Sample records for flaring removing nonhydrocarbon

  1. Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469 2,321Spain (MillionFeet)2008YearNonhydrocarbon

  2. Illinois Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 TableTotal Consumption (MillionTotalVentedNonhydrocarbon

  3. New York Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthrough 1996) inThousandWithdrawals (Million CubicYearNonhydrocarbon Gases

  4. Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(Million Barrels)21 4.65 2013 Next1.878 2.358 -

  5. Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Summary)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(Million Barrels)21 4.65 2013 Next1.878 2.358 -NA NA

  6. Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthrough 1996) inThousandWithdrawals (MillionNine8 2.415 -CubicYear Jan

  7. Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Summary)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthrough 1996) inThousandWithdrawals (MillionNine8 2.415 -CubicYear Jan8

  8. Kansas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Building FloorspaceThousandWithdrawals0.0DecadeYearDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2

  9. Kansas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Building FloorspaceThousandWithdrawals0.0DecadeYearDecade Year-0 Year-1

  10. Kentucky Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) Kenai,Feet)YearSeparation

  11. Kentucky Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) Kenai,Feet)YearSeparationYear Jan

  12. Louisiana Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3 0 0 0 1569Decade Year-0SameFeet)

  13. Louisiana Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3 0 0 0 1569Decade

  14. Maryland Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3 00.0 0.0 0.05.03 5.68YearYearSameDecade

  15. Maryland Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3 00.0 0.0 0.05.03

  16. Michigan Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3Exports (NoYearDecadeSeparation

  17. Michigan Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3Exports (NoYearDecadeSeparationYear

  18. Mississippi Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million CubicCubic Feet)Same Month PreviousFeet)

  19. Mississippi Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million CubicCubic Feet)Same Month

  20. Missouri Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million CubicCubic Feet)SameThousandYearBase

  1. Missouri Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million CubicCubic Feet)SameThousandYearBaseYear Jan Feb

  2. Montana Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million CubicCubic32,876 10,889Decade03Decade Year-0 Year-1

  3. Montana Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million CubicCubic32,876 10,889Decade03Decade Year-0

  4. Arkansas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1Year%UndergroundReservesYear Jan Feb

  5. California Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469 2,321 2,590FuelDecade Year-0 Year-1SameFeet)

  6. California Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469 2,321 2,590FuelDecade Year-0

  7. Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469 2,321Spain

  8. Alabama Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial andSeptember 25,9,1996Feet)4.32WellheadDecade

  9. Alabama Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial andSeptember 25,9,1996Feet)4.32WellheadDecadeYear

  10. Alaska Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3Reserves

  11. Alaska Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3ReservesYear Jan Feb

  12. Arizona Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1Year JanDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2

  13. Arizona Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1Year JanDecade Year-0 Year-1

  14. Arkansas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1Year%UndergroundReserves

  15. West Virginia Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 (Million Cubic58(MillionYear Jan Feb Marfrom

  16. West Virginia Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 (Million Cubic58(MillionYear Jan Feb MarfromFeet)

  17. Wyoming Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 (MillionAdjustments (MillionYear

  18. Wyoming Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 (MillionAdjustments (MillionYearYear Jan Feb Mar Apr

  19. Texas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul AugDecadeDecade Year-0 Year-1

  20. Texas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul AugDecadeDecade Year-0

  1. Utah Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan FebIncreases (Billion CubicYearDecadeYear6,393

  2. Utah Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan FebIncreases (Billion CubicYearDecadeYear6,393Year

  3. Florida Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYear Jan Feb Mar AprVented andDecade Year-0

  4. Florida Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYear Jan Feb Mar AprVented andDecade

  5. Nebraska Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYearWithdrawals (MillionYear Jan Feb MarDecade Year-0

  6. Nebraska Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYearWithdrawals (MillionYear Jan Feb MarDecade

  7. Nevada Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYearWithdrawalsYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYear Jan

  8. Nevada Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYearWithdrawalsYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYear JanYear

  9. New Mexico Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) New MexicoFeet) Working

  10. New Mexico Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) New MexicoFeet) WorkingFeet) Year

  11. North Dakota Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct NovSeparation

  12. North Dakota Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct

  13. Oklahoma Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May

  14. Oklahoma Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep

  15. Oregon Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYear Jan FebYear Jan FebYear

  16. Oregon Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYear Jan FebYear Jan FebYearYear Jan Feb

  17. Other States Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYear Jan

  18. U.S. Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14TotalThe Outlook269,023Year Jan Feb MarYearMonthYear Jan

  19. Federal Offshore--Gulf of Mexico Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.Gas Proved Reserves, WetGasCubic Feet)Gas

  20. U.S. Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New120,814 136,932 130,90267 4.48226,012Decade

  1. New York Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto ChinaThousand CubicSeparation 29 0Year Jan FebSame MonthDecade

  2. Is FLARE for Solar flare?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Fargion

    2005-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fermi Lab Liquid ARgon experiment, FLARE, a huge neutrino argon-liquid project detector of 50 kt mass, might in a near future enlarge the neutrino telescope accuracy revealing in detail solar, supernova, atmospheric as well as largest solar flares neutrino. Indeed the solar energetic (E_p > 100 MeVs) flare particles (protons, alpha) while scattering among themselves or hitting the solar atmosphere must produce on sun prompt charged pions, whose decay (as well as their sequent muon decays) into secondaries is source of a copious solar neutrino "flare" (at tens or hundreds MeV energy). These brief (minutes) neutrino "burst" at largest flare peak may overcome by three to five order of magnitude the steady atmospheric neutrino noise on the Earth, possibly leading to their emergence and detection above the thresholds. The largest prompt "burst" solar neutrino flare may be detected in future FLARE neutrino detectors both in electron and positron and possibly in its muon pair neutrino component. Our estimate for the recent and exceptional October - November 2003 solar flares and last January 20th 2005 exceptional flare might lead to a few events for future FLARE or near unity for present Super-KamiokandeII. The neutrino spectra may reflect the neutrino flavor oscillations and mixing in flight. In neutrino detectors a surprising (correlated) muon appearance may occur while a rarer tau appearance may even marginally take place. A comparison of the solar neutrino flare signal with other neutrino foreground is estimated: it offer the first opportunity for an independent road map to disentangle the neutrino flavor puzzles, as well a prompt alarm system for dangerous solar flare eruptions.

  3. Flare System Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R.

    Flare losses are typically the largest source of variable losses in a refinery or chemical plant. Since most plant flare systems are complex, there can be many opportunities to reduce costs. Losses to the flare can include process gases, fuel gas...

  4. Interferometric at-wavelength flare characterization of EUV optical systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick P. (Oakland, CA); Goldberg, Kenneth Alan (Berkeley, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI) provides the high-accuracy wavefront characterization critical to the development of EUV lithography systems. Enhancing the implementation of the PS/PDI can significantly extend its spatial-frequency measurement bandwidth. The enhanced PS/PDI is capable of simultaneously characterizing both wavefront and flare. The enhanced technique employs a hybrid spatial/temporal-domain point diffraction interferometer (referred to as the dual-domain PS/PDI) that is capable of suppressing the scattered-reference-light noise that hinders the conventional PS/PDI. Using the dual-domain technique in combination with a flare-measurement-optimized mask and an iterative calculation process for removing flare contribution caused by higher order grating diffraction terms, the enhanced PS/PDI can be used to simultaneously measure both figure and flare in optical systems.

  5. Parameterization of solar flare dose 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lamarche, Anne Helene

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A critical aspect of missions to the Moon or Mars is the safety and health of the crew. Radiation in space is a hazard for astronauts, especially high-energy radiation following certain types of solar flares. A solar flare ...

  6. Solar Flares and particle acceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Glasgow, UK STFC Summer School, Armagh, 2012 #12;Solar flares: basics X-raysradiowavesParticles1AU Figure energy ~2 1032 ergs #12;"Standard" model of a solar flare/CME Solar corona T ~ 106 K => 0.1 keV per MeV Proton energies >100 MeV Large solar flare releases about 1032 ergs (about half energy

  7. Gamma-ray burst flares: X-ray flaring. II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swenson, C. A.; Roming, P. W. A., E-mail: cswenson@astro.psu.edu [Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a catalog of 498 flaring periods found in gamma-ray burst (GRB) light curves taken from the online Swift X-Ray Telescope GRB Catalogue. We analyzed 680 individual light curves using a flare detection method developed and used on our UV/optical GRB Flare Catalog. This method makes use of the Bayesian Information Criterion to analyze the residuals of fitted GRB light curves and statistically determines the optimal fit to the light curve residuals in an attempt to identify any additional features. These features, which we classify as flares, are identified by iteratively adding additional 'breaks' to the light curve. We find evidence of flaring in 326 of the analyzed light curves. For those light curves with flares, we find an average number of ?1.5 flares per GRB. As with the UV/optical, flaring in our sample is generally confined to the first 1000 s of the afterglow, but can be detected to beyond 10{sup 5} s. Only ?50% of the detected flares follow the 'classical' definition of ?t/t ? 0.5, with many of the largest flares exceeding this value.

  8. Parameterization of solar flare dose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lamarche, Anne Helene

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A critical aspect of missions to the Moon or Mars is the safety and health of the crew. Radiation in space is a hazard for astronauts, especially high-energy radiation following certain types of solar flares. A solar flare event can be very...

  9. Recovering Flare Gas Energy - A Different Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, W.

    depend on a compressor to pull suction on the pressurized flare line and pump the gas into a plant-wide fuer gas system. Because SunOlin shares its flare system with an adjacent oil refinery, any change to the flare system operation could have far... design and operating scheme incorporating the results of the HAZOP study. The major features of our flare gas recovery system, then, are as follows: A 30" main flare gas header originating in the adjacent oil refinery is routed through the Sun...

  10. Magnetic reconnection configurations and particle acceleration in solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, P. F.

    types of solar flares. Upper panel: two-ribbon flares; Lower panel: compact flares. The color shows space under different magnetic configurations. Key words: solar flares, magnetic reconnection, particleMagnetic reconnection configurations and particle acceleration in solar flares P. F. Chen, W. J

  11. Monitoring of FR Cnc Flaring Activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Golovin; M. Andreev; E. Pavlenko; Yu. Kuznyetsova; V. Krushevska; A. Sergeev

    2007-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Being excited by the detection of the first ever-observed optical flare in FR Cnc, we decided to continue photometrical monitoring of this object. The observations were carried out at Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (Crimea, Ukraine; CrAO - hereafter) and at the Terskol Observatory (Russia, Northern Caucasus). The obtained lightcurves are presented and discussed. No distinguishable flares were detected that could imply that flares on FR Cnc are very rare event.

  12. Reducing Emissions in Plant Flaring Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duck, B.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -05-10 Proceedings of the 2011 Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, Louisiana, May 17-19, 2011 over 12 inches per hour. The pilot system incorporates a windshield, strainer and a true premix burner capable of firing in 0% oxygen environments... of the knockout drum since all the flare gases are available at this single point. Compressors take suction from the flare gas header and compress and cool it for reuse in the refinery fuel gas system. As flare gas flows through the flare header...

  13. alberta flare research: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    O. Terry 5 FLARE: Fast Layout for Augmented Reality Applications Microsoft Research Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: FLARE: Fast Layout for Augmented...

  14. Earth Planets Space, , , Flares and the Chromosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, Hugh

    The radiative energy of a solar flare appears mainly in the optical and UV continuum, which form in the lowerSSL, UC Berkeley, CA USA 94720-7450 2University of Glasgow, UK (Received xxxx xx, 2003; Revised xxxx produces in the photospheric magnetic field. Key words: Solar flares, Solar chromosphere, Solar corona

  15. OVERVIEW OF SOLAR FLARES The Yohkoh Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, Hugh

    that solar flares begin with high-energy processes. The key elements are accelerated particlesChapter 8 OVERVIEW OF SOLAR FLARES The Yohkoh Perspective Hugh Hudson Space Sciences Laboratory, UC of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland, U.K. lyndsay@astro.gla.ac.uk Josef I. Khan Dept. of Physics

  16. OVERVIEW OF SOLAR FLARES The Yohkoh Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    observations from space from the 1960s, revealed that solar flares begin with high-energy processes. The keyChapter 8 OVERVIEW OF SOLAR FLARES The Yohkoh Perspective Hugh Hudson Space Sciences Laboratory, UC of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland, U.K. lyndsay@astro.gla.ac.uk Josef I. Khan Dept. of Physics

  17. Achieve smokeless flaring -- Air or steam assist?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaudhuri, M.; Diefenderfer, J.J.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of the technological advances made during the past several years, flare system design has become more important with respect to the economics of plant operation. There are many options available to the engineer during the initial design phase of a flare system for a chemical process industries (CPI) plant. An earlier CEP article covered the basics of flare design and how to choose and size the right equipment, such as stack height and diameter, tip design, pilots and pilots flame detectors, seals, and so on. One of the most important factors is how to achieve smokeless operation, which is accomplished by either steam-assisted or air-assisted elevated flare stack assemblies. This article compares the two approaches and outlines the advantages and disadvantages of each with respect to economics, practicality, and operability. Table 1 summarizes the data for a typical plant in the U.S. Gulf Coast area that will be used as the basis for comparing costs.

  18. Reducing Safety Flaring through Advanced Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hokanson, D.; Lehman, K.; Matsumoto, S.; Takai, N.; Takase, F.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An advanced process control application, using DMCplus® (Aspen Technology, Inc.), was developed to substantially reduce fuel gas losses to the flare at a large integrated refining / petrochemical complex. Fluctuations in internal fuel gas system...

  19. Reduction of Hydrocarbon Losses to Flare Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Page, J.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    merit consideration because the losses and associated economic penalties are assumed to be small. Flare gas flow is not easily measured and as a result, most plants are unaware of how much product they are actually losing during normal operation...

  20. Reducing Safety Flaring through Advanced Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hokanson, D.; Lehman, K.; Matsumoto, S.; Takai, N.; Takase, F.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An advanced process control application, using DMCplus® (Aspen Technology, Inc.), was developed to substantially reduce fuel gas losses to the flare at a large integrated refining / petrochemical complex. Fluctuations in internal fuel gas system...

  1. Sauget Plant Flare Gas Reduction Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ratkowski, D. P.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Empirical analysis of stack gas heating value allowed the Afton Chemical Corporation Sauget Plant to reduce natural gas flow to its process flares by about 50% while maintaining the EPA-required minimum heating value of the gas streams....

  2. acute gout flare: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ones (X9) are selected as representative of the flaring Sun. The emission measure distribution vs. temperature, EM(T), of the flaring regions is derived from YohkohSXT...

  3. anterior chamber flare: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ones (X9) are selected as representative of the flaring Sun. The emission measure distribution vs. temperature, EM(T), of the flaring regions is derived from YohkohSXT...

  4. Investigation of plasma velocity field solar flare footpoints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mrozek, Tomasz

    of Wroclaw NCN Grant 2011/01/M/ST9/06096 #12;The Solar Flare - observations #12;chromosphere corona photosphere The Solar Flare - cartoon - conversion of magnetic energy into other forms - transport of energyInvestigation of plasma velocity field in solar flare footpoints from RHESSI observations T. Mrozek

  5. STATISTICS OF FLARES SWEEPING ACROSS SUNSPOTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Leping; Zhang Jun, E-mail: lepingli@ourstar.bao.ac.c, E-mail: zjun@ourstar.bao.ac.c [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2009-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Flare ribbons are always dynamic and sometimes sweep across sunspots. After examining 588 (513 M-class and 75 X-class) flare events observed by the TRACE satellite and the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope from 1998 May to 2009 May, we choose the event displaying one of the flare ribbons that completely sweeps across the umbra of a main sunspot of the corresponding active region, and finally obtain 20 (7 X-class and 13 M-class) events as our sample. In each event, we define the main sunspot completely swept across by the flare ribbon as the A-sunspot and its nearby opposite polarity sunspot as the B-sunspot. Observations show that the A-sunspot is a following polarity sunspot in 18 events and displays flux emergence in 13 cases. All of the B-sunspots are relatively simple, exhibiting either one main sunspot or one main sunspot and several small neighboring sunspots (pores). In two days prior to the flare occurrence, the A-sunspot rotates in all the cases, while the B-sunspot rotates in 19 events. The total rotating angle of the A-sunspot and B-sunspot rotates is 193{sup 0} on average, and the rotating directions are the same in 12 events. In all cases; the A-sunspot and B-sunspot manifest shear motions with an average shearing angle of 28.{sup 0}5, and in 14 cases, the shearing direction is opposite to the rotating direction of the A-sunspot. We suggest that the emergence, the rotation, and the shear motions of the A-sunspot and B-sunspot result in the phenomenon that flare ribbons sweep across sunspots completely.

  6. Blazar Flaring Rates Measured with GLAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. D. Dermer; B. L. Dingus

    2003-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive the minimum observing time scales to detect a blazar at a given flux level with the LAT on GLAST in the scanning and pointing modes. Based upon Phase 1 observations with EGRET, we predict the GLAST detection rate of blazar flares at different flux levels. With some uncertainty given the poor statistics of bright blazars, we predict that a blazar flare with integral flux >~ 200e-8 ph(> 100 MeV) cm^{-2} s^{-1}, which are the best candidates for Target of Opportunity pointings and extensive temporal and spectral studies, should occur every few days.

  7. Blazar Flaring Rates Measured with GLAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dermer, C D

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive the minimum observing time scales to detect a blazar at a given flux level with the LAT on GLAST in the scanning and pointing modes. Based upon Phase 1 observations with EGRET, we predict the GLAST detection rate of blazar flares at different flux levels. With some uncertainty given the poor statistics of bright blazars, we predict that a blazar flare with integral flux >~ 200e-8 ph(> 100 MeV) cm^{-2} s^{-1}, which are the best candidates for Target of Opportunity pointings and extensive temporal and spectral studies, should occur every few days.

  8. The Relation between Solar Eruption Topologies and Observed Flare Features I: Flare Ribbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savcheva, A; McKillop, S; McCauley, P; Hanson, E; Su, Y; Werner, E; DeLuca, E E

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present a topological magnetic field investigation of seven two-ribbon flares in sigmoidal active regions observed with Hinode, STEREO, and SDO. We first derive the 3D coronal magnetic field structure of all regions using marginally unstable 3D coronal magnetic field models created with the flux rope insertion method. The unstable models have been shown to be a good model of the flaring magnetic field configurations. Regions are selected based on their pre-flare configurations along with the appearance and observational coverage of flare ribbons, and the model is constrained using pre-flare features observed in extreme ultraviolet and X-ray passbands. We perform a topology analysis of the models by computing the squashing factor, Q, in order to determine the locations of prominent quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs). QSLs from these maps are compared to flare ribbons at their full extents. We show that in all cases the straight segments of the two J-shaped ribbons are matched very well by the flux...

  9. GRB Flares: A New Detection Algorithm, Previously Undetected Flares, and Implications on GRB Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swenson, C A

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flares in GRB light curves have been observed since shortly after the discovery of the first GRB afterglow. However, it was not until the launch of the Swift satellite that it was realized how common flares are, appearing in nearly 50% of all X-ray afterglows as observed by the XRT instrument. The majority of these observed X-ray flares are easily distinguishable by eye and have been measured to have up to as much fluence as the original prompt emission. Through studying large numbers of these X-ray flares it has been determined that they likely result from a distinct emission source different than that powering the GRB afterglow. These findings could be confirmed if similar results were found using flares in other energy ranges. However, until now, the UVOT instrument on Swift seemed to have observed far fewer flares in the UV/optical than were seen in the X-ray. This was primarily due to poor sampling and data being spread across multiple filters, but a new optimal co-addition and normalization of the UVOT ...

  10. RADIO EMISSION OF SOLAR FLARE PARTICLE ACCELERATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RADIO EMISSION OF SOLAR FLARE PARTICLE ACCELERATION A. O. Benz Abstract The solar corona is a very be considered as a particle accelerator. The free mobility of charged particles in a dilute plasma to accelerate particles in resonance. From a plasma physics point of view, acceleration is not surprising

  11. Magnetic changes observed in a solar flare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, R.L.; Hurford, G.J.; Jones, H.P.; Kane, S.R.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present observations of a fairly large impulsive flare (1B/M4, starting 17:22 UT, 1980 April 10). Observations of the microwave/hard X-ray burst show the time development of the impulsive energy release. Chromospheric (H..cap alpha..) and photospheric (Fe I lambda5324) filtergrams and photospheric (Fe I lambda8688) magnetograms, intensitygrams, and velocitygrams show magnetic strucutre, flare emission, mass motion, and magnetic changes. From these observations, we conclude: 1. The flare was triggered by a small emerging magnetic bipole. 2. The peak impulsive energy release occurred in the explosive eruption of a filament from over the magnetic inversion line. Hence: a) The filament eruption was the magnetic transient in the heart of the primary energy release in the chromosphere and corona. b) The primary energy release did not occur in approximately stationary magnetic loops, but on field lines undergoing violet motion and drastic changes in direction. 3. In the photospheric magnetograph lines. Fe I lambda5324 and Fe I lambda8688, the impulsive peak of the flare produced emission in a unipolar area of a sunspot. In synchrony with the emission, the polarity of this area transiently reversed in the lambda8688 magnetigrams; apparently, this was an artifact of the line emission. 4. Within a few minutes after the explosive filament eruption. a) A permanent decrease in magnetic flux accompanied the truncation of an umbra. b) A permanent increase in magnetic flux accompanied the severance of the penumbral bridge to a satellite sunspot. Apparently, thee genuine photospheric magnetic changes were consequences of strong flare-wrought magnetic changes in the chromospher and corona.

  12. Flare Ribbon Energetics in the Early Phase of an SDO Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, L; Hudson, H S; Innes, D E

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sites of chromospheric excitation during solar flares are marked by extended extreme ultraviolet ribbons and hard X-ray footpoints. The standard interpretation is that these are the result of heating and bremsstrahlung emission from non-thermal electrons precipitating from the corona. We examine this picture using multi-wavelength observations of the early phase of an M-class flare SOL2010-08-07T18:24. We aim to determine the properties of the heated plasma in the flare ribbons, and to understand the partition of the power input into radiative and conductive losses. Using GOES, SDO/EVE, SDO/AIA and RHESSI we measure the temperature, emission measure and differential emission measure of the flare ribbons, and deduce approximate density values. The non-thermal emission measure, and the collisional thick target energy input to the ribbons are obtained from RHESSI using standard methods. We deduce the existence of a substantial amount of plasma at 10 MK in the flare ribbons, during the pre-impulsive and early...

  13. Flares in GRB afterglows from delayed magnetic dissipation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimitrios Giannios

    2006-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most intriguing discoveries made by the Swift satellite is the flaring activity in about half of the afterglow lightcurves. Flares have been observed on both long and short duration GRBs and on time scales that range from minutes to ~1 day after the prompt emission. The rapid evolution of some flares led to the suggestion that they are caused by late central engine activity. Here, I propose an alternative explanation that does not need reviving of the central engine. Flares can be powered by delayed magnetic dissipation in strongly magnetized (i.e. with initial Poynting to kinetic flux ratio $\\simmore 1$) ejecta during its deceleration due to interaction with the external medium. A closer look at the length scales of the dissipation regions shows that magnetic dissipation can give rise to fast evolving and energetic flares. Multiple flares are also expected in the context of the model.

  14. Flare Gas Recovery in Shell Canada Refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, G. D.; Wey, R. E.; Chan, H. H.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the flow properties for compressor selection? What controls should be incorporated? How much operator and maintenance effort will be required for safe, efficient operation? What kind of process and hardware problems should be watched for? When...? This paper will touch on all these issues. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION A schematic of a typical refinery flare gas recovery facility is shown in Figure I. The facilities include the following pieces of equipment: - compressor suction drum - compressor set...

  15. TOWARD RELIABLE BENCHMARKING OF SOLAR FLARE FORECASTING METHODS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomfield, D. Shaun; Higgins, Paul A.; Gallagher, Peter T. [Astrophysics Research Group, School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, College Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland); McAteer, R. T. James, E-mail: shaun.bloomfield@tcd.ie [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States)

    2012-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar flares occur in complex sunspot groups, but it remains unclear how the probability of producing a flare of a given magnitude relates to the characteristics of the sunspot group. Here, we use Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite X-ray flares and McIntosh group classifications from solar cycles 21 and 22 to calculate average flare rates for each McIntosh class and use these to determine Poisson probabilities for different flare magnitudes. Forecast verification measures are studied to find optimum thresholds to convert Poisson flare probabilities into yes/no predictions of cycle 23 flares. A case is presented to adopt the true skill statistic (TSS) as a standard for forecast comparison over the commonly used Heidke skill score (HSS). In predicting flares over 24 hr, the maximum values of TSS achieved are 0.44 (C-class), 0.53 (M-class), 0.74 (X-class), 0.54 ({>=}M1.0), and 0.46 ({>=}C1.0). The maximum values of HSS are 0.38 (C-class), 0.27 (M-class), 0.14 (X-class), 0.28 ({>=}M1.0), and 0.41 ({>=}C1.0). These show that Poisson probabilities perform comparably to some more complex prediction systems, but the overall inaccuracy highlights the problem with using average values to represent flaring rate distributions.

  16. Driving Major Solar Flares and Eruptions: Carolus J. Schrijver

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrijver, Karel

    Driving Major Solar Flares and Eruptions: A Review Carolus J. Schrijver Lockheed Martin Adv. Techn that energize and trigger M- and X-class so- lar flares and associated flux-rope destabilizations. Numerical modeling of specific solar regions is hampered by uncertain coronal-field reconstructions and by poorly

  17. Associated Shale Gas- From Flares to Rig Power 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallace, Elizabeth Michelle

    2014-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    /D, resulting in the flaring of approximately 266 MMcf/D. The Bakken area is one of the most produced shale oil and condensate formations in the US. Reported volumes for this formation suggest that the amount of associated gas flared is enough to power drilling...

  18. Relationships between physical and observational parameters during flares on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Complutense de Madrid, Universidad

    for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. 3 Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG 2200 AG Noordwijk, The Netherlands. Summary. A great number of short and weak non white-light flares Solar flares were discovered by Carrington and Hodgson on September 1, 1859 [2, 19]. However

  19. EVIDENCE FOR HOT FAST FLOW ABOVE A SOLAR FLARE ARCADE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imada, S. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory (STEL), Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)] [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory (STEL), Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Aoki, K.; Hara, H.; Watanabe, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)] [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Harra, L. K. [UCL-Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)] [UCL-Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Shimizu, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan)] [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan)

    2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar flares are one of the main forces behind space weather events. However, the mechanism that drives such energetic phenomena is not fully understood. The standard eruptive flare model predicts that magnetic reconnection occurs high in the corona where hot fast flows are created. Some imaging or spectroscopic observations have indicated the presence of these hot fast flows, but there have been no spectroscopic scanning observations to date to measure the two-dimensional structure quantitatively. We analyzed a flare that occurred on the west solar limb on 2012 January 27 observed by the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) and found that the hot (?30MK) fast (>500 km s{sup –1}) component was located above the flare loop. This is consistent with magnetic reconnection taking place above the flare loop.

  20. Design Enhancements To Improve Flare Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dooley, K. A.; McLeod, G. M.; Lorenz, M. D.

    , to burn routine vent and purge gases. It was configured as a two-stage system with each stage consisting of multiple burners. The original burners were of a fin plate design. The flare system was designed to operate at low pressure due to venting... was reconfigured to accommodate the lower heat content via the addition of an alternate first stage. The new stage was comprised of three new burners designed for lower flowrates and for gases with lower heating values than the original fin-plate burners...

  1. Smokeless Control of Flare Steam Flow Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agar, J.; Balls, B. W.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the First Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 22-25, 1979 FLARE GAS FLOW RATE MEASUREMENT "Accurate measurement of the very low flow rates which are normally present is very difficult" 0, p 15-8). "It is generally considered too...-04-91 Proceedings from the First Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 22-25, 1979 to calibration conditions. Turndown is 40:1 and pressure loss is negligible. APPLICATION FLOW RATE The mass flow meter described has been applied to a wide...

  2. Solar Flares and the Chromosphere A white paper for the Decadal Survey*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    detail the progression of flare energy re- lease. Flare chromo deserves attention in our attempts to find answers to the riddles of the corona, including flares flares radiate most of their lu- minous energy in the chromosphere. The chromosphere is where electrons

  3. 36Super-fast solar flares ! NASA's Ramaty High Energy Solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    36Super-fast solar flares ! NASA's Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) satellite has been studying solar flares since 2002. The sequence of figures to the left shows a flaring region hr/3600 sec = 0.98 kilometers/sec. The solar flare blob was traveling at 207 kilometers per second

  4. OBSERVATIONS OF THERMAL FLARE PLASMA WITH THE EUV VARIABILITY EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Harry P.; Doschek, George A. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Mariska, John T. [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2013-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the defining characteristics of a solar flare is the impulsive formation of very high temperature plasma. The properties of the thermal emission are not well understood, however, and the analysis of solar flare observations is often predicated on the assumption that the flare plasma is isothermal. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory provides spectrally resolved observations of emission lines that span a wide range of temperatures (e.g., Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and allow for thermal flare plasma to be studied in detail. In this paper we describe a method for computing the differential emission measure distribution in a flare using EVE observations and apply it to several representative events. We find that in all phases of the flare the differential emission measure distribution is broad. Comparisons of EVE spectra with calculations based on parameters derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites soft X-ray fluxes indicate that the isothermal approximation is generally a poor representation of the thermal structure of a flare.

  5. Soft X-ray Pulsations in Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simões, Paulo J A; Fletcher, Lyndsay

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The soft X-ray emissions of solar flares come mainly from the bright coronal loops at the highest temperatures normally achieved in the flare process. Their ubiquity has led to their use as a standard measure of flare occurrence and energy, although the bulk of the total flare energy goes elsewhere. Recently Dolla et al. (2012) noted quasi-periodic pulsations (QPP) in the soft X-ray signature of the X-class flare SOL2011-02-15, as observed by the standard photometric data from the GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) spacecraft. We analyze the suitability of the GOES data for this kind of analysis and find them to be generally valuable after Sept. 2010 (GOES-15). We then extend Dolla et al. results to a list of X-class flares from Cycle 24, and show that most of them display QPP in the impulsive phase. During the impulsive phase the footpoints of the newly-forming flare loops may also contribute to the observed soft X-ray variations. The QPP show up cleanly in both channels of the GOES dat...

  6. Solar Flare Measurements with STIX and MiSolFA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casadei, Diego

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar flares are the most powerful events in the solar system and the brightest sources of X-rays, often associated with emission of particles reaching the Earth and causing geomagnetic storms, giving problems to communication, airplanes and even black-outs. X-rays emitted by accelerated electrons are the most direct probe of solar flare phenomena. The Micro Solar-Flare Apparatus (MiSolFA) is a proposed compact X-ray detector which will address the two biggest issues in solar flare modeling. Dynamic range limitations prevent simultaneous spectroscopy with a single instrument of all X-ray emitting regions of a flare. In addition, most X-ray observations so far are inconsistent with the high anisotropy predicted by the models usually adopted for solar flares. Operated at the same time as the STIX instrument of the ESA Solar Orbiter mission, at the next solar maximum (2020), they will have the unique opportunity to look at the same flare from two different directions: Solar Orbiter gets very close to the Sun wit...

  7. PROPERTIES OF SEQUENTIAL CHROMOSPHERIC BRIGHTENINGS AND ASSOCIATED FLARE RIBBONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirk, Michael S.; Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Jackiewicz, Jason; McAteer, R. T. James [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States); Milligan, Ryan O., E-mail: mskirk@nmsu.edu [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, University Road Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the physical properties of solar sequential chromospheric brightenings (SCBs) observed in conjunction with moderate-sized chromospheric flares with associated Coronal mass ejections. To characterize these ephemeral events, we developed automated procedures to identify and track subsections (kernels) of solar flares and associated SCBs using high-resolution H{alpha} images. Following the algorithmic identification and a statistical analysis, we compare and find the following: SCBs are distinctly different from flare kernels in their temporal characteristics of intensity, Doppler structure, duration, and location properties. We demonstrate that flare ribbons are themselves made up of subsections exhibiting differing characteristics. Flare kernels are measured to have a mean propagation speed of 0.2 km s{sup -1} and a maximum speed of 2.3 km s{sup -1} over a mean distance of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} km. Within the studied population of SCBs, different classes of characteristics are observed with coincident negative, positive, or both negative and positive Doppler shifts of a few km s{sup -1}. The appearance of SCBs precedes peak flare intensity by Almost-Equal-To 12 minutes and decay Almost-Equal-To 1 hr later. They are also found to propagate laterally away from flare center in clusters at 45 km s{sup -1} or 117 km s{sup -1}. Given SCBs' distinctive nature compared to flares, we suggest a different physical mechanism relating to their origin than the associated flare. We present a heuristic model of the origin of SCBs.

  8. Sign singularity and flares in solar active region NOAA 11158

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorriso-Valvo, Luca; Kazachenko, Maria D; Krucker, Sam; Primavera, Leonardo; Servidio, Sergio; Vecchio, Antonio; Welsch, Brian T; Fisher, George H; Lepreti, Fabio; Carbone, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Active Region NOAA 11158 has hosted a number of strong flares, including one X2.2 event. The complexity of current density and current helicity are studied through cancellation analysis of their sign-singular measure, which features power-law scaling. Spectral analysis is also performed, revealing the presence of two separate scaling ranges with different spectral index. The time evolution of parameters is discussed. Sudden changes of the cancellation exponents at the time of large flares, and the presence of correlation with EUV and X-ray flux, suggest that eruption of large flares can be linked to the small scale properties of the current structures.

  9. PRE-FLARE ACTIVITY AND MAGNETIC RECONNECTION DURING THE EVOLUTIONARY STAGES OF ENERGY RELEASE IN A SOLAR ERUPTIVE FLARE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshi, Bhuwan [Udaipur Solar Observatory, Physical Research Laboratory, Udaipur 313 001 (India); Veronig, Astrid M. [IGAM/Institute of Physics, University of Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Lee, Jeongwoo [Physics Department, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Bong, Su-Chan; Cho, Kyung-Suk [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany)

    2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we present a multi-wavelength analysis of an eruptive white-light M3.2 flare that occurred in active region NOAA 10486 on 2003 November 1. The excellent set of high-resolution observations made by RHESSI and the TRACE provides clear evidence of significant pre-flare activities for {approx}9 minutes in the form of an initiation phase observed at EUV/UV wavelengths followed by an X-ray precursor phase. During the initiation phase, we observed localized brightenings in the highly sheared core region close to the filament and interactions among short EUV loops overlying the filament, which led to the opening of magnetic field lines. The X-ray precursor phase is manifested in RHESSI measurements below {approx}30 keV and coincided with the beginning of flux emergence at the flaring location along with early signatures of the eruption. The RHESSI observations reveal that both plasma heating and electron acceleration occurred during the precursor phase. The main flare is consistent with the standard flare model. However, after the impulsive phase, an intense hard X-ray (HXR) looptop source was observed without significant footpoint emission. More intriguingly, for a brief period, the looptop source exhibited strong HXR emission with energies up to {approx}50-100 keV and significant non-thermal characteristics. The present study indicates a causal relation between the activities in the pre-flare and the main flare. We also conclude that pre-flare activities, occurring in the form of subtle magnetic reorganization along with localized magnetic reconnection, played a crucial role in destabilizing the active region filament, leading to a solar eruptive flare and associated large-scale phenomena.

  10. Obscuration of Flare Emission by an Eruptive Prominence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopalswamy, Nat

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the eclipsing of microwave flare emission by an eruptive prominence from a neighboring region as observed by the Nobeyama Radioheliograph at 17 GHz. The obscuration of the flare emission appears as a dimming feature in the microwave flare light curve. We use the dimming feature to derive the temperature of the prominence and the distribution of heating along the length of the filament. We find that the prominence is heated to a temperature above the quiet Sun temperature at 17 GHz. The duration of the dimming is the time taken by the eruptive prominence in passing over the flaring region. We also find evidence for the obscuration in EUV images obtained by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission.

  11. Low-energy cutoffs in electron spectra of solar flares: statistical survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. P. Kontar; E. Dickson; J. Kasparova

    2008-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) X-ray data base (February 2002 -- May 2006) has been searched to find solar flares with weak thermal components and flat photon spectra. Using a regularised inversion technique, we determine the mean electron flux distribution from count spectra of a selection of events with flat photon spectra in the 15--20 keV energy range. Such spectral behaviour is expected for photon spectra either affected by photospheric albedo or produced by electron spectra with an absence of electrons in a given energy range, e.g. a low-energy cutoff in the mean electron spectra of non-themal particles. We have found 18 cases which exhibit a statistically significant local minimum (a dip) in the range of 10--20 keV. The positions and spectral indices of events with low-energy cutoff indicate that such features are likely to be the result of photospheric albedo. It is shown that if the isotropic albedo correction was applied, all low-energy cutoffs in the mean electron spectrum were removed and hence the low energy cutoffs in the mean electron spectrum of solar flares above $\\sim$12 keV cannot be viewed as real features in the electron spectrum. If low-energy cutoffs exist in the mean electron spectra, the energy of low energy cutoffs should be less than $\\sim$12 keV.

  12. Imaging and Spectral Observations of Quasi-Periodic Pulsations in a Solar Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, D; Zhang, Q M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the Quasi-Periodic Pulsations (QPPs) in a solar flare observed by Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO), and Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) on 2014 September 10. QPPs are identified as the regular and periodic peaks on the rapidly-varying components, which are the light curves after removing the slowly-varying components. The QPPs display only three peaks at the beginning on the hard X-ray (HXR) emissions, but ten peaks on the chromospheric and coronal line emissions, and more than seven peaks (each peak is corresponding to a type III burst on the dynamic spectra) at the radio emissions. An uniform quasi-period about 4 minutes are detected among them. AIA imaging observations exhibit that the 4-min QPPs originate from the flare ribbon, and tend to appear on the ribbon front. IRIS spectral observations show that each peak of the QPPs tends to a broad line width and a red Doppler velocity at C I, O IV, Si ...

  13. 4Predicting CMEs and Flares Solar flares are violent releases of energy from the sun that last 10 to 20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to predict flares. This means that you have a better chance of predicting when an electrical outage (caused Lights and sometimes result in electrical power blackouts. During a particular month of solar activity

  14. ANATOMY OF A SOLAR FLARE: MEASUREMENTS OF THE 2006 DECEMBER 14 X-CLASS FLARE WITH GONG, HINODE, AND RHESSI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, S. A.; Zharkov, S. [UCL Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, RH5 6NT UK (United Kingdom); Zharkova, V. V. [Horton D Building, Department of Mathematics, University of Bradford, Bradford, BD7 1DP (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some of the most challenging observations to explain in the context of existing flare models are those related to the lower atmosphere and below the solar surface. Such observations, including changes in the photospheric magnetic field and seismic emission, indicate the poorly understood connections between energy release in the corona and its impact in the photosphere and the solar interior. Using data from Hinode, TRACE, RHESSI, and GONG we study the temporal and spatial evolution of the 2006 December 14 X-class flare in the chromosphere, photosphere, and the solar interior. We investigate the connections between the emission at various atmospheric depths, including acoustic signatures obtained by time-distance and holography methods from the GONG data. We report the horizontal displacements observed in the photosphere linked to the timing and locations of the acoustic signatures we believe to be associated with this flare, their vertical and horizontal displacement velocities, and their potential implications for current models of flare dynamics.

  15. Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES Project)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachel Henderson; Robert Fickes

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES) project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under Preferred Upstream Management Projects (PUMP III). Project partners included the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) as lead agency working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the California Oil Producers Electric Cooperative (COPE). The project was designed to demonstrate that the entire range of oilfield 'stranded gases' (gas production that can not be delivered to a commercial market because it is poor quality, or the quantity is too small to be economically sold, or there are no pipeline facilities to transport it to market) can be cost-effectively harnessed to make electricity. The utilization of existing, proven distribution generation (DG) technologies to generate electricity was field-tested successfully at four marginal well sites, selected to cover a variety of potential scenarios: high Btu, medium Btu, ultra-low Btu gas, as well as a 'harsh', or high contaminant, gas. Two of the four sites for the OFFGASES project were idle wells that were shut in because of a lack of viable solutions for the stranded noncommercial gas that they produced. Converting stranded gas to useable electrical energy eliminates a waste stream that has potential negative environmental impacts to the oil production operation. The electricity produced will offset that which normally would be purchased from an electric utility, potentially lowering operating costs and extending the economic life of the oil wells. Of the piloted sites, the most promising technologies to handle the range were microturbines that have very low emissions. One recently developed product, the Flex-Microturbine, has the potential to handle the entire range of oilfield gases. It is deployed at an oilfield near Santa Barbara to run on waste gas that is only 4% the strength of natural gas. The cost of producing oil is to a large extent the cost of electric power used to extract and deliver the oil. Researchers have identified stranded and flared gas in California that could generate 400 megawatts of power, and believe that there is at least an additional 2,000 megawatts that have not been identified. Since California accounts for about 14.5% of the total domestic oil production, it is reasonable to assume that about 16,500 megawatts could be generated throughout the United States. This power could restore the cost-effectiveness of thousands of oil wells, increasing oil production by millions of barrels a year, while reducing emissions and greenhouse gas emissions by burning the gas in clean distributed generators rather than flaring or venting the stranded gases. Most turbines and engines are designed for standardized, high-quality gas. However, emerging technologies such as microturbines have increased the options for a broader range of fuels. By demonstrating practical means to consume the four gas streams, the project showed that any gases whose properties are between the extreme conditions also could be utilized. The economics of doing so depends on factors such as the value of additional oil recovered, the price of electricity produced, and the alternate costs to dispose of stranded gas.

  16. ROSAT Observations of the Flare Star CC Eri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. C. Pan; C. Jordan

    1994-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The flare/spotted spectroscopic binary star CC Eri was observed with the Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) on the X-ray satellite ROSAT on 1990 July 9-11 and 1992 January 26-27. During the observations, the source was variable on time scales from a few minutes to several hours, with the X-ray (0.2-2 keV) luminosity in the range $\\sim 2.5-6.8\\times 10^{29} erg s^{-1}$. An X-ray flare-like event, which has a one hour characteristic rise time and a two hour decay time, was observed from CC Eri on 1990 July 10 16:14-21:34 (UT). The X-ray spectrum of the source can be described by current thermal plasma codes with two temperature components or with a continuous temperature distribution. The spectral results show that plasma at $Te\\sim 10^{7}$ K exists in the corona of CC Eri. The variations in the observed source flux and spectra can be reproduced by a flare, adopting a magnetic reconnection model. Comparisons with an unheated model, late in the flare, suggest that the area and volume of the flare are substantially larger than in a solar two ribbon flare, while the electron pressure is similar. The emission measure and temperature of the non-flaring emission, interpreted as the average corona, lead to an electron pressure similar to that in a well-developed solar active region. Rotational modulation of a spot related active region requires an unphysically large X-ray flux in a concentrated area.

  17. Thermal and non-thermal energies in solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascal Saint-Hilaire; Arnold O. Benz

    2005-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy of the thermal flare plasma and the kinetic energy of the non-thermal electrons in 14 hard X-ray peaks from 9 medium-sized solar flares have been determined from RHESSI observations. The emissions have been carefully separated in the spectrum. The turnover or cutoff in the low-energy distribution of electrons has been studied by simulation and fitting, yielding a reliable lower limit to the non-thermal energy. It remains the largest contribution to the error budget. Other effects, such as albedo, non-uniform target ionization, hot target, and cross-sections on the spectrum have been studied. The errors of the thermal energy are about equally as large. They are due to the estimate of the flare volume, the assumption of the filling factor, and energy losses. Within a flare, the non-thermal/thermal ratio increases with accumulation time, as expected from loss of thermal energy due to radiative cooling or heat conduction. Our analysis suggests that the thermal and non-thermal energies are of the same magnitude. This surprising result may be interpreted by an efficient conversion of non-thermal energy to hot flare plasma.

  18. Impulsive Heating of Solar Flare Ribbons Above 10 MK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simões, Paulo J A; Fletcher, Lyndsay

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The chromospheric response to the input of flare energy is marked by extended extreme ultraviolet (EUV) ribbons and hard X-ray (HXR) footpoints. These are usually explained as the result of heating and bremsstrahlung emission from accelerated electrons colliding in the dense chromospheric plasma. We present evidence of impulsive heating of flare ribbons above 10 MK in a two-ribbon flare. We analyse the impulsive phase of SOL2013-11-09T06:38, a C2.6 class event using data from Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board of Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) to derive the temperature, emission measure and differential emission measure of the flaring regions and investigate the evolution of the plasma in the flaring ribbons. The ribbons were visible at all SDO/AIA EUV/UV wavelengths, in particular, at 94 and 131 \\AA\\ filters, sensitive to temperatures of 8 MK and 12 MK. Time evolution of the emission measure of the plasma above 10 MK at the ribb...

  19. Silica Scaling Removal Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sidestreams of cooling tower water by providing a substrate for the deposition and adsorption of silica. The removal of the silica prevents scaling deposition on heat transfer...

  20. Simulations of Spectral Profiles Observed in a C5.6 Limb Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Hui

    , Nanjing 210008, China Abstract We obtained a complete set of H# , CaII 8542 Å¡ A and HeI 10830 Å¡ A spectra of the flare loop. Key words: limb flare, line profile, infrared PACS: 1 Introduction Solar flare spectra velocities, electron temperatures and densities [1--4]. Spectral lines are thought be wide in solar limb

  1. Solar Flare Intermittency and the Earth's Temperature Anomalies Nicola Scafetta1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scafetta, Nicola

    Solar Flare Intermittency and the Earth's Temperature Anomalies Nicola Scafetta1,2 and Bruce J; published 17 June 2003) We argue that Earth's short-term temperature anomalies and the solar flare data sets that corresponds to the one that would be induced by the solar flare intermittency. The mean

  2. Automatic Solar Flare Detection Using MLP, RBF and SVM , Frank Y. Shih1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Automatic Solar Flare Detection Using MLP, RBF and SVM Ming Qu1 , Frank Y. Shih1 , Ju Jing2. The focus of the automatic solar flare detection is on the development of efficient feature methods for solar flare detection on the solar H (Hydrogen-Alpha) images obtained from the Big Bear Solar

  3. Observations of Electrons from the Decay of Solar Flare Neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Dröge; D. Ruffolo; B. Klecker

    1996-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We have found evidence for fluxes of energetic electrons in interplanetary space on board the ISEE-3 spacecraft which we interpret as the decay products of neutrons generated in a solar flare on 1980 June 21. The decay electrons arrived at the s/c shortly before the electrons from the flare and can be distinguished from the latter by their distinctive energy spectrum. The time profile of the decay electrons is in good agreement with the results from a simulation based on a scattering mean free path derived from a fit to the flare electron data. The comparison with simultaneously observed decay protons and a published direct measurement of high-energy neutrons places important constraints on the parent neutron spectrum.

  4. A Reconnecting Current Sheet Imaged in A Solar Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Tongjiang; Stenborg, Guillermo; Liu, Chang; Wang, Haimin

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic reconnection changes the magnetic field topology and powers explosive events in astrophysical, space and laboratory plasmas. For flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the solar atmosphere, the standard model predicts the presence of a reconnecting current sheet, which has been the subject of considerable theoretical and numerical modeling over the last fifty years, yet direct, unambiguous observational verification has been absent. In this Letter we show a bright sheet structure of global length (>0.25 Rsun) and macroscopic width ((5 - 10)x10^3 km) distinctly above the cusp-shaped flaring loop, imaged during the flare rising phase in EUV. The sheet formed due to the stretch of a transequatorial loop system, and was accompanied by various reconnection signatures that have been dispersed in the literature. This unique event provides a comprehensive view of the reconnection geometry and dynamics in the solar corona.

  5. Energy Partitions and Evolution in a Purely Thermal Solar Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleishman, Gregory D; Gary, Dale E

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a solely thermal flare, which we detected in the microwave range from the thermal gyro- and free-free emission it produced. An advantage of analyzing thermal gyro emission is its unique ability to precisely yield the magnetic field in the radiating volume. When combined with observationally-deduced plasma density and temperature, these magnetic field measurements offer a straightforward way of tracking evolution of the magnetic and thermal energies in the flare. For the event described here, the magnetic energy density in the radio-emitting volume declines over the flare rise phase, then stays roughly constant during the extended peak phase, but recovers to the original level over the decay phase. At the stage where the magnetic energy density decreases, the thermal energy density increases; however, this increase is insufficient, by roughly an order of magnitude, to compensate for the magnetic energy decrease. When the magnetic energy release is over, the source parameters come back to ne...

  6. Multi-wavelength analysis of high energy electrons in solar flares: a case study of August 20, 2002 flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Kasparova; M. Karlicky; E. P. Kontar; R. A. Schwartz; B. R. Dennis

    2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-wavelength spatial and temporal analysis of solar high energy electrons is conducted using the August 20, 2002 flare of an unusually flat (gamma=1.8) hard X-ray spectrum. The flare is studied using RHESSI, Halpha, radio, TRACE, and MDI observations with advanced methods and techniques never previously applied in the solar flare context. A new method to account for X-ray Compton backscattering in the photosphere (photospheric albedo) has been used to deduce the primary X-ray flare spectra. The mean electron flux distribution has been analysed using both forward fitting and model independent inversion methods of spectral analysis. We show that the contribution of the photospheric albedo to the photon spectrum modifies the calculated mean electron flux distribution, mainly at energies below 100 keV. The positions of the Halpha emission and hard X-ray sources with respect to the current-free extrapolation of the MDI photospheric magnetic field and the characteristics of the radio emission provide evidence of the closed geometry of the magnetic field structure and the flare process in low altitude magnetic loops. In agreement with the predictions of some solar flare models, the hard X-ray sources are located on the external edges of the Halpha emission and show chromospheric plasma heated by the non-thermal electrons. The fast changes of Halpha intensities are located not only inside the hard X-ray sources, as expected if they are the signatures of the chromospheric response to the electron bombardment, but also away from them.

  7. TIDAL DISRUPTION FLARES: THE ACCRETION DISK PHASE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montesinos Armijo, Matias; De Freitas Pacheco, Jose A. [Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Laboratoire Cassiopee, Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis Bd de l'Observatoire, BP 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The evolution of an accretion disk, formed as a consequence of the disruption of a star by a black hole, is followed by solving numerically hydrodynamic equations. The present investigation aims to study the dependence of resulting light curves on dynamical and physical properties of such a transient disk during its existence. One of the main results derived from our simulations is that blackbody fits of X-ray data tend to overestimate the true mean disk temperature. In fact, the temperature derived from blackbody fits should be identified with the color X-ray temperature rather than the average value derived from the true temperature distribution along the disk. The time interval between the beginning of the circularization of the bound debris and the beginning of the accretion process by the black hole is determined by the viscous (or accretion) timescale, which also fixes the rising part of the resulting light curve. The luminosity peak coincides with the beginning of matter accretion by the black hole and the late evolution of the light curve depends on the evolution of the debris fallback rate. Peak bolometric luminosities are in the range 10{sup 45}-10{sup 46} erg s{sup -1}, whereas peak luminosities in soft X-rays (0.2-2.0 keV) are typically one order of magnitude lower. The typical timescale derived from our preferred models for the flare luminosity to decay by two orders of magnitude is about 3-4 yr. Predicted soft X-ray light curves reproduce quite well data on galaxies in which a variable X-ray emission possibly related to a tidal event was detected. In the cases of NGC 3599 and IC 3599, data are reproduced well by models defined by a black hole with mass {approx}10{sup 7} M{sub sun} and a disrupted star of about 1 solar mass. The X-ray variation observed in XMMSL1 is consistent with a model defined by a black hole with mass {approx}3 x 10{sup 6} M{sub sun} and a disrupted star of 1 solar mass, while that observed in the galaxy situated in the cluster A1689 is consistent with a model including a black hole of {approx}10{sup 7} M{sub sun} and a disrupted star of {approx}0.5 M{sub sun}.

  8. Coronal Trapping of Energetic Flare Particles: Yohkoh/HXT Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metcalf, Thomas R.

    the energization of the solar corona. The most common interpretation for the production of the observed HXR fluxes Alexander Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Department H1­12, Bldg. 252, 3251 Hanover St in a search for spectral evidence of the coronal trapping of energetic particles during solar flares. Two

  9. Numerical Study of Magnetic Reconnection Processes in Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, P. F.

    for not writing in my native language--Chinese, which I love so deeply. I would feel the greatest happiness solar physics group. Special thanks go to Prof. Y. Q. Hu at University of Science and Technology;Extended Abstract The solar flare represents a sudden release of energy (1029­1033 erg within 100­1000 s

  10. Solar flare impulsive phase emission observed with SDO/EVE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, Michael B.; Milligan, Ryan O.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P., E-mail: mkennedy29@qub.ac.uk [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Differential emission measures (DEMs) during the impulsive phase of solar flares were constructed using observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) and the Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method. Emission lines from ions formed over the temperature range log T{sub e} = 5.8-7.2 allow the evolution of the DEM to be studied over a wide temperature range at 10 s cadence. The technique was applied to several M- and X-class flares, where impulsive phase EUV emission is observable in the disk-integrated EVE spectra from emission lines formed up to 3-4 MK and we use spatially unresolved EVE observations to infer the thermal structure of the emitting region. For the nine events studied, the DEMs exhibited a two-component distribution during the impulsive phase, a low-temperature component with peak temperature of 1-2 MK, and a broad high-temperature component from 7 to 30 MK. A bimodal high-temperature component is also found for several events, with peaks at 8 and 25 MK during the impulsive phase. The origin of the emission was verified using Atmospheric Imaging Assembly images to be the flare ribbons and footpoints, indicating that the constructed DEMs represent the spatially average thermal structure of the chromospheric flare emission during the impulsive phase.

  11. The Solar Flare: A Strongly Turbulent Particle Accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Chapter 5 The Solar Flare: A Strongly Turbulent Particle Accelerator L. Vlahos, S. Krucker, and P) and particle acceleration during such an event are rarely discussed together in the same article. Many the topic of particle acceleration is often presented as an addi- tional complication to be addressed

  12. Particle acceleration in solar flares: observations versus numerical simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Particle acceleration in solar flares: observations versus numerical simulations A O Benz, P C processes such as isotropization and magnetic trapping are made. Keywords: Particle acceleration, hard X. As the electric field of reconnection with possible parallel component capable of particle acceleration is limited

  13. SOLAR FLARE CYCLES , M. D. POPESCU1, 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the solar disk. They occur when magnetic field loops undergo reorganization, releasing energy into the solar of a large amount of magnetic energy, previously stored in the solar corona, and dissipated through magneticSOLAR FLARE CYCLES G. MARI1 , M. D. POPESCU1, 2 1 Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy

  14. Soft X-ray emission in flaring coronal loops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinto, R F; Brun, A S

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar flares are associated with intense soft X-ray emission generated by the hot flaring plasma in coronal magnetic loops. Kink unstable twisted flux-ropes provide a source of magnetic energy which can be released impulsively and account for the heating of the plasma in flares. We investigate the temporal, spectral and spatial evolution of the properties of the thermal X-ray emission produced in such kink-unstable magnetic flux-ropes using a series of MHD simulations. We deduce emission diagnostics and their temporal evolution and discuss the results of the simulations with respect to observations. The numerical setup used consists of a highly twisted loop embedded in a region of uniform and untwisted background coronal magnetic field. We let the kink instability develop, compute the evolution of the plasma properties in the loop (density, temperature) and deduce the X-ray emission properties of the plasma during the whole flaring episode. During the initial phase of the instability plasma heating is mostly ...

  15. Global Energetics of Solar Flares: II. Thermal Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aschwanden, M J; Ryan, D; Caspi, A; McTiernan, J M; Warren, H P

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the second part of a project on the global energetics of solar flares and CMEs that includes about 400 M- and X-class flares observed with AIA/SDO during the first 3.5 years of its mission. In this Paper II we compute the differential emission measure (DEM) distribution functions and associated multi-thermal energies, using a spatially-synthesized Gaussian DEM forward-fitting method. The multi-thermal DEM function yields a significantly higher (by an average factor of $\\approx 14$), but more comprehensive (multi-)thermal energy than an isothermal energy estimate from the same AIA data. We find a statistical energy ratio of $E_{th}/E_{diss} \\approx 2\\%-40\\%$ between the multi-thermal energy $E_{th}$ and the magnetically dissipated energy $E_{diss}$, which is an order of magnitude higher than the estimates of Emslie et al.~2012. For the analyzed set of M and X-class flares we find the following physical parameter ranges: $L=10^{8.2}-10^{9.7}$ cm for the length scale of the flare areas, $T_p=10^{5.7}-...

  16. Reactor for removing ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luo, Weifang (Livermore, CA); Stewart, Kenneth D. (Valley Springs, CA)

    2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a device for removing trace amounts of ammonia from a stream of gas, particularly hydrogen gas, prepared by a reformation apparatus. The apparatus is used to prevent PEM "poisoning" in a fuel cell receiving the incoming hydrogen stream.

  17. Continuous sulfur removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jalan, V.; Ryu, J.

    1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream using a membrane comprising a metal oxide deposited on a porous support is disclosed. 4 figures.

  18. ARE CORONAE OF MAGNETICALLY ACTIVE STARS HEATED BY FLARES? II. EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET AND X-RAY FLARE STATISTICS AND THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Audard, Marc

    @astro.columbia.edu Vinay L. Kashyap and Jeremy J. Drake Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street distribution in radiated energy of the late-type active star AD Leo. Occurrence rates of solar flares have almost 2 orders of magnitude in their radiated energy. We compare the observed light curves with light

  19. Arsenic removal from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert C. (Edgewood, NM); Anderson, D. Richard (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  20. Drum lid removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pella, Bernard M. (Martinez, GA); Smith, Philip D. (North Augusta, SC)

    2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A tool for removing the lid of a metal drum wherein the lid is clamped over the drum rim without protruding edges, the tool having an elongated handle with a blade carried by an angularly positioned holder affixed to the midsection of the handle, the blade being of selected width to slice between lid lip and the drum rim and, when the blade is so positioned, upward motion of the blade handle will cause the blade to pry the lip from the rim and allow the lid to be removed.

  1. Removable feedwater sparger assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, R.C.

    1994-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A removable feedwater sparger assembly includes a sparger having an inlet pipe disposed in flow communication with the outlet end of a supply pipe. A tubular coupling includes an annular band fixedly joined to the sparger inlet pipe and a plurality of fingers extending from the band which are removably joined to a retention flange extending from the supply pipe for maintaining the sparger inlet pipe in flow communication with the supply pipe. The fingers are elastically deflectable for allowing engagement of the sparger inlet pipe with the supply pipe and for disengagement therewith. 8 figs.

  2. Diagnostics of stellar flares from X-ray observations: from the decay to the rise phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Reale

    2007-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The diagnostics of stellar flaring coronal loops have been so far largely based on the analysis of the decay phase. We derive new diagnostics from the analysis of the rise and peak phase of stellar flares. We release the assumption of full equilibrium of the flaring loop at the flare peak, according to the frequently observed delay between the temperature and the density maximum. From scaling laws and hydrodynamic simulations we derive diagnostic formulas as a function of observable quantities and times. We obtain a diagnostic toolset related to the rise phase, including the loop length, density and aspect ratio. We discuss the limitations of this approach and find that the assumption of loop equilibrium in the analysis of the decay leads to a moderate overestimate of the loop length. A few relevant applications to previously analyzed stellar flares are shown. The analysis of the flare rise and peak phase complements and completes the analysis of the decay phase.

  3. DISCOVERY OF 6.035 GHz HYDROXYL MASER FLARES IN IRAS 18566+0408

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Marzouk, A. A.; Araya, E. D. [Physics Department, Western Illinois University, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States); Hofner, P. [Physics Department, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kurtz, S. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 3-72, 58090, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Linz, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Olmi, L. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the discovery of 6.035 GHz hydroxyl (OH) maser flares toward the massive star-forming region IRAS 18566+0408 (G37.55+0.20), which is the only region known to show periodic formaldehyde (4.8 GHz H{sub 2}CO) and methanol (6.7 GHz CH{sub 3}OH) maser flares. The observations were conducted between 2008 October and 2010 January with the 305 m Arecibo Telescope in Puerto Rico. We detected two flare events, one in 2009 March and one in 2009 September to November. The OH maser flares are not simultaneous with the H{sub 2}CO flares, but may be correlated with CH{sub 3}OH flares from a component at corresponding velocities. A possible correlated variability of OH and CH{sub 3}OH masers in IRAS 18566+0408 is consistent with a common excitation mechanism (IR pumping) as predicted by theory.

  4. Return currents and energy transport in the solar flaring atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Codispoti, Anna; Piana, Michele; Pinamonti, Nicola

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to a standard ohmic perspective, the injection of accelerated electrons into the flaring region violates local charge equilibrium and therefore, in response, return currents are driven by an electric field to equilibrate such charge violation. In this framework, the energy loss rate associated to these local currents has an ohmic nature and significantly shortens the acceleration electron path. In the present paper we adopt a different viewpoint and, specifically, we study the impact of the background drift velocity on the energy loss rate of accelerated electrons in solar flares. We first utilize the Rutherford cross-section to derive the formula of the energy loss rate when the collisional target has a finite temperature and the background instantaneously and coherently moves up to equilibrate the electron injection. We then use the continuity equation for electrons and imaging spectroscopy data provided by RHESSI to validate this model. Specifically, we show that this new formula for the energy l...

  5. Particle Acceleration by Fast Modes in Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huirong Yan; A. Lazarian; V. Petrosian

    2008-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We address the problem of particle acceleration in solar flares by fast modes which may be excited during the reconnection and undergo cascade and are subjected to damping. We extend the calculations beyond quasilinear approximation and compare the acceleration and scattering by transit time damping and gyroresonance interactions. We find that the acceleration is dominated by the so called transit time damping mechanism. We estimate the total energy transferred into particles, and show that our approach provides sufficiently accurate results We compare this rate with energy loss rate. Scattering by fast modes appears to be sufficient to prevent the protons from escaping the system during the acceleration. Confinement of electrons, on the other hand, requires the existence of plasma waves. Electrons can be accelerated to GeV energies through the process described here for solar flare conditions.

  6. Particle-acceleration timescales in TeV blazar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joni Tammi; Peter Duffy

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations of minute-scale flares in TeV Blazars place constraints on particle acceleration mechanisms in those objects. The implications for a variety of radiation mechanisms have been addressed in the literature; in this paper we compare four different acceleration mechanisms: diffusive shock acceleration, second-order Fermi, shear acceleration and the converter mechanism. When the acceleration timescales and radiative losses are taken into account, we can exclude shear acceleration and the neutron-based converted mechanism as possible acceleration processes in these systems. The first-order Fermi process and the converter mechanism working via SSC photons are still practically instantaneous, however, provided sufficient turbulence is generated on the timescale of seconds. We propose stochastic acceleration as a promising candidate for the energy-dependent time delays in recent gamma-ray flares of Markarian 501.

  7. Forward Modelling of Standing Slow Modes in Flaring Coronal Loops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, D; Banerjee, D; Antolin, P

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Standing slow mode waves in hot flaring loops are exclusively observed in spectrometers and are used to diagnose the magnetic field strength and temperature of the loop structure. Due to the lack of spatial information, the longitudinal mode cannot be effectively identified. In this study, we simulate standing slow mode waves in flaring loops and compare the synthesized line emission properties with SUMER spectrographic and SDO/AIA imaging observations. We find that the emission intensity and line width oscillations are a quarter period out of phase with Doppler shift velocity both in time and spatial domain, which can be used to identify a standing slow mode wave from spectroscopic observations. However, the longitudinal overtones could be only measured with the assistance of imagers. We find emission intensity asymmetry in the positive and negative modulations, this is because the contribution function pertaining to the atomic emission process responds differently to positive and negative temperature variat...

  8. Max '91: flare research at the next solar maximum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, B.; Canfield, R.; Bruner, M.; Emslie, G.; Hildner, E.; Hudson, H.; Hurford, G.; Lin, R.; Novick, R.; Tarbell, T.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To address the central scientific questions surrounding solar flares, coordinated observations of electromagnetic radiation and energetic particles must be made from spacecraft, balloons, rockets, and ground-based observatories. A program to enhance capabilities in these areas in preparation for the next solar maximum in 1991 is recommended. The major scientific issues are described, and required observations and coordination of observations and analyses are detailed. A program plan and conceptual budgets are provided.

  9. Condensate removal device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maddox, James W. (Newport News, VA); Berger, David D. (Alexandria, VA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A condensate removal device is disclosed which incorporates a strainer in unit with an orifice. The strainer is cylindrical with its longitudinal axis transverse to that of the vapor conduit in which it is mounted. The orifice is positioned inside the strainer proximate the end which is remoter from the vapor conduit.

  10. Seismic Emissions from a Highly Impulsive M6.7 Solar Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. C. Martinez-Oliveros; H. Moradi; A-C. Donea

    2008-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    On 10 March 2001 the active region NOAA 9368 produced an unusually impulsive solar flare in close proximity to the solar limb. This flare has previously been studied in great detail, with observations classifying it as a type 1 white-light flare with a very hard spectrum in hard X-rays. The flare was also associated with a type II radio burst and coronal mass ejection. The flare emission characteristics appeared to closely correspond with previous instances of seismic emission from acoustically active flares. Using standard local helioseismic methods, we identified the seismic signatures produced by the flare that, to date, is the least energetic (in soft X-rays) of the flares known to have generated a detectable acoustic transient. Holographic analysis of the flare shows a compact acoustic source strongly correlated with the impulsive hard X-ray, visible continuum, and radio emission. Time-distance diagrams of the seismic waves emanating from the flare region also show faint signatures, mainly in the eastern sector of the active region. The strong spatial coincidence between the seismic source and the impulsive visible continuum emission reinforces the theory that a substantial component of the seismic emission seen is a result of sudden heating of the low photosphere associated with the observed visible continuum emission. Furthermore, the low-altitude magnetic loop structure inferred from potential--field extrapolations in the flaring region suggests that there is a significant inverse correlation between the seismicity of a flare and the height of the magnetic loops that conduct the particle beams from the corona.

  11. Extremely Large EUV Late Phase of Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Kai; Zhang, Jie; Cheng, Xin; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The second peak in the Fe XVI 33.5 nm line irradiance observed during solar flares by Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) is known as Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) late phase. Our previous paper (Liu et al. 2013) found that the main emissions in the late phase are originated from large-scale loop arcades that are closely connected to but different from the post flare loops (PFLs), and we also proposed that a long cooling process without additional heating could explain the late phase. In this paper, we define the extremely large late phase because it not only has a bigger peak in the warm 33.5 irradiance profile, but also releases more EUV radiative energy than the main phase. Through detailedly inspecting the EUV images from three point-of-view, it is found that, besides the later phase loop arcades, the more contribution of the extremely large late phase is from a hot structure that fails to erupt. This hot structure is identified as a flux rope, which is quickly energized by the flare reconnection...

  12. SHORT-TERM SOLAR FLARE PREDICTION USING MULTIRESOLUTION PREDICTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu Daren; Huang Xin; Hu Qinghua; Zhou Rui [Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 92 West Da-Zhi Street, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province (China); Wang Huaning [National Astronomical Observatories, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing (China); Cui Yanmei, E-mail: huangxinhit@yahoo.com.c [Center for Space Science and Applied Research, No. 1 Nanertiao, Zhongguancun, Haidian District, Beijing (China)

    2010-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiresolution predictors of solar flares are constructed by a wavelet transform and sequential feature extraction method. Three predictors-the maximum horizontal gradient, the length of neutral line, and the number of singular points-are extracted from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager longitudinal magnetograms. A maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform is used to decompose the sequence of predictors into four frequency bands. In each band, four sequential features-the maximum, the mean, the standard deviation, and the root mean square-are extracted. The multiresolution predictors in the low-frequency band reflect trends in the evolution of newly emerging fluxes. The multiresolution predictors in the high-frequency band reflect the changing rates in emerging flux regions. The variation of emerging fluxes is decoupled by wavelet transform in different frequency bands. The information amount of these multiresolution predictors is evaluated by the information gain ratio. It is found that the multiresolution predictors in the lowest and highest frequency bands contain the most information. Based on these predictors, a C4.5 decision tree algorithm is used to build the short-term solar flare prediction model. It is found that the performance of the short-term solar flare prediction model based on the multiresolution predictors is greatly improved.

  13. Magnetic Energy Dissipation during the 2014 March 29 Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aschwanden, Markus J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculated the time evolution of the free magnetic energy during the 2014-Mar-29 flare (SOL2014-03-29T17:48), the first X-class flare detected by IRIS. The free energy was calculated from the difference between the nonpotential field, constrained by the geometry of observed loop structures, and the potential field. We use AIA/SDO and IRIS images to delineate the geometry of coronal loops in EUV wavelengths, as well as to trace magnetic field directions in UV wavelengths in the chromosphere and transition region. We find an identical evolution of the free energy for both the coronal and chromospheric tracers, as well as agreement between AIA and IRIS results, with a peak free energy of $E_{free}(t_{peak}) \\approx (45 \\pm 2) \\times 10^{30}$ erg, which decreases by an amount of $\\Delta E_{free} \\approx (29 \\pm 3) \\times 10^{30}$ erg during the flare decay phase. The consistency of free energies measured from different EUV and UV wavelengths for the first time here, demonstrates that vertical electric currents...

  14. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuhaus, J.E.

    1992-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw. 3 figs.

  15. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuhaus, John E. (Newport News, VA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw.

  16. KKG Group Paraffin Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulte, Ralph

    2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) has recently completed a test of a paraffin removal system developed by the KKG Group utilizing the technology of two Russian scientists, Gennady Katzyn and Boris Koggi. The system consisting of chemical ''sticks'' that generate heat in-situ to melt the paraffin deposits in oilfield tubing. The melted paraffin is then brought to the surface utilizing the naturally flowing energy of the well.

  17. GeV-TeV and X-ray flares from gamma-ray bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang-Yu Wang; Zhuo Li; Peter Meszaros

    2006-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent detection of delayed X-ray flares during the afterglow phase of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) suggests an inner-engine origin, at radii inside the deceleration radius characterizing the beginning of the forward shock afterglow emission. Given the observed temporal overlapping between the flares and afterglows, there must be inverse Compton (IC) emission arising from such flare photons scattered by forward shock afterglow electrons. We find that this IC emission produces GeV-TeV flares, which may be detected by GLAST and ground-based TeV telescopes. We speculate that this kind of emission may already have been detected by EGRET from a very strong burst--GRB940217. The enhanced cooling of the forward shock electrons by the X-ray flare photons may suppress the synchrotron emission of the afterglows during the flare period. The detection of GeV-TeV flares combined with low energy observations may help to constrain the poorly known magnetic field in afterglow shocks. We also consider the self-IC emission in the context of internal-shock and external-shock models for X-ray flares. The emission above GeV from internal shocks is low, while the external shock model can also produce GeV-TeV flares, but with a different temporal behavior from that caused by IC scattering of flare photons by afterglow electrons. This suggests a useful approach for distinguishing whether X-ray flares originate from late central engine activity or from external shocks.

  18. GRB 060714: No Clear Dividing Line Between Prompt Emission and X-Ray Flares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krimm, Hans A.; /NASA, Goddard /Universities Space Research Assoc.; Granot, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Marshal, F.; /NASA, Goddard; Perri, M.; /ASDC, Frascati; Barthelmy, S.D.; /NASA, Goddard; Burrows, D.N.; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Gehrels, N.; /NASA, Goddard; Meszaros, P.; Morris, D.; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; ,

    2007-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The long gamma-ray burst GRB 060714 was observed to exhibit a series of five X-ray flares beginning {approx} 70 s after the burst trigger T{sub 0} and continuing until {approx} T{sub 0} + 200 s. The first two flares were detected by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on the Swift satellite, before Swift had slewed to the burst location, while the last three flares were strongly detected by the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) but only weakly detected by the BAT. This burst provides an unusual opportunity to track a complete sequence of flares over a wide energy range. The flares were very similar in their light curve morphology, showing power-law rise and fall components, and in most cases significant sub-structure. The flares also showed strong evolution with time, both spectrally and temporally. The small time scale and large amplitude variability observed are incompatible with an external shock origin for the flares, and support instead late time sporadic activity either of the central source or of localized dissipation events within the outflow. We show that the flares in GRB 060714 cannot be the result of internal shocks in which the contrast in the Lorentz factor of the colliding shells is very small, and that this mechanism faces serious difficulties in most Swift GRBs. The morphological similarity of the flares and the prompt emission and the gradual and continual evolution of the flares with time makes it difficult and arbitrary to draw a dividing line between the prompt emission and the flares.

  19. Topology and current ribbons: A model for current, reconnection and flaring in a complex, evolving corona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Longcope, Dana

    (MCC), for the build­up of magnetic energy in a three­dimensional corona of arbitrary geometry. The MCCTopology and current ribbons: A model for current, reconnection and flaring in a complex, evolving of energy from the Sun's chromosphere and corona. The build­up and release of energy in a flare has been

  20. Broadening Calculation of the HeI 10830 A Line in Solar Limb Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Hui

    Broadening Calculation of the HeI 10830 °A Line in Solar Limb Flare LI Hui and YOU Jianqi Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China Abstract The Doppler broadening, Stark broadening and various kinds of broadening param- eters of the HeI 10830 °A line in solar flare

  1. Broadening Calculation of the HeI 10830 A Line in Solar Limb Flare #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Hui

    Broadening Calculation of the HeI 10830 š A Line in Solar Limb Flare # LI Hui and YOU Jianqi Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China Abstract The Doppler broadening, Stark broadening and various kinds of broadening param­ eters of the HeI 10830 š A line in solar flare

  2. ACCELERATION AND ENRICHMENT OF 3 IMPULSIVE SOLAR FLARES BY ELECTRON FIREHOSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ACCELERATION AND ENRICHMENT OF 3 He IN IMPULSIVE SOLAR FLARES BY ELECTRON FIREHOSE WAVES G. Paesold A new mechanism for acceleration and enrichment of 3 He during impulsive solar flares is presented. Low of the free energy stored in a temperature anisotropy (Te > Te ) of the bulk energized electron population

  3. TRACE and YOHKOH Observations of a White Light Flare Thomas R. Metcalf1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metcalf, Thomas R.

    . Hudson 2 , and Dana W. Longcope3 ABSTRACT We present observations of a large solar white light flare at 400 km s-1 . This is evidence in favor of particle acceleration models which energize the electrons), are typically the most energetic of solar flares. "White light" refers to continuum emission in excess

  4. Free Magnetic Energy and Flare Productivity of Active Regions , Changyi Tan2,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Free Magnetic Energy and Flare Productivity of Active Regions Ju Jing1 , Changyi Tan2,3 , Yuan Yuan with which we are able to estimate the free magnetic energy stored in the active regions. The magnitude scaling correlation between the free magnetic energy and the soft X-ray flare index of active regions

  5. CONSERVATION OF BOTH CURRENT AND HELICITY IN A QUADRUPOLAR MODEL FOR SOLAR FLARES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melrose, Don

    is neglected. 1. Introduction Solar flares are attributed to magnetic energy release in the solar coronaCONSERVATION OF BOTH CURRENT AND HELICITY IN A QUADRUPOLAR MODEL FOR SOLAR FLARES DON MELROSE School of Physics,University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia (Received 25 Novemebr 2003; accepted 9

  6. PPPL-3450 PPPL-3450 Solar Flare Mechanism Based on Magnetic Arcade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PPPL-3450 PPPL-3450 UC-70 Solar Flare Mechanism Based on Magnetic Arcade Reconnection and Island Information Service U.S. Department of Commerce 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161 Telephone: 1, 00, 000­000, 2000 Solar Flare Mechanism Based on Magnetic Arcade Reconnection and Island Merging C. Z

  7. Unveiling the origin of X-ray flares in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chincarini, G; Margutti, R; Bernardini, M G; Guidorzi, C; Pasotti, F; Giannios, D; Della Valle, M; Moretti, A; Romano, P; D'Avanzo, P; Cusumano, G; Giommi, P

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an updated catalog of 113 X-ray flares detected by Swift in the ~33% of the X-ray afterglows of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB). 43 flares have a measured redshift. For the first time the analysis is performed in 4 different X-ray energy bands, allowing us to constrain the evolution of the flare temporal properties with energy. We find that flares are narrower at higher energies: their width follows a power-law relation w~E^{-0.5} reminiscent of the prompt emission. Flares are asymmetric structures, with a decay time which is twice the rise time on average. Both time scales linearly evolve with time, giving rise to a constant rise-to-decay ratio: this implies that both time scales are stretched by the same factor. As a consequence, the flare width linearly evolves with time to larger values: this is a key point that clearly distinguishes the flare from the GRB prompt emission. The flare 0.3-10 keV peak luminosity decreases with time, following a power-law behaviour with large scatter: L_{pk}~ t_{pk}^{-2.7}....

  8. FLARE HEATING IN STELLAR CORONAE Vinay L. Kashyap and Jeremy J. Drake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Audard, Marc

    for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138; vkashyap@cfa.harvard.edu, jdrake 2002 March 25; accepted 2002 August 2 ABSTRACT An open question in the field of solar and stellar to flares that are increasingly less energetic but are more numerous. Previous analyses of flares in light

  9. Automatic Solar Flare Tracking Using Image Processing Qu Ming and Shih Frank (shih@njit.edu)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Automatic Solar Flare Tracking Using Image Processing Techniques Qu Ming and Shih Frank (shih Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology Newark, NJ 07102 Big Bear Solar Abstract. Measurement of the evolution properties of solar flares through their complete cyclic development

  10. Seismic Emissions from a Highly Impulsive M6.7 Solar Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Seismic Emissions from a Highly Impulsive M6.7 Solar Flare J.C. Mart´inez-Oliveros, H. Moradi, A characteristics appeared to closely correspond with previous instances of seismic emission from acoustically active flares. Using standard local helioseismic methods, we identified the seismic sig- natures produced

  11. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 15 AUGUST 2010 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS1741 The effect of flares on total solar irradiance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    - quality space instrumentation has been purpose built. However, the total energy radiated by flares and itsLETTERS PUBLISHED ONLINE: 15 AUGUST 2010 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS1741 The effect of flares on total flares, from our own Sun, are the most energetic events in the solar system, in comparison to the total

  12. Using the Maximum X-ray Flux Ratio and X-ray Background to Predict Solar Flare Class

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winter, Lisa M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the discovery of a relationship between the maximum ratio of the flare flux (namely, 0.5-4 Ang to the 1-8 Ang flux) and non-flare background (namely, the 1-8 Ang background flux), which clearly separates flares into classes by peak flux level. We established this relationship based on an analysis of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) X-ray observations of ~ 50,000 X, M, C, and B flares derived from the NOAA/SWPC flares catalog. Employing a combination of machine learning techniques (K-nearest neighbors and nearest-centroid algorithms) we show a separation of the observed parameters for the different peak flaring energies. This analysis is validated by successfully predicting the flare classes for 100% of the X-class flares, 76% of the M-class flares, 80% of the C-class flares and 81% of the B-class flares for solar cycle 24, based on the training of the parametric extracts for solar flares in cycles 22-23.

  13. Flare Noise Reduction Exxon Chemical- Baytown Olefins Plant: 1994 CMA Energy Efficiency Award for "Flare Noise Reduction" in the category of "Public Outreach/Plant Site"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradham, S.; Stephan, R.

    frequency noise that resembles the sound of a jet plane passing overhead. To supplement the qualitative data received from the community, quantitative noise data was collected at various flaring conditions, wind conditions, and steam rates. Additional...

  14. Linearly polarized X-ray flares following short gamma-ray bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Z. Fan; Bing Zhang; Daniel Proga

    2005-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Soft X-ray flares were detected to follow the short-duration gamma-ray burst GRB 050724. The temporal properties of the flares suggest that they are likely due to the late time activity of the central engine. We argue that if short GRBs are generated through compact star mergers, as is supported by the recent observations, the jet powering the late X-ray flares must be launched via magnetic processes rather than via neutrino-antineutrino annihilations. As a result, the X-ray flares following short GRBs are expected to be linearly polarized. The argument may also apply to the X-ray flares following long GRBs. Future observations with the upcoming X-ray polarimeters will test this prediction.

  15. Konus-Wind and Helicon-Coronas-F Observations of Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pal'shin, V D; Aptekar, R L; Golenetskii, S V; Kokomov, A A; Svinkin, D S; Sokolova, Z Ya; Ulanov, M V; Frederiks, D D; Tsvetkova, A E

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of solar flare observations obtained in the Konus-Wind experiment from November, 1994 to December, 2013 and in the Helicon Coronas-F experiment during its operation from 2001 to 2005, are presented. For the periods indicated Konus-Wind detected in the trigger mode 834 solar flares, and Helicon-Coronas-F detected more than 300 solar flares. A description of the instruments and data processing techniques are given. As an example, the analysis of the spectral evolution of the flares SOL2012-11-08T02:19 (M 1.7) and SOL2002-03-10T01:34 (C5.1) is made with the Konus-Wind data and the flare SOL2003-10-26T06:11 (X1.2) is analyzed in the 2.223 MeV deuterium line with the Helicon-Coronas-F data.

  16. From coronal observations to MHD simulations, the building blocks for 3D models of solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janvier, Miho; Demoulin, Pascal

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar flares are energetic events taking place in the Sun's atmosphere, and their effects can greatly impact the environment of the surrounding planets. In particular, eruptive flares, as opposed to confined flares, launch coronal mass ejections into the interplanetary medium, and as such, are one of the main drivers of space weather. After briefly reviewing the main characteristics of solar flares, we summarize the processes that can account for the build up and release of energy during their evolution. In particular, we focus on the development of recent 3D numerical simulations that explain many of the observed flare features. These simulations can also provide predictions of the dynamical evolution of coronal and photospheric magnetic field. Here we present a few observational examples that, together with numerical modelling, point to the underlying physical mechanisms of the eruptions.

  17. Patient stratification and genomics: flares, fizzlers and foxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Kenneth GC

    2012-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    INVITED SPEAKER PRESENTATION Open Access Patient stratification and genomics: flares, fizzlers and foxes Kenneth GC Smith From 7th European Workshop on Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases Noordwijk aan Zee, the Netherlands. 28-30 November 2012... , Rees AJ, Clayton DG, Smith KGC: Genetically distinct subsets within ANCA-associated vasculitis. N Engl J Med 2012, 367:214-223. 2. McKinney EF, Lyons PA, Carr EJ, Hollis JL, Jayne DRW, Willcocks LC, Koukoulaki M, Hatton A, MacAry PA, Brazma A, Chaudhry...

  18. Kentucky Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) Kenai,Feet)Year JanVented and Flared

  19. Extreme Ultra-Violet Spectroscopy of the Flaring Solar Chromosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milligan, Ryan O

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The extreme ultraviolet portion of the solar spectrum contains a wealth of diagnostic tools for probing the lower solar atmosphere in response to an injection of energy, particularly during the impulsive phase of solar flares. These include temperature and density sensitive line ratios, Doppler shifted emission lines and nonthermal broadening, abundance measurements, differential emission measure profiles, and continuum temperatures and energetics, among others. In this paper I shall review some of the advances made in recent years using these techniques, focusing primarily on studies that have utilized data from Hinode/EIS and SDO/EVE, while also providing some historical background and a summary of future spectroscopic instrumentation.

  20. Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year JanDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Vented and Flared

  1. Florida Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYear Jan Feb Mar AprVented and Flared

  2. Florida Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYear Jan Feb Mar AprVented and FlaredVented

  3. Illinois Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 TableTotal Consumption (MillionTotalVented and Flared

  4. Ohio Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul9 20102009Vented and Flared

  5. Ohio Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul9 20102009Vented and FlaredVented

  6. Oklahoma Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunFeet)TotalVented and Flared

  7. Oklahoma Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunFeet)TotalVented and FlaredVented

  8. RAPID TeV GAMMA-RAY FLARING OF BL LACERTAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arlen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Aune, T.; Bouvier, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)] [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States)] [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland)] [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States)] [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Cui, W.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Dumm, J.; Fortson, L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Errando, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Falcone, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Federici, S. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany)] [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Finnegan, G., E-mail: qfeng@purdue.edu, E-mail: cui@purdue.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Collaboration: VERITAS Collaboration; and others

    2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the detection of a very rapid TeV gamma-ray flare from BL Lacertae on 2011 June 28 with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS). The flaring activity was observed during a 34.6 minute exposure, when the integral flux above 200 GeV reached (3.4 {+-} 0.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} photons m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, roughly 125% of the Crab Nebula flux measured by VERITAS. The light curve indicates that the observations missed the rising phase of the flare but covered a significant portion of the decaying phase. The exponential decay time was determined to be 13 {+-} 4 minutes, making it one of the most rapid gamma-ray flares seen from a TeV blazar. The gamma-ray spectrum of BL Lacertae during the flare was soft, with a photon index of 3.6 {+-} 0.4, which is in agreement with the measurement made previously by MAGIC in a lower flaring state. Contemporaneous radio observations of the source with the Very Long Baseline Array revealed the emergence of a new, superluminal component from the core around the time of the TeV gamma-ray flare, accompanied by changes in the optical polarization angle. Changes in flux also appear to have occurred at optical, UV, and GeV gamma-ray wavelengths at the time of the flare, although they are difficult to quantify precisely due to sparse coverage. A strong flare was seen at radio wavelengths roughly four months later, which might be related to the gamma-ray flaring activities. We discuss the implications of these multiwavelength results.

  9. RETURN CURRENTS AND ENERGY TRANSPORT IN THE SOLAR FLARING ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Codispoti, Anna; Torre, Gabriele; Piana, Michele; Pinamonti, Nicola [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Genova, via Dodecaneso 35, I-16146 Genova (Italy)

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the standard Ohmic perspective, the injection of accelerated electrons into the flaring region violates local charge equilibrium and therefore, in response, return currents are driven by an electric field to equilibrate such charge violation. In this framework, the energy loss rate associated with these local currents has an Ohmic nature and significantly shortens the accelerated electron path. In the present paper, we adopt a different viewpoint and, specifically, we study the impact of the background drift velocity on the energy loss rate of accelerated electrons in solar flares. We first utilize the Rutherford cross-section to derive the formula of the energy loss rate when the collisional target has a finite temperature and the background instantaneously and coherently moves up to equilibrate the electron injection. We then use the continuity equation for electrons and imaging spectroscopy data provided by RHESSI to validate this model. We show that this new formula for the energy loss rate provides a better fit of the experimental data with respect to the model based on the effects of standard Ohmic return currents.

  10. Maximum gravitational-wave energy emissible in magnetar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alessandra Corsi; Benjamin J. Owen

    2011-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent searches of gravitational-wave (GW) data raise the question of what maximum GW energies could be emitted during gamma-ray flares of highly magnetized neutron stars (magnetars). The highest energies (\\sim 10^{49} erg) predicted so far come from a model [K. Ioka, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 327, 639 (2001)] in which the internal magnetic field of a magnetar experiences a global reconfiguration, changing the hydromagnetic equilibrium structure of the star and tapping the gravitational potential energy without changing the magnetic potential energy. The largest energies in this model assume very special conditions, including a large change in moment of inertia (which was observed in at most one flare), a very high internal magnetic field, and a very soft equation of state. Here we show that energies of 10^{48}-10^{49} erg are possible under more generic conditions by tapping the magnetic energy, and we note that similar energies may also be available through cracking of exotic solid cores. Current observational limits on gravitational waves from magnetar fundamental modes are just reaching these energies and will beat them in the era of advanced interferometers.

  11. SLOW MAGNETOACOUSTIC OSCILLATIONS IN THE MICROWAVE EMISSION OF SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.; Shibasaki, K. [Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory/NAOJ, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Nakariakov, V. M., E-mail: sjkim@nro.nao.ac.jp [Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of the microwave data, obtained in the 17 GHz channel of the Nobeyama Radioheliograph during the M1.6 flare on 2010 November 4, revealed the presence of 12.6 minute oscillations of the emitting plasma density. The oscillations decayed with the characteristic time of about 15 minutes. Similar oscillations with the period of about 13.8 minutes and the decay time of 25 minutes are also detected in the variation of EUV emission intensity measured in the 335 A channel of the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. The observed properties of the oscillations are consistent with the oscillations of hot loops observed by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) in the EUV spectra in the form of periodic Doppler shift. Our analysis presents the first direct observations of the slow magnetoacoustic oscillations in the microwave emission of a solar flare, complementing accepted interpretations of SUMER hot loop oscillations as standing slow magnetoacoustic waves.

  12. Geothermal hydrogen sulfide removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, P.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    UOP Sulfox technology successfully removed 500 ppM hydrogen sulfide from simulated mixed phase geothermal waters. The Sulfox process involves air oxidation of hydrogen sulfide using a fixed catalyst bed. The catalyst activity remained stable throughout the life of the program. The product stream composition was selected by controlling pH; low pH favored elemental sulfur, while high pH favored water soluble sulfate and thiosulfate. Operation with liquid water present assured full catalytic activity. Dissolved salts reduced catalyst activity somewhat. Application of Sulfox technology to geothermal waters resulted in a straightforward process. There were no requirements for auxiliary processes such as a chemical plant. Application of the process to various types of geothermal waters is discussed and plans for a field test pilot plant and a schedule for commercialization are outlined.

  13. Rubber stopper remover

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stitt, Robert R. (Arvada, CO)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for removing a rubber stopper from a test tube is mountable to an upright wall, has a generally horizontal splash guard, and a lower plate spaced parallel to and below the splash guard. A slot in the lower plate has spaced-apart opposing edges that converge towards each other from the plate outer edge to a narrowed portion, the opposing edges shaped to make engagement between the bottom of the stopper flange and the top edge of the test tube to wedge therebetween and to grasp the stopper in the slot narrowed portion to hold the stopper as the test tube is manipulated downwardly and pulled from the stopper. The opposing edges extend inwardly to adjoin an opening having a diameter significantly larger than that of the stopper flange.

  14. A Comprehensive Study of Gamma-Ray Burst Optical Emission: I. Flares and Early Shallow Decay Component

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Liang; Tang, Qing-Wen; Chen, Jie-Min; Xi, Shao-Qiang; LV, Hou-Jun; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Jin; Yi, Shuang-Xi; Lu, Rui-Jing; LV, Lian-Zhong; Wei, Jian-Yan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Well-sampled optical lightcurves of 146 GRBs are complied from the literature. Fitting the lightcurves with the superposition of multiple broken power law functions, we identify eight possible emission components that may have distinct physical origins. We summarize the results in a "synthetic" optical lightcurve. In this paper we focus on a statistical analysis of optical flares and an early optical shallow-decay component, both are likely related to a long-term central engine activity. Twenty-four optical flares are obtained from 19 GRBs. The isotropic flare peak luminosity is correlated with that of gamma-rays. The flares peak at from tens of seconds to several days post the GRB trigger. Later flares tend to be wider and dimmer. The fraction of GRBs with detected optical flares is much smaller than that of X-ray flares. Associated X-ray flares are observed for 4 optical flares, and the optical flares usually lag behind the corresponding X-ray flares. An optical shallow decay segment is observed in 39 GRBs....

  15. Dynamics of Electric Currents, Magnetic Field Topology and Helioseismic Response of a Solar Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharykin, I N

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar flare on July 30, 2011 was of a modest X-ray class (M9.3), but it made a strong photospheric impact and produced a "sunquake," observed with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). In addition to the helioseismic waves (also observed with the SDO/AIA instrument), the flare caused a large expanding area of white-light emission and was accompanied by substantial restructuring of magnetic fields, leading to the rapid formation of a sunspot structure in the flare region. The flare produced no significant hard X-ray emission and no coronal mass ejection. This indicates that the flare energy release was mostly confined to the lower atmosphere. The absence of significant coronal mass ejection rules out magnetic rope eruption as a mechanism of helioseismic waves. We discuss the connectivity of the flare energy release with the electric currents dynamics and show the potential importance of high-speed plasma flows in the lower solar atmosphere during the flare e...

  16. UNIVERSAL BEHAVIOR OF X-RAY FLARES FROM BLACK HOLE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, F. Y.; Dai, Z. G.; Yi, S. X. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xi, S. Q., E-mail: fayinwang@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn [Department of Physics and GXU-NAOC Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray flares have been discovered in black hole systems such as gamma-ray bursts, the tidal disruption event Swift J1644+57, the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* at the center of our Galaxy, and some active galactic nuclei. Occurrences of X-ray flares are always accompanied by relativistic jets. However, it is still unknown whether or not there is a physical analogy among such X-ray flares produced in black hole systems spanning nine orders of magnitude in mass. Here, we report observed data of X-ray flares and show that they have three statistical properties similar to solar flares, including power-law distributions of their energies, durations, and waiting times, which can be explained by a fractal-diffusive, self-organized criticality model. These statistical similarities, together with the fact that solar flares are triggered by a magnetic reconnection process, suggest that all of the X-ray flares are consistent with magnetic reconnection events, implying that their concomitant relativistic jets may be magnetically dominated.

  17. Modeling Gamma-Ray Burst X-Ray Flares within the Internal Shock Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxham, Amanda

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray afterglow light curves have been collected for over 400 Swift gamma-ray bursts with nearly half of them having X-ray flares superimposed on the regular afterglow decay. Evidence suggests that gamma-ray prompt emission and X-ray flares share a common origin and that at least some flares can only be explained by long-lasting central engine activity. We have developed a shell model code to address the question of how X-ray flares are produced within the framework of the internal shock model. The shell model creates randomized GRB explosions from a central engine with multiple shells and follows those shells as they collide, merge and spread, producing prompt emission and X-ray flares. We pay special attention to the time history of central engine activity, internal shocks, and observed flares, but do not calculate the shock dynamics and radiation processes in detail. Using the empirical E_p - E_iso (Amati) relation with an assumed Band function spectrum for each collision and an empirical flare temporal pr...

  18. Impulsive phase flare energy transport by large-scale Alfven waves and the electron acceleration problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Fletcher; H. S. Hudson

    2007-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The impulsive phase of a solar flare marks the epoch of rapid conversion of energy stored in the pre-flare coronal magnetic field. Hard X-ray observations imply that a substantial fraction of flare energy released during the impulsive phase is converted to the kinetic energy of mildly relativistic electrons (10-100 keV). The liberation of the magnetic free energy can occur as the coronal magnetic field reconfigures and relaxes following reconnection. We investigate a scenario in which products of the reconfiguration - large-scale Alfven wave pulses - transport the energy and magnetic-field changes rapidly through the corona to the lower atmosphere. This offers two possibilities for electron acceleration. Firstly, in a coronal plasma with beta energies on the order of 10 keV and above, including by repeated interactions between electrons and wavefronts. Secondly, when they reflect and mode-convert in the chromosphere, a cascade to high wavenumbers may develop. This will also accelerate electrons by turbulence, in a medium with a locally high electron number density. This concept, which bridges MHD-based and particle-based views of a flare, provides an interpretation of the recently-observed rapid variations of the line-of-sight component of the photospheric magnetic field across the flare impulsive phase, and offers solutions to some perplexing flare problems, such as the flare "number problem" of finding and resupplying sufficient electrons to explain the impulsive-phase hard X-ray emission.

  19. RAPID SUNSPOT ROTATION ASSOCIATED WITH THE X2.2 FLARE ON 2011 FEBRUARY 15

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Yunchun; Zheng Ruisheng; Yang Jiayan; Hong Junchao; Yi Bi; Yang Dan, E-mail: jyc@ynao.ac.cn [National Astronomical Observatory/Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 110, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present observations of sunspot evolution associated with the first X-class flare of the present solar cycle 24, which occurred in AR 11158 on 2011 February 15. The active region consisted of four emerging bipoles that showed complicated sunspot motion. The preceding spot of a bipole underwent the fastest movement. It not only passed through the following end of another bipole, thus causing a shearing motion, but also merged with the same-polarity spots and formed a single, larger umbra. This led to the formation of a {delta} configuration with an S-shaped neutral line, above which an extreme ultraviolet filament channel and a sigmoid formed and erupted to produce the flare. Along with the development of a clockwise (CW) spiral penumbra-filament pattern, the merged spot started rapid CW rotation around its umbral center 20 hr before the flare. The rotation persisted throughout the flare but stopped sharply about 1 hr after the flare ended, maintaining the twisted penumbra-filament pattern. The moving spot also caused continuous flux cancellation; in particular, its outer penumbra directly collided with small opposite-polarity spots only 100 minutes before the flare. When the shearing and rotational motions are main contributors to the energy buildup and helicity injection for the flare, the cancellation and collision might act as a trigger. Our observations support the idea that the rotation can be attributed to the emergence of twisted magnetic fields, as proposed in recent theories. Finally, the cause of its sudden halt is discussed.

  20. Confined Flares in Solar Active Region 12192 from 2014 October 18 to 29

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Huadong; Ma, Suli; Yang, Shuhong; Li, Leping; Huang, Xin; Xiao, Junmin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), we investigate six X-class and twenty-nine M-class flares occurring in solar active region (AR) 12192 from October 18 to 29. Among them, thirty (including six X- and twenty-four M-class) flares originated from the AR core and the other five M-flares appeared at the AR periphery. Four of the X-flares exhibited similar flaring structures, indicating they were homologous flares with analogous triggering mechanism. The possible scenario is: photospheric motions of emerged magnetic fluxes lead to shearing of the associated coronal magnetic field, which then yields a tether-cutting favorable configuration. Among the five periphery M-flares, four were associated with jet activities. The HMI vertical magnetic field data show that the photospheric fluxes of opposite magnetic polarities emerged, converged and canceled with each other at the footpoints of the jets bef...

  1. THE THERMAL PROPERTIES OF SOLAR FLARES OVER THREE SOLAR CYCLES USING GOES X-RAY OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, Daniel F.; Gallagher, Peter T. [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Milligan, Ryan O.; Dennis, Brian R.; Kim Tolbert, A.; Schwartz, Richard A.; Alex Young, C. [Solar Physics Laboratory (Code 671), Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar flare X-ray emission results from rapidly increasing temperatures and emission measures in flaring active region loops. To date, observations from the X-Ray Sensor (XRS) on board the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) have been used to derive these properties, but have been limited by a number of factors, including the lack of a consistent background subtraction method capable of being automatically applied to large numbers of flares. In this paper, we describe an automated Temperature and Emission measure-Based Background Subtraction method (TEBBS), that builds on the methods of Bornmann. Our algorithm ensures that the derived temperature is always greater than the instrumental limit and the pre-flare background temperature, and that the temperature and emission measure are increasing during the flare rise phase. Additionally, TEBBS utilizes the improved estimates of GOES temperatures and emission measures from White et al. TEBBS was successfully applied to over 50,000 solar flares occurring over nearly three solar cycles (1980-2007), and used to create an extensive catalog of the solar flare thermal properties. We confirm that the peak emission measure and total radiative losses scale with background subtracted GOES X-ray flux as power laws, while the peak temperature scales logarithmically. As expected, the peak emission measure shows an increasing trend with peak temperature, although the total radiative losses do not. While these results are comparable to previous studies, we find that flares of a given GOES class have lower peak temperatures and higher peak emission measures than previously reported. The TEBBS database of flare thermal plasma properties is publicly available at http://www.SolarMonitor.org/TEBBS/.

  2. A NEW CORRELATION BETWEEN GRB X-RAY FLARES AND THE PROMPT EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonbas, E. [Department of Physics, University of Adiyaman, 02040 Adiyaman (Turkey); MacLachlan, G. A.; Shenoy, A.; Dhuga, K. S.; Parke, W. C., E-mail: edasonbas@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2013-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    From a sample of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi and Swift missions, we have extracted the minimum variability timescales for temporal structures in the light curves associated with the prompt emission and X-ray flares. A comparison of this variability timescale with pulse parameters such as rise times, determined via pulse-fitting procedures, and spectral lags, extracted via the cross-correlation function, indicates a tight correlation between these temporal features for both the X-ray flares and the prompt emission. These correlations suggest a common origin for the production of X-ray flares and the prompt emission in GRBs.

  3. Regularized energy-dependent solar flare hard x-ray spectral index

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eduard P. Kontar; Alexander L. MacKinnon

    2005-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The deduction from solar flare X-ray photon spectroscopic data of the energy dependent model-independent spectral index is considered as an inverse problem. Using the well developed regularization approach we analyze the energy dependency of spectral index for a high resolution energy spectrum provided by Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). The regularization technique produces much smoother derivatives while avoiding additional errors typical of finite differences. It is shown that observations imply a spectral index varying significantly with energy, in a way that also varies with time as the flare progresses. The implications of these findings are discussed in the solar flare context.

  4. Simbol-X capability of detecting the non-thermal emission of stellar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Argiroffi; G. Micela; A. Maggio

    2008-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the capability of detecting, with Simbol-X, non-thermal emission during stellar flares, and distinguishing it from hot thermal emission. We find that flare non-thermal emission is detectable when at least ~20 cts are detected with the CZT detector in the 20-80 keV band. Therefore Simbol-X will detect the non-thermal emission from some of the X-ray brightest nearby stars, whether the thermal vs. non-thermal relation, derived for solar flares, holds.

  5. Neutrino Solar Flare detection for a saving alert system of satellites and astronauts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fargion, Daniele

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Largest Solar Neutrino Flare may be soon detectable by Deep Core neutrino detector immediately and comunicate to satellites or astronauts. Its detection is the fastest manifestation of a later (tens minutes,hours) dangerous cosmic shower. The precursor trigger maybe saving satellites and even long flight astronauts lives. We shall suggest how. Moreover their detection may probe the inner solar flare acceleration place as well as the neutrino flavor mixing in a new different parameter windows. We show the updated expected rate and signature of neutrinos and antineutrinos in largest solar flare for present tens Megaton Deep Core telescope at tens Gev range. Speculation for additional Icecube gigaton array signals are also considered.

  6. Neutrino Solar Flare detection for a saving alert system of satellites and astronauts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniele Fargion

    2011-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Largest Solar Neutrino Flare may be soon detectable by Deep Core neutrino detector immediately and comunicate to satellites or astronauts. Its detection is the fastest manifestation of a later (tens minutes,hours) dangerous cosmic shower. The precursor trigger maybe saving satellites and even long flight astronauts lives. We shall suggest how. Moreover their detection may probe the inner solar flare acceleration place as well as the neutrino flavor mixing in a new different parameter windows. We show the updated expected rate and signature of neutrinos and antineutrinos in largest solar flare for present tens Megaton Deep Core telescope at tens Gev range. Speculation for additional Icecube gigaton array signals are also considered.

  7. Removing Arsenic from Drinking Water

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    See how INL scientists are using nanotechnology to remove arsenic from drinking water. For more INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  8. Triggering of Remote Flares by Magnetic Flux Emergence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Yixing

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effect of new emerging solar active regions on the large-scale magnetic environment of existing regions. We first present a theoretical approach to quantify the "interaction energy" between new and pre-existing regions as the difference between (i) the summed magnetic energies of their individual potential fields and (ii) the energy of their superposed potential fields. We expect that this interaction energy can, depending upon the relative arrangements of newly emerged and pre-existing magnetic flux, indicate the existence of "topological" free magnetic energy in the global coronal field that is independent of any "internal" free magnetic energy due to coronal electric currents flowing within the newly emerged and pre-existing flux systems. We then examine the interaction energy in two well-studied cases of flux emergence, but find that the predicted energetic perturbation is relatively small compared to energies released in large solar flares. Next, we present an observational study on the infl...

  9. Optimal Electron Energies for Driving Chromospheric Evaporation in Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reep, Jeffrey; Alexander, David

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the standard model of solar flares, energy deposition by a beam of electrons drives strong chromospheric evaporation leading to a significantly denser corona and much brighter emission across the spectrum. Chromospheric evaporation was examined in great detail by Fisher, Canfield, & McClymont (1985a,b,c), who described a distinction between two different regimes, termed explosive and gentle evaporation. In this work, we examine the importance of electron energy and stopping depths on the two regimes and on the atmospheric response. We find that with explosive evaporation, the atmospheric response does not depend strongly on electron energy. In the case of gentle evaporation, lower energy electrons are significantly more efficient at heating the atmosphere and driving up-flows sooner than higher energy electrons. We also find that the threshold between explosive and gentle evaporation is not fixed at a given beam energy flux, but also depends strongly on the electron energy and duration of heating. Furt...

  10. Continuum and line emission of flares on red dwarf stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morchenko, Egor; Livshits, Moisey

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The emission spectrum has been calculated of a homogeneous pure hydrogen layer, which parameters are typical for a flare on a red dwarf. The ionization and excitation states were determined by the solution of steady-state equations taking into account the continuum and all discrete hydrogen levels. We consider the following elementary processes: electron-impact transitions, spontaneous and induced radiative transitions, and ionization by the bremsstrahlung and recombination radiation of the layer itself. The Biberman--Holstein approximation was used to calculate the scattering of line radiation. Asymptotic formulae for the escape probability are obtained for a symmetric line profile taking into account the Stark and Doppler effects. The approximation for the core of the H$-\\alpha$ line by a gaussian curve has been substantiated. The spectral intensity of the continuous spectrum, the intensity of the lines of the Balmer series and the magnitude of the Balmer jump have been calculated. The conditions have been ...

  11. X-ray flares from dense shells formed in gamma-ray burst explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hascoet, R; Daigne, F; Mochkovitch, R

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bright X-ray flares are routinely detected by the Swift satellite during the early afterglow of gamma-ray bursts, when the explosion ejecta drives a blast wave into the external medium. We suggest that the flares are produced as the reverse shock propagates into the tail of the ejecta. The ejecta is expected to contain a few dense shells formed at an earlier stage of the explosion. We show an example of how such dense shells form and describe how the reverse shock interacts with them. A new reflected shock is generated in this interaction, which produces a short-lived X-ray flare. The model provides a natural explanation for the main observed features of the X-ray flares --- the fast rise, the steep power-law decline, and the characteristic peak duration \\Delta t /t= (0.1-0.3).

  12. High-temperature phase transition in a plasma and the mechanism of powerful solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedor V. Prigara

    2006-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that the high- temperature phase transition in a plasma gives the mechanism of transition from the highly conductive state to the highly resistive state of a plasma in the `electric circuit' model of solar flares which was first introduced by H.Alfven and P.Carlqvist in 1967. With this addendum, the modern version of the electric circuit model can explain both the fast dissipation of energy and the acceleration of particles in a solar flare.

  13. IMPLOSION OF CORONAL LOOPS DURING THE IMPULSIVE PHASE OF A SOLAR FLARE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simões, P. J. A.; Fletcher, L.; Hudson, H. S.; Russell, A. J. B., E-mail: paulo.simoes@glasgow.ac.uk, E-mail: lyndsay.fletcher@glasgow.ac.uk, E-mail: arussell@maths.dundee.ac.uk, E-mail: hhudson@ssl.berkeley.edu [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the relationship between implosive motions in a solar flare, and the energy redistribution in the form of oscillatory structures and particle acceleration. The flare SOL2012-03-09T03:53 (M6.4) shows clear evidence for an irreversible (stepwise) coronal implosion. Extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images show at least four groups of coronal loops at different heights overlying the flaring core undergoing fast contraction during the impulsive phase of the flare. These contractions start around a minute after the flare onset, and the rate of contraction is closely associated with the intensity of the hard X-ray and microwave emissions. They also seem to have a close relationship with the dimming associated with the formation of the coronal mass ejection and a global EUV wave. Several studies now have detected contracting motions in the corona during solar flares that can be interpreted as the implosion necessary to release energy. Our results confirm this, and tighten the association with the flare impulsive phase. We add to the phenomenology by noting the presence of oscillatory variations revealed by Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite soft X-rays (SXR) and spatially integrated EUV emission at 94 and 335 Å. We identify pulsations of ?60 s in SXR and EUV data, which we interpret as persistent, semi-regular compressions of the flaring core region which modulate the plasma temperature and emission measure. The loop oscillations, observed over a large region, also allow us to provide rough estimates of the energy temporarily stored in the eigenmodes of the active-region structure as it approaches its new equilibrium.

  14. A MODEL FOR THE ESCAPE OF SOLAR-FLARE-ACCELERATED PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masson, S.; Antiochos, S. K. [Space Weather Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); DeVore, C. R., E-mail: sophie.masson@nasa.gov [Laboratory for Computational Physics and Fluid Dynamics, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2013-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We address the problem of how particles are accelerated by solar flares can escape into the heliosphere on timescales of an hour or less. Impulsive solar energetic particle (SEP) bursts are generally observed in association with so-called eruptive flares consisting of a coronal mass ejection (CME) and a flare. These fast SEPs are believed to be accelerated directly by the flare, rather than by the CME shock. However, the precise mechanism by which the particles are accelerated remains controversial. Regardless of the origin of the acceleration, the particles should remain trapped in the closed magnetic fields of the coronal flare loops and the ejected flux rope, given the magnetic geometry of the standard eruptive-flare model. In this case, the particles would reach the Earth only after a delay of many hours to a few days (coincident with the bulk ejecta arriving at Earth). We propose that the external magnetic reconnection intrinsic to the breakout model for CME initiation can naturally account for the prompt escape of flare-accelerated energetic particles onto open interplanetary magnetic flux tubes. We present detailed 2.5-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a breakout CME/flare event with a background isothermal solar wind. Our calculations demonstrate that if the event occurs sufficiently near a coronal-hole boundary, interchange reconnection between open and closed fields can occur. This process allows particles from deep inside the ejected flux rope to access solar wind field lines soon after eruption. We compare these results to standard observations of impulsive SEPs and discuss the implications of the model on further observations and calculations.

  15. Plasma Heating to Super-Hot Temperatures (>30 MK) in the August 9, 2011 Solar Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharykin, I N; Zimovets, I V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the August 9, 2011 solar flare of X-ray class X6.9, the "hottest" flare from 2000 to 2012, with a peak plasma temperature according to GOES data of 32.5 MK. Our goal is to determine the cause of such an anomalously high plasma temperature and to investigate the energy balance in the flare region with allowance made for the presence of a super-hot plasma (>30 MK). We analyze the RHESSI, GOES, AIA/SDO, and EVE/SDO data and discuss the spatial structure of the flare region and the results of our spectral analysis of its X-ray emission. Our analysis of the RHESSI X-ray spectra is performed in the one-temperature and two-temperature approximations by taking into account the emission of hot (20 MK) and super-hot (45 MK) plasmas. The hard X-ray spectrum in both models is fitted by power laws. The observed peculiarities of the flare are shown to be better explained in terms of the two-temperature model, in which the super-hot plasma is located at the flare loop tops (or in the magnetic cusp region). Th...

  16. Radiative hydrodynamic modelling and observations of the X-class solar flare on 2011 March 9

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Michael B; Allred, Joel C; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the response of the solar atmosphere to non-thermal electron beam heating using the radiative transfer and hydrodynamics modelling code RADYN. The temporal evolution of the parameters that describe the non-thermal electron energy distribution were derived from hard X-ray observations of a particular flare, and we compared the modelled and observed parameters. The evolution of the non-thermal electron beam parameters during the X1.5 solar flare on 2011 March 9 were obtained from analysis of RHESSI X-ray spectra. The RADYN flare model was allowed to evolve for 110 seconds, after which the electron beam heating was ended, and was then allowed to continue evolving for a further 300s. The modelled flare parameters were compared to the observed parameters determined from extreme-ultraviolet spectroscopy. The model produced a hotter and denser flare loop than that observed and also cooled more rapidly, suggesting that additional energy input in the decay phase of the flare is required. In the explosi...

  17. Hinode Observations of Vector Magnetic Field Change Associated with a Flare on 2006 December 13

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masahito Kubo; Takaaki Yokoyama; Yukio Katsukawa; Bruce W Lites; Saku Tsuneta; Yoshinori Suematsu; Kiyoshi Ichimoto; Toshifumi Shimizu; Shin'ichi Nagata; Theodore D Tarbell; Richard A Shine; Alan M Title; David Elmore

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuous observations of a flare productive active region 10930 were successfully carried out with the Solar Optical Telescope onboard the Hinode spacecraft during 2007 December 6 to 19. We focus on the evolution of photospheric magnetic fields in this active region, and magnetic field properties at the site of the X3.4 class flare, using a time series of vector field maps with high spatial resolution. The X3.4 class flare occurred on 2006 December 13 at the apparent collision site between the large, opposite polarity umbrae. Elongated magnetic structures with alternatingly positive and negative polarities resulting from flux emergence appeared one day before the flare in the collision site penumbra. Subsequently, the polarity inversion line at the collision site became very complicated. The number of bright loops in Ca II H increased during the formation of these elongated magnetic structures. The flare ribbons and bright loops evolved along the polarity inversion line and one footpoint of the bright loop was located in a region having a large departure of field azimuth angle with respect to its surroundings. The SOT observations with high spatial resolution and high polarization precision reveal temporal change in fine structure of magnetic fields at the flare site: some parts of the complicated polarity inversion line then disappeared, and in those regions the azimuth angle of photospheric magnetic field changed by about 90 degrees, becoming more spatially uniform within the collision site.

  18. Transition Region Emission and Energy Input to Thermal Plasma During the Impulsive Phase of Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. C. Raymond; G. Holman; A. Ciaravella; A. Panasyuk; Y. -K. Ko; J. Kohl

    2007-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy released in a solar flare is partitioned between thermal and non-thermal particle energy and lost to thermal conduction and radiation over a broad range of wavelengths. It is difficult to determine the conductive losses and the energy radiated at transition region temperatures during the impulsive phases of flares. We use UVCS measurements of O VI photons produced by 5 flares and subsequently scattered by O VI ions in the corona to determine the 5.0 thermal energy and the conductive losses deduced from RHESSI and GOES X-ray data using areas from RHESSI images to estimate the loop volumes, cross-sectional areas and scale lengths. The transition region luminosities during the impulsive phase exceed the X-ray luminosities for the first few minutes, but they are smaller than the rates of increase of thermal energy unless the filling factor of the X-ray emitting gas is ~ 0.01. The estimated conductive losses from the hot gas are too large to be balanced by radiative losses or heating of evaporated plasma, and we conclude that the area of the flare magnetic flux tubes is much smaller than the effective area measured by RHESSI during this phase of the flares. For the 2002 July 23 flare, the energy deposited by non-thermal particles exceeds the X-ray and UV energy losses and the rate of increase of the thermal energy.

  19. Universal Behavior of X-ray Flares from Black Hole Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, F Y; Yi, S X; Xi, S Q

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray flares have been discovered in black hole systems, such as gamma-ray bursts, the tidal disruption event Swift J1644+57, the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A$^*$ at the center of our Galaxy, and some active galactic nuclei. Their occurrences are always companied by relativistic jets. However, it is still unknown whether there is a physical analogy among such X-ray flares produced in black hole systems spanning nine orders of magnitude in mass. Here we report the observed data of X-ray flares, and show that they have three statistical properties similar to solar flares, including power-law distributions of energies, durations, and waiting times, which both can be explained by a fractal-diffusive self-organized criticality model. These statistical similarities, together with the fact that solar flares are triggered by a magnetic reconnection process, suggest that all of the X-ray flares are consistent with magnetic reconnection events, implying that their concomitant relativistic jets may be magnetica...

  20. Probing the Flare Atmospheres of M dwarfs Using Infrared Emission Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Sarah J; Hawley, Suzanne L; Hilton, Eric J; Wisniewski, John P; Tofflemire, Benjamin M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of a campaign to monitor active M dwarfs using infrared spectroscopy, supplemented with optical photometry and spectroscopy. We detected 16 flares during nearly 50 hours of observations on EV Lac, AD Leo, YZ CMi, and VB8. The three most energetic flares also showed infrared emission, including the first reported detections of P\\beta, P\\gamma, He I 10830\\AA and Br\\gamma during an M dwarf flare. The strongest flare (\\Delta u = 4.02 on EV Lac) showed emission from H\\gamma, H\\delta, He I 4471\\AA, and Ca II K in the UV/blue and P\\beta, P\\gamma, P\\delta, Br\\gamma, and He I 10830\\AA in the infrared. The weaker flares (\\Delta u = 1.68 on EV Lac and \\Delta U = 1.38 on YZ CMi) were only observed with photometry and infrared spectroscopy; both showed emission from P\\beta, P\\gamma, and He I 10830\\AA. The strongest infrared emission line, P\\beta, occurred in the active mid-M dwarfs with a duty cycle of ~3-4%. To examine the most energetic flare, we used the static NLTE radiative transfer code RH to ...

  1. Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from behind-the-limb solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pesce-Rollins, Melissa; Petrosian, Vahe'; Liu, Wei; da Costa, Fatima Rubio; Allafort, Alice

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fermi-LAT >30 MeV observations have increased the number of detected solar flares by almost a factor of 10 with respect to previous space observations. These sample both the impulsive and long duration phases of GOES M and X class flares. Of particular interest is the recent detections of three solar flares whose position behind the limb was confirmed by the STEREO-B spacecraft. While gamma-ray emission up to tens of MeV resulting from proton interactions has been detected before from occulted solar flares, the significance of these particular events lies in the fact that these are the first detections of >100 MeV gamma-ray emission from footpoint-occulted flares. We will present the Fermi-LAT, RHESSI and STEREO observations of these flares and discuss the various emission scenarios for these sources and implications for the particle acceleration mechanisms.

  2. 2 Solar flare signatures of the ionospheric GPS total electron content 3 J. Y. Liu,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yuh-Ing

    2 Solar flare signatures of the ionospheric GPS total electron content 3 J. Y. Liu,1,2 C. H. Lin,1, ionospheric solar flare effects on the total electron content (TEC) and 7 associated time rate of change (r. The occurrence times and 9 locations of 11 solar flares are isolated from the 1­8 A° X-ray radiations of the 10

  3. Multipollutant Removal with WOWClean® System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romero, M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from the flue gas of a power plant and demonstrate the technology. The system integrates proven emission reduction techniques into a single, multi-pollutant reduction system and is designed to remove Mercury, SOx, NOx, particulates, heavy metals...

  4. The evolution of the width of X-ray flares with time in Gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernardini, Maria Grazia [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); ICRANet, P.le della Repubblica 10, I-65100 Pescara (Italy); Chincarini, Guido; Margutti, Raffaella [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); University of Milano Bicocca, Physics Dept., P.zza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present one of the most intriguing results obtained with an updated catalog of 113 early time (i.e. t{sub pk} < or approx. 1000 s) and 36 late time (i.e. t{sub pk} > or approx. 1000 s) X-ray flares detected by Swift in the afterglows of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB): the evolution of the width of the flares with time. This result, together with other properties investigated on early and late time flares and bright flares, provides a clear observational property that every model aiming at explaining the GRB emission has to face.

  5. Full Stokes observations in the He I 1083 nm spectral region covering an M3.2 flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuckein, C; Sainz, R Manso; Ramos, A Asensio

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an exceptional data set acquired with the Vacuum Tower Telescope (Tenerife, Spain) covering the pre-flare, flare, and post-flare stages of an M3.2 flare. The full Stokes spectropolarimetric observations were recorded with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter in the He I 1083.0 nm spectral region. The object under study was active region NOAA 11748 on 2013 May 17. During the flare the chomospheric He I 1083.0 nm intensity goes strongly into emission. However, the nearby photospheric Si I 1082.7 nm spectral line profile only gets shallower and stays in absorption. Linear polarization (Stokes Q and U) is detected in all lines of the He I triplet during the flare. Moreover, the circular polarization (Stokes V) is dominant during the flare, being the blue component of the He I triplet much stronger than the red component, and both are stronger than the Si I Stokes V profile. The Si I inversions reveal enormous changes of the photospheric magnetic field during the flare. Before the flare magnetic field conc...

  6. Neutron star blackbody contraction during flaring in X1624-490

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Balucinska-Church; R. Barnard; M. J. Church; A. P. Smale

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results of an investigation of the physical changes taking place in the emission regions of the LMXB X1624-490 during strong flaring in RXTE observations. Based on the detailed light curve, we propose that the flaring consists of a superposition of X-ray bursts. It is shown that major changes take place in the blackbody emission component, the temperature kT_BB increasing to ~2.2 keV in flaring. Remarkably, the blackbody area decreases by a factor of ~5 in flaring. During flare evolution, the blackbody luminosity remains approximately constant, constituting a previously unknown Eddington limiting effect which we propose is due to radiation pressure of the blackbody as kT_BB increases affecting the inner disk or accretion flow resulting in a decreased emitting area on the star. We argue that the large decrease in area cannot be explained in terms of modification of the blackbody spectrum by electron scattering in the atmosphere of the neutron star. The height of the emitting region on the non-flaring neutron star is shown to agree with the height of the inner radiatively-supported disk as found for sources in the ASCA survey of LMXB of Church & Balucinska-Church (2001). The decrease in height during flaring is discussed in terms of possible models, including radial accretion flow onto the stellar surface and the theory of accretion flow spreading on the neutron star surface of Inogamov & Sunyaev (1999). We demonstrate that the intensity of the broad iron line at 6.4 keV is strongly correlated with the luminosity of the blackbody emission from the neutron star, and discuss the probable origin of this line in the ADC. Finally, possible reasons for non-detection of a reflection component in this source, and LMXB in general, are discussed.

  7. CONTINUUM CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE SDO/AIA PASSBANDS DURING SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, Ryan O.; McElroy, Sarah A., E-mail: r.milligan@qub.ac.uk [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data from the Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph component of the Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) were used to quantify the contribution of continuum emission to each of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) channels of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), also on SDO, during an X-class solar flare that occurred on 2011 February 15. Both the pre-flare-subtracted EVE spectra and fits to the associated free-free continuum were convolved with the AIA response functions of the seven EUV passbands at 10 s cadence throughout the course of the flare. It was found that 10%-25% of the total emission in the 94 Å, 131 Å, 193 Å, and 335 Å passbands throughout the main phase of the flare was due to free-free emission. Reliable measurements could not be made for the 171 Å channel, while the continuum contribution to the 304 Å channel was negligible due to the presence of the strong He II emission line. Up to 50% of the emission in the 211 Å channel was found to be due to free-free emission around the peak of the flare, while an additional 20% was due to the recombination continuum of He II. The analysis was extended to a number of M- and X-class flares and it was found that the level of free-free emission contributing to both the 171 Å and 211 Å passbands increased with increasing GOES class. These results suggest that the amount of continuum emission that contributes to AIA observations during flares is more significant than stated in previous studies which used synthetic, rather than observed, spectra. These findings highlight the importance of spectroscopic observations carried out in conjunction with those from imaging instruments so that the data are interpreted correctly.

  8. High-sensitivity observations of solar flare decimeter radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold O. Benz; Peter Messmer; Christian Monstein

    2000-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A new acousto-optic radio spectrometer has observed the 1 - 2 GHz radio emission of solar flares with unprecedented sensitivity. The number of detected decimeter type III bursts is greatly enhanced compared to observations by conventional spectrometers observing only one frequency at the time. The observations indicate a large number of electron beams propagating in dense plasmas. For the first time, we report weak, reversed drifting type III bursts at frequencies above simultaneous narrowband decimeter spikes. The type III bursts are reliable signatures of electron beams propagating downward in the corona, apparently away from the source of the spikes. The observations contradict the most popular spike model that places the spike sources at the footpoints of loops. Conspicuous also was an apparent bidirectional type U burst forming a fish-like pattern. It occurs simultaneously with an intense U-burst at 600-370 MHz observed in Tremsdorf. We suggest that it intermodulated with strong terrestrial interference (cellular phones) causing a spurious symmetric pattern in the spectrogram at 1.4 GHz. Symmetric features in the 1 - 2 GHz range, some already reported in the literature, therefore must be considered with utmost caution.

  9. Soot and SO[subscript 2] contribution to the supersites in the MILAGRO campaign from elevated flares in the Tula Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molina, Luisa Tan

    This work presents a simulation of the plume trajectory emitted by flaring activities of the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery in Mexico. The flame of a representative sour gas flare is modeled with a CFD combustion code in order ...

  10. Large Component Removal/Disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeler, D. M.

    2002-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the removal and disposal of the large components from Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant. The large components discussed include the three steam generators, pressurizer, and reactor pressure vessel. Two separate Exemption Requests, which included radiological characterizations, shielding evaluations, structural evaluations and transportation plans, were prepared and issued to the DOT for approval to ship these components; the first was for the three steam generators and one pressurizer, the second was for the reactor pressure vessel. Both Exemption Requests were submitted to the DOT in November 1999. The DOT approved the Exemption Requests in May and July of 2000, respectively. The steam generators and pressurizer have been removed from Maine Yankee and shipped to the processing facility. They were removed from Maine Yankee's Containment Building, loaded onto specially designed skid assemblies, transported onto two separate barges, tied down to the barges, th en shipped 2750 miles to Memphis, Tennessee for processing. The Reactor Pressure Vessel Removal Project is currently under way and scheduled to be completed by Fall of 2002. The planning, preparation and removal of these large components has required extensive efforts in planning and implementation on the part of all parties involved.

  11. FLARE-GENERATED TYPE II BURST WITHOUT ASSOCIATED CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magdalenic, J.; Marque, C.; Zhukov, A. N. [Solar-Terrestrial Center of Excellence, SIDC, Royal Observatory of Belgium, Avenue Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Vrsnak, B. [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, Kaciceva 26, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Veronig, A., E-mail: Jasmina.Magdalenic@oma.be [IGAM/Kanzelhoehe Observatory, Institut of Physics, Universitaet Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2012-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a study of the solar coronal shock wave on 2005 November 14 associated with the GOES M3.9 flare that occurred close to the east limb (S06 Degree-Sign E60 Degree-Sign ). The shock signature, a type II radio burst, had an unusually high starting frequency of about 800 MHz, indicating that the shock was formed at a rather low height. The position of the radio source, the direction of the shock wave propagation, and the coronal electron density were estimated using Nancay Radioheliograph observations and the dynamic spectrum of the Green Bank Solar Radio Burst Spectrometer. The soft X-ray, H{alpha}, and Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager observations show that the flare was compact, very impulsive, and of a rather high density and temperature, indicating a strong and impulsive increase of pressure in a small flare loop. The close association of the shock wave initiation with the impulsive energy release suggests that the impulsive increase of the pressure in the flare was the source of the shock wave. This is supported by the fact that, contrary to the majority of events studied previously, no coronal mass ejection was detected in association with the shock wave, although the corresponding flare occurred close to the limb.

  12. X-ray flares, neutrino cooled disks, and the dynamics of late accretion in GRB engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davide Lazzati; Rosalba Perna; Mitchell C. Begelman

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the average luminosity of X-ray flares as a function of time, for a sample of 10 long-duration gamma-ray burst afterglows. The mean luminosity, averaged over a timescale longer than the duration of the individual flares, declines as a power-law in time with index ~-1.5. We elaborate on the properties of the central engine that can produce such a decline. Assuming that the engine is an accreting compact object, and for a standard conversion factor between accretion rate and jet luminosity, the switch between a neutrino-cooled thin disk and a non-cooled thick disk takes place at the transition from the prompt to the flaring phase. We discuss the implications of this coincidence under different scenarios for the powering of the GRB outflow. We also show that the interaction of the outflow with the envelope of the progenitor star cannot produce flares out of a continuous relativistic flow, and conclude that it is the dynamics of the disk or the jet-launching mechanism that generates an intrinsically unsteady outflow on timescales much longer than the dynamical timescale of the system. This is consistent with the fact that X-ray flares are observed in short-duration GRBs as well as in long-duration ones.

  13. Sub-GeV flashes in $?-$ray burst afterglows as probes of underlying bright UV flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yizhong Fan; Tsvi Piran

    2006-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Bright optical and X-ray flares have been observed in many Gamma-ray Burst (GRB) afterglows. These flares have been attributed to late activity of the central engine. In most cases the peak energy is not known and it is possible and even likely that there is a significant far-ultraviolet component. These far-ultraviolet photons escape our detection because they are absorbed by the neutral hydrogen before reaching Earth. However, these photons cross the blast wave produced by the ejecta that have powered the initial GRB. They can be inverse Compton upscattered by hot electrons within this blast wave. This process will produce a strong sub-GeV flare that follows the high energy (soft X-ray) tail of the far-UV flare but lasts much longer and can be detected by the upcoming {\\em Gamma-Ray Large Area Telescope} (GLAST) satellite. This signature can be used to probe the spectrum of the underlying far-ultraviolet flare. The extra cooling produced by this inverse Compton process can lower the X-ray emissivity of the forward shock and explain the unexpected low early X-ray flux seen in many GRBs.

  14. Constraints on the Bulk Lorentz Factors of GRB X-Ray Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, Shuang-Xi; Wang, Fa-Yin; Dai, Zi-Gao

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray flares were discovered in the afterglow phase of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) by the {\\em Swift} satellite a decade ago and known as a canonical component in GRB X-ray afterglows. In this paper, we constrain the Lorentz factors of GRB X-ray flares using two different methods. For the first method, we estimate the lower limit on the bulk Lorentz factor with the flare duration and jet break time. In the second method, the upper limit on the Lorentz factor is derived by assuming that the X-ray flare jet has undergone saturated acceleration. We also re-estimate the initial Lorentz factor with GRB afterglow onsets, and find the coefficient of the theoretical Lorentz factor is 1.67 rather than the commonly used 2 for interstellar medium (ISM) and 1.44 for the wind case. We find that the correlation between the limited Lorentz factor and the isotropic radiation energy of X-ray flares in the ISM case is more consistent with that of prompt emission than the wind case in a statistical sense. For a comparison, the lowe...

  15. Diagnostics of the Heating Processes in Solar Flares Using Chromospheric Spectral Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. X. Cheng; M. D. Ding; J. P. Li

    2006-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We have calculated the H$\\alpha$ and Ca {\\sc ii} 8542 {\\AA} line profiles based on four different atmospheric models, including the effects of nonthermal electron beams with various energy fluxes. These two lines have different responses to thermal and nonthermal effects, and can be used to diagnose the thermal and nonthermal heating processes. We apply our method to an X-class flare that occurred on 2001 October 19. We are able to identify quantitatively the heating effects during the flare eruption. We find that the nonthermal effects at the outer edge of the flare ribbon are more notable than that at the inner edge, while the temperature at the inner edge seems higher. On the other hand, the results show that nonthermal effects increase rapidly in the rise phase and decrease quickly in the decay phase, but the atmospheric temperature can still keep relatively high for some time after getting to its maximum. For the two kernels that we analyze, the maximum energy fluxes of the electron beams are $\\sim$ 10$^{10}$ and 10$^{11}$ ergs cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, respectively. However, the atmospheric temperatures are not so high, i.e., lower than or slightly higher than that of the weak flare model F1 at the two kernels. We discuss the implications of the results for two-ribbon flare models.

  16. The Confined X-class Flares of Solar Active Region 2192

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thalmann, J K; Temmer, M; Veronig, A M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The unusually large NOAA active region 2192, observed in October 2014, was outstanding in its productivity of major two-ribbon flares without coronal mass ejections. On a large scale, a predominantly north-south oriented magnetic system of arcade fields served as a strong, also lateral, confinement for a series of large two-ribbon flares originating from the core of the active region. The large initial separation of the flare ribbons, together with an almost absent growth in ribbon separation, suggests a confined reconnection site high up in the corona. Based on a detailed analysis of the confined X1.6 flare on October 22, we show how exceptional the flaring of this active region was. We provide evidence for repeated energy release, indicating that the same magnetic field structures were repeatedly involved in magnetic reconnection. We find that a large number of electrons was accelerated to non-thermal energies, revealing a steep power law spectrum, but that only a small fraction was accelerated to high ener...

  17. MAGNETIC NONPOTENTIALITY IN PHOTOSPHERIC ACTIVE REGIONS AS A PREDICTOR OF SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Xiao; Lin Ganghua; Zhang Hongqi; Mao Xinjie, E-mail: yangx@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on several magnetic nonpotentiality parameters obtained from the vector photospheric active region magnetograms obtained with the Solar Magnetic Field Telescope at the Huairou Solar Observing Station over two solar cycles, a machine learning model has been constructed to predict the occurrence of flares in the corresponding active region within a certain time window. The Support Vector Classifier, a widely used general classifier, is applied to build and test the prediction models. Several classical verification measures are adopted to assess the quality of the predictions. We investigate different flare levels within various time windows, and thus it is possible to estimate the rough classes and erupting times of flares for particular active regions. Several combinations of predictors have been tested in the experiments. The True Skill Statistics are higher than 0.36 in 97% of cases and the Heidke Skill Scores range from 0.23 to 0.48. The predictors derived from longitudinal magnetic fields do perform well, however, they are less sensitive in predicting large flares. Employing the nonpotentiality predictors from vector fields improves the performance of predicting large flares of magnitude {>=}M5.0 and {>=}X1.0.

  18. Optical Spectral Observations of a Flickering White-Light Kernel in a C1 Solar Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kowalski, Adam F; Fletcher, Lyndsay

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze optical spectra of a two-ribbon, long duration C1.1 flare that occurred on 18 Aug 2011 within AR 11271 (SOL2011-08-18T15:15). The impulsive phase of the flare was observed with a comprehensive set of space-borne and ground-based instruments, which provide a range of unique diagnostics of the lower flaring atmosphere. Here we report the detection of enhanced continuum emission, observed in low-resolution spectra from 3600 \\AA\\ to 4550 \\AA\\ acquired with the Horizontal Spectrograph at the Dunn Solar Telescope. A small, $\\le$0''.5 ($10^{15}$ cm$^2$) penumbral/umbral kernel brightens repeatedly in the optical continuum and chromospheric emission lines, similar to the temporal characteristics of the hard X-ray variation as detected by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi spacecraft. Radiative-hydrodynamic flare models that employ a nonthermal electron beam energy flux high enough to produce the optical contrast in our flare spectra would predict a large Balmer jump in emission, indicative of h...

  19. An explanation for long flares from extragalactic globular cluster X-ray sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas J. Maccarone

    2005-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Repeatedly flaring X-ray binaries have recently been discovered in NGC 4697 by Sivakoff and collaborators. We show that these flares can be explained as the result of eccentric binaries in globular clusters which accrete more rapidly at periastron than during the rest of the binary orbit. We show that theoretical timescales for producing eccentricities and circularising the binaries are consistent with what is needed to produce the observed population of flaring sources, although the circularisation timescales are highly uncertain on both observational and theoretical grounds. This model makes two clear theoretical predictions (1) the flares should be seen to be strictly periodic if adequate sampling is provided, and that periodicity should be of approximately 15 hours (2) this class of flaring behaviour should be seen only in globular cluster sources, and predominantly in the densest globular clusters. We also test the model for producing eccentricities through fly-by's of a third star near the binary in a globular cluster against a much larger database of millisecond pulsar observations than has been used in past work, and find that the theoretical cross sections for producing eccentricity in binaries are in reasonable agreement with most of the data, provided that the pulsar ages are about $4\\times10^9$ years.

  20. PRIOR FLARING AS A COMPLEMENT TO FREE MAGNETIC ENERGY FOR FORECASTING SOLAR ERUPTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ronald L.; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F. [ZP13 MSFC/NASA, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Khazanov, Igor [CSPAR, Cramer Hall/NSSTC, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    From a large database of (1) 40,000 SOHO/MDI line-of-sight magnetograms covering the passage of 1300 sunspot active regions across the 30 Degree-Sign radius central disk of the Sun, (2) a proxy of each active region's free magnetic energy measured from each of the active region's central-disk-passage magnetograms, and (3) each active region's full-disk-passage history of production of major flares and fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs), we find new statistical evidence that (1) there are aspects of an active region's magnetic field other than the free energy that are strong determinants of the active region's productivity of major flares and fast CMEs in the coming few days; (2) an active region's recent productivity of major flares, in addition to reflecting the amount of free energy in the active region, also reflects these other determinants of coming productivity of major eruptions; and (3) consequently, the knowledge of whether an active region has recently had a major flare, used in combination with the active region's free-energy proxy measured from a magnetogram, can greatly alter the forecast chance that the active region will have a major eruption in the next few days after the time of the magnetogram. The active-region magnetic conditions that, in addition to the free energy, are reflected by recent major flaring are presumably the complexity and evolution of the field.

  1. Solar Flare Element Abundances from the Solar Assembly for X-rays (SAX) on MESSENGER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennis, B R; Schwartz, R A; Tolbert, A K; Starr, R D; Nittler, L R

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray spectra in the range $1.5-8.5$~keV have been analyzed for 526 large flares detected with the Solar Assembly for X-rays (SAX) on the Mercury {\\em MESSENGER} spacecraft between 2007 and 2013. For each flare, the temperature and emission measure of the emitting plasma were determined from the spectrum of the continuum. In addition, with the SAX energy resolution of 0.6 keV (FWHM) at 6~keV, the intensities of the clearly resolved Fe-line complex at 6.7~keV and the Ca-line complex at 3.9~keV were determined, along with those of unresolved line complexes from S, Si, and Ar at lower energies. Comparisons of these line intensities with theoretical spectra allow the abundances of these elements relative to hydrogen to be derived, with uncertainties due to instrument calibration and the unknown temperature distribution of the emitting plasma. While significant deviations are found for the abundances of Fe and Ca from flare to flare, the abundances averaged over all flares are found to be enhanced over photospheri...

  2. Removal of phosphorus from mud

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nield, M.A.; Robbins, B.N.

    1988-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a method of processing an aqueous phosphorous-containing solids-containing waste material containing about 5 to about 75 wt.% of elemental phosphorus and which is phosphorus mud obtained as a by-product in the electrothermal production of elemental phosphorus by removing the water and phosphorus substantially completely therefrom, the improvement in the processing which consists essentially of the steps of: first boiling off the water from the waste material to effect the substantially-complete removal of water therefrom, next boiling-off yellow phosphorus from the waste material, and finally burning off residual phosphorus remaining from the boiling-off of yellow phosphorus from the waste material, whereby the boiling-off of yellow phosphorus and the burning-off of the residual phosphorus effects substantially complete removal of phosphorus from the waste material to produce a substantially phosphorus-free solid residue.

  3. Actinide removal from spent salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Peter C. (Pleasanton, CA); von Holtz, Erica H. (Livermore, CA); Hipple, David L. (Livermore, CA); Summers, Leslie J. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

  4. Metals removal from spent salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Peter C. (Pleasanton, CA); Von Holtz, Erica H. (Livermore, CA); Hipple, David L. (Livermore, CA); Summers, Leslie J. (Livermore, CA); Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

  5. Detection of Li i enhancement during a longduration flare in the recenltly discovered Xray/EUV selected, chromospher

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Complutense de Madrid, Universidad

    of this behavior as an unusual long­duration flare. ­ 1) The temporal evolution of the event is similar to the observed in other solar and stellar flares, with an initial impulsive phase characterized by a strong of the event. A two Gaussian components fit to the subtracted spectra is displayed in the right panel of Fig. 1

  6. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Refinements to flare energy estimates -a follow-up to "Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    flare/CME events, using as much reliable data as was available, not only on radiative output, but also estimates - a follow-up to "Energy Partition in Two Solar Flare/CME Events" A. G. Emslie, 1 B. R. Dennis 2 in the different flare and CME components of two major solar events with unprecedented observational coverage, one

  7. Long term flaring activity of XRF 011030 observed with BeppoSAX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piro, A G L

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the spectral and temporal analysis of the X-ray flash XRF 011030 observed with BeppoSAX. This event is characterized by a very long X-ray bursting activity that lasts about 1500 s, the longest ever observed by BeppoSAX. In particular a precursor and a late flare are present in the light curve. We connect the late X-ray flare observed at about 1300 s to the afterglow emission observed by Chandra and associate it with the onset of the afterglow emission in the framework of external shock by a long duration engine activity. We find that the late X-ray flare and the broad-band afterglow data, including optical and radio measurements, are consistent either with a fireball expanding in a wind environment or with a jetted fireball in a ISM.

  8. VERITAS OBSERVATIONS OF DAY-SCALE FLARING OF M 87 IN 2010 APRIL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Arlen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Aune, T.; Bouvier, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Bradbury, S. M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Byrum, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cannon, A.; Collins-Hughes, E. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Cui, W. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Duke, C. [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112-1690 (United States); Falcone, A., E-mail: cmhui@physics.utah.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); and others

    2012-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    VERITAS has been monitoring the very-high-energy (VHE; > 100 GeV) gamma-ray activity of the radio galaxy M 87 since 2007. During 2008, flaring activity on a timescale of a few days was observed with a peak flux of (0.70 {+-} 0.16) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at energies above 350 GeV. In 2010 April, VERITAS detected a flare from M 87 with peak flux of (2.71 {+-} 0.68) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for E > 350 GeV. The source was observed for six consecutive nights during the flare, resulting in a total of 21 hr of good-quality data. The most rapid flux variation occurred on the trailing edge of the flare with an exponential flux decay time of 0.90{sup +0.22}{sub -0.15} days. The shortest detected exponential rise time is three times as long, at 2.87{sup +1.65}{sub -0.99} days. The quality of the data sample is such that spectral analysis can be performed for three periods: rising flux, peak flux, and falling flux. The spectra obtained are consistent with power-law forms. The spectral index at the peak of the flare is equal to 2.19 {+-} 0.07. There is some indication that the spectrum is softer in the falling phase of the flare than the peak phase, with a confidence level corresponding to 3.6 standard deviations. We discuss the implications of these results for the acceleration and cooling rates of VHE electrons in M 87 and the constraints they provide on the physical size of the emitting region.

  9. OCCULTATION OF THE QUIESCENT EMISSION FROM Sgr A* BY IR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Wardle, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Bushouse, H. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Dowell, C. D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Roberts, D. A. [Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, 1300 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States)

    2010-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the nature of flare emission from Sgr A* during multi-wavelength observations of this source that took place in 2004, 2005, and 2006. We present evidence for dimming of submillimeter and radio flux during the peak of near-IR flares. This suggests that the variability of Sgr A* across its wavelength spectrum is phenomenologically related. The model explaining this new behavior of flare activity could be consistent with adiabatically cooling plasma blobs that are expanding but also partially eclipsing the background quiescent emission from Sgr A*. When a flare is launched, the plasma blob is most compact and is brightest in the optically thin regime whereas the emission in radio/submillimeter wavelengths has a higher opacity. Absorption in the observed light curve of Sgr A* at radio/submillimeter flux is due to the combined effects of lower brightness temperature of plasma blobs with respect to the quiescent brightness temperature and high opacity of plasma blobs. This implies that plasma blobs are mainly placed in the magnetosphere of a disk-like flow or further out in the flow. The depth of the absorption being larger in submillimeter than in radio wavelengths implies that the intrinsic size of the quiescent emission increases with increasing wavelength which is consistent with previous size measurements of Sgr A*. Lastly, we believe that occultation of the quiescent emission of Sgr A* at radio/submillimeter by IR flares can be used as a powerful tool to identify flare activity at its earliest phase of its evolution.

  10. Modeling Non-Confined Coronal Flares: Dynamics and X-Ray Diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Reale; F. Bocchino; G. Peres

    2001-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Long-lasting, intense, stellar X-ray flares may approach conditions of breaking magnetic confinement and evolving in open space. We explore this hypothesis with hydrodynamic simulations of flares occurring in a non-confined corona: model flares are triggered by a transient impulsive heating injected in a plane-parallel stratified corona. The plasma evolution is described by means of a numerical 2-D model in cylindrical geometry R,Z. We explore the space of fundamental parameters. As a reference model, we consider a flare triggered by a heating pulse that would cause a 20 MK flare if delivered in a 40000 km long closed loop. The modeled plasma evolution is described. The X-ray emission, spectra and light curves at the ASCA/SIS focal plan, and in two intense X-ray lines (Mg XI at 9.169 A and Fe XXI at 128.752 A), have been synthesized from the models. The results are discussed and compared to features of confined events, and scaling laws are derived. The light curves invariably show a very rapid rise, a constant phase as long as the constant heating is on, and then a very fast decay, on time scales of few seconds, followed by a more gradual one (few minutes). We show that this evolution of the emission, and especially the fast decay, together with other potentially observable effects, are intrinsic to the assumption of non-confinement. Their lack indicates that observed long-lasting stellar X-ray flares should involve plasma strongly confined by magnetic fields.

  11. Evolution of the Loop-Top Source of Solar Flares--Heating and Cooling Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan Wei Jiang; Siming Liu; Wei Liu; Vahe Petrosian

    2005-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a study of the spatial and spectral evolution of the loop-top (LT) sources in a sample of 6 flares near the solar limb observed by {\\it RHESSI}. A distinct coronal source, which we identify as the LT source, was seen in each of these flares from the early ``pre-heating'' phase through the late decay phase. Spectral analyses reveal an evident steep power-law component in the pre-heating and impulsive phases, suggesting that the particle acceleration starts upon the onset of the flares. In the late decay phase the LT source has a thermal spectrum and appears to be confined within a small region near the top of the flare loop, and does not spread throughout the loop, as is observed at lower energies. The total energy of this source decreases usually faster than expected from the radiative cooling but much slower than that due to the classical Spitzer conductive cooling along the flare loop. These results indicate the presence of a distinct LT region, where the thermal conductivity is suppressed significantly and/or there is a continuous energy input. We suggest that plasma wave turbulence could play important roles in both heating the plasma and suppressing the conduction during the decay phase of solar flares. With a simple quasi-steady loop model we show that the energy input in the gradual phase can be comparable to that in the impulsive phase and demonstrate how the observed cooling and confinement of the LT source can be used to constrain the wave-particle interaction.

  12. Multipollutant Removal with WOWClean® System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romero, M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    such as petcoke, coal, wood, diesel and natural gas. In addition to significant removal of CO2, test results demonstrate the capability to reduce 99.5% SOx (from levels as high as 2200 ppm), 90% reduction of NOx, and > 90% heavy metals. The paper will include...

  13. Lag-luminosity relation in gamma-ray burst X-ray flares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margutti, R.

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In strict analogy to prompt pulses, X-ray flares observed by Swift-XRT in long Gamma-Ray Bursts define a lag-luminosity relation: L{sub p,iso}{sup 0.3-10} k{sup eV} {infinity}t{sub lag}{sup -0.95{+-}0.23}. The lag-luminosity is proven to be a fundamental law extending {approx}5 decades in time and {approx}5 in energy. This is direct evidence that GRB X-ray flares and prompt gamma-ray pulses are produced by the same mechanism.

  14. Plastic damping of Alfv\\'en waves in magnetar flares and delayed afterglow emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xinyu

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetar flares generate Alfv\\'en waves bouncing in the closed magnetosphere with energy up to $\\sim 10^{46}$ erg. We show that on a 10-ms timescale the waves are transmitted into the star and form a compressed packet of high energy density. This packet strongly shears the stellar crust and initiates a plastic flow, heating the crust and melting it hundreds of meters below the surface. A fraction of the deposited plastic heat is eventually conducted to the stellar surface, contributing to the surface afterglow months to years after the flare. A large fraction of heat is lost to neutrino emission or conducted into the core of the neutron star.

  15. Search for correlations between solar flares and decay rate of radioactive nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Bellotti; C. Broggini; G. Di Carlo; M. Laubenstein; R. Menegazzo

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The deacay rate of three different radioactive sources 40K, 137Cs and natTh has been measured with NaI and Ge detectors. Data have been analyzed to search for possible variations in coincidence with the two strongest solar flares of the years 2011 and 2012. No significant deviations from standard expectation have been observed, with a few 10-4 sensitivity. As a consequence, we could not find any effect like that recently reported by Jenkins and Fischbach: a few per mil decrease in the decay rate of 54Mn during solar flares in December 2006.

  16. IMPULSIVE ACCELERATION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS. II. RELATION TO SOFT X-RAY FLARES AND FILAMENT ERUPTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bein, B. M.; Berkebile-Stoiser, S.; Veronig, A. M.; Temmer, M. [Kanzelhoehe Observatory-IGAM, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Vrsnak, B. [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, Kaciceva 26, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Using high time cadence images from the STEREO EUVI, COR1, and COR2 instruments, we derived detailed kinematics of the main acceleration stage for a sample of 95 coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in comparison with associated flares and filament eruptions. We found that CMEs associated with flares reveal on average significantly higher peak accelerations and lower acceleration phase durations, initiation heights, and heights, at which they reach their peak velocities and peak accelerations. This means that CMEs that are associated with flares are characterized by higher and more impulsive accelerations and originate from lower in the corona where the magnetic field is stronger. For CMEs that are associated with filament eruptions we found only for the CME peak acceleration significantly lower values than for events that were not associated with filament eruptions. The flare rise time was found to be positively correlated with the CME acceleration duration and negatively correlated with the CME peak acceleration. For the majority of the events the CME acceleration starts before the flare onset (for 75% of the events) and the CME acceleration ends after the soft X-ray (SXR) peak time (for 77% of the events). In {approx}60% of the events, the time difference between the peak time of the flare SXR flux derivative and the peak time of the CME acceleration is smaller than {+-}5 minutes, which hints at a feedback relationship between the CME acceleration and the energy release in the associated flare due to magnetic reconnection.

  17. CHARACTERISTIC SIZE OF FLARE KERNELS IN THE VISIBLE AND NEAR-INFRARED CONTINUA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Yan; Jing, Ju; Wang, Haimin [Space Weather Research Lab, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Blvd, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Cao, Wenda, E-mail: yx2@njit.edu [Big Bear Solar Observatory, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Blvd, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States)

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Letter, we present a new approach to estimate the formation height of visible and near-infrared emission of an X10 flare. The sizes of flare emission cores in three wavelengths are accurately measured during the peak of the flare. The source size is the largest in the G band at 4308 A and shrinks toward longer wavelengths, namely the green continuum at 5200 A and NIR at 15600 A, where the emission is believed to originate from the deeper atmosphere. This size-wavelength variation is likely explained by the direct heating model as electrons need to move along converging field lines from the corona to the photosphere. Therefore, one can observe the smallest source, which in our case is 0.''65 {+-} 0.''02 in the bottom layer (represented by NIR), and observe relatively larger kernels in upper layers of 1.''03 {+-} 0.''14 and 1.''96 {+-} 0.''27, using the green continuum and G band, respectively. We then compare the source sizes with a simple magnetic geometry to derive the formation height of the white-light sources and magnetic pressure in different layers inside the flare loop.

  18. Observational Evidence of Changing Photospheric Vector Magnetic Fields Associated with Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100012, China 3. Key Laboratory of Solar ActivityObservational Evidence of Changing Photospheric Vector Magnetic Fields Associated with Solar Flares University, Beijing 100875, China sjt@bao.ac.cn Received ; accepted Not to appear in Nonlearned J., 45. #12

  19. NO FLARES FROM GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOW BLAST WAVES ENCOUNTERING SUDDEN CIRCUMBURST DENSITY CHANGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gat, Ilana; Van Eerten, Hendrik; MacFadyen, Andrew [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Physics Department, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2013-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Afterglows of gamma-ray bursts are observed to produce light curves with the flux following power-law evolution in time. However, recent observations reveal bright flares at times on the order of minutes to days. One proposed explanation for these flares is the interaction of a relativistic blast wave with a circumburst density transition. In this paper, we model this type of interaction computationally in one and two dimensions, using a relativistic hydrodynamics code with adaptive mesh refinement called RAM, and analytically in one dimension. We simulate a blast wave traveling in a stellar wind environment that encounters a sudden change in density, followed by a homogeneous medium, and compute the observed radiation using a synchrotron model. We show that flares are not observable for an encounter with a sudden density increase, such as a wind termination shock, nor for an encounter with a sudden density decrease. Furthermore, by extending our analysis to two dimensions, we are able to resolve the spreading, collimation, and edge effects of the blast wave as it encounters the change in circumburst medium. In all cases considered in this paper, we find that a flare will not be observed for any of the density changes studied.

  20. The Temporal Behaviour of Lyman-alpha Emission During Solar Flares From SDO/EVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milligan, Ryan O

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite being the most prominent emission line in the solar spectrum, there has been a notable lack of studies devoted to variations in Lyman-alpha (Ly$\\alpha$) emission during solar flares in recent years. The few examples that do exist, however, have shown Ly$\\alpha$ emission to be a substantial radiator of the total energy budget of solar flares (on the order of 10%). It is also a known driver of fluctuations in earth's ionosphere. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory now provides broadband, photometric Ly$\\alpha$ data at 10 s cadence, and has observed scores of solar flares in the 5 years since it was launched. However, the time profiles appear to display a rise time of tens of minutes around the time of the flare onset. This is in stark contrast to the rapid, impulsive increase observed in other intrinsically chromospheric features (H$\\alpha$, Ly$\\beta$, LyC, C III, etc.). Furthermore, the Ly$\\alpha$ emission peaks around the time of the peak of thermal soft X-ray e...

  1. A common stochastic process rules gamma-ray burst prompt emission and X-ray flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guidorzi, C; Frontera, F; Margutti, R; Baldeschi, A; Amati, L

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prompt gamma-ray and early X-ray afterglow emission in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are characterized by a bursty behavior and are often interspersed with long quiescent times. There is compelling evidence that X-ray flares are linked to prompt gamma-rays. However, the physical mechanism that leads to the complex temporal distribution of gamma-ray pulses and X-ray flares is not understood. Here we show that the waiting time distribution (WTD) of pulses and flares exhibits a power-law tail extending over 4 decades with index ~2 and can be the manifestation of a common time-dependent Poisson process. This result is robust and is obtained on different catalogs. Surprisingly, GRBs with many (>=8) gamma-ray pulses are very unlikely to be accompanied by X-ray flares after the end of the prompt emission (3.1 sigma Gaussian confidence). These results are consistent with a simple interpretation: an hyperaccreting disk breaks up into one or a few groups of fragments, each of which is independently accreted with the same pro...

  2. Temporal evolution of multiple evaporating ribbon sources in a solar flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, D R

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present new results from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph showing the dynamic evolution of chromospheric evaporation and condensation in a flare ribbon, with the highest temporal and spatial resolution to date. IRIS observed the entire impulsive phase of the X-class flare SOL2014-09-10T17:45 using a 9.4 second cadence `sit-and-stare' mode. As the ribbon brightened successively at new positions along the slit, a unique impulsive phase evolution was observed for many tens of individual pixels in both coronal and chromospheric lines. Each activation of a new footpoint displays the same initial coronal up-flows of up to ~300 km/s, and chromospheric downflows up to 40 km/s. Although the coronal flows can be delayed by over 1 minute with respect to those in the chromosphere, the temporal evolution of flows is strikingly similar between all pixels, and consistent with predictions from hydrodynamic flare models. Given the large sample of independent footpoints, we conclude that each flaring pixel can be c...

  3. LETTER Earth Planets Space, 61, 577580, 2009 Flares and the chromosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, Hugh

    LETTER Earth Planets Space, 61, 577­580, 2009 Flares and the chromosphere Hugh S. Hudson1 limited to the "semi-empirical" models, based on 1D radiative-transfer physics. Such an approach omits dy energetics (Section 2), en- ergy build-up (Section 3), and energy release (Section 4), attempting to use

  4. Earth Planets Space, 00, 000--000, 2000 Solar Flare Mechanism Based on Magnetic Arcade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Earth Planets Space, 00, 000--000, 2000 Solar Flare Mechanism Based on Magnetic Arcade Reconnection, Princeton, NJ 08543­0451 (Received ; Revised ; Accepted ) We propose a model describing physical processes is large enough to accelerate electrons to an energy level higher than 10 keV, which is necessary

  5. Accretion, fluorescent X-ray emission and flaring magnetic structures in YSOs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Favata

    2004-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    I present some recent developments on high-energy phenomena in YSOs, concentrating on the new evidence for accretion-induced X-ray emission in YSOs, for Fe 6.4 keV fluorescent emission from the disks of YSOs and for very long magnetic structures responsible for intense X-ray flares, likely connecting the star and the circumstellar disk.

  6. Hard X-ray Emission During Flares and Photospheric Field Changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burtseva, O; Petrie, G J D; Pevtsov, A A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the correlation between abrupt permanent changes of magnetic field during X-class flares observed by the GONG and HMI instruments, and the hard X-ray (HXR) emission observed by RHESSI, to relate the photospheric field changes to the coronal restructuring and investigate the origin of the field changes. We find that spatially the early RHESSI emission corresponds well to locations of the strong field changes. The field changes occur predominantly in the regions of strong magnetic field near the polarity inversion line (PIL). The later RHESSI emission does not correspond to significant field changes as the flare footpoints are moving away from the PIL. Most of the field changes start before or around the start time of the detectable HXR signal, and they end at about the same time or later than the detectable HXR flare emission. Some of the field changes propagate with speed close to that of the HXR footpoint at a later phase of the flare. The propagation of the field changes often takes place after the...

  7. The Sun as an X-ray Star: III. Flares F. Reale, G. Peres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    distribution vs. temperature and its evolution during some selected solar ares, representative of the wideThe Sun as an X-ray Star: III. Flares F. Reale, G. Peres Dip. di Scienze Fisiche & Astronomiche class C5.8) to very intense ones (X9) are selected as representative of the aring Sun. The emission

  8. CHARGE-EXCHANGE LIMITS ON LOW-ENERGY {alpha}-PARTICLE FLUXES IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudson, H. S. [SSL, UC Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Fletcher, L.; MacKinnon, A. L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Woods, T. N., E-mail: hhudson@ssl.berkeley.edu [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, 1234 Innovation Dr., Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

    2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on a search for flare emission via charge-exchange radiation in the wings of the Ly{alpha} line of He II at 304 A, as originally suggested for hydrogen by Orrall and Zirker. Via this mechanism a primary {alpha} particle that penetrates into the neutral chromosphere can pick up an atomic electron and emit in the He II bound-bound spectrum before it stops. The Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory gives us our first chance to search for this effect systematically. The Orrall-Zirker mechanism has great importance for flare physics because of the essential roles that particle acceleration plays; this mechanism is one of the few proposed that would allow remote sensing of primary accelerated particles below a few MeV nucleon{sup -1}. We study 10 events in total, including the {gamma}-ray events SOL2010-06-12 (M2.0) and SOL2011-02-24 (M3.5) (the latter a limb flare), seven X-class flares, and one prominent M-class event that produced solar energetic particles. The absence of charge-exchange line wings may point to a need for more complete theoretical work. Some of the events do have broadband signatures, which could correspond to continua from other origins, but these do not have the spectral signatures expected from the Orrall-Zirker mechanism.

  9. Very fast optical flaring from a possible new Galactic A. Stefanescu1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    1 , A. Slowikowska2,3 , J. Greiner1 , S. McBreen1 & G. Sala1 Highly luminous rapid flares fibre, plus one additional, more distant background fibre to determine and subtract the sky background. All apertures are of 300 mm diameter, corresponding to 6 arcsec on the sky with the SKO 1.3m telescope

  10. Particle acceleration and radiation by direct electric fields in flaring complex solar active regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anastasiadis, Anastasios

    Particle acceleration and radiation by direct electric fields in flaring complex solar active-Meudon, 92195 Meudon Cedex, FRANCE Abstract The acceleration and radiation of solar energetic particles with the existing observations. 1 Introduction The approach used for particle acceleration models proposed for solar

  11. Continuous and H-alpha emission of a flare of July 4, 1974

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babin, A.N.; Diatel, N.P.; Livshits, M.A.

    1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The position of a white flare is compared with those of bright nodes in the H-alpha line, as well as with the position of the neutral line of the longitudinal magnetic field. Under the assumption that the brightest knot of the white flare, adjacent to the umbra of a sunspot, does not alter its position with time, it is found that the knot coincides with the position of one of the knots of the H-alpha flare immediately before the explosive phase; subsequently, the distance between the emission maxima increases to several arc seconds. An equidensitometric analysis permitted an estimate of the energy of the event: the flux in the optical continuum exceeds the H-alpha emission by almost two orders of magnitude, while the power near the flare maximum is about 10 to the 27th erg/sec for both types of emission. The entire event is connected with the process in loops rising to heights of less than 7000 km. 18 references.

  12. GEOMAGNETIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE SOLAR FLARES DURING THE LAST HALE SOLAR CYCLE (II)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GEOMAGNETIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE SOLAR FLARES DURING THE LAST HALE SOLAR CYCLE (II) Georgeta Maris@aira.astro.ro ABSTRACT/RESUME The effects of the solar energetic phenomena cover the entire terrestrial environment, from is the solar plasma that may originate from solar eruptive phenomena that take their energy from magnetic field

  13. The shock reprocessing model of electron acceleration in impulsive solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Selkowitz; Eric G. Blackman

    2005-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new two-stage model for acceleration of electrons in solar flares. In the first stage, electrons are accelerated stochastically in a post-reconnection turbulent downflow. The second stage is the reprocessing of a subset of these electrons as they pass through a weakly compressive fast shock above the apex of the closed flare loop on their way to the chromosphere. We call this the "shock reprocessing" model. The model reproduces the energy dependent arrival time delays observed for both the pulsed and smooth components of impulsive solar flare x-rays with physically reasonable parameters for the downflow region. The model also predicts an emission site above the loop-top, as seen in the Masuda flare. The loop-top source distinguishes the shock reprocessing model from previous models. The model makes testable predictions for the energy dependence of footpoint pulse strengths and the location and spectrum of the loop-top emission, and can account for the observed soft-hard-soft trend in the spectral evolution of footpoint emission. Our model highlights the concept that reconnection is an acceleration environment rather than a single process. Which combination of processes operate may depend on the initial conditions that determine, for example, whether the reconnection downflow is turbulent. The shock reprocessing model comprises one such combination.

  14. The shock reprocessing model of electron acceleration in impulsive solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, R; Selkowitz, Robert; Blackman, Eric G.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new two-stage model for acceleration of electrons in solar flares. In the first stage, electrons are accelerated stochastically in a post-reconnection turbulent downflow. The second stage is the reprocessing of a subset of these electrons as they pass through a weakly compressive fast shock above the apex of the closed flare loop on their way to the chromosphere. We call this the "shock reprocessing" model. The model reproduces the energy dependent arrival time delays observed for both the pulsed and smooth components of impulsive solar flare x-rays with physically reasonable parameters for the downflow region. The model also predicts an emission site above the loop-top, as seen in the Masuda flare. The loop-top source distinguishes the shock reprocessing model from previous models. The model makes testable predictions for the energy dependence of footpoint pulse strengths and the location and spectrum of the loop-top emission, and can account for the observed soft-hard-soft trend in the spectral...

  15. Toward magnetic field dissipation during the 23 July 2002 solar flare measured with Solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zharkova, Valentina V.

    and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager (SOHO/MDI) and Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager (SOHO/MDI) and Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic] It is widely accepted that the source of primary energy release in solar flares is associated with magnetic

  16. DIFFERENT PATTERNS OF CHROMOSPHERIC EVAPORATION IN A FLARING REGION OBSERVED WITH HINODE/EIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Y.; Ding, M. D., E-mail: dmd@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the chromospheric evaporation in the flare of 2007 January 16 using line profiles observed by the Exterme-UV Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode. Three points at flare ribbons of different magnetic polarities are analyzed in detail. We find that the three points show different patterns of upflows and downflows in the impulsive phase of the flare. The spectral lines at the first point are mostly blueshifted, with the hotter lines showing a dominant blueshifted component over the stationary one. At the second point, however, only weak upflows are detected; instead, notable downflows appear at high temperatures (up to 2.5-5.0 MK). The third point is similar to the second one only in that it shows evidence of multi-component downflows. While the evaporated plasma falling back down as warm rain is a possible cause of the redshifts at the second and third points, the different patterns of chromospheric evaporation at the three points imply the existence of different heating mechanisms in the flaring active region.

  17. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF GAMMA-RAY BURST OPTICAL EMISSION. I. FLARES AND EARLY SHALLOW-DECAY COMPONENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Liang; Liang Enwei; Tang Qingwen; Chen Jiemin; Xi Shaoqiang; Zhang Bing; Lu Ruijing; Lue Lianzhong [Department of Physics and GXU-NAOC, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Lue Houjun; Gao He [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Zhang Jin; Wei Jianyan [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Yi Shuangxi, E-mail: lew@gxu.edu.cn, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [College of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Nanning University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Well-sampled optical light curves of 146 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are compiled from the literature. By empirical fitting, we identify eight possible emission components and summarize the results in a 'synthetic' light curve. Both optical flare and early shallow-decay components are likely related to long-term central engine activities. We focus on their statistical properties in this paper. Twenty-four optical flares are obtained from 19 GRBs. The isotropic R-band energy is smaller than 1% of E{sub {gamma},iso}. The relation between the isotropic luminosities of the flares and gamma rays follows L{sup F}{sub R,iso}{proportional_to}L {sup 1.11{+-}0.27}{sub {gamma},iso}. Later flares tend to be wider and dimmer, i.e., w{sup F} {approx} t{sup F}{sub p}/2 and L{sup F}{sub R,iso}{proportional_to}[t{sup F}{sub p}/(1 + z)]{sup -1.15{+-}0.15}. The detection probability of the optical flares is much smaller than that of X-ray flares. An optical shallow-decay segment is observed in 39 GRBs. The relation between the break time and break luminosity is a power law, with an index of -0.78 {+-} 0.08, similar to that derived from X-ray flares. The X-ray and optical breaks are usually chromatic, but a tentative correlation is found. We suggest that similar to the prompt optical emission that tracks {gamma}-rays, the optical flares are also related to the erratic behavior of the central engine. The shallow-decay component is likely related to a long-lasting spinning-down central engine or piling up of flare materials onto the blast wave. Mixing of different emission components may be the reason for the diverse chromatic afterglow behaviors.

  18. Upper limits on the solar-neutron flux at the Yangbajing neutron monitor from BATSE-detected solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Tsuchiya; H. Miyasaka; E. Takahashi; S. Shimoda; Y. Yamada; I. Kondo; K. Makishima; F. Zhu; Y. Tan; H. Hu; Y. Tang; J. Zhang; H. Lu; X. Meng

    2007-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this work is to search the Yangbajing neutron monitor data obtained between 1998 October and 2000 June for solar neutrons associated with solar flares. Using the onset times of 166 BATSE-detected flares with the GOES peak flux (1 -- 8 \\AA) higher than $1.0 \\times 10^{-5}$ $\\mathrm{Wm^{-2}}$, we prepare for each flare a light curve of the Yangbajing neutron monitor, spanning $\\pm$ 1.5 hours from the BATSE onset time. Based on the light curves, a systematic search for solar neutrons in energies above 100 MeV from the 166 flares was performed. No statistically significant signals due to solar neutrons were found in the present work. Therefore, we put upper limits on the $>$ 100 MeV solar-neutron flux for 18 events consisting of 2 X and 16 M class flares. The calculation assumed a power-law shaped neutron energy spectrum and three types of neutron emission profiles at the Sun. Compared with the other positive neutron detections associated with X-class flares, typical 95% confidence level upper limits for the two X-class flares are found to be comparable to the lowest and second lowest neutron fluxes at the top of the atmosphere.In addition, the upper limits for M-class flares scatter in the range of $10^{-2}$ to 1 neutrons $\\mathrm{cm^{-2}s^{-1}}$. This provides the first upper limits on the solar-neutron flux from M-class solar flares, using space observatories as well as ground-based neutron monitors.

  19. IDENTIFYING CANDIDATE PROTEIN FOR REMOVAL OF ENVIRONMENTALLY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uppsala Universitet

    IDENTIFYING CANDIDATE PROTEIN FOR REMOVAL OF ENVIRONMENTALLY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES Pharem Biotech products and technologies for removing environmental hazardous substances in our everyday life. The products can be applied in areas from the private customer up to the global corporate perspective

  20. Arsenic removal and stabilization by synthesized pyrite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Jin Kun

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry method for measuring arsenic species (As(III), As(V)). The synthesized pyrite was applied to remove arsenic and its maximum capacity for arsenic removal was measured in batch adsorption experiments to be 3...

  1. Automatic Eyeglasses Removal from Face Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasayya, Vivek

    Automatic Eyeglasses Removal from Face Images Chenyu Wu, Ce Liu, Heung-Yueng Shum, Member, IEEE an intelligent image editing and face synthesis system that automatically removes eyeglasses from an input frontal face image. Although conventional image editing tools can be used to remove eyeglasses by pixel

  2. Laser-based coatings removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the years as building and equipment surfaces became contaminated with low levels of uranium or plutonium dust, coats of paint were applied to stabilize the contaminants in place. Most of the earlier paint used was lead-based paint. More recently, various non-lead-based paints, such as two-part epoxy, are used. For D & D (decontamination and decommissioning), it is desirable to remove the paints or other coatings rather than having to tear down and dispose of the entire building.

  3. Removing Stains from Washable Fabrics.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beard, Ann Vanderpoorten

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Page Numbers Stain Page Numbers Acne medicine Blueberry Special 9 Wet 8 Adhesive tape Dye 8 Special 9 Butter Alcoholic beverages Dry 8 Wet 8 Oil 8 Tannin 8 Calamine lotion Asphalt Combination 8 Combination 8 Dye 8 Dye 8 Candle wax Automotive... the most gentle to the most harsh, so always stop treatments as soon as the stain has been removed. Dry Type Stains Dissolve the stain with a grease solvent. Lubricate the stain with dry spotter, coconut oil or mineral oil (sold in health food...

  4. High Energy Neutrino Flashes from Far-Ultraviolet and X-ray Flares in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohta Murase; Shigehiro Nagataki

    2006-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent observations of bright optical and x-ray flares by the Swift satellite suggest these are produced by the late activities of the central engine. We study the neutrino emission from far-ultraviolet and x-ray flares under the late internal shock model. We show that the efficiency of pion production in the highest energy is comparable to or higher than the unity, and the contribution from such neutrino flashes to a diffuse very high energy neutrino background can be larger than that of prompt bursts if the total baryonic energy input into flares is comparable to the radiated energy of prompt bursts. These signals may be detected by IceCube and are very important because they have possibilities to probe the nature of flares (the baryon loading, the photon field, the magnetic field and so on).

  5. Physics of ion acceleration in the solar flare on 2005 September 7 determines c-ray and neutron production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    de San Andre´s, La Paz, Bolivia m Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro. Angular and energy-dependent neutron emission from solar flare magnetic loops, Astrophys. J. Sup- pl. Ser

  6. OBSERVATIONAL STUDY OF THE QUASI-PERIODIC FAST-PROPAGATING MAGNETOSONIC WAVES AND THE ASSOCIATED FLARE ON 2011 MAY 30

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen Yuandeng; Liu Yu, E-mail: ydshen@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 110, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On 2011 May 30, quasi-periodic fast-propagating (QFP) magnetosonic waves accompanied by a C2.8 flare were directly imaged by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The QFP waves successively emanated from the flare kernel, they propagated along a cluster of open coronal loops with a phase speed of {approx}834 km s{sup -1} during the flare's rising phase, and the multiple arc-shaped wave trains can be fitted with a series of concentric circles. We generate the k - {omega} diagram of the Fourier power and find a straight ridge that represents the dispersion relation of the waves. Along the ridge, we find a lot of prominent nodes which represent the available frequencies of the QFP waves. On the other hand, the frequencies of the flare are also obtained by analyzing the flare light curves using the wavelet technique. The results indicate that almost all the main frequencies of the flare are consistent with those of the QFP waves. This suggests that the flare and the QFP waves were possibly excited by a common physical origin. On the other hand, a few low frequencies (e.g., 2.5 mHz (400 s) and 0.7 mHz (1428 s)) revealed by the k - {omega} diagram cannot be found in the accompanying flare. We propose that these low frequencies were possibly due to the leakage of the pressure-driven p-mode oscillations from the photosphere into the low corona, which should be a noticeable mechanism for driving the QFP waves observed in the corona.

  7. On the detection of neutrinos from solar flares using pion-decay photons to provide a time window template

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Wasseige, G; van Eijndhoven, N; Evenson, P; Klein, K -L

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the end of the eighties and in response to a reported increase in the total neutrino flux in the Homestake experiment in coincidence with solar flares, solar neutrino detectors have searched for solar flare signals. Even though these detectors have used different solar flare samples and analyses, none of them has been able to confirm the possible signal seen by Homestake. Neutrinos from the decay of mesons, which are themselves produced in collisions of accelerated ions with the solar atmosphere would provide a novel window on the underlying physics of the hadronic acceleration and interaction processes during solar flares. Solar flare neutrino flux measurements would indeed help to constrain current parameters such as the composition of the accelerated flux, the proton/ion spectral index and the high energy cutoff or the magnetic configuration in the interaction region. We describe here a new way to search for these neutrinos by considering a specific solar flare sample and a data driven time window te...

  8. Melter Glass Removal and Dismantlement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, BS

    2000-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been using vitrification processes to convert high-level radioactive waste forms into a stable glass for disposal in waste repositories. Vitrification facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) are converting liquid high-level waste (HLW) by combining it with a glass-forming media to form a borosilicate glass, which will ensure safe long-term storage. Large, slurry fed melters, which are used for this process, were anticipated to have a finite life (on the order of two to three years) at which time they would have to be replaced using remote methods because of the high radiation fields. In actuality the melters useable life spans have, to date, exceeded original life-span estimates. Initial plans called for the removal of failed melters by placing the melter assembly into a container and storing the assembly in a concrete vault on the vitrification plant site pending size-reduction, segregation, containerization, and shipment to appropriate storage facilities. Separate facilities for the processing of the failed melters currently do not exist. Options for handling these melters include (1) locating a facility to conduct the size-reduction, characterization, and containerization as originally planned; (2) long-term storing or disposing of the complete melter assembly; and (3) attempting to refurbish the melter and to reuse the melter assembly. The focus of this report is to look at methods and issues pertinent to size-reduction and/or melter refurbishment in particular, removing the glass as a part of a refurbishment or to reduce contamination levels (thus allowing for disposal of a greater proportion of the melter as low level waste).

  9. Radio Flares of Compact Binary Mergers: the Effect of Non-Trivial Outflow Geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Margalit, Ben

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The next generation gravitational waves (GW) detectors are most sensitive to GW emitted by compact (neutron star/black hole) binary mergers. If one of those is a neutron star the merger will also emit electromagnetic radiation via three possible channels: Gamma-ray bursts and their (possibly orphan) afterglows (Eichler et al. 1989), Li-Paczynski Macronovae (Li & Paczynski 1998) and radio flares (Nakar & Piran 2011). This accompanying electromagnetic radiation is vitally important in confirming the GW detections (Kochanek & Piran 1993). It could also reveal a wealth of information regarding the merger and will open a window towards multi-messenger astronomy. Identifying and characterizing these counterparts is therefore of utmost importance. In this work we explore late time radio flares emitted by the dynamically ejected outflows. We build upon previous work and consider the effect of the outflow's non-trivial geometry. Using an approximate method we estimate the radio light-curves for several eje...

  10. Power Laws in Solar Flares: Self-Organized Criticality or Turbulence?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guido Boffetta; Vincenzo Carbone; Paolo Giuliani; Pierluigi Veltri; Angelo Vulpiani

    1999-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the time evolution of Solar Flares activity by looking at the statistics of quiescent times $\\tau_{L}$ between successive bursts. The analysis of 20 years of data reveals a power law distribution with exponent $\\alpha \\simeq 2.4$ which is an indication of complex dynamics with long correlation times. The observed scaling behavior is in contradiction with the Self-Organized Criticality models of Solar Flares which predict Poisson-like statistics. Chaotic models, including the destabilization of the laminar phases and subsequent restabilization due to nonlinear dynamics, are able to reproduce the power law for the quiescent times. In the case of the more realistic Shell Model of MHD turbulence we are able to reproduce all the observed distributions.

  11. The synchrotron peak shift during high-energy flares of blazars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Boettcher

    1999-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A prediction for the energy shift of the synchrotron spectrum of flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) during high-energy flares is presented. If the $\\gamma$-ray emission of FSRQs is produced by Comptonization of external radiation, then the peak of the synchrotron spectrum is predicted to move to lower energies in the flare state. This is opposite to the well-known broadband spectral behavior of high-frequency peaked BL-Lac objects where the external radiation field is believed to be weak and synchrotron-self Compton scattering might be the dominant $\\gamma$-ray radiation mechanism. The synchrotron peak shift, if observed in FSRQs, can thus be used as a diagnostic to determine the dominant radiation mechanism in these objects. I suggest a few FSRQs as promising candidates to test the prediction of the external-Comptonization model.

  12. Numerical Study of a Propagating Non-Thermal Microwave Feature in a Solar Flare Loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Minoshima; T. Yokoyama

    2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We analytically and numerically study the motion of electrons along a magnetic loop, to compare with the observation of the propagating feature of the non-thermal microwave source in the 1999 August 28 solar flare reported by Yokoyama et al. (2002). We model the electron motion with the Fokker-Planck equation and calculate the spatial distribution of the gyrosynchrotron radiation. We find that the microwave propagating feature does not correspond to the motion of electrons with a specific initial pitch angle. This apparent propagating feature is a consequence of the motion of an ensemble of electrons with different initial pitch angles, which have different time and position to produce strong radiation in the loop. We conclude that the non-thermal electrons in the 1999 August 28 flare were isotropically accelerated and then are injected into the loop.

  13. QUASI-PERIODIC FORMALDEHYDE MASER FLARES IN THE MASSIVE PROTOSTELLAR OBJECT IRAS 18566+0408

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Araya, E. D. [Physics Department, Western Illinois University, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States); Hofner, P.; Goss, W. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kurtz, S. [Centro de RadioastronomIa y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 3-72, 58089 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Richards, A. M. S. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Linz, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Olmi, L. [University of Puerto Rico at Rio Piedras, Physics Department, P.O. Box 23343, San Juan, PR 00931 (Puerto Rico); Sewilo, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2010-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We report results of an extensive observational campaign of the 6 cm formaldehyde maser in the young massive stellar object IRAS 18566+0408 (G37.55+0.20) conducted from 2002 to 2009. Using the Arecibo Telescope, the Very Large Array, and the Green Bank Telescope, we discovered quasi-periodic formaldehyde flares (P {approx} 237 days). Based on Arecibo observations, we also discovered correlated variability between formaldehyde (H{sub 2}CO) and methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) masers. The H{sub 2}CO and CH{sub 3}OH masers are not spatially coincident, as demonstrated by different line velocities and high angular resolution MERLIN observations. The flares could be caused by variations in the infrared radiation field, possibly modulated by periodic accretion onto a young binary system.

  14. Hadronic Production of TeV Gamma Ray Flares from Blazars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnon Dar; Ari Laor

    1997-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose that TeV $\\gamma$-ray emission from blazars is produced by collisions near the line of sight of high energy jet protons with gas targets (``clouds'') from the broad emission-line region (BLR). Intense TeV $\\gamma$-ray flares (GRFs) are produced when BLR clouds cross the line of sight close to the black hole. The model reproduces the observed properties of the recently reported very short and intense TeV GRFs from the blazar Markarian 421. Hadronic production of TeV GRF from blazars implies that it is accompanied by a simultaneous emission of high energy neutrinos, and of electrons and positrons with similar intensities, light curves and energy spectra. Cooling of these electrons and positrons by emission of synchrotron radiation and inverse Compton scattering produces delayed optical, X-ray and $\\gamma$-ray flares.

  15. Strongly Blueshifted Phenomena Observed with {\\it Hinode}/EIS in the 2006 December 13 Solar Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayumi Asai; Hirohisa Hara; Tetsuya Watanabe; Shinsuke Imada; Taro Sakao; Noriyuki Narukage; J. L. Culhane; G. A. Doschek

    2008-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed examination of strongly blueshifted emission lines observed with the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on board the {\\it Hinode} satellite. We found two kinds of blueshifted phenomenon associated with the X3.4 flare that occurred on 2006 December 13. One was related to a plasmoid ejection seen in soft X-rays. It was very bright in all the lines used for the observations. The other was associated with the faint arc-shaped ejection seen in soft X-rays. The soft X-ray ejection is thought to be an MHD fast-mode shock wave. This is therefore the first spectroscopic observation of an MHD fast-mode shock wave associated with a flare.

  16. EVOLUTION OF CURRENTS OF OPPOSITE SIGNS IN THE FLARE-PRODUCTIVE SOLAR ACTIVE REGION NOAA 10930

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravindra, B. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Venkatakrishnan, P.; Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar; Bhattacharyya, R., E-mail: ravindra@iiap.res.in, E-mail: pvk@prl.res.in, E-mail: tiwari@mps.mpg.de, E-mail: ramit@prl.res.in [Udaipur Solar Observatory, Physical Research Laboratory, Dewali, Bari Road, Udaipur 313 001 (India)

    2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of a time series of high spatial resolution vector magnetograms of the active region NOAA 10930 available from the Solar Optical Telescope SpectroPolarimeter on board Hinode revealed that there is a mixture of upward and downward currents in the two footpoints of an emerging flux rope. The flux emergence rate is almost the same in both the polarities. We observe that along with an increase in magnetic flux, the net current in each polarity increases initially for about three days after which it decreases. This net current is characterized by having exactly opposite signs in each polarity while its magnitude remains almost the same most of the time. The decrease of the net current in both the polarities is due to the increase of current having a sign opposite to that of the net current. The dominant current, with the same sign as the net current, is seen to increase first and then decreases during the major X-class flares. Evolution of non-dominant current appears to be a necessary condition for flare initiation. The above observations can be plausibly explained in terms of the superposition of two different force-free states resulting in a non-zero Lorentz force in the corona. This Lorentz force then pushes the coronal plasma and might facilitate the magnetic reconnection required for flares. Also, the evolution of the net current is found to follow the evolution of magnetic shear at the polarity inversion line.

  17. On the 2012 October 23 circular ribbon flare: emission features and magnetic topology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Kai; Ding, M D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Circular ribbon flares are usually related to spine-fan type magnetic topology containing null-points. In this paper, we investigate an X-class circular ribbon flare on 2012 October 23, using the multi-wavelength data from the \\textit{Solar Dynamics Observatory}, \\textit{Hinode}, and the \\textit{Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager}. In \\ion{Ca}{2} H emission, the flare showed three ribbons with two highly elongated ones inside and outside a quasi-circular one, respectively. A hot channel was displayed in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emissions that infers the existence of a magnetic flux rope. Two hard X-ray (HXR) sources in the 12--25 keV energy band were located at the footpoints of this hot channel. Using a nonlinear force-free magnetic field extrapolation, we identify three topological structures: (1) a 3D null-point, (2) a flux rope below the fan of the null-point, and (3) a large-scale quasi-separatrix layers (QSL) induced by the quadrupolar-like magnetic field of the active region. We find th...

  18. MODELING OF GYROSYNCHROTRON RADIO EMISSION PULSATIONS PRODUCED BY MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC LOOP OSCILLATIONS IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mossessian, George; Fleishman, Gregory D. [Center For Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A quantitative study of the observable radio signatures of the sausage, kink, and torsional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillation modes in flaring coronal loops is performed. Considering first non-zero order effect of these various MHD oscillation modes on the radio source parameters such as magnetic field, line of sight, plasma density and temperature, electron distribution function, and the source dimensions, we compute time-dependent radio emission (spectra and light curves). The radio light curves (of both flux density and degree of polarization) at all considered radio frequencies are then quantified in both time domain (via computation of the full modulation amplitude as a function of frequency) and in Fourier domain (oscillation spectra, phases, and partial modulation amplitude) to form the signatures specific to a particular oscillation mode and/or source parameter regime. We found that the parameter regime and the involved MHD mode can indeed be distinguished using the quantitative measures derived in the modeling. We apply the developed approach to analyze radio burst recorded by Owens Valley Solar Array and report possible detection of the sausage mode oscillation in one (partly occulted) flare and kink or torsional oscillations in another flare.

  19. Imaging and spectroscopic observations of magnetic reconnection and chromospheric evaporation in a solar flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, Hui; Reeves, Katharine K; Raymond, John C; Guo, Fan; Liu, Wei; Chen, Bin; Murphy, Nicholas A

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic reconnection is believed to be the dominant energy release mechanism in solar flares. The standard flare model predicts both downward and upward outflow plasmas with speeds close to the coronal Alfv\\'{e}n speed. Yet, spectroscopic observations of such outflows, especially the downflows, are extremely rare. With observations of the newly launched Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), we report the detection of greatly redshifted ($\\sim$125 km s$^{-1}$ along line of sight) Fe {\\sc{xxi}} 1354.08\\AA{} emission line with a $\\sim$100 km s$^{-1}$ nonthermal width at the reconnection site of a flare. The redshifted Fe {\\sc{xxi}} feature coincides spatially with the loop-top X-Ray source observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). We interpret this large redshift as the signature of downward-moving reconnection outflow/hot retracting loops. Imaging observations from both IRIS and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) also...

  20. Solar Flare Chromospheric Line Emission: Comparison Between IBIS High-resolution Observations and Radiative Hydrodynamic Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    da Costa, Fatima Rubio; Petrosian, Vahé; Dalda, Alberto Sainz; Liu, Wei

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar flares involve impulsive energy release, which results in enhanced radiation in a broad spectral and at a wide height range. In particular, line emission from the chromosphere (lower atmosphere) can provide critical diagnostics of plasma heating processes. Thus, a direct comparison between high-resolution spectroscopic observations and advanced numerical modeling results can be extremely valuable, but has not been attempted so far. We present in this paper such a self-consistent investigation of an M3.0 flare observed by the Dunn Solar Telescope's (DST) Interferometric Bi-dimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) on 2011 September 24 that we have modeled with the radiative hydrodynamic code RADYN (Carlsson & Stein 1992, 1997; Abbett & Hawley 1999; Allred et al. 2005). We obtained images and spectra of the flaring region with IBIS in H$\\alpha$ 6563 \\AA\\ and Ca II 8542 \\AA, and with the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscope Imager (RHESSI) in X-rays. The latter was used to infer the non-thermal elect...

  1. Comparative Analysis of Non-thermal Emissions and Study of Electron Transport in a Solar Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Minoshima; T. Yokoyama; N. Mitani

    2007-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the non-thermal emissions in a solar flare occurring on 2003 May 29 by using RHESSI hard X-ray (HXR) and Nobeyama microwave observations. This flare shows several typical behaviors of the HXR and microwave emissions: time delay of microwave peaks relative to HXR peaks, loop-top microwave and footpoint HXR sources, and a harder electron energy distribution inferred from the microwave spectrum than from the HXR spectrum. In addition, we found that the time profile of the spectral index of the higher-energy ($\\gsim 100$ keV) HXRs is similar to that of the microwaves, and is delayed from that of the lower-energy ($\\lsim 100$ keV) HXRs. We interpret these observations in terms of an electron transport model called {\\TPP}. We numerically solved the spatially-homogeneous {\\FP} equation to determine electron evolution in energy and pitch-angle space. By comparing the behaviors of the HXR and microwave emissions predicted by the model with the observations, we discuss the pitch-angle distribution of the electrons injected into the flare site. We found that the observed spectral variations can qualitatively be explained if the injected electrons have a pitch-angle distribution concentrated perpendicular to the magnetic field lines rather than isotropic distribution.

  2. X-ray flare in XRF 050406: evidence for prolonged engine activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romano, P; Banat, P L; Burrows, D N; Campana, S; Chincarini, G; Covino, S; Malesani, D; Tagliaferri, G; Kobayashi, S; Zhang, B; Falcone, A D; Angelini, L; Barthelmy, S; Beardmore, A P; Capalbi, M; Cusumano, G; Giommi, P; Goad, M R; Godet, O; Grupe, D; Hill, J E; Kennea, J A; La Parola, V; Mangano, V; Mészáros, P; Morris, D C; Nousek, J A; O'Brien, P T; Osborne, J P; Parsons, A; Perri, M; Pagani, C; Page, K L; Wells, A A; Gehrels, N

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present observations of XRF 050406, the first burst detected by Swift showing a flare in its X-ray light curve. During this flare, which peaks at t_peak ~210s after the BAT trigger, a flux variation of (delta F)/F~6 in a very short time (delta t)/t_peak<<1 was observed. Its measured fluence in the 0.2-10 keV band was ~1.4x10^-8 erg cm^-2, which corresponds to 1-15% of the prompt fluence. We present indications of spectral variations during the flare. We argue that the producing mechanism is late internal shocks, which implies that the central engine is still active at 210s, though with a reduced power with respect to the prompt emission. The X-ray light curve flattens to a very shallow slope with decay index of ~0.5 after ~4400s, which also supports continued central engine activity at late times. This burst is classified as an X-ray flash, with a relatively low fluence (~10^-7 erg cm^-2 in the 15-350 keV band, E_iso~10^51 erg), a soft spectrum (photon index 2.65), no significant flux above ~50 keV a...

  3. Study of multi-periodic coronal pulsations during an X-class solar flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chowdhury, Partha; Dwivedi, B N; Sych, Robert; Moon, Y -J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate quasi-periodic coronal pulsations during the decay phase of an X 3.2 class flare on 14 May 2013, using soft X-ray data from the RHESSI satellite. Periodogram analyses of soft X-ray light curves show that 53 s and 72 s periods co-exist in the 3-6, 6-12 and 12-25 KeV energy bands. Considering the typical length of the flaring loop system and observed periodicities, we find that they are associated with multiple (first two harmonics) of fast magnetoacoustic sausage waves. The phase relationship of soft X-ray emissions in different energy bands using cross-correlation technique show that these modes are standing in nature as we do not find the phase lag. Considering the period ratio, we diagnose the local plasma conditions of the flaring region by invoking MHD seismology. The period ratio P1/2P2 is found to be 0.65, which indicates that such oscillations are most likely excited in longitudinal density stratified loops.

  4. Collisional relaxation of electrons in a warm plasma and accelerated nonthermal electron spectra in solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kontar, E P; Emslie, A G; Bian, N H

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extending previous studies of nonthermal electron transport in solar flares which include the effects of collisional energy diffusion and thermalization of fast electrons, we present an analytic method to infer more accurate estimates of the accelerated electron spectrum in solar flares from observations of the hard X-ray spectrum. Unlike for the standard cold-target model, the spatial characteristics of the flaring region, especially the necessity to consider a finite volume of hot plasma in the source, need to be taken into account in order to correctly obtain the injected electron spectrum from the source-integrated electron flux spectrum (a quantity straightforwardly obtained from hard X-ray observations). We show that, for a given source-integrated electron flux spectrum, the overall power in the injected electrons could be reduced by an order of magnitude or more relative to its cold-target value. Indeed, the extent of electron thermalization can be significant enough to nullify the need to introduce an...

  5. RESIK Solar X-ray flare element abundances on a non-isothermal assumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylwester, B; Sylwester, J; Kepa, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar X-ray spectra from the RESIK crystal spectrometer on the {\\em CORONAS-F} spacecraft (spectral range $3.3-6.1$~\\AA) are analyzed for thirty-three flares using a method to derive abundances of Si, S, Ar, and K, emission lines of which feature prominently in the spectra. For each spectrum, the method first optimizes element abundances then derives the differential emission measure as a function of temperature based on a procedure given by Sylwester et al. and Withbroe. This contrasts with our previous analyses of RESIK spectra in which an isothermal assumption was used. The revised abundances (on a logarithmic scale with $A({\\rm H}) = 12$) averaged for all the flares in the analysis are $A({\\rm Si}) = 7.53 \\pm 0.08$ (previously $7.89 \\pm 0.13$), $A({\\rm S}) = 6.91 \\pm 0.07$ ($7.16 \\pm 0.17$), $A({\\rm Ar}) = 6.47 \\pm 0.08$ ($6.45 \\pm 0.07$), and $A({\\rm K}) = 5.73 \\pm 0.19$ ($5.86 \\pm 0.20$), with little evidence for time variations of abundances within the evolution of each flare. Our previous estimates of...

  6. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Paul J. (both Los Alamos, NM); Delhaize, Emmanuel (both Los Alamos, NM); Robinson, Nigel J. (Durham, GB2); Unkefer, Clifford J. (Los Alamos, NM); Furlong, Clement (Seattle, WA)

    1990-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat unit for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heayv metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  7. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Paul J. (Los Alamos, NM); Delhaize, Emmanuel (Los Alamos, NM); Robinson, Nigel J. (Durham, GB2); Unkefer, Clifford J. (Los Alamos, NM); Furlong, Clement (Seattle, WA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  8. ON THE FLARE-INDUCED SEISMICITY IN THE ACTIVE REGION NOAA 10930 AND RELATED ENHANCEMENT OF GLOBAL WAVES IN THE SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Brajesh; Venkatakrishnan, P. [Udaipur Solar Observatory, Physical Research Laboratory, Dewali, Badi Road, Udaipur 313 004 (India); Mathur, Savita [High Altitude Observatory, 3080 Center Green Drive, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Str. 2, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Garcia, R. A., E-mail: brajesh@prl.res.in, E-mail: pvk@prl.res.in, E-mail: savita@ucar.edu, E-mail: tiwari@mps.mpg.de, E-mail: rafael.garcia@cea.fr [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS, Universite Paris 7 Diderot, IRFU/SAp, Centre de Saclay, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A major flare (of class X3.4) occurred on 2006 December 13 in the active region NOAA 10930. This flare event has remained interesting to solar researchers for studies related to particle acceleration during the flare process and the reconfiguration of magnetic fields as well as fine-scale features in the active region. The energy released during flares is also known to induce acoustic oscillations in the Sun. Here, we analyze the line-of-sight velocity patterns in this active region during the X3.4 flare using the Dopplergrams obtained by the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) instrument. We have also analyzed the disk-integrated velocity observations of the Sun obtained by the Global Oscillation at Low Frequency (GOLF) instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft as well as full-disk collapsed velocity signals from GONG observations during this flare to study any possible connection between the flare-related changes seen in the local and global velocity oscillations in the Sun. We apply wavelet transform to the time series of the localized velocity oscillations as well as the global velocity oscillations in the Sun spanning the flare event. The line-of-sight velocity shows significant enhancement in some localized regions of the penumbra of this active region during the flare. The affected region is seen to be away from the locations of the flare ribbons and the hard X-ray footpoints. The sudden enhancement of this velocity seems to be caused by the Lorentz force driven by the 'magnetic jerk' in the localized penumbral region. Application of wavelet analysis to these flare-induced localized seismic signals shows significant enhancement in the high-frequency domain (5 <{nu} < 8 mHz) and a feeble enhancement in the p-mode oscillations (2 <{nu} < 5 mHz) during the flare. On the other hand, the wavelet analysis of GOLF velocity data and the full-disk collapsed GONG velocity data spanning the flare event indicates significant post-flare enhancements in the high-frequency global velocity oscillations in the Sun, as evident from the wavelet power spectrum and the corresponding scale-average variance. The present observations of the flare-induced seismic signals in the active region in context of the driving force are different as compared to previous reports on such cases. We also find indications of a connection between flare-induced localized seismic signals and the excitation of global high-frequency oscillations in the Sun.

  9. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  10. PRTR ion exchange vault water removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ham, J.E.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the removal of radiologically contaminated water from the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange vault. Approximately 57,000 liters (15,000 gallons) of water had accumulated in the vault due to the absence of a rain cover. The water was removed and the vault inspected for signs of leakage. No evidence of leakage was found. The removal and disposal of the radiologically contaminated water decreased the risk of environmental contamination.

  11. General Counsel Legal Interpretation Regarding Medical Removal...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Regarding Medical Removal Protection Benefits Pursuant to 10 CFR Part 850, Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program General Counsel Legal Interpretation Regarding Medical...

  12. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  13. Slag capture and removal during laser cutting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Clyde O. (Newington, CT)

    1984-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Molten metal removed from a workpiece in a laser cutting operation is blown away from the cutting point by a gas jet and collected on an electromagnet.

  14. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  15. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  16. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert,George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand,Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); Delaurentiis,Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2007-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  17. Natural gas monthly, November 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Gross withdrawals of natural gas (wet, after lease separation) from gas and oil wells in the United States during November 1988, were estimated at 1755 billion cubic feet, 1.3 percent above withdrawals during November 1987. Of the total quantity, an estimated 215 billion cubic feet were returned to gas and oil reservoirs for repressuring, pressure maintenance, and cycling; 35 billion cubic feet of nonhydrocarbon gases were removed; and 13 billion cubic feet were vented or flared. The remaining wet marketed production totaled 1492 billion cubic feet. Dry gas production (wet marketed production minus 70 billion cubic feet of extraction loss) totaled an estimated 1422 billion cubic feet, similar to the November 1987 level. The total dry gas supply available for disposition in November 1988 was estimated at 1702 billion cubic feet, including 173 billion cubic feet withdrawn from storage, 12 billion cubic feet of supplemental supplies, and 95 billion cubic feet that were imported. In November 1987, dry gas available for disposition totaled 1684 billion cubic feet. Of the total dry gas supply available for disposition in November 1988, an estimated 1467 billion cubic feet were consumed, 148 billion cubic feet were injected into underground storage reservoirs, and 5 billion cubic feet were exported, leaving 82 billion cubic feet unaccounted for.

  18. Natural gas monthly, May 1988. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Gross withdrawals of natural gas (wet, after lease separation) from gas and oil wells in the United States during May 1988, were estimated at 1632 billion cubic feet, 1.3 percent above withdrawals during May 1987. Of the total quantity, an estimated 179 billion cubic feet were returned to gas and oil reservoirs for repressuring, pressure maintenance, and cycling; 10 billion cubic feet were vented or flared; and 33 billion cubic feet of nonhydrocarbon gases were removed. The remaining wet marketed production totaled 1410 billion cubic feet. Dry gas production (wet marketed production minus 67 billion cubic feet of extraction loss) totaled an estimated 1343 billion cubic feet, 1.7 percent above the May 1987 level. The total dry gas supply available for disposition in May 1988 was estimated at 1490 billion cubic feet, including 35 billion cubic feet withdrawn from storage, 11 billion cubic feet of supplemental supplies, and 101 billion cubic feet that were imported. In May 1987, dry gas available for disposition totaled 1419 billion cubic feet. Of the total dry gas supply available for disposition in May 1988, an estimated 1259 billion cubic feet were consumed, 294 billion cubic feet were injected into underground storage reservoirs, and 5 billion cubic feet were exported, leaving 68 billion cubic feet unaccounted for.

  19. Natural gas monthly, March 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Gross withdrawals of natural gas (wet, after lease separation) from gas and oil wells in the United States during March 1989, were estimated at 1777 billion cubic feet, 0.4 percent below withdrawals during March 1988. Of the total quantity, an estimated 211 billion cubic feet were returned to gas and oil reservoirs for repressuring, pressure maintenance, and cycling; 36 billion cubic feet of nonhydrocarbon gases were removed; and 12 billion cubic feet were vented or flared. The remaining wet marketed production totaled 1518 billion cubic feet. Dry gas production (wet marketed production minus 71 billion cubic feet of extraction loss) totaled an estimated 1447 billion cubic feet, similar to the March 1988 level. The total dry gas supply available for disposition in March 1989 was estimated at 1881 billion cubic feet, including 319 billion cubic feet withdrawn from storage, 14 billion cubic feet of supplemental supplies, and 101 billion cubic feet that were imported. In March 1988, dry gas available for disposition totaled 1841 billion cubic feet. Of the total dry gas supply available for disposition in March 1989, an estimated 1837 billion cubic feet were consumed, 93 billion cubic feet were injected into underground storage reservoirs and 8 billion cubic feet were exported, leaving 57 billion cubic feet unaccounted for.

  20. Solar Flare Prediction Using SDO/HMI Vector Magnetic Field Data with a Machine-Learning Algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bobra, Monica G

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We attempt to forecast M-and X-class solar flares using a machine-learning algorithm, called Support Vector Machine (SVM), and four years of data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager, the first instrument to continuously map the full-disk photospheric vector magnetic field from space. Most flare forecasting efforts described in the literature use either line-of-sight magnetograms or a relatively small number of ground-based vector magnetograms. This is the first time a large dataset of vector magnetograms has been used to forecast solar flares. We build a catalog of flaring and non-flaring active regions sampled from a database of 2,071 active regions, comprised of 1.5 million active region patches of vector magnetic field data, and characterize each active region by 25 parameters. We then train and test the machine-learning algorithm and we estimate its performances using forecast verification metrics with an emphasis on the True Skill Statistic (TSS). We obtain relatively h...

  1. Flare Ribbons Observed with G-band and FeI 6302A Filters of the Solar Optical Telescope on Board Hinode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Isobe; M. Kubo; T. Minoshima; K. Ichimoto; Y. Katsukawa; T. D. Tarbell; S. Tsuneta; T. E. Berger; B. W. Lites; S. Nagata; T. Shimizu; R. A. Shine; Y. Suematsu; A. Title

    2007-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board Hinode satellite observed an X3.4 class flare on 2006 December 13. Typical two-ribbon structure was observed, not only in the chromospheric CaII H line but also in G-band and FeI 6302A line. The high-resolution, seeing-free images achieved by SOT revealed, for the first time, the sub-arcsec fine structures of the "white light" flare. The G-band flare ribbons on sunspot umbrae showed a sharp leading edge followed by a diffuse inside, as well as previously known core-halo structure. The underlying structures such as umbral dots, penumbral filaments and granules were visible in the flare ribbons. Assuming that the sharp leading edge was directly heated by particle beam and the diffuse parts were heated by radiative back-warming, we estimate the depth of the diffuse flare emission using the intensity profile of the flare ribbon. We found that the depth of the diffuse emission is about 100 km or less from the height of the source of radiative back-warming. The flare ribbons were also visible in the Stokes-V images of FeI 6302A, as a transient polarity reversal. This is probably related to "magnetic transient" reported in the literature. The intensity increase in Stokes-I images indicates that the FeI 6302A line was significantly deformed by the flare, which may cause such a magnetic transient.

  2. Method for changing removable bearing for a wind turbine generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran (Niskayuna, NY); Jansen, Patrick Lee (Scotia, NY); Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya (Rexford, NY)

    2008-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A wind generator having removable change-out bearings includes a rotor and a stator, locking bolts configured to lock the rotor and stator, a removable bearing sub-assembly having at least one shrunk-on bearing installed, and removable mounting bolts configured to engage the bearing sub-assembly and to allow the removable bearing sub-assembly to be removed when the removable mounting bolts are removed.

  3. Removable bearing arrangement for a wind turbine generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A wind generator having removable change-out bearings includes a rotor and a stator, locking bolts configured to lock the rotor and stator, a removable bearing sub-assembly having at least one shrunk-on bearing installed, and removable mounting bolts configured to engage the bearing sub-assembly and to allow the removable bearing sub-assembly to be removed when the removable mounting bolts are removed.

  4. EVOLUTION OF SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELD AND ASSOCIATED MULTIWAVELENGTH PHENOMENA: FLARE EVENTS ON 2003 NOVEMBER 20

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Uddin, Wahab [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), Manora Peak, Nainital 263 129 (India); Manoharan, P. K., E-mail: pkumar@aries.res.i, E-mail: wahab@aries.res.i, E-mail: mano@ncra.tifr.res.i [Radio Astronomy Centre, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Udhagamandalam (Ooty) 643 001 (India)

    2010-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze Halpha images, soft X-ray profiles, magnetograms, extreme ultra-violet images and, radio observations of two homologous flare events (M1.4/1N and M9.6/2B) on 2003 November 20 in the active region NOAA 10501 and study properties of reconnection between twisted filament systems, energy release, and associated launch of coronal mass ejections. During both events twisted filaments observed in Halpha approached each other and initiated the flare processes. However, the second event showed the formation of cusp as the filaments interacted. The rotation of sunspots of opposite polarities, inferred from the magnetograms likely powered the twisted filaments and injection of helicity. Along the current sheet between these two opposite polarity sunspots, the shear was maximum, which could have caused the twist in the filament. At the time of interaction between filaments, the reconnection took place and flare emission in thermal and nonthermal energy ranges attained the maximum. The radio signatures revealed the opening of field lines resulting from the reconnection. The Halpha images and radio data provide the inflow speed leading to reconnection and the scale size of the particle acceleration region. The first event produced a narrow and slow CME, whereas the later one was associated with a fast full halo CME. The halo CME signatures observed between the Sun and Earth using white-light and scintillation images and in situ measurements indicated the magnetic energy utilized in the expansion and propagation. The magnetic cloud signature at the Earth confirmed the flux rope ejected at the time of filament interaction and reconnection.

  5. ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF TWO FLARE LOOPS OBSERVED BY AIA AND EIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Y.; Ding, M. D. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Qiu, J. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze and model an M1.0 flare observed by SDO/AIA and Hinode/EIS to investigate how flare loops are heated and evolve subsequently. The flare is composed of two distinctive loop systems observed in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images. The UV 1600 A emission at the feet of these loops exhibits a rapid rise, followed by enhanced emission in different EUV channels observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS). Such behavior is indicative of impulsive energy deposit and the subsequent response in overlying coronal loops that evolve through different temperatures. Using the method we recently developed, we infer empirical heating functions from the rapid rise of the UV light curves for the two loop systems, respectively, treating them as two big loops with cross-sectional area of 5'' by 5'', and compute the plasma evolution in the loops using the EBTEL model. We compute the synthetic EUV light curves, which, with the limitation of the model, reasonably agree with observed light curves obtained in multiple AIA channels and EIS lines: they show the same evolution trend and their magnitudes are comparable by within a factor of two. Furthermore, we also compare the computed mean enthalpy flow velocity with the Doppler shift measurements by EIS during the decay phase of the two loops. Our results suggest that the two different loops with different heating functions as inferred from their footpoint UV emission, combined with their different lengths as measured from imaging observations, give rise to different coronal plasma evolution patterns captured both in the model and in observations.

  6. The Carina Flare: What can fragments in the wall tell us?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wunsch, Richard; Sidorin, Vojtech; Ehlerova, Sona; Palous, Jan; Dale, James; Dawson, Joanne R; Fukui, Yasuo

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    $^{13}$CO(J=2--1) and C$^{18}$O(J=2--1) observations of the molecular cloud G285.90+4.53 (Cloud~16) in the Carina Flare supershell (GSH287+04-17) with the APEX telescope are presented. With an algorithm DENDROFIND we identify 51 fragments and compute their sizes and masses. We discuss their mass spectrum and interpret it as being the result of the shell fragmentation process described by the pressure assisted gravitational instability - PAGI. We conclude that the explanation of the clump mass function needs a combination of gravity with pressure external to the shell.

  7. Analysis of the Impulsive Phase of Solar Flares with Pass 8 LAT data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desiante, R; Omodei, N; Pesce-Rollins, M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show the results of analyses performed on high-energy gamma-ray emission during the impulsive phase of solar flares detected by the LAT using Pass 8 data. We compare results obtained with Pass 7 and Pass 8 data sets, using both LAT Low Energy and standard data classes. With a dedicated event selection, Pass 8 allows standard analysis during the impulsive phase: it has been designed to be less susceptible to pile-up in the LAT Anti-Coincidence Detector caused by the intense hard X-ray emission at early times.

  8. PROPERTIES OF A SOLAR FLARE KERNEL OBSERVED BY HINODE AND SDO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, P. R. [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)] [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Doschek, G. A.; Warren, H. P. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)] [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Hara, H. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan/NINS, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)] [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan/NINS, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flare kernels are compact features located in the solar chromosphere that are the sites of rapid heating and plasma upflow during the rise phase of flares. An example is presented from a M1.1 class flare in active region AR 11158 observed on 2011 February 16 07:44 UT for which the location of the upflow region seen by EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) can be precisely aligned to high spatial resolution images obtained by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). A string of bright flare kernels is found to be aligned with a ridge of strong magnetic field, and one kernel site is highlighted for which an upflow speed of Almost-Equal-To 400 km s{sup -1} is measured in lines formed at 10-30 MK. The line-of-sight magnetic field strength at this location is Almost-Equal-To 1000 G. Emission over a continuous range of temperatures down to the chromosphere is found, and the kernels have a similar morphology at all temperatures and are spatially coincident with sizes at the resolution limit of the AIA instrument ({approx}<400 km). For temperatures of 0.3-3.0 MK the EIS emission lines show multiple velocity components, with the dominant component becoming more blueshifted with temperature from a redshift of 35 km s{sup -1} at 0.3 MK to a blueshift of 60 km s{sup -1} at 3.0 MK. Emission lines from 1.5-3.0 MK show a weak redshifted component at around 60-70 km s{sup -1} implying multi-directional flows at the kernel site. Significant non-thermal broadening corresponding to velocities of Almost-Equal-To 120 km s{sup -1} is found at 10-30 MK, and the electron density in the kernel, measured at 2 MK, is 3.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}. Finally, the Fe XXIV {lambda}192.03/{lambda}255.11 ratio suggests that the EIS calibration has changed since launch, with the long wavelength channel less sensitive than the short wavelength channel by around a factor two.

  9. Detecting Flaring Structures in Sagittarius A* with (Sub)Millimeter VLBI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent L. Fish; Sheperd S. Doeleman; Avery E. Broderick; Abraham Loeb; Alan E. E. Rogers

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiwavelength monitoring observations of Sagittarius A* exhibit variability on timescales of minutes to hours, indicating emission regions localized near the event horizon. (Sub)Millimeter-wavelength VLBI is uniquely suited to probe the environment of the assumed black hole on these scales. We consider a range of orbiting hot-spot and accretion-disk models and find that periodicity in Sgr A* flares is detectable using closure quantities. Our methods are applicable to any model producing source structure changes near the black hole, including jets and magnetohydrodynamic disk instabilities, and suggest that (sub)millimeter VLBI will play a prominent role in investigating Sgr A* near the event horizon.

  10. Particle acceleration by slow modes in strong compressible MHD turbulence, with application to solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin D. G. Chandran

    2003-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Energetic particles that undergo strong pitch-angle scattering and diffuse through a plasma containing strong compressible MHD turbulence undergo diffusion in momentum space with diffusion coefficient Dp. In this paper, the contribution of slow modes to Dp is calculated assuming the rms turbulent velocity is of order the Alfven speed. The energy spectrum of accelerated particles is derived assuming slow modes make the dominant contribution to Dp, taking into account Coulomb losses and particle escape from the acceleration region with an energy-independent escape time. The results are applied to solar flares.

  11. In situ removal of contamination from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindgren, Eric R. (Albuquerque, NM); Brady, Patrick V. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of remediation of cationic heavy metal contamination from soil utilizes gas phase manipulation to inhibit biodegradation of a chelating agent that is used in an electrokinesis process to remove the contamination, and further gas phase manipulation to stimulate biodegradation of the chelating agent after the contamination has been removed. The process ensures that the chelating agent is not attacked by bioorganisms in the soil prior to removal of the contamination, and that the chelating agent does not remain as a new contaminant after the process is completed.

  12. In situ removal of contamination from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindgren, E.R.; Brady, P.V.

    1997-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of remediation of cationic heavy metal contamination from soil utilizes gas phase manipulation to inhibit biodegradation of a chelating agent that is used in an electrokinesis process to remove the contamination. The process also uses further gas phase manipulation to stimulate biodegradation of the chelating agent after the contamination has been removed. The process ensures that the chelating agent is not attacked by bioorganisms in the soil prior to removal of the contamination, and that the chelating agent does not remain as a new contaminant after the process is completed. 5 figs.

  13. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, G.T.; Holshouser, S.K.; Coleman, R.M.; Harless, C.E.; Whinnery, W.N. III

    1982-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  14. Install Removable Insulation on Valves and Fittings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on installing removable insulation on valves and fittings provides how-to advice for improving the system using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  15. Part removal of 3D printed parts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peña Doll, Mateo

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was performed to understand the correlation between printing parameters in the FDM 3D printing process, and the force required to remove a part from the build platform of a 3D printing using a patent ...

  16. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, Gus T. (Paducah, KY); Holshouser, Stephen K. (Boaz, KY); Coleman, Richard M. (Paducah, KY); Harless, Charles E. (Smithland, KY); Whinnery, III, Walter N. (Paducah, KY)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  17. Laser removal of sludge from steam generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing unwanted chemical deposits known as sludge from the metal surfaces of steam generators with laser energy is provided. Laser energy of a certain power density, of a critical wavelength and frequency, is intermittently focused on the sludge deposits to vaporize them so that the surfaces are cleaned without affecting the metal surface (sludge substrate). Fiberoptic tubes are utilized for laser beam transmission and beam direction. Fiberoptics are also utilized to monitor laser operation and sludge removal.

  18. Oil removal from water via adsorption 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, William Edward

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION I I. LITERATURE REVIEW Significance of Oil Spill Proble. ". . s Growth of Marine Commerce Superport Oil Spills Oil Spills and the Law Oil Spill Control Methods Physical Removal of Oil III. MATERIALS... IV Table V Table VI Significant Facts about Major Oil Spills Viscosity of Test Oils Determined by Capillary Viscometer Percent of Oil Remaining in Water After Removal of Oil-Carrier Combination Maximum Oil Adsorption Capacity for Light Crude...

  19. GAMMA-RAY FLARES FROM RED GIANT/JET INTERACTIONS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barkov, Maxim V.; Aharonian, Felix A.; Bosch-Ramon, ValentI, E-mail: bmv@mpi-hd.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-blazar active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have been recently established as a class of gamma-ray sources. M87, a nearby representative of this class, shows fast TeV variability on timescales of a few days. We suggest a scenario of flare gamma-ray emission in non-blazar AGNs based on a red giant (RG) interacting with the jet at the base. We solve the hydrodynamical equations that describe the evolution of the envelope of an RG blown by the impact of the jet. If the RG is at least slightly tidally disrupted by the supermassive black hole, enough stellar material will be blown by the jet, expanding quickly until a significant part of the jet is shocked. This process can render suitable conditions for energy dissipation and proton acceleration, which could explain the detected day-scale TeV flares from M87 via proton-proton collisions. Since the radiation produced would be unbeamed, such an event should be mostly detected from non-blazar AGNs. They may be frequent phenomena, detectable in the GeV-TeV range even up to distances of {approx}1 Gpc for the most powerful jets. The counterparts at lower energies are expected to be not too bright. M87, and nearby non-blazar AGNs in general, can be fast variable sources of gamma-rays through RG/jet interactions.

  20. Acceleration and Enrichment of 3He in Impulsive Solar Flares by Electron Firehose Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Paesold; R. Kallenbach; A. O. Benz

    2002-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A new mechanism for acceleration and enrichment of 3He during impulsive solar flares is presented. Low-frequency electromagnetic plasma waves excited by the Electron Firehose Instability (EFI) can account for the acceleration of ions up to 1 MeV/amu energies as a single stage process. The EFI arises as a direct consequence of the free energy stored in a temperature anisotropy (T_parallel>T_perp) of the bulk energized electron population during the acceleration process. In contrast to other mechanisms which require special plasma properties, the EFI is an intrinsic feature of the acceleration process of the bulk electrons. Being present as a side effect in the flaring plasma, these waves can account for the acceleration of 3He and 4He while selectively enhancing 3He due to the spectral energy density built up from linear growth. Linearized kinetic theory, analytic models and test-particle simulations have been applied to investigate the ability of the waves to accelerate and fractionate. As waves grow in both directions parallel to the magnetic field, they can trap resonant ions and efficiently accelerate them to the highest energies. Plausible models have been found that can explain the observed energies, spectra and abundances of 3He and 4He.

  1. Constraints on Blazar Jet Conditions During Gamma-Ray Flaring from Radiative Transfer Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aller, Margo F; Aller, Hugh D; Hovatta, Talvikki

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of a program to investigate jet flow conditions during GeV gamma-ray flares detected by Fermi, we are using UMRAO multi-frequency, centimeter-band total flux density and linear polarization monitoring observations to constrain radiative transfer models incorporating propagating shocks orientated at an arbitrary angle to the flow direction. We describe the characteristics of the model, illustrate how the data are used to constrain the models, and present results for three program sources with diverse characteristics: PKS 0420-01, OJ 287, and 1156+295. The modeling of the observed spectral behavior yields information on the sense, strength and orientation of the shocks producing the radio-band flaring; on the energy distribution of the radiating particles; and on the observer's viewing angle with respect to the jet independent of VLBI data. We present evidence that, while a random component dominates the jet magnetic field, a distinguishing feature of those radio events with an associated gamma-ray flar...

  2. Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seaman, John

    2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittal’s Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

  3. Characterization of the Inner Knot of the Crab: The Site of the Gamma-ray Flares?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudy, A; DeLuca, A; Kolodziejczak, J; Tennant, A; Yuan, Y; Buehler, R; Arons, J; Blandford, R; Caraveo, P; Costa, E; Funk, S; Hays, E; Lobanov, A; Max, C; Mayer, M; Mignani, R; O'Dell, S L; Romani, R; Tavani, M; Weisskopf, M C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most intriguing results from the gamma-ray instruments in orbit has been the detection of powerful flares from the Crab Nebula. These flares challenge our understanding of pulsar wind nebulae and models for particle acceleration. We report on the portion of a multiwavelength campaign using Keck, HST, and Chandra concentrating on a small emitting region, the Crab's inner knot, located a fraction of an arcsecond from the pulsar. We find that the knot's radial size, tangential size, peak flux, and the ratio of the flux to that of the pulsar are correlated with the projected distance of the knot from the pulsar. A new approach, using singular value decomposition for analyzing time series of images, was introduced yielding results consistent with the more traditional methods while some uncertainties were substantially reduced. We exploit the characterization of the knot to discuss constraints on standard shock-model parameters that may be inferred from our observations assuming the inner knot lies near ...

  4. PROPAGATION OF ALFVENIC WAVES FROM CORONA TO CHROMOSPHERE AND CONSEQUENCES FOR SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, A. J. B.; Fletcher, L. [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    How do magnetohydrodynamic waves travel from the fully ionized corona, into and through the underlying partially ionized chromosphere, and what are the consequences for solar flares? To address these questions, we have developed a two-fluid model (of plasma and neutrals) and used it to perform one-dimensional simulations of Alfven waves in a solar atmosphere with realistic density and temperature structure. Studies of a range of solar features (faculae, plage, penumbra, and umbra) show that energy transmission from corona to chromosphere can exceed 20% of incident energy for wave periods of 1 s or less. Damping of waves in the chromosphere depends strongly on wave frequency: waves with periods 10 s or longer pass through the chromosphere with relatively little damping, however, for periods of 1 s or less, a substantial fraction (37%-100%) of wave energy entering the chromosphere is damped by ion-neutral friction in the mid- and upper chromosphere, with electron resistivity playing some role in the lower chromosphere and in umbras. We therefore conclude that Alfvenic waves with periods of a few seconds or less are capable of heating the chromosphere during solar flares, and speculate that they could also contribute to electron acceleration or exciting sunquakes.

  5. Stochastic Fermi Acceleration of sub-Relativistic Electrons and Its Role in Impulsive Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, R; Selkowitz, Robert; Blackman, Eric G.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We reexamine stochastic Fermi acceleration (STFA) in the low energy (Newtonian) regime in the context of solar flares. The particle energization rate depends a dispersive term and a coherent gain term. The energy dependence of pitch angle scattering is important for determining the electron energy spectrum. For scattering by whistler wave turbulence, STFA produces a quasi-thermal spectrum. A second well-constrained scattering mechanism is needed for STFA to match the observed 10-100keV non-thermal spectrum. We suggest that STFA most plausibly acts as phase one of a two phase particle acceleration engine in impulsive flares: STFA can match the thermal spectrum below 10kev, and possibly the power law spectrum between 10 and 100keV, given the proper pitch angle scattering. However, a second phase, such as shock acceleration at loop tops, is likely required to match the spectrum above the observed knee at 100keV. Understanding this knee, if it survives further observations, is tricky.

  6. Stochastic Fermi Acceleration of sub-Relativistic Electrons and Its Role in Impulsive Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Selkowitz; Eric G. Blackman

    2004-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We reexamine stochastic Fermi acceleration (STFA) in the low energy (Newtonian) regime in the context of solar flares. The particle energization rate depends a dispersive term and a coherent gain term. The energy dependence of pitch angle scattering is important for determining the electron energy spectrum. For scattering by whistler wave turbulence, STFA produces a quasi-thermal spectrum. A second well-constrained scattering mechanism is needed for STFA to match the observed 10-100keV non-thermal spectrum. We suggest that STFA most plausibly acts as phase one of a two phase particle acceleration engine in impulsive flares: STFA can match the thermal spectrum below 10kev, and possibly the power law spectrum between 10 and 100keV, given the proper pitch angle scattering. However, a second phase, such as shock acceleration at loop tops, is likely required to match the spectrum above the observed knee at 100keV. Understanding this knee, if it survives further observations, is tricky.

  7. Heating and Dynamics of Two Flare Loop Systems Observed by AIA and EIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Y; Ding, M D

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate heating and evolution of flare loops in a C4.7 two-ribbon flare on 2011 February 13. From SDO/AIA imaging observations, we can identify two sets of loops. Hinode/EIS spectroscopic observations reveal blueshifts at the feet of both sets of loops. The evolution and dynamics of the two sets are quite different. The first set of loops exhibits blueshifts for about 25 minutes followed by redshifts, while the second set shows stronger blueshifts, which are maintained for about one hour. The UV 1600 observation by AIA also shows that the feet of the second set of loops brighten twice. These suggest that continuous heating may be present in the second set of loops. We use spatially resolved UV light curves to infer heating rates in the few tens of individual loops comprising the two loop systems. With these heating rates, we then compute plasma evolution in these loops with the "enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops" (EBTEL) model. The results show that, for the first set of loops, the synthetic EU...

  8. WASTE INCINERATION wr090203 Activity 090203 SNAP CODE: 090203 SOURCE ACTIVITY TITLE: WASTE INCINERATION Flaring in Oil Refinery NOSE CODE: 109.03.11 NFR CODE:

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    So Nox; Nmvoc Ch; Co Co; No Nh

    Flares are commonly used during petroleum refining for the safe disposal of waste gases during process upsets (e.g., start-up, shut-down, system blow-down) and emergencies to combust the organic content of waste emission streams without recovering/using the associated energy. 2 CONTRIBUTION TO TOTAL EMISSIONS Although flaring emission estimates are approximate, total hydrocarbon emissions from flaring at Canadian petroleum refineries during 1988 represented about 0.1 % of the refinery sector process and fugitive emissions that also included petroleum marketing emissions (CPPE, 1990). Thus the flaring operation at refineries is estimated to contribute a very small fraction of the total HC emissions in Canada. Emissions from flaring activities may also include: particulate, SOx, NOx, CO and other NMVOC. The CO2 contribution of both miscellaneous vent and flare emission sources represented approximately 9 % of the total petroleum refinery SO2 emission in Canada during 1988. Emissions estimates from flaring in petroleum refineries as reported in the CORINAIR90 inventory are summarised in Table 1. Table 1: Contribution to total emissions of the CORINAIR90 inventory (28 countries) Source-activity SNAP-code Contribution to total emissions [%

  9. THE n-DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRONS AND DOUBLE LAYERS IN THE ELECTRON-BEAM-RETURN-CURRENT SYSTEM OF SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karlicky, Marian, E-mail: karlicky@asu.cas.cz [Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ-25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic)

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate processes in the electron-beam-return-current system in the impulsive phase of solar flares to answer a question about the formation of the n-electron distribution detected in this phase of solar flares. An evolution of the electron-beam-return-current system with an initial local density depression is studied using a three-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell model. In the system the strong double layer is formed. Its electric field potential increases with the electron beam flux. In this electric field potential, the electrons of background plasma are strongly accelerated and propagate in the return-current direction. The high-energy part of their distribution at the high-potential side of the strong double layer resembles that of the n-distribution. Thus, the detection of the n-distributions, where a form of the high-energy part of the distribution is the most important, can indicate the presence of strong double layers in solar flares. The similarity between processes in solar flare loops and those in the downward current region of the terrestrial aurora, where the double layers were observed by FAST satellite, supports this idea.

  10. Global analysis of active longitudes of solar X-ray flares L. Zhang a,b,c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China c Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, Chinese AcademyGlobal analysis of active longitudes of solar X-ray flares L. Zhang a,b,c , K. Mursula a,Ã, I of Sciences, Beijing, China d University of Oulu, Sodankyl¨a Geophysical Observatory, Oulu, Finland a r t i c

  11. Sub-GeV flashes in $\\gamma-$ray burst afterglows as probes of underlying bright UV flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Y; Fan, Yizhong; Piran, Tsvi

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bright optical and X-ray flares have been observed in many Gamma-ray Burst (GRB) afterglows. These flares have been attributed to late activity of the central engine. In most cases the peak energy is not known and it is possible and even likely that there is a significant far-ultraviolet component. These far-UV photons escape our detection because they are absorbed by the neutral hydrogen before reaching Earth. However, these photons cross the blast wave produced by the ejecta that have powered the initial GRB. They can be inverse Compton upscattered by hot electrons within this blast wave. This process will produce a strong sub-GeV flare that can be detected by the upcoming {\\em Gamma-Ray Large Area Telescope} (GLAST) satellite. This signature can be used to probe the spectrum of the underlying far-ultraviolet flare. The extra cooling produced by this inverse Compton process can lower the X-ray emissivity of the forward shock and explain the unexpected low early X-ray flux seen in many GRBs.

  12. Stellar flares observed by LOFT: implications for the physics of coronae and for the "space weather" environment of extrasolar planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drake, S A; Doyle, J G; Güdel, M; Hamaguchi, K; Kowalski, A F; Maccarone, T; Osten, R A; Peretz, U; Wolk, S J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a White Paper in support of the mission concept of the Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT), proposed as a medium-sized ESA mission. We discuss the potential of LOFT for the study of stellar flares. For a summary, we refer to the paper.

  13. First detection of >100 MeV gamma rays associated with a behind-the-limb solar flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pesce-Rollins, Melissa; Petrosian, Vahe'; Liu, Wei; da Costa, Fatima Rubio; Allafort, Alice; Chen, Qingrong

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the first detection of >100 MeV gamma rays associated with a behind-the-limb solar flare, which presents a unique opportunity to probe the underlying physics of high-energy flare emission and particle acceleration. On 2013 October 11 a GOES M1.5 class solar flare occurred ~ 9.9 degrees behind the solar limb as observed by STEREO-B. RHESSI observed hard X-ray emission above the limb, most likely from the flare loop-top, as the footpoints were occulted. Surprisingly, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) detected >100 MeV gamma-rays for ~30 minutes with energies up to GeV. The LAT emission centroid is consistent with the RHESSI hard X-ray source, but its uncertainty does not constrain the source to be located there. The gamma-ray spectra can be adequately described by bremsstrahlung radiation from relativistic electrons having a relatively hard power-law spectrum with a high-energy exponential cutoff, or by the decay of pions produced by accelerated protons and ions with an isotropic pitch-angle distri...

  14. Workers Remove Glove Boxes from Ventilation at Hanford's Plutonium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Remove Glove Boxes from Ventilation at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant Workers Remove Glove Boxes from Ventilation at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant January 28, 2015 -...

  15. Functionalized Nanoporous Silica for Removal of Heavy Metals...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoporous Silica for Removal of Heavy Metals from Biological Systems; Adsorption and Application. Functionalized Nanoporous Silica for Removal of Heavy Metals from Biological...

  16. Removing Barriers to Innovations: Related Codes and Standards...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Removing Barriers to Innovations: Related Codes and Standards CSI Team Removing Barriers to Innovations: Related Codes and Standards CSI Team This presentation was delivered at the...

  17. Y-12 Removes Nuclear Materials from Two Facilities to Reduce...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Home Field Offices Welcome to the NNSA Production Office NPO News Releases Y-12 Removes Nuclear Materials from Two Facilities ... Y-12 Removes Nuclear Materials from...

  18. Field Demonstration Of Permeable Reactive Barriers To Remove

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Field Demonstration Of Permeable Reactive Barriers To Remove Dissolved Uranium From Groundwater-001 November 2000 FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS TO REMOVE DISSOLVED URANIUM FROM

  19. New Research Facility to Remove Hurdles to Offshore Wind and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research Facility to Remove Hurdles to Offshore Wind and Water Power Development New Research Facility to Remove Hurdles to Offshore Wind and Water Power Development January 10,...

  20. Selective Removal of Lanthanides from Natural Waters, Acidic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Removal of Lanthanides from Natural Waters, Acidic Streams and Dialysate. Selective Removal of Lanthanides from Natural Waters, Acidic Streams and Dialysate. Abstract: The...

  1. Oak Ridge Removes Laboratory's Greatest Source of Groundwater...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Removes Laboratory's Greatest Source of Groundwater Contamination Oak Ridge Removes Laboratory's Greatest Source of Groundwater Contamination May 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Workers...

  2. United States, International Partners Remove Last Remaining Weapons...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    removed HEU under this effort are Austria, Chile, Czech Republic, Libya, Mexico, Romania, Serbia, Taiwan, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam. To date, the Department has removed or...

  3. 241-AZ-101 pump removal trough analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the current Hanford mission of environmental cleanup, various long length equipment must be removed from highly radioactive waste tanks. The removal of equipment will utilize portions of the Equipment Removal System for Project W320 (ERS-W320), specifically the 50 ton hydraulic trailer system. Because the ERS-W320 system was designed to accommodate much heavier equipment it is adequate to support the dead weight of the trough, carriage and related equipment for 241AZ101 pump removal project. However, the ERS-W320 components when combined with the trough and its` related components must also be analyzed for overturning due to wind loads. Two troughs were designed, one for the 20 in. diameter carriage and one for the 36 in. diameter carriage. A proposed 52 in. trough was not designed and, therefore is not included in this document. In order to fit in the ERS-W320 strongback the troughs were design with the same widths. Structurally, the only difference between the two troughs is that more material was removed from the stiffener plates on the 36 in trough. The reduction in stiffener plate material reduces the allowable load. Therefore, only the 36 in. trough was analyzed.

  4. System for removal of arsenic from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical systems for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A system for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a system for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  5. Process for removing metals from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Napier, J.M.; Hancher, C.M.; Hackett, G.D.

    1987-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing metals from water including the steps of prefiltering solids from the water, adjusting the pH to between about 2 and 3, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, increasing the pH to between about 6 and 8, adding water-soluble sulfide to precipitate insoluble sulfide- and hydroxide-forming metals, adding a containing floc, and postfiltering the resultant solution. The postfiltered solution may optionally be eluted through an ion exchange resin to remove residual metal ions. 2 tabs.

  6. Process for removing metals from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Napier, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hancher, Charles M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hackett, Gail D. (Knoxville, TN)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing metals from water including the steps of prefiltering solids from the water, adjusting the pH to between about 2 and 3, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, increasing the pH to between about 6 and 8, adding water-soluble sulfide to precipitate insoluble sulfide- and hydroxide-forming metals, adding a flocculating agent, separating precipitate-containing floc, and postfiltering the resultant solution. The postfiltered solution may optionally be eluted through an ion exchange resin to remove residual metal ions.

  7. Removal of uranium from aqueous HF solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pulley, Howard (West Paducah, KY); Seltzer, Steven F. (Paducah, KY)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a simple and effective method for removing uranium from aqueous HF solutions containing trace quantities of the same. The method comprises contacting the solution with particulate calcium fluoride to form uranium-bearing particulates, permitting the particulates to settle, and separting the solution from the settled particulates. The CaF.sub.2 is selected to have a nitrogen surface area in a selected range and is employed in an amount providing a calcium fluoride/uranium weight ratio in a selected range. As applied to dilute HF solutions containing 120 ppm uranium, the method removes at least 92% of the uranium, without introducing contaminants to the product solution.

  8. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  9. Heat treatment of exchangers to remove coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.D.

    1990-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for preparing furfural coke for removal from metallic surfaces. It comprises: heating the furfural coke without causing an evolution of heat capable of undesirably altering metallurgical properties of the surfaces in the presence of a gas containing molecular oxygen at a sufficient temperature below 800{degrees}F (427{degrees}C) for a sufficient time to change the crush strength of the coke so as to permit removal with a water jet at a pressure of five thousand pounds per square inch.

  10. Recommendation 183: Preferred Alternative for the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ORSSAB Recommendation to DOE on the Preferred Alternative for the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium.

  11. ON THE CAUSE OF SUPRA-ARCADE DOWNFLOWS IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassak, P. A.; Shepherd, L. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Drake, J. F. [Department of Physics and the Institute for Physical Science and Technology and the Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)] [Department of Physics and the Institute for Physical Science and Technology and the Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Gosling, J. T. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)] [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Phan, T.-D. [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)] [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Shay, M. A., E-mail: Paul.Cassak@mail.wvu.edu, E-mail: lshephe1@mix.wvu.edu, E-mail: drake@umd.edu, E-mail: Jack.Gosling@lasp.colorado.edu, E-mail: phan@ssl.berkeley.edu, E-mail: shay@udel.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 20742 (United States)

    2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A model of supra-arcade downflows (SADs), dark low density regions also known as tadpoles that propagate sunward during solar flares, is presented. It is argued that the regions of low density are flow channels carved by sunward-directed outflow jets from reconnection. The solar corona is stratified, so the flare site is populated by a lower density plasma than that in the underlying arcade. As the jets penetrate the arcade, they carve out regions of depleted plasma density which appear as SADs. The present interpretation differs from previous models in that reconnection is localized in space but not in time. Reconnection is continuous in time to explain why SADs are not filled in from behind as they would if they were caused by isolated descending flux tubes or the wakes behind them due to temporally bursty reconnection. Reconnection is localized in space because outflow jets in standard two-dimensional reconnection models expand in the normal (inflow) direction with distance from the reconnection site, which would not produce thin SADs as seen in observations. On the contrary, outflow jets in spatially localized three-dimensional reconnection with an out-of-plane (guide) magnetic field expand primarily in the out-of-plane direction and remain collimated in the normal direction, which is consistent with observed SADs being thin. Two-dimensional proof-of-principle simulations of reconnection with an out-of-plane (guide) magnetic field confirm the creation of SAD-like depletion regions and the necessity of density stratification. Three-dimensional simulations confirm that localized reconnection remains collimated.

  12. THE BURSTY NATURE OF SOLAR FLARE X-RAY EMISSION. II. THE NEUPERT EFFECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAteer, R. T. James [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, MSC 4500, NM 88003-8001 (United States); Bloomfield, D. Shaun, E-mail: mcateer@nmsu.edu [Astrophysics Research Group, School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, College Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We carry out a novel statistical test of the Neupert effect based on multifractal spectra. The multifractal spectrum is the number distribution of the strengths (i.e., the Hölder exponents) of bursts in a signal. This is tested on simulations and carried out on RHESSI X-ray data from a well observed GOES X4.8 magnitude flare. The multifractal spectra is ideally suited to quantifying the relative smooth and bursty signals typically found in (thermal) soft X-ray and (non-thermal) hard X-ray data of solar flares. We show that light curves from all energies between 3 keV and 25 keV are statistically similar, suggesting that all these signals are dominated by the same (presumably thermal) emission. Emission lying between 25 keV and 100 keV probably contains some contribution from both thermal and non-thermal sources. The multifractal spectrum of a signal and that of its (cumulative) temporal integration are statistically similar (i.e., low residuals upon subtraction), but shifted by one in the peak Hölder exponent. We find the pairs of 3-6 keV and 100-300 keV emissions, the 6-12 keV and 100-300 keV emissions and the 12-25 keV and 100-300 keV emissions are all consistent with the Neupert effect. The best agreement with the Neupert effect is between the 12-25 keV and 100-300 keV pair, although possibly with some secondary source of thermal emission present.

  13. ASBESTOS PIPE-INSULATION REMOVAL ROBOT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2000-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This final topical report details the development, experimentation and field-testing activities for a robotic asbestos pipe-insulation removal robot system developed for use within the DOE's weapon complex as part of their ER and WM program, as well as in industrial abatement. The engineering development, regulatory compliance, cost-benefit and field-trial experiences gathered through this program are summarized.

  14. Removed Barriers: 3.32 Knowledge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrikant, Sara Irina

    Students Average Values from Entry and Exit Surveys for Participants in 2006 Workshops ENTRY 1 BarriersResults EXIT 2 Removed Barriers: 3.32 Knowledge 3.67 GIS 3.46 Data Access 3.68 Software Use 3

  15. Method of preparation of removable syntactic foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jr., Charles (Albuquerque, NM); Derzon, Dora K. (Albuquerque, NM); Nelson, Jill S. (Albuquerque, NM); Rand, Peter B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Easily removable, environmentally safe, low-density, syntactic foams are disclosed which are prepared by mixing insoluble microballoons with a solution of water and/or alcohol-soluble polymer to produce a pourable slurry, optionally vacuum filtering the slurry in varying degrees to remove unwanted solvent and solute polymer, and drying to remove residual solvent. The properties of the foams can be controlled by the concentration and physical properties of the polymer, and by the size and properties of the microballoons. The suggested solute polymers are non-toxic and soluble in environmentally safe solvents such as water or low-molecular weight alcohols. The syntactic foams produced by this process are particularly useful in those applications where ease of removability is beneficial, and could find use in packaging recoverable electronic components, in drilling and mining applications, in building trades, in art works, in the entertainment industry for special effects, in manufacturing as temporary fixtures, in agriculture as temporary supports and containers and for delivery of fertilizer, in medicine as casts and splints, as temporary thermal barriers, as temporary protective covers for fragile objects, as filters for particulate matter, which matter may be easily recovered upon exposure to a solvent, as in-situ valves (for one-time use) which go from maximum to minimum impedance when solvent flows through, and for the automatic opening or closing of spring-loaded, mechanical switches upon exposure to a solvent, among other applications.

  16. Method of preparation of removable syntactic foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Derzon, D.K.; Nelson, J.S.; Rand, P.B.

    1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Easily removable, environmentally safe, low-density, syntactic foams are disclosed which are prepared by mixing insoluble microballoons with a solution of water and/or alcohol-soluble polymer to produce a pourable slurry, optionally vacuum filtering the slurry in varying degrees to remove unwanted solvent and solute polymer, and drying to remove residual solvent. The properties of the foams can be controlled by the concentration and physical properties of the polymer, and by the size and properties of the microballoons. The suggested solute polymers are non-toxic and soluble in environmentally safe solvents such as water or low-molecular weight alcohols. The syntactic foams produced by this process are particularly useful in those applications where ease of removability is beneficial, and could find use in packaging recoverable electronic components, in drilling and mining applications, in building trades, in art works, in the entertainment industry for special effects, in manufacturing as temporary fixtures, in agriculture as temporary supports and containers and for delivery of fertilizer, in medicine as casts and splints, as temporary thermal barriers, as temporary protective covers for fragile objects, as filters for particulate matter, which matter may be easily recovered upon exposure to a solvent, as in-situ valves (for one-time use) which go from maximum to minimum impedance when solvent flows through, and for the automatic opening or closing of spring-loaded, mechanical switches upon exposure to a solvent, among other applications. 1 fig.

  17. Bioreactors for Removing Methyl Bromide following Contained

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bioreactors for Removing Methyl Bromide following Contained Fumigations L A U R E N C E G . M I L L contributes to the depletion of stratospheric ozone. A closed-system bioreactor consisting of 0.5 L recirculating air. Strain IMB-1 grew slowly to high cell densities in the bioreactor using MeBr as its sole

  18. Plastic bottles > Remove lids (not recyclable)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brierley, Andrew

    Plastic bottles Please: > Remove lids (not recyclable) > Empty bottles > Rinse milk bottles, & other bottles if possible > Squash bottles www.st-andrews.ac.uk/estates/environment All types of plastic bottle accepted Clear, opaque and coloured bottles Labels can remain on X No plastic bags X No plastics

  19. MODELING OF PARTICULATE REMOVAL IN MIXED MEDIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    versus Downflow Modes DATA COLLECTION #12;4 UPFLOW CONTRUCTION #12;5 UPFLOW FILTRATION RESULTS · Drawback to downflow filtration is the need for pretreatment. Upflow filtration may remove need for pretreatment-specific, and transfer of data from lab-scale to field is not applicable. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Anitha Balakrishnan, UAB Renee

  20. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign}, and VAC-PAC{reg_sign}. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign} uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC{reg_sign} vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  1. NNSA B-Roll: Fuel Removals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Nuclear Security Administration established the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) to identify, secure, remove and/or facilitate the disposition of high risk vulnerable nuclear and radiological materials around the world, as quickly as possible, that pose a threat to the United States and the international community.

  2. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES FOR THE REMOVAL OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES FOR THE REMOVAL OF RESIDUAL NON-STEROIDAL ANTI- INFLAMMATORY. G. Esposito, PhD, MSc Associate Professor of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering University in Biogeochemistry University of Paris-Est Paris, France Prof. dr. ir P.N.L. Lens Professor of Biotechnology UNESCO

  3. Method of removing cesium from steam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carson, Jr., Neill J. (Clarendon Hills, IL); Noland, Robert A. (Oak Park, IL); Ruther, Westly E. (Skokie, IL)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for removal of radioactive cesium from a hot vapor, such as high temperature steam, including the steps of passing input hot vapor containing radioactive cesium into a bed of silicate glass particles and chemically incorporating radioactive cesium in the silicate glass particles at a temperature of at least about 700.degree. F.

  4. Decontaminating Human Judgments by Removing Sequential Dependencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mozer, Michael C.

    Decontaminating Human Judgments by Removing Sequential Dependencies Michael C. Mozer, Harold, and thereby decontaminate a series of ratings to obtain more meaningful human judgments. In our formulation, decontamination is fun- damentally a problem of inferring latent states (internal sensations) which, be- cause

  5. Forecast Technical Document Felling and Removals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of local investment and business planning. Timber volume production will be estimated at sub. Planning of operations. Control of the growing stock. Wider reporting (under UKWAS). The calculation fellings and removals are handled in the 2011 Production Forecast system. Tom Jenkins Robert Matthews Ewan

  6. Removal of a Permanent IVC Filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Bangalore C. Anil [Queen's Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)], E-mail: anil.kumar@doctors.org.uk; Chakraverty, Sam; Zealley, Ian [Ninewells Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters are increasingly used for prevention of life-threatening pulmonary emboli in patients who have contraindications to anticoagulation therapy. We report a case of the removal of a permanent IVC filter, which was inadvertently inserted due to an incorrect ultrasound report.

  7. CHROMOSPHERIC EVAPORATION IN AN M1.8 FLARE OBSERVED BY THE EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SPECTROMETER ON HINODE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doschek, G. A.; Warren, H. P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)] [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Young, P. R. [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)] [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss observations of chromospheric evaporation for a complex flare that occurred on 2012 March 9 near 03:30 UT obtained from the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board the Hinode spacecraft. This was a multiple event with a strong energy input that reached the M1.8 class when observed by EIS. EIS was in raster mode and fortunately the slit was almost at the exact location of a significant energy input. Also, EIS obtained a full-CCD spectrum of the flare, i.e., the entire CCD was readout so that data were obtained for about the 500 lines identified in the EIS wavelength ranges. Chromospheric evaporation characterized by 150-200 km s{sup -1} upflows was observed in multiple locations in multi-million degree spectral lines of flare ions such as Fe XXII, Fe XXIII, and Fe XXIV, with simultaneous 20-60 km s{sup -1} upflows in million degree coronal lines from ions such as Fe XII-Fe XVI. The behavior of cooler, transition region ions such as O VI, Fe VIII, He II, and Fe X is more complex, but upflows were also observed in Fe VIII and Fe X lines. At a point close to strong energy input in space and time, the flare ions Fe XXII, Fe XXIII, and Fe XXIV reveal an isothermal source with a temperature close to 14 MK and no strong blueshifted components. At this location there is a strong downflow in cooler active region lines from ions such as Fe XIII and Fe XIV, on the order of 200 km s{sup -1}. We speculate that this downflow may be evidence of the downward shock produced by reconnection in the current sheet seen in MHD simulations. A sunquake also occurred near this location. Electron densities were obtained from density sensitive lines ratios from Fe XIII and Fe XIV. Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory are used with JHelioviewer to obtain a qualitative overview of the flare. However, AIA data are not presented in this paper. In summary, spectroscopic data from EIS are presented that can be used for predictive tests of models of chromospheric evaporation as envisaged in the Standard Flare Model.

  8. Quasi-periodic Slipping Magnetic Reconnection During an X-class Solar Flare Observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory and Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ting

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We firstly report the quasi-periodic slipping motion of flare loops during an eruptive X-class flare on 2014 September 10. The slipping motion was investigated at a specific location along one of the two ribbons and can be observed throughout the impulsive phase of the flare. The apparent slipping velocity was 20-110 km/s and the associated period was 3$-$6 min. The footpoints of flare loops appeared as small-scale bright knots observed in 1400 {\\AA}, corresponding to fine structures of the flare ribbon. These bright knots were observed to move along the southern part of the longer ribbon and also exhibited a quasi-periodic pattern. The Si IV 1402.77 {\\AA} line was redshifted by 30-50 km/s at the locations of moving knots with a ~ 40-60 km/s line width, larger than other sites of the flare ribbon. We suggest that the quasi-periodic slipping reconnection is involved in this process and the redshift at the bright knots is probably indicative of reconnection downflow. The emission line of Si IV at the northern p...

  9. NEUTRINO-COOLED ACCRETION MODEL WITH MAGNETIC COUPLING FOR X-RAY FLARES IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo Yang; Gu Weimin; Liu Tong; Lu Jufu, E-mail: guwm@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The neutrino-cooled accretion disk, which was proposed to work as the central engine of gamma-ray bursts, encounters difficulty in interpreting the X-ray flares after the prompt gamma-ray emission. In this paper, the magnetic coupling (MC) between the inner disk and the central black hole (BH) is taken into consideration. For mass accretion rates around 0.001 {approx} 0.1 M{sub Sun} s{sup -1}, our results show that the luminosity of neutrino annihilation can be significantly enhanced due to the coupling effects. As a consequence, after the gamma-ray emission, a remnant disk with mass M{sub disk} {approx}< 0.5 M{sub Sun} may power most of the observed X-ray flares with the rest frame duration less than 100 s. In addition, a comparison between the MC process and the Blandford-Znajek mechanism is shown on the extraction of BH rotational energy.

  10. Hydraulic dredging, a sediment removal technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spotts, J.W.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sediment was successfully removed from a Peabody Coal Company pond near Macon, Missouri, by a Mud Cat Model SP-810 hydraulic dredge. Previous attempts using land-based equipment had been unsatisfactory. The hydraulic-powered auger and submerged pump easily removed 882 m/sup 3/ (1154 yd/sup 3/) and pumped the slurry a distance of 305 m (1000 ft) to a disposal area. The hydraulic dredge was more effective and cheaper to operate than land-based equipment. The dredge cost was $1.31/m/sup 3/ ($1.00/yd/sup 3/), the dragline cost was $6.54/m/sup 3/ ($5.00/yd/sup 3/) and the front-end loader cost was $15.70/m/sup 3/ ($12.00/yd/sup 3/), under optimum conditions.

  11. Method of arsenic removal from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gadgil, Ashok (El Cerrito, CA)

    2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for low-cost arsenic removal from drinking water using chemically prepared bottom ash pre-treated with ferrous sulfate and then sodium hydroxide. Deposits on the surface of particles of bottom ash form of activated iron adsorbent with a high affinity for arsenic. In laboratory tests, a miniscule 5 grams of pre-treated bottom ash was sufficient to remove the arsenic from 2 liters of 2400 ppb (parts per billion) arsenic-laden water to a level below 50 ppb (the present United States Environmental Protection Agency limit). By increasing the amount of pre-treated bottom ash, even lower levels of post-treatment arsenic are expected. It is further expected that this invention supplies a very low-cost solution to arsenic poisoning for large population segments.

  12. Removal of fluoride from aqueous nitric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruett, D.J.; Howerton, W.B.; Mailen, J.C.

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several methods for removing fluoride from aqueous nitric acid were investigated and compared with the frequently used aluminum nitrate-calcium nitrate (Ca/sup 2 +/-Al/sup 3 +/) chemical trap-distillation system. Zirconium oxynitrate solutions were found to be superior in preventing volatilization of fluoride during distillation of the nitric acid, producing decontamination factors (DFs) on the order of 2 x 10/sup 3/ (vs approx. 500 for the Ca/sup 2 +/-Al/sup 3 +/ system). Several other metal nitrate systems were tested, but they were less effective. Alumina and zirconia columns proved highly effective in removing HF from HF-HNO/sub 3/ vapors distilled through the columns; fluoride DFs on the order of 10/sup 6/ and 10/sup 4/, respectively, were obtained. A silica gel column was very effective in adsorbing HF from HF-HNO/sub 3/ solutions, producing a fluoride DF of approx. 10/sup 4/.

  13. Fly ash enhanced metal removal process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nonavinakere, S. [Plexus Scientific Corp., Annapolis, MD (United States); Reed, B.E. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fly ashes from local thermal power plants in the removal of cadmium, nickel, chromium, lead, and copper from aqueous waste streams. Physical and chemical characteristics of fly ashes were determined, batch isotherm studies were conducted. A practical application of using fly ash in treating spent electroless nickel (EN) plating baths by modified conventional precipitation or solid enhanced metal removal process (SEMR) was investigated. In addition to nickel the EN baths also contains completing agents such as ammonium citrate and succinic acid reducing agents such as phosphate and hypophosphite. SEMR experiments were conducted at different pHs, fly ash type and concentrations, and settling times.

  14. Acid treatment removes zinc sulfide scale restriction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, K. (Kerr McGee Corp., Lafayette, LA (US)); Allison, D. (Otis Engineering Corp., Lafayette, LA (US)); Ford, W.G.F. (Halliburton Co., Duncan, OK (United States))

    1992-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that removal of zinc sulfide (ZnS) scale with acid restored an offshore Louisiana well's production to original rates. The zinc sulfide scale was determined to be in the near well bore area. The selected acid had been proven to control iron sulfide (FeS) scales in sour wells without causing harm to surface production equipment, tubing, and other downhole hardware. The successful removal of the blockage re-established previous production rates with a 105% increase in flowing tubing pressure. On production for a number of months, a high rate, high-pressure offshore well was experiencing unusually rapid pressure and rate declines. A small sample of the restrictive material was obtained during the wire line operations. The well was subsequently shut in while a laboratory analysis determined that zinc sulfide was the major component of the obstruction.

  15. Photoacoustic removal of occlusions from blood vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visuri, Steven R. (Livermore, CA); Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Celliers, Peter M. (Berkeley, CA); London, Richard A. (Orinda, CA); Maitland, IV, Duncan J. (Lafayette, CA); Esch, Victor C. (San Francisco, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Partial or total occlusions of fluid passages within the human body are removed by positioning an array of optical fibers in the passage and directing treatment radiation pulses along the fibers, one at a time, to generate a shock wave and hydrodynamics flows that strike and emulsify the occlusions. A preferred application is the removal of blood clots (thrombin and embolic) from small cerebral vessels to reverse the effects of an ischemic stroke. The operating parameters and techniques are chosen to minimize the amount of heating of the fragile cerebral vessel walls occurring during this photo acoustic treatment. One such technique is the optical monitoring of the existence of hydrodynamics flow generating vapor bubbles when they are expected to occur and stopping the heat generating pulses propagated along an optical fiber that is not generating such bubbles.

  16. UNDERSTANDING THE IMPACT OF RETURN-CURRENT LOSSES ON THE X-RAY EMISSION FROM SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holman, Gordon D., E-mail: Gordon.D.Holman@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    I obtain and examine the implications of one-dimensional analytic solutions for return-current losses on an initially power-law distribution of energetic electrons with a sharp low-energy cutoff in flare plasma with classical (collisional) resistivity. These solutions show, for example, that return-current losses are not sensitive to plasma density, but are sensitive to plasma temperature and the low-energy cutoff of the injected nonthermal electron distribution. A characteristic distance from the electron injection site, x{sub rc}, is derived. At distances less than x{sub rc} the electron flux density is not reduced by return-current losses, but plasma heating can be substantial in this region, in the upper, coronal part of the flare loop. Before the electrons reach the collisional thick-target region of the flare loop, an injected power-law electron distribution with a low-energy cutoff maintains that structure, but with a flat energy distribution below the cutoff energy, which is now determined by the total potential drop experienced by the electrons. Modifications due to the presence of collisional losses are discussed. I compare these results with earlier analytical results and with more recent numerical simulations. Emslie's conjecture that there is a maximum integrated X-ray source brightness on the order of 10{sup -15} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} is examined. I find that this is not actually the maximum brightness and its value is parameter dependent, but it is nevertheless a valuable benchmark for identifying return-current losses in hard X-ray spectra. I discuss an observational approach to identifying return-current losses in flare data, including identification of a return-current 'bump' in X-ray light curves at low photon energies.

  17. Compton backscattered and primary X-rays from solar flares: angle dependent Green's function correction for photospheric albedo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eduard P. Kontar; Alec L. MacKinnon; Richard A. Schwartz; John C. Brown

    2005-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The observed hard X-ray (HXR) flux spectrum $I(\\epsilon)$ from solar flares is a combination of primary bremsstrahlung photons $I_P(\\epsilon)$ with a spectrally modified component from photospheric Compton backscatter of downward primary emission. The latter can be significant, distorting or hiding the true features of the primary spectrum which are key diagnostics for acceleration and propagation of high energy electrons and of their energy budget. For the first time in solar physics, we use a Green's function approach to the backscatter spectral deconvolution problem, constructing a Green's matrix including photoelectric absorption. This approach allows spectrum-independent extraction of the primary spectrum for several HXR flares observed by the {\\it Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager} (RHESSI). We show that the observed and primary spectra differ very substantially for flares with hard spectra close to the disk centre. We show in particular that the energy dependent photon spectral index $\\gamma (\\epsilon)=-d \\log I/d \\log \\epsilon$ is very different for $I_P(\\epsilon)$ and for $I(\\epsilon)$ and that inferred mean source electron spectra ${\\bar F}(E)$ differ greatly. Even for a forward fitting of a parametric ${\\bar F}(E)$ to the data, a clear low-energy cutoff required to fit $I(\\epsilon)$ essentially disappears when the fit is to $I_P(\\epsilon)$ - i.e. when albedo correction is included. The self-consistent correction for backscattered photons is thus shown to be crucial in determining the energy spectra of flare accelerated electrons, and hence their total number and energy.

  18. A JOINT ANALYSIS OF HIGH-ENERGY NEUTRONS AND NEUTRON-l)ECAY PROTONS FROM A FLARE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    A JOINT ANALYSIS OF HIGH-ENERGY NEUTRONS AND NEUTRON-l)ECAY PROTONS FROM A FLARE I.. G. KOCI'l.I)elel:sl~zHg 194021. RHs.ffa (Received ll April, 19%; in final form 19.1uly., 1996) Abstract. A .joint. analysis of the 1990 May 24 neutron event provided an oppor u ~ ly to delect neu[ron decay prolons of higher energies

  19. Process for removing sulfur from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aida, Tetsuo (Ames, IA); Squires, Thomas G. (Gilbert, IA); Venier, Clifford G. (Ames, IA)

    1985-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

  20. Oil removal from water via adsorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, William Edward

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Inorganic adsorbents, such as perlite and glass wool, do not have high oil adsorption capacities compared to organ- ics and the capacities are dependent on the viscosity of the oils. The inorganic adsorbents have higher oil adsorption capacities in more... IV Table V Table VI Significant Facts about Major Oil Spills Viscosity of Test Oils Determined by Capillary Viscometer Percent of Oil Remaining in Water After Removal of Oil-Carrier Combination Maximum Oil Adsorption Capacity for Light Crude...

  1. REMOVAL OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS FROM SWEDEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Kerry A. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Bellamy, J. Steve [Savannah River National Laboratory; Chandler, Greg T. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Iyer, Natraj C. [U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of; Koenig, Rich E.; Leduc, D. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Hackney, B. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Leduc, Dan R. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2013-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Global Threat Reduction (GTRI) recently removed legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in collaboration with AB SVAFO, Sweden. This paper details the activities undertaken through the U.S. receiving site (Savannah River Site (SRS)) to support the characterization, stabilization, packaging and removal of legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in 2012. This effort was undertaken as part of GTRI’s Gap Materials Program and culminated with the successful removal of plutonium from Sweden as announced at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit. The removal and shipment of plutonium materials to the United States was the first of its kind under NNSA’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative. The Environmental Assessment for the U.S. receipt of gap plutonium material was approved in May 2010. Since then, the multi-year process yielded many first time accomplishments associated with plutonium packaging and transport activities including the application of the of DOE-STD-3013 stabilization requirements to treat plutonium materials outside the U.S., the development of an acceptance criteria for receipt of plutonium from a foreign country, the development and application of a versatile process flow sheet for the packaging of legacy plutonium materials, the identification of a plutonium container configuration, the first international certificate validation of the 9975 shipping package and the first intercontinental shipment using the 9975 shipping package. This paper will detail the technical considerations in developing the packaging process flow sheet, defining the key elements of the flow sheet and its implementation, determining the criteria used in the selection of the transport package, developing the technical basis for the package certificate amendment and the reviews with multiple licensing authorities and most importantly integrating the technical activities with the Swedish partners.

  2. Process for removing sulfur from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aida, T.; Squires, T.G.; Venier, C.G.

    1983-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

  3. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

    1987-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  4. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

    1990-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  5. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, Milton (12833 S. 82nd Ct., Palos Park, IL 60464); Sinha, Shome N. (5748 Drexel, 2A, Chicago, IL 60637)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  6. Moab Mill Tailings Removal Project Celebrates 5 Years of Success...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Moab Mill Tailings Removal Project Celebrates 5 Years of Success Moab Mill Tailings Removal Project Celebrates 5 Years of Success October 3, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Pictured here is...

  7. Removing nuclear waste, one shipment at a time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stories Removing nuclear waste, one shipment at a time Removing nuclear waste, one shipment at a time The Lab's 1,000th shipment of transuranic waste recently left Los Alamos,...

  8. Process for selected gas oxide removal by radiofrequency catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y. (3807 Reynolds St., Laramie, WY 82070)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This process to remove gas oxides from flue gas utilizes adsorption on a char bed subsequently followed by radiofrequency catalysis enhancing such removal through selected reactions. Common gas oxides include SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x.

  9. Process for removing technetium from iron and other metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leitnaker, James M. (Kingston, TN); Trowbridge, Lee D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing technetium from iron and other metals comprises the steps of converting the molten, alloyed technetium to a sulfide dissolved in manganese sulfide, and removing the sulfide from the molten metal as a slag.

  10. Process for removing technetium from iron and other metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leitnaker, J.M.; Trowbridge, L.D.

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing technetium from iron and other metals comprises the steps of converting the molten, alloyed technetium to a sulfide dissolved in manganese sulfide, and removing the sulfide from the molten metal as a slag. 4 figs.

  11. AUTOMATED SOLAR FLARE STATISTICS IN SOFT X-RAYS OVER 37 YEARS OF GOES OBSERVATIONS: THE INVARIANCE OF SELF-ORGANIZED CRITICALITY DURING THREE SOLAR CYCLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Freeland, Samuel L., E-mail: aschwanden@lmsal.com [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Org. ADBS, Building 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyzed the soft X-ray light curves from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites over the last 37 years (1975-2011) and measured with an automated flare detection algorithm over 300,000 solar flare events (amounting to Almost-Equal-To 5 times higher sensitivity than the NOAA flare catalog). We find a power-law slope of {alpha}{sub F} = 1.98 {+-} 0.11 for the (background-subtracted) soft X-ray peak fluxes that is invariant through three solar cycles and agrees with the theoretical prediction {alpha}{sub F} = 2.0 of the fractal-diffusive self-organized criticality (FD-SOC) model. For the soft X-ray flare rise times, we find a power-law slope of {alpha}{sub T} = 2.02 {+-} 0.04 during solar cycle minima years, which is also consistent with the prediction {alpha}{sub T} = 2.0 of the FD-SOC model. During solar cycle maxima years, the power-law slope is steeper in the range of {alpha}{sub T} Almost-Equal-To 2.0-5.0, which can be modeled by a solar-cycle-dependent flare pile-up bias effect. These results corroborate the FD-SOC model, which predicts a power-law slope of {alpha}{sub E} = 1.5 for flare energies and thus rules out significant nanoflare heating. While the FD-SOC model predicts the probability distribution functions of spatio-temporal scaling laws of nonlinear energy dissipation processes, additional physical models are needed to derive the scaling laws between the geometric SOC parameters and the observed emissivity in different wavelength regimes, as we derive here for soft X-ray emission. The FD-SOC model also yields statistical probabilities for solar flare forecasting.

  12. A Systematic Study of X-Ray Flares from Low-Mass Young Stellar Objects in the Rho Ophiuchi Star-Forming Region with Chandra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Imanishi; H. Nakajima; M. Tsujimoto; K. Koyama; Y. Tsuboi

    2003-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the results of a systematic study of X-ray flares from low-mass young stellar objects, using Chandra observations of the main region of the Rho Oph. From 195 X-ray sources, including class I-III sources and some young brown dwarfs, we detected a total of 71 X-ray flares. Most of the flares have the typical profile of solar and stellar flares, fast rise and slow decay. We derived the time-averaged temperature (kT), luminosity (L_X), rise and decay timescales (tau_r and tau_d) of the flares, finding that (1) class I-II sources tend to have a high kT, (2) the distribution of L_X during flares is nearly the same for all classes, and (3) positive and negative log-linear correlations are found between tau_r and tau_d, and kT and tau_r. In order to explain these relations, we used the framework of magnetic reconnection model to formulate the observational parameters as a function of the half-length of the reconnected magnetic loop (L) and magnetic field strength (B). The estimated L is comparable to the typical stellar radius of these objects (10^{10-11} cm), which indicates that the observed flares are triggered by solar-type loops, rather than larger ones (10^{12} cm) connecting the star with its inner accretion disk. The higher kT observed for class I sources may be explained by a higher magnetic field strength (about 500 G) than for class II-III sources (200-300 G).

  13. Removal of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Systems with Thiol Functionalized...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heavy Metals from Aqueous Systems with Thiol Functionalized Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles. Removal of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Systems with Thiol Functionalized...

  14. Method for removing fluoride contamination from nitric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howerton, W.B.; Pruett, D.J.

    1982-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluoride ions are removed from nitric acid solution by contacting the vaporized solution with alumina or zirconium.

  15. Bulk Energization of Electrons in Solar Flares by Alfv\\'en Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melrose, D B

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk energization of electrons to $10\\,-\\,20\\,$keV in solar flares is attributed to dissipation of Alfv\\'en waves that transport energy and potential downward to an acceleration region near the chromosphere. The acceleration involves the parallel electric field that develops in the limit of inertial Alfv\\'en waves (IAWs). A two-potential model for IAWs is used to relate the parallel potential to the cross-field potential transported by the waves. We identify a maximum parallel potential in terms of a maximum current density that corresponds to the threshold for the onset of anomalous resistivity. This maximum is of order $10\\,$kV when the threshold is that for the Buneman instability. We argue that this restricts the cross-field potential in an Alfv\\'en wave to about $10\\,$kV. Effective dissipation requires a large number of up- and down-current paths associated with multiple Alfv\\'en waves. The electron acceleration occurs in localized, transient, anomalously-conducting regions (LTACRs) and is associated wit...

  16. Optical polarization map of the Polaris Flare with RoboPol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panopoulou, G V; Blinov, D; Pavlidou, V; King, O G; Paleologou, E; Ramaprakash, A; Angelakis, E; Balokovic, M; Das, H K; Feiler, R; Hovatta, T; Khodade, P; Kiehlmann, S; Kus, A; Kylafis, N; Liodakis, I; Modi, D; Myserlis, I; Papadakis, I; Papamastorakis, I; Pazderska, B; Pazderski, E; Pearson, T J; Rajarshi, C; Readhead, A C S; Reig, P; Zensus, J A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The stages before the formation of stars in molecular clouds are poorly understood. Insights can be gained by studying the properties of quiescent clouds, such as their magnetic field structure. The plane-of-the-sky orientation of the field can be traced by polarized starlight. We present the first extended, wide-field ($\\sim$10 $\\rm deg^2$) map of the Polaris Flare cloud in dust-absorption induced optical polarization of background stars, using the RoboPol polarimeter at the Skinakas Observatory. This is the first application of the wide-field imaging capabilities of RoboPol. The data were taken in the R-band and analysed with the automated reduction pipeline of the instrument. We present in detail optimizations in the reduction pipeline specific to wide-field observations. Our analysis resulted in reliable measurements of 648 stars with median fractional linear polarization 1.3%. The projected magnetic field shows a large scale ordered pattern. At high longitudes it appears to align with faint striations se...

  17. KAPPA DISTRIBUTION MODEL FOR HARD X-RAY CORONAL SOURCES OF SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oka, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Krucker, S.; Lin, R. P. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California Berkeley (United States)] [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California Berkeley (United States)

    2013-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar flares produce hard X-ray emission, the photon spectrum of which is often represented by a combination of thermal and power-law distributions. However, the estimates of the number and total energy of non-thermal electrons are sensitive to the determination of the power-law cutoff energy. Here, we revisit an 'above-the-loop' coronal source observed by RHESSI on 2007 December 31 and show that a kappa distribution model can also be used to fit its spectrum. Because the kappa distribution has a Maxwellian-like core in addition to a high-energy power-law tail, the emission measure and temperature of the instantaneous electrons can be derived without assuming the cutoff energy. Moreover, the non-thermal fractions of electron number/energy densities can be uniquely estimated because they are functions of only the power-law index. With the kappa distribution model, we estimated that the total electron density of the coronal source region was {approx}2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}. We also estimated without assuming the source volume that a moderate fraction ({approx}20%) of electrons in the source region was non-thermal and carried {approx}52% of the total electron energy. The temperature was 28 MK, and the power-law index {delta} of the electron density distribution was -4.3. These results are compared to the conventional power-law models with and without a thermal core component.

  18. Correlated optical and X-ray flares in the afterglow of XRF 071031

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krühler, T; McBreen, S; Klose, S; Rossi, A; Afonso, P; Clemens, C; Filgas, R; Yoldas, A Küpcü; Szokoly, G P; Yoldas, A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a densely sampled early light curve of the optical/near-infrared (NIR) afterglow of the X-Ray Flash (XRF) 071031 at z=2.692. Simultaneous and continuous observations in seven photometric bands from g' to K with GROND at the 2.2 m MPI/ESO telescope on LaSilla were performed between 4 minutes and 7 hours after the burst. The light curve consists of 547 individual points which allows us to study the early evolution of the optical transient associated with XRF 071031 in great detail. The optical/NIR light curve is dominated by an early increase in brightness which can be attributed to the apparent onset of the forward shock emission. There are several bumps which are superimposed onto the overall rise and decay. Significant flaring is also visible in the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) light curve from early to late times. The availability of high quality, broadband data enables detailed studies of the connection between the X-ray and optical/NIR afterglow and its colour evolution during the first night po...

  19. Electrostatic Dust Detection and Removal for ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.H. Skinner; A. Campos; H. Kugel; J. Leisure; A.L. Roquemore; S. Wagner

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present some recent results on two innovative applications of microelectronics technology to dust inventory measurement and dust removal in ITER. A novel device to detect the settling of dust particles on a remote surface has been developed in the laboratory. A circuit board with a grid of two interlocking conductive traces with 25 ?m spacing is biased to 30 – 50 V. Carbon particles landing on the energized grid create a transient short circuit. The current flowing through the short circuit creates a voltage pulse that is recorded by standard nuclear counting electronics and the total number of counts is related to the mass of dust impinging on the grid. The particles typically vaporize in a few seconds restoring the previous voltage standoff. Experience on NSTX however, showed that in a tokamak environment it was still possible for large particles or fibers to remain on the grid causing a long term short circuit. We report on the development of a gas puff system that uses helium to clear such particles. Experiments with varying nozzle designs, backing pressures, puff durations, and exit flow orientations have given an optimal configuration that effectively removes particles from an area up to 25 cm² with a single nozzle. In a separate experiment we are developing an advanced circuit grid of three interlocking traces that can generate a miniature electrostatic traveling wave for transporting dust to a suitable exit port. We have fabricated such a 3-pole circuit board with 25 micron insulated traces that operates with voltages up to 200 V. Recent results showed motion of dust particles with the application of only 50 V bias voltage. Such a device could potentially remove dust continuously without dedicated interventions and without loss of machine availability for plasma operations.

  20. 9. Analysis a. Analysis tools for dam removal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    (Randle 2003). Mechanical removal, or dredging, involves removing some or all of the reservoir sediment infrastructure and landowners, downstream confinement, presence of threatened and endangered species, and cost in stages) and type (fine or contaminated sediment can be removed through dredging prior to sediment release

  1. INVESTIGATION OF IONIC CONTAMINATION REMOVAL FROM SILICON DIOXIDE SURFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suni, Ian Ivar

    INVESTIGATION OF IONIC CONTAMINATION REMOVAL FROM SILICON DIOXIDE SURFACES H. Lin, A. A. Busnaina, and I. I. Suni T he removal of ionic contaminants from silicon surfaces surface contamination level canM Communications L td. INTRODUCTION with increasing frequency and power, and decreases Contamination removal is one

  2. Ultracapacitor having residual water removed under vacuum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wei, Chang (Niskayuna, NY); Jerabek, Elihu Calvin (Glenmont, NY); Day, James (Scotia, NY)

    2002-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A multilayer cell is provided that comprises two solid, nonporous current collectors, two porous electrodes separating the current collectors, a porous separator between the electrodes and an electrolyte occupying pores in the electrodes and separator. The mutilayer cell is electrolyzed to disassociate water within the cell to oxygen gas and hydrogen gas. A vacuum is applied to the cell substantially at the same time as the electrolyzing step, to remove the oxygen gas and hydrogen gas. The cell is then sealed to form a ultracapacitor substantially free from water.

  3. Specific energy for laser removal of rocks.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Z.; Kornecki, G.; Reed, C. B.; Gahan, B. C.; Parker, R. A.; Batarseh, S.; Graves, R. M.

    2001-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Application of advanced high power laser technology into oil and gas well drilling has been attracting significant research interests recently among research institutes, petroleum industries, and universities. Potential laser or laser-aided oil and gas well drilling has many advantages over the conventional rotary drilling, such as high penetration rate, reduction or elimination of tripping, casing, and bit costs, and enhanced well control, perforating and side-tracking capabilities. The energy required to remove a unit volume of rock, namely the specific energy (SE), is a critical rock property data that can be used to determine both the technical and economic feasibility of laser oil and gas well drilling.

  4. TYPE A VERIFICATION FOR THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR UNDERGROUND UTILITIES REMOVAL PHASE 2 DF WASTE LINE REMOVAL, BNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P.C. Weaver

    2010-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    5098-SR-02-0 PROJECT-SPECIFIC TYPE A VERIFICATION FOR THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR UNDERGROUND UTILITIES REMOVAL PHASE 2 DF WASTE LINE REMOVAL, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

  5. Saeltzer Dam Removal on Clear Creek 11 years later: An assessment of upstream channel changes since the dam's removal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Crystal; Walker, Katelyn; Zimring, Mark

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Boulder BLDR Bedrock BDRK Dam Rubble DMRB Table B1. 2011pages. Brown, M. (n.d. ). Clear Creek—McCormick-Saeltzer DamRemoval: Dam removal re-opens spring run salmon habitat. US

  6. Tailoring hydrocarbon streams for asphaltene removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Bianco, A.; Stroppa, F.; Bertero, L.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oilfield production is often hindered by asphaltene precipitation which tends to fill the pores of the reservoir rocks and plug the wellbore tubing as well as the other auxiliary equipment used during crude oil recovery. Several remedies to remove these deposits have been proposed and patented but the injection of aromatic solvents such as toluene and light petroleum distillates is normally preferred. Previous studies with a number of pure aromatic hydrocarbons have shown that the solvent capacity of these molecules may be very different and that the degree of condensation plays an important role. In this regard, tetralins and naphthalenes are superior to alkylbenzenes. However, because the use of pure compounds is not economically feasible, the authors examined various industrial streams and the authors correlated their chemical composition to the solvent capacity. This work allowed the identification of the pseudo-components whose relative concentration is crucial for evaluating the solvent performances. Based on these data, the authors were able to find new products with ideal characteristics. The efficiency of one of these products was confirmed by the analysis of the data obtained when using this new solvent to remove asphaltene in damaged wells of an Italian field.

  7. Process for removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hancher, C.W.; Saunders, M.B.; Googin, J.M.

    1984-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method of removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil. The polychlorinated biphenyls are extracted from the soil by employing a liquid organic solvent dispersed in water in the ratio of about 1:3 to 3:1. The organic solvent includes such materials as short-chain hydrocarbons including kerosene or gasoline which are immiscible with water and are nonpolar. The organic solvent has a greater affinity for the PCB's than the soil so as to extract the PCB's from the soil upon contact. The organic solvent phase is separated from the suspended soil and water phase and distilled for permitting the recycle of the organic solvent phase and the concentration of the PCB's in the remaining organic phase. The present process can be satisfactorily practiced with soil containing 10 to 20% petroleum-based oils and organic fluids such as used in transformers and cutting fluids, coolants and the like which contain PCB's. The subject method provides for the removal of a sufficient concentration of PCB's from the soil to provide the soil with a level of PCB's within the guidelines of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  8. Removal of arsenic compounds from petroliferous liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fish, R.H.

    1984-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention in one aspect comprises a process for removing arsenic from petroliferous-derived liquids by contacting said liquid with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene polymer (i.e. PS-DVB) having catechol ligands anchored to said polymer, said contacting being at an elevated temperature. In another aspect, the invention is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene polymer by removal of the arsenic bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid in accordance with the aspect described above which regenerating process comprises: (a) treating said spent catecholated polystyrene polymer with an aqueous solution of at least one member selected from the group consisting of carbonates and bicarbonates of ammonium, alkali metals, and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10, and said treating being at a temperature in the range of about 20/sup 0/ to 100/sup 0/C; (b) separating the solids and liquids from each other. In a preferred embodiment the regeneration treatment is in two steps wherein step: (a) is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution which includes at least one lower alkyl alcohol, and, steps (c) and (d) are added. Steps (c) and (d) comprise: (c) treating the solids with an aqueous alcoholic solution of at least one ammonium, alkali or alkaline earth metal bicarbonate at a temperature in the range of about 20 to 100/sup 0/C; and (d) separating the solids from the liquids.

  9. EVOLVING EXPECTATIONS OF DAM REMOVAL OUTCOMES: DOWNSTREAM GEOMORPHIC EFFECTS FOLLOWING REMOVAL OF A SMALL, GRAVEL-FILLED DAM1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    EVOLVING EXPECTATIONS OF DAM REMOVAL OUTCOMES: DOWNSTREAM GEOMORPHIC EFFECTS FOLLOWING REMOVAL OF A SMALL, GRAVEL-FILLED DAM1 Kelly Kibler, Desiree Tullos, and Mathias Kondolf 2 ABSTRACT: Dam removal is a promising river restoration technique, particularly for the vast number of rivers impounded by small dams

  10. 2002 AUGUST 24 LIMB FLARE LOOP: DYNAMICS OF MICROWAVE BRIGHTNESS DISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reznikova, V. E.; Ji, H. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Melnikov, V. F.; Gorbikov, S. P.; Pyatakov, N. P. [Radiophysical Research Institute (NIRFI), Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Shibasaki, K. [Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory/NAOJ, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Myagkova, I. N. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)], E-mail: vreznikova@nirfi.sci-nnov.ru

    2009-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    High-resolution radio observation of Nobeyama Radioheliograph at 17 and 34 GHz allowed studying the dynamics of microwave brightness distribution along the giant limb flaring loop in the event of 2002 August 24. It is found that on the rising phase of the radio burst the brightness distribution was highly asymmetric, with a strong maximum near the southern footpoint (SFP) and much weaker brightness enhancements near the loop top (LT) and northern footpoint. On the decay phase, the LT gradually became most bright. The similar dynamics of brightness distribution are shown to happen for all major temporal subpeaks of the burst. Results of our diagnostics show two important properties: (1) the number density of mildly relativistic electrons in the LT is much higher than near the footpoints (FPs) during rise, maximum and decay of each major peak; and (2) the ratio of the electron number densities in the LT and an FP increases from the maximum to decay phase. Model simulations with making use of the nonstationary Fokker-Planck equation have allowed us to find the model explaining the major properties of the microwave brightness distribution and dynamics. The model is characterized by a compact source of electrons located near the center of an asymmetric magnetic loop; the source is nonstationary, long lasting, and injecting high-energy electrons with the pitch-angle distribution mostly directed toward the SFP but also having a very weak isotropic component. This easily explains the observed brightness asymmetry. The observed dynamics comes due to two reasons: faster precipitation of electrons having their mirror points near the ends of the magnetic trap, and relatively faster decay of the lower energy electrons responsible for the gyrosynchrotron emission near the FPs with higher magnetic field.

  11. Electron-Electron Bremsstrahlung Emission and the Inference of Electron Flux Spectra in Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eduard P. Kontar; A. Gordon Emslie; Anna Maria Massone; Michele Piana; John C. Brown; Marco Prato

    2007-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Although both electron-ion and electron-electron bremsstrahlung contribute to the hard X-ray emission from solar flares, the latter is normally ignored. Such an omission is not justified at electron (and photon) energies above $\\sim 300$ keV, and inclusion of the additional electron-electron bremsstrahlung in general makes the electron spectrum required to produce a given hard X-ray spectrum steeper at high energies. Unlike electron-ion bremsstrahlung, electron-electron bremsstrahlung cannot produce photons of all energies up to the maximum electron energy involved. The maximum possible photon energy depends on the angle between the direction of the emitting electron and the emitted photon, and this suggests a diagnostic for an upper cutoff energy and/or for the degree of beaming of the accelerated electrons. We analyze the large event of January 17, 2005 observed by RHESSI and show that the upward break around 400 keV in the observed hard X-ray spectrum is naturally accounted for by the inclusion of electron-electron bremsstrahlung. Indeed, the mean source electron spectrum recovered through a regularized inversion of the hard X-ray spectrum, using a cross-section that includes both electron-ion and electron-electron terms, has a relatively constant spectral index $\\delta$ over the range from electron kinetic energy $E = 200$ keV to $E = 1$ MeV. However, the level of detail discernible in the recovered electron spectrum is not sufficient to determine whether or not any upper cutoff energy exists.

  12. Lithographic measurement of EUV flare in the 0.3-NA Micro ExposureTool optic at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cain, Jason P.; Naulleau, Patrick; Spanos, Costas J.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The level of flare present in a 0.3-NA EUV optic (the MET optic) at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is measured using a lithographic method. Photoresist behavior at high exposure doses makes analysis difficult. Flare measurement analysis under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy is compared, and optical microscopy is found to be a more reliable technique. In addition, the measured results are compared with predictions based on surface roughness measurement of the MET optical elements. When the fields in the exposure matrix are spaced far enough apart to avoid influence from surrounding fields and the data is corrected for imperfect mask contrast and aerial image proximity effects, the results match predicted values quite well. The amount of flare present in this optic ranges from 4.7% for 2 {micro}m features to 6.8% for 500 nm features.

  13. Fermi Guest Investigator Program Cycle 2 Project Final Report Albedo Polarimetry of Gamma-Ray Bursts and Solar Flares with GBM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kippen, Richard Marc [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Several key properties of GRBs remain poorly understood and are difficult or even impossible to infer with the information currently being collected. Polarization measurements will probe the precise nature of the central engine. For solar flares, high-energy polarization measurements are expected to be useful in determining the beaming (or directivity) of solar flare electrons - a quantity that may provide important clues about electron acceleration and transport. We propose to investigate the viability of using the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) to measure the polarization of GRBs and solar flares using the albedo photon flux. This approach was previously developed for use with BATSE data. We will conduct a careful study of this technique using a modified version of the GRESS simulation tools developed by the GBM team.

  14. Apparatus for removing micronized coal from steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlnaty, J.

    1981-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Micronized coal is removed from coal-bearing steam by spraying stabilized petroleum oil into the steam and directing the resultant stream at a separation surface on which a coal-oil slurry is deposited and collected. Apparatus includes conduits which direct the resultant stream downward into a housing and normal to a surface on which the slurry is deposited by impact forces. In additional apparatus disclosed, the resultant stream is directed from a horizontal conduit circumferentially along the interior wall of a horizontally disposed cylindrical chamber at the top of the chamber and the coal-oil slurry deposited on the wall by centrifugal force is collected in a trough situated below a longitudinal slot at the bottom of the chamber. In both types of apparatus, after separation of the slurry the velocity of the steam is reduced to settle out remaining oil droplets and is then discharged to the atmosphere.

  15. IMPROVED PROCESSES TO REMOVE NAPHTHENIC ACIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; William A. Goddard; Yongchun Tang

    2004-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In the first year of this project, we have established our experimental and theoretical methodologies for studies of the catalytic decarboxylation process. We have developed both glass and stainless steel micro batch type reactors for the fast screening of various catalysts with reaction substrates of model carboxylic acid compounds and crude oil samples. We also developed novel product analysis methods such as GC analyses for organic acids and gaseous products; and TAN measurements for crude oil. Our research revealed the effectiveness of several solid catalysts such as NA-Cat-1 and NA-Cat-2 for the catalytic decarboxylation of model compounds; and NA-Cat-5{approx}NA-Cat-9 for the acid removal from crude oil. Our theoretical calculations propose a three-step concerted oxidative decarboxylation mechanism for the NA-Cat-1 catalyst.

  16. Fluoride removal from water with spent catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Y.D.; Liu, J.C. [National Taiwan Institute of Technology, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The adsorption of fluoride from water with spent catalyst was studied. Adsorption density of fluoride decreased with increasing pH. Linear adsorption isotherm was utilized to describe the adsorption reaction. The adsorption was a first-order reaction, and the rate constant increased with decreasing surface loading. Adsorption reaction of fluoride onto spent catalyst was endothermic, and the reaction rate increased slightly with increasing temperature. Fluoro-alumino complex and free fluoride ion were involved in the adsorption reaction. It is proposed that both the silica and alumina fractions of spent catalyst contribute to the removal of fluoride from aqueous solution. Coulombic interaction is proposed as the major driving force of the adsorption reaction of fluoride onto spent catalyst.

  17. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  18. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1998-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft{sup 3} of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  19. Removing sulphur oxides from a fluid stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Torsten; Riemann, Christian; Bartling, Karsten; Rigby, Sean Taylor; Coleman, Luke James Ivor; Lail, Marty Alan

    2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing sulphur oxides from a fluid stream, such as flue gas, comprising: providing a non-aqueous absorption liquid containing at least one hydrophobic amine, the liquid being incompletely miscible with water; treating the fluid stream in an absorption zone with the non-aqueous absorption liquid to transfer at least part of the sulphur oxides into the non-aqueous absorption liquid and to form a sulphur oxide-hydrophobic amine-complex; causing the non-aqueous absorption liquid to be in liquid-liquid contact with an aqueous liquid whereby at least part of the sulphur oxide-hydrophobic amine-complex is hydrolyzed to release the hydrophobic amine and sulphurous hydrolysis products, and at least part of the sulphurous hydrolysis products is transferred into the aqueous liquid; separating the aqueous liquid from the non-aqueous absorption liquid. The process mitigates absorbent degradation problems caused by sulphur dioxide and oxygen in flue gas.

  20. TIME DELAYS IN QUASI-PERIODIC PULSATIONS OBSERVED DURING THE X2.2 SOLAR FLARE ON 2011 FEBRUARY 15

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolla, L.; Marque, C.; Seaton, D. B.; Dominique, M.; Berghmans, D.; Cabanas, C.; De Groof, A.; Verdini, A.; West, M. J.; Zhukov, A. N. [Solar-Terrestrial Center of Excellence, Royal Observatory of Belgium, Avenue Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Van Doorsselaere, T. [Centrum voor Plasma-Astrofysica, Department of Mathematics, KULeuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Schmutz, W. [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos, World Radiation Center, Davos Dorf (Switzerland); Zender, J., E-mail: dolla@sidc.be [European Space Agency, ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We report observations of quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) during the X2.2 flare of 2011 February 15, observed simultaneously in several wavebands. We focus on fluctuations on timescale 1-30 s and find different time lags between different wavebands. During the impulsive phase, the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager channels in the range 25-100 keV lead all the other channels. They are followed by the Nobeyama RadioPolarimeters at 9 and 17 GHz and the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) channels of the Euv SpectroPhotometer (ESP) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory. The zirconium and aluminum filter channels of the Large Yield Radiometer on board the Project for On-Board Autonomy satellite and the soft X-ray (SXR) channel of ESP follow. The largest lags occur in observations from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, where the channel at 1-8 A leads the 0.5-4 A channel by several seconds. The time lags between the first and last channels is up to Almost-Equal-To 9 s. We identified at least two distinct time intervals during the flare impulsive phase, during which the QPPs were associated with two different sources in the Nobeyama RadioHeliograph at 17 GHz. The radio as well as the hard X-ray channels showed different lags during these two intervals. To our knowledge, this is the first time that time lags are reported between EUV and SXR fluctuations on these timescales. We discuss possible emission mechanisms and interpretations, including flare electron trapping.

  1. A FAST FLARE AND DIRECT REDSHIFT CONSTRAINT IN FAR-ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA OF THE BLAZAR S5 0716+714

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danforth, Charles W.; Nalewajko, Krzysztof; France, Kevin; Keeney, Brian A., E-mail: danforth@casa.colorado.edu [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2013-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The BL Lacertae object S5 0716+714 is one of the most studied blazars on the sky due to its active variability and brightness in many bands, including very-high-energy gamma rays. We present here two serendipitous results from recent far-ultraviolet spectroscopic observations by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). First, during the course of our 7.3 hr HST observations, the blazar increased in flux rapidly by {approx}40% (-0.45 mag hr{sup -1}) followed by a slower decline (+0.36 mag hr{sup -1}) to previous FUV flux levels. We model this flare using asymmetric flare templates and constrain the physical size and energetics of the emitting region. Furthermore, the spectral index of the object softens considerably during the course of the flare from {alpha}{sub {nu}} Almost-Equal-To -1.0 to {alpha}{sub {nu}} Almost-Equal-To -1.4. Second, we constrain the source redshift directly using the {approx}30 intervening absorption systems. A system at z = 0.2315 is detected in Ly{alpha}, Ly{beta}, O VI, and N V and defines the lower bound on the source redshift. No absorbers are seen in the remaining spectral coverage (0.2315 < z {sub Ly{alpha}} {approx}< 0.47) and we set a statistical upper bound of z < 0.322 (95% confidence) on the blazar. This is the first direct redshift limit for this object and is consistent with literature estimates of z = 0.31 {+-} 0.08 based on the detection of a host galaxy.

  2. PRECOMBUSTION REMOVAL OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT PRECURSORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2000-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to growing environmental concerns reflected in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored several research and development projects in late 1995 as part of an initiative entitled Advanced Environmental Control Technologies for Coal-Based Power Systems. The program provided cost-shared support for research and development projects that could accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. Clean coal technologies developed under this program would serve as prototypes for later generations of technologies to be implemented in the industrial sector. In order to identify technologies with the greatest potential for commercial implementation, projects funded under Phase I of this program were subject to competitive review by DOE before being considered for continuation funding under Phase II. One of the primary topical areas identified under the DOE initiative relates to the development of improved technologies for reducing the emissions of air toxics. Previous studies have suggested that many of the potentially hazardous air pollutant precursors (HAPPs) occur as trace elements in the mineral matter of run-of-mine coals. As a result, these elements have the potential to be removed prior to combustion at the mine site by physical coal cleaning processes (i.e., coal preparation). Unfortunately, existing coal preparation plants are generally limited in their ability to remove HAPPs due to incomplete liberation of the mineral matter and high organic associations of some trace elements. In addition, existing physical coal cleaning plants are not specifically designed or optimized to ensure that high trace element rejections may be achieved.

  3. High SO2 Removal Efficiency Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe

    1997-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a discussion of the technical progress on DOE/PETC project number DE-AC22-92PC91338, "High Efficiency SO Removal Testing," for 2 the time period 1 October through 31 December 1996. The project involves testing at six full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, to evaluate low capital cost upgrades that may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO removal efficiency. The upgrades being 2 evaluated mostly involve using performance additives in the FGD systems. The "base" project involved testing at the Tampa Electric Company?s Big Bend Station. All five potential options to the base program have been exercised by DOE, involving testing at Hoosier Energy?s Merom Station (Option I), Southwestern Electric Power Company?s Pirkey Station (Option II), PSI Energy?s Gibson Station (Option III), Duquesne Light?s Elrama Station (Option IV), and New York State Electric and Gas Corporation?s Kintigh Station (Option V). The originally planned testing has been completed for all six sites. However, additional testing has been planned at the Big Bend Station, and that testing commenced during the current quarter. The remainder of this document is divided into four sections. Section 2, Project Summary, provides a brief overview of the status of technical efforts on this project. Section 3, Results, summarizes the outcome from technical efforts during the quarter, or results from prior quarters that have not been previously reported. In Section 4, Plans for the Next Reporting Period, an overview is provided of the technical efforts that are anticipated for the first quarter of calendar year 1996. Section 5 contains a brief acknowledgment.

  4. High SO2 Removal Efficiency Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe

    1997-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a discussion of the technical progress on DOE/PETC project number DE-AC22-92PC91338, "High Efficiency SO2 Removal Testing", for the time period 1 January through 31 March 1997. The project involves testing at six full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, to evaluate low capital cost upgrades that may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO2 removal efficiency. The upgrades being evaluated mostly involve using performance additives in the FGD systems. The "base" project involved testing at the Tampa Electric Company?s Big Bend Station. All five potential options to the base program have been exercised by DOE, involving testing at Hoosier Energy?s Merom Station (Option I), Southwestern Electric Power Company?s Pirkey Station (Option II), PSI Energy?s Gibson Station (Option III), Duquesne Light?s Elrama Station (Option IV), and New York State Electric and Gas Corporation?s (NYSEG) Kintigh Station (Option V). The originally planned testing has been completed for all six sites. However, additional testing is planned at the Big Bend Station. The remainder of this document is divided into four sections. Section 2, Project Summary, provides a brief overview of the status of technical efforts on this project. Section 3, Results, summarizes the outcome from technical efforts during the quarter, or results from prior quarters that have not been previously reported. In Section 4, Plans for the Next Reporting Period, an overview is provided of the technical efforts that are anticipated for the second quarter of calendar year 1997. Section 5 contains a brief acknowledgement.

  5. High SO2 Removal Efficiency Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe

    1997-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a discussion of the technical progress on DOE/PETC project number DE-AC22-92PC91338, "High Efficiency SO2 Removal Testing", for the time period 1 April through 30 June 1997. The project involves testing at six full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to evaluate low capital cost upgrades that may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO2 removal efficiency. The upgrades being evaluated mostly involve using performance additives in the FGD systems. The "base" project involved testing at the Tampa Electric Company?s Big Bend Station. All five potential options to the base program have been exercised by DOE, involving testing at Hoosier Energy?s Merom Station (Option I), Southwestern Electric Power Company?s Pirkey Station (Option II), PSI Energy?s Gibson Station (Option III), Duquesne Light?s Elrama Station (Option IV), and New York State Electric and Gas Corporation?s Kintigh Station (Option V). The originally planned testing has been completed for all six sites. However, additional testing is being conducted at the Big Bend Station. The remainder of this document is divided into four sections. Section 2, Project Summary, provides a brief overview of the status of technical efforts on this project. Section 3, Results, summarizes the outcome from technical efforts during the quarter, or results from prior quarters that have not been previously reported. In Section 4, Plans for the Next Reporting Period, an overview is provided of the technical efforts that are anticipated for the third quarter of calendar year 1997. Section 5 contains a brief acknowledgment.

  6. HIGH-RESOLUTION IMAGING OF SOLAR FLARE RIBBONS AND ITS IMPLICATION ON THE THICK-TARGET BEAM MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krucker, Saem; Hudson, H. S.; Lin, R. P. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Jeffrey, N. L. S.; Battaglia, M.; Kontar, E. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Benz, A. O.; Csillaghy, A., E-mail: krucker@ssl.berkeley.edu [Institute of 4D Technologies, School of Engineering, University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland)

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on high-resolution optical and hard X-ray observations of solar flare ribbons seen during the GOES X6.5 class white-light flare of 2006 December 6. The data consist of imaging observations at 430 nm (the Fraunhofer G band) taken by the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope with the hard X-rays observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager. The two sets of data show closely similar ribbon structures, strongly suggesting that the flare emissions in white light and in hard X-rays have physically linked emission mechanisms. While the source structure along the ribbons is resolved at both wavelengths (length {approx} 30''), only the G-band observations resolve the width of the ribbon, with values between {approx}0.''5 and {approx}1.''8. The unresolved hard X-ray observations reveal an even narrower ribbon in hard X-rays (the main footpoint has a width perpendicular to the ribbon of <1.''1 compared to the G-band width of {approx}1.''8) suggesting that the hard X-ray emission comes from the sharp leading edge of the G-band ribbon. Applying the thick-target beam model, the derived energy deposition rate is >5 x 10{sup 12} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} provided by an electron flux of 1 x 10{sup 20} electrons s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} above 18 keV. This requires that the beam density of electrons above 18 keV be at least 1 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}. Even if field lines converge toward the chromospheric footpoints, the required beam in the corona has too high a density to be described as a dilute tail population on top of a Maxwellian core. We discuss this issue and others associated with this extreme event, which poses serious questions to the standard thick target beam interpretation of solar flares.

  7. Heat recirculating cooler for fluid stream pollutant removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, George A. (Morgantown, WV); Berry, David A. (Morgantown, WV)

    2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A process by which heat is removed from a reactant fluid to reach the operating temperature of a known pollutant removal method and said heat is recirculated to raise the temperature of the product fluid. The process can be utilized whenever an intermediate step reaction requires a lower reaction temperature than the prior and next steps. The benefits of a heat-recirculating cooler include the ability to use known pollutant removal methods and increased thermal efficiency of the system.

  8. Removal of radioactive and other hazardous material from fluid waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Knecht, Dieter A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Burchfield, Larry A. (W. Richland, WA); Anshits, Alexander G. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Vereshchagina, Tatiana (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Tretyakov, Alexander A. (Zheleznogorsk, RU); Aloy, Albert S. (St. Petersburg, RU); Sapozhnikova, Natalia V. (St. Petersburg, RU)

    2006-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Hollow glass microspheres obtained from fly ash (cenospheres) are impregnated with extractants/ion-exchangers and used to remove hazardous material from fluid waste. In a preferred embodiment the microsphere material is loaded with ammonium molybdophosphonate (AMP) and used to remove radioactive ions, such as cesium-137, from acidic liquid wastes. In another preferred embodiment, the microsphere material is loaded with octyl(phenyl)-N-N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and used to remove americium and plutonium from acidic liquid wastes.

  9. Thiacrown polymers for removal of mercury from waste streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumann, Theodore F.; Reynolds, John G.; Fox, Glenn A.

    2004-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Thiacrown polymers immobilized to a polystyrene-divinylbenzene matrix react with Hg.sup.2+ under a variety of conditions to efficiently and selectively remove Hg.sup.2+ ions from acidic aqueous solutions, even in the presence of a variety of other metal ions. The mercury can be recovered and the polymer regenerated. This mercury removal method has utility in the treatment of industrial wastewater, where a selective and cost-effective removal process is required.

  10. Thiacrown polymers for removal of mercury from waste streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumann, Theodore F. (Tracy, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA); Fox, Glenn A. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thiacrown polymers immobilized to a polystyrene-divinylbenzene matrix react with Hg.sup.2+ under a variety of conditions to efficiently and selectively remove Hg.sup.2+ ions from acidic aqueous solutions, even in the presence of a variety of other metal ions. The mercury can be recovered and the polymer regenerated. This mercury removal method has utility in the treatment of industrial wastewater, where a selective and cost-effective removal process is required.

  11. Organic removal from domestic wastewater by activated alumina adsorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Pe-Der

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the major groups of pollutants in wastewaters. Adsorption by granular activated carbon, a non-polar adsorbent, is now the primary treatment process for removal of residual organics from biologically treated wastewater. The ability of activated alumina... to human health if they exist in the water supply at relatively high concentrations. A wide variety of treatment processes are available to remove organic matter from wastewater. Biological treatment is the most cost effective method for removing oxygen...

  12. Use, Maintenance, Removal, Inspections, and Safety of Dams (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section describes operating plans for dams with movable structures, as well as procedures for raising or lowering of impoundment levels, dam removal, and dam safety inspections.

  13. actinide removal process: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plants (WWTPs) with biological nitrogen removal processes, using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Literature ... Xu, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

  14. ammonium nitrogen removal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plants (WWTPs) with biological nitrogen removal processes, using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Literature ... Xu, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

  15. autotrophic nitrogen removal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    treatment plants (WWTPs) with biological nitrogen removal processes, using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Literature ... Xu, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of...

  16. Annex IV Environmental Webinar: Effects of Energy Removal on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    tidal energy from estuaries; and Jesse Roberts, Sandia National Laboratory - Modeling energy removal by wave energy extraction. Participant Instructions: Webinar Login: You may...

  17. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) product removal can containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boettger, J.S.

    1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This safety evaluation for packaging allows the transport of nine Product Removal (PR) Cans with their Containers from the PUREX Facility to the Plutonium Finishing Plant.

  18. active debris removal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rebecca Bendick a , Kevin D. Hyde b March 2013 Keywords: Debris flow Frequency Magnitude Fire Forecasting debris flow hazard is challenging Montana, University of 110 Removing...

  19. REMOVAL OF THE CALIFORNIUM SOURCES FROM THE 222-S LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LINSTRUM D; BAUNE HL

    2009-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This document develops a proposal for removal of 2-Californium sources from the 222-S Laboratory. Included in this document are assessments of shipping packages and decay calculations.

  20. Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner.

  1. Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1994-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner. 1 fig.

  2. NNSA's Global Threat Reduction Initiative Removes More Than One...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Press Releases Video Gallery Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home NNSA Blog NNSA's Global Threat Reduction Initiative Removes More ......

  3. Performance evaluation of organic emulsion liquid membrane on phenol removal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Y S; Hashim, M A

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The percentage removal of phenol from aqueous solution by emulsion liquid membrane and emulsion leakage was investigated experimentally for various parameters such as membrane:internal phase ratio, membrane:external phase ratio, emulsification speed, emulsification time, carrier concentration, surfactant concentration and internal agent concentration. These parameters strongly influence the percentage removal of phenol and emulsion leakage. Under optimum membrane properties, the percentage removal of phenol was as high as 98.33%, with emulsion leakage of 1.25%. It was also found that the necessity of carrier for enhancing phenol removal was strongly dependent on the internal agent concentration.

  4. Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner.

  5. Removal of carbon tetrachloride from a layered porous medium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon tetrachloride from a layered porous medium by means of soil vapor extraction enhanced by desiccation and water Removal of carbon tetrachloride from a layered porous medium...

  6. Removal of Carbon Tetrachloride from a Layered Porous Medium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Tetrachloride from a Layered Porous Medium by Means of Soil Vapor Extraction Enhanced by Desiccation and Water Removal of Carbon Tetrachloride from a Layered Porous Medium...

  7. Study of Alternative Approaches for Transite Panel Removal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) assembled an experienced team from both sites to evaluate both the manual and mechanical methods of transite panel removal.

  8. anesthesia optimizing removal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    de 7 Multiplicative Noise Removal Using Variable Splitting and Constrained Optimization CERN Preprints Summary: Multiplicative noise (also known as speckle noise) models...

  9. Method of removal of sulfur from coal and petroleum products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verkade, John G. (Ames, IA); Mohan, Thyagarajan (Ames, IA); Angelici, Robert J. (Ames, IA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the removal of sulfur from sulfur-bearing materials such as coal and petroleum products using organophosphine and organophosphite compounds is provided.

  10. Direct observation of the energy release site in a solar flare by SDO/AIA, Hinode/EIS and RHESSI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simões, Paulo J A; Fletcher, Lyndsay

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present direct evidence for the detection of the main energy release site in a non-eruptive solar flare, SOL2013-11-09T06:38UT. This GOES C2.7 event was characterised by two flaring ribbons and a compact, bright coronal source located between them, which is the focus of our study. We use imaging from SDO/AIA, and imaging spectroscopy from RHESSI to characterise the thermal and non-thermal emission from the coronal source, and EUV spectroscopy from the Hinode/EIS, which scanned the coronal source during the impulsive peak, to analyse Doppler shifts in Fe XII and Fe XXIV emission lines, and determine the source density. The coronal source exhibited an impulsive emission lightcurve in all AIA filters during the impulsive phase. RHESSI hard X-ray images indicate both thermal and non-thermal emission at the coronal source, and its plasma temperature derived from RHESSI imaging spectroscopy shows an impulsive rise, reaching a maximum at 12-13 MK about 10 seconds prior to the hard X-ray peak. High redshifts assoc...

  11. Exploring the connection between coronal and footpoint sources in a thin-thick target solar flare model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marina Battaglia; Arnold O. Benz

    2007-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Context: Hard X-ray emission of coronal sources in solar flares has been observed and studied since its discovery in Yohkoh observations. Several models have been proposed to explain the physical mechanisms causing this emission and the relations between those sources and simultaneously observed footpoint sources. Aims: We investigate and test one of the models (intermediate thin-thick target model) developed on the basis of Yohkoh observations. The model makes precise predictions on the shape of coronal and footpoint spectra and the relations between them, that can be tested with new instruments such as RHESSI. Methods: RHESSI observations of well observed events are studied in imaging and spectroscopy and compared to the predictions from the intermediate thin-thick target model. Results: The results indicate that such a simple model cannot account for the observed relations between the non-thermal spectra of coronal and footpoint sources. Including non-collisional energy loss of the electrons in the flare loop due to an electric field can solve most of the inconsistencies.

  12. FLOWS AND MOTIONS IN MOSS IN THE CORE OF A FLARING ACTIVE REGION: EVIDENCE FOR STEADY HEATING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, David H.; Warren, Harry P., E-mail: dhbrooks@ssd5.nrl.navy.mi [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2009-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present new measurements of the time variability of intensity, Doppler, and nonthermal velocities in moss in an active region core observed by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode in 2007 June. The measurements are derived from spectral profiles of the Fe XII 195 A line. Using the 2'' slit, we repeatedly scanned 150'' by 150'' in a few minutes. This is the first time it has been possible to make such velocity measurements in the moss, and the data presented are the highest cadence spatially resolved maps of moss Doppler and nonthermal velocities ever obtained in the corona. The observed region produced numerous C- and M-class flares with several occurring in the core close to the moss. The magnetic field was therefore clearly changing in the active region core, so we ought to be able to detect dynamic signatures in the moss if they exist. Our measurements of moss intensities agree with previous studies in that a less than 15% variability is seen over a period of 16 hr. Our new measurements of Doppler and nonthermal velocities reveal no strong flows or motions in the moss, nor any significant variability in these quantities. The results confirm that moss at the bases of high temperature coronal loops is heated quasi-steadily. They also show that quasi-steady heating can contribute significantly even in the core of a flare productive active region. Such heating may be impulsive at high frequency, but if so it does not give rise to large flows or motions.

  13. EVIDENCE FOR INTERNAL TETHER-CUTTING IN A FLARE/CORONAL MASS EJECTION OBSERVED BY MESSENGER, RHESSI, AND STEREO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raftery, Claire L.; Gallagher, Peter T.; McAteer, R. T. James; Delahunt, Gareth; Lin, Chia-Hsien, E-mail: claire@ssl.berkeley.ed [Astrophysics Research Group, School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The relationship between eruptive flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is a topic of ongoing debate, especially regarding the possibility of a common initiation mechanism. We studied the kinematic and hydrodynamic properties of a well-observed event that occurred on 2007 December 31 using data from MESSENGER, RHESSI, and STEREO in order to gain new physical insight into the evolution of the flare and CME. The initiation mechanism was determined by comparing observations to the internal tether-cutting, breakout, and ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models. Evidence of pre-eruption reconnection immediately eliminated the ideal MHD model. The timing and location of the soft and hard X-ray sources led to the conclusion that the event was initiated by the internal tether-cutting mechanism. In addition, a thermal source was observed to move in a downward direction during the impulsive phase of the event, followed by upward motion during the decay phase, providing evidence for X- to Y-type magnetic reconnection.

  14. Metagenomic analysis of phosphorus removing sludgecommunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia Martin, Hector; Ivanova, Natalia; Kunin, Victor; Warnecke,Falk; Barry, Kerrie; McHardy, Alice C.; Yeates, Christine; He, Shaomei; Salamov, Asaf; Szeto, Ernest; Dalin, Eileen; Putnam, Nik; Shapiro, HarrisJ.; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L.; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Blackall, Linda Louise; McMahon, Katherine D.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) is not wellunderstood at the metabolic level despite being one of the best-studiedmicrobially-mediated industrial processes due to its ecological andeconomic relevance. Here we present a metagenomic analysis of twolab-scale EBPR sludges dominated by the uncultured bacterium, "CandidatusAccumulibacter phosphatis." This analysis resolves several controversiesin EBPR metabolic models and provides hypotheses explaining the dominanceof A. phosphatis in this habitat, its lifestyle outside EBPR and probablecultivation requirements. Comparison of the same species from differentEBPR sludges highlights recent evolutionary dynamics in the A. phosphatisgenome that could be linked to mechanisms for environmental adaptation.In spite of an apparent lack of phylogenetic overlap in the flankingcommunities of the two sludges studied, common functional themes werefound, at least one of them complementary to the inferred metabolism ofthe dominant organism. The present study provides a much-needed blueprintfor a systems-level understanding of EBPR and illustrates thatmetagenomics enables detailed, often novel, insights into evenwell-studied biological systems.

  15. Method of removing oxidized contaminants from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amonette, J.E.; Fruchter, J.S.; Gorby, Y.A.; Cole, C.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Kaplan, D.I.

    1998-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a method for removing oxidized contaminant(s) from water. More specifically, the invention has the steps of contacting water containing the oxidized contaminant(s) with a layered aluminosilicate having Fe(II). The aluminosilicate may contain naturally occurring Fe(II), or the Fe(II) may be produced by reducing Fe(III) that is initially present. Reduction may be either by exposure to a chemical or biological reductant. Contacting the water containing oxidized contaminant(s) may be by (1) injection of Fe(II)-containing layered aluminosilicate, via a well, into a saturated zone where it is likely to intercept the contaminated water; (2) injection of contaminated water into a vessel containing the Fe(II)-bearing layered aluminosilicate; and (3) first reducing Fe(III) in the layered aluminosilicate to Fe(II) by injection of a biological or chemical reductant, into an aquifer or vessel having sufficient Fe(III)-bearing aluminosilicate to produce the necessary Fe(II). 8 figs.

  16. Improved Processes to Remove Naphthenic Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; Kangshi Wang; Yongchun Tang; William A. Goddard

    2005-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past three years, we followed the work plan as we suggested in the proposal and made every efforts to fulfill the project objectives. Based on our large amount of creative and productive work, including both of experimental and theoretic aspects, we received important technical breakthrough on naphthenic acid removal process and obtained deep insight on catalytic decarboxylation chemistry. In detail, we established an integrated methodology to serve for all of the experimental and theoretical work. Our experimental investigation results in discovery of four type effective catalysts to the reaction of decarboxylation of model carboxylic acid compounds. The adsorption experiment revealed the effectiveness of several solid materials to naphthenic acid adsorption and acidity reduction of crude oil, which can be either natural minerals or synthesized materials. The test with crude oil also received promising results, which can be potentially developed into a practical process for oil industry. The theoretical work predicted several possible catalytic decarboxylation mechanisms that would govern the decarboxylation pathways depending on the type of catalysts being used. The calculation for reaction activation energy was in good agreement with our experimental measurements.

  17. The washability of lignites for clay removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oteyaka, B.; Yamik, A.; Ucar, A.; Sahbaz, O.; Demir, U. [Dumlupinar University, Kutahya (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the washability research of the Seyitomer Lignites (Kutahya-Turkey), with lower calorific value (1,863 kcal/kg) and high ash content (51.91%), by heavy medium separation, it was found out that middling clay in the coal had an effect to change the medium density. To prevent this problem, a trommel sieve with 18 and 5 mm aperture diameter was designed, and the clay in the coal was tried to be removed using it before the coal was released to heavy medium. Following that, the obtained coal in -100 + 18 mm and -18 + 5 mm fractions was subjected to sink and float test having 1.4 gcm{sup -3} and 1.7 gcm{sup -3} medium densities (-5 mm fraction will be evaluated in a separate work). Depending on the raw coal, with the floating of -100 + 18 mm and -18 + 5 mm size fraction in 1.4 gcm{sup -3} medium density, clean coal with 60.10% combustible matter recovery, 19.12% ash, and 3,150 kcal/kg was obtained. Also floating of the samples sinking in 1.4 gcm{sup -3} in the medium density (1.7 gcm{sup -3}), middling with 18.70% combustible matter recovery, 41.93% ash, 2,150 kcal/kg, and tailing having 78.31% ash were obtained.

  18. HIGH SO2 REMOVAL EFFICIENCY TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe; James L. Phillips

    1997-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report describes the results of performance tests at six full-scale wet lime- and limestone-reagent flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The objective of these tests was to evaluate the effectiveness of low capital cost sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal upgrades for existing FGD systems as an option for complying with the provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The upgrade options tested at the limestone-reagent systems included the use of organic acid additives (dibasic acid (DBA) and/or sodium formate) as well as increased reagent ratio (higher excess limestone levels in the recirculating slurry solids) and absorber liquid-to-gas ratio. One system also tested operating at higher flue gas velocities to allow the existing FGD system to treat flue gas from an adjacent, unscrubbed unit. Upgrade options for the one lime-based system tested included increased absorber venturi pressure drop and increased sulfite concentration in the recirculating slurry liquor.

  19. Fifteen years of XMM-Newton and Chandra monitoring of Sgr A*: Evidence for a recent increase in the bright flaring rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponti, G; Morris, M R; Merloni, A; Munoz-Darias, T; Clavel, M; Haggard, D; Zhang, S; Nandra, K; Gillessen, S; Mori, K; Neilsen, J; Rea, N; Degenaar, N; Terrier, R; Goldwurm, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a study of the X-ray flaring activity of Sgr A* during all the 150 XMM-Newton and Chandra observations pointed at the Milky Way center over the last 15 years. This includes the latest XMM-Newton and Chandra campaigns devoted to monitoring the closest approach of the very red Br-Gamma emitting object called G2. The entire dataset analysed extends from September 1999 through November 2014. We employed a Bayesian block analysis to investigate any possible variations in the characteristics (frequency, energetics, peak intensity, duration) of the flaring events that Sgr A* has exhibited since their discovery in 2001. We observe that the total bright-or-very bright flare luminosity of Sgr A* increased between 2013-2014 by a factor of 2-3 (~3.5 sigma significance). We also observe an increase (~99.9% significance) from 0.27+-0.04 to 2.5+-1.0 day^-1 of the bright-or-very bright flaring rate of Sgr A*, starting in late summer 2014, which happens to be about six months after G2's peri-center passage. This mi...

  20. Solar activity can be surprisingly good for Last month, the sun went haywire. Almost every day for two weeks in early September, solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Solar activity can be surprisingly good for astronauts Last month, the sun went haywire. Almost every day for two weeks in early September, solar flares issued from a giant sunspot named "active region 798/808." X-rays ionized Earth's upper atmosphere. Solar protons peppered the Moon

  1. Mechanisms of virus removal during transport in unsaturated porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flury, Markus

    Mechanisms of virus removal during transport in unsaturated porous media Yanjie Chu and Yan Jin retention and retardation during transport in unsaturated systems. In this study, bacteriophages X174 and MS at the solid-water interface rather than at the air-water interface dominates in virus removal and transport

  2. An Adaptive Kalman Filter for Removing Baseline Wandering in ECG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Povinelli, Richard J.

    An Adaptive Kalman Filter for Removing Baseline Wandering in ECG Signals MA Mneimneh, EE Yaz, MT to baseline removal. This paper proposes an adaptive Kalman filter for the real time re- moval of baseline is used with an adaptive Kalman filter to estimate the state variables, including the baseline wandering

  3. Continuous cryopump with a method for removal of solidified gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.; Herman, H.

    1988-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved cryopump for the removal of gases from a high vacuum, comprising a cryopanel incorporating honeycomb structure, refrigerant means thermally connected to the cryopanel, and a rotatable channel moving azimuthally around an axis located near the center of the cryopanel, removing gases adsorbed within the honeycomb structure by subliming them and conducting them outside the vacuum vessel. 4 figs.

  4. Method for removing chlorine compounds from hydrocarbon mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janoski, E.J.; Hollstein, E.J.

    1984-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing halide ions from a hydrocarbon feedstream containing halogenated hydrocarbons wherein the contaminated feedstock is contacted with a solution of a suitable oxidizing acid containing a lanthanide oxide, the acid being present in a concentration of at least about 50 weight percent for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the halide ion from the hydrocarbon feedstock.

  5. Process for removing pyritic sulfur from bituminous coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Janiak, Jerzy S. (Edmonton, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw L. (Edmonton, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is provided for removing pyritic sulfur and lowering ash content of bituminous coals by grinding the feed coal, subjecting it to micro-agglomeration with a bridging liquid containing heavy oil, separating the microagglomerates and separating them to a water wash to remove suspended pyritic sulfur. In one embodiment the coal is subjected to a second micro-agglomeration step.

  6. Removal of Estrogenic Pollutants from Contaminated Water Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wilfred

    Removal of Estrogenic Pollutants from Contaminated Water Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Z I H that this material may be appropriate for treating a complex mixture of estrogenic pollutants. The feasibility of removing estrogenic compounds from environmental water by the MIP was demonstrated using lake water spiked

  7. Process for selected gas oxide removal by radiofrequency catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, C.Y.

    1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This process to remove gas oxides from flue gas utilizes adsorption on a char bed subsequently followed by radiofrequency catalysis enhancing such removal through selected reactions. Common gas oxides include SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x]. 1 figure.

  8. UNL/OSU Researchers Try Promising Technique to Remove Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    UNL/OSU Researchers Try Promising Technique to Remove Groundwater Contamination Under Former Oklahoma State University have joined to test promising new methods of removing longstanding groundwater into specially drilled injection wells, where it mixes with contaminants in the groundwater under the former

  9. Atmospheric Environment 41 (2007) 31513160 Ozone removal by HVAC filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    Atmospheric Environment 41 (2007) 3151­3160 Ozone removal by HVAC filters P. Zhao, J.A. Siegel�, R May 2006; accepted 14 June 2006 Abstract Residential and commercial HVAC filters that have been loaded of the relative importance of HVAC filters as a removal mechanism for ozone in residential and commercial

  10. Removal of residual particulate matter from filter media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Almlie, Jay C; Miller, Stanley J

    2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing residual filter cakes that remain adhered to a filter after typical particulate removal methodologies have been employed, such as pulse-jet filter element cleaning, for all cleanable filters used for air pollution control, dust control, or powder control.

  11. Aluminum Removal from Photographic Waste Submitted to Dr. Tony Bi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluminum Removal from Photographic Waste Submitted to Dr. Tony Bi By: Kristen Favel, Tiffany Jung, and Kenny Tam CHBE 484 University of British Columbia April 15, 2009 #12;ii "Aluminum Removal from photographic waste has shown elevated levels of aluminum in the fixer, which exceed sewer discharge standards

  12. Fuzzy predictive control for nitrogen removal in biological wastewater treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuzzy predictive control for nitrogen removal in biological wastewater treatment S. Marsili predictive control; wastewater treatment plant Introduction The problem of improving the nitrogen removal wastewater is too low, full denitrification is difficult to obtain and an additional source of organic carbon

  13. Method for removing metals from a cleaning solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deacon, Lewis E. (Waverly, OH)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing accumulated metals from a cleaning solution is provided. After removal of the metals, the cleaning solution can be discharged or recycled. The process manipulates the pH levels of the solution as a means of precipitating solids. Preferably a dual phase separation at two different pH levels is utilized.

  14. Passive shut-down heat removal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hundal, Rolv (Greensburg, PA); Sharbaugh, John E. (Bullskin Township, Fayette County, PA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved shut-down heat removal system for a liquid metal nuclear reactor of the type having a vessel for holding hot and cold pools of liquid sodium is disclosed herein. Generally, the improved system comprises a redan or barrier within the reactor vessel which allows an auxiliary heat exchanger to become immersed in liquid sodium from the hot pool whenever the reactor pump fails to generate a metal-circulating pressure differential between the hot and cold pools of sodium. This redan also defines an alternative circulation path between the hot and cold pools of sodium in order to equilibrate the distribution of the decay heat from the reactor core. The invention may take the form of a redan or barrier that circumscribes the inner wall of the reactor vessel, thereby defining an annular space therebetween. In this embodiment, the bottom of the annular space communicates with the cold pool of sodium, and the auxiliary heat exchanger is placed in this annular space just above the drawn-down level that the liquid sodium assumes during normal operating conditions. Alternatively, the redan of the invention may include a pair of vertically oriented, concentrically disposed standpipes having a piston member disposed between them that operates somewhat like a pressure-sensitive valve. In both embodiments, the cessation of the pressure differential that is normally created by the reactor pump causes the auxiliary heat exchanger to be immersed in liquid sodium from the hot pool. Additionally, the redan in both embodiments forms a circulation flow path between the hot and cold pools so that the decay heat from the nuclear core is uniformly distributed within the vessel.

  15. Demonstrations and commercial applications of innovative sediment removal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pelletier, J.P. [Environment Canada, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Contaminated Sediment Removal Program (CSRP) of Environment Canada was founded in November 1990 following a request from the Great Lakes Cleanup Fund to the Environmental Protection Service-Ontario Region to provide the leadership in the identification of removal technologies and procedures for contaminated sediments in the Great Lakes. Following a request for proposal issued by the CSRP, proposals were received from vendors of innovative sediment removal technologies to conduct contaminated sediment removal demonstrations in different Areas of Concern (AOCs) on the Canadian side of the Great Lakes. In 1992, the CSRP conducted the demonstration of two innovative sediment removal technologies at three different sites. The Cable Arm 100E clamshell bucket was demonstrated in Toronto and Hamilton Harbors, while the Pneuma Pump was demonstrated in Collingwood Harbor. Those three demonstrations led to the first Canadian commercial applications of the Cable Arm 100E clamshell bucket in Pickering, Ontario, and of the Pneuma Pump in Collingwood, Ontario.

  16. Regenerable hydrogen chloride removal sorbent and regenerable multi-functional hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen chloride removal sorbent for high temperature gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani (Morgantown, WV)

    2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Regenerable hydrogen chloride removal sorbent and regenerable multi-functional hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen chloride removal sorbent for high temperature gas streams

  17. Combined Modeling of Acceleration, Transport, and Hydrodynamic Response in Solar Flares. II. Inclusion of Radiative Transfer with RADYN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    da Costa, Fatima Rubio; Petrosian, Vahe'; Carlsson, Mats

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar flares involve complex processes that are coupled together and span a wide range of temporal, spatial, and energy scales. Modeling such processes self-consistently has been a challenge in the past. Here we present such a model to simulate the coupling of high-energy particle kinetics with hydrodynamics of the atmospheric plasma. We combine the Stanford unified Fokker-Planck code that models particle acceleration, transport, and bremsstrahlung radiation with the RADYN hydrodynamic code that models the atmospheric response to collisional heating by non-thermal electrons through detailed radiative transfer calculations. We perform simulations using different injection electron spectra, including an {\\it ad hoc} power law and more realistic spectra predicted by the stochastic acceleration model due to turbulence or plasma waves. Surprisingly, stochastically accelerated electrons, even with energy flux $\\ll 10^{10}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$, cause "explosive" chromospheric evaporation and drive stronger up- an...

  18. FLARE-ASSOCIATED TYPE III RADIO BURSTS AND DYNAMICS OF THE EUV JET FROM SDO/AIA AND RHESSI OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Naihwa; Ip, Wing-Huen [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China); Innes, Davina, E-mail: d949001@astro.ncu.edu.tw, E-mail: wingip@astro.ncu.edu.tw, E-mail: innes@mps.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany)

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed description of the interrelation between the Type III radio bursts and energetic phenomena associated with the flare activities in active region AR11158 at 07:58 UT on 2011 February 15. The timing of the Type III radio burst measured by the radio wave experiment on Wind/WAVE and an array of ground-based radio telescopes coincided with an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) jet and hard X-ray (HXR) emission observed by SDO/AIA and RHESSI, respectively. There is clear evidence that the EUV jet shares the same source region as the HXR emission. The temperature of the jet, as determined by multiwavelength measurements by Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, suggests that Type III emission is associated with hot, 7 MK, plasma at the jet's footpoint.

  19. Spectral Studies of Flaring FSRQs at GeV Energies Using Pass 8 Fermi-LAT Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Britto, Richard J G; Lott, Benoît

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) are bright active galactic nuclei surrounded by gas clouds within a UV-visible intense radiation field that form the so-called broad line region (BLR). These objects emit relativistic jets from a region close to the central supermassive black hole and through the BLR. The Fermi-Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) is sensitive to gamma-ray photons from $\\sim$30 MeV to more than 300 GeV. We have performed spectral analysis of bright FSRQs in a 5.5 year (2008-2014) data sample collected by Fermi-LAT, using the new Pass 8 event selection and instrument response function. Also, our study of flaring episodes in a limited time range brings interesting results while compared to the full 5.5 year data samples.

  20. Passive removal of manganese from acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brant, D.L.; Ziemkiewicz, P.F. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Removal of manganese (Mn) from mine drainage is difficult due to the abnormal chemistry of the element. The removal requires the oxidation of Mn(II) (the form found in mine drainage) to the more oxidized forms (Mn(III) or Mn(IV)). The more oxidized forms exist only as solids and will not return to Mn(II) spontaneously. Chemical treatment of Mn often requires a pH near 10 to initiate the oxidation quickly. A stabilized pH of 10 normally causes more harm to aquatic organisms than the Mn and is not desirable, making additional steps in the treatment necessary. Biological removal of Mn can be achieved at near neutral pH levels. The Shade Mining site in Somerset County, PA has been treating Mn to discharge limits since the early 1990`s (reducing Mn concentrations from 12 - 25 mg/L in the influent to <2 mg/L in the effluent). The treatment system consists of an anoxic limestone drain discharging into a wetland to remove iron, aluminum, and acidity, while increasing pH and alkalinity. The wetland effluent flows into two limestone beds (Mn removal). The limestone beds developed a black slime coating as the Mn removal increased. This system continues to remove Mn in all weather conditions and has not required chemical treatment since the black coating appeared on the limestone. A laboratory study was conducted using limestone collected from the Shade site to use the same naturally occurring Mn oxidizing microbes. The lab study compared W removal rates of microbial oxidation, MnO{sub 2} catalyzed limestone, and fresh uncoated limestone. The microbial removal performed the best (25 mg/L Mn reduced to <2 mg/L in 72 hours).