1979 to 31 August 1980 is covered.

  1. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.8 Active Solar Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    2 Thermal Solar Collector Shipments, by End Use (Thousand SF) (1) Type 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Pool Heating 7863 8934 Hot Water 367 640 1136 1393 1978 1992 Space Heating 99 228 330 189 186 150 Space Cooling 0 2 3 13 18 10 Combined Space/Water Heating 2 16 66 73 148 137 Process Heating 20 0 0 27 50 608 Electricity Generation 3 114 (2) 3847 6 361 389 Total 8354 Note(s): Source(s): 13798 1) Total shipments include imports and exports for all years.For 2007 to 2009, end-use values only include

  2. Solar Two

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1998-04-01

    Solar Two is a concentrating solar power plant that can supply electric power on demand to the local utility, Southern California Edison Company. It can do so because it operates not only during sunny parts of the day, but it can store enough thermal energy from the sun to operate during cloudy periods and after dark, for up to three hours, at its rated output of 10 megawatts (MW). For the first time ever, a utility scale solar power plant can supply electricity when the utility needs it most, to satisfy the energy requirements of its customers.

  3. Solar Millenium Ridgecrest Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ridgecrest Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Solar Millenium Ridgecrest Solar Power Plant Facility Solar Millenium Ridgecrest Sector Solar Facility Type...

  4. SES Solar Three Project Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Three Project Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name SES Solar Three Project Solar Power Plant Facility SES Solar Three Project Sector Solar Facility Type Photovoltaics...

  5. Renewable Energy Concepts Solar Inc REC Solar | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Concepts Solar Inc REC Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Renewable Energy Concepts Solar Inc (REC Solar) Place: San Luis Obispo, California Zip: 93401 Sector: Solar Product:...

  6. solar energy

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    8%2A en Solar power purchase for DOE laboratories http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasessolarpower

  7. solar power

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    9%2A en Solar power purchase for DOE laboratories http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasessolarpower

  8. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In June of 2015, SB 1626 was signed into law. It provides that during the development period, the developer may only prohibit  a property owner from installing solar in developments with 50 or...

  9. Solar cogeneration: Cimarron River station, Central Telephone and Utilities-Western Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harder, J.E.

    1981-04-01

    The site-specific conceptual design progress is described for a solar central receiver cogeneration facility at a Kansas utility. The process is described which led to the selection of the preferred solar cogeneration facility. The status of the conceptual design is presented. The evaluation of system performance is described. A test program is described that is to determine the magnitude of impact that local environmental factors have on collector system performance and to measure the direct normal insolation at the cogeneration facility site. The system specification is appended. (LEW)

  10. Oxford Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oxford Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Oxford Solar Place: Randolph, New Jersey Zip: 7869 Sector: Solar Product: Oxford Solar provides solar energy consulting and...

  11. Akeena Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Akeena Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Akeena Solar Name: Akeena Solar Address: 16005 Los Gatos Blvd. Place: Los Gatos, California Zip: 95032 Sector: Solar Product: Solar...

  12. Adobe Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adobe Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Adobe Solar Name: Adobe Solar Place: Denver, Colorado Region: Rockies Area Sector: Solar Product: solar electric systems Phone Number:...

  13. Climatic Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climatic Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Climatic Solar Name: Climatic Solar Address: 650 2nd Lane Place: Vero Beach, Florida Zip: 32962 Sector: Solar Product: solar energy...

  14. Tejas Solares | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tejas Solares Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tejas Solares Place: Spain Sector: Solar Product: Tejas Solares is a Spain-based company focused on providing solar solutions for...

  15. SBM Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: SBM Solar Place: North Carolina Sector: Solar Product: SBM Solar is a solar panel manufacturer based in North Carolina. References: SBM Solar1 This article is...

  16. Tin removal from extreme ultraviolet collector optics by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, H.; Srivastava, S. N.; Ruzic, D. N. [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Tin (Sn) has the advantage of delivering higher conversion efficiency compared to other fuel materials (e.g., Xe or Li) in an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source, a necessary component for the leading next generation lithography. However, the use of a condensable fuel in a lithography system leads to some additional challenges for maintaining a satisfactory lifetime of the collector optics. A critical issue leading to decreased mirror lifetime is the buildup of debris on the surface of the primary mirror that comes from the use of Sn in either gas discharge produced plasma (GDPP) or laser produced plasma (LPP). This leads to a decreased reflectivity from the added material thickness and increased surface roughness that contributes to scattering. Inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching with halide ions is one potential solution to this problem. This article presents results for etch rate and selectivity of Sn over SiO{sub 2} and Ru. The Sn etch rate in a chlorine plasma is found to be much higher (of the order of hundreds of nm/min) than the etch rate of other materials. A thermally evaporated Sn on Ru sample was prepared and cleaned using an inductively coupled plasma etching method. Cleaning was confirmed using several material characterization techniques. Furthermore, a collector mock-up shell was then constructed and etching was performed on Sn samples prepared in a Sn EUV source using an optimized etching recipe. The sample surface before and after cleaning was analyzed by atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy. The results show the dependence of etch rate on the location of Sn samples placed on the collector mock-up shell.

  17. Solar Resource Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE solar resource research focuses on understanding historical solar resource patterns and making future predictions, both of which are needed to support reliable power system operation. As solar...

  18. NREL: Solar STAT Blog -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Outreach Policy Basics Publications Request Assistance Technical Assistance Project Map Solar STAT Blog The Solar STAT blog discusses state and local efforts to develop solar...

  19. Analytical Approach Treating Three-Dimensional Geometrical Effects of Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binotti, M.; Zhu, G.; Gray, A.; Manzollini, G.

    2012-04-01

    An analytical approach, as an extension of one newly developed method -- First-principle OPTical Intercept Calculation (FirstOPTIC) -- is proposed to treat the geometrical impact of three-dimensional (3-D) effects on parabolic trough optical performance. The mathematical steps of this analytical approach are presented and implemented numerically as part of the suite of FirstOPTIC code. In addition, the new code has been carefully validated against ray-tracing simulation results and available numerical solutions. This new analytical approach to treating 3-D effects will facilitate further understanding and analysis of the optical performance of trough collectors as a function of incidence angle.

  20. Development of a Fast Time-Resolved Aerosol Collector (Fast TRAC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Yu & James Cowin PNNL Fast Time-Resolved Aerosol Collector ......Fast TRAC...... Xiao-Ying Yu, Ali Hashim, Martin Iedema, and James Cowin Atmospheric Sciences, Chemical Sciences Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, WA Research is supported by NOAA & DOE. *Patent Pending Xiao-Ying Yu & James Cowin PNNL Cloud Microstructures ≤ 1 m Want to know the aerosols at this resolution Aircraft flies at 150 m/s Need time resolution 1 m/150 m/s = 6 ms (!!!!!) Xiao-Ying Yu & James

  1. POLYMERIC MIRROR FILMS: DURABILITY IMPROVEMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION IN NEW COLLECTOR DESIGNS

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    POLYMERIC MIRROR FILMS: DURABILITY IMPROVEMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION IN NEW COLLECTOR DESIGNS SunShot CSP Program Review 2013 April 23-25 DE-FG36-08GO18027 Awardee: 3M PI: Dr. Raghu Padiyath Presenter: Dr. Daniel Chen Acknowledgment: This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-FG36- 08GO18027 This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency

  2. Approach to make macroporous metal sheets as current collectors for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wu; Canfield, Nathan L.; Wang, Deyu; Xiao, Jie; Nie, Zimin; Li, Xiaohong S.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Bonham, Charles C.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2010-05-05

    A new approach and simple method is described to produce macroporous metal sheet as current collector for anode in lithium ion battery. This method, based on slurry blending, tape casting, sintering, and reducing of metal oxides, produces a uniform, macroporous metal sheet. Silicon film sputter-coated on such porous copper substrate shows much higher capacity and longer cycle life than on smooth Cu foil. This methodology produces very limited wastes and is also adaptable to many other materials. It is easy for industrial scale production.

  3. Land use and environmental impacts of decentralized solar energy use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Twiss, R.H.; Smith, P.L.; Gatzke, A.E.; McCreary, S.T.

    1980-01-01

    The physical, spatial and land-use impacts of decentralized solar technologies applied at the community level by the year 2000 are examined. The results of the study are intended to provide a basis for evaluating the way in which a shift toward reliance on decentralized energy technologies may eventually alter community form. Six land-use types representative of those found in most US cities are analyzed according to solar penetration levels identified in the maximum solar scenario for the year 2000. The scenario is translated into shares of end use demand in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. These proportions become the scenario goals to be met by the use of decentralized solar energy systems. The percentage of total energy demand is assumed to be 36.5 percent, 18.8 percent and 22.6 percent in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors respectively. The community level scenario stipulated that a certain percentage of the total demand be met by on-site solar collection, i.e. photovoltaic and thermal collectors, and by passive design. This on-site solar goal is 31.9 percent (residential), 16.8 percent (commercial) and 13.1 percent (industrial).

  4. Aerogel: a transparent insulator for solar applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, A.J.; Russo, R.E.; Tewari, P.H.; Lofftus, K.D.

    1985-06-01

    Aerogel is a transparent, low density, insulating material suitable for a variety of solar applications. Significant energy savings can be realized by using aerogel for a window glazing material. Other possible applications include solar collector covers, transparent insulating jackets for direct gain passive solar devices, and situations that require both transparency and good insulation. Because silica aerogel has a low density (2 to 10% solid), it has a thermal conductivity as low as 0.014 W/m/sup 0/K without evacuation, and if evacuated, lower than 0.006 W/m/sup 0/K. It provides a clear view with only slight coloring due to its weak and nearly isotropic scattering of light. This paper describes significant progress made in the past year at our laboratory in the development of aerogel. We have improved the transparency, developed new preparation methods using less toxic materials, and initiated successful experiments in drying alcogels at near ambient temperature. Optical transmission, light scattering, and electron microscopy data show that CO/sub 2/ supercritical drying of alcogels produces aerogels similar in quality to those produced by high temperature supercritical drying. These advances make the commercial production of aerogel much more feasible.

  5. Solar production of industrial process steam. Phase III. Operation and evaluation of the Johnson and Johnson solar facility. Final report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brink, D.F.; Kendall, J.M.; Youngblood, S.B.

    1981-03-01

    A solar facility that generates 177/sup 0/C (350/sup 0/F) process steam has been designed and constructed by Acurex Corporation and has operated for 1 yr supplying steam to the Johnson and Johnson manufacturing plant in Sherman, Texas. The facility consists of 1068 m/sup 2/ (11,520 ft/sup 2/) of parabolic trough concentrating collectors, a 18,900 1 (5000 gal) flash boiler, and an 18.6 kW (25 hp) circulating pump. In the first year of operation the system was available 97 percent of the days, and with sufficient solar radiation available it operated 70 percent of the days during this period. The measured data showed that the collector field operated at an efficiency of 25.4 percent for the year, and that at least 75 percent of the energy reaching the flash boiler was delivered to the plant as steam. A total of 309,510 kg (682,400 lb) of steam was produced by the solar facility for the first year. An analysis of the data showed that the delivered energy was within 90 to 100 percent of the predicted value. The successful completion of the first year of operation has demonstrated the technical feasibility of generating industrial process steam with solar energy.

  6. Solar Equipment Certification

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under the Solar Energy Standards Act of 1976, the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) is responsible for certifying all solar equipment sold in Florida. A manufacturer who wishes to have their solar...

  7. Solar Neutrinos

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Davis, R. Jr.; Harmer, D. S.

    1964-12-01

    The prospect of studying the solar energy generation process directly by observing the solar neutrino radiation has been discussed for many years. The main difficulty with this approach is that the sun emits predominantly low energy neutrinos, and detectors for observing low fluxes of low energy neutrinos have not been developed. However, experimental techniques have been developed for observing neutrinos, and one can foresee that in the near future these techniques will be improved sufficiently in sensitivity to observe solar neutrinos. At the present several experiments are being designed and hopefully will be operating in the next year or so. We will discuss an experiment based upon a neutrino capture reaction that is the inverse of the electron-capture radioactive decay of argon-37. The method depends upon exposing a large volume of a chlorine compound, removing the radioactive argon-37 and observing the characteristic decay in a small low-level counter.

  8. Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat. Phase I design. Final report. [For sugarcane processing plant in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-08-01

    This report is the final effort in the Phase I design of a solar industrial process heat system for the Hilo Coast Processing Company (HCPC) in Pepeekeo, Hawaii. The facility is used to wash, grind and extract sugar from the locally grown sugarcane and it operates 24 hours a day, 305 days per year. The major steam requirements in the industrial process are for the prime movers (mill turbines) in the milling process and heat for evaporating water from the extracted juices. Bagasse (the fibrous residue of milled sugarcane) supplied 84% of the fuel requirement for steam generation in 1979, while 65,000 barrels of No. 6 industrial fuel oil made up the remaining 16%. These fuels are burned in the power plant complex which produces 825/sup 0/F, 1,250 psi superheated steam to power a turbogenerator set which, in addition to serving the factory, generates from 7 to 16 megawatts of electricity that is exported to the local utility company. Extracted steam from the turbo-generator set supplies the plant's process steam needs. The system consists of 42,420 ft./sup 2/ of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors will be oriented in a North-South configuration and will track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) will be circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370/sup 0/F and 450/sup 0/F respectively. It is estimated that the net useable energy delivered to the industrial process will be 7.2 x 10/sup 9/ Btu's per year. With an HCPC boiler efficiency of 78% and 6.2 x 10/sup 6/ Btu's per barrel of oil, the solar energy system will displace 1489 barrels of oil per year. (WHK)

  9. Solar ADEPT: Efficient Solar Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    Solar ADEPT Project: The 7 projects that make up ARPA-E's Solar ADEPT program, short for 'Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,' aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, which convert the sun's rays into electricity. Solar ADEPT projects are integrating advanced electrical components into PV systems to make the process of converting solar energy to electricity more efficient.

  10. Concentrating Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    Summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  11. Solar Electric Propulsion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ... Sciences Applications National Solar Thermal Test Facility Nuclear Energy ...

  12. VISUAL-SOLAR

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003661IBMPC00 Visual-SOLAR: Modeling and Visualization of Solar Radiation Potential on Individual Building Rooftops

  13. Solar Easements & Local Option Solar Rights Laws

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Utah's solar easement provision is similar to easement provisions in many other states. Parties may voluntarily enter into written solar easement contracts that are enforceable by law. An...

  14. Solar Energy Technologies Program: Concentrating Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-26

    Fact sheet summarizing the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  15. Tracking Solar Energy Conersion Unit Adapted For Field Assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaminar, Neil R.; Ross, III, James G.; Carrie, Peter J.

    2000-02-01

    A modular solar energy collector having elongated V-shaped side walls formed by a pair of coplanar panels for each side wall. The upper panels, occupying most of the wall area are diffusely reflective, but the lower panels are specularly reflective. A Fresnel lens, having a snap fit relation to the side walls focuses some light on the lower specularly reflective panels which direct light to the solar cells at the base of the V-shaped walls. A heat sink provides support for the two panels with two opposed, upwardly extending wings terminating in opposed linear clips located near the lengthwise seam of the coplanar panels, each clip holding two coplanar panels in parallel alignment. The clips not only provide support for the panels, but also transfer heat to the remainder of the heat sink. The clips are shaped so that edges of the panels engage each clip by a snap fit, outside of the clip in one embodiment and inside of the clip in another embodiment. End caps are also formed with structures which snap to the wall panels. Since all junctions of components snap together, the collector of the present invention is easily assembled without specialized tools. Using side walls which are only partly specularly reflective permits a large angle of acceptance, yet provides an economical wall design because the entire wall need not be specularly reflective.

  16. POLYMERIC MIRROR FILMS: DURABILITY IMPROVEMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION IN NEW COLLECTOR DESIGNS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  17. AV Solar Ranch I Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AV Solar Ranch I Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name AV Solar Ranch I Solar Power Plant Facility AV Solar Ranch I Sector Solar Facility Type Photovoltaic Developer...

  18. Modelling acceptance of sunlight in high and low photovoltaic concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leutz, Ralf

    2014-09-26

    A simple model incorporating linear radiation characteristics, along with the optical trains and geometrical concentration ratios of solar concentrators is presented with performance examples for optical trains of HCPV, LCPV and benchmark flat-plate PV.

  19. File:NREL-bhutan-10kmsolar-tilt.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    File File history File usage Bhutan - Annual - Flat PlateTilted at Latitude Solar Radiation Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution (1,650 1,275 pixels,...

  20. Solar Impulse's Solar-Powered Plane

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Moniz, Ernest; Piccard, Bertrand; Reicher, Dan

    2014-01-07

    Solar Impulse lands in Washington, DC at Washington Dulles International Airport as part of its journey across the United States. Secretary Ernest Moniz speaks about how advancements like those at the Department of Energy are leading the way for innovations like the solar-powered plane. Footage of the solar-powered plane courtesy of Solar Impulse.

  1. Solar Impulse's Solar-Powered Plane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moniz, Ernest; Piccard, Bertrand; Reicher, Dan

    2013-07-08

    Solar Impulse lands in Washington, DC at Washington Dulles International Airport as part of its journey across the United States. Secretary Ernest Moniz speaks about how advancements like those at the Department of Energy are leading the way for innovations like the solar-powered plane. Footage of the solar-powered plane courtesy of Solar Impulse.

  2. San Antonio, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Antonio, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) San Antonio, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, ...

  3. EE Solar Energy Efficiency Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EE Solar Energy Efficiency Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: EE Solar (Energy Efficiency Solar) Place: Ponoma, California Zip: 91768 Product: PV systems installer based in...

  4. Willard Kelsey Solar Group WK Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Willard Kelsey Solar Group WK Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Willard & Kelsey Solar Group (WK Solar) Place: Perrysburg, Ohio Zip: 43551 Product: Manufacturer of CdTe...

  5. Innotech Solar AS formerly known as Solar Cell Repower | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Innotech Solar AS formerly known as Solar Cell Repower Jump to: navigation, search Name: Innotech Solar AS (formerly known as Solar Cell Repower) Place: Narvik, Norway Zip: 8512...

  6. Wuxi Jiacheng Solar Energy Technology Co JC Solar | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    JC Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wuxi Jiacheng Solar Energy Technology Co (JC Solar) Place: Yixing, Jiangsu Province, China Zip: 214200 Sector: Solar Product: A Chinese...

  7. Innovative Systems Engineering Solar LLC ISE Solar LLC | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Engineering Solar LLC ISE Solar LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Innovative Systems Engineering Solar LLC (ISE Solar LLC) Place: Warminster, Pennsylvania Zip:...

  8. First Solar Electric LLC formerly DT Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electric LLC formerly DT Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: First Solar Electric LLC (formerly DT Solar) Place: Branchburg, New Jersey Zip: 8876 Sector: Solar Product: PV...

  9. Aide Solar Jiangsu Aide Solar Energy Technology Co Ltd | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aide Solar Jiangsu Aide Solar Energy Technology Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Aide Solar (Jiangsu Aide Solar Energy Technology Co Ltd) Place: Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province,...

  10. AET Solar formerly solar division of GGAM Electrical Services...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar formerly solar division of GGAM Electrical Services Jump to: navigation, search Name: AET Solar (formerly solar division of GGAM Electrical Services) Place: Limassol, Cyprus...

  11. Creative Energy Solar Investments SA formerly Hellenic Solar...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Investments SA formerly Hellenic Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Creative Energy Solar Investments SA (formerly Hellenic Solar) Place: 18538 Piraeus, Greece Product:...

  12. China Glass Solar aka CG Solar formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Glass Solar aka CG Solar formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra Photovoltaic Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Glass Solar (aka CG Solar, formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra...

  13. Siemens Solar formerly ARCO Solar Corporation | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar formerly ARCO Solar Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Siemens Solar (formerly ARCO Solar Corporation) Place: Arizona Product: Built a 6MW CPV project in 1984,...

  14. Siemens Concentrated Solar Power Ltd previously Solel Solar Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Siemens Concentrated Solar Power Ltd previously Solel Solar Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Siemens Concentrated Solar Power Ltd (previously Solel Solar Systems) Place:...

  15. Guodian Jintech Solar Energy formerly Yixing Jintech Solar Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jintech Solar Energy formerly Yixing Jintech Solar Energy Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Guodian Jintech Solar Energy (formerly Yixing Jintech Solar Energy Co Ltd) Place:...

  16. Shanghai Comtec Solar Technology Ltd aka Comtec Solar System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Comtec Solar Technology Ltd aka Comtec Solar System Group Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shanghai Comtec Solar Technology Ltd (aka Comtec Solar System Group Ltd) Place:...

  17. Ecosystem Solar Electric Corp aka Solar MW Energy Inc | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Electric Corp aka Solar MW Energy Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ecosystem Solar Electric Corp, aka Solar MW Energy Inc Place: Ontario, California Zip: 91761 Product:...

  18. ET Solar Group Formerly CNS Solar Industry | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Group Formerly CNS Solar Industry Jump to: navigation, search Name: ET Solar Group (Formerly CNS Solar Industry) Place: Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China Zip: 210009 Sector:...

  19. Entech Solar Inc formerly WorldWater Solar Technologies | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Inc formerly WorldWater Solar Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name: Entech Solar Inc. (formerly WorldWater & Solar Technologies) Place: Fort Worth, Texas Zip: 76177...

  20. Seattle, Washington: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Seattle, Washington: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Seattle, Washington: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America ...

  1. San Francisco, California: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Francisco, California: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) San Francisco, California: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar...

  2. Portland, Oregon: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Portland, Oregon: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Portland, Oregon: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities,...

  3. edition Not Available 14 SOLAR ENERGY; SOLAR ENERGY; EDUCATIONAL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Home economics: student activities. Field test edition Not Available 14 SOLAR ENERGY; SOLAR ENERGY; EDUCATIONAL TOOLS; CURRICULUM GUIDES; GLAZING; HOUSES; SOLAR COOKERS; SOLAR...

  4. Kings River Conservation District (KRCD) Solar Farm Solar Power...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    River Conservation District (KRCD) Solar Farm Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Kings River Conservation District (KRCD) Solar Farm Solar Power Plant Facility...

  5. EIS-0449: Solar Millennium Blythe Solar Power Project in Riverside...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: Solar Millennium Blythe Solar Power Project in Riverside County, CA EIS-0449: Solar Millennium Blythe Solar Power Project in Riverside County, CA December 10, 2010 EIS-0449:...

  6. EA-1683: Abengoa Solar's Solana Concentrating Solar Power Facility...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    83: Abengoa Solar's Solana Concentrating Solar Power Facility, Gila Bend, AZ EA-1683: Abengoa Solar's Solana Concentrating Solar Power Facility, Gila Bend, AZ May 3, 2010 EA-1683:...

  7. Space Coast Next Generation Solar Energy Center Solar Power Plant...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coast Next Generation Solar Energy Center Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Space Coast Next Generation Solar Energy Center Solar Power Plant Facility Space Coast...

  8. Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center Solar Power Plant...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Next Generation Solar Energy Center Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center Solar Power Plant Facility Martin Next Generation...

  9. Orlando, Florida: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Orlando, Florida: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Orlando, Florida: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities,...

  10. Denver, Colorado: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Denver, Colorado: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Denver, Colorado: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities,...

  11. Simulation of a photovoltaic/thermal heat pump system having a modified collector/evaporator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Guoying; Deng, Shiming; Zhang, Xiaosong; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Yuehong

    2009-11-15

    A new photovoltaic/thermal heat pump (PV/T-HP) system having a modified collector/evaporator (C/E) has been developed and numerically studied. Multi-port flat extruded aluminum tubes were used in the modified C/E, as compared to round copper tubes used in a conventional C/E. Simulation results suggested that a better operating performance can be achieved for a PV/T-HP system having such a modified C/E. In addition, using the meteorological data in both Nanjing and Hong Kong, China, the simulation results showed that this new PV/T-HP system could efficiently generate electricity and thermal energy simultaneously in both cities all-year-round. Furthermore, improved operation by using variable speed compressor has been designed and discussed. (author)

  12. Design, construction, and startup of a concentrating photovoltaic solar energy system in Hawaii: Phase II. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, R.; Harper, R.; Maberry, G.; Bedard, R.; Rafinejad, D.

    1982-10-01

    Acurex Corporation has designed, constructed, and is now operating a 35-kWp concentrating photovoltaic solar system located at the G.N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital in Lihue, Kauai, Hawaii. The facility consists of 446 m/sup 2/ (4800 ft/sup 2/) of parabolic trough photovoltaic collectors, an electrical power generation system which converts the direct current field output into grid-compatible alternating current power, and a thermal power subsystem for heating the hospital potable water. This report summarizes the design, construction, startup, and performance of this solar facility.

  13. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-11-01

    The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  14. Solar Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  15. Wasatch Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wasatch Solar Address: 4417 S 2950 E Place: Salt Lake City, Utah Zip: 84124 Sector: Solar Product: Solar Year Founded: 2009 Phone...

  16. Solar PST | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Solar PST Place: Bergondo, Spain Zip: 15 165 Sector: Solar Product: Spanish company producing thermodynamic solar panels. References: Solar PST1 This article...

  17. Immodo Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Immodo Solar Place: Spain Sector: Solar Product: Spanish company which installs and maintains solar panels. References: Immodo Solar1 This...

  18. AS Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: AS Solar Address: Am Tnniesberg 4A Place: Hannover, Germany Sector: Solar Product: PV, solar thermal Phone Number: +49 511 475578 - 0...

  19. Abengoa Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Abengoa Solar Name: Abengoa Solar Address: 11500 W 13th Ave Place: Lakewood, Colorado Zip: 80215 Region: Rockies Area Sector: Solar Product:...

  20. First Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    First Solar Name: First Solar Address: 350 West Washington Street, Suite 600 Place: Tempe, Arizona Zip: 85281 Sector: Solar Product: Solar energy systems Year Founded: 1999 Phone...

  1. Solar Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Logo: Solar Systems Name: Solar Systems Address: 45 Grosvenor Street Place: Abbotsford, Australia Sector: Solar Product: Solar concentrators Phone Number: +61 3 9413 8000 Website:...

  2. Ascent Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Ascent Solar Name: Ascent Solar Address: 12300 Grant Street Place: Thornton, Colorado Zip: 80241 Region: Rockies Area Sector: Solar Product:...

  3. Borrego Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Borrego Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Borrego Solar Name: Borrego Solar Address: 2560 9th Street Place: Berkeley, California Zip: 94710 Region: Bay Area Sector: Solar...

  4. DPW Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DPW Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: DPW Solar Name: DPW Solar Address: 4000 B Vassar Dr. NE Place: Albuquerque, New Mexico Zip: 87107 Sector: Solar Product: Renewable...

  5. Inovateus Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inovateus Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Inovateus Solar Name: Inovateus Solar Address: 19890 State Line Rd. Place: South Bend, Indiana Zip: 46637 Sector: Solar Product:...

  6. Standard Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Standard Solar Name: Standard Solar Address: 202 Perry Parkway Place: Gaithersburg, Maryland Zip: 20877 Region: Northeast - NY NJ CT PA Area Sector: Solar Product: Solar...

  7. Atlantic Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Logo: Atlantic Solar Name: Atlantic Solar Place: Cape Town, South Africa Sector: Solar Product: Solar Thermal Technology Year Founded: 1985 Phone Number:...

  8. Scaled Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Product: Scaled Solar manufacturers and markets utility-grade, concentrated photovoltaic solar energy systems to commercial customers References: Scaled Solar1 This...

  9. Apex Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Apex Solar Place: Sofia, Bulgaria Zip: 1616 Sector: Solar Product: Bulgarian PV and solar thermal project developer and installer. References: Apex Solar1 This article is a...

  10. Genesis Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Genesis Solar Facility Genesis Solar Sector Solar Facility Type Concentrating solar power Facility Status Under Construction Owner NextEra Developer NextEra Location Blythe,...

  11. Preussen Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Preussen Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Preussen Solar Place: Berlin, Germany Zip: 10711 Sector: Solar Product: Involved in solar projects. Coordinates: 52.516074,...

  12. Sylcom Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sylcom Solar provides the design, research, distribution, construction, operation, maintenance of products and of Photovoltaic Solar, Thermal Solar and Solar Thermoelectric...

  13. Shell Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shell Solar Place: The Hague, Netherlands Zip: 2501 AN Sector: Solar Product: Shell Solar is developing non-crystalline PV technology,...

  14. Declination Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    San Francisco, California Sector: Solar Product: San Francisco solar installation firm acquired by SolarCity in September 2006. References: Declination Solar1 This article...

  15. Solar Contractor Licensing | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    < Back Eligibility InstallersContractors Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Photovoltaics...

  16. The Genesis Mission: Solar Wind Conditions, and Implications for the FIP Fractionation of the Solar Wind.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reisenfeld, D. B.; Wiens, R. C.; Barraclough, B. L.; Steinberg, J. T; Dekoning, C. A.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Burnett, D. S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Genesis mission collected solar wind on ultrapure materials between November 30, 2001 and April 1, 2004. The samples were returned to Earth September 8, 2004. Despite the hard landing that resulted from a failure of the avionics to deploy the parachute, many samples were returned in a condition that will permit analyses. Sample analyses of these samples should give a far better understanding of the solar elemental and isotopic composition (Burnett et al. 2003). Further, the photospheric composition is thought to be representative of the solar nebula, so that the Genesis mission will provide a new baseline for the average solar nebula composition with which to compare present-day compositions of planets, meteorites, and asteroids. Sample analysis is currently underway. The Genesis samples must be placed in the context of the solar and solar wind conditions under which they were collected. Solar wind is fractionated from the photosphere by the forces that accelerate the ions off of the Sun. This fractionation appears to be ordered by the first ionization potential (FIP) of the elements, with the tendency for low-FIP elements to be over-abundant in the solar wind relative to the photosphere, and high-FIP elements to be under-abundant (e.g. Geiss, 1982; von Steiger et al., 2000). In addition, the extent of elemental fractionation differs across different solarwind regimes. Therefore, Genesis collected solar wind samples sorted into three regimes: 'fast wind' or 'coronal hole' (CH), 'slow wind' or 'interstream' (IS), and 'coronal mass ejection' (CME). To carry this out, plasma ion and electron spectrometers (Barraclough et al., 2003) continuously monitored the solar wind proton density, velocity, temperature, the alpha/proton ratio, and angular distribution of suprathermal electrons, and those parameters were in turn used in a rule-based algorithm that assigned the most probable solar wind regime (Neugebauer et al., 2003). At any given time, only one of three regime-specific collectors (CH, IS, or CME) was exposed to the solar wind. Here we report on the regime-specific solar wind conditions from in-situ instruments over the course of the collection period. Further, we use composition data from the SWICS (Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer) instrument on ACE (McComas et al., 1998) to examine the FIP fractionation between solar wind regimes, and make a preliminary comparison of these to the FIP analysis of Ulysses/SWICS composition data (von Steiger et al. 2000). Our elemental fractionation study includes a reevaluation of the Ulysses FIP analysis in light of newly reported photospheric abundance data (Asplund, Grevesse & Sauval, 2005). The new abundance data indicate a metallicity (Z/X) for the Sun almost a factor of two lower than that reported in the widely used compilation of Anders & Grevesse (1989). The new photospheric abundances suggest a lower degree of solar wind fractionation than previously reported by von Steiger et al. (2000) for the first Ulysses polar orbit (1991-1998).

  17. Solar Innovator | Alta Devices

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Mattos, Laila; Le, Minh

    2013-05-29

    Selected to participate in the Energy Department's SunShot Initiative, Alta Devices produces solar cells that convert sunlight into electricity at world record-breaking levels of efficiency. Through its innovative solar technology Alta is helping bring down the cost of solar. Learn more about the Energy Department's efforts to advance solar technology at energy.gov/solar .

  18. A solar thermal cooling and heating system for a building: Experimental and model based performance analysis and design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Ming; Yin, Hongxi; Archer, David H.

    2010-02-15

    A solar thermal cooling and heating system at Carnegie Mellon University was studied through its design, installation, modeling, and evaluation to deal with the question of how solar energy might most effectively be used in supplying energy for the operation of a building. This solar cooling and heating system incorporates 52 m{sup 2} of linear parabolic trough solar collectors; a 16 kW double effect, water-lithium bromide (LiBr) absorption chiller, and a heat recovery heat exchanger with their circulation pumps and control valves. It generates chilled and heated water, dependent on the season, for space cooling and heating. This system is the smallest high temperature solar cooling system in the world. Till now, only this system of the kind has been successfully operated for more than one year. Performance of the system has been tested and the measured data were used to verify system performance models developed in the TRaNsient SYstem Simulation program (TRNSYS). On the basis of the installed solar system, base case performance models were programmed; and then they were modified and extended to investigate measures for improving system performance. The measures included changes in the area and orientation of the solar collectors, the inclusion of thermal storage in the system, changes in the pipe diameter and length, and various system operational control strategies. It was found that this solar thermal system could potentially supply 39% of cooling and 20% of heating energy for this building space in Pittsburgh, PA, if it included a properly sized storage tank and short, low diameter connecting pipes. Guidelines for the design and operation of an efficient and effective solar cooling and heating system for a given building space have been provided. (author)

  19. Solar | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    How much do you know about solar power? Take our quiz and test your solar energy IQ. | Photo courtesy of NREL. How much do you know about solar power? Take our quiz and test your...

  20. Solar Neutrino Problem

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Davis, R. Jr.; Evans, J. C.; Cleveland, B. T.

    1978-04-28

    A summary of the results of the Brookhaven solar neutrino experiment is given and discussed in relation to solar model calculations. A review is given of the merits of various new solar neutrino detectors that were proposed.