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Sample records for flat-panel displays read

  1. Microgap flat panel display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, Craig R.

    1998-01-01

    A microgap flat panel display which includes a thin gas-filled display tube that utilizes switched X-Y "pixel" strips to trigger electron avalanches and activate a phosphor at a given location on a display screen. The panel utilizes the principal of electron multiplication in a gas subjected to a high electric field to provide sufficient electron current to activate standard luminescent phosphors located on an anode. The X-Y conductive strips of a few micron widths may for example, be deposited on opposite sides of a thin insulating substrate, or on one side of the adjacent substrates and function as a cathode. The X-Y strips are separated from the anode by a gap filled with a suitable gas. Electrical bias is selectively switched onto X and Y strips to activate a "pixel" in the region where these strips overlap. A small amount of a long-lived radioisotope is used to initiate an electron avalanche in the overlap region when bias is applied. The avalanche travels through the gas filled gap and activates a luminescent phosphor of a selected color. The bias is adjusted to give a proportional electron multiplication to control brightness for given pixel.

  2. Microgap flat panel display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, C.R.

    1998-12-08

    A microgap flat panel display is disclosed which includes a thin gas-filled display tube that utilizes switched X-Y ``pixel`` strips to trigger electron avalanches and activate a phosphor at a given location on a display screen. The panel utilizes the principal of electron multiplication in a gas subjected to a high electric field to provide sufficient electron current to activate standard luminescent phosphors located on an anode. The X-Y conductive strips of a few micron widths may for example, be deposited on opposite sides of a thin insulating substrate, or on one side of the adjacent substrates and function as a cathode. The X-Y strips are separated from the anode by a gap filled with a suitable gas. Electrical bias is selectively switched onto X and Y strips to activate a ``pixel`` in the region where these strips overlap. A small amount of a long-lived radioisotope is used to initiate an electron avalanche in the overlap region when bias is applied. The avalanche travels through the gas filled gap and activates a luminescent phosphor of a selected color. The bias is adjusted to give a proportional electron multiplication to control brightness for given pixel. 6 figs.

  3. IBM's New Flat Panel Displays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by J. Stöhr (SSRL), M. Samant (IBM), J. Lüning (SSRL) Today's laptop computers utilize flat panel displays where the light transmission from the back to the front of the display is modulated by orientation changes in liquid crystal (LC) molecules. Details are discussed in Ref. 2 below. One of the key steps in the manufacture of the displays is the alignment of the LC molecules in the display. Today this is done by mechanical rubbing of two polymer surfaces and then sandwiching the LC between

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: Better flat-panel displays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS News Better, brighter, cheaper flat-panel displays By ... colors and better images for flat-panel displays built from less expensive ...

  5. ELECTROLUMINESCENT MATERIAL FOR FLAT PANEL DISPLAY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.B.

    2000-11-13

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was to develop a new-generation electroluminescent (EL) material for flat panel displays and related applications by using unique and complementary research capabilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and OSRAM Sylvania, Inc. The goal was to produce an EL material with a luminance 10 times greater than conventional EL phosphors. An EL material with this increased luminance would have immediate applications for flat panel display devices (e.g., backlighting for liquid-crystal diodes) and for EL lamp technology. OSRAM Sylvania proposed that increased EL phosphor luminance could be obtained by creating composite EL materials capable of alignment under an applied electric field and capable of concentrating the applied electric field. Oak Ridge National Laboratory used pulsed laser deposition as a method for making these composite EL materials. The materials were evaluated for electroluminescence at laboratory facilities at OSRAM Sylvania, Inc. Many composite structures were thus made and evaluated, and it was observed that a composite structure based on alternating layers of a ferroelectric and a phosphor yielded electroluminescence. An enabling step that was not initially proposed but was conceived during the cooperative effort was found to be crucial to the success of the composite structure. The CRADA period expired before we were able to make quantitative measurements of the luminance and efficiency of the composite EL material. Future cooperative work, outside the scope of the CRADA, will focus on making these measurements and will result in the production of a prototype composite EL device.

  6. Flat panel ferroelectric electron emission display system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayan, Stephen E.; Orvis, William J.; Caporaso, George J.; Wieskamp, Ted F.

    1996-01-01

    A device which can produce a bright, raster scanned or non-raster scanned image from a flat panel. Unlike many flat panel technologies, this device does not require ambient light or auxiliary illumination for viewing the image. Rather, this device relies on electrons emitted from a ferroelectric emitter impinging on a phosphor. This device takes advantage of a new electron emitter technology which emits electrons with significant kinetic energy and beam current density.

  7. Flat panel ferroelectric electron emission display system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayan, S.E.; Orvis, W.J.; Caporaso, G.J.; Wieskamp, T.F.

    1996-04-16

    A device is disclosed which can produce a bright, raster scanned or non-raster scanned image from a flat panel. Unlike many flat panel technologies, this device does not require ambient light or auxiliary illumination for viewing the image. Rather, this device relies on electrons emitted from a ferroelectric emitter impinging on a phosphor. This device takes advantage of a new electron emitter technology which emits electrons with significant kinetic energy and beam current density. 6 figs.

  8. Flat panel display development activities at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiBello, E.G.; Worobey, W.; Burchett, S.; Hareland, W.; Felter, T.; Mays, B.

    1994-12-31

    The flat panel display development activities underway at Sandia National Laboratories are described. Research is being conducted in the areas of glass substrates, phosphors, large area processes, and electron emissions. Projects are focused on improving process yield, developing large area processes, and using modeling techniques to predict design performance.

  9. Diffractive optics for compact flat panel displays. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeney, D.; DeLong, K.

    1997-04-29

    Three years ago LLNL developed a practical method to dramatically reduce the chromatic aberration in single element diffractive imaging lenses. High efficiency, achromatic imaging lenses have been fabricated for human vision correction. This LDRD supported research in applying our new methods to develop a unique, diffraction-based optical interface with solid state, microelectronic imaging devices. Advances in microelectronics have led to smaller, more efficient components for optical systems. There have, however, been no equivalent advances in the imaging optics associated with these devices. The goal of this project was to replace the bulky, refractive optics in typical head-mounted displays with micro-thin diffractive optics to directly image flat-panel displays into the eye. To visualize the system think of the lenses of someone`s eyeglasses becoming flat-panel displays. To realize this embodiment, we needed to solve the problems of large chromatic aberrations and low efficiency that are associated with diffraction. We have developed a graceful tradeoff between chromatic aberrations and the diffractive optic thickness. It turns out that by doubling the thickness of a micro-thin diffractive lens we obtain nearly a two-times improvement in chromatic performance. Since the human eye will tolerate one diopter of chromatic aberration, we are able to achieve an achromatic image with a diffractive lens that is only 20 microns thick, versus 3 mm thickness for the comparable refractive lens. Molds for the diffractive lenses are diamond turned with sub-micron accuracy; the final lenses are cast from these molds using various polymers. We thus retain both the micro- thin nature of the diffractive optics and the achromatic image quality of refractive optics. During the first year of funding we successfully extended our earlier technology from 1 cm diameter optics required for vision applications up to the 5 cm diameter optics required for this application. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Improving the diversity of manufacturing electroluminescent flat panel displays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, T.S.; Samuels, J.A.; Smith, D.C.

    1995-09-01

    Crystalline calcium thiogallate with a cerium dopant has been deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) at temperatures below 600{degrees}C on a low cost glass substrate. An EL luminance of 1.05 fL was observed 40 volts above threshold at 60 Hz. This is more than an order of magnitude improvement over earlier crystalline-as-deposited thiogallate materials. These results pave the way for the use of MOCVD as a potential method for processing full color thin-film electroluminescent (TFEL) flat panel displays. The formation of the CaGa{sub 2}S{sub 4}:Ce phosphor requires precise control over a number of deposition parameters including flow rates, substrate temperature, and reactor pressure. The influence of these parameters will be discussed in terms of structure, uniformity, and TFEL device performance.

  11. Thiogallate Blue Phosphors for Thin Film Electroluminescent Flat Panel Displays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dye, Robert C.; Tuenge, Richard T.

    1997-04-03

    This project helped to develop a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method that could improve the efficiency of the blue phosphor for full color thin-film electroluminescent (TFEL) flat panel displays. High quality SrS and SrS:Ce thin films were deposited from Sr(thd)2, Ce(thd)4 and H2S via a low pressure MOCVD process. Film characteristics were found to be insensitive to the presence of the cerium dopant in the concn. range investigated. Depositions were carried out for a wide temp. range (250-550°C). Deposition rates were found to be relatively insensitive for the temp. range investigated. The films produced were found to be highly cryst. at all temps. investigated. Deposited material showed texturing as a function of substrate material and temp. FWHM of the a 111 ii reflections were found to have a 2Q values of 0.15-0.18 deg. for all temps. RBS and AES shows stoichiometric 1 : 1 SrS with less than 2% carbon and oxygen contaminates. ERO indicates the films to have 1- 2.5% hydrogen. Films doped with 0.019-0.043 atom % Ce showed weak blue-green to green PL with increasing dopant concn. Doped films yielded up to 3.2 cd/m2 EL emission with CIE coordinates of x = 0.22 and y = 0.32 and turn-on voltages of 150-250 V.

  12. Flat panel display using Ti-Cr-Al-O thin film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Schmid, Anthony P.

    2002-01-01

    Thin films of Ti--Cr--Al--O are used as a resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O.sub.2. Resistivity values from 10.sup.4 to 10.sup.10 Ohm-cm have been measured for Ti--Cr--Al--O film <1 .mu.m thick. The film resistivity can be discretely selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The application of Ti--Cr--Al--O as a thin film resistor has been found to be thermodynamically stable, unlike other metal-oxide films. The Ti--Cr--Al--O film can be used as a vertical or lateral resistor, for example, as a layer beneath a field emission cathode in a flat panel display; or used to control surface emissivity, for example, as a coating on an insulating material such as vertical wall supports in flat panel displays.

  13. Method of forming a spacer for field emission flat panel displays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernhardt, A.F.; Contolini, R.J.

    1997-08-19

    Spacers are disclosed for applications such as field emission flat panel displays and vacuum microelectronics, and which involves the application of aerogel/xerogel technology to the formation of the spacer. In a preferred approach the method uses a mold and mold release agent wherein the gel precursor is a liquid which can be applied to the mold filling holes which expose the substrate (either the baseplate or the faceplate). A release agent is applied to the mold prior to precursor application to ease removal of the mold after formation of the dielectric spacer. The shrinkage of the gel during solvent extraction also improves mold removal. The final spacer material is a good dielectric, such as silica, secured to the substrate. 3 figs.

  14. Method of forming a spacer for field emission flat panel displays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.; Contolini, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    Spacers for applications such as field emission flat panel displays and vacuum microelectronics, and which involves the application of aerogel/xerogel technology to the formation of the spacer. In a preferred approach the method uses a mold and mold release agent wherein the gel precursor is a liquid which can be applied to the mold filling holes which expose the substrate (either the baseplate or the faceplate). A release agent is applied to the mold prior to precursor application to ease removal of the mold after formation of the dielectric spacer. The shrinkage of the gel during solvent extraction also improves mold removal. The final spacer material is a good dielectric, such as silica, secured to the substrate.

  15. Multi-cusp ion source for doping process of flat panel display manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inouchi, Yutaka Matsumoto, Takeshi; Dohi, Shojiro; Tanii, Masahiro; Takahashi, Genki; Nishimura, Ippei; Tatemichi, Junichi; Konishi, Masashi; Naito, Masao

    2014-02-15

    We developed a multi-cusp ion source for Nissin ion doping system iG5 which is used in low temperature poly-crystalline silicon processes for flat panel display (FPD) manufacturing. In this ion source, BF{sub 3} or PH{sub 3} diluted H{sub 2} plasmas are produced and large area ribbon ion beams are extracted. In general, ion ratio of B{sup +} in BF{sub 3} plasma is much smaller than BF{sub 2}{sup +} in multi-cusp ion sources. We developed a new method to increase B{sup +} ratio and obtained mass analyzed B{sup +} target current of 130 mA. We employed newly improved multi-slot type electrodes for the beam extraction system and obtained stable beams with the uniformity of below 3%. In BF{sub 3} plasmas, several undesirable metal fluorides are produced in the plasma chamber and deposited on the electrode system, which cause glitches and poor beam uniformity. We introduce several cleaning methods.

  16. Amorphous Diamond Flat Panel Displays - Final Report of ER-LTR CRADA project with SI Diamond Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ager III, Joel W.

    1998-05-08

    The objective of this project was to determine why diamond-based films are unusually efficient electron emitters (field emission cathodes) at room temperature. Efficient cathodes based on diamond are being developed by SI Diamond Technology (SIDT) as components for bright, sunlight-readable, flat panel displays. When the project started, it was known that only a small fraction (<1%) of the cathode area is active in electron emission and that the emission sites themselves are sub-micron in size. The critical challenge of this project was to develop new microcharacterization methods capable of examining known emission sites. The research team used a combination of cathode emission imaging (developed at SIDT), micro-Raman spectroscopy (LBNL), and electron microscopy and spectroscopy (National Center for Electron Microscopy, LBNL) to examine the properties of known emission sites. The most significant accomplishment of the project was the development at LBNL of a very high resolution scanning probe that, for the first time, measured simultaneously the topography and electrical characteristics of single emission sites. The increased understanding of the emission mechanism helped SIDT to develop a new cathode material,''nano-diamond,'' which they have incorporated into their Field Emission Picture Element (FEPix) product. SIDT is developing large-format flat panel displays based on these picture elements that will be brighter and more efficient than existing outdoor displays such as Jumbotrons. The energy saving that will be realized if field emission displays are introduced commercially is in line with the energy conservation mission of DOE. The unique characterization tools developed in this project (particularly the new scanning microscopy method) are being used in ongoing BES-funded basic research.

  17. Luminescent studies of fluorescent chromophore-doped silica aerogels for flat panel display applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glauser, S.A.C. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science; Lee, H.W.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The remarkable optical and electronic properties of doped and undoped silica aerogels establish their utility as unique, mulitfunctional host materials for fluorescent dyes and other luminescent materials for display and imaging applications. We present results on the photoluminescence, absorption, and photoluminescence excitation spectra of undoped silica aerogels and aerogels doped with Er{sup 3+}, rhodamine 6G (R6G), and fluorescein. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  18. Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings for Flat Panel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Displays and Photovoltaic Cells - Energy Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings for Flat Panel Displays and Photovoltaic Cells Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <p align="center"> New <em>ALD reaction chamber containing 12-in x 12-in piece of plate glass</em></p> New ALD reaction

  19. Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings for Flat Panel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Displays and Photovoltaic Cells | Argonne National Laboratory Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings for Flat Panel Displays and Photovoltaic Cells Technology available for licensing: New transparent conducting oxide (TCO) coatings are deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Provides uniform coating of complex, 3D nanostructures such as electrodes for next-generation PV cells Improved coating precision uses less material and reduces cost PDF icon

  20. Data Acquisition Scan for Large Area Flat Panel Digital X-ray Detector Array

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-05-01

    Interface large area flat panel digital detector and motion control system for computed tomographic data acquisition.

  1. Calibration of an amorphous-silicon flat panel portal imager for exit-beam dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Josephine; Chuang, Cynthia F.; Morin, Olivier; Aubin, Michele; Pouliot, Jean

    2006-03-15

    Amorphous-silicon flat panel detectors are currently used to acquire digital portal images with excellent image quality for patient alignment before external beam radiation therapy. As a first step towards interpreting portal images acquired during treatment in terms of the actual dose delivered to the patient, a calibration method is developed to convert flat panel portal images to the equivalent water dose deposited in the detector plane and at a depth of 1.5 cm. The method is based on empirical convolution models of dose deposition in the flat panel detector and in water. A series of calibration experiments comparing the response of the flat panel imager and ion chamber measurements of dose in water determines the model parameters. Kernels derived from field size measurements account for the differences in the production and detection of scattered radiation in the two systems. The dissimilar response as a function of beam energy spectrum is characterized from measurements performed at various off-axis positions and for increasing attenuator thickness in the beam. The flat panel pixel inhomogeneity is corrected by comparing a large open field image with profiles measured in water. To verify the accuracy of the calibration method, calibrated flat panel profiles were compared with measured dose profiles for fields delivered through solid water slabs, a solid water phantom containing an air cavity, and an anthropomorphic head phantom. Open rectangular fields of various sizes and locations as well as a multileaf collimator-shaped field were delivered. For all but the smallest field centered about the central axis, the calibrated flat panel profiles matched the measured dose profiles with little or no systematic deviation and approximately 3% (two standard deviations) accuracy for the in-field region. The calibrated flat panel profiles for fields located off the central axis showed a small -1.7% systematic deviation from the measured profiles for the in-field region

  2. Measurement of joint kinematics using a conventional clinical single-perspective flat-panel radiography system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seslija, Petar; Teeter, Matthew G.; Yuan Xunhua; Naudie, Douglas D. R.; Bourne, Robert B.; MacDonald, Steven J.; Peters, Terry M.; Holdsworth, David W.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: The ability to accurately measure joint kinematics is an important tool in studying both normal joint function and pathologies associated with injury and disease. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy, accuracy, precision, and clinical safety of measuring 3D joint motion using a conventional flat-panel radiography system prior to its application in an in vivo study. Methods: An automated, image-based tracking algorithm was implemented to measure the three-dimensional pose of a sparse object from a two-dimensional radiographic projection. The algorithm was tested to determine its efficiency and failure rate, defined as the number of image frames where automated tracking failed, or required user intervention. The accuracy and precision of measuring three-dimensional motion were assessed using a robotic controlled, tibiofemoral knee phantom programmed to mimic a subject with a total knee replacement performing a stair ascent activity. Accuracy was assessed by comparing the measurements of the single-plane radiographic tracking technique to those of an optical tracking system, and quantified by the measurement discrepancy between the two systems using the Bland-Altman technique. Precision was assessed through a series of repeated measurements of the tibiofemoral kinematics, and was quantified using the across-trial deviations of the repeated kinematic measurements. The safety of the imaging procedure was assessed by measuring the effective dose of ionizing radiation associated with the x-ray exposures, and analyzing its relative risk to a human subject. Results: The automated tracking algorithm displayed a failure rate of 2% and achieved an average computational throughput of 8 image frames/s. Mean differences between the radiographic and optical measurements for translations and rotations were less than 0.08 mm and 0.07 Degree-Sign in-plane, and 0.24 mm and 0.6 Degree-Sign out-of-plane. The repeatability of kinematics measurements performed

  3. Transmission type flat-panel X-ray source using ZnO nanowire field emitters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Daokun; Song, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Zhipeng; Chen, Jun; Li, Ziping; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng

    2015-12-14

    A transmission type flat-panel X-ray source in diode structure was fabricated. Large-scale patterned ZnO nanowires grown on a glass substrate by thermal oxidation were utilized as field emitters, and tungsten thin film coated on silica glass was used as the transmission anode. Uniform distribution of X-ray generation was achieved, which benefited from the uniform electron emission from ZnO nanowires. Self-ballasting effect induced by the intrinsic resistance of ZnO nanowire and decreasing of screening effect caused by patterned emitters account for the uniform emission. Characteristic X-ray peaks of W-L lines and bremsstrahlung X-rays have been observed under anode voltages at a range of 18–20 kV, the latter of which were the dominant X-ray signals. High-resolution X-ray images with spatial resolution less than 25 μm were obtained by the flat-panel X-ray source. The high resolution was attributed to the small divergence angle of the emitted X-rays from the transmission X-ray source.

  4. An improved method for flat-field correction of flat panel x-ray detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwan, Alexander L.C.; Seibert, J. Anthony; Boone, John M.

    2006-02-15

    In this Technical Note, the effects of different flat-field techniques are examined for a cesium iodide flat panel detector, which exhibited a slightly nonlinear exposure response. The results indicate that the variable flat-field correction method with the appropriate polynomial fit provides excellent correction throughout the entire exposure range. The averaged normalized variation factor, used to assess the nonuniformity of the flat-field correction, decreased from 30.76 for the fixed correction method to 4.13 for the variable flat-field correction method with a fourth-order polynomial fit for the 60 kVp spectrum, and from 16.42 to 3.97 for the 95 kVp spectrum.

  5. Hysterosalpingography using a flat panel unit: Evaluation and optimization of ovarian radiation dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messaris, Gerasimos A. T.; Abatzis, Ilias; Kagadis, George C.; Samartzis, Alexandros P.; Athanasopoulou, Panagiota; Christeas, Nikolaos; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Karnabatidis, Dimitrios; Nikiforidis, George C.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was the evaluation and optimization of radiation dose to the ovaries (D) in hysterosalpingography (HSG). Methods: The study included a phantom study and a clinical one. In the phantom study, we evaluated imaging results for different geometrical setups and irradiation conditions. In the clinical study, 34 women were assigned into three different fluoroscopy modes and D was estimated with direct cervical TLD measurements. Results: In the phantom study, we used a source-to-image-distance (SID) of 110 cm and a field diagonal of 48 cm, and thus decreased air KERMA rate (KR) by 19% and 70%, respectively, for beam filtration: 4 mm Al and 0.9 mm Cu (Low dose). The least radiation exposure was accomplished by using the 3.75 pps fluoroscopy mode in conjunction with beam filtration: Low dose. In the clinical study, D normalized to 50 s of fluoroscopy time with a 3.75 pps fluoroscopy mode reached a value of 0.45 {+-} 0.04 mGy. Observers' evaluation of diagnostic image quality did not significantly differ for the three different modes of acquisition that were compared. Conclusions: Digital spot radiographs could be omitted in modern flat panel systems during HSG. Fluoroscopy image acquisitions in a modern flat panel unit at 3.75 pps and a beam filtration of 4 mm Al and 0.9 mm Cu demonstrate acceptable image quality with an average D equal to 0.45 mGy. This value is lower compared to the studied literature. For these reasons, the proposed method may be recommended for routine HSG examination in order to limit radiation exposure to the ovaries.

  6. The long-term stability of amorphous silicon flat panel imaging devices for dosimetry purposes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louwe, R.J.W.; McDermott, L.N.; Sonke, J.-J.; Tielenburg, R.; Wendling, M.; Herk, M.B. van; Mijnheer, B.J.

    2004-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine the stability of the response of amorphous silicon (a-Si)-flat panel imagers for dosimetry applications. Measurements of the imager's response under reference conditions were performed on a regular basis for four detectors of the same manufacturer. We found that the ambient temperature influenced the dark-field, while the gain of the imager signal was unaffected. Therefore, temperature fluctuations were corrected for by applying a 'dynamic' dark-field correction. This correction method also removed the influence of a small, irreversible increase of the dark-field current, which was equal to 0.5% of the dynamic range of the imager per year and was probably caused by mild radiation damage to the a-Si array. By applying a dynamic dark-field correction, excellent stability of the response over the entire panel of all imagers of 0.5% (1 SD) was obtained over an observation period up to 23 months. However, two imagers had to be replaced after several months. For one imager, an image segment stopped functioning, while the image quality of the other imager degraded significantly. We conclude that the tested a-Si EPIDs have a very stable response and are therefore well suited for dosimetry. We recommend, however, applying quality assurance tests dedicated to both imaging and dosimetry.

  7. A forward bias method for lag correction of an a-Si flat panel detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starman, Jared; Tognina, Carlo; Partain, Larry; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: Digital a-Si flat panel (FP) x-ray detectors can exhibit detector lag, or residual signal, of several percent that can cause ghosting in projection images or severe shading artifacts, known as the radar artifact, in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) reconstructions. A major contributor to detector lag is believed to be defect states, or traps, in the a-Si layer of the FP. Software methods to characterize and correct for the detector lag exist, but they may make assumptions such as system linearity and time invariance, which may not be true. The purpose of this work is to investigate a new hardware based method to reduce lag in an a-Si FP and to evaluate its effectiveness at removing shading artifacts in CBCT reconstructions. The feasibility of a novel, partially hardware based solution is also examined. Methods: The proposed hardware solution for lag reduction requires only a minor change to the FP. For pulsed irradiation, the proposed method inserts a new operation step between the readout and data collection stages. During this new stage the photodiode is operated in a forward bias mode, which fills the defect states with charge. A Varian 4030CB panel was modified to allow for operation in the forward bias mode. The contrast of residual lag ghosts was measured for lag frames 2 and 100 after irradiation ceased for standard and forward bias modes. Detector step response, lag, SNR, modulation transfer function (MTF), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) measurements were made with standard and forward bias firmware. CBCT data of pelvic and head phantoms were also collected. Results: Overall, the 2nd and 100th detector lag frame residual signals were reduced 70%-88% using the new method. SNR, MTF, and DQE measurements show a small decrease in collected signal and a small increase in noise. The forward bias hardware successfully reduced the radar artifact in the CBCT reconstruction of the pelvic and head phantoms by 48%-81%. Conclusions: Overall, the

  8. A nonlinear lag correction algorithm for a-Si flat-panel x-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starman, Jared; Star-Lack, Josh; Virshup, Gary; Shapiro, Edward; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: Detector lag, or residual signal, in a-Si flat-panel (FP) detectors can cause significant shading artifacts in cone-beam computed tomography reconstructions. To date, most correction models have assumed a linear, time-invariant (LTI) model and correct lag by deconvolution with an impulse response function (IRF). However, the lag correction is sensitive to both the exposure intensity and the technique used for determining the IRF. Even when the LTI correction that produces the minimum error is found, residual artifact remains. A new non-LTI method was developed to take into account the IRF measurement technique and exposure dependencies. Methods: First, a multiexponential (N = 4) LTI model was implemented for lag correction. Next, a non-LTI lag correction, known as the nonlinear consistent stored charge (NLCSC) method, was developed based on the LTI multiexponential method. It differs from other nonlinear lag correction algorithms in that it maintains a consistent estimate of the amount of charge stored in the FP and it does not require intimate knowledge of the semiconductor parameters specific to the FP. For the NLCSC method, all coefficients of the IRF are functions of exposure intensity. Another nonlinear lag correction method that only used an intensity weighting of the IRF was also compared. The correction algorithms were applied to step-response projection data and CT acquisitions of a large pelvic phantom and an acrylic head phantom. The authors collected rising and falling edge step-response data on a Varian 4030CB a-Si FP detector operating in dynamic gain mode at 15 fps at nine incident exposures (2.0%-92% of the detector saturation exposure). For projection data, 1st and 50th frame lag were measured before and after correction. For the CT reconstructions, five pairs of ROIs were defined and the maximum and mean signal differences within a pair were calculated for the different exposures and step-response edge techniques. Results: The LTI

  9. Nitrogen incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond based field emitter array for a flat-panel x-ray source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Posada, Chrystian M.; Grant, Edwin J.; Lee, Hyoung K.; Castaño, Carlos H.; Divan, Ralu; Sumant, Anirudha V.; Rosenmann, Daniel; Stan, Liliana

    2014-04-07

    A field emission based flat-panel transmission x-ray source is being developed as an alternative for medical and industrial imaging. A field emitter array (FEA) prototype based on nitrogen incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond film has been fabricated to be used as the electron source of this flat panel x-ray source. The FEA prototype was developed using conventional microfabrication techniques. The field emission characteristics of the FEA prototype were evaluated. Results indicated that emission current densities of the order of 6 mA/cm{sup 2} could be obtained at electric fields as low as 10 V/μm to 20 V/μm. During the prototype microfabrication process, issues such as delamination of the extraction gate and poor etching of the SiO{sub 2} insulating layer located between the emitters and the extraction layer were encountered. Consequently, alternative FEA designs were investigated. Experimental and simulation data from the first FEA prototype were compared and the results were used to evaluate the performance of alternative single and double gate designs that would yield better field emission characteristics compared to the first FEA prototype. The best simulation results are obtained for the double gate FEA design, when the diameter of the collimator gate is around 2.6 times the diameter of the extraction gate.

  10. Signal and noise transfer properties of CMOS based active pixel flat panel imager coupled to structured CsI:Tl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arvanitis, C. D.; Bohndiek, S. E.; Blakesley, J.; Olivo, A.; Speller, R. D.

    2009-01-15

    Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) active pixel sensors can be optically coupled to CsI:Tl phosphors forming a indirect active pixel flat panel imager (APFPI) for high performance medical imaging. The aim of this work is to determine the x-ray imaging capabilities of CMOS-based APFPI and study the signal and noise transfer properties of CsI:Tl phosphors. Three different CsI:Tl phosphors from two different vendors have been used to produce three system configurations. The performance of each system configuration has been studied in terms of the modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectra, and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) in the mammographic energy range. A simple method to determine quantum limited systems in this energy range is also presented. In addition, with aid of monochromatic synchrotron radiation, the effect of iodine characteristic x-rays of the CsI:Tl on the MTF has been determined. A Monte Carlo simulation of the signal transfer properties of the imager is also presented in order to study the stages that degrade the spatial resolution of our current system. The effect of using substrate patterning during the growth of CsI:Tl columnar structure was also studied, along with the effect of CsI:Tl fixed pattern noise due to local variations in the scintillation light. CsI:Tl fixed pattern noise appears to limit the performance of our current system configurations. All the system configurations are quantum limited at 0.23 {mu}C/kg with two of them having DQE (0) equal to 0.57. Active pixel flat panel imagers are shown to be digital x-ray imagers with almost constant DQE throughout a significant part of their dynamic range and in particular at very low exposures.

  11. Empirical binary tomography calibration (EBTC) for the precorrection of beam hardening and scatter for flat panel CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimmer, Rainer; Kachelriess, Marc

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: Scatter and beam hardening are prominent artifacts in x-ray CT. Currently, there is no precorrection method that inherently accounts for tube voltage modulation and shaped prefiltration. Methods: A method for self-calibration based on binary tomography of homogeneous objects, which was proposed by B. Li et al. [''A novel beam hardening correction method for computed tomography,'' in Proceedings of the IEEE/ICME International Conference on Complex Medical Engineering CME 2007, pp. 891-895, 23-27 May 2007], has been generalized in order to use this information to preprocess scans of other, nonbinary objects, e.g., to reduce artifacts in medical CT applications. Further on, the method was extended to handle scatter besides beam hardening and to allow for detector pixel-specific and ray-specific precorrections. This implies that the empirical binary tomography calibration (EBTC) technique is sensitive to spectral effects as they are induced by the heel effect, by shaped prefiltration, or by scanners with tube voltage modulation. The presented method models the beam hardening correction by using a rational function, while the scatter component is modeled using the pep model of B. Ohnesorge et al. [''Efficient object scatter correction algorithm for third and fourth generation CT scanners,'' Eur. Radiol. 9(3), 563-569 (1999)]. A smoothness constraint is applied to the parameter space to regularize the underdetermined system of nonlinear equations. The parameters determined are then used to precorrect CT scans. Results: EBTC was evaluated using simulated data of a flat panel cone-beam CT scanner with tube voltage modulation and bow-tie prefiltration and using real data of a flat panel cone-beam CT scanner. In simulation studies, where the ground truth is known, the authors' correction model proved to be highly accurate and was able to reduce beam hardening by 97% and scatter by about 75%. Reconstructions of measured data showed significantly less artifacts than

  12. Noise, sampling, and the number of projections in cone-beam CT with a flat-panel detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Z.; Gang, G. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of the number of projection views on image noise in cone-beam CT (CBCT) with a flat-panel detector. Methods: This fairly fundamental consideration in CBCT system design and operation was addressed experimentally (using a phantom presenting a uniform medium as well as statistically motivated “clutter”) and theoretically (using a cascaded systems model describing CBCT noise) to elucidate the contributing factors of quantum noise (σ{sub Q}), electronic noise (σ{sub E}), and view aliasing (σ{sub view}). Analysis included investigation of the noise, noise-power spectrum, and modulation transfer function as a function of the number of projections (N{sub proj}), dose (D{sub tot}), and voxel size (b{sub vox}). Results: The results reveal a nonmonotonic relationship between image noise andN{sub proj} at fixed total dose: for the CBCT system considered, noise decreased with increasing N{sub proj} due to reduction of view sampling effects in the regime N{sub proj} <∼200, above which noise increased with N{sub proj} due to increased electronic noise. View sampling effects were shown to depend on the heterogeneity of the object in a direct analytical relationship to power-law anatomical clutter of the form κ/f {sup β}—and a general model of individual noise components (σ{sub Q}, σ{sub E}, and σ{sub view}) demonstrated agreement with measurements over a broad range in N{sub proj}, D{sub tot}, and b{sub vox}. Conclusions: The work elucidates fairly basic elements of CBCT noise in a manner that demonstrates the role of distinct noise components (viz., quantum, electronic, and view sampling noise). For configurations fairly typical of CBCT with a flat-panel detector (FPD), the analysis reveals a “sweet spot” (i.e., minimum noise) in the rangeN{sub proj} ∼ 250–350, nearly an order of magnitude lower in N{sub proj} than typical of multidetector CT, owing to the relatively high electronic noise in FPDs. The analysis

  13. Gain and offset calibration reduces variation in exposure-dependent SNR among systems with identical digital flat-panel detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willis, Charles E.; Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy Y.; Lofton, Brad K.; White, R. Allen

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: The conditions under which vendor performance criteria for digital radiography systems are obtained do not adequately simulate the conditions of actual clinical imaging with respect to radiographic technique factors, scatter production, and scatter control. Therefore, the relationship between performance under ideal conditions and performance in clinical practice remains unclear. Using data from a large complement of systems in clinical use, the authors sought to develop a method to establish expected performance criteria for digital flat-panel radiography systems with respect to signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) versus detector exposure under clinical conditions for thoracic imaging. Methods: The authors made radiographic exposures of a patient-equivalent chest phantom at 125 kVp and 180 cm source-to-image distance. The mAs value was modified to produce exposures above and below the mAs delivered by automatic exposure control. Exposures measured free-in-air were corrected to the imaging plane by the inverse square law, by the attenuation factor of the phantom, and by the Bucky factor of the grid for the phantom, geometry, and kilovolt peak. SNR was evaluated as the ratio of the mean to the standard deviation (SD) of a region of interest automatically selected in the center of each unprocessed image. Data were acquired from 18 systems, 14 of which were tested both before and after gain and offset calibration. SNR as a function of detector exposure was interpolated using a double logarithmic function to stratify the data into groups of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mR exposure (1.8, 4.5, 9.0, 18, and 45 {mu}Gy air KERMA) to the detector. Results: The mean SNR at each exposure interval after calibration exhibited linear dependence on the mean SNR before calibration (r{sup 2} = 0.9999). The dependence was greater than unity (m = 1.101 {+-} 0.006), and the difference from unity was statistically significant (p < 0.005). The SD of mean SNR after calibration also

  14. SU-D-12A-04: Investigation of a 2D Antiscatter Grid for Flat Panel Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altunbas, C; Kavanagh, B; Miften, M; Zhong, Y; Shaw, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To improve CT number accuracy and contrast sensitivity, a novel 2D antiscatter grid (ASG) for flat panel detector (FPD) based CBCT imaging was evaluated. Experiments were performed to characterize the scatter rejection and contrast sensitivity performance of ASG. The reduction in primary transmission for various ASG geometries was also evaluated by a computational model. Methods: The 2D ASG design was based on multi-hole collimators used in Nuclear Medicine. It consisted of abutted hexagon shaped apertures with 2.5 mm pitch and 32 mm height, and separated by 0.25 mm thick lead septa. Scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and mean primary transmission were measured using a benchtop FPD/x-ray source system. Acrylic slabs of varying thicknesses were imaged with a contrast-detail phantom to measure CNR and SPR under different scatter conditions. Primary transmission was also measured by averaging pixel values in flood field images without the phantom. We additionally explored variation of primary transmission with pitch and septum thickness using a computational model of our ASG. Results: Our 2D ASG reduced the SPR from 3.3 to 0.12, and improved CNR by 50% in 20 cm thick slab phantom projections acquired at 120 kVp. While the measured primary transmission was 72.8%, our simulations show that primary transmission can be increased to 86% by reducing the septum thickness to 0.1 mm. Primary transmission further increases to 93% if septum thickness of 0.1 mm is used in conjunction with an increased pitch of 4 mm. Conclusion: The 2D ASG appears to be a promising scatter rejection device, offering both superior scatter rejection and improved contrast sensitivity. Though its lead footprint reduced primary transmission, our work shows that optimization of aperture pitch and septum thickness can significantly improve the primary transmission.

  15. Reduction of ring artifacts in CBCT: Detection and correction of pixel gain variations in flat panel detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altunbas, Cem; Lai, Chao-Jen; Zhong, Yuncheng; Shaw, Chris C.

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: In using flat panel detectors (FPD) for cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), pixel gain variations may lead to structured nonuniformities in projections and ring artifacts in CBCT images. Such gain variations can be caused by change in detector entrance exposure levels or beam hardening, and they are not accounted by conventional flat field correction methods. In this work, the authors presented a method to identify isolated pixel clusters that exhibit gain variations and proposed a pixel gain correction (PGC) method to suppress both beam hardening and exposure level dependent gain variations. Methods: To modulate both beam spectrum and entrance exposure, flood field FPD projections were acquired using beam filters with varying thicknesses. “Ideal” pixel values were estimated by performing polynomial fits in both raw and flat field corrected projections. Residuals were calculated by taking the difference between measured and ideal pixel values to identify clustered image and FPD artifacts in flat field corrected and raw images, respectively. To correct clustered image artifacts, the ratio of ideal to measured pixel values in filtered images were utilized as pixel-specific gain correction factors, referred as PGC method, and they were tabulated as a function of pixel value in a look-up table. Results: 0.035% of detector pixels lead to clustered image artifacts in flat field corrected projections, where 80% of these pixels were traced back and linked to artifacts in the FPD. The performance of PGC method was tested in variety of imaging conditions and phantoms. The PGC method reduced clustered image artifacts and fixed pattern noise in projections, and ring artifacts in CBCT images. Conclusions: Clustered projection image artifacts that lead to ring artifacts in CBCT can be better identified with our artifact detection approach. When compared to the conventional flat field correction method, the proposed PGC method enables characterization of nonlinear

  16. SU-E-I-49: Simulation Study for Removing Scatter Radiation in Cesium-Iodine Based Flat Panel Detector System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Y; Park, M; Kim, H; Kim, K; Kim, J; Morishita, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study aims to identify the feasibility of a novel cesium-iodine (CsI)-based flat-panel detector (FPD) for removing scatter radiation in diagnostic radiology. Methods: The indirect FPD comprises three layers: a substrate, scintillation, and thin-film-transistor (TFT) layer. The TFT layer has a matrix structure with pixels. There are ineffective dimensions on the TFT layer, such as the voltage and data lines; therefore, we devised a new FPD system having net-like lead in the substrate layer, matching the ineffective area, to block the scatter radiation so that only primary X-rays could reach the effective dimension.To evaluate the performance of this new FPD system, we conducted a Monte Carlo simulation using MCNPX 2.6.0 software. Scatter fractions (SFs) were acquired using no grid, a parallel grid (8:1 grid ratio), and the new system, and the performances were compared.Two systems having different thicknesses of lead in the substrate layer—10 and 20μm—were simulated. Additionally, we examined the effects of different pixel sizes (153×153 and 163×163μm) on the image quality, while keeping the effective area of pixels constant (143×143μm). Results: In case of 10μm lead, the SFs of the new system (∼11%) were lower than those of the other system (∼27% with no grid, ∼16% with parallel grid) at 40kV. However, as the tube voltage increased, the SF of new system (∼19%) was higher than that of parallel grid (∼18%) at 120kV. In the case of 20μm lead, the SFs of the new system were lower than those of the other systems at all ranges of the tube voltage (40–120kV). Conclusion: The novel CsI-based FPD system for removing scatter radiation is feasible for improving the image contrast but must be optimized with respect to the lead thickness, considering the system’s purposes and the ranges of the tube voltage in diagnostic radiology. This study was supported by a grant(K1422651) from Institute of Health Science, Korea University.

  17. Micro-valve pump light valve display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeechun Lee.

    1993-01-19

    A flat panel display incorporates a plurality of micro-pump light valves (MLV's) to form pixels for recreating an image. Each MLV consists of a dielectric drop sandwiched between substrates, at least one of which is transparent, a holding electrode for maintaining the drop outside a viewing area, and a switching electrode from accelerating the drop from a location within the holding electrode to a location within the viewing area. The sustrates may further define non-wetting surface areas to create potential energy barriers to assist in controlling movement of the drop. The forces acting on the drop are quadratic in nature to provide a nonlinear response for increased image contrast. A crossed electrode structure can be used to activate the pixels whereby a large flat panel display is formed without active driver components at each pixel.

  18. Micro-valve pump light valve display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Yee-Chun

    1993-01-01

    A flat panel display incorporates a plurality of micro-pump light valves (MLV's) to form pixels for recreating an image. Each MLV consists of a dielectric drop sandwiched between substrates, at least one of which is transparent, a holding electrode for maintaining the drop outside a viewing area, and a switching electrode from accelerating the drop from a location within the holding electrode to a location within the viewing area. The sustrates may further define non-wetting surface areas to create potential energy barriers to assist in controlling movement of the drop. The forces acting on the drop are quadratic in nature to provide a nonlinear response for increased image contrast. A crossed electrode structure can be used to activate the pixels whereby a large flat panel display is formed without active driver components at each pixel.

  19. Impact of flat panel-imager veiling glare on scatter-estimation accuracy and image quality of a commercial on-board cone-beam CT imaging system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazos, Dimitrios; Williamson, Jeffrey F.

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: The purposes of this study is to measure the low frequency drop (LFD) of the modulation transfer function (MTF), associated with the long tails of the detector point spread function (PSF) of an on-board flat panel imager and study its impact on cone-beam CT (CBCT) image quality and scatter measurement accuracy. Methods: Two different experimental methods were used to characterize LFD and its associated PSF of a Varian OBI flat-panel detector system: the edge response function (ERF) method and the disk transfer function (DTF) method. PSF was estimated by fitting parametric models to these measurements for four values of the applied voltage (kVp). The resultant PSF was used to demonstrate the effect of LFD on image contrast and CT number accuracy in CBCT images reconstructed from synthetic datasets, as well as, accuracy of scatter measurements with the beam-stop method. Results: The MTFs derived from the measured ERF data revealed LFDs varying from 8% (at 60 kVp) to 10.5% (at 120 kVp), while the intensity of the long PSF tails was found to increase with increasing kVp. The veiling glare line spread functions derived from the ERF and DTF methods were in excellent agreement. Uncorrected veiling glare reduced contrast and the image intensity in CBCT reconstruction, near the phantom periphery (by 67 Hounsfield units in a 20 cm-in-diameter water phantom) and (to a smaller degree) near inhomogeneities. Use of the bow-tie filter mitigated these effects. Veiling glare also resulted in about 10%-15% overestimation of the scatter-to-primary ratio when measured with the beam-stop or beam-stop array method. Conclusions: The long tails of the detector PSF were found to have a modest dependence of beam spectrum, which is reflected on the MTF curve LFD. Our findings show that uncorrected veiling glare can affect quantitative accuracy and contrast in CBCT imaging, based on flat panel imager. In addition, it results in overestimation of the scatter-to-primary ratio, measured

  20. Cone beam breast CT with a high pitch (75 μm), thick (500 μm) scintillator CMOS flat panel detector: Visibility of simulated microcalcifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Youtao; Zhong, Yuncheng; Lai, Chao-Jen; Wang, Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C.

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To measure and investigate the improvement of microcalcification (MC) visibility in cone beam breast CT with a high pitch (75 μm), thick (500 μm) scintillator CMOS/CsI flat panel detector (Dexela 2923, Perkin Elmer).Methods: Aluminum wires and calcium carbonate grains of various sizes were embedded in a paraffin cylinder to simulate imaging of calcifications in a breast. Phantoms were imaged with a benchtop experimental cone beam CT system at various exposure levels. In addition to the Dexela detector, a high pitch (50 μm), thin (150 μm) scintillator CMOS/CsI flat panel detector (C7921CA-09, Hamamatsu Corporation, Hamamatsu City, Japan) and a widely used low pitch (194 μm), thick (600 μm) scintillator aSi/CsI flat panel detector (PaxScan 4030CB, Varian Medical Systems) were also used in scanning for comparison. The images were independently reviewed by six readers (imaging physicists). The MC visibility was quantified as the fraction of visible MCs and measured as a function of the estimated mean glandular dose (MGD) level for various MC sizes and detectors. The modulation transfer functions (MTFs) and detective quantum efficiencies (DQEs) were also measured and compared for the three detectors used.Results: The authors have demonstrated that the use of a high pitch (75 μm) CMOS detector coupled with a thick (500 μm) CsI scintillator helped make the smaller 150–160, 160–180, and 180–200 μm MC groups more visible at MGDs up to 10.8, 9, and 10.8 mGy, respectively. It also made the larger 200–212 and 212–224 μm MC groups more visible at MGDs up to 7.2 mGy. No performance improvement was observed for 224–250 μm or larger size groups. With the higher spatial resolution of the Dexela detector based system, the apparent dimensions and shapes of MCs were more accurately rendered. The results show that with the aforementioned detector, a 73% visibility could be achieved in imaging 160–180 μm MCs as compared to 28% visibility achieved by

  1. Detection of Cement Leakage After Vertebroplasty with a Non-Flat-Panel Angio Unit Compared to Multidetector Computed Tomography - An Ex Vivo Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumann, Clemens Fuchs, Heiko; Westphalen, Kerstin; Hierholzer, Johannes

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the detection of cement leakages after vertebroplasty using angiographic computed tomography (ACT) in a non-flat-panel angio unit compared to multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Vertebroplasty was performed in 19 of 33 cadaver vertebrae (23 thoracic and 10 lumbar segments). In the angio suite, ACT (190{sup o}; 1.5{sup o} per image) was performed to obtain volumetric data. Another volumetric data set of the specimen was obtained by MDCT using a standard algorithm. Nine multiplanar reconstructions in standardized axial, coronal, and sagittal planes of every vertebra were generated from both data sets. Images were evaluated on the basis of a nominal scale with 18 criteria, comprising osseous properties (e.g., integrity of the end plate) and cement distribution (e.g., presence of intraspinal cement). MDCT images were regarded as gold standard and analyzed by two readers in a consensus mode. Rotational acquisitions were analyzed by six blinded readers. Results were correlated with the gold standard using Cohen's {kappa}-coefficient analysis. Furthermore, interobserver variability was calculated. Correlation with the gold standard ranged from no correlation (osseous margins of the neuroforamen, {kappa} = 0.008) to intermediate (trace of vertebroplasty canula; {kappa} = 0.615) for criteria referring to osseous morphology. However, there was an excellent correlation for those criteria referring to cement distribution, with {kappa} values ranging from 0.948 (paravertebral cement distribution) to 0.972 (intraspinal cement distribution). With a minimum of {kappa} = 0.768 ('good correlation') and a maximum of {kappa} = 0.91 ('excellent'), interobserver variability was low. In conclusion, ACT in an angio suite without a flat-panel detector depicts a cement leakage after vertebroplasty as well as MDCT. However, the method does not provide sufficient depiction of osseous morphology.

  2. Uterine Artery Embolization for Leiomyomata: Optimization of the Radiation Dose to the Patient Using a Flat-Panel Detector Angiographic Suite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sapoval, Marc Pellerin, Olivier; Rehel, Jean-Luc; Houdoux, Nicolas; Rahmoune, Ghizlaine; Aubert, Bernard; Fitton, Isabelle

    2010-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of low-dose/low-frame fluoroscopy/angiography with a flat-panel detector angiographic suite to reduce the dose delivered to patients during uterine fibroid embolization (UFE). A two-step prospective dosimetric study was conducted, with a flat-panel detector angiography suite (Siemens Axiom Artis) integrating automatic exposure control (AEC), during 20 consecutive UFEs. Patient dosimetry was performed using calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters placed on the lower posterior pelvis skin. The first step (10 patients; group A) consisted in UFE (bilateral embolization, calibrated microspheres) performed using the following parameters: standard fluoroscopy (15 pulses/s) and angiography (3 frames/s). The second step (next consecutive 10 patients; group B) used low-dose/low-frame fluoroscopy (7.5 pulses/s for catheterization and 3 pulses/s for embolization) and angiography (1 frame/s). We also recorded the total dose-area product (DAP) delivered to the patient and the fluoroscopy time as reported by the manufacturer's dosimetry report. The mean peak skin dose decreased from 2.4 {+-} 1.3 to 0.4 {+-} 0.3 Gy (P = 0.001) for groups A and B, respectively. The DAP values decreased from 43,113 {+-} 27,207 {mu}Gy m{sup 2} for group A to 9,515 {+-} 4,520 {mu}Gy m{sup 2} for group B (P = 0.003). The dose to ovaries and uterus decreased from 378 {+-} 238 mGy (group A) to 83 {+-} 41 mGy (group B) and from 388 {+-} 246 mGy (group A) to 85 {+-} 39 mGy (group B), respectively. Effective doses decreased from 112 {+-} 71 mSv (group A) to 24 {+-} 12 mSv (group B) (P = 0.003). In conclusion, the use of low-dose/low-frame fluoroscopy/angiography, based on a good understanding of the AEC system and also on the technique during uterine fibroid embolization, allows a significant decrease in the dose exposure to the patient.

  3. SU-E-I-07: Response Characteristics and Signal Conversion Modeling of KV Flat-Panel Detector in Cone Beam CT System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yu; Cao, Ruifen; Pei, Xi; Wang, Hui; Hu, Liqin

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The flat-panel detector response characteristics are investigated to optimize the scanning parameter considering the image quality and less radiation dose. The signal conversion model is also established to predict the tumor shape and physical thickness changes. Methods: With the ELEKTA XVI system, the planar images of 10cm water phantom were obtained under different image acquisition conditions, including tube voltage, electric current, exposure time and frames. The averaged responses of square area in center were analyzed using Origin8.0. The response characteristics for each scanning parameter were depicted by different fitting types. The transmission measured for 10cm water was compared to Monte Carlo simulation. Using the quadratic calibration method, a series of variable-thickness water phantoms images were acquired to derive the signal conversion model. A 20cm wedge water phantom with 2cm step thickness was used to verify the model. At last, the stability and reproducibility of the model were explored during a four week period. Results: The gray values of image center all decreased with the increase of different image acquisition parameter presets. The fitting types adopted were linear fitting, quadratic polynomial fitting, Gauss fitting and logarithmic fitting with the fitting R-Square 0.992, 0.995, 0.997 and 0.996 respectively. For 10cm water phantom, the transmission measured showed better uniformity than Monte Carlo simulation. The wedge phantom experiment show that the radiological thickness changes prediction error was in the range of (-4mm, 5mm). The signal conversion model remained consistent over a period of four weeks. Conclusion: The flat-panel response decrease with the increase of different scanning parameters. The preferred scanning parameter combination was 100kV, 10mA, 10ms, 15frames. It is suggested that the signal conversion model could effectively be used for tumor shape change and radiological thickness prediction. Supported by

  4. SU-C-16A-01: In Vivo Source Position Verification in High Dose Rate (HDR) Prostate Brachytherapy Using a Flat Panel Imager: Initial Clinical Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franich, R; Smith, R; Millar, J; Haworth, A; Taylor, M; McDermott, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: We report our initial clinical experience with a novel position-sensitive source-tracking system based on a flat panel imager. The system has been trialled with 4 prostate HDR brachytherapy patients (8 treatment fractions) in this initial study. Methods: The flat panel imaging system was mounted under a customised carbon fibre couch top assembly (Figure 1). Three gold fiducial markers were implanted into the prostate of each patient at the time of catheter placement. X-ray dwell position markers were inserted into three catheters and a radiograph acquired to locate the implant relative to the imaging device. During treatment, as the HDR source dwells were delivered, images were acquired and processed to determine the position of the source in the patient. Source positions measured by the imaging device were compared to the treatment plan for verification of treatment delivery. Results: Measured dwell positions provided verification of relative dwell spacing within and between catheters, in the coronal plane. Measurements were typically within 2.0mm (0.2mm – 3.3mm, s.d. 0.8mm) of the planned positions over 60 dwells (Figure 2). Discrimination between larger dwell intervals and catheter differentiation were clear. This confirms important delivery attributes such as correct transfer tube connection, source step size, relative catheter positions and therefore overall correct plan selection and delivery. The fiducial markers, visible on the radiograph, provided verification of treatment delivery to the correct anatomical location. The absolute position of the dwells was determined by comparing the measured dwell positions with the x-ray markers from the radiograph, validating the programmed treatment indexer length. The total impact on procedure time was less than 5 minutes. Conclusion: The novel, noninvasive HDR brachytherapy treatment verification system was used clinically with minor impact on workflow. The system allows verification of correct treatment

  5. Noise variance analysis using a flat panel x-ray detector: A method for additive noise assessment with application to breast CT applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Kai; Huang, Shih-Ying; Packard, Nathan J.; Boone, John M.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: A simplified linear model approach was proposed to accurately model the response of a flat panel detector used for breast CT (bCT). Methods: Individual detector pixel mean and variance were measured from bCT projection images acquired both in air and with a polyethylene cylinder, with the detector operating in both fixed low gain and dynamic gain mode. Once the coefficients of the linear model are determined, the fractional additive noise can be used as a quantitative metric to evaluate the system's efficiency in utilizing x-ray photons, including the performance of different gain modes of the detector. Results: Fractional additive noise increases as the object thickness increases or as the radiation dose to the detector decreases. For bCT scan techniques on the UC Davis prototype scanner (80 kVp, 500 views total, 30 frames/s), in the low gain mode, additive noise contributes 21% of the total pixel noise variance for a 10 cm object and 44% for a 17 cm object. With the dynamic gain mode, additive noise only represents approximately 2.6% of the total pixel noise variance for a 10 cm object and 7.3% for a 17 cm object. Conclusions: The existence of the signal-independent additive noise is the primary cause for a quadratic relationship between bCT noise variance and the inverse of radiation dose at the detector. With the knowledge of the additive noise contribution to experimentally acquired images, system modifications can be made to reduce the impact of additive noise and improve the quantum noise efficiency of the bCT system.

  6. TU-F-18C-02: Increasing Amorphous Selenium Thickness in Direct Conversion Flat-Panel Imagers for Contrast-Enhanced Dual-Energy Breast Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scaduto, DA; Hu, Y-H; Zhao, W

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Contrast-enhanced (CE) breast imaging using iodinated contrast agents requires imaging with x-ray spectra at energies greater than those used in mammography. Optimizing amorphous selenium (a-Se) flat panel imagers (FPI) for this higher energy range may increase lesion conspicuity. Methods: We compare imaging performance of a conventional FPI with 200 μm a-Se conversion layer to a prototype FPI with 300 μm a-Se layer. Both detectors are evaluated in a Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration prototype digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) system using low-energy (W/Rh 28 kVp) and high-energy (W/Cu 49 kVp) x-ray spectra. Detectability of iodinated lesions in dual-energy images is evaluated using an iodine contrast phantom. Effects of beam obliquity are investigated in projection and reconstructed images using different reconstruction methods. The ideal observer signal-to-noise ratio is used as a figure-of-merit to predict the optimal a-Se thickness for CE lesion detectability without compromising conventional full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and DBT performance. Results: Increasing a-Se thickness from 200 μm to 300 μm preserves imaging performance at typical mammographic energies (e.g. W/Rh 28 kVp), and improves the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) for high energy (W/Cu 49 kVp) by 30%. While the more penetrating high-energy x-ray photons increase geometric blur due to beam obliquity in the FPI with thicker a-Se layer, the effect on lesion detectability in FBP reconstructions is negligible due to the reconstruction filters employed. Ideal observer SNR for CE objects shows improvements in in-plane detectability with increasing a-Se thicknesses, though small lesion detectability begins to degrade in oblique projections for a-Se thickness above 500 μm. Conclusion: Increasing a-Se thickness in direct conversion FPI from 200 μm to 300 μm improves lesion detectability in CE breast imaging with virtually no cost to conventional FFDM and DBT. This work was partially

  7. SU-E-I-11: Cascaded Linear System Model for Columnar CsI Flat Panel Imagers with Depth Dependent Gain and Blur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, B; Lubinsky, A; Zheng, H; Zhao, W; Teymurazyan, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To implement a depth dependent gain and blur cascaded linear system model (CLSM) for optimizing columnar structured CsI indirect conversion flat panel imager (FPI) for advanced imaging applications. Methods: For experimental validation, depth dependent escape efficiency, e(z), was extracted from PHS measurement of different CsI scintillators (thickness, substrate and light output). The inherent MTF and DQE of CsI was measured using high resolution CMOS sensor. For CLSM, e(z) and the depth dependent MTF(f,z), were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation (Geant4) of optical photon transport through columnar CsI. Previous work showed that Monte Carlo simulation for CsI was hindered by the non-ideality of its columnar structure. In the present work we allowed variation in columnar width with depth, and assumed diffusive reflective backing and columns. Monte Carlo simulation was performed using an optical point source placed at different depth of the CsI layer, from which MTF(z,f) and e(z) were computed. The resulting e(z) with excellent matching with experimental measurements were then applied to the CLSM, Monte Carlo simulation was repeated until the modeled MTF, DQE(f) also match experimental measurement. Results: For a 150 micron FOS HL type CsI, e(z) varies between 0.56 to 0.45, and the MTF at 14 cycles/mm varies between 62.1% to 3.9%, from the front to the back of the scintillator. The overall MTF and DQE(f) at all frequencies are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements at all frequencies. Conclusion: We have developed a CLSM for columnar CsI scintillators with depth dependent gain and MTF, which were estimated from Monte Carlo simulation with novel optical simulation settings. Preliminary results showed excellent agreement between simulation results and experimental measurements. Future work is aimed at extending this approach to optimize CsI screen optic design and sensor structure for achieving higher DQE(f) in cone-beam CT, which uses

  8. Low Voltage, Low Power Organic Light Emitting Transistors for AMOLED Displays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, M. A. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Liu, B. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Donoghue, E. P. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL; Kim, D. Y. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Reynolds, J. R. [University of Florida, Gainesville; So, Franky [University of Florida, Gainesville; Rinzler, A. G. [University of Florida, Gainesville

    2011-01-01

    Low voltage, low power dissipation, high aperture ratio organic light emitting transistors are demonstrated. The high level of performance is enabled by a carbon nanotube source electrode that permits integration of the drive transistor and the organic light emitting diode into an efficient single stacked device. Given the demonstrated performance, this technology could break the technical logjam holding back widespread deployment of active matrix organic light emitting displays at flat panel screen sizes.

  9. The x-ray time of flight method for investigation of ghosting in amorphous selenium-based flat panel medical x-ray imagers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rau, A.W.; Bakueva, L.; Rowlands, J.A.

    2005-10-15

    Amorphous selenium (a-Se) based real-time flat-panel imagers (FPIs) are finding their way into the digital radiology department because they offer the practical advantages of digital x-ray imaging combined with an image quality that equals or outperforms that of conventional systems. The temporal imaging characteristics of FPIs can be affected by ghosting (i.e., radiation-induced changes of sensitivity) when the dose to the detector is high (e.g., portal imaging and mammography) or the images are acquired at a high frame rate (e.g., fluoroscopy). In this paper, the x-ray time-of-flight (TOF) method is introduced as a tool for the investigation of ghosting in a-Se photoconductor layers. The method consists of irradiating layers of a-Se with short x-ray pulses. From the current generated in the a-Se layer, ghosting is quantified and the ghosting parameters (charge carrier generation rate and carrier lifetimes and mobilities) are assessed. The x-ray TOF method is novel in that (1) x-ray sensitivity (S) and ghosting parameters can be measured simultaneously (2) the transport of both holes and electrons can be isolated, and (3) the method is applicable to the practical a-Se layer structure with blocking contacts used in FPIs. The x-ray TOF method was applied to an analysis of ghosting in a-Se photoconductor layers under portal imaging conditions, i.e., 1 mm thick a-Se layers, biased at 5 V/{mu}m, were irradiated using a 6 MV LINAC x-ray beam to a total dose (ghosting dose) of 30 Gy. The initial sensitivity (S{sub 0}) of the a-Se layers was 63{+-}2 nC cm{sup -2} cGy{sup -1}. It was found that S decreases to 30% of S{sub 0} after a ghosting dose of 5 Gy and to 21% after 30 Gy at which point no further change in S occurs. At an x-ray intensity of 22 Gy/s (instantaneous dose rate during a LINAC x-ray pulse), the charge carrier generation rate was 1.25{+-}0.1x10{sup 22} ehp m{sup -3} s{sup -1} and, to a first approximation, independent of the ghosting dose. However, both

  10. Junction-based field emission structure for field emission display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinh, Long N.; Balooch, Mehdi; McLean, II, William; Schildbach, Marcus A.

    2002-01-01

    A junction-based field emission display, wherein the junctions are formed by depositing a semiconducting or dielectric, low work function, negative electron affinity (NEA) silicon-based compound film (SBCF) onto a metal or n-type semiconductor substrate. The SBCF can be doped to become a p-type semiconductor. A small forward bias voltage is applied across the junction so that electron transport is from the substrate into the SBCF region. Upon entering into this NEA region, many electrons are released into the vacuum level above the SBCF surface and accelerated toward a positively biased phosphor screen anode, hence lighting up the phosphor screen for display. To turn off, simply switch off the applied potential across the SBCF/substrate. May be used for field emission flat panel displays.

  11. Flat-Panel Cone-Beam Ct-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Very Small (≤1.5 cm) Liver Tumors: Technical Note on a Preliminary Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cazzato, Roberto Luigi Buy, Xavier Alberti, Nicolas Fonck, Mariane; Grasso, Rosario Francesco; Palussière, Jean

    2015-02-15

    PurposeThe aim of the present study was to investigate the technical feasibility of flat-panel cone-beam CT (CBCT)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of very small (<1.5 cm) liver tumors.Materials and MethodsPatients included were candidates for hepatic percutaneous RFA as they had single biopsy-proven hepatic tumors sized ≤1.5 cm and poorly defined on ultrasonography. Following apnea induction, unenhanced CBCT scans were acquired and used to deploy the RF electrode with the aid of a virtual navigation system. If the tumor was not clearly identified on the unenhanced CBCT scan, a right retrograde arterial femoral access was established to carry out hepatic angiography and localize the tumor. Patients’ lesions and procedural variables were recorded and analyzed.ResultsThree patients (2 male and 1 female), aged 68, 76, and 87 years were included; 3 lesions (2 hepato-cellular carcinoma and 1 metastasis from colorectal cancer) were treated. One patient required hepatic angiography. Cycles of apnea used to acquire CBCT images and to deploy the electrode lasted <120 s. Mean fluoroscopic time needed to deploy the electrode was 36.6 ± 5.7 min. Mean overall procedural time was 66.0 ± 22.9 min. No peri- or post-procedural complications were noted. No cases of incomplete ablation were noted at 1-month follow-up.ConclusionPercutaneous CBCT-guided liver RFA with or without arterial hepatic angiography is technically feasible.

  12. SU-E-I-53: Comparison of Kerma-Area-Product Between the Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) and a Flat Panel Detector (FPD) as Used in Neuro-Endovascular Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijayan, S; Rana, V; Nagesh, S Setlur; Xiong, Z; Rudin, S; Bednarek, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the reduction of integral dose to the patient when using the micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF) compared to when using the standard flat-panel detector (FPD) for the techniques used during neurointerventional procedures. Methods: The MAF is a small field-of-view, high resolution x-ray detector which captures 1024 x 1024 pixels with an effective pixel size of 35μm and is capable of real-time imaging up to 30 frames per second. The MAF was used in neuro-interventions during those parts of the procedure when high resolution was needed and the FPD was used otherwise. The technique parameters were recorded when each detector was used and the kerma-area-product (KAP) per image frame was determined. KAP values were calculated for seven neuro interventions using premeasured calibration files of output as a function of kVp and beam filtration and included the attenuation of the patient table for the frontal projections to be more representative of integral patient dose. The air kerma at the patient entrance was multiplied by the beam area at that point to obtain the KAP values. The ranges of KAP values per frame were determined for the range of technique parameters used during the clinical procedures. To appreciate the benefit of the higher MAF resolution in the region of interventional activity, DA technique parameters were generally used with the MAF. Results: The lowest and highest values of KAP per frame for the MAF in DA mode were 4 and 50 times lower, respectively, compared to those of the FPD in pulsed fluoroscopy mode. Conclusion: The MAF was used in those parts of the clinical procedures when high resolution and image quality was essential. The integral patient dose as represented by the KAP value was substantially lower when using the MAF than when using the FPD due to the much smaller volume of tissue irradiated. This research was supported in part by Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation and NIH Grant R01EB002873.

  13. SU-D-204-05: Quantitative Comparison of a High Resolution Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscopic (MAF) Detector with a Standard Flat Panel Detector (FPD) Using the New Metric of Generalized Measured Relative Object Detectability (GM-ROD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russ, M; Ionita, C; Bednarek, D; Rudin, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In endovascular image-guided neuro-interventions, visualization of fine detail is paramount. For example, the ability of the interventionist to visualize the stent struts depends heavily on the x-ray imaging detector performance. Methods: A study to examine the relative performance of the high resolution MAF-CMOS (pixel size 75µm, Nyquist frequency 6.6 cycles/mm) and a standard Flat Panel Detector (pixel size 194µm, Nyquist frequency 2.5 cycles/mm) detectors in imaging a neuro stent was done using the Generalized Measured Relative Object Detectability (GM-ROD) metric. Low quantum noise images of a deployed stent were obtained by averaging 95 frames obtained by both detectors without changing other exposure or geometric parameters. The square of the Fourier transform of each image is taken and divided by the generalized normalized noise power spectrum to give an effective measured task-specific signal-to-noise ratio. This expression is then integrated from 0 to each of the detector’s Nyquist frequencies, and the GM-ROD value is determined by taking a ratio of the integrals for the MAF-CMOS to that of the FPD. The lower bound of integration can be varied to emphasize high frequencies in the detector comparisons. Results: The MAF-CMOS detector exhibits vastly superior performance over the FPD when integrating over all frequencies, yielding a GM-ROD value of 63.1. The lower bound of integration was stepped up in increments of 0.5 cycles/mm for higher frequency comparisons. As the lower bound increased, the GM-ROD value was augmented, reflecting the superior performance of the MAF-CMOS in the high frequency regime. Conclusion: GM-ROD is a versatile metric that can provide quantitative detector and task dependent comparisons that can be used as a basis for detector selection. Supported by NIH Grant: 2R01EB002873 and an equipment grant from Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation.

  14. Integrated display scanner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    2004-12-21

    A display scanner includes an optical panel having a plurality of stacked optical waveguides. The waveguides define an inlet face at one end and a screen at an opposite end, with each waveguide having a core laminated between cladding. A projector projects a scan beam of light into the panel inlet face for transmission from the screen as a scan line to scan a barcode. A light sensor at the inlet face detects a return beam reflected from the barcode into the screen. A decoder decodes the return beam detected by the sensor for reading the barcode. In an exemplary embodiment, the optical panel also displays a visual image thereon.

  15. Final Report of Project Nanometer Structures for Fuel Cells and Displays, etc.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ji, Qing

    2011-12-15

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment induced self-assembly has been used to form various periodic nano-size wave-ordered structures (WOS). Such WOS can be used as hard etching masks to produce nanowire arrays, trenches etc., on other materials by means of traditional etching or ion sputtering. These periodic nano-size structures have a wide range of applications, including flat panel displays, optical electronics, and clean energy technologies (solar and fuel cells, lithium batteries). In order to achieve high throughput of the above processes, a large area RF-driven multicusp nitrogen ion source has been developed for the application of nitrogen ion beam induced surface modification. An integrated ion beam system, which can house either a large area RF-driven multicusp ion source or a commercially available microwave ion source (Roth & Rau AG Tamiris 400-f) have been designed, manufactured, assembled, and tested.

  16. Real-time graphic display utility for nuclear safety applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, S.; Huang, X.; Taylor, J.; Stevens, J.; Gerardis, T.; Hsu, A.; McCreary, T.

    2006-07-01

    With the increasing interests in the nuclear energy, new nuclear power plants will be constructed and licensed, and older generation ones will be upgraded for assuring continuing operation. The tendency of adopting the latest proven technology and the fact of older parts becoming obsolete have made the upgrades imperative. One of the areas for upgrades is the older CRT display being replaced by the latest graphics displays running under modern real time operating system (RTOS) with safety graded modern computer. HFC has developed a graphic display utility (GDU) under the QNX RTOS. A standard off-the-shelf software with a long history of performance in industrial applications, QNX RTOS used for safety applications has been examined via a commercial dedication process that is consistent with the regulatory guidelines. Through a commercial survey, a design life cycle and an operating history evaluation, and necessary tests dictated by the dedication plan, it is reasonably confirmed that the QNX RTOS was essentially equivalent to what would be expected in the nuclear industry. The developed GDU operates and communicates with the existing equipment through a dedicated serial channel of a flat panel controller (FPC) module. The FPC module drives a flat panel display (FPD) monitor. A touch screen mounted on the FPD serves as the normal operator interface with the FPC/FPD monitor system. The GDU can be used not only for replacing older CRTs but also in new applications. The replacement of the older CRT does not disturb the function of the existing equipment. It not only provides modern proven technology upgrade but also improves human ergonomics. The FPC, which can be used as a standalone controller running with the GDU, is an integrated hardware and software module. It operates as a single board computer within a control system, and applies primarily to the graphics display, targeting, keyboard and mouse. During normal system operation, the GDU has two sources of data

  17. Method of fabrication of display pixels driven by silicon thin film transistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.

    1999-01-01

    Display pixels driven by silicon thin film transistors are fabricated on plastic substrates for use in active matrix displays, such as flat panel displays. The process for forming the pixels involves a prior method for forming individual silicon thin film transistors on low-temperature plastic substrates. Low-temperature substrates are generally considered as being incapable of withstanding sustained processing temperatures greater than about 200.degree. C. The pixel formation process results in a complete pixel and active matrix pixel array. A pixel (or picture element) in an active matrix display consists of a silicon thin film transistor (TFT) and a large electrode, which may control a liquid crystal light valve, an emissive material (such as a light emitting diode or LED), or some other light emitting or attenuating material. The pixels can be connected in arrays wherein rows of pixels contain common gate electrodes and columns of pixels contain common drain electrodes. The source electrode of each pixel TFT is connected to its pixel electrode, and is electrically isolated from every other circuit element in the pixel array.

  18. Thin film polycrystalline silicon: Promise and problems in displays and solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fonash, S.J.

    1995-08-01

    Thin film polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) with its carrier mobilities, potentially good stability, low intragrain defect density, compatibility with silicon processing, and ease of doping activation is an interesting material for {open_quotes}macroelectronics{close_quotes} applications such as TFTs for displays and solar cells. The poly-Si films needed for these applications can be ultra-thin-in the 500{Angstrom} to 1000{Angstrom} thickness range for flat panel display TFTs and in the 4{mu}m to 10{mu}m thickness range for solar cells. Because the films needed for these microelectronics applications can be so thin, an effective approach to producing the films is that of crystallizing a-Si precursor material. Unlike cast materials, poly-Si films made this way can be produced using low temperature processing. Unlike deposited poly-Si films, these crystallized poly-Si films can have grain widths that are much larger than the film thickness and almost atomically smooth surfaces. This thin film poly-Si crystallized from a-Si precursor films, and its promise and problems for TFTs and solar cells, is the focus of this discussion.

  19. Signal Processing, Analysis, & Display

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1986-06-01

    SIG is a general-purpose signal processing, analysis, and display program. Its main purpose is to perform manipulations on time- and frequency-domain signals. However, it has been designed to ultimately accommodate other representations for data such as multiplexed signals and complex matrices. Two user interfaces are provided in SIG - a menu mode for the unfamiliar user and a command mode for more experienced users. In both modes errors are detected as early as possible andmoreare indicated by friendly, meaningful messages. An on-line HELP package is also included. A variety of operations can be performed on time- and frequency-domain signals including operations on the samples of a signal, operations on the entire signal, and operations on two or more signals. Signal processing operations that can be performed are digital filtering (median, Bessel, Butterworth, and Chebychev), ensemble average, resample, auto and cross spectral density, transfer function and impulse response, trend removal, convolution, Fourier transform and inverse window functions (Hamming, Kaiser-Bessel), simulation (ramp, sine, pulsetrain, random), and read/write signals. User definable signal processing algorithms are also featured. SIG has many options including multiple commands per line, command files with arguments,commenting lines, defining commands, and automatic execution for each item in a repeat sequence. Graphical operations on signals and spectra include: x-y plots of time signals; real, imaginary, magnitude, and phase plots of spectra; scaling of spectra for continuous or discrete domain; cursor zoom; families of curves; and multiple viewports.less

  20. Reading Room

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Welcome to the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Electronic Reading Room for the Department of Energy at Headquarters.

  1. Signal Processing, Analysis, & Display

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1986-06-01

    SIG is a general-purpose signal processing, analysis, and display program. Its main purpose is to perform manipulations on time- and frequency-domain signals. However, it has been designed to ultimately accommodate other representations for data such as multiplexed signals and complex matrices. Two user interfaces are provided in SIG - a menu mode for the unfamiliar user and a command mode for more experienced users. In both modes errors are detected as early as possible andmore » are indicated by friendly, meaningful messages. An on-line HELP package is also included. A variety of operations can be performed on time- and frequency-domain signals including operations on the samples of a signal, operations on the entire signal, and operations on two or more signals. Signal processing operations that can be performed are digital filtering (median, Bessel, Butterworth, and Chebychev), ensemble average, resample, auto and cross spectral density, transfer function and impulse response, trend removal, convolution, Fourier transform and inverse window functions (Hamming, Kaiser-Bessel), simulation (ramp, sine, pulsetrain, random), and read/write signals. User definable signal processing algorithms are also featured. SIG has many options including multiple commands per line, command files with arguments,commenting lines, defining commands, and automatic execution for each item in a repeat sequence. Graphical operations on signals and spectra include: x-y plots of time signals; real, imaginary, magnitude, and phase plots of spectra; scaling of spectra for continuous or discrete domain; cursor zoom; families of curves; and multiple viewports.« less

  2. Thin optical display panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James Thomas

    1997-01-01

    An optical display includes a plurality of optical waveguides each including a cladding bound core for guiding internal display light between first and second opposite ends by total internal reflection. The waveguides are stacked together to define a collective display thickness. Each of the cores includes a heterogeneous portion defining a light scattering site disposed longitudinally between the first and second ends. Adjacent ones of the sites are longitudinally offset from each other for forming a longitudinal internal image display over the display thickness upon scattering of internal display light thereagainst for generating a display image. In a preferred embodiment, the waveguides and scattering sites are transparent for transmitting therethrough an external image in superposition with the display image formed by scattering the internal light off the scattering sites for defining a heads up display.

  3. Cytoplasmic bacteriophage display system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Studier, F.W.; Rosenberg, A.H.

    1998-06-16

    Disclosed are display vectors comprising DNA encoding a portion of a structural protein from a cytoplasmic bacteriophage, joined covalently to a protein or peptide of interest. Exemplified are display vectors wherein the structural protein is the T7 bacteriophage capsid protein. More specifically, in the exemplified display vectors the C-terminal amino acid residue of the portion of the capsid protein is joined to the N-terminal residue of the protein or peptide of interest. The portion of the T7 capsid protein exemplified comprises an N-terminal portion corresponding to form 10B of the T7 capsid protein. The display vectors are useful for high copy number display or lower copy number display (with larger fusion). Compositions of the type described herein are useful in connection with methods for producing a virus displaying a protein or peptide of interest. 1 fig.

  4. Cytoplasmic bacteriophage display system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Studier, F. William; Rosenberg, Alan H.

    1998-06-16

    Disclosed are display vectors comprising DNA encoding a portion of a structural protein from a cytoplasmic bacteriophage, joined covalently to a protein or peptide of interest. Exemplified are display vectors wherein the structural protein is the T7 bacteriophage capsid protein. More specifically, in the exemplified display vectors the C-terminal amino acid residue of the portion of the capsid protein is joined to the N-terminal residue of the protein or peptide of interest. The portion of the T7 capsid protein exemplified comprises an N-terminal portion corresponding to form 10B of the T7 capsid protein. The display vectors are useful for high copy number display or lower copy number display (with larger fusion). Compositions of the type described herein are useful in connection with methods for producing a virus displaying a protein or peptide of interest.

  5. Public Displays of Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Imagine if an electronic billboard displayed how much energy you used this morning, or you stepped outside to see your energy savings painted on the street for passersby to see. For some Better Buildings neighborhoods, these public displays are popping up—and they're helping call attention to saving energy.

  6. Split image optical display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    2005-05-31

    A video image is displayed from an optical panel by splitting the image into a plurality of image components, and then projecting the image components through corresponding portions of the panel to collectively form the image. Depth of the display is correspondingly reduced.

  7. Split image optical display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    2007-05-29

    A video image is displayed from an optical panel by splitting the image into a plurality of image components, and then projecting the image components through corresponding portions of the panel to collectively form the image. Depth of the display is correspondingly reduced.

  8. Polyplanar optical display electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSanto, L.; Biscardi, C.

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments. In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) circuit board is removed from the Texas Instruments DLP light engine assembly. Due to the compact architecture of the projection system within the display chassis, the DMD{trademark} chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. The authors discuss the operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with various video formats (CVBS, Y/C or S-video and RGB) including the format specific to the B-52 aircraft. A brief discussion of the electronics required to drive the laser is also presented.

  9. Image display device in digital TV

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Seung Jong

    2006-07-18

    Disclosed is an image display device in a digital TV that is capable of carrying out the conversion into various kinds of resolution by using single bit map data in the digital TV. The image display device includes: a data processing part for executing bit map conversion, compression, restoration and format-conversion for text data; a memory for storing the bit map data obtained according to the bit map conversion and compression in the data processing part and image data inputted from an arbitrary receiving part, the receiving part receiving one of digital image data and analog image data; an image outputting part for reading the image data from the memory; and a display processing part for mixing the image data read from the image outputting part and the bit map data converted in format from the a data processing part. Therefore, the image display device according to the present invention can convert text data in such a manner as to correspond with various resolution, carry out the compression for bit map data, thereby reducing the memory space, and support text data of an HTML format, thereby providing the image with the text data of various shapes.

  10. Instrument for assaying radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Farfan, Eduardo B.

    2016-03-22

    An instrument for assaying radiation includes a flat panel detector having a first side opposed to a second side. A collimated aperture covers at least a portion of the first side of the flat panel detector. At least one of a display screen or a radiation shield may cover at least a portion of the second side of the flat panel detector.

  11. Black optic display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    1997-01-01

    An optical display includes a plurality of stacked optical waveguides having first and second opposite ends collectively defining an image input face and an image screen, respectively, with the screen being oblique to the input face. Each of the waveguides includes a transparent core bound by a cladding layer having a lower index of refraction for effecting internal reflection of image light transmitted into the input face to project an image on the screen, with each of the cladding layers including a cladding cap integrally joined thereto at the waveguide second ends. Each of the cores is beveled at the waveguide second end so that the cladding cap is viewable through the transparent core. Each of the cladding caps is black for absorbing external ambient light incident upon the screen for improving contrast of the image projected internally on the screen.

  12. CoreFlow Scientific Solutions Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of non-contact substrate processing, handling, and testing equipments for Flat Panel Display (FPD), semiconductor, and solar industries. References: CoreFlow Scientific...

  13. Advanced Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rockies Area Sector: Solar Product: Solar cell, passive-solar architectural glass, solar grid-tie inverter, semiconductor, flat panel display, data storage Number of...

  14. Partners | JCESR

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    services and software to enable the manufacture of advanced semiconductor, flat panel display and solar photovoltaic products. Our technologies help make innovations like...

  15. Edwards Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Solar Product: UK capital equipment manufacturer for semiconductors, LEDs, flat panel displays, and solar cells; for solar, offers vacuum and abatement systems....

  16. Company Name Company Name Address Place Zip Sector Product Website

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Point Drive Fort Collins Colorado Solar Solar cell passive solar architectural glass solar grid tie inverter semiconductor flat panel display data storage http www advanced...

  17. FAS Technologies LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    US-based manufacturer of meterology and automation systems for semiconductor, flat panel display, medical and solar industries. Coordinates: 32.778155, -96.795404 Show...

  18. Graphene as the Ultimate Membrane for Gas Separation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    properties that make it useful for products ranging from computer displays and flat panel TVs to ATM touch screens and solar cells. But now electronic structure computations...

  19. Region Solar Inc Solar Inc California Renewable Energy Solar...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Point Drive Fort Collins Colorado Solar Solar cell passive solar architectural glass solar grid tie inverter semiconductor flat panel display data storage http www advanced...

  20. Ascentool Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Ascentool Inc Place: Milpitas, California Zip: 95035 Product: Silicon Valley startup developing equipment and processes to make semiconductor, flat panel displays, MEMS...

  1. Vitex Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Vitex Systems Place: San Jose, California Zip: CA 95131 USA Product: Production of OLEDs and commercialization of flat panel displays (FPDs)...

  2. Moisture Barrier - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    devices, batteries, sensors, actuators, flat panel displays, food, and pharmaceuticals. ... NREL scientists have developed a unique method to increase the desirable properties of the ...

  3. Industrial & Manufacturing Processes | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Nanosegregated Surfaces as Catalysts for Fuel Cells Method creates stable, platinum ... Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings for Flat Panel Displays and ...

  4. Problem

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In addition, Sandia's method is compatible with conventional spray processing and, ... process include high-definition flat panel displays, sensor coatings for both ...

  5. Tokyo Ohka Kogyo TOK | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ohka Kogyo TOK Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tokyo Ohka Kogyo (TOK) Place: Tokyo, Japan Product: TOK makes photoresists for semiconductor, flat panel display, printed wiring...

  6. Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings for Flat Panel Displays and Photovoltaic Cells Technology available for licensing: New transparent conducting oxide ...

  7. Dongjin Semichem Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Korea (Republic) Zip: 121-270 Product: Manufacturer of semiconductors, electronic materials for FPD (flat panel display) and foaming agents. References: Dongjin Semichem Co1...

  8. Diamondoid Monolayers as Monochromatic Electron Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    beyond flat-panel displays, for example in the microwave telecommunications and microelectronics industries. Scientific applications also stand to benefit greatly, such as...

  9. LG Display | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: 150-721 Product: Korea Republic-based manufacturer and merchant supplier of thin-film transistor liquid crystal displays. Manufacturer of thin-film PV. Coordinates:...

  10. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Exhibits and Displays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Exhibits and Displays NNSANFO Language Options U.S. DOENNSA - Nevada Field Office Exhibits and Displays Educational exhibits and displays are available for loan to libraries, ...

  11. Public Reading Room

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    By law, DOE must and will make a Public Reading Room available through site closure. Post-Closure: LM will maintain a Public Reading Room in accordance with EPA and Ohio EPA ...

  12. WIPP - Public Reading Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Public Reading Facilities/Electronic Reading Facilities The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and Electronic FOIA (E-FOIA) require that various specific types of records, as well as various other records, be maintained in public reading facilities. Before you submit a FOIA request, we recommend you contact or visit the appropriate public reading facility to determine if the records you are seeking have already been released. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as well as other related DOE

  13. Cone-beam breast computed tomography with a displaced flat panel detector array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mettivier, Giovanni; Russo, Paolo; Lanconelli, Nico; Meo, Sergio Lo

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: In cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and in particular in cone-beam breast computed tomography (CBBCT), an important issue is the reduction of the image artifacts produced by photon scatter and the reduction of patient dose. In this work, the authors propose to apply the detector displacement technique (also known as asymmetric detector or ''extended view'' geometry) to approach this goal. Potentially, this type of geometry, and the accompanying use of a beam collimator to mask the unirradiated half-object in each projection, permits some reduction of radiation dose with respect to conventional CBBCT and a sizeable reduction of the overall amount of scatter in the object, for a fixed contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Methods: The authors consider a scan configuration in which the projection data are acquired from an asymmetrically positioned detector that covers only one half of the scan field of view. Monte Carlo simulations and measurements, with their CBBCT laboratory scanner, were performed using PMMA phantoms of cylindrical (70-mm diameter) and hemiellipsoidal (140-mm diameter) shape simulating the average pendant breast, at 80 kVp. Image quality was evaluated in terms of contrast, noise, CNR, contrast-to-noise ratio per unit of dose (CNRD), and spatial resolution as width of line spread function for high contrast details. Results: Reconstructed images with the asymmetric detector technique deviate less than 1% from reconstruction with a conventional symmetric detector (detector view) and indicate a reduction of the cupping artifact in CT slices. The maximum scatter-to-primary ratio at the center of the phantom decreases by about 50% for both small and large diameter phantoms (e.g., from 0.75 in detector view to 0.40 in extended view geometry at the central axis of the 140-mm diameter PMMA phantom). Less cupping produces an increase of the CT number accuracy and an improved image detail contrast, but the associated increase of noise observed may produce a decrease of detail CNR. By simulating the energy deposited inside the phantoms, the authors evaluated a maximum 50% reduction of the absorbed dose at the expense of a decrease of CNR, for the half beam irradiation of the object performed with the displaced detector technique with respect to full beam irradiation. The decrease in CNR, and in absorbed dose as well, translates into a detail CNRD showing values comparable to or higher than the ones obtained for a conventional symmetric detector technique, attributed to the effect of decreased scatter in particular at the axis of the irradiated object. An estimate is provided (about 12%) for the average dose reduction possible in CBBCT at constant CNR for the average uncompressed breast (14 cm diameter, 50% glandularity), in case of minimum image overlapping in extended view. Conclusions: Simulations and experiments show that CBCT reconstructions with the displaced detector technique and with a half beam collimator are less affected by scatter artifacts, which could lead to some decrease of the radiation dose to the irradiated object with respect to a conventional reconstruction. This dose reduction is associated with increase of noise, decrease of CNR, but equal or improved CNRD values. The use of a small area detector would allow also to reduce the apparatus cost and to improve the data transfer speed with a corresponding increment of frame rate.

  14. MicroEmissive Displays | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Edinburgh, United Kingdom Zip: EH9 3JF Product: MicroEmissive Displays makes P-OLED (polymer light emitting diode) displays. Specific interests are head mounted displays and...

  15. Universal Display Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Universal Display Corp. Place: New Jersey Product: OLED (Organic Light Emitting Device) Developer References: Universal Display Corp.1 This...

  16. Public Reading Room | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Public Reading Room Welcome to the U.S. Department of Energy Public Reading Room. In the Reading Room, you will find a host of technical and non-technical reports about Jefferson Lab and its operations. These reports include the lab's performance report card, environmental impact studies and more. Paper copies of these documents may be read at Jefferson Lab's Public Reading Area, located in CEBAF Center (Building 12), 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA 23606. The reading area is located in

  17. SchemaOnRead Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    North, Michael J.

    2015-09-30

    SchemaOnRead provides tools for implementing schema-on-read including a single function call (e.g., schemaOnRead("filename")) that reads text (TXT), comma separated value (CSV), raster image (BMP, PNG, GIF, TIFF, and JPG), R data (RDS), HDF5, NetCDF, spreadsheet (XLS, XLSX, ODS, and DIF), Weka Attribute-Relation File Format (ARFF), Epi Info (REC), Pajek network (PAJ), R network (NET), Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), SPSS (SAV), Systat (SYS), and Stata (DTA) files. It also recursively reads folders (e.g., schemaOnRead("folder")), returning a nested list of the contained elements.

  18. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Public Reading Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Public Reading Facility NNSANFO Language Options U.S. DOENNSA - Nevada Field Office Public Reading Facility Photograph of the Public Reading Facility The U.S. Department of ...

  19. Polyplanar optic display for cockpit application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veligdan, J.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L.; Freibott, W.

    1998-04-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a high contrast display screen being developed for cockpit applications. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a long lifetime, (10,000 hour), 200 mW green solid-state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design and speckle reduction, the authors discuss the electronic interfacing to the DLP{trademark} chip, the opto-mechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  20. Covered Product Category: Displays | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Displays Covered Product Category: Displays The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for displays, a product category covered by the ENERGY STAR program. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies buy ENERGY STAR qualified products in all product categories covered by this program and any acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. MEETING EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL PURCHASES The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

  1. Imaging sensors and displays. SPIE volume 765

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, C.F.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the following contents: HUMAN FACTORS FOR IMAGING SYSTEMS. Analysis of electroluminescent display devices for stereographic display of video images. Field of view, resolution, and brightness parameters for eye-limited displays. Helmet-mounted display for tank applications. Temporal aspects of electro-optical imaging systems. Helmet-mounted display for infantry applications. Image quality: two current issues. ADVANCED IMAGING SENSOR TECHNOLOGY. New color coding method with quasi-field integration mode for solid-state color imaging equipment. One-half inch CCD imager with 510 X 492 pixels. Solid-state imager implementing sensitivity control function on chip. Color laser microscope. A channel stop defined, barrier and drain antiblooming structure for virtual phase CCD image sensors. ADVANCED IMAGING DISPLAYS. Ultrahigh resolution 7 in. round monochrome CRT. High resolution MIM-diode LCD addressed by storage capacitor matrix. IMAGE DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY FOR INFRARED PROJECTORS. IR transducer technology: an overview. IT emitting CRT. IR simulation using the liquid crystal light valve (LCLV). Infrared display array. IR image generation by thermoelectric elements. IR simulation with diffusion image transfer film. Dynamic RAM imaging display technology utilizing silicon blackbody emitters. Thermal target projector for MRTD testing and vehicle identification training.

  2. DISPLAYING AND INTERPRETING FLUID INCLUSION STRATIGRAPHY ANALYSES...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DISPLAYING AND INTERPRETING FLUID INCLUSION STRATIGRAPHY ANALYSES ON MUDLOG GRAPHS Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings:...

  3. Flywheel energy storage system focus of display

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flywheel Energy Storage System Focus of Display Demonstration to feature advanced, solar-powered replacement for batteries For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs ...

  4. Critical function and success path summary display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1995-01-01

    The content of and hierarchical access to three levels of display pages containing information on critical function monitoring and success path monitoring.

  5. Reading Enterprise Hub | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Reading Enterprise Hub Place: United Kingdom Sector: Services Product: General Financial & Legal Services ( Academic Research foundation ) References: Reading...

  6. Commercial Display Systems: Order (2013-CE-5350)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Commercial Display Systems, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Commercial Display Systems had failed to certify that any basic models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  7. Real time speech formant analyzer and display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holland, G.E.; Struve, W.S.; Homer, J.F.

    1987-02-03

    A speech analyzer for interpretation of sound includes a sound input which converts the sound into a signal representing the sound. The signal is passed through a plurality of frequency pass filters to derive a plurality of frequency formants. These formants are converted to voltage signals by frequency-to-voltage converters and then are prepared for visual display in continuous real time. Parameters from the inputted sound are also derived and displayed. The display may then be interpreted by the user. The preferred embodiment includes a microprocessor which is interfaced with a television set for displaying of the sound formants. The microprocessor software enables the sound analyzer to present a variety of display modes for interpretive and therapeutic used by the user. 19 figs.

  8. Real time speech formant analyzer and display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holland, George E.; Struve, Walter S.; Homer, John F.

    1987-01-01

    A speech analyzer for interpretation of sound includes a sound input which converts the sound into a signal representing the sound. The signal is passed through a plurality of frequency pass filters to derive a plurality of frequency formants. These formants are converted to voltage signals by frequency-to-voltage converters and then are prepared for visual display in continuous real time. Parameters from the inputted sound are also derived and displayed. The display may then be interpreted by the user. The preferred embodiment includes a microprocessor which is interfaced with a television set for displaying of the sound formants. The microprocessor software enables the sound analyzer to present a variety of display modes for interpretive and therapeutic used by the user.

  9. Business Electronic Reading Room

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic Reading Room SOLICITATION UPDATES: Reference No. DE-SOL-0007251: Contract DE-FE0026066 has been awarded to SSC-Deltha, LLC., in response to the Site Administrative Support (SAS) services solicitation (DE-SOL-0007251). Reference No. DE-SOL-0006851: Contract DE -FE0024337 has been awarded to DFW Security Protective Force, Inc., in response to the Site Security Services solicitation (DE-SOL-0006851) Reference No. DE-SOL-0005388: Contract DE-FE0025912 has been awarded to KeyLogic Systems,

  10. READ_BLT.DLL

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-12-14

    Preprocessor for the integration of the BLT-MS (Breach Leach Transport-Multi Species) code with GoldSim. The program is intended as a DLL for use with a goldSim model file. The code reads a standard BLT-MS input file and allocated parameters to memory for subsequent input to a GoldSim model file and writes output files used for performing Monte Carlo analyses. The software is used as part of a modeling package that consists of BLTMS.EXE, GoldSim, Read_BLT.DLLmore » and Launch_BLTMS.DLL. The modeling package is used to run Monte Carlo analyses for performance assessment of Low Level Radioactive Waste Repositiores. This DLL incorporates some subroutines of a public domain FORTRAN code that was originally developed by Brookhaven National Laboratories and their contractors, with funding from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission back in the mid-1990's [NUREG/CR-6492 BNL-NUREG-52509, BLT-MS (Breach, Leach, and Transport-Multiple Species)].« less

  11. Flat panel X-ray detector with reduced internal scattering for improved attenuation accuracy and dynamic range

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Peter D.; Claytor, Thomas N.; Berry, Phillip C.; Hills, Charles R.

    2010-10-12

    An x-ray detector is disclosed that has had all unnecessary material removed from the x-ray beam path, and all of the remaining material in the beam path made as light and as low in atomic number as possible. The resulting detector is essentially transparent to x-rays and, thus, has greatly reduced internal scatter. The result of this is that x-ray attenuation data measured for the object under examination are much more accurate and have an increased dynamic range. The benefits of this improvement are that beam hardening corrections can be made accurately, that computed tomography reconstructions can be used for quantitative determination of material properties including density and atomic number, and that lower exposures may be possible as a result of the increased dynamic range.

  12. Technical Note: Skin thickness measurements using high-resolution flat-panel cone-beam dedicated breast CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi Linxi; Vedantham, Srinivasan; Karellas, Andrew; O'Connell, Avice M.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To determine the mean and range of location-averaged breast skin thickness using high-resolution dedicated breast CT for use in Monte Carlo-based estimation of normalized glandular dose coefficients. Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed image data from a clinical study investigating dedicated breast CT. An algorithm similar to that described by Huang et al.['The effect of skin thickness determined using breast CT on mammographic dosimetry,' Med. Phys. 35(4), 1199-1206 (2008)] was used to determine the skin thickness in 137 dedicated breast CT volumes from 136 women. The location-averaged mean breast skin thickness for each breast was estimated and the study population mean and range were determined. Pathology results were available for 132 women, and were used to investigate if the distribution of location-averaged mean breast skin thickness varied with pathology. The effect of surface fitting to account for breast curvature was also studied. Results: The study mean ({+-} interbreast SD) for breast skin thickness was 1.44 {+-} 0.25 mm (range: 0.87-2.34 mm), which was in excellent agreement with Huang et al. Based on pathology, pair-wise statistical analysis (Mann-Whitney test) indicated that at the 0.05 significance level, there were no significant difference in the location-averaged mean breast skin thickness distributions between the groups: benign vs malignant (p= 0.223), benign vs hyperplasia (p= 0.651), hyperplasia vs malignant (p= 0.229), and malignant vs nonmalignant (p= 0.172). Conclusions: Considering this study used a different clinical prototype system, and the study participants were from a different geographical location, the observed agreement between the two studies suggests that the choice of 1.45 mm thick skin layer comprising the epidermis and the dermis for breast dosimetry is appropriate. While some benign and malignant conditions could cause skin thickening, in this study cohort the location-averaged mean breast skin thickness distributions did not differ significantly with pathology. The study also underscored the importance of considering breast curvature in estimating breast skin thickness.

  13. Evaluation of Effective Dose During Abdominal Three-Dimensional Imaging for Three Flat-Panel-Detector Angiography Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Kidouchi, Takashi; Yamamoto, Asako; Masumoto, Tomohiko; Ozaki, Yutaka

    2011-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effective dose during abdominal three-dimensional (3D) imaging on phantoms and estimate the dose-area product (DAP) for effective dose conversion factors for three types of angiographic units. Three-dimensional imaging was performed for three sizes (small, medium, large) of human-shaped phantoms using three types of angiographic units (Allura Xper FD20/10, INNOVA 4100, AXIOM Artis dTA). We calculated 25 organ doses and effective doses using Monte Carlo technique for the three phantoms with a program for a personal computer. As benchmark studies to back up the results by Monte Carlo technique, we measured the organ doses directly on the small phantom using radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeters. The DAP value increased as the phantom size increased. The organ doses and the effective doses during the 3D imaging increased as the phantom size increased. The effective doses for the small phantom by Monte Carlo technique were 1.9, 2.2, and 2.1 mSv for the Allura Xper FD20/10, INNOVA 4100, and AXIOM Artis dTA, respectively, while those by direct measurement were 1.6, 2.0, and 2.6 mSv. The effective doses to DAP ratios by Monte Carlo technique were 0.37-0.45, 0.26-0.32, and 0.13-0.15 (mSv Gy{sup -1}cm{sup -2}) for the Allura Xper FD20/10, INNOVA 4100, and AXIOM Artis dTA, respectively. In conclusion, the effective doses during 3D imaging and the dose-to-DAP ratios differ among angiographic units, and the effective dose can be estimated using a proper conversion factor for each angiographic unit.

  14. Percutaneous Bone Biopsies: Comparison between Flat-Panel Cone-Beam CT and CT-Scan Guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tselikas, Lambros Joskin, Julien; Roquet, Florian; Farouil, Geoffroy; Dreuil, Serge; Hakimé, Antoine Teriitehau, Christophe; Auperin, Anne; Baere, Thierry de Deschamps, Frederic

    2015-02-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to compare the accuracy of targeting and the radiation dose of bone biopsies performed either under fluoroscopic guidance using a cone-beam CT with real-time 3D image fusion software (FP-CBCT-guidance) or under conventional computed tomography guidance (CT-guidance).MethodsSixty-eight consecutive patients with a bone lesion were prospectively included. The bone biopsies were scheduled under FP-CBCT-guidance or under CT-guidance according to operating room availability. Thirty-four patients underwent a bone biopsy under FP-CBCT and 34 under CT-guidance. We prospectively compared the two guidance modalities for their technical success, accuracy, puncture time, and pathological success rate. Patient and physician radiation doses also were compared.ResultsAll biopsies were technically successful, with both guidance modalities. Accuracy was significantly better using FP-CBCT-guidance (3 and 5 mm respectively: p = 0.003). There was no significant difference in puncture time (32 and 31 min respectively, p = 0.51) nor in pathological results (88 and 88 % of pathological success respectively, p = 1). Patient radiation doses were significantly lower with FP-CBCT (45 vs. 136 mSv, p < 0.0001). The percentage of operators who received a dose higher than 0.001 mSv (dosimeter detection dose threshold) was lower with FP-CBCT than CT-guidance (27 vs. 59 %, p = 0.01).ConclusionsFP-CBCT-guidance for bone biopsy is accurate and reduces patient and operator radiation doses compared with CT-guidance.

  15. Reading Room | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reading Room Reading Room Welcome to the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Electronic Reading Room for the Department of Energy at Headquarters. The FOIA requires certain kinds of documents to be made available to the public for inspection and copying. This is a requirement for agencies of the executive branch of the federal government. The documents that are required to be made available by the FOIA are: Final Opinions [5 USC 552 (a)(2)](A) final opinions, including concurring and dissenting

  16. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Exhibits and Displays Request

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Exhibits and Displays Request U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Exhibits and Displays Request Form Educational exhibits and displays are available for loan to libraries, schools and for conferences and other special events. To request an exhibit or display, please fill out and submit the form below. Exhibit and Display Request Form Name: Organization: Email Address: Phone: Select an Exhibit: Select an Exhibit/Display Operation Clean Desert (EM Kids Display) Groundwater at the NTS Display

  17. Beacon data acquisition and display system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogmo, D.G.; Black, B.D.

    1991-12-17

    A system for transmitting aircraft beacon information received by a secondary surveillance radar through telephone lines to a remote display includes a digitizer connected to the radar for preparing a serial file of data records containing position and identification information of the beacons detected by each sweep of the radar. This information is transmitted through the telephone lines to a remote computer where it is displayed. 6 figures.

  18. Beacon data acquisition and display system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogmo, David G.; Black, Billy D.

    1991-01-01

    A system for transmitting aircraft beacon information received by a secondary surveillance radar through telephone lines to a remote display includes a digitizer connected to the radar for preparing a serial file of data records containing position and identification information of the beacons detected by each sweep of the radar. This information is transmitted through the telephone lines to a remote computer where it is displayed.

  19. Multi-clad black display panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veligdan, James T.; Biscardi, Cyrus; Brewster, Calvin

    2002-01-01

    A multi-clad black display panel, and a method of making a multi-clad black display panel, are disclosed, wherein a plurality of waveguides, each of which includes a light-transmissive core placed between an opposing pair of transparent cladding layers and a black layer disposed between transparent cladding layers, are stacked together and sawed at an angle to produce a wedge-shaped optical panel having an inlet face and an outlet face.

  20. PEAK READING VOLTMETER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, A.L.

    1958-07-29

    An improvement in peak reading voltmeters is described, which provides for storing an electrical charge representative of the magnitude of a transient voltage pulse and thereafter measuring the stored charge, drawing oniy negligible energy from the storage element. The incoming voltage is rectified and stored in a condenser. The voltage of the capacitor is applied across a piezoelectric crystal between two parallel plates. Amy change in the voltage of the capacitor is reflected in a change in the dielectric constant of the crystal and the capacitance between a second pair of plates affixed to the crystal is altered. The latter capacitor forms part of the frequency determlning circuit of an oscillator and means is provided for indicating the frequency deviation which is a measure of the peak voltage applied to the voltmeter.

  1. EFRC News & Events

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    nanotechnology, EFRC researchers fashion a new kind of transparent electrode for flat-panel displays. This work, featured in the Office of Sciences

  2. Polema JSC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    metals powders, produces zinc oxide (ZnO) that can be used in the production of thin-film solar cells and flat panel displays. Coordinates: 34.232844, -89.363386 Show Map...

  3. Spirox | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Hsinchu, Taiwan Zip: 30069 Product: Taiwan-based hi-tech company, mainly manufacturing for the semi-conductor and flat panel display industries. It's also engaged in...

  4. Meteorological Towers Display for Windows NT

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-05-20

    The Towers Display Program provides a convenient means of graphically depicting current wind speed and direction from a network of meteorological monitoring stations. The program was designed primarily for emergency response applications and, therefore, plots observed wind directions as a transport direction, i.e., the direction toward which the wind would transport a release of an atmospheric contaminant. Tabular summaries of wind speed and direction as well as temperature, relative humidity, and atmospheric turbulence measured atmore » each monitoring station can be displayed. The current implementation of the product at SRS displays data from eight Weather INformation and Display (WIND) System meteorological towers at SRS, meteorological stations established jointly by SRS/WSRC and the Augusta/Richmond County Emergency Management Agency in Augusta, GA, and National Weather Service stations in Augusta, GA. Wind speed and direction are plotted in a Beaufort scale format at the location of the station on a geographic map of the area. A GUI provides for easy specification of a desired date and time for the data to be displayed.« less

  5. Sandia National Laboratories:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    28, 2016 Articles Lessons from Cow Eyes Lessons from cow eyes Ingenious method enables sharper flat-panel displays at lower energy costs Better flat-panel displays Sandia named a top employer for Native STEM professionals Sandia named a top employer for Native STEM professionals Cold War Warriors Good neighbors Getting better all the time Under the sun: Sandia tapped again to lead nationwide solar evaluation centers Under the sun Sandia needs 'Zero Heroes' to meet 2025 goal

  6. Public Reading Room: Environmental Documents, Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Public Reading Room: Environmental Documents, Reports Public Reading Room: Environmental Documents, Reports Environmental documents and reports are available online. Hard copies...

  7. Electronic FOIA Reading Room - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Freedom of Information Act Regulations Privacy Act Regulations DOE Public Reading Room PNNL Technical Library Electronic FOIA Reading Room FOIA EDocuments Freedom of...

  8. Reading File Bonneville Power Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reading File Bonneville Power Administration P.O. Box 3621 Portland, Oregon 97208-3621 POWER SERVICES In reply refer to: PG-5 Ms. Renata Kurschner Director, Generation Resource...

  9. Read More About Nuclear Waste Management | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stay Connected Email.jpg Facebook.jpg Twitter.jpg Read more about our events > Read more about the problem > Read more about our vision > Read more about the path forward > Read ...

  10. Public Reading Room: Environmental Documents, Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Public Reading Room: Environmental Documents, Reports Public Reading Room: Environmental Documents, Reports Environmental documents and reports are available online. Hard copies are available at the Laboratory's Public Reading Room in Pojoaque, New Mexico. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Public Reading Room: Environmental Documents, Reports Online Annual Environmental Report Electronic Public Reading

  11. Information Display: Considerations for Designing Modern Computer-Based Display Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.O'Hara, D.Pirus, L.Beltracchi

    2003-10-01

    OAK- B135 To help nuclear utilities and suppliers design and implement plant information management systems and displays that provide accurate and timely information and require minimal navigation and interface management.

  12. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library Exhibits and Displays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Exhibits and Displays NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Exhibits and Displays Educational exhibits and displays are available for loan to libraries, schools and for conferences and other special events. To request an exhibit or display, please fill out and submit the Exhibits and Display Request Form. Instructions: Click the photograph THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details Thumbnail Title ER-Banner-Stand17 Groundwater Poster Groundwater Poster Kids

  13. Home Energy Displays: Consumer Adoption and Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaMarche, J.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.; Sachs, O.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this project was to investigate the factors influencing consumer adoption of Home Energy Displays (HEDs) and to evaluate electricity consumption in households with basic HEDs versus enhanced feedback methods - web portals or alerts. We hypothesized that providing flexible and relatable information to users, in addition to a basic HED, would make feedback more effective and achieve persistent energy savings. In Phase I, we conducted three user research studies and found preferences for aesthetically pleasing, easy to understand feedback that is accessible through multiple media and offered free of charge. The deployment of HEDs in 150 households planned for Phase II encountered major recruitment and HED field deployment problems. First, after extensive outreach campaigns to apartment complexes with 760 units, only 8% of building's tenants elected to receive a free HED in their homes as part of the field study. Second, the HED used, a leading market model, had a spectrum of problems, including gateway miscommunications, failure to post to a data-hosting third party, and display malfunctions. In light of these challenges, we are pursuing a modified study investigating the energy savings of a web portal versus alert-based energy feedback instead of a physical HED.

  14. TruRead | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    TruRead Jump to: navigation, search Name: TruRead Place: Cheshire, United Kingdom Zip: SK9 5AG Sector: Services Product: Provides integrated services for end-to-end collection and...

  15. DOE-ID FOIA Reading Room

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reading Room READING ROOM Eectronic Freedom of Information Act, E-FOIA RECORDS UNDER THE E-FOIA The Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments of 1996 addresses the issues...

  16. Segmented nanowires displaying locally controllable properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sutter, Eli Anguelova; Sutter, Peter Werner

    2013-03-05

    Vapor-liquid-solid growth of nanowires is tailored to achieve complex one-dimensional material geometries using phase diagrams determined for nanoscale materials. Segmented one-dimensional nanowires having constant composition display locally variable electronic band structures that are determined by the diameter of the nanowires. The unique electrical and optical properties of the segmented nanowires are exploited to form electronic and optoelectronic devices. Using gold-germanium as a model system, in situ transmission electron microscopy establishes, for nanometer-sized Au--Ge alloy drops at the tips of Ge nanowires (NWs), the parts of the phase diagram that determine their temperature-dependent equilibrium composition. The nanoscale phase diagram is then used to determine the exchange of material between the NW and the drop. The phase diagram for the nanoscale drop deviates significantly from that of the bulk alloy.

  17. Home Energy Displays. Consumer Adoption and Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaMarche, Janelle; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.; Sachs, O.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this project was to investigate the factors influencing consumer adoption of Home Energy Displays (HEDs) and to evaluate electricity consumption in households with basic HEDs versus enhanced feedback methods - web portals or alerts. The team hypothesized that providing flexible and relatable information to users, in addition to a basic HED, would make feedback more effective and achieve persistent energy savings. In Phase I, Fraunhofer conducted three user research studies and found preferences for aesthetically pleasing, easy to understand feedback that is accessible through multiple media and offered free of charge. The deployment of HEDs in 150 households planned for Phase II encountered major recruitment and HED field deployment problems. In light of these challenges, the team is pursuing a modified study investigating the energy savings of a web portal versus alert-based energy feedback instead of a physical HED.

  18. Methods and apparatus for transparent display using scattering nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Qiu, Wenjun; Zhen, Bo; Shapira, Ofer; Soljacic, Marin

    2016-05-10

    Transparent displays enable many useful applications, including heads-up displays for cars and aircraft as well as displays on eyeglasses and glass windows. Unfortunately, transparent displays made of organic light-emitting diodes are typically expensive and opaque. Heads-up displays often require fixed light sources and have limited viewing angles. And transparent displays that use frequency conversion are typically energy inefficient. Conversely, the present transparent displays operate by scattering visible light from resonant nanoparticles with narrowband scattering cross sections and small absorption cross sections. More specifically, projecting an image onto a transparent screen doped with nanoparticles that selectively scatter light at the image wavelength(s) yields an image on the screen visible to an observer. Because the nanoparticles scatter light at only certain wavelengths, the screen is practically transparent under ambient light. Exemplary transparent scattering displays can be simple, inexpensive, scalable to large sizes, viewable over wide angular ranges, energy efficient, and transparent simultaneously.

  19. LM Completes the Grand Junction, Colorado, Site Historical Wall Display

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On Wednesday, October 8, a new display was unveiled at DOE Headquarters in Washington, DC, by DOE Deputy Under Secretary David Klaus. The display celebrates more than 70 years of operations at the...

  20. NNSA displays helicopter in Baltimore | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    The helicopter is equipped with gamma radiation sensing technology and used to measure naturally occurring background radiation at various locations throughout the country. Read ...

  1. Scientific Graphical Displays on the Macintosh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grotch, S.

    1994-11-15

    In many organizations scientists have ready access to more than one computer, often both a workstation (e.g., SUN, HP, SGI) as well as a Macintosh or other PC. The scientist commonly uses the work station for `number-crunching` and data analysis whereas the Macintosh is relegated to either word processing or serves as a `dumb terminal` to a larger main-frame computer. In an informal poll of my colleagues, very few of them used their Macintoshes for either statistical analysis or for graphical data display. I believe that this state of affairs is particularly unfortunate because over the last few years both the computational capability, and even more so, the software availability for the Macintosh have become quite formidable. In some instances, very powerful tools are now available on the Macintosh that may not exist (or be far too costly) on the so-called `high end` workstations. Many scientists are simply unaware of the wealth of extremely useful, `off-the-shelf` software that already exists on the Macintosh for scientific graphical and statistical analysis.

  2. Light redirective display panel and a method of making a light redirective display panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veligdan, James T.

    2002-01-01

    An optical display panel which provides improved light intensity at a viewing angle by redirecting light emitting from the viewing screen, and a method of making a light redirective display panel, are disclosed. The panel includes an inlet face at one end for receiving light, and an outlet screen at an opposite end for displaying the light. The inlet face is defined at one end of a transparent body, which body may be formed by a plurality of waveguides, and the outlet screen is defined at an opposite end of the body. The screen includes light redirective elements at the outlet screen for re-directing light emitting from the outlet screen. The method includes stacking a plurality of glass sheets, with a layer of adhesive or epoxy between each sheet, curing the adhesive to form a stack, placing the stack against a saw and cutting the stack at two opposite ends to form a wedge-shaped panel having an inlet face and an outlet face, and forming at the outlet face a plurality of light redirective elements which direct light incident on the outlet face into a controlled light cone.

  3. Light Redirective Display Panel And A Method Of Making A Light Redirective Display Panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veligdan, James T.

    2005-07-26

    An optical display panel which provides improved light intensity at a viewing angle by redirecting light emitting from the viewing screen, and a method of making a light redirective display panel, are disclosed. The panel includes an inlet face at one end for receiving light, and an outlet screen at an opposite end for displaying the light. The inlet face is defined at one end of a transparent body, which body may be formed by a plurality of waveguides, and the outlet screen is defined at an opposite end of the body. The screen includes light redirective elements at the outlet screen for re-directing light emitting from the outlet screen. The method includes stacking a plurality of glass sheets, with a layer of adhesive or epoxy between each sheet, curing the adhesive to form a stack, placing the stack against a saw and cutting the stack at two opposite ends to form a wedge-shaped panel having an inlet face and an outlet face, and forming at the outlet face a plurality of light redirective elements which direct light incident on the outlet face into a controlled light cone.

  4. COREMAP: Graphical user interface for displaying reactor core data in an interactive hexagon map

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muscat, F.L.; Derstine, K.L.

    1995-06-01

    COREMAP is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) designed to assist users read and check reactor core data from multidimensional neutronic simulation models in color and/or as text in an interactive 2D planar grid of hexagonal subassemblies. COREMAP is a complete GEODST/RUNDESC viewing tool which enables the user to access multi data set files (e.g. planes, moments, energy groups ,... ) and display up to two data sets simultaneously, one as color and the other as text. The user (1) controls color scale characteristics such as type (linear or logarithmic) and range limits, (2) controls the text display based upon conditional statements on data spelling, and value. (3) chooses zoom features such as core map size, number of rings and surrounding subassemblies, and (4) specifies the data selection for supplied popup subwindows which display a selection of data currently off-screen for a selected cell, as a list of data and/or as a graph. COREMAP includes a RUNDESC file editing tool which creates ``proposed`` Run-description files by point and click revisions to subassembly assignments in an existing EBRII Run-description file. COREMAP includes a fully automated printing option which creates high quality PostScript color or greyscale images of the core map independent of the monitor used, e.g. color prints can be generated with a session from a color or monochrome monitor. The automated PostScript output is an alternative to the xgrabsc based printing option. COREMAP includes a plotting option which creates graphs related to a selected cell. The user specifies the X and Y coordinates types (planes, moment, group, flux ,... ) and a parameter, P, when displaying several curves for the specified (X, Y) pair COREMAP supports hexagonal geometry reactor core configurations specified by: the GEODST file and binary Standard Interface Files and the RUNDESC ordering.

  5. Unlocking Short Read Sequencing for Metagenomics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodrigue, Sébastien; Materna, Arne C.; Timberlake, Sonia C.; Blackburn, Matthew C.; Malmstrom, Rex R.; Alm, Eric J.; Chisholm, Sallie W.; Gilbert, Jack Anthony

    2010-07-28

    We describe an experimental and computational pipeline yielding millions of reads that can exceed 200 bp with quality scores approaching that of traditional Sanger sequencing. The method combines an automatable gel-less library construction step with paired-end sequencing on a short-read instrument. With appropriately sized library inserts, mate-pair sequences can overlap, and we describe the SHERA software package that joins them to form a longer composite read.

  6. North Reading, Massachusetts: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":"" Hide Map North Reading is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts.1 US Recovery Act Smart Grid Projects...

  7. Reading, Vermont: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":"" Hide Map Reading is a town in Windsor County, Vermont. It falls under Vermont's At-large congressional...

  8. Reading Municipal Light Department - Business Lighting Rebate...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with Electronic Ballasts: 100fixture De-lamping: 4 - 9lamp Lighting Sensors: 20sensor LED Exit Signs: 20fixture Summary Reading Municipal Light Department (RMLD) offers...

  9. Method and apparatus for reading free falling dosimeter punchcodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langsted, James M.

    1992-12-22

    A punchcode reader is provided for reading data encoded in a punchcode hole array on a dosimeter. The dosimeter falls through a passage in the reader containing photosensor detectors disposed along the passage which provide output signals to a microprocessor. The signals are processed to determine the orientation of the dosimeter in the reader, the location and state of punchcode holes in a two row array thereby decoding the encoded data. Multiple rate of fall calculations are made, and if appropriate matching of the punchcode array is not obtained in three tries, an error signal is outputted to the operator. The punchcode reader also provides for storage of data from multiple dosimeters passed through the reader, and for the output of decoded data to an external display or a computer for further processing.

  10. Method and apparatus for reading free falling dosimeter punchcodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langsted, J.M.

    1992-12-22

    A punchcode reader is provided for reading data encoded in a punchcode hole array on a dosimeter. The dosimeter falls through a passage in the reader containing photosensor detectors disposed along the passage which provide output signals to a microprocessor. The signals are processed to determine the orientation of the dosimeter in the reader, the location and state of punchcode holes in a two row array thereby decoding the encoded data. Multiple rate of fall calculations are made, and if appropriate matching of the punchcode array is not obtained in three tries, an error signal is output to the operator. The punchcode reader also provides for storage of data from multiple dosimeters passed through the reader, and for the output of decoded data to an external display or a computer for further processing. 8 figs.

  11. Lighted display devices for producing static or animated visual displays, including animated facial features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heilbron, Valerie J; Clem, Paul G; Cook, Adam Wade

    2014-02-11

    An illuminated display device with a base member with a plurality of cavities therein. Illumination devices illuminate the cavities and emit light through an opening of the cavities in a pattern, and a speaker can emit sounds in synchronization with the pattern. A panel with translucent portions can overly the base member and the cavities. An animated talking character can have an animated mouth cavity complex with multiple predetermined mouth lighting configurations simulative of human utterances. The cavities can be open, or optical waveguide material or positive members can be disposed therein. Reflective material can enhance internal reflectance and light emission.

  12. REA Refrigerated Display Case LED Lighting Performance Specification |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy REA Refrigerated Display Case LED Lighting Performance Specification REA Refrigerated Display Case LED Lighting Performance Specification A Retailer Energy Alliances (REA) Project rea_refrig_display_spec.pdf (300.24 KB) More Documents & Publications CBEA LED Site Lighting Specification - Version 1.3, Released 2/15/2012 Model Specification for LED Roadway Luminaires, V2.0 CBEA High-Efficiency Parking Structure Lighting Specification

  13. NNSA's Cutting Edge Science and Research on Display at Annual...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NNSA's Cutting Edge Science and Research on Display at Annual AAAS Meeting February 17, ... newly elected fellows at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ...

  14. Cambridge Display Technology Ltd CDT | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technology Ltd CDT Jump to: navigation, search Name: Cambridge Display Technology Ltd (CDT) Place: Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom Zip: CB3 6DW Product: A major player in the...

  15. LG Display Everlight Electronics JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Product: China-based joint venture focused on the production of LED backlight packaging. References: LG Display & Everlight Electronics JV1 This article is a stub. You...

  16. Health monitoring display system for a complex plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ridolfo, Charles F.; Harmon, Daryl L.; Colin, Dreyfuss

    2006-08-08

    A single page enterprise wide level display provides a comprehensive readily understood representation of the overall health status of a complex plant. Color coded failure domains allow rapid intuitive recognition of component failure status. A three-tier hierarchy of displays provide details on the health status of the components and systems displayed on the enterprise wide level display in a manner that supports a logical drill down to the health status of sub-components on Tier 1 to expected faults of the sub-components on Tier 2 to specific information relative to expected sub-component failures on Tier 3.

  17. High Efficiency Motors for Refrigerated Open Display Cases

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Efficiency Motors for Refrigerated Open Display Cases 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review PJ Piper, pjpiper@qmpower.com CEO, QM Power, Inc. Project Summary Timeline: ...

  18. Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon; Schlamp, Michael C.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2005-03-08

    A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit light of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

  19. Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon; Schlamp, Michael C.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2011-09-27

    A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit light of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

  20. Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon; Schlamp, Michael C; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2014-02-11

    A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit light of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

  1. Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon; Schlamp, Michael C.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2010-04-13

    A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit light of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

  2. Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Shimon; Schlam, Michael C; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2014-03-25

    A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit tight of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

  3. Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Shimon; Schlamp, Michael C.; Alivisatos, Paul A.

    2015-11-10

    A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit tight of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

  4. Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Shimon; Schlamp, Michael C.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2015-06-23

    A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit light of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

  5. Interactive display system having a digital micromirror imaging device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.; DeSanto, Leonard; Kaull, Lisa; Brewster, Calvin

    2006-04-11

    A display system includes a waveguide optical panel having an inlet face and an opposite outlet face. A projector cooperates with a digital imaging device, e.g. a digital micromirror imaging device, for projecting an image through the panel for display on the outlet face. The imaging device includes an array of mirrors tiltable between opposite display and divert positions. The display positions reflect an image light beam from the projector through the panel for display on the outlet face. The divert positions divert the image light beam away from the panel, and are additionally used for reflecting a probe light beam through the panel toward the outlet face. Covering a spot on the panel, e.g. with a finger, reflects the probe light beam back through the panel toward the inlet face for detection thereat and providing interactive capability.

  6. Electro-optical switching and memory display device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.A.; O'Grady, W.E.; Linkous, C.A.

    1983-12-29

    An electro-optical display device having a housing with wall means including one transparent wall and at least one other wall. Counter electrodes are positioned on the transparent wall and display electrodes are positioned on the other wall with both electrodes in electrically conductive relationship with an electrolyte. Circuits means are connected to the display and counter electrodes to apply different predetermined control potentials between them. The display electrodes are covered with a thin electrically conductive polymer film that is characterized according to the invention by having embedded in it pigment molecules as counter ions. The display device is operable to be switched to a plurality of different visual color states at an exceptionally rapid switching rate while each of the color states is characterized by possessing good color intensity and definition.

  7. Electro-optical switching and memory display device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terje A.; O'Grady, William E.; Linkous, Clovis A.

    1986-01-01

    An electro-optical display device having a housing with wall means including one transparent wall and at least one other wall. Counter electrodes are positioned on the transparent wall and display electrodes are positioned on the other wall with both electrodes in electrically conductive relationship with an electrolyte. Circuit means are connected to the display and counter electrodes to apply different predetermined control potentials between them. The display electrodes are covered with a thin electrically conductive polymer film that is characterized according to the invention by having embedded in it pigment molecules as counter ions. The display device is operable to be switched to a plurality of different visual color states at an exceptionally rapid switching rate while each of the color states is characterized by possessing good color intensity and definition.

  8. How to Read Residential Electric and Natural Gas Meters | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    How to Read Residential Electric and Natural Gas Meters How to Read Residential Electric ... You can read your own meters to help monitor your electric or gas energy use. During the ...

  9. Town of Reading, Massachusetts (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reading, Massachusetts (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Reading Town of Place: Massachusetts Phone Number: (781) 942-6598 Website: www.rmld.com Outage Hotline:...

  10. Golden Reading Room: Office of Acquisition Documents, Better...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Golden Reading Room: Office of Acquisition Documents, Better Buildings Initiative Support Services Below are electronic versions of Golden Field Office Reading Room documents that ...

  11. Golden Reading Room: Office of Acquisition Documents, Sole of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Golden Reading Room: Office of Acquisition Documents, Sole of Limited Source Justifications Below are electronic versions of Golden Field Office Reading Room documents that were ...

  12. Selective posttranslational modification of phage-displayed polypeptides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsao, Meng-Lin; Tian, Feng; Schultz, Peter

    2013-02-05

    The invention relates to posttranslational modification of phage-displayed polypeptides. These displayed polypeptides comprise at least one unnatural amino acid, e.g., an aryl-azide amino acid such as p-azido-L-phenylalanine, or an alkynyl-amino acid such as para-propargyloxyphenylalanine, which are incorporated into the phage-displayed fusion polypeptide at a selected position by using an in vivo orthogonal translation system comprising a suitable orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and a suitable orthogonal tRNA species. These unnatural amino acids advantageously provide targets for posttranslational modifications such as azide-alkyne [3+2]cycloaddition reactions and Staudinger modifications.

  13. Selective posttranslational modification of phage-displayed polypeptides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsao, Meng-Lin; Tian, Feng; Schultz, Peter

    2013-11-19

    The invention relates to posttranslational modification of phage-displayed polypeptides. These displayed polypeptides comprise at least one unnatural amino acid, e.g., an aryl-azide amino acid such as p-azido-L-phenylalanine, or an alkynyl-amino acid such as para-propargyloxyphenylalanine, which are incorporated into the phage-displayed fusion polypeptide at a selected position by using an in vivo orthogonal translation system comprising a suitable orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and a suitable orthogonal tRNA species. These unnatural amino acids advantageously provide targets for posttranslational modifications such as azide-alkyne [3+2] cycloaddition reactions and Staudinger modifications.

  14. Paducah Wall Display Unveiled at DOE Headquarters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Wall Display Unveiled at DOE Headquarters Paducah Wall Display Unveiled at DOE Headquarters September 11, 2015 - 3:48pm Addthis Federal, state and local Kentucky officials joined Secretary of Energy Dr. Ernest Moniz (third from left) and Senate Majority Mitch McConnell on September 10, 2015 as they cut the ribbon introducing the new Paducah Site wall display on the Fifth Floor of DOE’s Forrestal Building in Washington, D.C. Pictured (left-right) are: U.S. Rep. Ed Whitfield, Sen. McConnell,

  15. Commercial Display Systems: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5350)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Commercial Display Systems, LLC failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  16. Property:Integrated Display/Graphics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DisplayGraphics" Showing 22 pages using this property. A Alden Large Flume + Lab View, Test Point Alden Small Flume + Lab View, Test Point Alden Tow Tank + Lab View, Test Point...

  17. Renormalization Group Flows, Cycles, anddisplay='inline...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Group Flows, Cycles, anddisplay'inline'>c-Theorem Folklore Curtright, Thomas L.; Jin, Xiang; Zachos, Cosmas K. Not Available American Physical Society None...

  18. High Efficiency Motors for Refrigerated Open Display Cases

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Motors for Refrigerated Open Display Cases 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review PJ Piper, pjpiper@qmpower.com CEO, QM Power, Inc. 2 Project Summary Budget: Total DOE to ...

  19. Reading, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Reading is a city in Hamilton County, Ohio. It falls under Ohio's 1st congressional...

  20. Multifunctional recombinant phycobiliprotein-based fluorescent constructs and phycobilisome display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glazer, Alexander N.; Cai, Yuping

    2007-01-30

    The invention provides multifunctional fusion constructs which are rapidly incorporated into a macromolecular structure such as a phycobilisome such that the fusion proteins are separated from one another and unable to self-associate. The invention provides methods and compositions for displaying a functional polypeptide domain on an oligomeric phycobiliprotein, including fusion proteins comprising a functional displayed domain and a functional phycobiliprotein domain incorporated in a functional oligomeric phycobiliprotein. The fusion proteins provide novel specific labeling reagents.

    1. Multifunctional recombinant phycobiliprotein-based fluorescent constructs and phycobilisome display

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Glazer, Alexander N.; Cai, Yuping

      2003-11-18

      The invention provides multifunctional fusion constructs which are rapidly incorporated into a macromolecular structure such as a phycobilisome such that the fusion proteins are separated from one another and unable to self-associate. The invention provides methods and compositions for displaying a functional polypeptide domain on an oligomeric phycobiliprotein, including fusion proteins comprising a functional displayed domain and a functional phycobiliprotein domain incorporated in a functional oligomeric phycobiliprotein. The fusion proteins provide novel specific labeling reagents.

    2. Multifunctional recombinant phycobiliprotein-based fluorescent constructs and phycobilisome display

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Glazer, Alexander N.; Cai, Yuping

      2007-02-13

      The invention provides multifunctional fusion constructs which are rapidly incorporated into a macromolecular structure such as a phycobilisome such that the fusion proteins are separated from one another and unable to self-associate. The invention provides methods and compositions for displaying a functional polypeptide domain on an oligomeric phycobiliprotein. including fusion proteins comprising a functional displayed domain and a functional phycobiliprotein domain incorporated in a functional oligomeric phycobiliprotein. The fusion proteins provide novel specific labeling reagents.

    3. Display of Hi-Res Data | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Display of Hi-Res Data This invention enables plotting a very large number of data points relative to the number of display pixels without losing significant information about the data. A user operating the system can set the threshold for highlighting locations on the plot that exceed a specific variance or range. Highlighted areas can be dynamically explored at the full resolution of the data. No.: M-874 Inventor(s): Eliot A Feibush

    4. Interactive display system having a matrix optical detector

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Veligdan, James T.; DeSanto, Leonard

      2007-01-23

      A display system includes a waveguide optical panel having an inlet face and an opposite outlet face. An image beam is projected across the inlet face laterally and transversely for display on the outlet face. An optical detector including a matrix of detector elements is optically aligned with the inlet face for detecting a corresponding lateral and transverse position of an inbound light spot on the outlet face.

    5. Parade of Homes Display Features Energy-Saving Ideas

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Parade of Homes Display Features Energy-Saving Ideas For more information contact: George Douglas (303) 275-4096 e:mail: george_douglas@nrel.gov Golden, Colo., July 29, 1998 — The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory will showcase energy efficient and solar energy ideas for homebuyers and homebuilders during the Denver-area Parade of Homes. NREL's exhibit features information on energy-efficient lighting, building design, windows and insulation. The display

    6. Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience Reading List

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Geophysical Experience Reading List Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience Reading List A National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates program Contacts Institute Director Reinhard Friedel-Los Alamos SAGE Co-Director W. Scott Baldridge-Los Alamos SAGE Co-Director Larry Braile-Purdue University Professional Staff Assistant Georgia Sanchez (505) 665-0855 Keller, R., Khan, M. A., Morgan, P., et al., 1991, A Comparative Study of the Rio Grande and Kenya rifts, Tectonophys.,

    7. Laboratory's Electronic Public Reading room training

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      October » Electronic Public Reading Room Training Laboratory's Electronic Public Reading room training WHEN: Oct 14, 2015 4:00 PM - 6:00 PM WHERE: J. Robert Oppenheimer Study Center, Room JRO 1&2 West Jemez Road at Casa Grande CATEGORY: Community Environment INTERNAL: Calendar Login Event Description The Department of Energy (DOE) and the Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS), are holding training on the contents and use of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Electronic Public

    8. De Novo Sequencing with Short Reads: Does the Read Length Matter? (2009 JGI User Meeting)

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Pezner, Pavel A

      2009-03-26

      Pavel Pevzner of UC San Diego spoke about "De Novo Sequencing with Short Reads" on March 26, 2009 during the 4th Annual User Meeting

    9. De Novo Sequencing with Short Reads: Does the Read Length Matter? (2009 JGI User Meeting)

      ScienceCinema (OSTI)

      Pezner, Pavel A

      2011-04-25

      Pavel Pevzner of UC San Diego spoke about "De Novo Sequencing with Short Reads" on March 26, 2009 during the 4th Annual User Meeting

    10. Graphical User Interface Color Display Animation Interaction Tool

      Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

      1999-10-05

      The Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) is a highly flexible graphical user interface for displaying the results of a calculation, typically generated by RELAP5 or other code. This display consists of one or more picture, called masks, that mimic the host code input. This mask can be animated to display user-specified code output information mapped as colors, dials, moving arrows, etc., on the mask. The user can also interact with the control systems of the hostmore » input file as the execution progresses, thereby controlling aspects of the calculation. The Computer Visual System (CVS) creates, edits, and animates the the masks for use in the NPA.« less

    11. Balance Calibration A Method for Assigning a Direct-Reading Uncertainty to an Electronic Balance.

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Mike Stears

      2010-07-01

      Paper Title: Balance Calibration A method for assigning a direct-reading uncertainty to an electronic balance. Intended Audience: Those who calibrate or use electronic balances. Abstract: As a calibration facility, we provide on-site (at the customers location) calibrations of electronic balances for customers within our company. In our experience, most of our customers are not using their balance as a comparator, but simply putting an unknown quantity on the balance and reading the displayed mass value. Manufacturers specifications for balances typically include specifications such as readability, repeatability, linearity, and sensitivity temperature drift, but what does this all mean when the balance user simply reads the displayed mass value and accepts the reading as the true value? This paper discusses a method for assigning a direct-reading uncertainty to a balance based upon the observed calibration data and the environment where the balance is being used. The method requires input from the customer regarding the environment where the balance is used and encourages discussion with the customer regarding sources of uncertainty and possible means for improvement; the calibration process becomes an educational opportunity for the balance user as well as calibration personnel. This paper will cover the uncertainty analysis applied to the calibration weights used for the field calibration of balances; the uncertainty is calculated over the range of environmental conditions typically encountered in the field and the resulting range of air density. The temperature stability in the area of the balance is discussed with the customer and the temperature range over which the balance calibration is valid is decided upon; the decision is based upon the uncertainty needs of the customer and the desired rigor in monitoring by the customer. Once the environmental limitations are decided, the calibration is performed and the measurement data is entered into a custom

    12. SU-E-J-262: Segmentation in Therapy: Impact of Display

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Sensakovic, W; Letter, H; Pearson, E

      2014-06-01

      Purpose: To determine the calibration of monitors used for structure delineation in radiotherapy and to investigate the impact of window/level on the delineations. Method and Materials: hotometers were used to measure ambient light and luminance for 12 monitors used for delineating structures in radiotherapy. Luminance was determined using AAPM TG-18 patterns TG18-LN12-01 to TG18-LN12-18. The DICOM grayscale display function (GSDF) was calculated for each monitor. To investigate the impact of window and level eight observers each outlined two sets of structures (four structures per set) on CT simulation images. In the first set window and level were initialized at random values and the observers adjusted as needed. In the second set window and level were locked at preselected values for all observers. Results: Ambient light variability at different displays was 24% and was higher than radiology reading rooms. Monitor luminance curves were substantially different than the corresponding GSDF. Monitors demonstrated higher contrast than the GSDF in the lower third of driving levels and lower contrast in the upper third of driving levels. Increased contrast at low driving levels may be to compensate for high ambient light which would otherwise reduce contrast. Abrupt changes in luminance and loss of all contrast at both upper and lower driving levels was observed. Interobserver variability was 379HU for window and 217HU for level. Outline variability was lower when the window and level settings were similar and when they were preselected. Structures without sharp boundaries (e.g., partial volume and a wide window value) resulted in substantial interobserver variability even when window/level were preselected. Conclusion: Substantial variation in monitor calibration and ambient light exists in radiotherapy. Further, the substantially different window/level contributes to outline variability. Future work will quantify the contributions of monitor calibration and window

    13. Interactive display system having a scaled virtual target zone

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Veligdan, James T.; DeSanto, Leonard

      2006-06-13

      A display system includes a waveguide optical panel having an inlet face and an opposite outlet face. A projector and imaging device cooperate with the panel for projecting a video image thereon. An optical detector bridges at least a portion of the waveguides for detecting a location on the outlet face within a target zone of an inbound light spot. A controller is operatively coupled to the imaging device and detector for displaying a cursor on the outlet face corresponding with the detected location of the spot within the target zone.

    14. University of Nevada Las Vegas LED Display Engineering

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      2010-08-31

      The primary objective of this part of the project is to develop and implement a method that compensates for the inefficiency of the green LED. The proposed engineering solution which will be the backbone of this project will be to use RGBW combination in every pixel to save energy. Two different RGBW geometrical pixel configurations will be implemented and compared against traditional LED configurations. These configurations will be analyzed for energy efficiency while keeping the quality of the display the same. Cost of the addition of white LEDs to displays along with energy cost savings will be presented and analyzed.

    15. Real-time graphic displays in Mars. [AVLIS process

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Treadway, T.

      1985-12-01

      Real-time diagnostic data of the AVLIS process is displayed in the form of a two-dimensional plot on selected monitors in the Mars Control Room. Each Mars workstation contains a HP2622 terminal for computer interface to the experiment and a Raster Technologies graphic controller driving a Conrac high resolution color monitor for graphics output.

    16. Effect of geotropism on instrument readings

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Rolph, James T.

      2006-11-01

      A review of gravity's effect on instrument readings, also referred to as geotropism. In this essay a review of meter movement construction and the effect are reviewed as it applies to portable radiation instruments. Reference to the three ANSI standards and their requirements are reviewed. An alternate approach to test for the effects is offered.

    17. Updated Users' Guide for RSAP -- A Code for Display and Manipulation of Neutron Cross Section Data and SAMMY Fit Results

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Sayer, R.O.

      2003-07-29

      RSAP [1] is a computer code for display and manipulation of neutron cross section data and selected SAMMY output. SAMMY [2] is a multilevel R-matrix code for fitting neutron time-of-flight cross-section data using Bayes' method. This users' guide provides documentation for the recently updated RSAP code (version 6). The code has been ported to the Linux platform, and several new features have been added, including the capability to read cross section data from ASCII pointwise ENDF files as well as double-precision PLT output from SAMMY. A number of bugs have been found and corrected, and the input formats have been improved. Input items are parsed so that items may be separated by spaces or commas.

    18. How to Read Residential Electric and Natural Gas Meters | Department...

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

      How to Read Residential Electric and Natural Gas Meters How to Read Residential Electric and Natural Gas Meters An electromechanical electric meter on the side of a house. | Photo...

    19. How to Read Your Electric Meter | Department of Energy

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

      Your Electric Meter How to Read Your Electric Meter The difference between one month's reading and the next is the amount of energy units that have been used for that billing...

    20. runtime error message: "readControlMsg: System returned error...

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      readControlMsg: System returned error Connection timed out on TCP socket fd" runtime error message: "readControlMsg: System returned error Connection timed out on TCP socket fd"...

    1. Dose factor entry and display tool for BNCT radiotherapy

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Wessol, Daniel E.; Wheeler, Floyd J.; Cook, Jeremy L.

      1999-01-01

      A system for use in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) radiotherapy planning where a biological distribution is calculated using a combination of conversion factors and a previously calculated physical distribution. Conversion factors are presented in a graphical spreadsheet so that a planner can easily view and modify the conversion factors. For radiotherapy in multi-component modalities, such as Fast-Neutron and BNCT, it is necessary to combine each conversion factor component to form an effective dose which is used in radiotherapy planning and evaluation. The Dose Factor Entry and Display System is designed to facilitate planner entry of appropriate conversion factors in a straightforward manner for each component. The effective isodose is then immediately computed and displayed over the appropriate background (e.g. digitized image).

    2. Tonopah Test Range EGS graphics tracking display system: HP370

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Meyer, R.H.; Bauhs, K.C.

      1994-08-01

      This report describes the HP370 component of the Enhanced Graphics System (EGS) used at Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Selected Radar data is fed into the computer systems and the resulting tracking symbols are displayed on high-resolution video monitors in real time. These tracking symbols overlay background maps and are used for monitoring/controlling various flight vehicles. This report discusses both the operational aspects and the internal configuration of the HP370 Workstation portion of the EGS system.

    3. SLAC Large Detector (SLD) Image and Event Display Collections

      DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

      Perl, Joseph; Cowan, Ray; Johnson, Tony

      The SLD makes use of the unique capabilities of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) to perform studies of polarized Z particles produced in collisions between electrons and positrons. The SLD Event Display Collection shows computer generated pictures of a number of Z particle decays as reconstructed by the SLD detector. More than 90 images, each in several formats, captured from 1991 - 1996 events, are archived here. There are also figures and data plots available.

    4. Aerogels: A new material for emissive display applications

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Glauser, S.A.C. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States); Lee, H.W.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

      1997-03-01

      The remarkable optical and electronic properties of doped and undoped silica aerogels establish their utility as unique, multifunctional host materials for fluorescent dyes and other luminescent materials for display and imaging applications. We present results on the photoluminescence and absorption of undoped silica aerogels and aerogels doped with Er{sup 3+}, rhodamine 6G (R6G), and fluorescein. We also demonstrate evidence of Fowler-Nordheim tunneling of electrons in aerogels. 4 refs., 10 figs.

    5. Los Alamos Quantum Dots for Solar, Display Technology

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Klimov, Victor

      2015-04-13

      Quantum dots are ultra-small bits of semiconductor matter that can be synthesized with nearly atomic precision via modern methods of colloidal chemistry. Their emission color can be tuned by simply varying their dimensions. Color tunability is combined with high emission efficiencies approaching 100 percent. These properties have recently become the basis of a new technology – quantum dot displays – employed, for example, in the newest generation of e-readers and video monitors.

    6. Certification of DOE Reading Rooms | Department of Energy

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

      Certification of DOE Reading Rooms Certification of DOE Reading Rooms Certification of DOE Reading Rooms by Ingrid Kolb, Chief FOIA Officer, October, 17, 2008. (57.79 KB) More Documents & Publications Memorandum from Secretary Moniz on the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Before the Subcommittee on National Parks - Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources DRAFT 2012 DOE Project Management Workshop Agenda

    7. Reads and Plots PCM Data Files

      Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

      1999-08-23

      WINPLOT21 reads and plots PCM (Pulse code modulated) data files. The data files must contain the PCM data formatted per IRIG 106 Telemetry standards. The contents of the data files are interpreted using information found in ancillary calibration file that can be created using a Calibration Wizard feature of this program. PCM data is read in and scaled to engineering units. First and second order equations are applied to the engineering units. The user hasmore » the option of plotting the raw PCM counts, engineering units, integrated engineering units, or second order integration of the engineering units. A Butterworth filter can be applied to the engineering units if the source of the data is not a PCM subcommed channel. Scroll bars allow for zooming in along both the x and y axis.« less

    8. Method and apparatus for reading thermoluminescent phosphors

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Braunlich, Peter F.; Tetzlaff, Wolfgang

      1987-01-01

      An apparatus and method for rapidly reading thermoluminescent phosphors to determine the amount of luminescent energy stored therein. The stored luminescent energy is interpreted as a measure of the total exposure of the thermoluminescent phosphor to ionizing radiation. The thermoluminescent phosphor reading apparatus uses a laser to generate a laser beam. The laser beam power level is monitored by a laser power detector and controlled to maintain the power level nearly constant. A shutter or other laser beam interrupting means is used to control exposure of the thermoluminescent phosphor to the laser beam. The laser beam can be equalized using an optical equalizer so that the laser beam has an approximately uniform power density across the beam. The heated thermoluminescent phosphor emits a visible or otherwise detectable luminescent emission which is measured as an indication of the radiation exposure of the thermoluminescent phosphors. Also disclosed are preferred signal processing and control circuits.

    9. Introduction to Reading and Visualizing ARM Data

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Mather, James

      2014-02-18

      Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program standard data format is NetCDF 3 (Network Common Data Form). The object of this tutorial is to provide a basic introduction to NetCDF with an emphasis on aspects of the ARM application of NetCDF. The goal is to provide basic instructions for reading and visualizing ARM NetCDF data with the expectation that these examples can then be applied to more complex applications.

    10. Training and Required Reading Management Tool

      Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

      2009-08-13

      This tool manages training and required reading for groups, facilities, etc – abilities beyond the site training systems. TRRMTool imports training data from controlled site data sources/systems and provides greater management and reporting. Clients have been able to greatly reduce the time and effort required to manage training, have greater accuracy, foster individual accountability, and be proactive in verifying training of support personnel, to maintain compliance.

    11. Systems and methods for displaying data in split dimension levels

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Stolte, Chris; Hanrahan, Patrick

      2015-07-28

      Systems and methods for displaying data in split dimension levels are disclosed. In some implementations, a method includes: at a computer, obtaining a dimensional hierarchy associated with a dataset, wherein the dimensional hierarchy includes at least one dimension and a sub-dimension of the at least one dimension; and populating information representing data included in the dataset into a visual table having a first axis and a second axis, wherein the first axis corresponds to the at least one dimension and the second axis corresponds to the sub-dimension of the at least one dimension.

    12. SSRL HEADLINES Jun 2001

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      2 Jun, 2001 _____________________________________________________________________________ Contents of This Issue: Science Highlight - Studies at SSRL Lead to the Development of New Materials and Processes for Flat Panel Displays Prototype Crystal Mounting Robot Successfully Tested 3x3 CCD Detector Received and Installed on SSRL BL11-1 SSRL Powder Diffraction Station Sagittal Focusing Mirror Upgrade SSRL Users' Organization Activities and Issues User Research Administration Announcements Job

    13. Stable and metastable nanowires displaying locally controllable properties

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Sutter, Eli Anguelova; Sutter, Peter Werner

      2014-11-18

      Vapor-liquid-solid growth of nanowires is tailored to achieve complex one-dimensional material geometries using phase diagrams determined for nanoscale materials. Segmented one-dimensional nanowires having constant composition display locally variable electronic band structures that are determined by the diameter of the nanowires. The unique electrical and optical properties of the segmented nanowires are exploited to form electronic and optoelectronic devices. Using gold-germanium as a model system, in situ transmission electron microscopy establishes, for nanometer-sized Au--Ge alloy drops at the tips of Ge nanowires (NWs), the parts of the phase diagram that determine their temperature-dependent equilibrium composition. The nanoscale phase diagram is then used to determine the exchange of material between the NW and the drop. The phase diagram for the nanoscale drop deviates significantly from that of the bulk alloy.

    14. Plasmids and packaging cell lines for use in phage display

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Bradbury, Andrew M.

      2012-07-24

      The invention relates to a novel phagemid display system for packaging phagemid DNA into phagemid particles which completely avoids the use of helper phage. The system of the invention incorporates the use of bacterial packaging cell lines which have been transformed with helper plasmids containing all required phage proteins but not the packaging signals. The absence of packaging signals in these helper plasmids prevents their DNA from being packaged in the bacterial cell, which provides a number of significant advantages over the use of both standard and modified helper phage. Packaged phagemids expressing a protein or peptide of interest, in fusion with a phage coat protein such as g3p, are generated simply by transfecting phagemid into the packaging cell line.

    15. Recovery of valuable materials from waste liquid crystal display panel

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Li Jinhui Gao Song; Duan Huabo; Liu Lili

      2009-07-15

      Associated with the rapid development of the information and electronic industry, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have been increasingly sold as displays. However, during the discarding at their end-of-life stage, significant environmental hazards, impacts on health and a loss of resources may occur, if the scraps are not managed in an appropriate way. In order to improve the efficiency of the recovery of valuable materials from waste LCDs panel in an environmentally sound manner, this study presents a combined recycling technology process on the basis of manual dismantling and chemical treatment of LCDs. Three key processes of this technology have been studied, including the separation of LCD polarizing film by thermal shock method the removal of liquid crystals between the glass substrates by the ultrasonic cleaning, and the recovery of indium metal from glass by dissolution. The results show that valuable materials (e.g. indium) and harmful substances (e.g. liquid crystals) could be efficiently recovered or separated through above-mentioned combined technology. The optimal conditions are: (1) the peak temperature of thermal shock to separate polarizing film, ranges from 230 to 240 deg. C, where pyrolysis could be avoided; (2) the ultrasonic-assisted cleaning was most efficient at a frequency of 40 KHz (P = 40 W) and the exposure of the substrate to industrial detergents for 10 min; and (3) indium separation from glass in a mix of concentrated hydrochloric acid at 38% and nitric acid at 69% (HCl:HNO{sub 3}:H{sub 2}O = 45:5:50, volume ratio). The indium separation process was conducted with an exposure time of 30 min at a constant temperature of 60 deg. C.

    16. NEPA Reading Room | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA)

      National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

      NEPA Reading Room Welcome to the National Nuclear Security Administration's NEPA Reading Room. This site serves as a focal point for NNSA NEPA implementation and contains information about past and current NNSA NEPA actions as well as other resources for NEPA practitioners and members of the public. Welcome to the National Nuclear Security Administration's NEPA Reading Room. This site serves as a focal point for NNSA NEPA implementation and contains information about past and current NNSA NEPA

    17. Win big prizes in new summer reading contest

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Win big prizes in new summer reading contest Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue: September 1, 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Win big prizes in new summer reading contest Author Rudolfo Anaya partners with Los Alamos Lab to launch inaugural program. April 27, 2016 Rudolfo Anaya's first children's book was The Farolitos of Christmas, published in 1995. Put it on your child's summer reading list as part of the Rudolfo

    18. Introduction to Reading and Visualizing ARM Data (Technical Report...

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      Introduction to Reading and Visualizing ARM Data Citation Details In-Document Search ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Full ...

    19. NREL: MIDC/NWTC M2 Real-Time Weather Display

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      NWTC M2 Real-Time Weather Display This page should automatically refresh every minute. A text based weather display for PDAs is also available. NREL MIDC NWTC M2

    20. Versatile microbial surface-display for environmental remediation and biofuels production

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Wu, Cindy H.; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, wilfred

      2008-02-14

      Surface display is a powerful technique that utilizes natural microbial functional components to express proteins or peptides on the cell exterior. Since the reporting of the first surface-display system in the mid-1980s, a variety of new systems have been reported for yeast, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Non-conventional display methods are emerging, eliminating the generation of genetically modified microorganisms. Cells with surface display are used as biocatalysts, biosorbents and biostimulants. Microbial cell-surface display has proven to be extremely important for numerous applications ranging from combinatorial library screening and protein engineering to bioremediation and biofuels production.

    1. Golden Reading Room: Office of Acquisition Documents, Small Purchases |

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

      Department of Energy Small Purchases Golden Reading Room: Office of Acquisition Documents, Small Purchases Below are electronic versions of Golden Field Office Reading Room documents that were created after November 1, 1996, per the requirements of the Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendment of 1996. Most documents are available in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF). Small Purchases

    2. Read-out electronics for DC squid magnetic measurements

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R.; Snapp, Lowell D.

      2002-01-01

      Read-out electronics for DC SQUID sensor systems, the read-out electronics incorporating low Johnson noise radio-frequency flux-locked loop circuitry and digital signal processing algorithms in order to improve upon the prior art by a factor of at least ten, thereby alleviating problems caused by magnetic interference when operating DC SQUID sensor systems in magnetically unshielded environments.

    3. Read Your E-mail | Argonne National Laboratory

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Read Your E-mail All Argonne employees can read their e-mail through the web. Argonne E-Mail service is a robust, reliable electronic communication solution for supporting day-to-day business activities. Features include e-mail, calendar, task lists, and contact lists. While it is designed to work Microsoft Outlook, it also works with other POP- and IMAP-based clients. All employees can read their e-mail through the web. Use the login link at right to get started. Login to E-mail

    4. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) to Be Displayed on June 22...

      Energy Savers [EERE]

      Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) to Be Displayed on June 22 During Sustainable ... Comparable to today's gas prices, hydrogen can be produced from low-cost natural gas ...

    5. Real-time sub-display='inline'>ngstrom...

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      Real-time sub-display'inline'>ngstrom imaging of reversible and irreversible conformations in rhodium catalysts and graphene Kisielowski, Christian; Wang,...

    6. Energy Efficiency on Display: Using Demonstration Projects to Showcase Home Performance Opportunities (201)

      Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

      Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Energy Efficiency on Display: Using Demonstration Projects to Showcase Home Performance Opportunities (201), call slides and discussion summary.

    7. How to Read Your Electric Meter | Department of Energy

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

      Warren Gretz, NREL. The difference between one month's reading and the next is the amount of energy units that have been used for that billing period. | Photo courtesy of Warren ...

    8. Port Reading, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

      Open Energy Info (EERE)

      Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Port Reading is a census-designated place in Middlesex County, New Jersey.1 References ...

    9. Reading Municipal Light Department- Commercial Lighting Retrofit Program

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

      Reading Municipal Light Department (RMLD) offers incentives for non-residential customers to install energy-efficient lighting and sensors in existing facilities. Rebates are limited to $20,000 per...

    10. Reading Municipal Light Department- Residential Renewable Energy Rebates

      Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

      Reading Municipal Light Department (RMLD) offers rebates of $1.00/watt for solar photovoltaic and small wind installations for residential customers. A $0.25/watt adder is available for using local...

    11. Reading Municipal Light Department- Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

      Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

      Reading Municipal Light Department (RMLD) offers energy efficiency incentives to eligible commercial and industrial customers. Rebates of up to $50,000 are available to customers who wish to reduce...

    12. Reading Municipal Light Department- Residential Energy Star Appliance Rebate Program

      Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

      Reading Municipal Light Department (RMLD) offers rebates to residential customers who install Energy Star appliances in eligible homes. The offer is limited to one rebate per appliance, or a...

    13. Golden Reading Room: FOIA Requester Service Centers and Public Liaisons |

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

      Department of Energy FOIA Requester Service Centers and Public Liaisons Golden Reading Room: FOIA Requester Service Centers and Public Liaisons U.S. Department of Energy http://energy.gov/management/foia-contacts

    14. Golden Reading Room: Environmental Assessments | Department of Energy

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

      Environmental Assessments Golden Reading Room: Environmental Assessments Below are electronic versions of Golden Field Office Reading Room documents that were created after November 1, 1996, per the requirements of the Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendment of 1996. Most documents are available in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF). DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD June 29, 2016 EA-2021: Draft Environmental Assessment Energy Conservation Standards for Manufactured Housing (RIN

    15. Golden Reading Room: FINAL Environmental Impact Statements | Department of

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

      Energy FINAL Environmental Impact Statements Golden Reading Room: FINAL Environmental Impact Statements Below are electronic versions of Golden Field Office Reading Room documents that were created after November 1, 1996, per the requirements of the Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendment of 1996. Most documents are available in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF). Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Abengoa Biorefinery Project, Hugoton, Stevens County,

    16. Golden Reading Room: FOIA Frequently Requested Documents | Department of

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

      Energy Frequently Requested Documents Golden Reading Room: FOIA Frequently Requested Documents Below are electronic versions of Golden Field Office Reading Room documents that were created after November 1, 1996, per the requirements of the Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendment of 1996. Most documents are available in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF). DE-EE0002884 Sapphire Energy GO-12-043 Redacted Sapphire FOIA DE-EE0002877 Recovery Act Definitized Subcontract No.

    17. Golden Reading Room: FOIA Proactive Disclosures and Contracts | Department

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

      of Energy Proactive Disclosures and Contracts Golden Reading Room: FOIA Proactive Disclosures and Contracts Below are electronic versions of Golden Field Office Reading Room documents that were created after November 1, 1996, per the requirements of the Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendment of 1996. Most documents are available in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF). 2013 Solar Decathlon Information Click on this link for updates: Solar Decathlon Information. Alliance for

    18. Golden Reading Room: Office of Acquisition Documents, Better Buildings

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

      Initiative Support Services | Department of Energy Better Buildings Initiative Support Services Golden Reading Room: Office of Acquisition Documents, Better Buildings Initiative Support Services Below are electronic versions of Golden Field Office Reading Room documents that were created after November 1, 1996, per the requirements of the Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendment of 1996. Most documents are available in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF). DE-SOL-0005538

    19. Golden Reading Room: Office of Acquisition Documents, Sole of Limited

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

      Source Justifications | Department of Energy Sole of Limited Source Justifications Golden Reading Room: Office of Acquisition Documents, Sole of Limited Source Justifications Below are electronic versions of Golden Field Office Reading Room documents that were created after November 1, 1996, per the requirements of the Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendment of 1996. Most documents are available in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF). Sole of Limited Source Justificati

    20. Golden Reading Room: Other NEPA Documents | Department of Energy

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

      Other NEPA Documents Golden Reading Room: Other NEPA Documents Below are electronic versions of Golden Field Office Reading Room documents that were created after November 1, 1996, per the requirements of the Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendment of 1996. Most documents are available in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF). Floodplain Assessment for Installation of a Renewable Energy Anaerobic Digester Facility at the University of California, Davis in Yolo County, California

      1. ARM - Reading netCDF, HDF, and GRIB Files

        Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

        DocumentationReading netCDF, HDF, and GRIB Files Policies, Plans, Descriptions Data Documentation Home Data Sharing and Distribution Policy Data Management and Documentation Plan Data Product Registration and Submission Statement on Digital Data Management Guidelines for Integrating Data Products and Algorithms to ARM Data Libraries Reading netCDF and HDF Data Files Time in ARM netCDF Data Files Data Archive Documentation ARM Archive's Catalog of Data Streams (Updated monthly) Access to

      2. Golden Field Office Reading Room | Department of Energy

        Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

        About Us » Business Operations » Golden Field Office » Golden Field Office Reading Room Golden Field Office Reading Room The Golden Field Office was designated a Department of Energy (DOE) field office in December 1992 to support the development and commercialization of renewable energy and energy-efficient technologies. As a field office within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Golden's mission is to award grants and manage contracts for clean energy projects,

      3. Golden Reading Room: NREL Environmental and NEPA Documents | Department of

        Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

        Energy NREL Environmental and NEPA Documents Golden Reading Room: NREL Environmental and NEPA Documents Below are electronic versions of Golden Field Office Reading Room documents that were created after November 1, 1996, per the requirements of the Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendment of 1996. Most documents are available in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF). NREL Annual Environmental Performance Reports (Annual Site Environmental Reports) Every year the National

      4. Golden Reading Room: Other NREL Documents | Department of Energy

        Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

        Other NREL Documents Golden Reading Room: Other NREL Documents Below are electronic versions of Golden Field Office Reading Room documents that were created after November 1, 1996, per the requirements of the Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendment of 1996. Most documents are available in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF). National Renewable Energy Laboratory 10 Year Site Plan FY 2007 - FY 2018 Director's Discretionary Research and Development Program, Annual Report FY 2007

      5. Development of Polymer Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Flake Technology for Electro-Optic Devices and Particle Displays

        SciTech Connect (OSTI)

        Kosc, T.Z.; Marshall, K.L.; Trajkovska-Petkoska, A.; Coon, C.J.; Hasman, K.; Babcock, G.V.; Howe, R.; Leitch, M.; Jacobs, S.J.

        2007-04-05

        Liquid crystals have had a large presence in the display industry for several decades, and they continue to remain at the forefront of development as the industry delves into flexible displays and electronic paper. Among the emerging technologies trying to answer this call are polymer cholesteric liquid crystal (PCLC) flakes.

      6. Multidimensional display controller for displaying to a user an aspect of a multidimensional space visible from a base viewing location along a desired viewing orientation

        DOE Patents [OSTI]

        Davidson, George S.; Anderson, Thomas G.

        2001-01-01

        A display controller allows a user to control a base viewing location, a base viewing orientation, and a relative viewing orientation. The base viewing orientation and relative viewing orientation are combined to determine a desired viewing orientation. An aspect of a multidimensional space visible from the base viewing location along the desired viewing orientation is displayed to the user. The user can change the base viewing location, base viewing orientation, and relative viewing orientation by changing the location or other properties of input objects.

      7. The Future of Manufacturing Takes Shape: 3D Printed Car on Display at

        Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

        Manufacturing Summit | Department of Energy The Future of Manufacturing Takes Shape: 3D Printed Car on Display at Manufacturing Summit The Future of Manufacturing Takes Shape: 3D Printed Car on Display at Manufacturing Summit September 17, 2014 - 9:50am Addthis WORLD&#039;S FIRST 1 of 6 WORLD'S FIRST The world's first 3D-printed car on display at the International Manufacturing Technology Show in Chicago last week. Arizona-based Local Motors, and Cincinnati Incorporated teamed with Oak

      8. Holographic Labeling And Reading Machine For Authentication And Security Appications

        DOE Patents [OSTI]

        Weber, David C.; Trolinger, James D.

        1999-07-06

        A holographic security label and automated reading machine for marking and subsequently authenticating any object such as an identification badge, a pass, a ticket, a manufactured part, or a package is described. The security label is extremely difficult to copy or even to read by unauthorized persons. The system comprises a holographic security label that has been created with a coded reference wave, whose specification can be kept secret. The label contains information that can be extracted only with the coded reference wave, which is derived from a holographic key, which restricts access of the information to only the possessor of the key. A reading machine accesses the information contained in the label and compares it with data stored in the machine through the application of a joint transform correlator, which is also equipped with a reference hologram that adds additional security to the procedure.

      9. Evaluation of radiographers’ mammography screen-reading accuracy in Australia

        SciTech Connect (OSTI)

        Debono, Josephine C; Poulos, Ann E; Houssami, Nehmat; Turner, Robin M; Boyages, John

        2015-03-15

        This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of radiographers’ screen-reading mammograms. Currently, radiologist workforce shortages may be compromising the BreastScreen Australia screening program goal to detect early breast cancer. The solution to a similar problem in the United Kingdom has successfully encouraged radiographers to take on the role as one of two screen-readers. Prior to consideration of this strategy in Australia, educational and experiential differences between radiographers in the United Kingdom and Australia emphasise the need for an investigation of Australian radiographers’ screen-reading accuracy. Ten radiographers employed by the Westmead Breast Cancer Institute with a range of radiographic (median = 28 years), mammographic (median = 13 years) and BreastScreen (median = 8 years) experience were recruited to blindly and independently screen-read an image test set of 500 mammograms, without formal training. The radiographers indicated the presence of an abnormality using BI-RADS®. Accuracy was determined by comparison with the gold standard of known outcomes of pathology results, interval matching and client 6-year follow-up. Individual sensitivity and specificity levels ranged between 76.0% and 92.0%, and 74.8% and 96.2% respectively. Pooled screen-reader accuracy across the radiographers estimated sensitivity as 82.2% and specificity as 89.5%. Areas under the reading operating characteristic curve ranged between 0.842 and 0.923. This sample of radiographers in an Australian setting have adequate accuracy levels when screen-reading mammograms. It is expected that with formal screen-reading training, accuracy levels will improve, and with support, radiographers have the potential to be one of the two screen-readers in the BreastScreen Australia program, contributing to timeliness and improved program outcomes.

      10. ARM - Reading netCDF, HDF, and GRIB Files

        Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

        govDataReading netCDF, HDF, and GRIB Files Reading netCDF, HDF, and GRIB Files netCDF Files Most ARM data are stored in netCDF format. This format allows for the definition of data fields and storage of operational information in the header of the file. All ARM netCDF files are in UTC time and represent time as "seconds since January 1, 1970,'' which is called the "epoch time.'' For example, an epoch time of 1 means "Thu Jan 1 00:00:01 1970''; an epoch time of 992794875 is