National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for flared reservoir repressuring

  1. High potential recovery -- Gas repressurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madden, M.P.

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate that small independent oil producers can use existing gas injection technologies, scaled to their operations, to repressurize petroleum reservoirs and increase their economic oil production. This report gives background information for gas repressurization technologies, the results of workshops held to inform small independent producers about gas repressurization, and the results of four gas repressurization field demonstration projects. Much of the material in this report is based on annual reports (BDM-Oklahoma 1995, BDM-Oklahoma 1996, BDM-Oklahoma 1997), a report describing the results of the workshops (Olsen 1995), and the four final reports for the field demonstration projects which are reproduced in the Appendix. This project was designed to demonstrate that repressurization of reservoirs with gas (natural gas, enriched gas, nitrogen, flue gas, or air) can be used by small independent operators in selected reservoirs to increase production and/or decrease premature abandonment of the resource. The project excluded carbon dioxide because of other DOE-sponsored projects that address carbon dioxide processes directly. Two of the demonstration projects, one using flue gas and the other involving natural gas from a deeper coal zone, were both technical and economic successes. The two major lessons learned from the projects are the importance of (1) adequate infrastructure (piping, wells, compressors, etc.) and (2) adequate planning including testing compatibility between injected gases and fluids, and reservoir gases, fluids, and rocks.

  2. Arizona Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Arizona Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 103 1990's - 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Used for Repressuring Arizona Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals

  3. Maryland Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Used for Repressuring Maryland Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production Natural Gas Used for Repressuring

  4. Virginia Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Used for Repressuring Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production Natural Gas Used for Repressuring

  5. Kentucky Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Used for Repressuring Kentucky Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production Natural Gas Used for Repressuring

  6. West Virginia Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's...

  7. Tennessee Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 146 436 897 538 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  8. Ohio Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 1,808 850 889 0 1,141 1,234 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  9. Oklahoma Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 81,755 86,285 87,196 1970's 86,432 85,027 82,265 82,396 83,488 83,486 85,479 89,365 91,342 96,366 1980's 101,198 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  10. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 375 320 312 1970's 273 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  11. Nebraska Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Nebraska Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 1,629 1,200 427 1970's 318 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  12. Ohio Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 1,808 850 889 0 1,141 1,234 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  13. Oklahoma Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 81,755 86,285 87,196 1970's 86,432 85,027 82,265 82,396 83,488 83,486 85,479 89,365 91,342 96,366 1980's 101,198 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  14. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 375 320 312 1970's 273 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  15. Tennessee Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 146 436 897 538 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  16. Nebraska Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0

  17. Arizona Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0

  18. Illinois Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0

  19. Tennessee Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0

  20. Ohio Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0

  1. Oklahoma Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0

  2. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0

  3. Other States Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Other States Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 867 758 881 1992 718 641 691 666 662 642 653 653 645 697 694 725 1993 680 609 662 635 644 618 635 636 626 670 673 706 1994 656 588 637 610 620 596 612 613 603 644 645 676 1995 683 612 665 636 646 620 637 638 627 671 674 706 1996 196 185 205 187 218 212 192 191 193 201 218 156 1997 208 194 204 211 200 187 148 162 151 158 148 169 1998 126 117 123

  4. West Virginia Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 630 770 612 1970's 529 287 185 140 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  5. West Virginia Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0

  6. ,"Indiana Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Indiana Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","2/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","3/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  7. Physical property changes in hydrate-bearingsediment due to depressurization and subsequent repressurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kneafsey, Timothy; Waite, W.F.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Winters, W.J.; Mason, D.H.

    2008-06-01

    Physical property measurements of sediment cores containing natural gas hydrate are typically performed on material exposed at least briefly to non-in situ conditions during recovery. To examine effects of a brief excursion from the gas-hydrate stability field, as can occur when pressure cores are transferred to pressurized storage vessels, we measured physical properties on laboratory-formed sand packs containing methane hydrate and methane pore gas. After depressurizing samples to atmospheric pressure, we repressurized them into the methane-hydrate stability field and remeasured their physical properties. Thermal conductivity, shear strength, acoustic compressional and shear wave amplitudes and speeds are compared between the original and depressurized/repressurized samples. X-ray computed tomography (CT) images track how the gas-hydrate distribution changes in the hydrate-cemented sands due to the depressurization/repressurization process. Because depressurization-induced property changes can be substantial and are not easily predicted, particularly in water-saturated, hydrate-bearing sediment, maintaining pressure and temperature conditions throughout the core recovery and measurement process is critical for using laboratory measurements to estimate in situ properties.

  8. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Wellhead Value & Marketed Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Marketed Production Gross withdrawals less gas used for repressuring, quantities vented and flared, and nonhydrocarbon gases removed in treating or processing operations. Includes all quantities of gas used in field and processing plant operations. Production The volume of natural gas withdrawn from reservoirs less (1) the volume returned to such reservoirs in cycling, repressuring of oil reservoirs, and conservation

  9. Federal Offshore--Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Federal Offshore--Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1997 2,759 2,577 2,704 2,628 2,728 3,009 3,168 3,155 3,079 3,055 3,298 3,469 1998 2,634 2,460 2,582 2,509 2,605 2,873 3,025 3,012 2,940 2,859 3,086 3,247 1999 1,809 1,689 1,773 1,723 1,789 1,973 2,077 2,068 2,019 1,963 2,119 2,230 2000 2,535 2,432 2,503 2,403 2,472 2,717 2,977 2,947 3,184 2,870 3,060 3,207 2001 1,207 1,359

  10. SMALL, GEOLOGICALLY COMPLEX RESERVOIRS CAN BENEFIT FROM RESERVOIR SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard E. Bennett

    2002-06-24

    The Cascade Sand zone of the Mission-Visco Lease in the Cascade Oil field of Los Angeles County, California, has been under water flood since 1970. Increasing water injection to increase oil production rates was being considered as an opportunity to improve oil recovery. However, a secondary gas cap had formed in the up-dip portion of the reservoir with very low gas cap pressures, creating concern that oil could be displaced into the gas cap resulting in the loss of recoverable oil. Therefore, injecting gas into the gas cap to keep the gas cap pressurized and restrict the influx of oil during water injection was also being considered. Further, it was recognized that the reservoir geology in the gas cap area is very complex with numerous folding and faulting and thus there are potential pressure barriers in several locations throughout the reservoir. With these conditions in mind, there were concerns regarding well to well continuity in the gas cap, which could interfere with the intended repressurization impact. Concerns about the pattern of gas flow from well to well, the possibilities of cycling gas without the desired increased pressure, and the possible loss of oil displaced into the gas cap resulted in the decision to conduct a gas tracer survey in an attempt to better define inter-well communication. Following the gas tracer survey, a reservoir model would be developed to integrate the findings of the gas tracer survey, known geologic and reservoir data, and historic production data. The reservoir model would be used to better define the reservoir characteristics and provide information that could help optimize the waterflood-gas injection project under consideration for efficient water and gas injection management to increase oil production. However, due to inadequate gas sampling procedures in the field and insufficiently developed laboratory analytical techniques, the laboratory was unable to detect the tracer in the gas samples taken. At that point, focus on, and an expansion of the scope of the reservoir simulation and modeling effort was initiated, using DOE's BOAST98 (a visual, dynamic, interactive update of BOAST3), 3D, black oil reservoir simulation package as the basis for developing the reservoir model. Reservoir characterization, modeling, and reservoir simulation resulted in a significant change in the depletion strategy. Information from the reservoir characterization and modeling effort indicate that in-fill drilling and relying on natural water influx from the aquifer could increase remaining reserves by 125,000 barrels of oil per well, and that up to 10 infill wells could be drilled in the field. Through this scenario, field production could be increased two to three times over the current 65 bopd. Based on the results of the study, permits have been applied for to drill a directional infill well to encounter the productive zone at a high angle in order to maximize the amount of pay and reservoirs encountered.

  11. Reservoir Claddings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-05-14

    This information sheet explains how to properly decouple reservoir claddings from water sensitive materials of the wall assembly.

  12. Gamma-ray burst flares: X-ray flaring. II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swenson, C. A.; Roming, P. W. A., E-mail: cswenson@astro.psu.edu [Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    We present a catalog of 498 flaring periods found in gamma-ray burst (GRB) light curves taken from the online Swift X-Ray Telescope GRB Catalogue. We analyzed 680 individual light curves using a flare detection method developed and used on our UV/optical GRB Flare Catalog. This method makes use of the Bayesian Information Criterion to analyze the residuals of fitted GRB light curves and statistically determines the optimal fit to the light curve residuals in an attempt to identify any additional features. These features, which we classify as flares, are identified by iteratively adding additional 'breaks' to the light curve. We find evidence of flaring in 326 of the analyzed light curves. For those light curves with flares, we find an average number of ?1.5 flares per GRB. As with the UV/optical, flaring in our sample is generally confined to the first 1000 s of the afterglow, but can be detected to beyond 10{sup 5} s. Only ?50% of the detected flares follow the 'classical' definition of ?t/t ? 0.5, with many of the largest flares exceeding this value.

  13. PRECURSOR FLARES IN OJ 287

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pihajoki, P.; Berdyugin, A.; Lindfors, E.; Reinthal, R.; Sillanpaeae, A.; Takalo, L.; Valtonen, M.; Nilsson, K.; Zola, S.; Koziel-Wierzbowska, D.; Liakos, A.; Drozdz, M.; Winiarski, M.; Ogloza, W.; Provencal, J.; Santangelo, M. M. M.; Salo, H.; Chandra, S.; Ganesh, S.; Baliyan, K. S.; and others

    2013-02-10

    We have studied three most recent precursor flares in the light curve of the blazar OJ 287 while invoking the presence of a precessing binary black hole in the system to explain the nature of these flares. Precursor flare timings from the historical light curves are compared with theoretical predictions from our model that incorporate effects of an accretion disk and post-Newtonian description for the binary black hole orbit. We find that the precursor flares coincide with the secondary black hole descending toward the accretion disk of the primary black hole from the observed side, with a mean z-component of approximately z{sub c} = 4000 AU. We use this model of precursor flares to predict that precursor flare of similar nature should happen around 2020.96 before the next major outburst in 2022.

  14. Helium (3) Rich Solar Flares

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Colgate, S. A.; Audouze, J.; Fowler, W. A.

    1977-05-03

    The extreme enrichment of {sup 3} He {sup 4} He greater than or equal to 1 in some solar flares as due to spallation and the subsequent confinement of the products in a high temperature, kT approx. = 200 keV, high density, n{sub e} approx. = 3 x 10{sup 15} cm {sup -3} plasma associated with the magnetic instability producing the flare is interpreted. The pinch or filament is a current of high energy protons that creates the spallation and maintains the temperature that produces the high energy x-ray spectrum and depletes other isotopes D, Li, Be, and B as observed. Finally the high temperature plasma is a uniquely efficient spallation target that is powered by the interaction of stellar convection and self generated magnetic field.

  15. Staff Research Physicist (Experimental Research, FLARE) | Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experimental Research, FLARE) Department: Research Staff: RM 02 Requisition Number: 1500503 The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory seeks to fill a staff research physicist...

  16. Status of Norris Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Norris Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses, conditions that impair reservoir uses, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most up-to-date publications and data available, and from interviews with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies, and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  17. ON THE DURATION OF BLAZAR SYNCHROTRON FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eichmann, B.; Schlickeiser, R.; Rhode, W.

    2012-01-10

    A semi-analytical model is presented that describes the temporal development of a blazar synchrotron flare for the case of a broadband synchrotron power spectrum. We examine three different injection scenarios and present its influence on the synchrotron flare. An accurate approximation of the half-life of a synchrotron flare is analytically computed and we give some illustrative examples of the time evolution of the emergent synchrotron intensity by using a numerical integration method. The synchrotron flare starts at all photon energies right after the injection of ultrarelativistic electrons into the spherical emission volume of radius R and its duration exceeds the light travel time 2R/c in the low energy regime. Furthermore, the flare duration extends by the period of injection of relativistic electrons into the emission knot. However, the energetic and spatial distribution of these injected electrons has no significant influence on the flare duration. We obtain a temporal behavior that agrees most favorably with the observations of PKS 2155-304 on 2006 July 29-30 and it differs considerably from the results that were recently achieved by using a monochromatic approximation of the synchrotron power.

  18. Status of Wheeler Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of status reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Wheeler Reservoir summarizes reservoir purposes and operation, reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, and water quality and aquatic biological conditions. The information presented here is from the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. If no recent data were available, historical data were summarized. If data were completely lacking, environmental professionals with special knowledge of the resource were interviewed. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Status of Cherokee Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This is the first in a series of reports prepared by Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overviews of Cherokee Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports, publications, and data available, and interviews with water resource professionals in various Federal, state, and local agencies and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Enclosed ground-flare incinerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiseman, Thomas R. (Calgary, CA)

    2000-01-01

    An improved ground flare is provided comprising a stack, two or more burner assemblies, and a servicing port so that some of the burner assemblies can be serviced while others remain in operation. The burner assemblies comprise a burner conduit and nozzles which are individually fitted to the stack's burner chamber and are each removably supported in the chamber. Each burner conduit is sealed to and sandwiched between a waste gas inlet port and a matching a closure port on the other side of the stack. The closure port can be opened for physically releasing the burner conduit and supplying sufficient axial movement room for extracting the conduit from the socket, thereby releasing the conduit for hand removal through a servicing port. Preferably, the lower end of the stack is formed of one or more axially displaced lower tubular shells which are concentrically spaced for forming annular inlets for admitting combustion air. An upper tubular exhaust stack, similarly formed, admits additional combustion air for increasing the efficiency of combustion, increasing the flow of exhausted for improved atmospheric dispersion and for cooling the upper stack.

  1. Blackfoot Reservoir Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean Capacity: Click "Edit With...

  2. Blackfoot Reservoir Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  3. MEASUREMENTS OF ABSOLUTE ABUNDANCES IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. EVE observes both high temperature Fe emission lines (Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and continuum emission from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum emission it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias (f). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature, it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential emission measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is f = 1.17 0.22. This analysis suggests that the bulk of the plasma evaporated during a flare comes from deep in the chromosphere, below the region where elemental fractionation occurs.

  4. Compensation of flare-induced CD changes EUVL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bjorkholm, John E. (Pleasanton, CA); Stearns, Daniel G. (Los Altos, CA); Gullikson, Eric M. (Oakland, CA); Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Hector, Scott D. (Oakland, CA)

    2004-11-09

    A method for compensating for flare-induced critical dimensions (CD) changes in photolithography. Changes in the flare level results in undesirable CD changes. The method when used in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography essentially eliminates the unwanted CD changes. The method is based on the recognition that the intrinsic level of flare for an EUV camera (the flare level for an isolated sub-resolution opaque dot in a bright field mask) is essentially constant over the image field. The method involves calculating the flare and its variation over the area of a patterned mask that will be imaged and then using mask biasing to largely eliminate the CD variations that the flare and its variations would otherwise cause. This method would be difficult to apply to optical or DUV lithography since the intrinsic flare for those lithographies is not constant over the image field.

  5. Reservoir Temperature Estimator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-12-08

    The Reservoir Temperature Estimator (RTEst) is a program that can be used to estimate deep geothermal reservoir temperature and chemical parameters such as CO2 fugacity based on the water chemistry of shallower, cooler reservoir fluids. This code uses the plugin features provided in The Geochemist’s Workbench (Bethke and Yeakel, 2011) and interfaces with the model-independent parameter estimation code Pest (Doherty, 2005) to provide for optimization of the estimated parameters based on the minimization of themore » weighted sum of squares of a set of saturation indexes from a user-provided mineral assemblage.« less

  6. Seismicity and Reservoir Fracture Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below are the project presentations and respective peer review results for Seismicity and Reservoir Fracture Characterization.

  7. Reinjection into geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Stefansson, V.

    1987-08-01

    Reinjection of geothermal wastewater is practiced as a means of disposal and for reservoir pressure support. Various aspects of reinjection are discussed, both in terms of theoretical studies as well as specific field examples. The discussion focuses on the major effects of reinjection, including pressure maintenance and chemical and thermal effects. (ACR)

  8. OBSERVATIONS OF THERMAL FLARE PLASMA WITH THE EUV VARIABILITY EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Harry P.; Doschek, George A. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Mariska, John T. [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    One of the defining characteristics of a solar flare is the impulsive formation of very high temperature plasma. The properties of the thermal emission are not well understood, however, and the analysis of solar flare observations is often predicated on the assumption that the flare plasma is isothermal. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory provides spectrally resolved observations of emission lines that span a wide range of temperatures (e.g., Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and allow for thermal flare plasma to be studied in detail. In this paper we describe a method for computing the differential emission measure distribution in a flare using EVE observations and apply it to several representative events. We find that in all phases of the flare the differential emission measure distribution is broad. Comparisons of EVE spectra with calculations based on parameters derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites soft X-ray fluxes indicate that the isothermal approximation is generally a poor representation of the thermal structure of a flare.

  9. An X-ray flare from 47 Cas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandey, Jeewan C.; Karmakar, Subhajeet

    2015-02-01

    Using XMM-Newton observations, we investigate properties of a flare from the very active but poorly known stellar system 47 Cas. The luminosity at the peak of the flare is found to be 3.54 10{sup 30} erg s{sup ?1}, which is ?2 times higher than that at a quiescent state. The quiescent state corona of 47 Cas can be represented by two temperature plasma: 3.7 and 11.0 MK. The time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy of the flare show the variable nature of the temperature, the emission measure, and the abundance. The maximum temperature during the flare is derived as 72.8 MK. We infer the length of a flaring loop to be 3.3 10{sup 10} cm using a hydrodynamic loop model. Using the RGS spectra, the density during the flare is estimated as 4.0 10{sup 10} cm{sup ?3}. The loop scaling laws are also applied when deriving physical parameters of the flaring plasma.

  10. CONSTRAINING SOLAR FLARE DIFFERENTIAL EMISSION MEASURES WITH EVE AND RHESSI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caspi, Amir [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); McTiernan, James M. [Space Sciences Laboratory University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    Deriving a well-constrained differential emission measure (DEM) distribution for solar flares has historically been difficult, primarily because no single instrument is sensitive to the full range of coronal temperatures observed in flares, from ?2 to ?50MK. We present a new technique, combining extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory with X-ray spectra from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), to derive, for the first time, a self-consistent, well-constrained DEM for jointly observed solar flares. EVE is sensitive to ?2-25MK thermal plasma emission, and RHESSI to ?10MK; together, the two instruments cover the full range of flare coronal plasma temperatures. We have validated the new technique on artificial test data, and apply it to two X-class flares from solar cycle 24 to determine the flare DEM and its temporal evolution; the constraints on the thermal emission derived from the EVE data also constrain the low energy cutoff of the non-thermal electrons, a crucial parameter for flare energetics. The DEM analysis can also be used to predict the soft X-ray flux in the poorly observed ?0.4-5nm range, with important applications for geospace science.

  11. Interferometric at-wavelength flare characterization of EUV optical systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick P. (Oakland, CA); Goldberg, Kenneth Alan (Berkeley, CA)

    2001-01-01

    The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI) provides the high-accuracy wavefront characterization critical to the development of EUV lithography systems. Enhancing the implementation of the PS/PDI can significantly extend its spatial-frequency measurement bandwidth. The enhanced PS/PDI is capable of simultaneously characterizing both wavefront and flare. The enhanced technique employs a hybrid spatial/temporal-domain point diffraction interferometer (referred to as the dual-domain PS/PDI) that is capable of suppressing the scattered-reference-light noise that hinders the conventional PS/PDI. Using the dual-domain technique in combination with a flare-measurement-optimized mask and an iterative calculation process for removing flare contribution caused by higher order grating diffraction terms, the enhanced PS/PDI can be used to simultaneously measure both figure and flare in optical systems.

  12. Solar Flare Activity Closely Monitored | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Solar Flare Activity Closely Monitored Solar Flare Activity Closely Monitored September 11, 2014 - 5:30pm Addthis Dr. Ken Friedman Senior Policy Advisor in the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Space Weather Prediction Center, which provides important resources to describe the space environment, including geomagnetic storms, solar radiation storms and radio blackouts, is forecasting the possibility of

  13. Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES Project)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachel Henderson; Robert Fickes

    2007-12-31

    The Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES) project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under Preferred Upstream Management Projects (PUMP III). Project partners included the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) as lead agency working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the California Oil Producers Electric Cooperative (COPE). The project was designed to demonstrate that the entire range of oilfield 'stranded gases' (gas production that can not be delivered to a commercial market because it is poor quality, or the quantity is too small to be economically sold, or there are no pipeline facilities to transport it to market) can be cost-effectively harnessed to make electricity. The utilization of existing, proven distribution generation (DG) technologies to generate electricity was field-tested successfully at four marginal well sites, selected to cover a variety of potential scenarios: high Btu, medium Btu, ultra-low Btu gas, as well as a 'harsh', or high contaminant, gas. Two of the four sites for the OFFGASES project were idle wells that were shut in because of a lack of viable solutions for the stranded noncommercial gas that they produced. Converting stranded gas to useable electrical energy eliminates a waste stream that has potential negative environmental impacts to the oil production operation. The electricity produced will offset that which normally would be purchased from an electric utility, potentially lowering operating costs and extending the economic life of the oil wells. Of the piloted sites, the most promising technologies to handle the range were microturbines that have very low emissions. One recently developed product, the Flex-Microturbine, has the potential to handle the entire range of oilfield gases. It is deployed at an oilfield near Santa Barbara to run on waste gas that is only 4% the strength of natural gas. The cost of producing oil is to a large extent the cost of electric power used to extract and deliver the oil. Researchers have identified stranded and flared gas in California that could generate 400 megawatts of power, and believe that there is at least an additional 2,000 megawatts that have not been identified. Since California accounts for about 14.5% of the total domestic oil production, it is reasonable to assume that about 16,500 megawatts could be generated throughout the United States. This power could restore the cost-effectiveness of thousands of oil wells, increasing oil production by millions of barrels a year, while reducing emissions and greenhouse gas emissions by burning the gas in clean distributed generators rather than flaring or venting the stranded gases. Most turbines and engines are designed for standardized, high-quality gas. However, emerging technologies such as microturbines have increased the options for a broader range of fuels. By demonstrating practical means to consume the four gas streams, the project showed that any gases whose properties are between the extreme conditions also could be utilized. The economics of doing so depends on factors such as the value of additional oil recovered, the price of electricity produced, and the alternate costs to dispose of stranded gas.

  14. Collapsible sheath fluid reservoirs for flow cytometers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mark, Graham A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a container in the form of a single housing for holding fluid, including a first collapsible reservoir having a first valve. The first reservoir initially contains a volume of fluid. The container also includes a second reservoir, initially empty (or substantially empty), expandable to a second volume. The second reservoir has a second valve. As the volume of said first reservoir decreases, the volume of the second reservoir proportionally increases.

  15. Water resources review: Ocoee reservoirs, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, J.P.

    1990-08-01

    Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is preparing a series of reports to make technical information on individual TVA reservoirs readily accessible. These reports provide a summary of reservoir purpose and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and watershed; water quality conditions; aquatic biological conditions; and designated, actual and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those use. This reservoir status report addressed the three Ocoee Reservoirs in Polk County, Tennessee.

  16. Product transfer service chosen over LPG flaring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horn, J.; Powers, M.

    1994-07-01

    Seadrift Pipeline Corp. recently decommissioned its Ella Pipeline, an 108-mile, 8-in. line between the King Ranch and a Union Carbide plant at Seadrift, Texas. The pipeline company opted for the product transfer services of pipeline Dehydrators Inc. to evacuate the ethane-rich LPG mixture from the pipeline instead of flaring the LPG or displacing it with nitrogen at operating pressures into another pipeline. The product transfer system of Pipeline Dehydrators incorporates the use of highly specialized portable compressors, heat exchangers and interconnected piping. The product transfer process of evacuating a pipeline is an economically viable method that safely recovers a very high percentage of the product while maintaining product purity. Using positive-displacement compressors, PLD transferred the LPG from the idled 8-in. Ella line into an adjacent 12-in. ethane pipeline that remained in service at approximately 800 psig. Approximately 4.3 million lb of LPG (97% ethane, 2.7% methane and 0.3% propane) were transferred into the ethane pipeline, lowering the pressure on the Ella Pipeline from 800 psig to 65 psig.

  17. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim; Gilbert, Bob; Lake, Larry W.; Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett; Thomas, Sunil G.; Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo; Klie, Hector; Banchs, Rafael; Nunez, Emilio J.; Jablonowski, Chris

    2006-11-01

    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging survivability issues. Our findings indicate that packaging represents the most significant technical challenge associated with application of sensors in the downhole environment for long periods (5+ years) of time. These issues are described in detail within the report. The impact of successful reservoir monitoring programs and coincident improved reservoir management is measured by the production of additional oil and gas volumes from existing reservoirs, revitalization of nearly depleted reservoirs, possible re-establishment of already abandoned reservoirs, and improved economics for all cases. Smart Well monitoring provides the means to understand how a reservoir process is developing and to provide active reservoir management. At the same time it also provides data for developing high-fidelity simulation models. This work has been a joint effort with Sandia National Laboratories and UT-Austin's Bureau of Economic Geology, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, and the Institute of Computational and Engineering Mathematics.

  18. An unorthodox X-Class Long-Duration Confined Flare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Rui; Gou, Tingyu; Wang, Yuming; Liu, Kai; Titov, Viacheslav S.; Wang, Haimin

    2014-07-20

    We report the observation of an X-class long-duration flare which is clearly confined. It appears as a compact-loop flare in the traditional EUV passbands (171 and 195 ), but in the passbands sensitive to flare plasmas (94 and 131 ), it exhibits a cusp-shaped structure above an arcade of loops like other long-duration events. Inspecting images in a running difference approach, we find that the seemingly diffuse, quasi-static cusp-shaped structure consists of multiple nested loops that repeatedly rise upward and disappear approaching the cusp edge. Over the gradual phase, we detect numerous episodes of loop rising, each lasting minutes. A differential emission measure analysis reveals that the temperature is highest at the top of the arcade and becomes cooler at higher altitudes within the cusp-shaped structure, contrary to typical long-duration flares. With a nonlinear force-free model, our analysis shows that the event mainly involves two adjacent sheared arcades separated by a T-type hyperbolic flux tube (HFT). One of the arcades harbors a magnetic flux rope, which is identified with a filament that survives the flare owing to the strong confining field. We conclude that a new emergence of magnetic flux in the other arcade triggers the flare, while the preexisting HFT and flux rope dictate the structure and dynamics of the flare loops and ribbons during the long-lasting decay phase, and that a quasi-separatrix layer high above the HFT could account for the cusp-shaped structure.

  19. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions Jump to: navigation, search Geothermal Lab Call Projects for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Rock...

  20. Reservoir-Stimulation Optimization with Operational Monitoring...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reservoir-Stimulation Optimization with Operational Monitoring for Creation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems Reservoir-Stimulation Optimization with Operational Monitoring for ...

  1. Natural Gas Used for Repressuring

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1-2015 Colorado NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 1997-2015 Kansas NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2015 Louisiana NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 Montana NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2015 New Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 North Dakota NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2015 Ohio NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 Oklahoma NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2015 Pennsylvania NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 Texas NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 Utah NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 West Virginia NA NA NA NA NA

  2. Natural Gas Used for Repressuring

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 1997-2015 Kansas NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2015 Louisiana NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 Montana NA NA NA NA ...

  3. Natural Gas Used for Repressuring

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3,522,090 3,431,587 3,365,313 3,277,588 3,331,456 3,319,559 1936-2014 Alaska 2,908,828 2,812,701 2,795,732 2,801,763 2,869,956 2,816,681 1967-2014 Alaska Onshore 2,600,167 2,502,371 2,494,216 2,532,559 2,597,184 2,492,589 1992-2014 Alaska State Offshore 308,661 310,329 301,516 269,203 272,772 324,092 1992-2014 Arkansas 520 414 4,051 0 NA NA 1967-2014 California 24,308 27,240 23,905 0 NA NA 1967-2014 California Onshore 14,566 15,767 13,702 NA NA NA 1992-2014 California State Offshore 219 435 403

  4. Natural Gas Used for Repressuring

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3,522,090 3,431,587 3,365,313 3,277,588 3,331,456 3,319,559 1936-2014 Alaska 2,908,828 2,812,701 2,795,732 2,801,763 2,869,956 2,816,681 1967-2014 Alaska Onshore 2,600,167 2,502,371 2,494,216 2,532,559 2,597,184 2,492,589 1992-2014 Alaska State Offshore 308,661 310,329 301,516 269,203 272,772 324,092 1992-2014 Arkansas 520 414 4,051 0 NA NA 1967-2014 California 24,308 27,240 23,905 0 NA NA 1967-2014 California Onshore 14,566 15,767 13,702 NA NA NA 1992-2014 California State Offshore 219 435 403

  5. OPTICAL DISCOVERY OF PROBABLE STELLAR TIDAL DISRUPTION FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Velzen, Sjoert; Farrar, Glennys R.; Gezari, Suvi; Morrell, Nidia; Zaritsky, Dennis; Oestman, Linda; Smith, Mathew; Gelfand, Joseph; Drake, Andrew J.

    2011-11-10

    Using archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) multi-epoch imaging data (Stripe 82), we have searched for the tidal disruption of stars by supermassive black holes in non-active galaxies. Two candidate tidal disruption events (TDEs) are identified. The TDE flares have optical blackbody temperatures of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} K and observed peak luminosities of M{sub g} = -18.3 and -20.4 ({nu}L{sub {nu}} = 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42}, 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}, in the rest frame); their cooling rates are very low, qualitatively consistent with expectations for tidal disruption flares. The properties of the TDE candidates are examined using (1) SDSS imaging to compare them to other flares observed in the search, (2) UV emission measured by GALEX, and (3) spectra of the hosts and of one of the flares. Our pipeline excludes optically identifiable AGN hosts, and our variability monitoring over nine years provides strong evidence that these are not flares in hidden AGNs. The spectra and color evolution of the flares are unlike any SN observed to date, their strong late-time UV emission is particularly distinctive, and they are nuclear at high resolution arguing against these being first cases of a previously unobserved class of SNe or more extreme examples of known SN types. Taken together, the observed properties are difficult to reconcile with an SN or an AGN-flare explanation, although an entirely new process specific to the inner few hundred parsecs of non-active galaxies cannot be excluded. Based on our observed rate, we infer that hundreds or thousands of TDEs will be present in current and next-generation optical synoptic surveys. Using the approach outlined here, a TDE candidate sample with O(1) purity can be selected using geometric resolution and host and flare color alone, demonstrating that a campaign to create a large sample of TDEs, with immediate and detailed multi-wavelength follow-up, is feasible. A by-product of this work is quantification of the power spectrum of extreme flares in AGNs.

  6. Statistical properties of super-hot solar flares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caspi, Amir; Krucker, Sm; Lin, R. P.

    2014-01-20

    We use Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy observations from ?6 to 100 keV to determine the statistical relationships between measured parameters (temperature, emission measure, etc.) of hot, thermal plasma in 37 intense (GOES M- and X-class) solar flares. The RHESSI data, most sensitive to the hottest flare plasmas, reveal a strong correlation between the maximum achieved temperature and the flare GOES class, such that 'super-hot' temperatures >30 MK are achieved almost exclusively by X-class events; the observed correlation differs significantly from that of GOES-derived temperatures, and from previous studies. A nearly ubiquitous association with high emission measures, electron densities, and instantaneous thermal energies suggests that super-hot plasmas are physically distinct from cooler, ?10-20 MK GOES plasmas, and that they require substantially greater energy input during the flare. High thermal energy densities suggest that super-hot flares require strong coronal magnetic fields, exceeding ?100 G, and that both the plasma ? and volume filling factor f cannot be much less than unity in the super-hot region.

  7. Geothermal Reservoir Dynamics - TOUGHREACT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, Karsten; Xu, Tianfu; Shan, Chao; Zhang, Yingqi; Wu,Yu-Shu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Spycher, Nicolas; Rutqvist, Jonny; Zhang,Guoxiang; Kennedy, Mack

    2005-03-15

    This project has been active for several years and has focused on developing, enhancing and applying mathematical modeling capabilities for fractured geothermal systems. The emphasis of our work has recently shifted towards enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) and hot dry rock (HDR), and FY05 is the first year that the DOE-AOP actually lists this project under Enhanced Geothermal Systems. Our overall purpose is to develop new engineering tools and a better understanding of the coupling between fluid flow, heat transfer, chemical reactions, and rock-mechanical deformation, to demonstrate new EGS technology through field applications, and to make technical information and computer programs available for field applications. The objectives of this project are to: (1) Improve fundamental understanding and engineering methods for geothermal systems, primarily focusing on EGS and HDR systems and on critical issues in geothermal systems that are difficult to produce. (2) Improve techniques for characterizing reservoir conditions and processes through new modeling and monitoring techniques based on ''active'' tracers and coupled processes. (3) Improve techniques for targeting injection towards specific engineering objectives, including maintaining and controlling injectivity, controlling non-condensable and corrosive gases, avoiding scale formation, and optimizing energy recovery. Seek opportunities for field testing and applying new technologies, and work with industrial partners and other research organizations.

  8. Well-observed dynamics of flaring and peripheral coronal magnetic loops during an M-class limb flare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Jinhua; Zhou, Tuanhui; Ji, Haisheng; Feng, Li; Wiegelmann, Thomas; Inhester, Bernd

    2014-08-20

    In this paper, we present a variety of well-observed dynamic behaviors for the flaring and peripheral magnetic loops of the M6.6 class extreme limb flare that occurred on 2011 February 24 (SOL2011-02-24T07:20) from EUV observations by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory and X-ray observations by RHESSI. The flaring loop motion confirms the earlier contraction-expansion picture. We find that the U-shaped trajectory delineated by the X-ray corona source of the flare roughly follows the direction of a filament eruption associated with the flare. Different temperature structures of the coronal source during the contraction and expansion phases strongly suggest different kinds of magnetic reconnection processes. For some peripheral loops, we discover that their dynamics are closely correlated with the filament eruption. During the slow rising to abrupt, fast rising of the filament, overlying peripheral magnetic loops display different responses. Two magnetic loops on the elbow of the active region had a slow descending motion followed by an abrupt successive fast contraction, while magnetic loops on the top of the filament were pushed outward, slowly being inflated for a while and then erupting as a moving front. We show that the filament activation and eruption play a dominant role in determining the dynamics of the overlying peripheral coronal magnetic loops.

  9. Chickamauga reservoir embayment study - 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meinert, D.L.; Butkus, S.R.; McDonough, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The objectives of this report are three-fold: (1) assess physical, chemical, and biological conditions in the major embayments of Chickamauga Reservoir; (2) compare water quality and biological conditions of embayments with main river locations; and (3) identify any water quality concerns in the study embayments that may warrant further investigation and/or management actions. Embayments are important areas of reservoirs to be considered when assessments are made to support water quality management plans. In general, embayments, because of their smaller size (water surface areas usually less than 1000 acres), shallower morphometry (average depth usually less than 10 feet), and longer detention times (frequently a month or more), exhibit more extreme responses to pollutant loadings and changes in land use than the main river region of the reservoir. Consequently, embayments are often at greater risk of water quality impairments (e.g. nutrient enrichment, filling and siltation, excessive growths of aquatic plants, algal blooms, low dissolved oxygen concentrations, bacteriological contamination, etc.). Much of the secondary beneficial use of reservoirs occurs in embayments (viz. marinas, recreation areas, parks and beaches, residential development, etc.). Typically embayments comprise less than 20 percent of the surface area of a reservoir, but they often receive 50 percent or more of the water-oriented recreational use of the reservoir. This intensive recreational use creates a potential for adverse use impacts if poor water quality and aquatic conditions exist in an embayment.

  10. Microsoft Word - figure_02_2015.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Figure 2. Natural gas supply and disposition in the United States, 2014 (trillion cubic feet) Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Gross Withdrawals From Gas and Oil Wells Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented/Flared Reservoir Repressuring Production Dry Gas Imports Canada Trinidad/Tobago Natural Gas Storage Facilities Exports Canada Mexico Additions Withdrawals Gas Industry Use Residential Commercial Industrial Vehicle Fuel Electric Power 31.3 0.4 0.3 3.3 2.635 0.043 0.729 0.770 25.7 1.6 3.9 3.6

  11. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelkar, M.

    1992-09-01

    This annual report describes the progress during the second year of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description and scale-up procedures; (ii) outcrop investigation; (iii) in-fill drilling potential. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be characterized, can be described in three dimensions, and can be scaled up with respect to its properties, appropriate for simulation purposes. The second section describes the progress on investigation of an outcrop. The outcrop is an analog of Bartlesville Sandstone. We have drilled ten wells behind the outcrop and collected extensive log and core data. The cores have been slabbed, photographed and the several plugs have been taken. In addition, minipermeameter is used to measure permeabilities on the core surface at six inch intervals. The plugs have been analyzed for the permeability and porosity values. The variations in property values will be tied to the geological descriptions as well as the subsurface data collected from the Glen Pool field. The third section discusses the application of geostatistical techniques to infer in-fill well locations. The geostatistical technique used is the simulated annealing technique because of its flexibility. One of the important reservoir data is the production data. Use of production data will allow us to define the reservoir continuities, which may in turn, determine the in-fill well locations. The proposed technique allows us to incorporate some of the production data as constraints in the reservoir descriptions. The technique has been validated by comparing the results with numerical simulations.

  12. Other States Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Other States Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 408 1992 501 530 501 1993 501 522 515 533 536 531 583 546 1994 533 616 623 620 629 654 1995 667 594 663 634 643 626 643 663 603 553 567 578 1996 549 538 625 620 693 703 709 715 676 708 682 690 1997 133 124 135 142 147 142 149 177 160 150 159 161 1998 147 134 150 148 132 117 126 132 124 121 121 123 1999 754 406 686 588 693 611 708 340 590

  13. TIDAL DISRUPTION FLARES: THE ACCRETION DISK PHASE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montesinos Armijo, Matias; De Freitas Pacheco, Jose A. [Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Laboratoire Cassiopee, Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis Bd de l'Observatoire, BP 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)

    2011-08-01

    The evolution of an accretion disk, formed as a consequence of the disruption of a star by a black hole, is followed by solving numerically hydrodynamic equations. The present investigation aims to study the dependence of resulting light curves on dynamical and physical properties of such a transient disk during its existence. One of the main results derived from our simulations is that blackbody fits of X-ray data tend to overestimate the true mean disk temperature. In fact, the temperature derived from blackbody fits should be identified with the color X-ray temperature rather than the average value derived from the true temperature distribution along the disk. The time interval between the beginning of the circularization of the bound debris and the beginning of the accretion process by the black hole is determined by the viscous (or accretion) timescale, which also fixes the rising part of the resulting light curve. The luminosity peak coincides with the beginning of matter accretion by the black hole and the late evolution of the light curve depends on the evolution of the debris fallback rate. Peak bolometric luminosities are in the range 10{sup 45}-10{sup 46} erg s{sup -1}, whereas peak luminosities in soft X-rays (0.2-2.0 keV) are typically one order of magnitude lower. The typical timescale derived from our preferred models for the flare luminosity to decay by two orders of magnitude is about 3-4 yr. Predicted soft X-ray light curves reproduce quite well data on galaxies in which a variable X-ray emission possibly related to a tidal event was detected. In the cases of NGC 3599 and IC 3599, data are reproduced well by models defined by a black hole with mass {approx}10{sup 7} M{sub sun} and a disrupted star of about 1 solar mass. The X-ray variation observed in XMMSL1 is consistent with a model defined by a black hole with mass {approx}3 x 10{sup 6} M{sub sun} and a disrupted star of 1 solar mass, while that observed in the galaxy situated in the cluster A1689 is consistent with a model including a black hole of {approx}10{sup 7} M{sub sun} and a disrupted star of {approx}0.5 M{sub sun}.

  14. Solar flare impulsive phase emission observed with SDO/EVE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, Michael B.; Milligan, Ryan O.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P., E-mail: mkennedy29@qub.ac.uk [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-10

    Differential emission measures (DEMs) during the impulsive phase of solar flares were constructed using observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) and the Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method. Emission lines from ions formed over the temperature range log T{sub e} = 5.8-7.2 allow the evolution of the DEM to be studied over a wide temperature range at 10 s cadence. The technique was applied to several M- and X-class flares, where impulsive phase EUV emission is observable in the disk-integrated EVE spectra from emission lines formed up to 3-4 MK and we use spatially unresolved EVE observations to infer the thermal structure of the emitting region. For the nine events studied, the DEMs exhibited a two-component distribution during the impulsive phase, a low-temperature component with peak temperature of 1-2 MK, and a broad high-temperature component from 7 to 30 MK. A bimodal high-temperature component is also found for several events, with peaks at 8 and 25 MK during the impulsive phase. The origin of the emission was verified using Atmospheric Imaging Assembly images to be the flare ribbons and footpoints, indicating that the constructed DEMs represent the spatially average thermal structure of the chromospheric flare emission during the impulsive phase.

  15. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    Infill drilling if wells on a uniform spacing without regard to reservoir performance and characterization foes not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations.

  16. High-energy gamma-ray emission from solar flares: Summary of Fermi large area telescope detections and analysis of two M-class flares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; and others

    2014-05-20

    We present the detections of 18 solar flares detected in high-energy ?-rays (above 100 MeV) with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) during its first 4 yr of operation. This work suggests that particle acceleration up to very high energies in solar flares is more common than previously thought, occurring even in modest flares, and for longer durations. Interestingly, all these flares are associated with fairly fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We then describe the detailed temporal, spatial, and spectral characteristics of the first two long-lasting events: the 2011 March 7 flare, a moderate (M3.7) impulsive flare followed by slowly varying ?-ray emission over 13 hr, and the 2011 June 7 M2.5 flare, which was followed by ?-ray emission lasting for 2 hr. We compare the Fermi LAT data with X-ray and proton data measurements from GOES and RHESSI. We argue that the ?-rays are more likely produced through pion decay than electron bremsstrahlung, and we find that the energy spectrum of the proton distribution softens during the extended emission of the 2011 March 7 flare. This would disfavor a trapping scenario for particles accelerated during the impulsive phase of the flare and point to a continuous acceleration process at play for the duration of the flares. CME shocks are known for accelerating the solar energetic particles (SEPs) observed in situ on similar timescales, but it might be challenging to explain the production of ?-rays at the surface of the Sun while the CME is halfway to the Earth. A stochastic turbulence acceleration process occurring in the solar corona is another likely scenario. Detailed comparison of characteristics of SEPs and ?-ray-emitting particles for several flares will be helpful to distinguish between these two possibilities.

  17. Tenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-22

    The workshop contains presentations in the following areas: (1) reservoir engineering research; (2) field development; (3) vapor-dominated systems; (4) the Geysers thermal area; (5) well test analysis; (6) production engineering; (7) reservoir evaluation; (8) geochemistry and injection; (9) numerical simulation; and (10) reservoir physics. (ACR)

  18. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management, Class III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott; Phillips, Chris; Nguyen, John; Moos, Dan; Tagbor, Kwasi

    2001-08-07

    This project was intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs, transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  19. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 98 96 99 75 0 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring

  20. Tennessee Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 408 180 165 376 585 339 156 117 126 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  1. Kentucky Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 6 15 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  2. Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 27 0 0 297 258 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 NA NA NA 2010's NA NA 0 NA NA - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  3. Ohio Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 330 0 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  4. Oklahoma Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 126,629 129,408 130,766 1970's 129,629 39,799 38,797 36,411 34,199 31,802 30,197 29,186 27,489 26,605 1980's 25,555 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release

  5. Arizona Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Arizona Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 347 367 277 26 47 32 101 1980's 143 106 162 108 182 124 122 125 123 95 1990's 22 56 23 21 8 0 0 1 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  6. High-Energy Aspects of Solar Flares: Observations and Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wei; Guo, Fan

    2015-07-21

    The paper begins by describing the structure of the Sun, with emphasis on the corona. The Sun is a unique plasma laboratory, which can be probed by Sun-grazing comets, and is the driver of space weather. Energization and particle acceleration mechanisms in solar flares is presented; magnetic reconnection is key is understanding stochastic acceleration mechanisms. Then coupling between kinetic and fluid aspects is taken up; the next step is feedback of atmospheric response to the acceleration process – rapid quenching of acceleration. Future challenges include applications of stochastic acceleration to solar energetic particles (SEPs), Fermi γ-rays observations, fast-mode magnetosonic wave trains in a funnel-shaped wave guide associated with flare pulsations, and the new SMEX mission IRIS (Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph),

  7. Florida Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Florida Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 355 284 837 607 1980's 677 428 435 198 34 13 54 30 166 450 1990's 286 482 245 205 220 28 - 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  8. Ohio Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 330 0 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  9. Oklahoma Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 126,629 129,408 130,766 1970's 129,629 39,799 38,797 36,411 34,199 31,802 30,197 29,186 27,489 26,605 1980's 25,555 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release

  10. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 98 96 99 75 0 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring

  11. Tennessee Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 408 180 165 376 585 339 156 117 126 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  12. Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 27 0 0 297 258 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 NA NA NA 2010's NA NA 0 NA NA - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  13. Florida Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Florida Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 355 284 837 607 1980's 677 428 435 198 34 13 54 30 166 450 1990's 286 482 245 205 220 28 - 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  14. Illinois Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Illinois Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 126 102 93 1970's 122 3,997 1,806 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  15. Kentucky Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 6 15 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  16. Sunset Reservoir Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reservoir Solar Power Plant Facility Sunset Reservoir Sector Solar Facility Type Photovoltaic Developer Recurrent Energy Location San Francisco, California Coordinates...

  17. THMC Modeling of EGS Reservoirs … Continuum through Discontinuum...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evolution and Induced Seismicity THMC Modeling of EGS Reservoirs Continuum through Discontinuum Representations: Capturing Reservoir Stimulation, Evolution and ...

  18. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiggins, M.L.; Evans, R.D.; Brown, R.L.; Gupta, A.

    2001-03-28

    This report focuses on integrating geoscience and engineering data to develop a consistent characterization of the naturally fractured reservoirs. During this reporting period, effort was focused on relating seismic data to reservoir properties of naturally fractured reservoirs, scaling well log data to generate interwell descriptors of these reservoirs, enhancing and debugging a naturally fractured reservoir simulator, and developing a horizontal wellbore model for use in the simulator.

  19. DISCOVERY OF 6.035 GHz HYDROXYL MASER FLARES IN IRAS 18566+0408

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Marzouk, A. A.; Araya, E. D.; Hofner, P.; Kurtz, S.; Linz, H.; Olmi, L.

    2012-05-10

    We report the discovery of 6.035 GHz hydroxyl (OH) maser flares toward the massive star-forming region IRAS 18566+0408 (G37.55+0.20), which is the only region known to show periodic formaldehyde (4.8 GHz H{sub 2}CO) and methanol (6.7 GHz CH{sub 3}OH) maser flares. The observations were conducted between 2008 October and 2010 January with the 305 m Arecibo Telescope in Puerto Rico. We detected two flare events, one in 2009 March and one in 2009 September to November. The OH maser flares are not simultaneous with the H{sub 2}CO flares, but may be correlated with CH{sub 3}OH flares from a component at corresponding velocities. A possible correlated variability of OH and CH{sub 3}OH masers in IRAS 18566+0408 is consistent with a common excitation mechanism (IR pumping) as predicted by theory.

  20. 4. International reservoir characterization technical conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Fourth International Reservoir Characterization Technical Conference held March 2-4, 1997 in Houston, Texas. The theme for the conference was Advances in Reservoir Characterization for Effective Reservoir Management. On March 2, 1997, the DOE Class Workshop kicked off with tutorials by Dr. Steve Begg (BP Exploration) and Dr. Ganesh Thakur (Chevron). Tutorial presentations are not included in these Proceedings but may be available from the authors. The conference consisted of the following topics: data acquisition; reservoir modeling; scaling reservoir properties; and managing uncertainty. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  1. THMC Modeling of EGS Reservoirs … Continuum through Discontinuum

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Representations: Capturing Reservoir Stimulation, Evolution and Induced Seismicity | Department of Energy THMC Modeling of EGS Reservoirs … Continuum through Discontinuum Representations: Capturing Reservoir Stimulation, Evolution and Induced Seismicity THMC Modeling of EGS Reservoirs … Continuum through Discontinuum Representations: Capturing Reservoir Stimulation, Evolution and Induced Seismicity THMC Modeling of EGS Reservoirs … Continuum through Discontinuum Representations: Capturing

  2. The role of reservoir characterization in the reservoir management process (as reflected in the Department of Energy`s reservoir management demonstration program)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, M.L.; Young, M.A.; Madden, M.P.

    1997-08-01

    Optimum reservoir recovery and profitability result from guidance of reservoir practices provided by an effective reservoir management plan. Success in developing the best, most appropriate reservoir management plan requires knowledge and consideration of (1) the reservoir system including rocks, and rock-fluid interactions (i.e., a characterization of the reservoir) as well as wellbores and associated equipment and surface facilities; (2) the technologies available to describe, analyze, and exploit the reservoir; and (3) the business environment under which the plan will be developed and implemented. Reservoir characterization is the essential to gain needed knowledge of the reservoir for reservoir management plan building. Reservoir characterization efforts can be appropriately scaled by considering the reservoir management context under which the plan is being built. Reservoir management plans de-optimize with time as technology and the business environment change or as new reservoir information indicates the reservoir characterization models on which the current plan is based are inadequate. BDM-Oklahoma and the Department of Energy have implemented a program of reservoir management demonstrations to encourage operators with limited resources and experience to learn, implement, and disperse sound reservoir management techniques through cooperative research and development projects whose objectives are to develop reservoir management plans. In each of the three projects currently underway, careful attention to reservoir management context assures a reservoir characterization approach that is sufficient, but not in excess of what is necessary, to devise and implement an effective reservoir management plan.

  3. Global energetics of solar flares. I. Magnetic energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Xu, Yan; Jing, Ju E-mail: yan.xu@njit.edu

    2014-12-10

    We present the first part of a project on the global energetics of solar flares and coronal mass ejections that includes about 400 M- and X-class flares observed with Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We calculate the potential (E{sub p} ), the nonpotential (E {sub np}) or free energies (E {sub free} = E {sub np} – E{sub p} ), and the flare-dissipated magnetic energies (E {sub diss}). We calculate these magnetic parameters using two different NLFFF codes: the COR-NLFFF code uses the line-of-sight magnetic field component B{sub z} from HMI to define the potential field, and the two-dimensional (2D) coordinates of automatically detected coronal loops in six coronal wavelengths from AIA to measure the helical twist of coronal loops caused by vertical currents, while the PHOT-NLFFF code extrapolates the photospheric three-dimensional (3D) vector fields. We find agreement between the two codes in the measurement of free energies and dissipated energies within a factor of ≲ 3. The size distributions of magnetic parameters exhibit powerlaw slopes that are approximately consistent with the fractal-diffusive self-organized criticality model. The magnetic parameters exhibit scaling laws for the nonpotential energy, E{sub np}∝E{sub p}{sup 1.02}, for the free energy, E{sub free}∝E{sub p}{sup 1.7} and E{sub free}∝B{sub φ}{sup 1.0}L{sup 1.5}, for the dissipated energy, E{sub diss}∝E{sub p}{sup 1.6} and E{sub diss}∝E{sub free}{sup 0.9}, and the energy dissipation volume, V∝E{sub diss}{sup 1.2}. The potential energies vary in the range of E{sub p} = 1 × 10{sup 31}-4 × 10{sup 33} erg, while the free energy has a ratio of E {sub free}/E{sub p} ≈ 1%-25%. The Poynting flux amounts to F {sub flare} ≈ 5 × 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} during flares, which averages to F {sub AR} ≈ 6 × 10{sup 6} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} during the entire observation period and is comparable with the coronal heating rate requirement in active regions.

  4. Gamma-Ray Observations of a Giant Flare From the Magnetar Sgr...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    than the only two previous events, making this flare a once in a century event. This colossal energy release likely occurred during a catastrophic reconfiguration of the...

  5. QUASI-PERIODIC PULSATIONS IN SOLAR AND STELLAR FLARES: RE-EVALUATING THEIR NATURE IN THE CONTEXT OF POWER-LAW FLARE FOURIER SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inglis, A. R.; Ireland, J.; Dominique, M.

    2015-01-10

    The nature of quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in solar and stellar flares remains debated. Recent work has shown that power-law-like Fourier power spectra are an intrinsic property of solar and stellar flare signals, a property that many previous studies of this phenomenon have not accounted for. Hence a re-evaluation of the existing interpretations and assumptions regarding QPPs is needed. We adopt a Bayesian method for investigating this phenomenon, fully considering the Fourier power-law properties of flare signals. Using data from the PROBA2/Large Yield Radiometer, Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, Nobeyama Radioheliograph, and Yohkoh/HXT instruments, we study a selection of flares from the literature identified as QPP events. Additionally, we examine optical data from a recent stellar flare that appears to exhibit oscillatory properties. We find that, for all but one event tested, an explicit oscillation is not required to explain the observations. Instead, the flare signals are adequately described as a manifestation of a power law in the Fourier power spectrum. However, for the flare of 1998 May 8, strong evidence for an explicit oscillation with P ? 14-16 s is found in the 17GHz radio data and the 13-23 keV Yohkoh/HXT data. We conclude that, most likely, many previously analyzed events in the literature may be similarly described by power laws in the flare Fourier power spectrum, without invoking a narrowband, oscillatory component. Hence the prevalence of oscillatory signatures in solar and stellar flares may be less than previously believed. The physical mechanism behind the appearance of the observed power laws is discussed.

  6. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, D.W.

    1997-11-11

    A method is described for extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid inventory of the reservoir. 4 figs.

  7. Skimming' a reservoir for trash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenman, L.E. )

    1993-02-01

    Several hydropower facilities are using a new technology for removing floating trash in reservoirs. Representatives from the facilities say the boat, called a trashskimmer, is efficient, easy to maneuver, and transportable. Designed by United Marine International, Inc., the pontoon boat features an operators cab that straddles an open hull between the skis of the pontoon, and uses dual propellers to maneuver through the water. The Marineskimmer allows the operator to approach the trash from the water side upstream of the plant. The Tennessee Valley Authority has used the boat since 1990.

  8. Characterization of Fractures in Geothermal Reservoirs Using...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abstract The optimal design of production in fractured geothermal reservoirs requires knowledge of the resource's connectivity, therefore making fracture characterization highly...

  9. International reservoir operations agreement helps NW fish &...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or 503-230-5131 International reservoir operations agreement helps Northwest fish and power Portland, Ore. - The Bonneville Power Administration and the British Columbia...

  10. Geothermometry At Blackfoot Reservoir Area (Hutsinpiller & Parry...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Details Location Blackfoot Reservoir Area Exploration Technique Geothermometry Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown References Amy Hutsinpiller, W. T....

  11. 201202 Reservoir System Modeling Technologies Conference

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modeling Applied To The Columbia River - PSR Adjoint Modeling Framework for Real-Time Control of Water - Deltares Reservoir Operations Analysis in the Willamette Water 2100...

  12. Hydrothermal Convection Systems with Reservoir Temperatures greater...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems with Reservoir Temperatures greater than or equal to 90 degrees C Authors Brook, Mariner, Mabey, Swanson, Guffanti and Muffler Published Journal Assessment of...

  13. Evaluation Of Chemical Geothermometers For Calculating Reservoir...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermometers For Calculating Reservoir Temperatures At Nevada Geothermal Power Plants Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper:...

  14. Analysis of Geothermal Reservoir Stimulation using Geomechanics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stochastic Analysis of Injection-Induced Seismicity Analysis of Geothermal Reservoir Stimulation using Geomechanics-Based Stochastic Analysis of Injection-Induced Seismicity ...

  15. Precise Gravimetry and Geothermal Reservoir Management | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Precise Gravimetry and Geothermal Reservoir Management Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Precise Gravimetry and Geothermal...

  16. Geothermal reservoirs in hydrothermal convection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorey, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal reservoirs commonly exist in hydrothermal convection systems involving fluid circulation downward in areas of recharge and upwards in areas of discharge. Because such reservoirs are not isolated from their surroundings, the nature of thermal and hydrologic connections with the rest of the system may have significant effects on the natural state of the reservoir and on its response to development. Conditions observed at numerous developed and undeveloped geothermal fields are discussed with respect to a basic model of the discharge portion of an active hydrothermal convection system. Effects of reservoir development on surficial discharge of thermal fluid are also delineated.

  17. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Donald W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid

  18. Full Reviews: Reservoir Characterization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Role of Geochemistry and Stress on Fracture Development and Proppant Behavior in EGS Reservoirs Joseph Moore and John McLennan, University of Utah Project Presentation | Peer ...

  19. Modeling of Geothermal Reservoirs: Fundamental Processes, Computer...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Geothermal Reservoirs: Fundamental Processes, Computer Simulation and Field Applications Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  20. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, Don; Koerner, Roy; Moos, Dan; Nguyen, John; Phillips, Chris; Tagbor, Kwasi; Walker, Scott

    1999-11-09

    The objectives of this quarterly report are to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period July - September 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology.

  1. Reservoir Engineering for Unconventional Gas Reservoirs: What Do We Have to Consider?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarkson, Christopher R

    2011-01-01

    The reservoir engineer involved in the development of unconventional gas reservoirs (UGRs) is required to integrate a vast amount of data from disparate sources, and to be familiar with the data collection and assessment. There has been a rapid evolution of technology used to characterize UGR reservoir and hydraulic fracture properties, and there currently are few standardized procedures to be used as guidance. Therefore, more than ever, the reservoir engineer is required to question data sources and have an intimate knowledge of evaluation procedures. We propose a workflow for the optimization of UGR field development to guide discussion of the reservoir engineer's role in the process. Critical issues related to reservoir sample and log analysis, rate-transient and production data analysis, hydraulic and reservoir modeling and economic analysis are raised. Further, we have provided illustrations of each step of the workflow using tight gas examples. Our intent is to provide some guidance for best practices. In addition to reviewing existing methods for reservoir characterization, we introduce new methods for measuring pore size distribution (small-angle neutron scattering), evaluating core-scale heterogeneity, log-core calibration, evaluating core/log data trends to assist with scale-up of core data, and modeling flow-back of reservoir fluids immediately after well stimulation. Our focus in this manuscript is on tight and shale gas reservoirs; reservoir characterization methods for coalbed methane reservoirs have recently been discussed.

  2. Brightest Fermi-LAT flares of PKS 1222+216: implications on emission and acceleration processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kushwaha, Pankaj; Singh, K. P.; Sahayanathan, Sunder

    2014-11-20

    We present a high time resolution study of the two brightest ?-ray outbursts from a blazar PKS 1222+216 observed by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) in 2010. The ?-ray light curves obtained in four different energy bands, 0.1-3, 0.1-0.3, 0.3-1, and 1-3 GeV, with time bins of six hours, show asymmetric profiles with similar rise times in all the bands but a rapid decline during the April flare and a gradual one during the June flare. The light curves during the April flare show an ?2 day long plateau in 0.1-0.3 GeV emission, erratic variations in 0.3-1 GeV emission, and a daily recurring feature in 1-3 GeV emission until the rapid rise and decline within a day. The June flare shows a monotonic rise until the peak, followed by a gradual decline powered mainly by the multi-peak 0.1-0.3 GeV emission. The peak fluxes during both the flares are similar except in the 1-3 GeV band in April, which is twice the corresponding flux during the June flare. Hardness ratios during the April flare indicate spectral hardening in the rising phase followed by softening during the decay. We attribute this behavior to the development of a shock associated with an increase in acceleration efficiency followed by its decay leading to spectral softening. The June flare suggests hardening during the rise followed by a complicated energy dependent behavior during the decay. Observed features during the June flare favor multiple emission regions while the overall flaring episode can be related to jet dynamics.

  3. RAPID TeV GAMMA-RAY FLARING OF BL LACERTAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Bouvier, A.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Benbow, W.; Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Dumm, J.; Fortson, L.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S.; Finnegan, G. E-mail: cui@purdue.edu; Collaboration: VERITAS Collaboration; and others

    2013-01-10

    We report on the detection of a very rapid TeV gamma-ray flare from BL Lacertae on 2011 June 28 with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS). The flaring activity was observed during a 34.6 minute exposure, when the integral flux above 200 GeV reached (3.4 {+-} 0.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} photons m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, roughly 125% of the Crab Nebula flux measured by VERITAS. The light curve indicates that the observations missed the rising phase of the flare but covered a significant portion of the decaying phase. The exponential decay time was determined to be 13 {+-} 4 minutes, making it one of the most rapid gamma-ray flares seen from a TeV blazar. The gamma-ray spectrum of BL Lacertae during the flare was soft, with a photon index of 3.6 {+-} 0.4, which is in agreement with the measurement made previously by MAGIC in a lower flaring state. Contemporaneous radio observations of the source with the Very Long Baseline Array revealed the emergence of a new, superluminal component from the core around the time of the TeV gamma-ray flare, accompanied by changes in the optical polarization angle. Changes in flux also appear to have occurred at optical, UV, and GeV gamma-ray wavelengths at the time of the flare, although they are difficult to quantify precisely due to sparse coverage. A strong flare was seen at radio wavelengths roughly four months later, which might be related to the gamma-ray flaring activities. We discuss the implications of these multiwavelength results.

  4. New waste-heat refrigeration unit cuts flaring, reduces pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brant, B.; Brueske, S.; Erickson, D.; Papar, R.

    1998-05-18

    Planetec Utility Services Co. Inc. and Energy Concepts Co. (ECC), with the help of the US Department of Energy (DOE), developed and commissioned a unique waste-heat powered LPG recovery plant in August 1997 at the 30,000 b/d Denver refinery, operated by Ultramar Diamond Shamrock (UDS). This new environmentally friendly technology reduces flare emissions and the loss of salable liquid-petroleum products to the fuel-gas system. The waste heat ammonia absorption refrigeration plant (Whaarp) is the first technology of its kind to use low-temperature waste heat (295 F) to achieve sub-zero refrigeration temperatures ({minus}40 F) with the capability of dual temperature loads in a refinery setting. The ammonia absorption refrigeration is applied to the refinery`s fuel-gas makeup streams to condense over 180 b/d of salable liquid hydrocarbon products. The recovered liquid, about 64,000 bbl/year of LPG and gasoline, increases annual refinery profits by nearly $1 million, while substantially reducing air pollution emissions from the refinery`s flare.

  5. Biogas, once flared, fuels cogen plant serving two hosts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.K.; McRae, C.L.

    1995-04-01

    This article reports that digester gas from a wastewater treatment plant meets up to 40% of the fuel needs of this cogenerator. Steam is exported for heating the treatment plant`s digesters and for ice production by a second steam host. The Carson Ice-Gen Project promises to enhance the reliability of electric service to the Sacramento Regional Waste water Treatment Plant (SRWTP), to prevent effluent discharges to nearby water ways during power disruptions, and to reduce air emissions associated with flaring of digester gas. The project comprises a 95-MW combined-cycle cogeneration powerplant and a 300-ton/day ice-production plant. The powerplant features twin LM 6000 gas turbines (GTs). One, used as a 53-MW base-load unit, is paired with a heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) feeding an extraction/condensing steam turbine/generator (STG). The other GT is used as a 42-MW, simple-cycle peaking unit. Primary fuel is natural gas, which is supplemented by digester gas that is currently being flared at the wastewater treatment plant. Export steam extracted from the STG is used to heat the digesters and to drive ammonia compressors at the ice plant. Steam is also used on-site to chill water in absorption chillers that cool the GT inlet air for power augmentation.

  6. Economics of Developing Hot Stratigraphic Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Mines; Hillary Hanson; Rick Allis; Joseph Moore

    2014-09-01

    Stratigraphic geothermal reservoirs at 3 – 4 km depth in high heat-flow basins are capable of sustaining 100 MW-scale power plants at about 10 c/kWh. This paper examines the impacts on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of reservoir depth and temperature, reservoir productivity, and drillhole/casing options. For a reservoir at 3 km depth with a moderate productivity index by hydrothermal reservoir standards (about 50 L/s/MPa, 5.6 gpm/psi), an LCOE of 10c/kWh requires the reservoir to be at about 200°C. This is the upper temperature limit for pumps. The calculations assume standard hydrothermal drilling costs, with the production interval completed with a 7 inch liner in an 8.5 inch hole. If a reservoir at 4 km depth has excellent permeability characteristics with a productivity index of 100 L/s/MPa (11.3 gpm/psi), then the LCOE is about 11 c/kWh assuming the temperature decline rate with development is not excessive (< 1%/y, with first thermal breakthrough delayed by about 10 years). Completing wells with modest horizontal legs (e.g. several hundred meters) may be important for improving well productivity because of the naturally high, sub-horizontal permeability in this type of reservoir. Reducing the injector/producer well ratio may also be cost-effective if the injectors are drilled as larger holes.

  7. Water resources review: Wheeler Reservoir, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallus, R.; Cox, J.P.

    1990-09-01

    Protection and enhancement of water quality is essential for attaining the full complement of beneficial uses of TVA reservoirs. The responsibility for improving and protecting TVA reservoir water quality is shared by various federal, state, and local agencies, as well as the thousands of corporations and property owners whose individual decisions affect water quality. TVA's role in this shared responsibility includes collecting and evaluating water resources data, disseminating water resources information, and acting as a catalyst to bring together agencies and individuals that have a responsibility or vested interest in correcting problems that have been identified. This report is one in a series of status reports that will be prepared for each of TVA's reservoirs. The purpose of this status report is to provide an up-to-date overview of the characteristics and conditions of Wheeler Reservoir, including: reservoir purposes and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and the watershed; water quality conditions: aquatic biological conditions: designated, actual, and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those uses; ongoing or planned reservoir management activities. Information and data presented here are form the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. 21 refs., 8 figs., 29 tabs.

  8. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiggins, Michael L.; Brown, Raymon L.; Civan, Faruk; Hughes, Richard G.

    2003-02-11

    This research was directed toward developing a systematic reservoir characterization methodology which can be used by the petroleum industry to implement infill drilling programs and/or enhanced oil recovery projects in naturally fractured reservoir systems in an environmentally safe and cost effective manner. It was anticipated that the results of this research program will provide geoscientists and engineers with a systematic procedure for properly characterizing a fractured reservoir system and a reservoir/horizontal wellbore simulator model which can be used to select well locations and an effective EOR process to optimize the recovery of the oil and gas reserves from such complex reservoir systems.

  9. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chris Phillips; Dan Moos; Don Clarke; John Nguyen; Kwasi Tagbor; Roy Koerner; Scott Walker

    1997-04-10

    This project is intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  10. The Potosi Reservoir Model 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adushita, Yasmin; Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    As a part of a larger project co-funded by the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) to evaluate the potential of formations within the Cambro-Ordovician strata above the Mt. Simon as potential targets for carbon sequestration in the Illinois and Michigan Basins, the Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI) requested Schlumberger to evaluate the potential injectivity and carbon dioxide (CO2) plume size of the Cambrian Potosi Formation. The evaluation of this formation was accomplished using wireline data, core data, pressure data, and seismic data from the US DOE-funded Illinois Basin–Decatur Project (IBDP) being conducted by the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium in Macon County, Illinois. In 2010, technical performance evaluations on the Cambrian Potosi Formation were performed through reservoir modeling. The data included formation tops from mud logs, well logs from the VW1 and the CCS1 wells, structural and stratigraphic formation from three dimensional (3D) seismic data, and field data from several waste water injection wells for Potosi Formation. Intention was for two million tons per annum (MTPA) of CO2 to be injected for 20 years. In the preceding, the 2010 Potosi heterogeneous model (referred to as the "Potosi Dynamic Model 2010" in this topical report) was re-run using a new injection scenario; 3.2 MTPA for 30 years. The extent of the Potosi Dynamic Model 2010, however, appeared too small for the new injection target. It was not sufficiently large enough to accommodate the evolution of the plume. The new model, Potosi Dynamic Model 2013a, was built by extending the Potosi Dynamic Model 2010 grid to 30 miles x 30 miles (48.3km x48.3km), while preserving all property modeling workflows and layering. This model was retained as the base case of Potosi Dynamic Model 2013a. The Potosi reservoir model was updated to take into account the new data from the verification well VW2 which was drilled in 2012. The new porosity and permeability modeling was performed to take into account the log data from the new well. Revisions of the 2010 modeling assumptions were also done on relative permeability, capillary pressures, formation water salinity, and the maximum allowable well bottomhole pressure. Dynamic simulations were run using the injection target of 3.2 MTPA for 30 years. This new dynamic model was named Potosi Dynamic Model 2013b. Due to the major uncertainties on the vugs permeability, two models were built; the Pessimistic and Optimistic Cases. The Optimistic Case assumes vugs permeability of 9,000 mD, which is analog to the vugs permeability identified in the pressure fall off test of a waste water injector in the Tuscola site, approx. 40 miles (64.4km) away from the IBDP area. The Pessimistic Case assumes that the vugs permeability is equal to the log data, which does not take into account the permeability from secondary porosity. The probability of such case is deemed low and could be treated as the worst case scenario, since the contribution of secondary porosity to the permeability is neglected and the loss circulation events might correspond to a much higher permeability. It is considered important, however, to identify the range of possible reservoir performance since there are no rigorous data available for the vugs permeability. The Optimistic Case gives an average CO2 injection rate of 0.8 MTPA and cumulative injection of 26 MT in 30 years, which corresponds to 27% of the injection target. The injection rate is approx. 3.2 MTPA in the first year as the well is injecting into the surrounding vugs, and declines rapidly to 0.8 MTPA in year 4 once the surrounding vugs are full and the CO2 start to reach the matrix. This implies that according to this preliminary model, a minimum of four (4) wells could be required to achieve the injection target. This result is lower than the injectivity estimated in the Potosi Dynamic Model 2013a (43 MT in 30 years), since the permeability model applied in the Potosi Dynamic Model 2013b is more conservative. This revision was deemed necessary to treat the uncertainty in a more appropriate manner. As the CO2 follows the paths where vugs interconnection exists, a reasonably large and irregular plume extent was created. For the Optimistic Case, the plume extends 17 miles (27.4km) in E-W and 14 miles (22.5km) in N-S directions after 30 years. After injection is completed, the plume continues to migrate laterally, mainly driven by the remaining pressure gradient. After 100 years post injection, the plume extends 20 miles (32.2km) in E-W and 15.5 miles (24.9km) in N-S directions. Should the targeted cumulative injection of 96 MT be achieved; a much larger plume extent could be expected. For the Optimistic Case, the increase of reservoir pressure at the end of injection is approximately 1200 psia (8,274 kPa) around the injector and gradually decreases away from the well. The reservoir pressure increase is less than 30 psia (206.8 kPa) beyond 14 miles (22.5km) away from injector. Should the targeted cumulative injection of 96 MT be achieved; a much larger areal pressure increase could be expected. The initial reservoir pressure is nearly restored after approximately 100 years post injection. The presence of matrix slows down the pressure dissipations. The Pessimistic Case gives an average CO2 injection rate of 0.2 MTPA and cumulative injection of 7 MT in 30 years, which corresponds to 7% of the injection target. This implies that in the worst case scenario, a minimum of sixteen (16) wells could be required to achieve the injection target. The present evaluation is mainly associated with uncertainty on the vugs permeability, distribution, and interconnectivity. The different results indicated by the Optimistic and Pessimistic Cases signify the importance of vugs permeability characterization. Therefore, injection test and pressure interference test among the wells could be considered to evaluate the local vugs permeability, extent, and interconnectivity. Porosity mapping derived from the seismic inversion could also be used in the succeeding task to characterize the lateral porosity distribution within the reservoir. With or without seismic inversion porosity mapping, it is worth exploring whether increased lateral heterogeneity plays a significant role in Potosi injectivity. Investigations on vugular, dolomitic outcrops suggest that there may be significantly greater lateral heterogeneity than what has been modeled here. Facies modeling within the Potosi has yet to be thoroughly addressed. The carbonates during the time of deposition are believed to be regionally extensive. However, it may be worth delineating the reservoir with other regional wells or modern day analogues to understand the extent of the Potosi. More specifically, the model could incorporate lateral changes or trends if deemed necessary to represent facies transition. Data acquisitions to characterize the fracture pressure gradient, the formation water properties, the relative permeability, and the capillary pressure could also be considered in order to allow a more rigorous evaluation of the Potosi storage performance. A simulation using several injectors could also be considered to determine the required number of wells to achieve the injection target while taking into account the pressure interference.

  11. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Depleted Reservoir Storage

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Configuration Depleted Reservoir Storage Configuration About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Depleted Production Reservoir Underground Natural Gas Storage Well Configuration Depleted Production Reservoir Storage

  12. Monitoring EGS Stimulation and Reservoir Dynamics with InSAR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EGS Stimulation and Reservoir Dynamics with InSAR and MEQ Monitoring EGS Stimulation and Reservoir Dynamics with InSAR and MEQ Monitoring EGS Stimulation and Reservoir Dynamics ...

  13. UNIVERSAL BEHAVIOR OF X-RAY FLARES FROM BLACK HOLE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, F. Y.; Dai, Z. G.; Yi, S. X.; Xi, S. Q. E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn

    2015-01-01

    X-ray flares have been discovered in black hole systems such as gamma-ray bursts, the tidal disruption event Swift J1644+57, the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* at the center of our Galaxy, and some active galactic nuclei. Occurrences of X-ray flares are always accompanied by relativistic jets. However, it is still unknown whether or not there is a physical analogy among such X-ray flares produced in black hole systems spanning nine orders of magnitude in mass. Here, we report observed data of X-ray flares and show that they have three statistical properties similar to solar flares, including power-law distributions of their energies, durations, and waiting times, which can be explained by a fractal-diffusive, self-organized criticality model. These statistical similarities, together with the fact that solar flares are triggered by a magnetic reconnection process, suggest that all of the X-ray flares are consistent with magnetic reconnection events, implying that their concomitant relativistic jets may be magnetically dominated.

  14. Measurements and modeling of total solar irradiance in X-class solar flares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Christopher Samuel; Chamberlin, Phillip Clyde; Hock, Rachel

    2014-05-20

    The Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) from NASA's SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment can detect changes in the total solar irradiance (TSI) to a precision of 2 ppm, allowing observations of variations due to the largest X-class solar flares for the first time. Presented here is a robust algorithm for determining the radiative output in the TIM TSI measurements, in both the impulsive and gradual phases, for the four solar flares presented in Woods et al., as well as an additional flare measured on 2006 December 6. The radiative outputs for both phases of these five flares are then compared to the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiance output from the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) in order to derive an empirical relationship between the FISM VUV model and the TIM TSI data output to estimate the TSI radiative output for eight other X-class flares. This model provides the basis for the bolometric energy estimates for the solar flares analyzed in the Emslie et al. study.

  15. STUDY OF TWO SUCCESSIVE THREE-RIBBON SOLAR FLARES ON 2012 JULY 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Haimin; Liu, Chang; Deng, Na; Xu, Yan; Jing, Ju; Zeng, Zhicheng; Cao, Wenda

    2014-01-20

    This Letter reports two rarely observed three-ribbon flares (M1.9 and C9.2) on 2012 July 6 in NOAA AR 11515, which we found using H? observations of 0.''1 resolution from the New Solar Telescope and Ca II H images from Hinode. The flaring site is characterized by an intriguing ''fish-bone-like'' morphology evidenced by both H? images and a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation, where two semi-parallel rows of low-lying, sheared loops connect an elongated, parasitic negative field with the sandwiching positive fields. The NLFFF model also shows that the two rows of loops are asymmetric in height and have opposite twists, and are enveloped by large-scale field lines including open fields. The two flares occurred in succession within half an hour and are located at the two ends of the flaring region. The three ribbons of each flare run parallel to the magnetic polarity inversion line, with the outer two lying in the positive field and the central one in the negative field. Both flares show surge-like flows in H? apparently toward the remote region, while the C9.2 flare is also accompanied by EUV jets possibly along the open field lines. Interestingly, the 12-25keV hard X-ray sources of the C9.2 flare first line up with the central ribbon then shift to concentrate on the top of the higher branch of loops. These results are discussed in favor of reconnection along the coronal null line, producing the three flare ribbons and the associated ejections.

  16. Urinary Symptom Flare in 712 {sup 125}I Prostate Brachytherapy Patients: Long-Term Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyes, Mira; Miller, Stacy; Moravan, Veronika; Pickles, Tom; Liu, Mitchell; Spadinger, Ingrid; Lapointe, Vincent; Morris, W. James

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To describe the late transient worsening of urinary symptoms ('urinary symptom flare') in 712 consecutive prostate brachytherapy patients, associated predictive factors, association with rectal and urinary toxicity, and the development of erectile dysfunction. Methods and Materials: Patients underwent implantation between 1998 and 2003 (median follow-up, 57 months). International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) toxicity, and erectile function data were prospectively collected. Flare was defined as an increase in IPSS of >=5 and of >=8 points greater than the post-treatment nadir. The relationships between the occurrence of flare and the patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were examined. The Cox proportional hazards method was used to test individual variables and the multivariate models. Results: The incidence of flare was 52% and 30% using the flare definition of an IPSS of >=5 and >=8 points greater than the postimplant nadir, respectively. Of the patients with symptoms, 65% had resolution of their symptoms within 6 months and 91% within 1 year. Flares most commonly occurred 16-24 months after implantation. On multivariate analysis, a greater baseline IPSS and greater maximal postimplant IPSS were the predictors of flare, regardless of the flare definition used. Androgen suppression was a predictor for fewer flares (IPSS >=5). Diabetes and prostate edema predicted for more frequent flares (IPSS >=8). Patients with flare had a greater incidence of RTOG Grade 3 urinary toxicity and RTOG Grade 2 or greater rectal toxicity. No association was found between erectile dysfunction and the occurrence of flare. Conclusion: Urinary symptom flare is a common, transient phenomenon after prostate brachytherapy. A greater baseline IPSS and maximal postimplant IPSS were the strongest predictive factors. Flare was associated with a greater incidence of late RTOG Grade 3 urinary toxicity and greater rate of late RTOG Grade 2 or greater rectal toxicity.

  17. Geysers Hi-T Reservoir Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geysers Hi-T Reservoir Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geysers Hi-T Reservoir Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and...

  18. Property:USGSMeanReservoirTemp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Property Name USGSMeanReservoirTemp Property Type Temperature Description Mean estimated reservoir temperature at location based on the USGS 2008 Geothermal...

  19. An Updated Conceptual Model Of The Los Humeros Geothermal Reservoir...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Humeros Geothermal Reservoir (Mexico) Abstract An analysis of production and reservoir engineering data of 42 wells from the Los Humeros geothermal field (Mexico) allowed...

  20. IPGT Reservoir Modeling Working Group | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    IPGT Reservoir Modeling Working Group Summary of recommendations and geothermal reservoir benchmarking workshop PDF icon gtp2012peerreviewreservoirmodeling.pdf More Documents & ...

  1. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Depleted Reservoir Storage...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Depleted Production Reservoir Underground Natural Gas Storage Well Configuration Depleted Production Reservoir Storage

  2. Dispersed Fluid Flow in Fractured Reservoirs- an Analysis of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reservoirs- an Analysis of Tracer-Determined Residence Time Distributions Abstract A methodology for analyzing the internal flow characteristics of a fractured geothermal reservoir...

  3. Two-dimensional simulation of the Raft River geothermal reservoir...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the Raft River geothermal reservoir and wells. (SINDA-3G program) Abstract Computer models describing both the transient reservoir pressure behavior and the time...

  4. Update on the Raft River Geothermal Reservoir | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Raft River Geothermal Reservoir Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: Update on the Raft River Geothermal Reservoir...

  5. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Salt Cavern Storage Reservoir...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Salt Cavern Underground Natural Gas Storage Reservoir Configuration Salt Cavern Underground Natural Gas Storage Reservoir Configuration Source: PB Energy Storage Services Inc.

  6. A NEW CORRELATION BETWEEN GRB X-RAY FLARES AND THE PROMPT EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonbas, E. [Department of Physics, University of Adiyaman, 02040 Adiyaman (Turkey); MacLachlan, G. A.; Shenoy, A.; Dhuga, K. S.; Parke, W. C., E-mail: edasonbas@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2013-04-20

    From a sample of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi and Swift missions, we have extracted the minimum variability timescales for temporal structures in the light curves associated with the prompt emission and X-ray flares. A comparison of this variability timescale with pulse parameters such as rise times, determined via pulse-fitting procedures, and spectral lags, extracted via the cross-correlation function, indicates a tight correlation between these temporal features for both the X-ray flares and the prompt emission. These correlations suggest a common origin for the production of X-ray flares and the prompt emission in GRBs.

  7. Performance testing the Phase 2 HDR reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ponden, R.F.; Dreesen, D.S. ); Thomson, J.C. )

    1991-01-01

    The geothermal energy program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is directed toward developing the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) technology as an alternate energy source. Positive results have been obtained in previous circulation tests of HDR reservoirs at the Laboratory's test site in Fenton Hill, New Mexico. There still remains however, the need to demonstrate that adequate geothermal energy can be extracted in an efficient manner to support commercial power production. This year, the Laboratory will begin a circulation test of its Phase 2, reservoir. The objectives of this test are to characterize steady-state power production and long-term reservoir performance. 6 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Statistical study of free magnetic energy and flare productivity of solar active regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, J. T.; Jing, J.; Wang, S.; Wang, H. M. [Space Weather Research Laboratory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Wiegelmann, T., E-mail: sjt@bao.ac.cn [Max-Planck-Institut fur Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Strasse 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany)

    2014-06-20

    Photospheric vector magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory are utilized as the boundary conditions to extrapolate both nonlinear force-free and potential magnetic fields in solar corona. Based on the extrapolations, we are able to determine the free magnetic energy (FME) stored in active regions (ARs). Over 3000 vector magnetograms in 61 ARs were analyzed. We compare FME with the ARs' flare index (FI) and find that there is a weak correlation (<60%) between FME and FI. FME shows slightly improved flare predictability relative to the total unsigned magnetic flux of ARs in the following two aspects: (1) the flare productivity predicted by FME is higher than that predicted by magnetic flux and (2) the correlation between FI and FME is higher than that between FI and magnetic flux. However, this improvement is not significant enough to make a substantial difference in time-accumulated FI, rather than individual flare, predictions.

  9. Characterization of geothermal reservoir crack patterns using...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the time delays of the split waves they determined tomographically the 3-D fracture density distribution in the reservoir. Authors Lou, M.; Rial and J.A. Published Journal...

  10. Magic Reservoir Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    110C383.15 K 230 F 689.67 R 1 USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: 2 km 1 USGS Mean Capacity: 9 MW 1 Click "Edit With Form" above to add content History and...

  11. Fifteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Fifteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 23--25, 1990. Major topics included: DOE's geothermal research and development program, well testing, field studies, geosciences, geysers, reinjection, tracers, geochemistry, and modeling.

  12. Underground muons from the direction of Cygnus X-3 during the January 1991 radio flare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    The Soudan 2 Collaboration

    1991-08-01

    Muons recorded in the Soudan 2 underground nucleon decay detector from January 1989 to February 1991 have been examined for any correlation with the radio flares of Cyguns X-3 observed during this period. On two nearby days during the radio flare of January 1991 a total of 32 muons within 2.0{degrees} of the Cyguns X-3 direction were observed when 11.4 were expected.

  13. PLASMOID EJECTIONS AND LOOP CONTRACTIONS IN AN ERUPTIVE M7.7 SOLAR FLARE:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    EVIDENCE OF PARTICLE ACCELERATION AND HEATING IN MAGNETIC RECONNECTION OUTFLOWS (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect PLASMOID EJECTIONS AND LOOP CONTRACTIONS IN AN ERUPTIVE M7.7 SOLAR FLARE: EVIDENCE OF PARTICLE ACCELERATION AND HEATING IN MAGNETIC RECONNECTION OUTFLOWS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PLASMOID EJECTIONS AND LOOP CONTRACTIONS IN AN ERUPTIVE M7.7 SOLAR FLARE: EVIDENCE OF PARTICLE ACCELERATION AND HEATING IN MAGNETIC RECONNECTION OUTFLOWS Where particle acceleration

  14. DOE/EA-1745 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE BLAST FURNACE GAS FLARE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE BLAST FURNACE GAS FLARE CAPTURE PROJECT AT THE ARCELORMITTAL USA, INC. INDIANA HARBOR STEEL MILL, EAST CHICAGO, INDIANA U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory August 2010 DOE/EA-1745 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE BLAST FURNACE GAS FLARE CAPTURE PROJECT AT THE ARCELORMITTAL USA, INC. INDIANA HARBOR STEEL MILL, EAST CHICAGO, INDIANA U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory August 2010 DOE/EA-1745 iii

  15. DOE/EA-1745 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE BLAST FURNACE GAS FLARE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    45 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE BLAST FURNACE GAS FLARE CAPTURE PROJECT AT THE ARCELORMITTAL USA, INC. INDIANA HARBOR STEEL MILL, EAST CHICAGO, INDIANA U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory August 2010 DOE/EA-1745 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE BLAST FURNACE GAS FLARE CAPTURE PROJECT AT THE ARCELORMITTAL USA, INC. INDIANA HARBOR STEEL MILL, EAST CHICAGO, INDIANA U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory August 2010 DOE/EA-1745 iii

  16. A very small and super strong zebra pattern burst at the beginning of a solar flare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Baolin; Tan, Chengming; Zhang, Yin; Huang, Jing; Yan, Yihua; Mszrosov, Hana; Karlick, Marian

    2014-08-01

    Microwave emission with spectral zebra pattern structures (ZPs) is frequently observed in solar flares and the Crab pulsar. The previous observations show that ZP is a structure only overlapped on the underlying broadband continuum with slight increments and decrements. This work reports an unusually strong ZP burst occurring at the beginning of a solar flare observed simultaneously by two radio telescopes located in China and the Czech Republic and by the EUV telescope on board NASA's satellite Solar Dynamics Observatory on 2013 April 11. It is a very short and super strong explosion whose intensity exceeds several times that of the underlying flaring broadband continuum emission, lasting for just 18 s. EUV images show that the flare starts from several small flare bursting points (FBPs). There is a sudden EUV flash with extra enhancement in one of these FBPs during the ZP burst. Analysis indicates that the ZP burst accompanying an EUV flash is an unusual explosion revealing a strong coherent process with rapid particle acceleration, violent energy release, and fast plasma heating simultaneously in a small region with a short duration just at the beginning of the flare.

  17. TIME EVOLUTION OF FLARES IN GRB 130925A: JET PRECESSION IN A BLACK HOLE ACCRETION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Shu-Jin; Liu, Tong; Gu, Wei-Min; Sun, Mou-Yuan; Lu, Ju-Fu [Department of Astronomy and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Lin, Da-Bin [Department of Physics and GXU-NAOC Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China); Wu, Xue-Feng, E-mail: tongliu@xmu.edu.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2014-01-20

    GRB 130925A, composed of three gamma-ray emission episodes and a series of orderly flares, has been detected by Swift, Fermi, Konus-Wind, and INTEGRAL. If the third weakest gamma-ray episode can be considered a giant flare, we find that after the second gamma-ray episode observed by INTEGRAL located at about 2000s, a positive relation exists between the time intervals of the adjacent flares and the time since the episode. We suggest that the second gamma-ray episode and its flares originate from the resumption of the accretion process due to the fragments from the collapsar falling back; such a relation may be related to a hyperaccretion disk around a precessed black hole (BH). We propose that the origin and time evolution of the flares, and the approximately symmetrical temporal structure and spectral evolution of the single flare can be explained well by a jet precession model. In addition, the mass and spin of the BH can be constrained, which indicates a stellar-mass, fast-rotating BH located in the center of GRB 130925A.

  18. SUCCESSIVE SOLAR FLARES AND CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS ON 2005 SEPTEMBER 13 FROM NOAA AR 10808

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Chang; Wang Haimin; Lee, Jeongwoo; Karlicky, Marian; Choudhary, Debi Prasad; Deng Na E-mail: haimin@flare.njit.ed E-mail: karlicky@asu.cas.c E-mail: na.deng@csun.ed

    2009-09-20

    We present a multiwavelength study of the 2005 September 13 eruption from NOAA AR 10808 that produced total four flares and two fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) within {approx}1.5 hr. Our primary attention is paid to the fact that these eruptions occurred in close succession in time, and that all of them were located along an S-shaped magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL) of the active region. In our analysis, (1) the disturbance created by the first flare propagated southward along the PIL to cause a major filament eruption that led to the first CME and the associated second flare underneath. (2) The first CME partially removed the overlying magnetic fields over the northern delta spot to allow the third flare and the second CME. (3) The ribbon separation during the fourth flare would indicate reclosing of the overlying field lines opened by the second CME. It is thus concluded that these series of flares and CMEs are interrelated to each other via magnetic reconnections between the expanding magnetic structure and the nearby magnetic fields. These results complement previous works made on this event with the suggested causal relationship among the successive eruptions.

  19. Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geeothermal Reservoirs |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Geeothermal Reservoirs Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geeothermal Reservoirs Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geeothermal Reservoirs presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. PDF icon ghassemi_factures_peer2013.pdf More Documents & Publications Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal Reservoirs Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal Reservoirs; 2010

  20. Measurement of the rate of stellar tidal disruption flares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Velzen, Sjoert

    2014-09-01

    We report an observational estimate of the rate of stellar tidal disruption flares (TDFs) in inactive galaxies based on a successful search for these events among transients in galaxies using archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) multi-epoch imaging data (Stripe 82). This search yielded 186 nuclear flares in galaxies, 2 of which are excellent TDF candidates. Because of the systematic nature of the search, the very large number of galaxies, the long time of observation, and the fact that non-TDFs were excluded without resorting to assumptions about TDF characteristics, this study provides an unparalleled opportunity to measure the TDF rate. To compute the rate of optical stellar tidal disruption events, we simulate our entire pipeline to obtain the efficiency of detection. The rate depends on the light curves of TDFs, which are presently still poorly constrained. Using only the observed part of the SDSS light curves gives a model-independent upper limit to the optical TDF rate, N-dot <210{sup ?4} yr{sup ?1} galaxy{sup ?1} (90% CL), under the assumption that the SDSS TDFs are representative examples. We develop three empirical models of the light curves based on the two SDSS light curves and two more recent and better-sampled Pan-STARRS TDF light curves, leading to our best estimate of the rate: N-dot {sub TDF}=(1.5--2.0){sub ?1.3}{sup +2.7}10{sup ?5} yr{sup ?1} galaxy{sup ?1}. We explore the modeling uncertainties by considering two theoretically motivated light curve models, as well as two different relationships between black hole mass and galaxy luminosity, and two different treatments of the cutoff in the visibility of TDFs at large M {sub BH}. From this we conclude that these sources of uncertainty are not significantly larger than the statistical ones. Our results are applicable for galaxies hosting black holes with mass in the range of a few 10{sup 6}-10{sup 8} M {sub ?}, and translates to a volumetric TDF rate of (4-8) 10{sup 80.4} yr{sup 1} Mpc{sup 3}, with the statistical uncertainty in the exponent.

  1. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling, Class II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergeron, Jack; Blasingame, Tom; Doublet, Louis; Kelkar, Mohan; Freeman, George; Callard, Jeff; Moore, David; Davies, David; Vessell, Richard; Pregger, Brian; Dixon, Bill; Bezant, Bryce

    2000-03-16

    The major purpose of this project was to demonstrate the use of cost effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs such as the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit.

  2. Reservoir Characterization, Production Characteristics, and Research Needs for Fluvial/Alluvial Reservoirs in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Jackson, S.R.; Madden, M.P.; Raw-Schatzinger, V.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.; Young, M.A.

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program was initiated in 1992 to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from known domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. Cost-shared field demonstration projects are being initiated in geology defined reservoir classes which have been prioritized by their potential for incremental recovery and their risk of abandonment. This document defines the characteristics of the fifth geological reservoir class in the series, fluvial/alluvial reservoirs. The reservoirs of Class 5 include deposits of alluvial fans, braided streams, and meandering streams. Deposit morphologies vary as a complex function of climate and tectonics and are characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity to fluid flow as a result of extreme variations in water energy as the deposits formed.

  3. Onset of electron acceleration in a flare loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharykin, Ivan; Liu, Siming [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Fletcher, Lyndsay, E-mail: liusm@pmo.ac.cn [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-20

    We carried out a detailed analysis of X-ray and radio observations of a simple flare loop that occurred on 2002 August 12, with the impulsive hard X-ray (HXR) light curves dominated by a single pulse. The emission spectra of the early impulsive phase are consistent with an isothermal model in the coronal loop with a temperature reaching several keV. A power-law high-energy spectral tail is evident near the HXR peak time, in accordance with the appearance of footpoints at high energies, and is well correlated with the radio emission. The energy content of the thermal component keeps increasing gradually after the disappearance of this nonthermal component. These results suggest that electron acceleration only covers the central period of a longer and more gradual energy dissipation process and that the electron transport within the loop plays a crucial role in the formation of the inferred power-law electron distribution. The spectral index of power-law photons shows a very gradual evolution, indicating that the electron accelerator is in a quasi-steady state, which is confirmed by radio observations. These results are consistent with the theory of stochastic electron acceleration from a thermal background. Advanced modeling with coupled electron acceleration and spatial transport processes is needed to explain these observations more quantitatively, which may reveal the dependence of the electron acceleration on the spatial structure of the acceleration region.

  4. Arizona Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  5. Kentucky Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  6. Florida Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  7. Illinois Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  8. Tennessee Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  9. Ohio Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  10. Oklahoma Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  11. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  12. Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  13. Texas Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 973,206 946,090 950,096 1970's 940,505 897,717 832,808 739,962 653,815 471,714 443,671 417,546 414,103 391,571 1980's 375,345 368,478 358,584 354,048 374,612 371,466 364,168 406,291 456,627 450,733 1990's 380,032 360,852 362,458 348,558 319,360 296,192 273,301 250,949 249,055 202,328 2000's 138,372 195,150 212,638 237,723 284,491 303,477 325,967 546,659 555,796 552,907 2010's 558,854 502,020 437,367 423,413

  14. Kentucky Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0

  15. Maryland Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0

  16. Michigan Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 7,642 2,330 1,719 1970's 378 788 63 176 327 981 1,401 2,169 1980's 2,375 2,390 2,400 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,606 2,340 2,768 1990's 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2000's 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2010's 2,340 2,340 0

  17. Mississippi Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 34,714 30,656 29,383 1970's 23,756 12,641 12,036 7,288 9,421 6,293 5,553 5,646 5,630 9,882 1980's 13,009 9,311 8,767 7,048 7,788 7,552 18,913 22,091 38,948 30,390 1990's 36,262 23,929 24,993 14,092 12,083 11,321 9,366 8,414 9,830 6,286 2000's 6,353 6,194 5,975 6,082 8,069 9,906 8,522 4,682 2,998 3,039 2010's 3,480 3,788 0

  18. Missouri Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 NA NA 2010's NA NA NA 0 0

  19. Montana Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 722 365 377 1970's 394 499 441 1,065 750 611 464 267 567 517 1980's 230 41 171 197 186 208 214 177 1990's 222 231 180 231 105 82 76 64 68 65 2000's 1 0 0 2 5 9 19 6 6 5 2010's 5 4 0

  20. Utah Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 26,319 30,242 25,632 1970's 27,753 28,916 30,684 28,132 24,192 20,447 20,182 21,212 21,342 19,509 1980's 107,469 127,157 144,693 173,181 174,772 156,831 1990's 172,419 177,218 141,698 108,629 72,798 26,874 3,165 990 559 519 2000's 563 575 2,150 1,785 1,337 1,294 1,300 1,742 1,571 608 2010's 1,187 1,449 0

  1. Virginia Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0

  2. Wyoming Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 16,393 22,397 21,849 1970's 8,563 8,046 8,412 12,643 11,796 6,892 6,149 14,163 14,484 23,768 1980's 39,895 43,871 35,168 45,870 46,291 48,107 52,977 66,604 51,982 52,783 1990's 56,581 90,465 81,712 110,044 110,064 131,893 134,867 128,186 106,161 75,250 2000's 50,216 114,407 129,598 131,125 164,164 171,616 114,343 8,063 9,118 3,112 2010's 2,810 5,747 6,630 2,124 5,210

  3. Nevada Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  4. Oregon Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 55 43 39 43 44 50 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  5. Alabama Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 35 99 241 1970's 452 1,085 2,860 2,718 3,383 1980's 3,134 3,805 8,304 11,042 12,557 14,769 18,238 17,850 23,444 28,256 1990's 28,540 30,689 29,996 31,179 33,961 30,949 22,601 17,724 14,002 13,793 2000's 13,988 12,758 10,050 4,062 1,307 478 301 311 475 783 2010's 736 531 0

  6. Alabama Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 2,458 2,389 2,720 2,493 2,406 2,588 2,821 2,744 2,725 1,738 2,719 2,889 1992 2,814 2,535 2,529 2,618 2,573 2,492 2,655 2,556 2,255 2,467 2,183 2,320 1993 2,339 2,156 2,542 2,270 2,745 2,742 2,772 2,790 2,755 2,719 2,632 2,717 1994 2,547 2,348 2,769 2,473 2,990 2,986 3,019 3,039 3,001 2,961 2,867 2,959 1995 2,321 2,140 2,523 2,254 2,725 2,722 2,751 2,770 2,735 2,699 2,613 2,697 1996 2,244 1,340 2,142 2,001 2,003 1,786 1,891 2,000 1,957

  7. Alaska Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 39,989 57,702 66,240 1970's 71,470 72,674 75,719 87,302 89,504 82,556 96,485 170,258 385,254 507,710 1980's 658,351 694,865 813,421 882,884 905,571 1,015,911 1,061,351 1,319,430 1,545,391 1,561,498 1990's 1,639,689 1,930,290 2,168,019 2,325,506 2,517,259 2,891,618 2,885,686 2,904,370 2,904,028 2,892,017 2000's 3,062,853 2,948,652 3,006,824 3,082,204 3,166,098 3,149,237 2,753,901 3,039,347 3,007,418 2,908,828

  8. Alaska Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 165,196 155,820 172,824 157,592 156,292 156,913 163,560 160,337 144,609 169,116 159,810 168,222 1992 177,791 178,481 186,092 181,395 176,802 169,069 171,059 170,930 179,174 189,695 185,519 202,013 1993 200,110 178,483 201,238 185,464 188,032 168,714 169,336 185,382 178,508 211,134 223,628 235,477 1994 217,133 193,581 219,086 201,450 203,950 182,418 182,384 200,295 192,711 228,960 241,471 253,820 1995 249,424 222,370 251,668 231,409

  9. Arkansas Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 10,010 4,633 4,752 1970's 2,073 995 0 0 0 3,963 10,387 17,507 20,293 17,546 1980's 15,494 38,991 24,278 25,376 25,359 26,036 20,329 24,779 22,994 23,837 1990's 20,165 4,722 8,056 7,773 7,426 7,815 2,354 2,139 1,293 1,150 2000's 8 0 0 0 0 0 439 516 511 520 2010's 414 4,051 0

  10. Arkansas Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 854 748 874 377 368 398 320 289 301 116 43 35 1992 714 638 688 663 660 639 651 651 643 693 693 724 1993 679 609 661 633 642 617 633 635 624 668 670 702 1994 649 582 632 605 614 589 605 606 596 638 641 671 1995 683 612 665 636 646 620 637 638 627 671 674 706 1996 196 185 205 187 218 212 192 191 193 201 218 156 1997 208 194 204 211 200 187 148 162 151 158 148 169 1998 126 117 123 127 121 113 90 98 91 95 89 102 1999 103 99 110 99 109 102 101

  11. Louisiana Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Year-8 Year-9 1960's 208,719 195,062 174,349 1970's 133,792 133,080 123,418 146,680 134,607 126,304 104,977 102,672 132,627 66,517 1980's 45,714 26,281 25,459 21,596 37,980...

  12. Louisiana Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 5,244 4,734 4,225 4,287 4,497 4,051 3,869 2,184 3,937 4,254 2,076 1,935 1992 3,882 3,446 3,606 3,528 3,694 3,572 3,661 3,278 3,265 3,553 3,480 3,668 1993 3,051 2,763 2,983 2,907 3,017 2,891 2,959 2,994 2,996 3,134 3,065 3,144 1994 3,119 2,825 3,049 2,971 3,083 2,955 3,024 3,060 3,062 3,204 3,133 3,215 1995 3,033 2,747 2,965 2,887 2,993 2,869 2,939 2,977 2,978 3,118 3,048 3,130 1996 3,068 2,866 3,008 2,923 3,036 3,346 3,525 3,543 3,488

  13. Michigan Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 1997 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 1998 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 1999 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 2000 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 2001 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 2002 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 2003 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 2004 195 195 195 195

  14. Mississippi Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 2,616 2,686 2,471 1,829 1,467 1,373 1,598 1,758 1,730 2,200 2,025 2,177 1992 2,152 1,997 2,170 2,085 2,270 2,135 2,053 2,031 2,060 2,003 2,016 2,021 1993 1,658 1,080 1,219 1,154 1,199 1,227 1,260 1,063 1,109 1,148 1,060 915 1994 870 784 850 1,004 1,034 953 1,044 1,103 1,174 1,110 1,057 1,100 1995 1,087 1,004 1,048 1,097 1,088 1,014 1,019 886 722 742 733 879 1996 865 842 898 905 892 838 696 685 667 695 678 706 1997 699 703 526 664 728 593

  15. Missouri Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  16. Montana Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 7 6 6 7 8 7 7 7 5 5 6 6 1997 6 5 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 1998 6 5 5 8 6 6 5 5 5 6 6 6 1999 6 5 6 6 5 7 5 5 5 5 5 6 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2004 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2005 0 0 1 2 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 2006 1 0 4 5 5 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 2007 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2008 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2011 0 0 0 0

  17. Nevada Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0

  18. California Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 176,675 99,252 86,579 1970's 75,629 66,040 68,114 62,218 60,060 47,808 72,018 74,997 71,457 88,038 1980's 95,982 99,196 97,490 92,518 96,094 102,758 93,351 100,128 97,816 99,799 1990's 81,159 79,235 81,330 87,806 84,369 101,513 111,317 110,134 79,614 47,924 2000's 39,812 35,052 30,991 23,806 22,405 29,134 29,001 27,172 31,305 24,308 2010's 27,240 23,905 0

  19. California Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 6,315 5,658 6,757 6,471 6,507 6,127 6,736 6,497 6,688 7,419 7,161 6,900 1992 7,314 6,701 7,119 7,071 7,197 6,573 6,884 6,683 6,498 6,759 6,244 6,286 1993 7,750 6,919 7,484 7,167 7,241 6,955 7,081 7,093 6,997 7,570 7,597 7,950 1994 7,447 6,648 7,191 6,887 6,958 6,683 6,804 6,816 6,723 7,273 7,300 7,639 1995 8,960 7,999 8,653 8,286 8,372 8,041 8,187 8,201 8,089 8,751 8,783 9,192 1996 9,703 9,320 9,579 9,504 9,323 9,273 9,490 9,132 8,872

  20. Colorado Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 8,501 6,645 3,257 1970's 2,227 1,960 415 709 266 220 327 218 256 1980's 196 398 227 388 94 748 485 593 2,241 6,703 1990's 10,986 6,267 9,085 10,995 11,347 15,040 10,715 7,172 7,244 6,397 2000's 6,423 7,263 7,479 8,885 9,229 9,685 10,285 10,625 11,945 11,173 2010's 10,043 10,439 0

  1. Colorado Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 657 638 525 665 651 635 507 611 607 1992 665 667 720 787 782 766 787 513 840 822 915 821 1993 1,034 857 948 531 965 949 922 936 879 982 976 1,016 1994 1,024 885 999 948 553 949 969 999 1,000 1,003 1,010 1,009 1995 1,594 931 2,253 893 1,451 1,976 976 958 1,256 830 929 993 1996 954 931 858 862 907 849 880 865 762 1,028 957 863 1997 543 530 578 485 612 618 588 623 609 609 712 664 1998 594 589 751 704 764 400 626 641 604 677 588 306 1999 556

  2. Florida Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,511 1980's 2,173 1,094 1990's 115 - 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 17,909 17,718 20,890

  3. Florida Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0

  4. Indiana Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  5. Indiana Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0

  6. Kansas Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 1,752 1,689 1,781 1970's 1,807 1,779 1,787 1,794 1,779 1,693 1,663 1,565 1,726 1,600 1980's 1,474 1,078 861 872 935 1,028 753 917 963 1,017 1990's 930 1,098 1,092 1,140 1,215 1,230 2,120 1,157 1,029 943 2000's 896 818 775 714 677 643 620 618 631 601 2010's 548 521 0

  7. Kansas Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 187 186 187 181 185 167 170 164 165 171 174 181 1997 103 94 102 99 105 102 99 91 85 92 92 92 1998 94 84 91 88 88 89 77 81 82 87 83 84 1999 89 75 81 78 79 79 79 78 76 77 75 78 2000 79 73 76 85 76 74 76 76 71 71 69 70 2001 72 63 70 68 69 67 70 70 67 68 66 69 2002 68 60 67 65 67 66 67 66 62 63 61 63 2003 62 55 62 59 61 58 61 62 59 60 57 59 2004 58 54 58 56 58 57 59 58 55 56 54 54 2005 54 51 55 55 54 51 55 56 53 54 52 52 2006 51 46 51 51 52

  8. Michigan Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 7,642 2,330 1,719 1970's 378 788 63 176 327 981 1,401 2,169 1980's 2,375 2,390 2,400 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,606 2,340 2,768 1990's 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2000's 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2010's 2,340 2,340 0

  9. Mississippi Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 34,714 30,656 29,383 1970's 23,756 12,641 12,036 7,288 9,421 6,293 5,553 5,646 5,630 9,882 1980's 13,009 9,311 8,767 7,048 7,788 7,552 18,913 22,091 38,948 30,390 1990's 36,262 23,929 24,993 14,092 12,083 11,321 9,366 8,414 9,830 6,286 2000's 6,353 6,194 5,975 6,082 8,069 9,906 8,522 4,682 2,998 3,039 2010's 3,480 3,788 0

  10. Missouri Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 NA NA 2010's NA NA NA 0 0

  11. Montana Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 722 365 377 1970's 394 499 441 1,065 750 611 464 267 567 517 1980's 230 41 171 197 186 208 214 177 1990's 222 231 180 231 105 82 76 64 68 65 2000's 1 0 0 2 5 9 19 6 6 5 2010's 5 4 0

  12. Nevada Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  13. Oregon Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 55 43 39 43 44 50 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  14. Texas Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 973,206 946,090 950,096 1970's 940,505 897,717 832,808 739,962 653,815 471,714 443,671 417,546 414,103 391,571 1980's 375,345 368,478 358,584 354,048 374,612 371,466 364,168 406,291 456,627 450,733 1990's 380,032 360,852 362,458 348,558 319,360 296,192 273,301 250,949 249,055 202,328 2000's 138,372 195,150 212,638 237,723 284,491 303,477 325,967 546,659 555,796 552,907 2010's 558,854 502,020 437,367 423,413

  15. Utah Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 26,319 30,242 25,632 1970's 27,753 28,916 30,684 28,132 24,192 20,447 20,182 21,212 21,342 19,509 1980's 107,469 127,157 144,693 173,181 174,772 156,831 1990's 172,419 177,218 141,698 108,629 72,798 26,874 3,165 990 559 519 2000's 563 575 2,150 1,785 1,337 1,294 1,300 1,742 1,571 608 2010's 1,187 1,449 0

  16. Texas Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 29,716 27,721 28,289 33,787 30,735 29,340 32,148 30,155 32,120 32,502 27,144 27,197 1992 30,338 29,299 31,475 28,146 33,286 31,532 31,163 29,863 29,516 30,469 28,278 29,094 1993 29,540 27,563 30,228 28,902 30,023 27,936 29,094 29,382 29,156 30,018 27,867 28,850 1994 29,039 25,212 28,126 26,378 27,245 26,325 26,457 25,057 26,425 26,984 25,018 27,093 1995 26,932 23,383 26,086 24,464 25,269 24,416 24,538 23,239 24,508 25,026 23,203 25,128

  17. Oregon Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 3 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 2 1997 3 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 1998 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1999 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0

  18. Wyoming Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 5,127 4,605 8,610 8,415 7,743 8,318 8,211 8,971 7,226 10,425 7,920 4,894 1992 7,886 7,507 4,809 7,021 7,608 15,649 4,881 7,665 4,623 4,660 4,544 4,859 1993 6,544 6,120 6,276 6,226 10,323 6,573 21,075 10,246 9,455 6,476 10,110 10,620 1994 6,371 7,194 5,976 7,649 8,952 7,896 8,341 12,156 7,771 13,020 12,298 12,440 1995 11,460 10,137 13,117 10,183 9,733 10,159 10,446 11,174 11,080 11,833 11,224 11,348 1996 11,440 9,821 11,800 11,600 10,739

  19. California Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 176,675 99,252 86,579 1970's 75,629 66,040 68,114 62,218 60,060 47,808 72,018 74,997 71,457 88,038 1980's 95,982 99,196 97,490 92,518 96,094 102,758 93,351 100,128 97,816 99,799 1990's 81,159 79,235 81,330 87,806 84,369 101,513 111,317 110,134 79,614 47,924 2000's 39,812 35,052 30,991 23,806 22,405 29,134 29,001 27,172 31,305 24,308 2010's 27,240 23,905 0

  20. Colorado Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 8,501 6,645 3,257 1970's 2,227 1,960 415 709 266 220 327 218 256 1980's 196 398 227 388 94 748 485 593 2,241 6,703 1990's 10,986 6,267 9,085 10,995 11,347 15,040 10,715 7,172 7,244 6,397 2000's 6,423 7,263 7,479 8,885 9,229 9,685 10,285 10,625 11,945 11,173 2010's 10,043 10,439 0

  1. Florida Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,511 1980's 2,173 1,094 1990's 115 - 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 17,909 17,718 20,890

  2. Illinois Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  3. Indiana Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  4. Kansas Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 1,752 1,689 1,781 1970's 1,807 1,779 1,787 1,794 1,779 1,693 1,663 1,565 1,726 1,600 1980's 1,474 1,078 861 872 935 1,028 753 917 963 1,017 1990's 930 1,098 1,092 1,140 1,215 1,230 2,120 1,157 1,029 943 2000's 896 818 775 714 677 643 620 618 631 601 2010's 548 521 0

  5. Louisiana Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 208,719 195,062 174,349 1970's 133,792 133,080 123,418 146,680 134,607 126,304 104,977 102,672 132,627 66,517 1980's 45,714 26,281 25,459 21,596 37,980 179,383 45,191 57,185 45,103 42,948 1990's 40,836 45,292 42,631 35,904 36,703 35,684 39,949 11,061 7,913 10,487 2000's 9,250 10,838 9,754 18,446 19,031 8,638 10,454 10,999 5,732 5,695 2010's 3,606 5,015 0 2,829 3,199

  6. Utah Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 15,073 14,081 15,757 15,821 14,757 15,209 15,209 15,665 12,137 14,694 14,486 14,329 1992 15,221 13,656 13,168 11,390 11,537 11,941 11,954 11,375 11,617 10,161 10,609 9,069 1993 9,234 8,048 8,426 10,843 10,044 9,739 10,136 9,860 9,381 8,310 7,236 7,372 1994 7,057 6,684 6,978 6,450 6,086 6,183 6,058 6,000 5,912 4,935 5,287 5,167 1995 4,736 3,880 3,400 3,383 3,441 1,323 1,293 1,492 1,056 1,076 907 886 1996 762 708 215 187 210 167 165 169 163

  7. Wyoming Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 16,393 22,397 21,849 1970's 8,563 8,046 8,412 12,643 11,796 6,892 6,149 14,163 14,484 23,768 1980's 39,895 43,871 35,168 45,870 46,291 48,107 52,977 66,604 51,982 52,783 1990's 56,581 90,465 81,712 110,044 110,064 131,893 134,867 128,186 106,161 75,250 2000's 50,216 114,407 129,598 131,125 164,164 171,616 114,343 8,063 9,118 3,112 2010's 2,810 5,747 6,630 2,124 5,210

  8. Exploring the blazar zone in high-energy flares of FSRQs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pacciani, L.; Donnarumma, I.; Tavecchio, F.; Stamerra, A.; Carrasco, L.; Recillas, E.; Porras, A.; Uemura, M.

    2014-07-20

    The gamma-ray emission offers a powerful diagnostic tool to probe jets and their surroundings in flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). In particular, sources emitting at high energies (>10 GeV) give us the strongest constraints. This motivates us to start a systematic study of flares with bright emission above 10 GeV, examining archival data of the Fermi-LAT gamma-ray telescope. At the same time, we began to trigger Target of Opportunity observations to the Swift observatory at the occurrence of high-energy flares, obtaining a wide coverage of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for several FSRQs during flares. Among others, we investigate the SED of a peculiar flare of 3C 454.3, showing a remarkably hard gamma-ray spectrum, quite different from the brightest flares of this source, and a bright flare of CTA 102. We modeled the SED in the framework of the one-zone leptonic model, using also archival optical spectroscopic data to derive the luminosity of the broad lines and thus estimate the disk luminosity, from which the structural parameters of the FSRQ nucleus can be inferred. The model allowed us to evaluate the magnetic field intensity in the blazar zone and to locate the emitting region of gamma-rays in the particular case in which gamma-ray spectra show neither absorption from the broad-line region (BLR) nor the Klein-Nishina curvature expected in leptonic models assuming the BLR as the source of seed photons for the External Compton scenario. For FSRQs bright above 10 GeV, we were able to identify short periods lasting less than one day characterized by a high rate of high-energy gamma-rays and hard gamma-ray spectra. We discussed the observed spectra and variability timescales in terms of injection and cooling of energetic particles, arguing that these flares could be triggered by magnetic reconnection events or turbulence in the flow.

  9. RADIOACTIVE POSITRON EMITTER PRODUCTION BY ENERGETIC ALPHA PARTICLES IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, R. J. [Code 7650, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kozlovsky, B. [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Share, G. H., E-mail: murphy@ssd5.nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: benz@wise.tau.ac.il, E-mail: share@astro.umd.edu [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of the 0.511 MeV positron-annihilation line from solar flares are used to explore the flare process in general and ion acceleration in particular. In flares, positrons are produced primarily by the decay of radioactive positron-emitting isotopes resulting from nuclear interactions of flare-accelerated ions with ambient solar material. Kozlovsky et al. provided ion-energy-dependent production cross sections for 67 positron emitters evaluated from their threshold energies (some <1 MeV nucleon{sup 1}) to a GeV nucleon{sup 1}, incorporating them into a computer code for calculating positron-emitter production. Adequate cross-section measurements were available for proton reactions, but not for ?-particle reactions where only crude estimates were possible. Here we re-evaluate the ?-particle cross sections using new measurements and nuclear reaction codes. In typical large gamma-ray line flares, proton reactions dominate positron production, but ?-particle reactions will dominate for steeper accelerated-ion spectra because of their relatively low threshold energies. With the accelerated-{sup 3}He reactions added previously, the code is now reliable for calculating positron production from any distribution of accelerated-ion energies, not just those of typical flares. We have made the code available in the online version of the Journal. We investigate which reactions, projectiles, and ion energies contribute to positron production. We calculate ratios of the annihilation-line fluence to fluences of other gamma-ray lines. Such ratios can be used in interpreting flare data and in determining which nuclear radiation is most sensitive for revealing acceleration of low-energy ions at the Sun.

  10. TEMPERATURE AND ELECTRON DENSITY DIAGNOSTICS OF A CANDLE-FLAME-SHAPED FLARE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidoni, S. E.; Plowman, J. E.

    2015-02-10

    Candle-flame-shaped flares are archetypical structures that provide indirect evidence of magnetic reconnection. A flare resembling Tsuneta's famous 1992 candle-flame flare occurred on 2011 January 28; we present its temperature and electron density diagnostics. This flare was observed with Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA), Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT), and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Ahead (STEREO-A)/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager, resulting in high-resolution, broad temperature coverage, and stereoscopic views of this iconic structure. The high-temperature images reveal a brightening that grows in size to form a tower-like structure at the top of the posteruption flare arcade, a feature that has been observed in other long-duration events. Despite the extensive work on the standard reconnection scenario, there is no complete agreement among models regarding the nature of this high-intensity elongated structure. Electron density maps reveal that reconnected loops that are successively connected at their tops to the tower develop a density asymmetry of about a factor of two between the two legs, giving the appearance of ''half-loops''. We calculate average temperatures with a new fast differential emission measure (DEM) method that uses SDO/AIA data and analyze the heating and cooling of salient features of the flare. Using STEREO observations, we show that the tower and the half-loop brightenings are not a line-of-sight projection effect of the type studied by Forbes and Acton. This conclusion opens the door for physics-based explanations of these puzzling, recurrent solar flare features, previously attributed to projection effects. We corroborate the results of our DEM analysis by comparing them with temperature analyses from Hinode/XRT.

  11. OPTICAL SPECTRAL OBSERVATIONS OF A FLICKERING WHITE-LIGHT KERNEL IN A C1 SOLAR FLARE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalski, Adam F.; Cauzzi, Gianna; Fletcher, Lyndsay

    2015-01-10

    We analyze optical spectra of a two-ribbon, long-duration C1.1 flare that occurred on 2011 August 18 within AR 11271 (SOL2011-08-18T15:15). The impulsive phase of the flare was observed with a comprehensive set of space-borne and ground-based instruments, which provide a range of unique diagnostics of the lower flaring atmosphere. Here we report the detection of enhanced continuum emission, observed in low-resolution spectra from 3600 to 4550 acquired with the Horizontal Spectrograph at the Dunn Solar Telescope. A small, ?0.''5 (10{sup 15}cm{sup 2}) penumbral/umbral kernel brightens repeatedly in the optical continuum and chromospheric emission lines, similar to the temporal characteristics of the hard X-ray variation as detected by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor on the Fermi spacecraft. Radiative-hydrodynamic flare models that employ a nonthermal electron beam energy flux high enough to produce the optical contrast in our flare spectra would predict a large Balmer jump in emission, indicative of hydrogen recombination radiation from the upper flare chromosphere. However, we find no evidence of such a Balmer jump in the bluemost spectral region of the continuum excess. Just redward of the expected Balmer jump, we find evidence of a ''blue continuum bump'' in the excess emission which may be indicative of the merging of the higher order Balmer lines. The large number of observational constraints provides a springboard for modeling the blue/optical emission for this particular flare with radiative-hydrodynamic codes, which are necessary to understand the opacity effects for the continuum and emission line radiation at these wavelengths.

  12. CONTINUUM CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE SDO/AIA PASSBANDS DURING SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, Ryan O.; McElroy, Sarah A.

    2013-11-01

    Data from the Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph component of the Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) were used to quantify the contribution of continuum emission to each of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) channels of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), also on SDO, during an X-class solar flare that occurred on 2011 February 15. Both the pre-flare-subtracted EVE spectra and fits to the associated free-free continuum were convolved with the AIA response functions of the seven EUV passbands at 10 s cadence throughout the course of the flare. It was found that 10%-25% of the total emission in the 94 , 131 , 193 , and 335 passbands throughout the main phase of the flare was due to free-free emission. Reliable measurements could not be made for the 171 channel, while the continuum contribution to the 304 channel was negligible due to the presence of the strong He II emission line. Up to 50% of the emission in the 211 channel was found to be due to free-free emission around the peak of the flare, while an additional 20% was due to the recombination continuum of He II. The analysis was extended to a number of M- and X-class flares and it was found that the level of free-free emission contributing to both the 171 and 211 passbands increased with increasing GOES class. These results suggest that the amount of continuum emission that contributes to AIA observations during flares is more significant than stated in previous studies which used synthetic, rather than observed, spectra. These findings highlight the importance of spectroscopic observations carried out in conjunction with those from imaging instruments so that the data are interpreted correctly.

  13. Experience in operating the Bratsk Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazarov, A.V.

    1984-04-01

    The Bratsk reservoir is the largest in the USSR and second largest in the world. Initially, the reservoir was expected to be filled by the end of 1966. However, the actual filling was not completed until September of 1967. During filling and in the first years of operation it was constantly necessary to deal with floating timber in order to ensure normal operation of the hydrostation, navigation safety, conditions for fishery, and fulfillment of the sanitary requirements. During seasonal variations of the reservoir level about 160 sq km of the shore zone was subjected to variable flooding and waterlogging. Maximum erosion occurred on expanded stretches, and within their limits on slopes composed of loam and sand deposits. Within the narrows, where the banks are composed mainly of hard and soft rocks and wave action is weak, erosion is negligible. Wind setup and setdown cause maximum denivellation of the water surface. The maximum increase of the level during setup reaches 232 cm and the maximum decrease during setdown is 24 cm. Seiche oscillations with various amplitudes and periods are observed on the reservoir surface. The main uses of the complex are hydropower, water transport, timber floating, water supply, and fishery. For the successful development of the shores of reservoirs it is necessary to select the construction sites with consideration of possible occurrence of karstic and landslide processes; the construction of heavy structures requires special karst-control measures. 3 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  14. Eolian reservoir characteristics predicted from dune type

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kocurek, G.; Nielson, J.

    1985-02-01

    The nature of eolian-dune reservoirs is strongly influenced by stratification types (in decreasing order of quality: grain-flow, grain-fall, wind-ripple deposits) and their packaging by internal bounding surfaces. These are, in turn, a function of dune surface processes and migration behavior, allowing for predictive models of reservoir behavior. Migrating, simple crescentic dunes produce tabular bodies consisting mainly of grain-flow cross-strata, and form the best, most predictable reservoirs. Reservoir character improves as both original dune height and preserved set thickness increase, because fewer grain-fall deposits and a lower percentage of dune-apron deposits occur in the cross-strata, respectively. It is probable that many linear and star dunes migrate laterally, leaving a blanket of packages of wind ripple laminae reflecting deposition of broad, shifting aprons. This is distinct from models generated by freezing large portions of these dunes in place. Trailing margins of linear and star dunes are prone to reworking by sand-sheet processes that decrease potential reservoir quality. The occurrence of parabolic dunes isolated on vegetated sand sheets results in a core of grain-flow and grain-fall deposits surrounded by less permeable and porous deposits. Compound crescentic dunes, perhaps the most preservable dune type, may yield laterally (1) single sets of cross-strate, (2) compound sets derived from superimposed simple dunes, or (3) a complex of diverse sets derived from superimposed transverse and linear elements.

  15. OBSERVATION OF HEATING BY FLARE-ACCELERATED ELECTRONS IN A SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glesener, Lindsay; Bain, Hazel M.; Krucker, Sm; Lin, Robert P.

    2013-12-20

    We report a Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) observation of flare-accelerated electrons in the core of a coronal mass ejection (CME) and examine their role in heating the CME. Previous CME observations have revealed remarkably high thermal energies that can far surpass the CME's kinetic energy. A joint observation by RHESSI and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of a partly occulted flare on 2010 November 3 allows us to test the hypothesis that this excess energy is collisionally deposited by flare-accelerated electrons. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images show an ejection forming the CME core and sheath, with isothermal multifilter analysis revealing temperatures of ?11MK in the core. RHESSI images reveal a large (?100 50 arcsec{sup 2}) hard X-ray (HXR) source matching the location, shape, and evolution of the EUV plasma, indicating that the emerging CME is filled with flare-accelerated electrons. The time derivative of the EUV emission matches the HXR light curve (similar to the Neupert effect observed in soft and HXR time profiles), directly linking the CME temperature increase with the nonthermal electron energy loss, while HXR spectroscopy demonstrates that the nonthermal electrons contain enough energy to heat the CME. This is the most direct observation to date of flare-accelerated electrons heating a CME, emphasizing the close relationship of the two in solar eruptive events.

  16. MAGNETIC NONPOTENTIALITY IN PHOTOSPHERIC ACTIVE REGIONS AS A PREDICTOR OF SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Xiao; Lin Ganghua; Zhang Hongqi; Mao Xinjie

    2013-09-10

    Based on several magnetic nonpotentiality parameters obtained from the vector photospheric active region magnetograms obtained with the Solar Magnetic Field Telescope at the Huairou Solar Observing Station over two solar cycles, a machine learning model has been constructed to predict the occurrence of flares in the corresponding active region within a certain time window. The Support Vector Classifier, a widely used general classifier, is applied to build and test the prediction models. Several classical verification measures are adopted to assess the quality of the predictions. We investigate different flare levels within various time windows, and thus it is possible to estimate the rough classes and erupting times of flares for particular active regions. Several combinations of predictors have been tested in the experiments. The True Skill Statistics are higher than 0.36 in 97% of cases and the Heidke Skill Scores range from 0.23 to 0.48. The predictors derived from longitudinal magnetic fields do perform well, however, they are less sensitive in predicting large flares. Employing the nonpotentiality predictors from vector fields improves the performance of predicting large flares of magnitude {>=}M5.0 and {>=}X1.0.

  17. Improved characterization of reservoir behavior by integration of reservoir performances data and rock type distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davies, D.K.; Vessell, R.K.; Doublet, L.E.

    1997-08-01

    An integrated geological/petrophysical and reservoir engineering study was performed for a large, mature waterflood project (>250 wells, {approximately}80% water cut) at the North Robertson (Clear Fork) Unit, Gaines County, Texas. The primary goal of the study was to develop an integrated reservoir description for {open_quotes}targeted{close_quotes} (economic) 10-acre (4-hectare) infill drilling and future recovery operations in a low permeability, carbonate (dolomite) reservoir. Integration of the results from geological/petrophysical studies and reservoir performance analyses provide a rapid and effective method for developing a comprehensive reservoir description. This reservoir description can be used for reservoir flow simulation, performance prediction, infill targeting, waterflood management, and for optimizing well developments (patterns, completions, and stimulations). The following analyses were performed as part of this study: (1) Geological/petrophysical analyses: (core and well log data) - {open_quotes}Rock typing{close_quotes} based on qualitative and quantitative visualization of pore-scale features. Reservoir layering based on {open_quotes}rock typing {close_quotes} and hydraulic flow units. Development of a {open_quotes}core-log{close_quotes} model to estimate permeability using porosity and other properties derived from well logs. The core-log model is based on {open_quotes}rock types.{close_quotes} (2) Engineering analyses: (production and injection history, well tests) Material balance decline type curve analyses to estimate total reservoir volume, formation flow characteristics (flow capacity, skin factor, and fracture half-length), and indications of well/boundary interference. Estimated ultimate recovery analyses to yield movable oil (or injectable water) volumes, as well as indications of well and boundary interference.

  18. INCREASING WATERFLOOD RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor

    2002-02-28

    This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES AND PRODUCTION MODELS FOR EXPLOITING NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Wiggins; Raymon L. Brown; Faruk Civan; Richard G. Hughes

    2002-12-31

    For many years, geoscientists and engineers have undertaken research to characterize naturally fractured reservoirs. Geoscientists have focused on understanding the process of fracturing and the subsequent measurement and description of fracture characteristics. Engineers have concentrated on the fluid flow behavior in the fracture-porous media system and the development of models to predict the hydrocarbon production from these complex systems. This research attempts to integrate these two complementary views to develop a quantitative reservoir characterization methodology and flow performance model for naturally fractured reservoirs. The research has focused on estimating naturally fractured reservoir properties from seismic data, predicting fracture characteristics from well logs, and developing a naturally fractured reservoir simulator. It is important to develop techniques that can be applied to estimate the important parameters in predicting the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs. This project proposes a method to relate seismic properties to the elastic compliance and permeability of the reservoir based upon a sugar cube model. In addition, methods are presented to use conventional well logs to estimate localized fracture information for reservoir characterization purposes. The ability to estimate fracture information from conventional well logs is very important in older wells where data are often limited. Finally, a desktop naturally fractured reservoir simulator has been developed for the purpose of predicting the performance of these complex reservoirs. The simulator incorporates vertical and horizontal wellbore models, methods to handle matrix to fracture fluid transfer, and fracture permeability tensors. This research project has developed methods to characterize and study the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs that integrate geoscience and engineering data. This is an important step in developing exploitation strategies for optimizing the recovery from naturally fractured reservoir systems. The next logical extension of this work is to apply the proposed methods to an actual field case study to provide information for verification and modification of the techniques and simulator. This report provides the details of the proposed techniques and summarizes the activities undertaken during the course of this project. Technology transfer activities were highlighted by a two-day technical conference held in Oklahoma City in June 2002. This conference attracted over 90 participants and included the presentation of seventeen technical papers from researchers throughout the United States.

  20. CLUSTERS OF SMALL ERUPTIVE FLARES PRODUCED BY MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN THE SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archontis, V.; Hansteen, V.

    2014-06-10

    We report on the formation of small solar flares produced by patchy magnetic reconnection between interacting magnetic loops. A three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical experiment was performed, where a uniform magnetic flux sheet was injected into a fully developed convective layer. The gradual emergence of the field into the solar atmosphere results in a network of magnetic loops, which interact dynamically forming current layers at their interfaces. The formation and ejection of plasmoids out of the current layers leads to patchy reconnection and the spontaneous formation of several small (size ?1-2 Mm) flares. We find that these flares are short-lived (30 s3 minutes) bursts of energy in the range O(10{sup 25}-10{sup 27}) erg, which is basically the nanoflare-microflare range. Their persistent formation and co-operative action and evolution leads to recurrent emission of fast EUV/X-ray jets and considerable plasma heating in the active corona.

  1. Gamma-ray flares in the Crab Nebula: A case of relativistic reconnection?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerutti, B.; Werner, G. R. Uzdensky, D. A.; Begelman, M. C.

    2014-05-15

    The Crab Nebula was formed after the collapse of a massive star about a thousand years ago, leaving behind a pulsar that inflates a bubble of ultra-relativistic electron-positron pairs permeated with magnetic field. The observation of brief but bright flares of energetic gamma rays suggests that pairs are accelerated to PeV energies within a few days; such rapid acceleration cannot be driven by shocks. Here, it is argued that the flares may be the smoking gun of magnetic dissipation in the Nebula. Using 2D and 3D particle-in-cell simulations, it is shown that the observations are consistent with relativistic magnetic reconnection, where pairs are subject to strong radiative cooling. The Crab flares may highlight the importance of relativistic magnetic reconnection in astrophysical sources.

  2. Assessing out-of-band flare effects at the wafer level for EUV lithography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, Simi; Naulleau, Patrick; Kemp, Charles; Denham, Paul; Rekawa, Senajith

    2010-01-25

    To accurately estimate the flare contribution from the out-of-band (OOB), the integration of a DUV source into the SEMATECH Berkeley 0.3-NA Micro-field Exposure tool is proposed, enabling precisely controlled exposures along with the EUV patterning of resists in vacuum. First measurements evaluating the impact of bandwidth selected exposures with a table-top set-up and subsequent EUV patterning show significant impact on line-edge roughness and process performance. We outline a simulation-based method for computing the effective flare from resist sensitive wavelengths as a function of mask pattern types and sizes. This simulation method is benchmarked against measured OOB flare measurements and the results obtained are in agreement.

  3. Tight gas reservoirs: A visual depiction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Future gas supplies in the US will depend on an increasing contribution from unconventional sources such as overpressured and tight gas reservoirs. Exploitation of these resources and their conversion to economically producible gas reserves represents a major challenge. Meeting this challenge will require not only the continuing development and application of new technologies, but also a detailed understanding of the complex nature of the reservoirs themselves. This report seeks to promote understanding of these reservoirs by providing examples. Examples of gas productive overpressured tight reservoirs in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming are presented. These examples show log data (raw and interpreted), well completion and stimulation information, and production decline curves. A sampling of wells from the Lewis and Mesaverde formations are included. Both poor and good wells have been chosen to illustrate the range of productivity that is observed. The second section of this document displays decline curves and completion details for 30 of the best wells in the Greater Green River Basin. These are included to illustrate the potential that is present when wells are fortuitously located with respect to local stratigraphy and natural fracturing, and are successfully hydraulically fractured.

  4. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this study is to research technologies and methodologies that will reduce the costs associated with the operation and maintenance of underground natural gas storage. This effort will include a survey of public information to determine the amount of natural gas lost from underground storage fields, determine the causes of this lost gas, and develop strategies and remedial designs to reduce or stop the gas loss from selected fields. Phase I includes a detailed survey of US natural gas storage reservoirs to determine the actual amount of natural gas annually lost from underground storage fields. These reservoirs will be ranked, the resultant will include the amount of gas and revenue annually lost. The results will be analyzed in conjunction with the type (geologic) of storage reservoirs to determine the significance and impact of the gas loss. A report of the work accomplished will be prepared. The report will include: (1) a summary list by geologic type of US gas storage reservoirs and their annual underground gas storage losses in ft{sup 3}; (2) a rank by geologic classifications as to the amount of gas lost and the resultant lost revenue; and (3) show the level of significance and impact of the losses by geologic type. Concurrently, the amount of storage activity has increased in conjunction with the net increase of natural gas imports as shown on Figure No. 3. Storage is playing an ever increasing importance in supplying the domestic energy requirements.

  5. Fourteenth workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1989-12-31

    The Fourteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 24--26, 1989. Major areas of discussion include: (1) well testing; (2) various field results; (3) geoscience; (4) geochemistry; (5) reinjection; (6) hot dry rock; and (7) numerical modelling. For these workshop proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  6. Fourteenth workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The Fourteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 24--26, 1989. Major areas of discussion include: (1) well testing; (2) various field results; (3) geoscience; (4) geochemistry; (5) reinjection; (6) hot dry rock; and (7) numerical modelling. For these workshop proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  7. Tracer testing in geothermal reservoirs | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    geothermal reservoirs Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Tracer testing in geothermal reservoirs Author PetroWiki Published PetroWiki,...

  8. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Aquifer Storage Reservoir

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Configuration Aquifer Storage Reservoir Configuration About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Aquifer Underground Natural Gas Storage Reservoir Configuration Aquifer Underground Natural Gas Well

  9. Texas Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

  10. Monitoring and Modeling Fluid Flow in a Developing EGS Reservoir

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Better understand and model fluid injection into a tight reservoir on the edges of a hydrothermal field. Use seismic data to constrain geomechanical/hydrologic/thermal model of reservoir.

  11. MAGNETIC ENERGY PARTITION BETWEEN THE CORONAL MASS EJECTION AND FLARE FROM AR 11283

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, L.; Li, Y. P.; Gan, W. Q.; Wiegelmann, T.; Inhester, B.; Su, Y.; Sun, X. D.

    2013-03-01

    On 2011 September 6, an X-class flare and a halo coronal mass ejection (CME) were observed from Earth erupting from the same active region AR 11283. The magnetic energy partition between them has been investigated. SDO/HMI vector magnetograms were used to obtain the coronal magnetic field using the nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation method. The free magnetic energies before and after the flare were calculated to estimate the released energy available to power the flare and the CME. For the flare energetics, thermal and nonthermal energies were derived using the RHESSI and GOES data. To obtain the radiative output, SDO/EVE data in the 0.1-37 nm waveband were utilized. We have reconstructed the three-dimensional (3D) periphery of the CME from the coronagraph images observed by STEREO-A, B, and SOHO. The mass calculations were then based on a more precise Thomson-scattering geometry. The subsequent estimate of the kinetic and potential energies of the CME took advantage of the more accurate mass, and the height and speed in a 3D frame. The released free magnetic energy resulting from the NLFFF model is about 6.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 31} erg, which has a possible upper limit of 1.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 32} erg. The thermal and nonthermal energies are lower than the radiative output of 2.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 31} erg from SDO/EVE for this event. The total radiation covering the whole solar spectrum is probably a few times larger. The sum of the kinetic and potential energy of the CME could go up to 6.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 31} erg. Therefore, the free energy is able to power the flare and the CME in AR 11283. Within the uncertainty, the flare and the CME may consume a similar amount of free energy.

  12. THE TIDAL DISRUPTION OF GIANT STARS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO THE FLARING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE POPULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacLeod, Morgan; Guillochon, James; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico E-mail: jfg@ucolick.org

    2012-10-01

    Sun-like stars are thought to be regularly disrupted by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) within galactic nuclei. Yet, as stars evolve off the main sequence their vulnerability to tidal disruption increases drastically as they develop a bifurcated structure consisting of a dense core and a tenuous envelope. Here we present the first hydrodynamic simulations of the tidal disruption of giant stars and show that the core has a substantial influence on the star's ability to survive the encounter. Stars with more massive cores retain large fractions of their envelope mass, even in deep encounters. Accretion flares resulting from the disruption of giant stars should last for tens to hundreds of years. Their characteristic signature in transient searches would not be the t {sup -5/3} decay typically associated with tidal disruption events, but a correlated rise over many orders of magnitude in brightness on timescales of months to years. We calculate the relative disruption rates of stars of varying evolutionary stages in typical galactic centers, then use our results to produce Monte Carlo realizations of the expected flaring event populations. We find that the demographics of tidal disruption flares are strongly dependent on both stellar and black hole mass, especially near the limiting SMBH mass scale of {approx}10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }. At this black hole mass, we predict a sharp transition in the SMBH flaring diet beyond which all observable disruptions arise from evolved stars, accompanied by a dramatic cutoff in the overall tidal disruption flaring rate. Black holes less massive than this limiting mass scale will show observable flares from both main-sequence and evolved stars, with giants contributing up to 10% of the event rate. The relative fractions of stars disrupted at different evolutionary states can constrain the properties and distributions of stars in galactic nuclei other than our own.

  13. RHESSI AND TRACE OBSERVATIONS OF MULTIPLE FLARE ACTIVITY IN AR 10656 AND ASSOCIATED FILAMENT ERUPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshi, Bhuwan; Kushwaha, Upendra; Cho, K.-S.; Veronig, Astrid M.

    2013-07-01

    We present Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) observations of multiple flare activity that occurred in the NOAA active region 10656 over a period of 2 hr on 2004 August 18. Out of four successive flares, three were class C events, and the final event was a major X1.8 solar eruptive flare. The activities during the pre-eruption phase, i.e., before the X1.8 flare, are characterized by three localized episodes of energy release occurring in the vicinity of a filament that produces intense heating along with non-thermal emission. A few minutes before the eruption, the filament undergoes an activation phase during which it slowly rises with a speed of {approx}12 km s{sup -1}. The filament eruption is accompanied by an X1.8 flare, during which multiple hard X-ray (HXR) bursts are observed up to 100-300 keV energies. We observe a bright and elongated coronal structure simultaneously in E(UV) and 50-100 keV HXR images underneath the expanding filament during the period of HXR bursts, which provides strong evidence for ongoing magnetic reconnection. This phase is accompanied by very high plasma temperatures of {approx}31 MK, followed by the detachment of the prominence from the solar source region. From the location, timing, strength, and spectrum of HXR emission, we conclude that the prominence eruption is driven by the distinct events of magnetic reconnection occurring in the current sheet below the erupting prominence. These multi-wavelength observations also suggest that the localized magnetic reconnections associated with different evolutionary stages of the filament in the pre-eruption phase play an important role in destabilizing the active-region filament through the tether-cutting process, leading to large-scale eruption and X-class flare.

  14. THE 2014 MARCH 29 X-FLARE: SUBARCSECOND RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF Fe XXI ?1354.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Peter R.; Tian, Hui; Jaeggli, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    The Interface Region Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) is the first solar instrument to observe ?10 MK plasma at subarcsecond spatial resolution through imaging spectroscopy of the Fe XXI ?1354.1 forbidden line. IRIS observations of the X1 class flare that occurred on 2014 March 29 at 17:48 UT reveal Fe XXI emission from both the flare ribbons and the post-flare loop arcade. Fe XXI appears at all of the chromospheric ribbon sites, although typically with a delay of one raster (75s) and sometimes offset by up to 1''. 100-200 km s{sup 1} blue-shifts are found at the brightest ribbons, suggesting hot plasma upflow into the corona. The Fe XXI ribbon emission is compact with a spatial extent of <2'', and can extend beyond the chromospheric ribbon locations. Examples are found of both decreasing and increasing blue-shift in the direction away from the ribbon locations, and blue-shifts were present for at least sixminutes after the flare peak. The post-flare loop arcade, seen in Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 131 filtergram images that are dominated by Fe XXI, exhibited bright loop-tops with an asymmetric intensity distribution. The sizes of the loop-tops are resolved by IRIS at ?1'', and line widths in the loop-tops are not broader than in the loop-legs suggesting the loop-tops are not sites of enhanced turbulence. Line-of-sight speeds in the loop arcade are typically <10 km s{sup 1}, and mean non-thermal motions fall from 43 km s{sup 1} at the flare peak to 26 km s{sup 1} six minutes later. If the average velocity in the loop arcade is assumed to be at rest, then it implies a new reference wavelength for the Fe XXI line of 1354.106 0.023 .

  15. Water Sampling At Blackfoot Reservoir Area (Hutsinpiller & Parry...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Blackfoot Reservoir Area (Hutsinpiller & Parry, 1985) Exploration Activity...

  16. Assessing the relative permeability of heterogeneous reservoir rock

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Assessing the relative permeability of heterogeneous reservoir rock Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Assessing the relative permeability of heterogeneous reservoir rock Reservoir engineers are often faced with heterogeneous core material, for which conventional methods of estimating relative permeability are susceptible to error and may lead to incorrect conclusions regarding displacement efficiency, wettability and reservoir performance.

  17. Reservoir Modeling Working Group Meeting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reservoir Modeling Working Group Meeting Reservoir Modeling Working Group Meeting Reservoir Modeling working group meeting presentation on May 10, 2012 at the 2012 Peer Review Meeting. PDF icon gtp_2012peerreview_reservoir_modeling_wg.pdf More Documents & Publications Welcome to the Geothermal Technologies Program 2012 Annual Peer Review Integration of Noise and Coda Correlation Data into Kinematic and Waveform Inversions Stanford Geothermal Workshop 2012 Annual Meeting

  18. Incorporating reservoir heterogeneity with geostatistics to investigate waterflood recoveries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolcott, D.S. ); Chopra, A.K. )

    1993-03-01

    This paper presents an investigation of infill drilling performance and reservoir continuity with geostatistics and a reservoir simulator. The geostatistical technique provides many possible realizations and realistic descriptions of reservoir heterogeneity. Correlation between recovery efficiency and thickness of individual sand subunits is shown. Additional recovery from infill drilling results from thin, discontinuous subunits. The technique may be applied to variations in continuity for other sandstone reservoirs.

  19. Gamma-Ray Observations of a Giant Flare From the Magnetar Sgr 1806-20

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Gamma-Ray Observations of a Giant Flare From the Magnetar Sgr 1806-20 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Gamma-Ray Observations of a Giant Flare From the Magnetar Sgr 1806-20 Magnetars comprise two classes of rotating neutron stars (Soft Gamma Repeaters (SGRs) and Anomalous X-ray Pulsars), whose X-ray emission is powered by an ultrastrong magnetic field, B {approx} 10{sup 15} G. Occasionally SGRs enter into active episodes producing many short

  20. 1 Hz FLARING IN SAX J1808.4-3658: FLOW INSTABILITIES NEAR THE PROPELLER STAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patruno, Alessandro; Watts, Anna; Klein Wolt, Marc; Wijnands, Rudy; Van der Klis, Michiel

    2009-12-20

    We present a simultaneous periodic and aperiodic timing study of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1808.4-3658. We analyze five outbursts of the source and for the first time provide a full and systematic investigation of the enigmatic phenomenon of the 1 Hz flares observed during the final stages of some of the outbursts. We show that links between pulsations and 1 Hz flares might exist, and suggest that they are related with hydrodynamic disk instabilities that are triggered close to the disk-magnetosphere boundary layer when the system is entering the propeller regime.

  1. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, D.; Koerner, R.; Moos D.; Nguyen, J.; Phillips, C.; Tagbor, K.; Walker, S.

    1999-04-05

    This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate.

  2. Relation between facies, diagenesis, and reservoir quality of Rotliegende reservoirs in north Germany

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David, F.; Gast, R.; Kraft, T. (BEB Erdgas Erdol GmbH, Hannover (Germany))

    1993-09-01

    In north Germany, the majority of Rotliegende gas fields is confined to an approximately 50 km-wide east-west-orientated belt, which is situated on the gently north-dipping flank of the southern Permian basin. Approximately 400 billion m[sup 3] of natural gas has been found in Rotliegende reservoir sandstones with average porosities of depths ranging from 3500 to 5000 m. Rotliegende deposition was controlled by the Autunian paleo-relief, and arid climate and cyclic transgressions of the desert lake. In general, wadis and large dunefields occur in the hinterland, sebkhas with small isolate dunes and shorelines define the coastal area, and a desert lake occurs to the north. The sandstones deposited in large dunefields contain only minor amounts of illite, anhydrite, and calcite and form good reservoirs. In contrast, the small dunes formed in the sebkha areas were affected by fluctuations of the desert lake groundwaters, causing the infiltration of detrital clay and precipitation of gypsum and calcite. These cements were transformed to illite, anhydrite, and calcite-II during later diagenesis, leading to a significant reduction of the reservoir quality. The best reservoirs occur in the shoreline sandstones because porosity and permeability were preserved by early magnesium-chlorite diagenesis. Since facies controls diagenesis and consequently reservoir quality, mapping of facies also indicates the distribution of reservoir and nonreservoir rocks. This information is used to identify play area and to interpret and calibrate three-dimensional seismic data.

  3. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Salt Cavern Storage Reservoir

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Configuration Salt Cavern Storage Reservoir Configuration About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Salt Cavern Underground Natural Gas Storage Reservoir Configuration Salt Cavern Underground Natural Gas Storage Reservoir Configuration Source: PB Energy Storage Services Inc.

  4. Chemistry, Reservoir, and Integrated Models | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chemistry, Reservoir, and Integrated Models Chemistry, Reservoir, and Integrated Models Below are the project presentations and respective peer review results for Chemistry, Reservoir and Integrated Models. Development and Validation of an Advanced Stimulation Prediction Model for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), Marte Gutierrez and Masami Nakagawa, Colorado School of Mines Development of Advanced Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) Modeling Capabilities for Enhanced Geothermal

  5. 5641_FrozenReservoirs | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska Last Reviewed 3/27/2013 DE-FC26-08NT0005641 Goal The goal of this project is to develop a robust reservoir model to test possible oil recovery methods that do not use steam or a liquid capable of freezing for the Umiat and similar frozen reservoirs. The results will provide important information concerning production methods for this and similar frozen reservoirs

  6. THE 5 GHz ARECIBO SEARCH FOR RADIO FLARES FROM ULTRACOOL DWARFS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Route, Matthew; Wolszczan, Alexander E-mail: alex@astro.psu.edu

    2013-08-10

    We present the results of a 4.75 GHz survey of 33 brown dwarfs and one young exoplanetary system for flaring radio emission, conducted with the 305 m Arecibo radio telescope. The goal of this program was to detect and characterize the magnetic fields of objects cooler than spectral type L3.5, the coolest brown dwarf detected prior to our survey. We have also attempted to detect flaring radio emission from the HR 8799 planetary system, guided by theoretical work indicating that hot, massive exoplanets may have strong magnetic fields capable of generating radio emission at GHz frequencies. We have detected and confirmed radio flares from the T6.5 dwarf 2MASS J10475385+2124234. This detection dramatically extends the temperature range over which brown dwarfs appear to be at least sporadic radio-emitters, from 1900 K (L3.5) down to 900 K (T6.5). It also demonstrates that the utility of radio detection as a unique tool to study the magnetic fields of substellar objects extends to the coolest dwarfs, and, plausibly to hot, massive exoplanets. We have also identified a single, 3.6{sigma} flare from the L1 dwarf, 2MASS J1439284+192915. This detection is tentative and requires confirmation by additional monitoring observations.

  7. NO FLARES FROM GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOW BLAST WAVES ENCOUNTERING SUDDEN CIRCUMBURST DENSITY CHANGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gat, Ilana; Van Eerten, Hendrik; MacFadyen, Andrew [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Physics Department, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2013-08-10

    Afterglows of gamma-ray bursts are observed to produce light curves with the flux following power-law evolution in time. However, recent observations reveal bright flares at times on the order of minutes to days. One proposed explanation for these flares is the interaction of a relativistic blast wave with a circumburst density transition. In this paper, we model this type of interaction computationally in one and two dimensions, using a relativistic hydrodynamics code with adaptive mesh refinement called RAM, and analytically in one dimension. We simulate a blast wave traveling in a stellar wind environment that encounters a sudden change in density, followed by a homogeneous medium, and compute the observed radiation using a synchrotron model. We show that flares are not observable for an encounter with a sudden density increase, such as a wind termination shock, nor for an encounter with a sudden density decrease. Furthermore, by extending our analysis to two dimensions, we are able to resolve the spreading, collimation, and edge effects of the blast wave as it encounters the change in circumburst medium. In all cases considered in this paper, we find that a flare will not be observed for any of the density changes studied.

  8. Alan Farquharson, SVP Reservoir Engineering Economics! Upstream

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    June 16, 2015 Alan Farquharson, SVP - Reservoir Engineering & Economics! Upstream Developments Generate Growing Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Supply! 2 Forward-Looking Statements Certain statements and information in this presentation may constitute "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. The words "anticipate," "believe," "estimate," "expect," "forecast," "plan,"

  9. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.; Dennis, D.M.; Graumann, L.R.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents.

  10. IMPULSIVE ACCELERATION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS. II. RELATION TO SOFT X-RAY FLARES AND FILAMENT ERUPTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bein, B. M.; Berkebile-Stoiser, S.; Veronig, A. M.; Temmer, M.; Vrsnak, B.

    2012-08-10

    Using high time cadence images from the STEREO EUVI, COR1, and COR2 instruments, we derived detailed kinematics of the main acceleration stage for a sample of 95 coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in comparison with associated flares and filament eruptions. We found that CMEs associated with flares reveal on average significantly higher peak accelerations and lower acceleration phase durations, initiation heights, and heights, at which they reach their peak velocities and peak accelerations. This means that CMEs that are associated with flares are characterized by higher and more impulsive accelerations and originate from lower in the corona where the magnetic field is stronger. For CMEs that are associated with filament eruptions we found only for the CME peak acceleration significantly lower values than for events that were not associated with filament eruptions. The flare rise time was found to be positively correlated with the CME acceleration duration and negatively correlated with the CME peak acceleration. For the majority of the events the CME acceleration starts before the flare onset (for 75% of the events) and the CME acceleration ends after the soft X-ray (SXR) peak time (for 77% of the events). In {approx}60% of the events, the time difference between the peak time of the flare SXR flux derivative and the peak time of the CME acceleration is smaller than {+-}5 minutes, which hints at a feedback relationship between the CME acceleration and the energy release in the associated flare due to magnetic reconnection.

  11. SOLAR FLARE PREDICTION USING SDO/HMI VECTOR MAGNETIC FIELD DATA WITH A MACHINE-LEARNING ALGORITHM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bobra, M. G.; Couvidat, S.

    2015-01-10

    We attempt to forecast M- and X-class solar flares using a machine-learning algorithm, called support vector machine (SVM), and four years of data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager, the first instrument to continuously map the full-disk photospheric vector magnetic field from space. Most flare forecasting efforts described in the literature use either line-of-sight magnetograms or a relatively small number of ground-based vector magnetograms. This is the first time a large data set of vector magnetograms has been used to forecast solar flares. We build a catalog of flaring and non-flaring active regions sampled from a database of 2071 active regions, comprised of 1.5 million active region patches of vector magnetic field data, and characterize each active region by 25 parameters. We then train and test the machine-learning algorithm and we estimate its performances using forecast verification metrics with an emphasis on the true skill statistic (TSS). We obtain relatively high TSS scores and overall predictive abilities. We surmise that this is partly due to fine-tuning the SVM for this purpose and also to an advantageous set of features that can only be calculated from vector magnetic field data. We also apply a feature selection algorithm to determine which of our 25 features are useful for discriminating between flaring and non-flaring active regions and conclude that only a handful are needed for good predictive abilities.

  12. ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER FLOODING AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE BRIDGEPORT AND CYPRESS RESERVOIRS OF THE LAWRENCE FIELD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Ron Damm; Bev Seyler

    2003-04-01

    Feasibility of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood for the Lawrence Field in Lawrence County, Illinois is being studied. Two injected formulations are being designed; one for the Bridgeport A and Bridgeport B reservoirs and one for Cypress and Paint Creek reservoirs. Fluid-fluid and coreflood evaluations have developed a chemical solution that produces incremental oil in the laboratory from the Cypress and Paint Creek reservoirs. A chemical formulation for the Bridgeport A and Bridgeport B reservoirs is being developed. A reservoir characterization study is being done on the Bridgeport A, B, & D sandstones, and on the Cypress sandstone. The study covers the pilot flood area and the Lawrence Field.

  13. ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER FLOODING AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE BRIDGEPORT AND CYPRESS RESERVOIRS OF THE LAWRENCE FIELD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Ron Damm; Bev Seyler

    2003-03-01

    Feasibility of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood for the Lawrence Field in Lawrence County, Illinois is being studied. Two injected formulations are being designed; one for the Bridgeport A and Bridgeport B reservoirs and one for Cypress and Paint Creek reservoirs. Fluid-fluid and coreflood evaluations have developed a chemical solution that produces incremental oil in the laboratory from the Cypress and Paint Creek reservoirs. A chemical formulation for the Bridgeport A and Bridgeport B reservoirs is being developed. A reservoir characterization study is being done on the Bridgeport A, B, & D sandstones, and on the Cypress sandstone. The study covers the pilot flood area and the Lawrence Field.

  14. THE MECHANISMS FOR THE ONSET AND EXPLOSIVE ERUPTION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AND ERUPTIVE FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpen, J. T.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.

    2012-11-20

    We have investigated the onset and acceleration of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and eruptive flares. To isolate the eruption physics, our study uses the breakout model, which is insensitive to the energy buildup process leading to the eruption. We performed 2.5D simulations with adaptive mesh refinement that achieved the highest overall spatial resolution to date in a CME/eruptive flare simulation. The ultra-high resolution allows us to separate clearly the timing of the various phases of the eruption. Using new computational tools, we have determined the number and evolution of all X- and O-type nulls in the system, thereby tracking both the progress and the products of reconnection throughout the computational domain. Our results show definitively that CME onset is due to the start of fast reconnection at the breakout current sheet. Once this reconnection begins, eruption is inevitable; if this is the only reconnection in the system, however, the eruption will be slow. The explosive CME acceleration is triggered by fast reconnection at the flare current sheet. Our results indicate that the explosive eruption is caused by a resistive instability, not an ideal process. Moreover, both breakout and flare reconnections begin first as a form of weak tearing characterized by slowly evolving plasmoids, but eventually transition to a fast form with well-defined Alfvenic reconnection jets and rapid flux transfer. This transition to fast reconnection is required for both CME onset and explosive acceleration. We discuss the key implications of our results for CME/flare observations and for theories of magnetic reconnection.

  15. IMPULSIVE PHASE CORONAL HARD X-RAY SOURCES IN AN X3.9 CLASS SOLAR FLARE

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect IMPULSIVE PHASE CORONAL HARD X-RAY SOURCES IN AN X3.9 CLASS SOLAR FLARE Citation Details In-Document Search Title: IMPULSIVE PHASE CORONAL HARD X-RAY SOURCES IN AN X3.9 CLASS SOLAR FLARE We present the analysis of a pair of unusually energetic coronal hard X-ray (HXR) sources detected by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager during the impulsive phase of an X3.9 class solar flare on 2003 November 3, which simultaneously shows two intense

  16. Quantification of Libby Reservoir Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chisholm, Ian

    1985-01-01

    The goal was to quantify seasonal water levels needed to maintain or enhance the reservoir fishery in Libby. This report summarizes data collected from July 1984 through July 1985, and, where appropriate, presents data collected since 1983. The Canada, Rexford, and Tenmile areas of the reservoir are differentially affected by drawdown. Relative changes in water volume and surface area are greatest in the Canada area and smallest in the Tenmile area. Reservoir morphology and hydraulics probably play a major role in fish distribution through their influence on water temperature. Greatest areas of habitat with optimum water temperature for Salmo spp. and kokanee occurred during the spring and fall months. Dissolved oxygen, pH and conductivity levels were not limiting during any sampling period. Habitat enhancement work was largely unsuccessful. Littoral zone vegetation plantings did not survive well, primarily the result of extreme water level fluctuations. Relative abundances of fish species varied seasonally within and between the three areas. Water temperature is thought to be the major influence in fish distribution patterns. Other factors, such as food availability and turbidity, may mitigate its influence. Sampling since 1975 illustrates a continued increase in kokanee numbers and a dramatic decline in redside shiners. Salmo spp., bull trout, and burbot abundances are relatively low while peamouth and coarsescale sucker numbers remain high. A thermal dynamics model and a trophic level components model will be used to quantify the impact of reservoir operation on the reservoir habitat, primary production, secondary production and fish populations. Particulate carbon will be used to track energy flow through trophic levels. A growth-driven population dynamics simulation model that will estimate the impacts of reservoir operation on fish population dynamics is also being considered.

  17. Seventeenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1992-01-31

    PREFACE The Seventeenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 29-31, 1992. There were one hundred sixteen registered participants which equaled the attendance last year. Participants were from seven foreign countries: Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Mexico and New Zealand. Performance of many geothermal fields outside the United States was described in the papers. The Workshop Banquet Speaker was Dr. Raffaele Cataldi. Dr. Cataldi gave a talk on the highlights of his geothermal career. The Stanford Geothermal Program Reservoir Engineering Award for Excellence in Development of Geothermal Energy was awarded to Dr. Cataldi. Dr. Frank Miller presented the award at the banquet. Thirty-eight papers were presented at the Workshop with two papers submitted for publication only. Dr. Roland Horne opened the meeting and the key note speaker was J.E. ''Ted'' Mock who discussed the DOE Geothermal R. & D. Program. The talk focused on aiding long-term, cost effective private resource development. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: geochemistry, hot dry rock, injection, geysers, modeling, and reservoir mechanics. Session chairmen were major contributors to the program and we thank: Sabodh Garg., Jim Lovekin, Jim Combs, Ben Barker, Marcel Lippmann, Glenn Horton, Steve Enedy, and John Counsil. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes for publication. We owe a great deal of thanks to our students who operate audiovisual equipment and to Francois Groff who coordinated the meeting arrangements for the Workshop. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. Roland N. Horne Frank G. Miller Paul Kruger William E. Brigham Jean W. Cook -vii

  18. Reservoir and injection technology: Geothermal reservoir engineering research at Stanford: Third annual report for the period October 1, 1986 through September 30, 1987: (Final report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.

    1988-02-01

    This paper discusses different aspects of geothermal reservoir engineering. General topics covered are: reinjection technology, reservoir technology, and heat extraction. (LSP)

  19. Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program: technology transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    A literature search on reservoir and/or well stimulation techniques suitable for application in geothermal fields is presented. The literature on stimulation techniques in oil and gas field applications was also searched and evaluated as to its relevancy to geothermal operations. The equivalent low-temperature work documented in the open literature is cited, and an attempt is made to evaluate the relevance of this information as far as high-temperature stimulation work is concerned. Clays play an important role in any stimulation work. Therefore, special emphasis has been placed on clay behavior anticipated in geothermal operations. (MHR)

  20. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.

  1. Analysis of Geothermal Reservoir Stimulation using Geomechanics-Based

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stochastic Analysis of Injection-Induced Seismicity | Department of Energy Geothermal Reservoir Stimulation using Geomechanics-Based Stochastic Analysis of Injection-Induced Seismicity Analysis of Geothermal Reservoir Stimulation using Geomechanics-Based Stochastic Analysis of Injection-Induced Seismicity Analysis of Geothermal Reservoir Stimulation using Geomechanics-Based Stochastic Analysis of Injection-Induced Seismicity presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver,

  2. Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal Reservoirs;

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report | Department of Energy Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal Reservoirs; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal Reservoirs; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report DOE 2010 Geothermal Technologies Program Peer Review PDF icon reservoir_028_ghassmi.pdf More Documents & Publications Tracer Methods for Characterizing

  3. Sustainability of Shear-Induced Permeability for EGS Reservoirs...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Sustainability of Shear-Induced Permeability for EGS Reservoirs A Laboratory Study ... PDF icon kneafseyfracturesustainabilitypeer2013.pdf More Documents & Publications The ...

  4. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Blackfoot Reservoir Area ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    References Amy Hutsinpiller, W. T. Parry (1985) Geochemistry And Geothermometry Of Spring Water From The Blackfoot Reservoir Region, Southeastern Idaho Additional References...

  5. Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title...

  6. Hydraulics and Well Testing of Engineered Geothermal Reservoirs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with downhole pumps from the reservoir than is injected. Authors Hugh Murphy, Donald W Brown, Reinhard Jung, Isao Matsunaga and Roger Parker Published Journal Geothermics, 1999...

  7. Flow and Thermal Behavior of an EGS Reservoir - Geothermal Code...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Flow and Thermal Behavior of an EGS Reservoir - Geothermal Code Comparison Study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flow and Thermal Behavior of an EGS...

  8. Deep Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures in the Eastern Snake River...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ESRP. Masking much of the deep thermal potential of the ... apply the RTEst model to water compositions measured from ... on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering,Stanford,02242014,02...

  9. Flow and Thermal Behavior of an EGS Reservoir - Geothermal Code...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Flow and Thermal Behavior of an EGS Reservoir - Geothermal Code Comparison Study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flow and Thermal Behavior of an EGS ...

  10. Pressure Testing of a High Temperature Naturally Fractured Reservoir...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Pressure Testing of a High Temperature Naturally Fractured Reservoir Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pressure Testing of a High Temperature Naturally ...

  11. Variations in dissolved gas compositions of reservoir fluids...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    distinct regions of single-phase (liquid) reservoir are present and possess distinctive gas and liquid compositions. Relationships in soluble and insoluble gases preclude...

  12. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic...

  13. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic...

  14. Use Of Electrical Surveys For Geothermal Reservoir Characterization...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    geothermal reservoir characteristics. Authors Sabodh K. Garg, John W. Pritchett, Philip E. Wannamaker and Jim Combs Published GRC, 2007 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI...

  15. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Aquifer Storage Reservoir...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Aquifer Underground Natural Gas Storage Reservoir Configuration Aquifer Underground Natural Gas Well

  16. Tectonic setting of the Coso geothermal reservoir | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    eastern California Optimum development of this reservoir requires an understanding of the fracture hydrology of the Coso Mountains crystalline terrain and its hydrologic connection...

  17. Reservoir-Scale Fracture Permeability in the Dixie Valley, Nevada...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reservoir-Scale Fracture Permeability in the Dixie Valley, Nevada, Geothermal Field Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper:...

  18. Methodologies for Reservoir Characterization Using Fluid Inclusion Gas Chemistry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Methodologies for Reservoir Characterization Using Fluid Inclusion Gas Chemistry presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  19. ,"Texas--State Offshore Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas--State Offshore Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)",1,"Annual",2...

  20. A Simple, Fast Method of Estimating Fractured Reservoir Geometry...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fractured Reservoir Geometry from Tracer Tests Abstract A simple method of estimating flow geometry and pore geometry from conservative tracer tests in single phase geothermal...

  1. Geothermal reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    applied to thermal systems of Yellowstone Park, Wyoming, Long Valley, California, and Raft River, Idaho to estimate deep reservoir temperatures of 360, 240, and 142C,...

  2. ,"North Dakota Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","North Dakota Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release...

  3. ,"West Virginia Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","West Virginia Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release...

  4. SUDDEN PHOTOSPHERIC MOTION AND SUNSPOT ROTATION ASSOCIATED WITH THE X2.2 FLARE ON 2011 FEBRUARY 15

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Shuo; Liu, Chang; Deng, Na; Wang, Haimin

    2014-02-20

    The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager provides 45s cadence intensity images and 720s cadence vector magnetograms. These unprecedented high-cadence and high-resolution data give us a unique opportunity to study the change of photospheric flows and sunspot rotations associated with flares. By using the differential affine velocity estimator method and the Fourier local correlation tracking method separately, we calculate velocity and vorticity of photospheric flows in the flaring NOAA AR 11158, and investigate their temporal evolution around the X2.2 flare on 2011 February 15. It is found that the shear flow around the flaring magnetic polarity inversion line exhibits a sudden decrease, and both of the two main sunspots undergo a sudden change in rotational motion during the impulsive phase of the flare. These results are discussed in the context of the Lorentz-force change that was proposed by Hudson etal. and Fisher etal. This mechanism can explain the connections between the rapid and irreversible photospheric vector magnetic field change and the observed short-term motions associated with the flare. In particular, the torque provided by the horizontal Lorentz force change agrees with what is required for the measured angular acceleration.

  5. Twentieth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-26

    PREFACE The Twentieth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, dedicated to the memory of Professor Hank Ramey, was held at Stanford University on January 24-26, 1995. There were ninety-five registered participants. Participants came from six foreign countries: Japan, Mexico, England, Italy, New Zealand and Iceland. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors to the campus. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Thirty-two papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into eleven sessions concerning: field development, modeling, well tesubore, injection, geoscience, geochemistry and field operations. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bob Fournier, Mark Walters, John Counsil, Marcelo Lippmann, Keshav Goyal, Joel Renner and Mike Shook. In addition to the technical sessions, a panel discussion was held on ''What have we learned in 20 years?'' Panel speakers included Patrick Muffler, George Frye, Alfred Truesdell and John Pritchett. The subject was further discussed by Subir Sanyal, who gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager

  6. INNOVATIVE MIOR PROCESS UTILIZING INDIGENOUS RESERVOIR CONSTITUENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.O. Hitzman; A.K. Stepp; D.M. Dennis; L.R. Graumann

    2003-09-01

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions and technologies for improving oil production. The goal was to identify and utilize indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. Experimental laboratory work in model sandpack cores was conducted using microbial cultures isolated from produced water samples. Comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents were conducted in sand packs with natural field waters using cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs. Increased oil recovery in multiple model sandpack systems was achieved and the technology and results were verified by successful field studies. Direct application of the research results has lead to the development of a feasible, practical, successful, and cost-effective technology which increases oil recovery. This technology is now being commercialized and applied in numerous field projects to increase oil recovery. Two field applications of the developed technology reported production increases of 21% and 24% in oil recovery.

  7. Sixth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.

    1980-12-18

    INTRODUCTION TO THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE SIXTH GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR ENGINEERING WORKSHOP, STANFORD GEOTHERMAL PROGRAM Henry J. Ramey, Jr., and Paul Kruger Co-Principal Investigators Ian G. Donaldson Program Manager Stanford Geothermal Program The Sixth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering convened at Stanford University on December 16, 1980. As with previous Workshops the attendance was around 100 with a significant participation from countries other than the United States (18 attendees from 6 countries). In addition, there were a number of papers from foreign contributors not able to attend. Because of the success of all the earlier workshops there was only one format change, a new scheduling of Tuesday to Thursday rather than the earlier Wednesday through Friday. This change was in general considered for the better and will be retained for the Seventh Workshop. Papers were presented on two and a half of the three days, the panel session, this year on the numerical modeling intercomparison study sponsored by the Department of Energy, being held on the second afternoon. This panel discussion is described in a separate Stanford Geothermal Program Report (SGP-TR42). This year there was a shift in subject of the papers. There was a reduction in the number of papers offered on pressure transients and well testing and an introduction of several new subjects. After overviews by Bob Gray of the Department of Energy and Jack Howard of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, we had papers on field development, geopressured systems, production engineering, well testing, modeling, reservoir physics, reservoir chemistry, and risk analysis. A total of 51 papers were contributed and are printed in these Proceedings. It was, however, necessary to restrict the presentations and not all papers printed were presented. Although the content of the Workshop has changed over the years, the format to date has proved to be satisfactory. The objectives of the Workshop, the bringing together of researchers, engineers and managers involved in geothermal reservoir study and development and the provision of a forum for the prompt and open reporting of progress and for the exchange of ideas, continue to be met . Active discussion by the majority of the participants is apparent both in and outside the workshop arena. The Workshop Proceedings now contain some of the most highly cited geothermal literature. Unfortunately, the popularity of the Workshop for the presentation and exchange of ideas does have some less welcome side effects. The major one is the developing necessity for a limitation of the number of papers that are actually presented. We will continue to include all offered papers in the Summaries and Proceedings. As in the recent past, this sixth Workshop was supported by a grant from the Department of Energy. This grant is now made directly to Stanford as part of the support for the Stanford Geothermal Program (Contract No. DE-AT03-80SF11459). We are certain that all participants join us in our appreciation of this continuing support. Thanks are also due to all those individuals who helped in so many ways: The members of the program committee who had to work so hard to keep the program to a manageable size - George Frye (Aminoil USA), Paul G. Atkinson (Union Oil Company). Michael L. Sorey (U.S.G.S.), Frank G. Miller (Stanford Geothermal Program), and Roland N. Horne (Stanford Geothermal Program). The session chairmen who contributed so much to the organization and operation of the technical sessions - George Frye (Aminoil USA), Phillip H. Messer (Union Oil Company), Leland L. Mink (Department of Energy), Manuel Nathenson (U.S.G.S.), Gunnar Bodvarsson (Oregon State University), Mohindar S. Gulati (Union Oil Company), George F. Pinder (Princeton University), Paul A. Witherspoon (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory), Frank G. Miller (Stanford Geothermal Program) and Michael J. O'Sullivan (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory). The many people who assisted behind the scenes, making sure that everything was prepared and organized - in particular we would like to t

  8. Potosi Reservoir Modeling; History and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    As a part of a larger project co-funded by the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) to evaluate the potential of formations within the Cambro-Ordovician strata above the Mt. Simon as potential targets for carbon sequestration in the Illinois and Michigan Basins, the Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI) requested Schlumberger to evaluate the potential injectivity and carbon dioxide (CO₂) plume size of the Cambrian Potosi Formation. The evaluation of this formation was accomplished using wireline data, core data, pressure data, and seismic data from two projects: the US DOE-funded Illinois Basin–Decatur Project being conducted by the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium in Macon County, Illinois, as well as data from the Illinois – Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration (IL-ICCS) project funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. In 2010, technical performance evaluations on the Cambrian Potosi Formation were performed through reservoir modeling. The data included formation tops from mud logs, well logs from the Verification Well 1 (VW1) and the Injection Well (CCS1), structural and stratigraphic formation from three dimensional (3D) seismic data, and field data from several waste water injection wells for the Potosi Formation. The intention was for two million tonnes per annum (MTPA) of CO₂ to be injected for 20 years into the Potosi Formation. In 2013, updated reservoir models for the Cambrian Potosi Formation were evaluated. The data included formation tops from mud logs, well logs from the CCS1, VW1, and Verification Well 2 (VW2) wells, structural and stratigraphic formation from a larger 3D seismic survey, and field data from several waste water injection wells for Potosi Formation. The objective is to simulate the injection of CO₂ at a rate 3.5 million tons per annum (3.2 million tonnes per annum [MTPA]) for 30 years 106 million tons (96 MT total) into the Potosi Formation. The Potosi geomodeling efforts have evolved from using data from a single well in 2010 to the inclusion of data from three wells in 2013 which largely leverage the porosity and permeability logs plus knowledge of lost circulation zones. The first Potosi model (Potosi Geobody Model 2010) attempted to use the available seismic inversion data to inform the geomodel and predict vugular zones in advance of drilling VW1. Lost circulation zones in VW1 came in as the geologists predicted. The model was not implemented in subsequent simulation work. To date, reservoir models used for flow simulation work have relied predominately on Gaussian distributed properties (porosity and permeability) and have employed a single injection well. Potosi Model 2013b incorporated the new VW2 logs, and exhibited an extra level of sophistication by delineating the vugular intervals. This method added further realism that likely represents the best reservoir approximation to date. Where the 2010 reservoir models were 10 by 10 mi (16 by 16 km) in area, the 2013 models were expanded in size to 30 by 30 mi (48 by 48 km). The latest reservoir simulations show that a minimum of four injectors might be required to meet target injection rates. Still, there is data that requires further scrutiny and modeling methodologies that require testing for the Potosi Formation. This work is currently ongoing, and the next phase of the reservoir modeling intends to implement valuable data like porosity derived from seismic inversion, seismically derived geobodies, or a combination of both to further define vugular zones and the porosity distribution within the Potosi Formation. Understanding the dual porosity, dual permeability character of the Potosi remains the greatest challenge in representing this formation. Further analysis of the FMI* fullbore formation microimager data may aid in assessing this uncertainty. The Potosi Formation is indeed an interesting formation, and recommendations to further characterize it are included in the following list: - Data acquisition to identify the vugs permeability, distribution, and interconnectivity could be considered to perform a more rigorous evaluation of the Potosi Formation injectivity and capacity. This could be achieved by performing an injection test on a vugular interval to determine the vugs permeability, and an interference test between wells to evaluate the local vugs extent and interconnectivity. - A thorough study of the available FMI data may reveal specifics on estimating the vug to matrix ratio. This estimate could be used to further condition the porosity distribution. Porosity logs alone might underestimate the formation’s porosity associated with vugs. Porosity mapping derived from the seismic inversion could also be used in the succeeding task to characterize the lateral porosity distribution within the reservoir. This could involve the geobody methodology previously attempted in 2010. With or without seismic inversion porosity mapping, it is worth exploring whether increased lateral heterogeneity plays a significant role in Potosi injectivity. Investigations on vugular, dolomitic outcrops suggest that there may be significantly greater lateral heterogeneity than what has been modeled here. - The FMI data also reveals the presence of and helps describe open fractures. The presence of fractures will further enhance the formation’s permeability. The task of leveraging this data in the geomodeling effort still remains. Under the best of circumstances, this data describing open fractures may be combined with seismic attributes to delineate fracture corridors. Fracture modeling would certainly add another layer of sophistication to the model. Its contribution and applicability remain to be explored. - Facies modeling within the Potosi has yet to be thoroughly addressed. The carbonates during the time of deposition are believed to be regionally extensive. However, it may be worth delineating the reservoir with other regional wells or modern day analogues to understand the extent of the Potosi. More specifically, the model could incorporate lateral changes or trends if deemed necessary to represent facies transition. - Currently there is no fracture gradient data available for the Potosi in the Decatur project area. The acquisition of the fracture pressure data could be considered to determine an appropriate maximum allowable bottomhole injection pressure. This would allow the evaluation of injectivity and the required number of wells in a more precise manner. - Special core analysis (SCAL) to determine the relative permeability and capillary pressure of the vugs and matrix could be considered to have a better estimation of the reservoir injectivity and plume extent. - Formation water sampling and analysis could be considered for the Potosi to estimate the water salinity and properties. A vertical flow performance evaluation could be considered for the succeeding task to determine the appropriate tubing size, the required injection tubing head pressure, and to investigate whether the corresponding well injection rate falls within the tubing erosional velocity limit. - A simulation using several injectors could also be considered to determine the required number of wells to achieve the injection target while taking into account the pressure interference.

  9. Reservoir technology - geothermal reservoir engineering research at Stanford. Fifth annual report, October 1, 1984-September 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.

    1985-09-01

    The objective is to carry out research on geothermal reservoir engineering techniques useful to the geothermal industry. A parallel objective is the training of geothermal engineers and scientists. The research is focused toward accelerated development of hydrothermal resources through the evaluation of fluid reserves, and the forecasting of field behavior with time. Injection technology is a research area receiving special attention. The program is divided into reservoir definition research, modeling of heat extraction from fractured reservoirs, application and testing of new and proven reservoir engineering technology, and technology transfer. (ACR)

  10. MODELING OF GYROSYNCHROTRON RADIO EMISSION PULSATIONS PRODUCED BY MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC LOOP OSCILLATIONS IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mossessian, George; Fleishman, Gregory D. [Center For Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)

    2012-04-01

    A quantitative study of the observable radio signatures of the sausage, kink, and torsional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillation modes in flaring coronal loops is performed. Considering first non-zero order effect of these various MHD oscillation modes on the radio source parameters such as magnetic field, line of sight, plasma density and temperature, electron distribution function, and the source dimensions, we compute time-dependent radio emission (spectra and light curves). The radio light curves (of both flux density and degree of polarization) at all considered radio frequencies are then quantified in both time domain (via computation of the full modulation amplitude as a function of frequency) and in Fourier domain (oscillation spectra, phases, and partial modulation amplitude) to form the signatures specific to a particular oscillation mode and/or source parameter regime. We found that the parameter regime and the involved MHD mode can indeed be distinguished using the quantitative measures derived in the modeling. We apply the developed approach to analyze radio burst recorded by Owens Valley Solar Array and report possible detection of the sausage mode oscillation in one (partly occulted) flare and kink or torsional oscillations in another flare.

  11. Energetic electron propagation in the decay phase of non-thermal flare emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jing; Yan, Yihua; Tsap, Yuri T.

    2014-06-01

    On the basis of the trap-plus-precipitation model, the peculiarities of non-thermal emission in the decay phase of solar flares have been considered. The calculation formulas for the escape rate of trapped electrons into the loss cone in terms of time profiles of hard X-ray (HXR) and microwave (MW) emission have been obtained. It has been found that the evolution of the spectral indices of non-thermal emission depend on the regimes of the pitch angle diffusion of trapped particles into the loss cone. The properties of non-thermal electrons related to the HXR and MW emission of the solar flare on 2004 November 3 are studied with Nobeyama Radioheliograph, Nobeyama Radio Polarimeters, RHESSI, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite observations. The spectral indices of non-thermal electrons related to MW and HXR emission remained constant or decreased, while the MW escape rate as distinguished from that of the HXRs increased. This may be associated with different diffusion regimes of trapped electrons into the loss cone. New arguments in favor of an important role of the superstrong diffusion for high-energy electrons in flare coronal loops have been obtained.

  12. An Experiment to Locate the Site of TeV Flaring in M87

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, D.E.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Massaro, F.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Cheung, C.C.; /Natl. Acad. Sci. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Horns, D.; Raue, M.; /Hamburg U.; Stawarz, L.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Wagner, S.; /Heidelberg Observ.; Colin, P.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Mazin, D.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Wagner, R.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Beilicke, M.; /McDonnell Ctr. Space Sci.; LeBohec, S.; Hui, M.; /Utah U.; Mukherjee, R.; /Barnard Coll.

    2012-05-18

    We describe a Chandra X-ray target-of-opportunity project designed to isolate the site of TeV flaring in the radio galaxy M87. To date, we have triggered the Chandra observations only once (2010 April) and by the time of the first of our nine observations, the TeV flare had ended. However, we found that the X-ray intensity of the unresolved nucleus was at an elevated level for our first observation. Of the more than 60 Chandra observations we have made of the M87 jet covering nine years, the nucleus was measured at a comparably high level only three times. Two of these occasions can be associated with TeV flaring, and at the time of the third event, there were no TeV monitoring activities. From the rapidity of the intensity drop of the nucleus, we infer that the size of the emitting region is of order a few light days x the unknown beaming factor; comparable to the same sort of estimate for the TeV emitting region. We also find evidence of spectral evolution in the X-ray band which seems consistent with radiative losses affecting the non-thermal population of the emitting electrons within the unresolved nucleus.

  13. MAGNETAR GIANT FLARES AND THEIR PRECURSORS-FLUX ROPE ERUPTIONS WITH CURRENT SHEETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu Cong

    2013-07-10

    We propose a catastrophic magnetospheric model for magnetar precursors and their successive giant flares. Axisymmetric models of the magnetosphere, which contain both a helically twisted flux rope and a current sheet, are established based on force-free field configurations. In this model, the helically twisted flux rope would lose its equilibrium and erupt abruptly in response to the slow and quasi-static variations at the ultra-strongly magnetized neutron star's surface. In a previous model without current sheets, only one critical point exists in the flux rope equilibrium curve. New features show up in the equilibrium curves for the flux rope when current sheets appear in the magnetosphere. The causal connection between the precursor and the giant flare, as well as the temporary re-entry of the quiescent state between the precursor and the giant flare, can be naturally explained. Magnetic energy would be released during the catastrophic state transitions. The detailed energetics of the model are also discussed. The current sheet created by the catastrophic loss of equilibrium of the flux rope provides an ideal place for magnetic reconnection. We point out the importance of magnetic reconnection for further enhancement of the energy release during eruptions.

  14. A simple model of chromospheric evaporation and condensation driven conductively in a solar flare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longcope, D. W.

    2014-11-01

    Magnetic energy released in the corona by solar flares reaches the chromosphere where it drives characteristic upflows and downflows known as evaporation and condensation. These flows are studied here for the case where energy is transported to the chromosphere by thermal conduction. An analytic model is used to develop relations by which the density and velocity of each flow can be predicted from coronal parameters including the flare's energy flux F. These relations are explored and refined using a series of numerical investigations in which the transition region (TR) is represented by a simplified density jump. The maximum evaporation velocity, for example, is well approximated by v{sub e} ? 0.38(F/?{sub co,} {sub 0}){sup 1/3}, where ?{sub co,} {sub 0} is the mass density of the pre-flare corona. This and the other relations are found to fit simulations using more realistic models of the TR both performed in this work, and taken from a variety of previously published investigations. These relations offer a novel and efficient means of simulating coronal reconnection without neglecting entirely the effects of evaporation.

  15. Ninth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Gudmundsson, J.S.

    1983-12-15

    The attendance at the Workshop was similar to last year's with 123 registered participants of which 22 represented 8 foreign countries. A record number of technical papers (about 60) were submitted for presentation at the Workshop. The Program Committee, therefore, decided to have several parallel sessions to accommodate most of the papers. This format proved unpopular and will not be repeated. Many of the participants felt that the Workshop lost some of its unique qualities by having parallel sessions. The Workshop has always been held near the middle of December during examination week at Stanford. This timing was reviewed in an open discussion at the Workshop. The Program Committee subsequently decided to move the Workshop to January. The Tenth Workshop will be held on January 22-24, 1985. The theme of the Workshop this year was ''field developments worldwide''. The Program Committee addressed this theme by encouraging participants to submit field development papers, and by inviting several international authorities to give presentations at the Workshop. Field developments in at least twelve countries were reported: China, El Salvador, France, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, New Zealand, the Philippines, and the United States. There were 58 technical presentations at the Workshop, of which 4 were not made available for publication. Several authors submitted papers not presented at the Workshop. However, these are included in the 60 papers of these Proceedings. The introductory address was given by Ron Toms of the U.S. Department of Energy, and the banquet speaker was A1 Cooper of Chevron Resources Company. An important contribution was made to the Workshop by the chairmen of the technical sessions. Other than Stanford Geothermal Program faculty members, they included: Don White (Field Developments), Bill D'Olier (Hydrothermal Systems), Herman Dykstra (Well Testing), Karsten Pruess (Well Testing), John Counsil (Reservoir Chemistry), Malcolm Mossman (Reservoir Chemistry), Greg Raasch (Production), Manny Nathenson (Injection), Susan Petty (Injection), Subir Sanyal (Simulation), Marty Molloy (Petrothermal), and Allen Moench (Reservoir Physics). The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff and students. We would like to thank Jean Cook, Joanne Hartford, Terri Ramey, Amy Osugi, and Marilyn King for their valued help with the Workshop arrangements and the Proceedings. We also owe thanks to the program students who arranged and operated the audio-visual equipment. The Ninth Workshop was supported by the Geothermal and Hydropower Technologies Division of the U . S . Department of Energy through contract DE-AT03-80SF11459. We deeply appreciate this continued support. H. J. Ramey, Jr., R. N. Horne, P. Kruger, W. E. Brigham, F. G. Miller, J. S . Gudmundsson -vii

  16. Aligned vertical fractures, HTI reservoir symmetry, and Thomsenseismic anisotropy parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berryman, James G.

    2007-06-27

    The Sayers and Kachanov (1991) crack-influence parametersare shown to be directly related to Thomsen (1986) weak-anisotropyseismic parameters for fractured reservoirs when the crack density issmall enough. These results are then applied to seismic wave propagationin reservoirs having HTI symmetry due to aligned vertical fractures. Theapproach suggests a method of inverting for fracture density from wavespeed data.

  17. ON THE FLARE-INDUCED SEISMICITY IN THE ACTIVE REGION NOAA 10930 AND RELATED ENHANCEMENT OF GLOBAL WAVES IN THE SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Brajesh; Venkatakrishnan, P.; Mathur, Savita; Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar; Garcia, R. A. E-mail: pvk@prl.res.in E-mail: tiwari@mps.mpg.de

    2011-12-10

    A major flare (of class X3.4) occurred on 2006 December 13 in the active region NOAA 10930. This flare event has remained interesting to solar researchers for studies related to particle acceleration during the flare process and the reconfiguration of magnetic fields as well as fine-scale features in the active region. The energy released during flares is also known to induce acoustic oscillations in the Sun. Here, we analyze the line-of-sight velocity patterns in this active region during the X3.4 flare using the Dopplergrams obtained by the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) instrument. We have also analyzed the disk-integrated velocity observations of the Sun obtained by the Global Oscillation at Low Frequency (GOLF) instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft as well as full-disk collapsed velocity signals from GONG observations during this flare to study any possible connection between the flare-related changes seen in the local and global velocity oscillations in the Sun. We apply wavelet transform to the time series of the localized velocity oscillations as well as the global velocity oscillations in the Sun spanning the flare event. The line-of-sight velocity shows significant enhancement in some localized regions of the penumbra of this active region during the flare. The affected region is seen to be away from the locations of the flare ribbons and the hard X-ray footpoints. The sudden enhancement of this velocity seems to be caused by the Lorentz force driven by the 'magnetic jerk' in the localized penumbral region. Application of wavelet analysis to these flare-induced localized seismic signals shows significant enhancement in the high-frequency domain (5 <{nu} < 8 mHz) and a feeble enhancement in the p-mode oscillations (2 <{nu} < 5 mHz) during the flare. On the other hand, the wavelet analysis of GOLF velocity data and the full-disk collapsed GONG velocity data spanning the flare event indicates significant post-flare enhancements in the high-frequency global velocity oscillations in the Sun, as evident from the wavelet power spectrum and the corresponding scale-average variance. The present observations of the flare-induced seismic signals in the active region in context of the driving force are different as compared to previous reports on such cases. We also find indications of a connection between flare-induced localized seismic signals and the excitation of global high-frequency oscillations in the Sun.

  18. Gypsy Field project in reservoir characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castagna, John P.; Jr., O'Meara, Daniel J.

    2000-01-12

    The overall objective of this project was to use extensive Gypsy Field Laboratory and data as a focus for developing and testing reservoir characterization methods that are targeted at improved recovery of conventional oil. This report describes progress since project report DOE/BC/14970-7 and covers the period June 1997-September 1998 and represents one year of funding originally allocated for the year 1996. During the course of the work previously performed, high resolution geophysical and outcrop data revealed the importance of fractures at the Gypsy site. In addition, personnel changes and alternative funding (OCAST and oil company support of various kinds) allowed the authors to leverage DOE contributions and focus more on geophysical characterization.

  19. PROCEEDINGS SECOND WORKSHOP GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SECOND WORKSHOP GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR ENGINEERING December 1-3,1976 TABLE O F CONTENTS . I Page . - - I n t r o d u c t i o n - H. J . Ramey, Jr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ove r v i ews Geo t he rma F. G. Geot herma Geotherma v. w. R e s e r v o i r Eng R e s e r v o i r Eng R e s e r v o i r Eng M i l l e r . . R o b e r t s . . . n e e r i n g Research - H. J. Ramey, J r . , and . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n e e r i n g i n I n d u s t r y - S. C . Lipman

  20. CALIBRATION OF SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne D. Pennington; Horacio Acevedo; Aaron Green; Joshua Haataja; Shawn Len; Anastasia Minaeva; Deyi Xie

    2002-10-01

    The project, ''Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Calibration,'' is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, including several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on ''Reservoir Geophysics'' for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along ''phantom'' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and we developed a method involving cross-correlation of seismic waveforms to provide a reliable map of the various facies present in the area. The Wamsutter data set led to the use of unconventional attributes including lateral incoherence and horizon-dependent impedance variations to indicate regions of former sand bars and current high pressure, respectively, and to evaluation of various upscaling routines. The Teal South data set has provided a surprising set of results, leading us to develop a pressure-dependent velocity relationship and to conclude that nearby reservoirs are undergoing a pressure drop in response to the production of the main reservoir, implying that oil is being lost through their spill points, never to be produced. Additional results were found using the public-domain Waha and Woresham-Bayer data set, and some tests of technologies were made using 2D seismic lines from Michigan and the western Pacific ocean.

  1. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne D. Pennington

    2002-09-29

    The project, "Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization," is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, inlcuding several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on "Reservoir Geophysics" for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along 'phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and we developed a method involving cross-correlation of seismic waveforms to provide a reliable map of the various facies present in the area. The Wamsutter data set led to the use of unconventional attributes including lateral incoherence and horizon-dependent impedance variations to indicate regions of former sand bars and current high pressure, respectively, and to evaluation of various upscaling routines. The Teal South data set has provided a surprising set of results, leading us to develop a pressure-dependent velocity relationship and to conclude that nearby reservoirs are undergoing a pressure drop in response to the production of the main reservoir, implying that oil is being lost through their spill points, never to be produced. Additional results were found using the public-domain Waha and Woresham-Bayer data set, and some tests of technologies were made using 2D seismic lines from Michigan and the western Pacific ocean.

  2. High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo

    1997-08-01

    This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.

  3. Transient well testing in two-phase geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aydelotte, S.R.

    1980-03-01

    A study of well test analysis techniques in two-phase geothermal reservoirs has been conducted using a three-dimensional, two-phase, wellbore and reservoir simulation model. Well tests from Cerro Prieto and the Hawaiian Geothermal project have been history matched. Using these well tests as a base, the influence of reservoir permeability, porosity, thickness, and heat capacity, along with flow rate and fracturing were studied. Single and two-phase transient well test equations were used to analyze these tests with poor results due to rapidly changing fluid properties and inability to calculate the flowing steam saturation in the reservoir. The injection of cold water into the reservoir does give good data from which formation properties can be calculated.

  4. Chickamauga Reservoir 1992 fisheries monitoring cove rotenone results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerley, B.L.

    1993-06-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is required by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit for Sequoyah Nuclear Plant (SQN) to conduct and report annually a nonradiological operational monitoring program to evaluate potential effects of SQN on Chickamauga Reservoir. This monitoring program was initially designed to identify potential changes in water quality and biological communities in Chickamauga Reservoir resulting from operation of SQU. Chickamauga Reservoir cove rotenone sampling has also been conducted as part of the preoperational monitoring program for Watts Bar Nuclear Plant (WBN) to evaluate the combined effects of operating two nuclear facilities on one reservoir once WBU becomes operational. The purpose of this report is to present results of cove rotenone sampling conducted on Chickamauga Reservoir in 1992.

  5. Opportunities to improve oil productivity in unstructured deltaic reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report contains presentations presented at a technical symposium on oil production. Chapter 1 contains summaries of the presentations given at the Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored symposium and key points of the discussions that followed. Chapter 2 characterizes the light oil resource from fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). An analysis of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and advanced secondary recovery (ASR) potential for fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs based on recovery performance and economic modeling as well as the potential resource loss due to well abandonments is presented. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the general reservoir characteristics and properties within deltaic deposits. It is not exhaustive treatise, rather it is intended to provide some basic information about geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of deltaic reservoirs, and the resulting recovery problems.

  6. Eighteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Horne, R.J.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1993-01-28

    PREFACE The Eighteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 26-28, 1993. There were one hundred and seventeen registered participants which was greater than the attendance last year. Participants were from eight foreign countries: Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, Mexico, New Zealand, the Philippines, Guatemala, and Iceland. Performance of many geothermal fields outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Dean Gary Ernst opened the meeting and welcomed the visitors to the campus. The key note speaker was J.E. ''Ted'' Mock who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. The Stanford Geothermal Program Reservoir Engineering Award for Excellence in Development of Geothermal Energy was awarded to Dr. Mock who also spoke at the banquet. Thirty-nine papers were presented at the Workshop with two papers submitted for publication only. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: field operations, The Geysers, geoscience, hot-dry-rock, injection, modeling, slim hole wells, geochemistry, well test and wellbore. Session chairmen were major contributors to the program and we thank: John Counsil, Kathleen Enedy, Harry Olson, Eduardo Iglesias, Marcelo Lippmann, Paul Atkinson, Jim Lovekin, Marshall Reed, Antonio Correa, and David Faulder. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes for publication. We owe a great deal of thanks to our students who operate audiovisual equipment and to John Hornbrook who coordinated the meeting arrangements for the Workshop. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. Roland N. Horne Frank G. Miller Paul Kruger William E. Brigham Jean W. Cook

  7. Photosphere emission in the X-ray flares of swift gamma-ray bursts and implications for the fireball properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Fang-Kun; Liang, En-Wei; Xi, Shao-Qiang; Lu, Rui-Jing; Zhang, Bing [Guangxi Key Laboratory for Relativistic Astrophysics, the Department of Physics, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Wang, Xiang-Yu [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Hou, Shu-Jin [Institute of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Normal College, Nanyang 473061 (China); Zhang, Jin, E-mail: lew@gxu.edu.cn, E-mail: xywang@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-11-10

    X-ray flares of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are usually observed in the soft X-ray range and the spectral coverage is limited. In this paper, we present an analysis of 32 GRB X-ray flares that are simultaneously observed by both Burst Alert Telescope and X-Ray Telescope on board the Swift mission, so that a joint spectral analysis with a wider spectral coverage is possible. Our results show that the joint spectra of 19 flares are fitted with the absorbed single power law or the Band function models. More interestingly, the joint spectra of the other 13 X-ray flares are fitted with the absorbed single power-law model plus a blackbody component. Phenomenally, the observed spectra of these 13 flares are analogous to several GRBs with a thermal component, but only with a much lower temperature of kT = 1 ? 3 keV. Assuming that the thermal emission is the photosphere emission of the GRB fireball, we derive the fireball properties of the 13 flares that have redshift measurements, such as the bulk Lorentz factor ?{sub ph} of the outflow. The derived ?{sub ph} range from 50 to 150 and a relation of ?{sub ph} to the thermal emission luminosity is found. It is consistent with the ?{sub 0} L {sub iso} relations that are derived for the prompt gamma-ray emission. We discuss the physical implications of these results within the content of jet composition and the radiation mechanism of GRBs and X-ray flares.

  8. Reviving Abandoned Reservoirs with High-Pressure Air Injection: Application in a Fractured and Karsted Dolomite Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel; Dembla Dhiraj; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jeff Kane; Jon Olson; John A. Jackson; Katherine G. Jackson

    2006-09-30

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the United States contain vast volumes of remaining oil that is not being effectively recovered. This oil resource constitutes a huge target for the development and application of modern, cost-effective technologies for producing oil. Chief among the barriers to the recovery of this oil are the high costs of designing and implementing conventional advanced recovery technologies in these mature, in many cases pressure-depleted, reservoirs. An additional, increasingly significant barrier is the lack of vital technical expertise necessary for the application of these technologies. This lack of expertise is especially notable among the small operators and independents that operate many of these mature, yet oil-rich, reservoirs. We addressed these barriers to more effective oil recovery by developing, testing, applying, and documenting an innovative technology that can be used by even the smallest operator to significantly increase the flow of oil from mature U.S. reservoirs. The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The Permian Basin, the largest oil-bearing basin in North America, contains more than 70 billion barrels of remaining oil in place and is an ideal venue to validate this technology. We have demonstrated the potential of HPAI for oil-recovery improvement in preliminary laboratory tests and a reservoir pilot project. To more completely test the technology, this project emphasized detailed characterization of reservoir properties, which were integrated to access the effectiveness and economics of HPAI. The characterization phase of the project utilized geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. The successful development of HPAI technology has tremendous potential for increasing the flow of oil from deep carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin, a target resource that can be conservatively estimated at more than 1.5 billion barrels. Successful implementation in the field chosen for demonstration, for example, could result in the recovery of more than 34 million barrels of oil that will not otherwise be produced. Geological and petrophysical analysis of available data at Barnhart field reveals the following important observations: (1) the Barnhart Ellenburger reservoir is similar to most other Ellenburger reservoirs in terms of depositional facies, diagenesis, and petrophysical attributes; (2) the reservoir is characterized by low to moderate matrix porosity much like most other Ellenburger reservoirs in the Permian Basin; (3) karst processes (cave formation, infill, and collapse) have substantially altered stratigraphic architecture and reservoir properties; (4) porosity and permeability increase with depth and may be associated with the degree of karst-related diagenesis; (5) tectonic fractures overprint the reservoir, improving overall connectivity; (6) oil-saturation profiles show that the oil-water contact (OWC) is as much as 125 ft lower than previous estimations; (7) production history and trends suggest that this reservoir is very similar to other solution-gas-drive reservoirs in the Permian Basin; and (8) reservoir simulation study showed that the Barnhart reservoir is a good candidate for HPAI and that application of horizontal-well technology can improve ultimate resource recovery from the reservoir.

  9. Methods and systems using encapsulated tracers and chemicals for reservoir interrogation and manipulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, Jeffery; Aines, Roger D; Duoss, Eric B; Spadaccini, Christopher M

    2014-11-04

    An apparatus, method, and system of reservoir interrogation. A tracer is encapsulating in a receptacle. The receptacle containing the tracer is injected into the reservoir. The tracer is analyzed for reservoir interrogation.

  10. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chris Phillips; Dan Moos; Don Clarke; John Nguyen; Kwasi Tagbor; Roy Koerner; Scott Walker

    1998-01-26

    The objectives of this quarterly report are to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period October - December 1997 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the "Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist". The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology. The identification of the sands with high remaining oil saturation will be accomplished by developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model and by using a state of the art reservoir management computer software. The wells identified by the geologic and reservoir engineering work as having the best potential will be logged with cased-hole logging tools. The application of the logging tools will be optimized in the lab by developing a rock-log model. This rock-log model will allow us to translate measurements through casing into effective porosity and hydrocarbon saturation. The wells that are shown to have the best oil production potential will be recompleted. The recompletions will be optimized by evaluating short radius lateral recompletions as well as other recompletion techniques such as the sand consolidation through steam injection.

  11. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koerner, R.; Clarke, D.; Walker, S.; Phillips, C.; Nguyen, J.; Moos, D.; Tagbor, K.

    1997-10-21

    The objectives of this quarterly report are to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period July - September 1997 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the `Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist`. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology. The identification of the sands with high remaining oil saturation will be accomplished by developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model and by using a state of the art reservoir management computer software. The wells identified by the geologic and reservoir engineering work as having the best potential will be logged with a pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool. The application of the logging tools will be optimized in the lab by developing a rock-log model. This rock-log model will allow us to convert shear wave velocity measured through casing into effective porosity and hydrocarbon saturation. The wells that are shown to have the best oil production potential will be recompleted. The recompletions will be optimized by evaluating short radius and ultra-short radius lateral recompletions as well as other techniques.

  12. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chris Phillips; Dan Moos; Don Clarke; John Nguyen; Kwasi Tagbor; Roy Koerner; Scott Walker.

    1998-01-26

    The objectives of this quarterly report are to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period October - December 1997 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist . The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology. The identification of the sands with high remaining oil saturation will be accomplished by developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model and by using a state of the art reservoir management computer software. The wells identified by the geologic and reservoir engineering work as having the best potential will be logged with cased-hole logging tools. The application of the logging tools will be optimized in the lab by developing a rock-log model. This rock-log model will allow us to translate measurements through casing into effective porosity and hydrocarbon saturation. The wells that are shown to have the best oil production potential will be recompleted. The recompletions will be optimized by evaluating short radius lateral recompletions as well as other recompletion techniques such as the sand consolidation through steam injection.

  13. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chris Phillips; Dan Moos; Don Clarke; John Nguyen; Kwasi Tagbor; Roy Koerner; Scott Walker

    1998-04-22

    The objectives of this quarterly report are to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period January - March 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the "Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist". The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology. The identification of the sands with high remaining oil saturation will be accomplished by developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model and by using a state of the art reservoir management computer software. The wells identified by the geologic and reservoir engineering work as having the best potential will be logged with cased-hole logging tools. The application of the logging tools will be optimized in the lab by developing a rock-log model. This rock-log model will allow us to translate measurements through casing into effective porosity and hydrocarbon saturation. The wells that are shown to have the best oil production potential will be recompleted. The recompletions will be optimized by evaluating short radius lateral recompletions as well as other recompletion techniques such as the sand consolidation through steam injection.

  14. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott; Phillips, Chris; Nauyen, John; Moos, Dan; Tagbor, Kwasi

    1997-07-28

    The objectives of this quarterly report are to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period April - June 1997 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the `Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist`. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology. The identification of the sands with high remaining oil saturation will be accomplished by developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model and by using a state of the art reservoir management computer software. The wells identified by the geologic and reservoir engineering work as having the best potential will be logged with a pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool. The application of the logging tools will be optimized in the lab by developing a rock-log model. This rock-log model will allow us to convert shear wave velocity measured through casing into effective porosity and hydrocarbon saturation. The wells that are shown to have the best oil production potential will be recompleted. The recompletions will be optimized by evaluating short radius and ultra-short radius lateral recompletions as well as other techniques.

  15. Spectral SP: A New Approach to Mapping Reservoir Flow and Permeability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reservoir Flow and Permeability Spectral SP: A New Approach to Mapping Reservoir Flow and Permeability presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. ...

  16. Texas--RRC District 10 Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 10 Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

  17. Texas--RRC District 1 Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 1 Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

  18. Texas--RRC District 6 Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 6 Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

  19. Texas--RRC District 5 Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 5 Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

  20. Texas--RRC District 9 Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 9 Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

  1. Texas--RRC District 8 Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 8 Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

  2. Novel use of 4D Monitoring Techniques to Improve Reservoir Longevity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    use of 4D Monitoring Techniques to Improve Reservoir Longevity and Productivity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems Novel use of 4D Monitoring Techniques to Improve Reservoir Longevity ...

  3. PRODUCTION OF {sup 9}Be THROUGH THE {alpha}-FUSION REACTION OF METAL-POOR COSMIC RAYS AND STELLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kawasaki, Masahiro E-mail: kawasaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2013-04-10

    Spectroscopic observations of metal-poor stars have indicated possible {sup 6}Li abundances that are much larger than the primordial abundance predicted in the standard big bang nucleosynthesis model. Possible mechanisms of {sup 6}Li production in metal-poor stars include pregalactic and cosmological cosmic-ray (CR) nucleosynthesis and nucleosynthesis by flare-accelerated nuclides. We study {sup 9}Be production via two-step {alpha}-fusion reactions of CR or flare-accelerated {sup 3,4}He through {sup 6}He and {sup 6,7}Li, in pregalactic structure, intergalactic medium, and stellar surfaces. We solve transfer equations of CR or flare particles and calculate nuclear yields of {sup 6}He, {sup 6,7}Li, and {sup 9}Be taking account of probabilities of processing {sup 6}He and {sup 6,7}Li into {sup 9}Be via fusions with {alpha} particles. Yield ratios, i.e., {sup 9}Be/{sup 6}Li, are then calculated for the CR and flare nucleosynthesis models. We suggest that the future observations of {sup 9}Be in metal-poor stars may find enhanced abundances originating from metal-poor CR or flare activities.

  4. Putting integrated reservoir characterization into practice - in house training

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, F.M. Jr.; Best, D.A.; Clarke, R.T.

    1997-08-01

    The need for even more efficient reservoir characterization and management has forced a change in the way Mobil Oil provides technical support to its production operations. We`ve learned that to be successful, a good understanding of the reservoir is essential. This includes an understanding of the technical and business significance of reservoir heterogeneities at different stages of field development. A multi-disciplinary understanding of the business of integrated reservoir characterization is essential and to facilitate this understanding, Mobil has developed a highly successful {open_quotes}Reservoir Characterization Field Seminar{close_quotes}. Through specific team based case studies that incorporate outcrop examples and data the program provides participants the opportunity to explore historic and alternative approaches to reservoir description, characterization and management. We explore appropriate levels and timing of data gathering, technology applications, risk assessment and management practices at different stages of field development. The case studies presented throughout the course are a unique element of the program which combine real life and hypothetical problem sets that explore how different technical disciplines interact, the approaches to a problem solving they use, the assumptions and uncertainties contained in their contributions and the impact those conclusions may have on other disciplines involved in the overall reservoir management process. The team building aspect of the course was an added bonus.

  5. Nineteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Horne, R.J.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1994-01-20

    PREFACE The Nineteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 18-20, 1994. This workshop opened on a sad note because of the death of Prof. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. on November 19, 1993. Hank had been fighting leukemia for a long time and finally lost the battle. Many of the workshop participants were present for the celebration of his life on January 21 at Stanford's Memorial Church. Hank was one of the founders of the Stanford Geothermal Program and the Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Workshop. His energy, kindness, quick wit, and knowledge will long be missed at future workshops. Following the Preface we have included a copy of the Memorial Resolution passed by the Stanford University Senate. There were one hundred and four registered participants. Participants were from ten foreign countries: Costa Rica, England, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines and Turkey. Workshop papers described the performance of fourteen geothermal fields outside the United States. Roland N. Home opened the meeting and welcomed the visitors to the campus. The key note speaker was J.E. ''Ted'' Mock who gave a presentation about the future of geothermal development. The banquet speaker was Jesus Rivera and he spoke about Energy Sources of Central American Countries. Forty two papers were presented at the Workshop. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: sciences, injection, production, modeling, and adsorption. Session chairmen are an important part of the workshop and our thanks go to: John Counsil, Mark Walters, Dave Duchane, David Faulder, Gudmundur Bodvarsson, Jim Lovekin, Joel Renner, and Iraj Ershaghi. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes for publication. We owe a great deal of thanks to our students who operate audiovisual equipment and to Xianfa Deng who coordinated the meeting arrangements for the Workshop. Roland N. Home Frank G. Miller Paul Kruger William E. Brigham Jean W. Cook

  6. Sixteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1991-01-25

    The Sixteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 23-25, 1991. The Workshop Banquet Speaker was Dr. Mohinder Gulati of UNOCAL Geothermal. Dr. Gulati gave an inspiring talk on the impact of numerical simulation on development of geothermal energy both in The Geysers and the Philippines. Dr. Gulati was the first recipient of The Stanford Geothermal Program Reservoir Engineering Award for Excellence in Development of Geothermal Energy. Dr. Frank Miller presented the award. The registered attendance figure of one hundred fifteen participants was up slightly from last year. There were seven foreign countries represented: Iceland, Italy, Philippines, Kenya, the United Kingdom, Mexico, and Japan. As last year, papers on about a dozen geothermal fields outside the United States were presented. There were thirty-six papers presented at the Workshop, and two papers were submitted for publication only. Attendees were welcomed by Dr. Khalid Aziz, Chairman of the Petroleum Engineering Department at Stanford. Opening remarks were presented by Dr. Roland Horne, followed by a discussion of the California Energy Commission's Geothermal Activities by Barbara Crowley, Vice Chairman; and J.E. ''Ted'' Mock's presentation of the DOE Geothermal Program: New Emphasis on Industrial Participation. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: hot dry rock, geochemistry, tracer injection, field performance, modeling, and chemistry/gas. As in previous workshops, session chairpersons made major contributions to the program. Special thanks are due to Joel Renner, Jeff Tester, Jim Combs, Kathy Enedy, Elwood Baldwin, Sabodh Garg, Marcel0 Lippman, John Counsil, and Eduardo Iglesias. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Angharad Jones, Rosalee Benelli, Jeanne Mankinen, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes for publication. We owe a great deal of thanks to our students who operate the audiovisual equipment and to Michael Riley who coordinated the meeting arrangements for a second year. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. Roland N. Horne Frank G. Miller Paul Kruger William E. Brigham Jean W. Cook

  7. A flare observed in coronal, transition region, and helium I 10830 emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Zhicheng; Cao, Wenda; Qiu, Jiong; Judge, Philip G.

    2014-10-01

    On 2012 June 17, we observed the evolution of a C-class flare associated with the eruption of a filament near a large sunspot in the active region NOAA 11504. We obtained high spatial resolution filtergrams using the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory in broadband TiO at 706 nm (bandpass: 10 ) and He I 10830 narrow band (bandpass: 0.5 , centered 0.25 to the blue). We analyze the spatio-temporal behavior of the He I 10830 data, which were obtained over a 90''90'' field of view with a cadence of 10 s. We also analyze simultaneous data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft, and data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager and GOES spacecrafts. Non-thermal effects are ignored in this analysis. Several quantitative aspects of the data, as well as models derived using the '0D' enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops model code, indicate that the triplet states of the 10830 multiplet are populated by photoionization of chromospheric plasma followed by radiative recombination. Surprisingly, the He II 304 line is reasonably well matched by standard emission measure calculations, along with the C IV emission which dominates the Atmosphere Imaging Assembly 1600 channel during flares. This work lends support to some of our previous work combining X-ray, EUV, and UV data of flares to build models of energy transport from corona to chromosphere.

  8. Computed microtomography of reservoir core samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, M.E.; Muegge, E.L.; Spanne, P.; Jones, K.W.

    1995-03-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is often utilized to evaluate and characterize structural characteristics within reservoir core material systems. Generally, medical CT scanners have been employed because of their availability and ease of use. Of interest lately has been the acquisition of three-dimensional, high resolution descriptions of rock and pore structures for characterization of the porous media and for modeling of single and multiphase transport processes. The spatial resolution of current medical CT scanners is too coarse for pore level imaging of most core samples. Recently developed high resolution computed microtomography (CMT) using synchrotron X-ray sources is analogous to conventional medical CT scanning and provides the ability to obtain three-dimensional images of specimens with a spatial resolution on the order of micrometers. Application of this technique to the study of core samples provides two- and three-dimensional high resolution description of pore structure and mineral distributions. Pore space and interconnectivity is accurately characterized and visualized. Computed microtomography data can serve as input into pore-level simulation techniques. A generalized explanation of the technique is provided, with comparison to conventional CT scanning techniques and results. Computed microtomographic results of several sandstone samples are presented and discussed. Bulk porosity values and mineralogical identification were obtained from the microtomograms and compared with gas porosity and scanning electron microscope results on tandem samples.

  9. OFF-SITE RADIOLOGICAL SAFETY PROGRAM FOR PROJECT RULISON FLARING, PHASE I11

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    RADIOLOGICAL SAFETY PROGRAM FOR PROJECT RULISON FLARING, PHASE I11 F i.EMSL-LV-539-8 c by Monitoring Operations D i v i s i o n Environmental M o n i t o r i n g and Support Laboratory U. S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Las Vegas, Nevada Published November 1976 T h i s s u r v e i 1 lance performed under a Memorandum o f Understanding No. AT( 26-1 )-539 f o r t h e U. S. ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION , I 1 DISCLAIMER T h i s report was prepared a s a n account of work

  10. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chris Phillips; Dan Moos; Don Clarke; Dwasi Tagbor; John Nguygen; Roy Koerner; Scott Walker

    1997-04-10

    The objectives of this quarterly report are to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period January - March 1997 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the "Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist". The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology.

  11. Alaska Crude Oil + Lease Condensate New Reservoir Discoveries...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil + Lease Condensate New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's...

  12. Integrated seismic studies at the Rye Patch geothermal reservoir...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    seismic studies at the Rye Patch geothermal reservoir Authors R. Gritto, T.M. Daley and E.L. Majer Published Journal Geothermal Resources Council Transactions, 2002 DOI Not...

  13. Fracture Evolution Following a Hydraulic Stimulation within an EGS Reservoir

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. This project will provide the first ever formal evaluation of fracture and fracture flow evolution in an EGS reservoir following a hydraulic stimulation.

  14. Heavy oil reservoirs recoverable by thermal technology. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kujawa, P.

    1981-02-01

    This volume contains reservoir, production, and project data for target reservoirs thermally recoverable by steam drive which are equal to or greater than 2500 feet deep and contain heavy oil in the 8 to 25/sup 0/ API gravity range. Data were collected from three source types: hands-on (A), once-removed (B), and twice-removed (C). In all cases, data were sought depicting and characterizing individual reservoirs as opposed to data covering an entire field with more than one producing interval or reservoir. The data sources are listed at the end of each case. This volume also contains a complete listing of operators and projects, as well as a bibliography of source material.

  15. Discrete Feature Approach for Heterogeneous Reservoir Production Enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dershowitz, William S.; Curran, Brendan; Einstein, Herbert; LaPointe, Paul; Shuttle, Dawn; Klise, Kate

    2002-07-26

    The report presents summaries of technology development for discrete feature modeling in support of the improved oil recovery (IOR) for heterogeneous reservoirs. In addition, the report describes the demonstration of these technologies at project study sites.

  16. FLUID STRATIGRAPHY OF THE COSO GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    cross-sections developed using this method. Authors Dilley, L.M.; Norman, D.I.; Moore, J.; McCullouch and J. Published PROCEEDINGS, Thirty-First Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir...

  17. Predicting Reservoir System Quality and Performance | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to library Book Section: Predicting Reservoir System Quality and Performance Authors D.J. Hartmann and E.A. Beaumont Editors E.A. Beaumont and N.H. Foster Published AAPG...

  18. Borehole geophysics evaluation of the Raft River geothermal reservoir...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    sup 0C) reservoir was a zone of higher conductivity, increased porosity, decreased density, and lower sonic velocity. It was believed that the long term contact with the hot...

  19. Lithology and alteration mineralogy of reservoir rocks at Coso...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    using petrographic and analytical analyses of reservoir rock and vein material. The nature of the low-angle outflow zone and the overlying cap that prevents a surface expression...

  20. Lithology and Alteration Mineralogy of Reservoir Rocks at Coso...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    using petrographic and analytical analyses of reservoir rock and vein material. The nature of the low-angle outflow zone and the overlying cap that prevents a surface expression...

  1. Hydroacoustic Estimates of Fish Density Distributions in Cougar Reservoir, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Batten, George W.; Mitchell, T. D.

    2012-09-01

    Day and night mobile hydroacoustic surveys were conducted once each month from April through December 2011 to quantify the horizontal and vertical distributions of fish throughout Cougar Reservoir, Lane County, Oregon.

  2. FMI Borehole Geology, Geomechanics and 3D Reservoir Modeling...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FMI Borehole Geology, Geomechanics and 3D Reservoir Modeling Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: FMI Borehole Geology, Geomechanics and 3D...

  3. Exploration model for possible geothermal reservoir, Coso Hot...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a steam-filled fracture geothermal reservoir exists at Coso Hot Springs KGRA, as proposed by Combs and...

  4. Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal Reservoirs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: to develop a 3-D numerical model for simulating mode I; II; and III (tensile; shear; and tearing propagation of multiple fractures using the virtual multi-dimensional internal bond (VMIB); to predict geothermal reservoir stimulation.

  5. Collection and Analysis of Reservoir Data from Testing and Operation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reservoir Data from Testing and Operation of the Raft River 5 MW Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: Collection...

  6. Analysis of Geothermal Reservoir Stimulation Using Geomechanics-based

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stochastic Analysis of Injection-induced Seismicity; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report | Department of Energy Analysis of Geothermal Reservoir Stimulation Using Geomechanics-based Stochastic Analysis of Injection-induced Seismicity; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Analysis of Geothermal Reservoir Stimulation Using Geomechanics-based Stochastic Analysis of Injection-induced Seismicity; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report DOE 2010

  7. US production of natural gas from tight reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-18

    For the purposes of this report, tight gas reservoirs are defined as those that meet the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC) definition of tight. They are generally characterized by an average reservoir rock permeability to gas of 0.1 millidarcy or less and, absent artificial stimulation of production, by production rates that do not exceed 5 barrels of oil per day and certain specified daily volumes of gas which increase with the depth of the reservoir. All of the statistics presented in this report pertain to wells that have been classified, from 1978 through 1991, as tight according to the FERC; i.e., they are ``legally tight`` reservoirs. Additional production from ``geologically tight`` reservoirs that have not been classified tight according to the FERC rules has been excluded. This category includes all producing wells drilled into legally designated tight gas reservoirs prior to 1978 and all producing wells drilled into physically tight gas reservoirs that have not been designated legally tight. Therefore, all gas production referenced herein is eligible for the Section 29 tax credit. Although the qualification period for the credit expired at the end of 1992, wells that were spudded (began to be drilled) between 1978 and May 1988, and from November 5, 1990, through year end 1992, are eligible for the tax credit for a subsequent period of 10 years. This report updates the EIA`s tight gas production information through 1991 and considers further the history and effect on tight gas production of the Federal Government`s regulatory and tax policy actions. It also provides some high points of the geologic background needed to understand the nature and location of low-permeability reservoirs.

  8. Passive injection: A strategy for mitigating reservoir pressurization,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    induced seismicity and brine migration in geologic CO2 storage (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Passive injection: A strategy for mitigating reservoir pressurization, induced seismicity and brine migration in geologic CO2 storage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Passive injection: A strategy for mitigating reservoir pressurization, induced seismicity and brine migration in geologic CO2 storage Authors: Dempsey, David ; Kelkar, Sharad ; Pawar, Rajesh Publication

  9. Heavy oil reservoirs recoverable by thermal technology. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kujawa, P.

    1981-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compile data on reservoirs that contain heavy oil in the 8 to 25/sup 0/ API gravity range, contain at least ten million barrels of oil currently in place, and are non-carbonate in lithology. The reservoirs within these constraints were then analyzed in light of applicable recovery technology, either steam-drive or in situ combustion, and then ranked hierarchically as candidate reservoirs. The study is presented in three volumes. Volume I presents the project background and approach, the screening analysis, ranking criteria, and listing of candidate reservoirs. The economic and environmental aspects of heavy oil recovery are included in appendices to this volume. This study provides an extensive basis for heavy oil development, but should be extended to include carbonate reservoirs and tar sands. It is imperative to look at heavy oil reservoirs and projects on an individual basis; it was discovered that operators, and industrial and government analysts will lump heavy oil reservoirs as poor producers, however, it was found that upon detailed analysis, a large number, so categorized, were producing very well. A study also should be conducted on abandoned reservoirs. To utilize heavy oil, refiners will have to add various unit operations to their processes, such as hydrotreaters and hydrodesulfurizers and will require, in most cases, a lighter blending stock. A big problem in producing heavy oil is that of regulation; specifically, it was found that the regulatory constraints are so fluid and changing that one cannot settle on a favorable recovery and production plan with enough confidence in the regulatory requirements to commit capital to the project.

  10. Deep Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures in the Eastern Snake River Plain,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Idaho using Multicomponent Geothermometry (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Deep Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures in the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho using Multicomponent Geothermometry Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Deep Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures in the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho using Multicomponent Geothermometry The U.S. Geological survey has estimated that there are up to 4,900 MWe of undiscovered geothermal resources and 92,000 MWe of enhanced

  11. Flow and Thermal Behavior of an EGS Reservoir - Geothermal Code

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Comparison Study (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Flow and Thermal Behavior of an EGS Reservoir - Geothermal Code Comparison Study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flow and Thermal Behavior of an EGS Reservoir - Geothermal Code Comparison Study Authors: Kelkar, Sharad M. [1] ; Mclure, Mark [2] ; Ghassemi, Ahmad [3] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory University of Texas Austin University of Oklahoma Publication Date: 2015-01-26 OSTI Identifier:

  12. LANL researchers develop platform to study subsurface reservoir conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Subsurface reservoir conditions LANL researchers develop platform to study subsurface reservoir conditions This increasing demand for energy around the globe requires a better understanding of subsurface energy resources and their associated environmental issues. March 7, 2016 Shown are time lapse images of supercritical CO2 displacing water in a fracture etched into a shale micromodel. The white, blue and gray colors represent supercritical CO2, water and shale, respectively. Shown are time

  13. Uncertainty quantification for evaluating impacts of caprock and reservoir

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    properties on pressure buildup and ground surface displacement during geological CO2 sequestration (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Uncertainty quantification for evaluating impacts of caprock and reservoir properties on pressure buildup and ground surface displacement during geological CO2 sequestration Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Uncertainty quantification for evaluating impacts of caprock and reservoir properties on pressure buildup and ground surface displacement during

  14. Uncertainty quantification for evaluating impacts of caprock and reservoir

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    properties on pressure buildup and ground surface displacement during geological CO2 sequestration (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect quantification for evaluating impacts of caprock and reservoir properties on pressure buildup and ground surface displacement during geological CO2 sequestration Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Uncertainty quantification for evaluating impacts of caprock and reservoir properties on pressure buildup and ground surface displacement during geological

  15. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Pantex Sewage Reservoir - TX 03

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Pantex Sewage Reservoir - TX 03 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Pantex Sewage Reservoir (TX.03 ) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition: Radioactive Materials Handled: Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Radiological Survey(s): Site Status: This site is one of a group of 77 FUSRAP considered sites for which few, if any records are available in their respective site files to provide an historical account of past operations and their

  16. Reservoir analysis of the Palinpinon geothermal field, Negros Oriental, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amistoso, A.E.; Aquino, B.G.; Aunzo, Z.P.; Jordan, O.T.; Ana, F.X.M.S.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Doughty, C.

    1993-10-01

    The Philippine National Oil Company and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory have conducted an informal cooperative project on the reservoir evaluation of the Palinpinon geothermal field in the Philippines. The work involved the development of various numerical models of the field in order to understand the observed data. A three-dimensional porous medium model of the reservoir has been developed that matches well the observed pressure declines and enthalpy transients of the wells. Submodels representing the reservoir as a fractured porous medium were developed for the analysis of chemical transport of chlorides within the reservoir and the movement of the cold water front away from injection wells. These models indicate that the effective porosity of the reservoir varies between 1 and 7% and the effective permeability between 1 and 45 millidarcies. The numerical models were used to predict the future performance of the Palinpinon reservoir using various possible exploitation scenarios. A limited number of make-up wells were allocated to each sector of the field. When all the make-up wells had been put on line, power production gradually began to decline. The model indicates that under the assumed conditions it will not be possible to maintain the planned power production of 112.5 MWe at Palinpinon I and 80 MWe at Palinpinon II for the next 30 years, but the decline in power output will be within acceptable normal operating capacities of the plants.

  17. The Role of Geochemistry and Stress on Fracture Development and Proppant Behavior in EGS Reservoirs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: Develop Improved Methods For Maintaining Permeable Fracture Volumes In EGS Reservoirs.

  18. A general formulation for compositional reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, F.; Guzman, J.; Galindo-Nava, A.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the authors present a general formulation to solve the non-linear difference equations that arise in compositional reservoir simulation. The general approach here presented is based on newton`s method and provides a systematic approach to generate several formulations to solve the compositional problem, each possessing a different degree of implicitness and stability characteristics. The Fully-Implicit method is at the higher end of the implicitness spectrum while the IMPECS method, implicit in pressure-explicit in composition and saturation, is at the lower end. They show that all methods may be obtained as particular cases of the fully-implicit method. Regarding the matrix problem, all methods have a similar matrix structure; the composition of the Jacobian matrix is however unique in each case, being in some instances amenable to reductions for optimal solution of the matrix problem. Based on this, a different approach to derive IMPECS type methods is proposed; in this case, the whole set of 2nc + 6 equations, that apply in each gridblock, is reduced to a single pressure equation through matrix reduction operations; this provides a more stable numerical scheme, compared to other published IMPCS methods, in which the subset of thermodynamic equilibrium equations is arbitrarily decoupled form the set of gridblock equations to perform such reduction. The authors discuss how the general formulation here presented can be used to formulate and construct an adaptive-implicit compositional simulators. They also present results on the numerical performance of FI, IMPSEC and IMPECS methods on some test problems.

  19. Plasma dynamics above solar flare soft x-ray loop tops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doschek, G. A.; Warren, H. P.; McKenzie, D. E.

    2014-06-10

    We measure non-thermal motions in flare loop tops and above the loop tops using profiles of highly ionized spectral lines of Fe XXIV and Fe XXIII formed at multimillion-degree temperatures. Non-thermal motions that may be due to turbulence or multiple flow regions along the line of sight are extracted from the line profiles. The non-thermal motions are measured for four flares seen at or close to the solar limb. The profile data are obtained using the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on the Hinode spacecraft. The multimillion-degree non-thermal motions are between 20 and 60 km s{sup 1} and appear to increase with height above the loop tops. Motions determined from coronal lines (i.e., lines formed at about 1.5 MK) tend to be smaller. The multimillion-degree temperatures in the loop tops and above range from about 11 MK to 15 MK and also tend to increase with height above the bright X-ray-emitting loop tops. The non-thermal motions measured along the line of sight, as well as their apparent increase with height, are supported by Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly measurements of turbulent velocities in the plane of the sky.

  20. Federal Offshore--Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Federal Offshore--Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 1,994 1,804 1,837 1,504 1,798 1,541 1,890 1,954 1,742 2,018 1,823 1,711 2002 1,661 1,512 1,693 1,728 1,794 1,738 1,809 1,820 1,523 1,433 1,667 1,714 2003 1,728 1,590 1,801 1,753 1,774

  1. Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seaman, John

    2013-01-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittals Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

  2. THE EFFECTS OF WAVE ESCAPE ON FAST MAGNETOSONIC WAVE TURBULENCE IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pongkitiwanichakul, Peera; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.; Karpen, Judith T.; DeVore, C. Richard E-mail: benjamin.chandran@unh.edu E-mail: devore@nrl.navy.mil

    2012-09-20

    One of the leading models for electron acceleration in solar flares is stochastic acceleration by weakly turbulent fast magnetosonic waves ({sup f}ast waves{sup )}. In this model, large-scale flows triggered by magnetic reconnection excite large-wavelength fast waves, and fast-wave energy then cascades from large wavelengths to small wavelengths. Electron acceleration by large-wavelength fast waves is weak, and so the model relies on the small-wavelength waves produced by the turbulent cascade. In order for the model to work, the energy cascade time for large-wavelength fast waves must be shorter than the time required for the waves to propagate out of the solar-flare acceleration region. To investigate the effects of wave escape, we solve the wave kinetic equation for fast waves in weak turbulence theory, supplemented with a homogeneous wave-loss term. We find that the amplitude of large-wavelength fast waves must exceed a minimum threshold in order for a significant fraction of the wave energy to cascade to small wavelengths before the waves leave the acceleration region. We evaluate this threshold as a function of the dominant wavelength of the fast waves that are initially excited by reconnection outflows.

  3. PROPAGATION OF ALFVENIC WAVES FROM CORONA TO CHROMOSPHERE AND CONSEQUENCES FOR SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, A. J. B.; Fletcher, L.

    2013-03-10

    How do magnetohydrodynamic waves travel from the fully ionized corona, into and through the underlying partially ionized chromosphere, and what are the consequences for solar flares? To address these questions, we have developed a two-fluid model (of plasma and neutrals) and used it to perform one-dimensional simulations of Alfven waves in a solar atmosphere with realistic density and temperature structure. Studies of a range of solar features (faculae, plage, penumbra, and umbra) show that energy transmission from corona to chromosphere can exceed 20% of incident energy for wave periods of 1 s or less. Damping of waves in the chromosphere depends strongly on wave frequency: waves with periods 10 s or longer pass through the chromosphere with relatively little damping, however, for periods of 1 s or less, a substantial fraction (37%-100%) of wave energy entering the chromosphere is damped by ion-neutral friction in the mid- and upper chromosphere, with electron resistivity playing some role in the lower chromosphere and in umbras. We therefore conclude that Alfvenic waves with periods of a few seconds or less are capable of heating the chromosphere during solar flares, and speculate that they could also contribute to electron acceleration or exciting sunquakes.

  4. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olsen; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla; Leonel Gomez

    2003-06-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plant that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data are being gathered during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The results of the demonstration are being closely monitored to provide a basis for improving the design of the HPAI field deployment plan. The results of the reservoir characterization field demonstration and monitoring program will be documented and widely disseminated to facilitate adoption of this technology by oil operators in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the US.

  5. The Stimulation of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs with Subsurface Nuclear Explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LORENZ,JOHN C.

    2000-12-08

    Between 1965 and 1979 there were five documented and one or more inferred attempts to stimulate the production from hydrocarbon reservoirs by detonating nuclear devices in reservoir strata. Of the five documented tests, three were carried out by the US in low-permeability, natural-gas bearing, sandstone-shale formations, and two were done in the USSR within oil-bearing carbonates. The objectives of the US stimulation efforts were to increase porosity and permeability in a reservoir around a specific well by creating a chimney of rock rubble with fractures extending beyond it, and to connect superimposed reservoir layers. In the USSR, the intent was to extensively fracture an existing reservoir in the more general vicinity of producing wells, again increasing overall permeability and porosity. In both countries, the ultimate goals were to increase production rates and ultimate recovery from the reservoirs. Subsurface explosive devices ranging from 2.3 to about 100 kilotons were used at depths ranging from 1208 m (3963 ft) to 2568 m (8427 ft). Post-shot problems were encountered, including smaller-than-calculated fracture zones, formation damage, radioactivity of the product, and dilution of the BTU value of tie natural gas with inflammable gases created by the explosion. Reports also suggest that production-enhancement factors from these tests fell short of expectations. Ultimately, the enhanced-production benefits of the tests were insufficient to support continuation of the pro-grams within increasingly adversarial political, economic, and social climates, and attempts to stimulate hydrocarbon reservoirs with nuclear devices have been terminated in both countries.

  6. Data Integration for the Generation of High Resolution Reservoir Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Reynolds; Dean Oliver; Gaoming Li; Yong Zhao; Chaohui Che; Kai Zhang; Yannong Dong; Chinedu Abgalaka; Mei Han

    2009-01-07

    The goal of this three-year project was to develop a theoretical basis and practical technology for the integration of geologic, production and time-lapse seismic data in a way that makes best use of the information for reservoir description and reservoir performance predictions. The methodology and practical tools for data integration that were developed in this research project have been incorporated into computational algorithms that are feasible for large scale reservoir simulation models. As the integration of production and seismic data require calibrating geological/geostatistical models to these data sets, the main computational tool is an automatic history matching algorithm. The following specific goals were accomplished during this research. (1) We developed algorithms for calibrating the location of the boundaries of geologic facies and the distribution of rock properties so that production and time-lapse seismic data are honored. (2) We developed and implemented specific procedures for conditioning reservoir models to time-lapse seismic data. (3) We developed and implemented algorithms for the characterization of measurement errors which are needed to determine the relative weights of data when conditioning reservoir models to production and time-lapse seismic data by automatic history matching. (4) We developed and implemented algorithms for the adjustment of relative permeability curves during the history matching process. (5) We developed algorithms for production optimization which accounts for geological uncertainty within the context of closed-loop reservoir management. (6) To ensure the research results will lead to practical public tools for independent oil companies, as part of the project we built a graphical user interface for the reservoir simulator and history matching software using Visual Basic.

  7. Multi-wavelength study of flaring activity in BL Lac object S5 0716+714 during the 2015 outburst

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chandra, Sunil; Zhang, Haocheng; Kushwaha, Pankaj; Singh, K. P.; Bottcher, M.; Kaur, Navpreet; Baliyan, K. S.

    2015-08-17

    We present a detailed investigation of the flaring activity observed from a BL Lac object, S5 0716+714 , during its brightest ever optical state in the second half of 2015 January. Observed almost simultaneously in the optical, X-rays, and γ-rays, a significant change in the degree of optical polarization (PD) and a swing in the position angle (PA) of polarization were recorded. A TeV (VHE) detection was also reported by the MAGIC consortium during this flaring episode. Two prominent sub-flares, peaking about five days apart, were seen in almost all of the energy bands. The multi-wavelength light curves, spectral energymore » distribution, and polarization are modeled using the time-dependent code developed by Zhang et al. This model assumes a straight jet threaded by large-scale helical magnetic fields taking into account the light travel time effects, incorporating synchrotron flux and polarization in 3D geometry. Furthermore, the rapid variation in PD and rotation in PA are most likely due to reconnections happening in the emission region in the jet, as suggested by the change in the ratio of toroidal to poloidal components of the magnetic field during the quiescent and flaring states.« less

  8. Twelfth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Rivera, J.

    1987-01-22

    Preface The Twelfth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 20-22, 1987. The year ending December 1986 was very difficult for the domestic geothermal industry. Low oil prices caused a sharp drop in geothermal steam prices. We expected to see some effect upon attendance at the Twelfth Workshop. To our surprise, the attendance was up by thirteen from previous years, with one hundred and fifty-seven registered participants. Eight foreign countries were represented: England, France, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and Turkey. Despite a worldwide surplus of oil, international geothermal interest and development is growing at a remarkable pace. There were forty-one technical presentations at the Workshop. All of these are published as papers in this Proceedings volume. Seven technical papers not presented at the Workshop are also published; they concern geothermal developments and research in Iceland, Italy, and New Zealand. In addition to these forty-eight technical presentations or papers, the introductory address was given by Henry J. Ramey, Jr. from the Stanford Geothermal Program. The Workshop Banquet speaker was John R. Berg from the Department of Energy. We thank him for sharing with the Workshop participants his thoughts on the expectations of this agency in the role of alternative energy resources, specifically geothermal, within the country???s energy framework. His talk is represented as a paper in the back of this volume. The chairmen of the technical sessions made an important contribution to the workshop. Other than Stanford faculty members they included: M. Gulati, K. Goyal, G.S. Bodvarsson, A.S. Batchelor, H. Dykstra, M.J. Reed, A. Truesdell, J.S. Gudmundsson, and J.R. Counsil. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and students. We would like to thank Jean Cook, Marilyn King, Amy Osugi, Terri Ramey, and Rosalee Benelli for their valued help with the meeting arrangements and preparing the Proceedings. We also owe great thanks to our students who arranged and operated the audio-visual equipment, specially Jim Lovekin. The Twelfth Workshop was supported by the Geothermal Technology Division of the U. S. Department of Energy through Contract Nos. DE-AS03-80SF11459 and DE-AS07- 84ID12529. We deeply appreciate this continued support. January 1987 Henry J. Ramey, Jr. Paul Kruger Roland N. Horne William E. Brigham Frank G. Miller Jesus Rivera

  9. Thirteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Miller, F.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1988-01-21

    PREFACE The Thirteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 19-21, 1988. Although 1987 continued to be difficult for the domestic geothermal industry, world-wide activities continued to expand. Two invited presentations on mature geothermal systems were a keynote of the meeting. Malcolm Grant presented a detailed review of Wairakei, New Zealand and highlighted plans for new development. G. Neri summarized experience on flow rate decline and well test analysis in Larderello, Italy. Attendance continued to be high with 128 registered participants. Eight foreign countries were represented: England, France, Iceland, Italy, New Zealand, Japan, Mexico and The Philippines. A discussion of future workshops produced a strong recommendation that the Stanford Workshop program continue for the future. There were forty-one technical presentations at the Workshop. All of these are published as papers in this Proceedings volume. Four technical papers not presented at the Workshop are also published. In addition to these forty five technical presentations or papers, the introductory address was given by Henry J. Ramey, Jr. from the Stanford Geothermal Program. The Workshop Banquet speaker was Gustavo Calderon from the Inter-American Development Bank. We thank him for sharing with the Workshop participants a description of the Bank???s operations in Costa Rica developing alternative energy resources, specifically Geothermal, to improve the country???s economic basis. His talk appears as a paper in the back of this volume. The chairmen of the technical sessions made an important contribution to the workshop. Other than Stanford faculty members they included: J. Combs, G. T. Cole, J. Counsil, A. Drenick, H. Dykstra, K. Goyal, P. Muffler, K. Pruess, and S. K. Sanyal. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff and students. We would like to thank Marilyn King, Pat Oto, Terri Ramey, Bronwyn Jones, Yasmin Gulamani, and Rosalee Benelli for their valued help with the meeting arrangements and preparing the Proceedings. We also owe great thanks to our students who arranged and operated the audio-visual equipment, especially Jeralyn Luetkehans. The Thirteenth Workshop was supported by the Geothermal Technology Division of the U.S. Department of Energy through Contract No. DE-AS07-84ID12529. We deeply appreciate this continued support. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. Paul Kruger Roland N. Horne William E. Brigham Frank G. Miller Jean W. Cook

  10. Magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the x2.2 solar flare on 2011 February 15. I. Comparison with the observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inoue, S.; Magara, T.; Choe, G. S.; Hayashi, K.; Park, Y. D.

    2014-06-20

    We performed a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation using a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) in solar active region 11158 to clarify the dynamics of an X2.2-class solar flare. We found that the NLFFF never shows the dramatic dynamics seen in observations, i.e., it is in a stable state against the perturbations. On the other hand, the MHD simulation shows that when the strongly twisted lines are formed at close to the neutral line, which are produced via tether-cutting reconnection in the twisted lines of the NLFFF, they consequently erupt away from the solar surface via the complicated reconnection. This result supports the argument that the strongly twisted lines formed in NLFFF via tether-cutting reconnection are responsible for breaking the force balance condition of the magnetic fields in the lower solar corona. In addition to this, the dynamical evolution of these field lines reveals that at the initial stage the spatial pattern of the footpoints caused by the reconnection of the twisted lines appropriately maps the distribution of the observed two-ribbon flares. Interestingly, after the flare, the reconnected field lines convert into a structure like the post-flare loops, which is analogous to the extreme ultraviolet image taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Eventually, we found that the twisted lines exceed a critical height at which the flux tube becomes unstable to the torus instability. These results illustrate the reliability of our simulation and also provide an important relationship between flare and coronal mass ejection dynamics.

  11. US Geological Survey publications on western tight gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupa, M.P.; Spencer, C.W.

    1989-02-01

    This bibliography includes reports published from 1977 through August 1988. In 1977 the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the US Department of Energy's, (DOE), Western Gas Sands Research program, initiated a geological program to identify and characterize natural gas resources in low-permeability (tight) reservoirs in the Rocky Mountain region. These reservoirs are present at depths of less than 2,000 ft (610 m) to greater than 20,000 ft (6,100 m). Only published reports readily available to the public are included in this report. Where appropriate, USGS researchers have incorporated administrative report information into later published studies. These studies cover a broad range of research from basic research on gas origin and migration to applied studies of production potential of reservoirs in individual wells. The early research included construction of regional well-log cross sections. These sections provide a basic stratigraphic framework for individual areas and basins. Most of these sections include drill-stem test and other well-test data so that the gas-bearing reservoirs can be seen in vertical and areal dimensions. For the convenience of the reader, the publications listed in this report have been indexed by general categories of (1) authors, (2) states, (3) geologic basins, (4) cross sections, (5) maps (6) studies of gas origin and migration, (7) reservoir or mineralogic studies, and (8) other reports of a regional or specific topical nature.

  12. Maquoketa paleotopography key to reservoirs in western Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, S.T.; Ledbetter, J.C.

    1996-08-12

    Shallow Silurian reservoirs in western Illinois have been a primary target for exploration since the late 1950s. It was not until the discovery and development of Buckhorn Consolidated field in the early 1980s, however, that significant drilling efforts for Silurian reservoirs were focused on western Illinois. At Buckhorn, 1.7 million bbl of oil have been produced from a basal Silurian dolomite at about 650 ft. Drawn by inexpensive drilling and available acreage, hundreds of operators flocked to western Illinois to try their luck. By the late 1980s, however, exploration efforts in western Illinois were curtailed due to the failure to locate additional significant reservoirs. Much of this failure was due to the lack of a suitable geologic model that could be used to explain the reason for reservoir development and thereby guide exploration efforts. An article by Whitaker and Howard in 1995 presented a geologic model explaining Silurian reservoir development and stratigraphic entrapment of oil at Buckhorn Consolidated field were formed as Silurian dolomite in-filled a shallow paleovalley cut into the underlying Ordovician Maquoketa shale. Some companies have recently initiated new exploration efforts in the area using this model. This paper discusses the efforts and results of several of these new areas.

  13. SIMULATION OF DESCENDING MULTIPLE SUPRA-ARCADE RECONNECTION OUTFLOWS IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cecere, M.; Schneiter, M.; Costa, A.; Elaskar, S.; Maglione, S.

    2012-11-10

    After recent Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations by Savage, McKenzie, and Reeves, we revisit the scenario proposed by us in previous papers. We have shown that sunward, generally dark plasma features that originated above posteruption flare arcades are consistent with a scenario where plasma voids (which we identify as supra-arcade reconnection outflows, SAROs) generate the bouncing and interfering of shocks and expansion waves upstream of an initial localized deposition of energy that is collimated in the magnetic field direction. In this paper, we analyze the multiple production and interaction of SAROs and their individual structures that make them relatively stable features while moving. We compare our results with observations and with the scenarios proposed by other authors.

  14. LPG recovery from refinery flare by waste heat powered absorption refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, D.C.; Kelly, F.

    1998-07-01

    A waste heat powered ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Unit (ARU) has commenced operation at the Colorado Refining Company in Commerce City, Colorado. The ARU provides 85 tons of refrigeration at 30 F to refrigerate the net gas/treat gas stream, thereby recovering 65,000 barrels per year of LPG which formerly was flared or burned as fuel. The ARU is powered by the 290 F waste heat content of the reform reactor effluent. An additional 180 tons of refrigeration is available at the ARU to debottleneck the FCC plant wet gas compressors by cooling their inlet vapor. The ARU is directly integrated into the refinery processes, and uses enhanced, highly compact heat and mass exchange components. The refinery's investment will pay back in less than two years from increased recovery of salable product, and CO{sub 2} emissions are decreased by 10,000 tons per year in the Denver area.

  15. Reservoir Stimulation Optimization with Operational Monitoring for Creation of EGS

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Fernandez, Carlos A.

    EGS field projects have not sustained production at rates greater than of what is needed for economic viability. The primary limitation that makes commercial EGS infeasible is our current inability to cost-effectively create high-permeability reservoirs from impermeable, igneous rock within the 3,000-10,000 ft depth range. Our goal is to develop a novel fracturing fluid technology that maximizes reservoir permeability while reducing stimulation cost and environmental impact. Laboratory equipment development to advance laboratory characterization/monitoring is also a priority of this project to study and optimize the physicochemical properties of these fracturing fluids in a range of reservoir conditions. Barrier G is the primarily intended GTO barrier to be addressed as well as support addressing barriers D, E and I.

  16. Reservoir Stimulation Optimization with Operational Monitoring for Creation of EGS

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2013-09-25

    EGS field projects have not sustained production at rates greater than of what is needed for economic viability. The primary limitation that makes commercial EGS infeasible is our current inability to cost-effectively create high-permeability reservoirs from impermeable, igneous rock within the 3,000-10,000 ft depth range. Our goal is to develop a novel fracturing fluid technology that maximizes reservoir permeability while reducing stimulation cost and environmental impact. Laboratory equipment development to advance laboratory characterization/monitoring is also a priority of this project to study and optimize the physicochemical properties of these fracturing fluids in a range of reservoir conditions. Barrier G is the primarily intended GTO barrier to be addressed as well as support addressing barriers D, E and I.

  17. Reservoir characterization of the Smackover Formation in southwest Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopaska-Merkel, D.C.; Hall, D.R.; Mann, S.D.; Tew, B.H.

    1993-02-01

    The Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation is found in an arcuate belt in the subsurface from south Texas to panhandle Florida. The Smackover is the most prolific hydrocarbon-producing formation in Alabama and is an important hydrocarbon reservoir from Florida to Texas. In this report Smackover hydrocarbon reservoirs in southwest Alabama are described. Also, the nine enhanced- and improved-recovery projects that have been undertaken in the Smackover of Alabama are evaluated. The report concludes with recommendations about potential future enhanced- and improved-recovery projects in Smackover reservoirs in Alabama and an estimate of the potential volume of liquid hydrocarbons recoverable by enhanced- and improved-recovery methods from the Smackover of Alabama.

  18. Seismic and Rockphysics Diagnostics of Multiscale Reservoir Textures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mavko

    2005-07-01

    This final technical report summarizes the results of the work done in this project. The main objective was to quantify rock microstructures and their effects in terms of elastic impedances in order to quantify the seismic signatures of microstructures. Acoustic microscopy and ultrasonic measurements were used to quantify microstructures and their effects on elastic impedances in sands and shales. The project led to the development of technologies for quantitatively interpreting rock microstructure images, understanding the effects of sorting, compaction and stratification in sediments, and linking elastic data with geologic models to estimate reservoir properties. For the public, ultimately, better technologies for reservoir characterization translates to better reservoir development, reduced risks, and hence reduced energy costs.

  19. ON THE CAUSE OF SUPRA-ARCADE DOWNFLOWS IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassak, P. A.; Shepherd, L. S.; Drake, J. F.; Gosling, J. T.; Phan, T.-D.; Shay, M. A. E-mail: lshephe1@mix.wvu.edu E-mail: Jack.Gosling@lasp.colorado.edu E-mail: shay@udel.edu

    2013-09-20

    A model of supra-arcade downflows (SADs), dark low density regions also known as tadpoles that propagate sunward during solar flares, is presented. It is argued that the regions of low density are flow channels carved by sunward-directed outflow jets from reconnection. The solar corona is stratified, so the flare site is populated by a lower density plasma than that in the underlying arcade. As the jets penetrate the arcade, they carve out regions of depleted plasma density which appear as SADs. The present interpretation differs from previous models in that reconnection is localized in space but not in time. Reconnection is continuous in time to explain why SADs are not filled in from behind as they would if they were caused by isolated descending flux tubes or the wakes behind them due to temporally bursty reconnection. Reconnection is localized in space because outflow jets in standard two-dimensional reconnection models expand in the normal (inflow) direction with distance from the reconnection site, which would not produce thin SADs as seen in observations. On the contrary, outflow jets in spatially localized three-dimensional reconnection with an out-of-plane (guide) magnetic field expand primarily in the out-of-plane direction and remain collimated in the normal direction, which is consistent with observed SADs being thin. Two-dimensional proof-of-principle simulations of reconnection with an out-of-plane (guide) magnetic field confirm the creation of SAD-like depletion regions and the necessity of density stratification. Three-dimensional simulations confirm that localized reconnection remains collimated.

  20. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drillings. Annual technical progress report, June 13, 1996 to June 12, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nevans, Jerry W.; Blasingame, Tom; Doublet, Louis; Kelkar, Mohan; Freeman, George; Callard, Jeff; Moore, David; Davies, David; Vessell, Richard; Pregger, Brian; Dixon, Bill

    1999-04-27

    Infill drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to reservoir performance and characterization, does not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations. Other technologies, such as inter-well injection tracers and magnetic flow conditioners, can also aid in the efficient evaluation and operation of both injection and producing wells. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate useful and cost effective methods of exploitation of the shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs of the Permian Basin located in West Texas.

  1. Upscaling verticle permeability within a fluvio-aeolian reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, S.D.; Corbett, P.W.M.; Jensen, J.L.

    1997-08-01

    Vertical permeability (k{sub v}) is a crucial factor in many reservoir engineering issues. To date there has been little work undertaken to understand the wide variation of k{sub v} values measured at different scales in the reservoir. This paper presents the results of a study in which we have modelled the results of a downhole well tester using a statistical model and high resolution permeability data. The work has demonstrates and quantifies a wide variation in k{sub v} at smaller, near wellbore scales and has implications for k{sub v} modelling at larger scales.

  2. Miscellaneous States Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Barrels) Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Miscellaneous States Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA NA 1 1 2000's 1 1 16 17 4 4 2 5 4 7 2010's 5 7 12 9 6 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Proved

  3. Montana Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Montana Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA NA 6 83 2000's 36 43 65 79 104 88 91 90 50 42 2010's 74 59 95 104 155 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Proved Nonproducing

  4. Federal Offshore--California Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Federal Offshore--California Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA NA 21 15 2000's 42 62 62 93 55 32 37 20 12 12 2010's 13 13 25 17 18 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release

  5. Florida Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Florida Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA NA 6 12 2000's 9 7 7 6 6 2 1 12 0 2 2010's 2 4 3 9 6 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Proved Nonproducing Reserves of Crude

  6. Illinois Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Illinois Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA NA 4 11 2000's 4 15 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Proved Nonproducing Reserves of Crude Oil Illinois Proved

  7. Kansas Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Kansas Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA NA 11 12 2000's 13 21 23 18 11 16 17 9 11 3 2010's 2 4 6 11 34 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Proved Nonproducing Reserves

  8. Kentucky Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Kentucky Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA NA 0 0 2000's 0 0 4 4 5 5 0 0 1 3 2010's 0 0 0 1 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Proved Nonproducing Reserves of Crude

  9. Louisiana--North Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Louisiana--North Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA NA 18 42 2000's 31 28 16 14 11 17 14 11 9 8 2010's 45 30 13 12 17 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring

  10. Louisiana--South Onshore Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Louisiana--South Onshore Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA NA 143 146 2000's 123 134 139 150 115 148 162 164 122 129 2010's 126 113 125 155 188 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next

  11. Louisiana--State Offshore Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Louisiana--State Offshore Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA NA 37 38 2000's 50 66 30 26 24 28 22 18 13 12 2010's 12 9 19 13 16 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date:

  12. Michigan Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Michigan Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA NA 3 1 2000's 4 6 4 14 10 17 15 2 9 6 2010's 0 0 0 4 3 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Proved Nonproducing Reserves of

  13. Alabama (with State Offshore) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Alabama (with State Offshore) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA NA 4 2 2000's 2 4 1 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 1 2 2 15 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016

  14. Alaska (with Total Offshore) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Alaska (with Total Offshore) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA NA 806 932 2000's 511 389 546 734 707 595 442 400 529 633 2010's 622 566 802 639 548 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015

  15. Arkansas Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Arkansas Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA NA 2 5 2000's 7 4 5 2 3 2 1 0 0 0 2010's 1 0 11 10 8 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Proved Nonproducing Reserves of Crude

  16. California--State Offshore Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) California--State Offshore Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA NA 7 0 2000's 32 30 42 25 30 35 34 27 23 46 2010's 47 62 53 52 46 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date:

  17. Colorado Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Colorado Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA NA 26 30 2000's 49 44 56 61 62 74 102 122 123 42 2010's 180 208 283 607 765 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Proved

  18. Pressure Testing of a High Temperature Naturally Fractured Reservoir

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Pressure Testing of a High Temperature Naturally Fractured Reservoir Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pressure Testing of a High Temperature Naturally Fractured Reservoir Los Alamos National Laboratory has conducted a number of pumping and flow-through tests at the Hot Dry rock (HDR) test site at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. These tests consisted of injecting fresh water at controlled rates up to 12 BPM (32 {ell}/s) and surface pressures up to

  19. Mississippi Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Billion Cubic Feet) New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Mississippi Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2 65 9 1980's 50 31 24 8 20 11 5 3 9 28 1990's 19 8 9 3 8 2 1 2 0 8 2000's 1 19 27 28 7 3 6 1 3 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 2 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  20. Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Billion Cubic Feet) New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 0 3 1980's 0 4 14 8 0 17 2 0 0 12 1990's 2 3 5 4 29 2 29 5 4 1 2000's 0 1 18 3 3 0 0 3 32 0 2010's 904 322 0 79 6 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  1. Texas--State Offshore Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Texas--State Offshore Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA NA 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 1 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring

  2. New Mexico Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) New Mexico Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA NA 97 157 2000's 91 161 146 133 142 171 159 147 136 149 2010's 180 185 232 314 489 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  3. North Dakota Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Barrels) Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) North Dakota Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA NA 17 22 2000's 29 91 62 47 52 56 53 107 148 463 2010's 969 1,421 2,207 3,278 3,456 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016

  4. Ohio Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Ohio Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA NA 0 17 2000's 10 6 8 8 7 7 8 8 7 5 2010's 1 1 2 7 3 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Proved Nonproducing Reserves of Crude Oil

  5. Oklahoma Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Oklahoma Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA NA 98 80 2000's 111 109 105 92 92 101 90 118 129 138 2010's 143 244 279 292 444 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Proved

  6. Pennsylvania Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Barrels) Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Pennsylvania Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA NA 0 5 2000's 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Proved Nonproducing

  7. Wyoming Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Wyoming Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA NA 31 52 2000's 63 74 69 61 45 249 258 208 162 144 2010's 152 188 233 219 362 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Proved

  8. Utah Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Utah Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA NA 36 58 2000's 91 100 91 76 61 52 164 174 140 235 2010's 257 258 368 312 261 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Proved

  9. West Virginia Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Barrels) Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) West Virginia Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA NA 3 3 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 1 1 2 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Proved Nonproducing

  10. Mississippi Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2-2015 Repressuring NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 Vented and Flared NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 Marketed Production NA NA NA NA NA NA 1989-2015 Dry Production 2006

  11. Missouri Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7-2015 Repressuring NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 Vented and Flared NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 Marketed Production NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 Dry Production 2007

  12. Maryland Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6-2015 Repressuring NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 Vented and Flared NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 Marketed Production NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991

  13. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2003-10-01

    This report presents the work done so far on Hunton Formation in West Carney Field in Lincoln County, Oklahoma. West Carney Field produces oil and gas from the Hunton Formation. The field was developed starting in 1995. Some of the unique characteristics of the field include decreasing water oil ratio over time, decreasing gas-oil ratio at the beginning of production, inability to calculate oil reserves in the field based on log data, and sustained oil rates over long periods of time. To understand the unique characteristics of the field, an integrated evaluation was undertaken. Production data from the field were meticulously collected, and over forty wells were cored and logged to better understand the petrophysical and engineering characteristics. Based on the work done in this budget period so far, some of the preliminary conclusions can be listed as follows: (1) Based on PVT analysis, the field most likely contains volatile oil with bubble point close to initial reservoir pressure of 1,900 psia. (2) The initial oil in place, which is contact with existing wells, can be determined by newly developed material balance technique. The oil in place, which is in communication, is significantly less than determined by volumetric analysis, indicating heterogeneous nature of the reservoir. The oil in place, determined by material balance, is greater than determined by decline curve analysis. This difference may lead to additional locations for in fill wells. (3) The core and log evaluation indicates that the intermediate pores (porosity between 2 and 6 %) are very important in determining production potential of the reservoir. These intermediate size pores contain high oil saturation. (4) The limestone part of the reservoir, although low in porosity (mostly less than 6 %) is much more prolific in terms of oil production than the dolomite portion of the reservoir. The reason for this difference is the higher oil saturation in low porosity region. As the average porosity increases, the remaining oil saturation decreases. This is evident from log and core analysis. (5) Using a compositional simulator, we are able to reproduce the important reservoir characteristics by assuming a two layer model. One layer is high permeability region containing water and the other layer is low permeability region containing mostly oil. The results are further verified by using a dual porosity model. Assuming that most of the volatile oil is contained in the matrix and the water is contained in the fractures, we are able to reproduce important reservoir performance characteristics. (6) Evaluation of secondary mechanisms indicates that CO{sub 2} flooding is potentially a viable option if CO{sub 2} is available at reasonable price. We have conducted detailed simulation studies to verify the effectiveness of CO{sub 2} huff-n-puff process. We are in the process of conducting additional lab tests to verify the efficacy of the same displacement. (7) Another possibility of improving the oil recovery is to inject surfactants to change the near well bore wettability of the rock from oil wet to water wet. By changing the wettability, we may be able to retard the water flow and hence improve the oil recovery as a percentage of total fluid produced. If surfactant is reasonably priced, other possibility is also to use huff-n-puff process using surfactants. Laboratory experiments are promising, and additional investigation continues. (8) Preliminary economic evaluation indicates that vertical wells outperform horizontal wells. Future work in the project would include: (1) Build multi-well numerical model to reproduce overall reservoir performance rather than individual well performance. Special emphasis will be placed on hydrodynamic connectivity between wells. (2) Collect data from adjacent Hunton reservoirs to validate our understanding of what makes it a productive reservoir. (3) Develop statistical methods to rank various reservoirs in Hunton formation. This will allow us to evaluate other Hunton formations based on old well logs, and determine, apriori, if

  14. THMC Modeling of EGS Reservoirs -- Continuum through Discontinuum Representations. Capturing Reservoir Stimulation, Evolution and Induced Seismicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elsworth, Derek; Izadi, Ghazal; Gan, Quan; Fang, Yi; Taron, Josh; Sonnenthal, Eric

    2015-07-28

    This work has investigated the roles of effective stress induced by changes in fluid pressure, temperature and chemistry in contributing to the evolution of permeability and induced seismicity in geothermal reservoirs. This work has developed continuum models [1] to represent the progress or seismicity during both stimulation [2] and production [3]. These methods have been used to resolve anomalous observations of induced seismicity at the Newberry Volcano demonstration project [4] through the application of modeling and experimentation. Later work then focuses on the occurrence of late stage seismicity induced by thermal stresses [5] including the codifying of the timing and severity of such responses [6]. Furthermore, mechanistic linkages between observed seismicity and the evolution of permeability have been developed using data from the Newberry project [7] and benchmarked against field injection experiments. Finally, discontinuum models [8] incorporating the roles of discrete fracture networks have been applied to represent stimulation and then thermal recovery for new arrangements of geothermal wells incorporating the development of flow manifolds [9] in order to increase thermal output and longevity in EGS systems.

  15. Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project Objectives: Elucidate comprehensively the carbonation reaction mechanisms between supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and reservoir rocks consisting of different mineralogical compositions in aqueous and non-aqueous environments at temperatures of up to 250ºC, and to develop chemical modeling of CO2-reservior rock interactions.

  16. Evaluation of field development plans using 3-D reservoir modelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seifert, D.; Lewis, J.J.M.; Newbery, J.D.H.

    1997-08-01

    Three-dimensional reservoir modelling has become an accepted tool in reservoir description and is used for various purposes, such as reservoir performance prediction or integration and visualisation of data. In this case study, a small Northern North Sea turbiditic reservoir was to be developed with a line drive strategy utilising a series of horizontal producer and injector pairs, oriented north-south. This development plan was to be evaluated and the expected outcome of the wells was to be assessed and risked. Detailed analyses of core, well log and analogue data has led to the development of two geological {open_quotes}end member{close_quotes} scenarios. Both scenarios have been stochastically modelled using the Sequential Indicator Simulation method. The resulting equiprobable realisations have been subjected to detailed statistical well placement optimisation techniques. Based upon bivariate statistical evaluation of more than 1000 numerical well trajectories for each of the two scenarios, it was found that the wells inclinations and lengths had a great impact on the wells success, whereas the azimuth was found to have only a minor impact. After integration of the above results, the actual well paths were redesigned to meet external drilling constraints, resulting in substantial reductions in drilling time and costs.

  17. Advanced Reservoir Imaging Using Frequency-Dependent Seismic Attributes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred Hilterman; Tad Patzek; Gennady Goloshubin; Dmitriy Silin; Charlotte Sullivan; Valeri Korneev

    2007-12-31

    Our report concerning advanced imaging and interpretation technology includes the development of theory, the implementation of laboratory experiments and the verification of results using field data. We investigated a reflectivity model for porous fluid-saturated reservoirs and demonstrated that the frequency-dependent component of the reflection coefficient is asymptotically proportional to the reservoir fluid mobility. We also analyzed seismic data using different azimuths and offsets over physical models of fractures filled with air and water. By comparing our physical model synthetics to numerical data we have identified several diagnostic indicators for quantifying the fractures. Finally, we developed reflectivity transforms for predicting pore fluid and lithology using rock-property statistics from 500 reservoirs in both the shelf and deep-water Gulf of Mexico. With these transforms and seismic AVO gathers across the prospect and its down-dip water-equivalent reservoir, fluid saturation can be estimated without a calibration well that ties the seismic. Our research provides the important additional mechanisms to recognize, delineate, and validate new hydrocarbon reserves and assist in the development of producing fields.

  18. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2005-02-01

    Hunton formation in Oklahoma has displayed some unique production characteristics. These include high initial water-oil and gas-oil ratios, decline in those ratios over time and temporary increase in gas-oil ratio during pressure build up. The formation also displays highly complex geology, but surprising hydrodynamic continuity. This report addresses three key issues related specifically to West Carney Hunton field and, in general, to any other Hunton formation exhibiting similar behavior: (1) What is the primary mechanism by which oil and gas is produced from the field? (2) How can the knowledge gained from studying the existing fields can be extended to other fields which have the potential to produce? (3) What can be done to improve the performance of this reservoir? We have developed a comprehensive model to explain the behavior of the reservoir. By using available production, geological, core and log data, we are able to develop a reservoir model which explains the production behavior in the reservoir. Using easily available information, such as log data, we have established the parameters needed for a field to be economically successful. We provide guidelines in terms of what to look for in a new field and how to develop it. Finally, through laboratory experiments, we show that surfactants can be used to improve the hydrocarbons recovery from the field. In addition, injection of CO{sub 2} or natural gas also will help us recover additional oil from the field.

  19. Improved Oil Recovery in Mississippian Carbonate Reservoirs of Kansas - Near-Term, Class II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, Timothy R.; Green, Don W.; Willhite, G. Paul

    2001-10-30

    The focus of this project was development and demonstration of cost-effective reservoir description and management technologies to extend the economic life of mature reservoirs in Kansas and the mid-continent.

  20. Analysis of Geothermal Reservoir Stimulation using Geomechanics-Based Stochastic Analysis of Injection-Induced Seismicity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project will develop a model for seismicity-based reservoir characterization (SBRC) by combining rock mechanics; finite element modeling; geo-statistical concepts to establish relationships between micro-seismicity; reservoir flow and geomechanical characteristics.

  1. Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. Quarterly report, July 1995--September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, J.R.

    1995-10-01

    Research continued on reservoir characterization. An atlas of thin section petrology of reservoir samples from the Southern San Joaquin Basin was acquired. One-dimensional modeling activities were initiated. Results of a modeling study of Elk Hills is described.

  2. FRAC-STIM: A Physics-Based Fracture Simulation, /reservoir Flow...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FRAC-STIM: A Physics-Based Fracture Simulation, reservoir Flow and Heat Transport Simulator(aka FALCON) FRAC-STIM: A Physics-Based Fracture Simulation, reservoir Flow and Heat ...

  3. Texas--RRC District 8A Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 8A Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

  4. Texas--RRC District 7B Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 7B Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

  5. Texas--RRC District 7C Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 7C Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

  6. New York Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

  7. NEUTRINO-COOLED ACCRETION MODEL WITH MAGNETIC COUPLING FOR X-RAY FLARES IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo Yang; Gu Weimin; Liu Tong; Lu Jufu, E-mail: guwm@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2013-08-20

    The neutrino-cooled accretion disk, which was proposed to work as the central engine of gamma-ray bursts, encounters difficulty in interpreting the X-ray flares after the prompt gamma-ray emission. In this paper, the magnetic coupling (MC) between the inner disk and the central black hole (BH) is taken into consideration. For mass accretion rates around 0.001 {approx} 0.1 M{sub Sun} s{sup -1}, our results show that the luminosity of neutrino annihilation can be significantly enhanced due to the coupling effects. As a consequence, after the gamma-ray emission, a remnant disk with mass M{sub disk} {approx}< 0.5 M{sub Sun} may power most of the observed X-ray flares with the rest frame duration less than 100 s. In addition, a comparison between the MC process and the Blandford-Znajek mechanism is shown on the extraction of BH rotational energy.

  8. A SEARCH FOR ENHANCED VERY HIGH ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE 2013 MARCH CRAB NEBULA FLARE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M.; Archambault, S.; Aune, T.; Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Feng, Q.; Dumm, J.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S. E-mail: gtrichards@gatech.edu; and others

    2014-01-20

    In 2013 March, a flaring episode from the Crab Nebula lasting ?2 weeks was detected by Fermi-LAT (Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope). The Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) provides simultaneous observations throughout this period. During the flare, Fermi-LAT detected a 20 fold increase in flux above the average synchrotron flux >100MeV seen from the Crab Nebula. Simultaneous measurements with VERITAS are consistent with the non-variable long-term average Crab Nebula flux at TeV energies. Assuming a linear correlation between the very high energy flux change >1TeV and the flux change seen in the Fermi-LAT band >100MeV during the period of simultaneous observations, the linear correlation factor can be constrained to be at most 8.6 10{sup 3} with 95% confidence.

  9. Monitoring EGS Stimulation and Reservoir Dynamics with InSAR and MEQ |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy EGS Stimulation and Reservoir Dynamics with InSAR and MEQ Monitoring EGS Stimulation and Reservoir Dynamics with InSAR and MEQ Monitoring EGS Stimulation and Reservoir Dynamics with InSAR and MEQ presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. PDF icon monitoring_egs_insar_meq_peer2013.pdf More Documents & Publications Novel use of 4D Monitoring Techniques to Improve Reservoir Longevity and Productivity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

  10. Lower Watts Bar Reservoir Clinch River/Poplar Creek | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Watts Bar Reservoir Clinch River/Poplar Creek Lower Watts Bar Reservoir Clinch River/Poplar Creek This document discusses the Lower Watts Bar Reservoir Clinch River/Poplar Creek. Topics include: * The area's safety * Any use limitations for the area * History and cleanup background for this area * How DOE's cleanup program addressed the problem PDF icon Lower Watts Bar Reservoir Clinch River/Poplar Creek More Documents & Publications EA-1175: Final Environmental Assessment OREM

  11. UNDERSTANDING THE IMPACT OF RETURN-CURRENT LOSSES ON THE X-RAY EMISSION FROM SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holman, Gordon D., E-mail: Gordon.D.Holman@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-01-20

    I obtain and examine the implications of one-dimensional analytic solutions for return-current losses on an initially power-law distribution of energetic electrons with a sharp low-energy cutoff in flare plasma with classical (collisional) resistivity. These solutions show, for example, that return-current losses are not sensitive to plasma density, but are sensitive to plasma temperature and the low-energy cutoff of the injected nonthermal electron distribution. A characteristic distance from the electron injection site, x{sub rc}, is derived. At distances less than x{sub rc} the electron flux density is not reduced by return-current losses, but plasma heating can be substantial in this region, in the upper, coronal part of the flare loop. Before the electrons reach the collisional thick-target region of the flare loop, an injected power-law electron distribution with a low-energy cutoff maintains that structure, but with a flat energy distribution below the cutoff energy, which is now determined by the total potential drop experienced by the electrons. Modifications due to the presence of collisional losses are discussed. I compare these results with earlier analytical results and with more recent numerical simulations. Emslie's conjecture that there is a maximum integrated X-ray source brightness on the order of 10{sup -15} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} is examined. I find that this is not actually the maximum brightness and its value is parameter dependent, but it is nevertheless a valuable benchmark for identifying return-current losses in hard X-ray spectra. I discuss an observational approach to identifying return-current losses in flare data, including identification of a return-current 'bump' in X-ray light curves at low photon energies.

  12. Mapping of Reservoir Properties and Facies Through Integration of Static and Dynamic Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, Albert C.; Oliver, Dean S.; Zhang, Fengjun; Dong, Yannong; Skjervheim, Jan Arild; Liu, Ning

    2003-03-10

    The goal of this project was to develop computationally efficient automatic history matching techniques for generating geologically plausible reservoir models which honor both static and dynamic data. Solution of this problem was necessary for the quantification of uncertainty in future reservoir performance predictions and for the optimization of reservoir management.

  13. THE IMPACT OF BOUND STELLAR ORBITS AND GENERAL RELATIVITY ON THE TEMPORAL BEHAVIOR OF TIDAL DISRUPTION FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Lixin; Escala, Andres; Coppi, Paolo

    2013-09-20

    We have carried out general relativistic particle simulations of stars tidally disrupted by massive black holes. When a star is disrupted in a bound orbit with moderate eccentricity instead of a parabolic orbit, the temporal behavior of the resulting stellar debris changes qualitatively. The debris is initially all bound, returning to pericenter in a short time about the original stellar orbital timescale. The resulting fallback rate can thus be much higher than the Eddington rate. Furthermore, if the star is disrupted close to the hole, in a regime where general relativity is important, the stellar and debris orbits display general relativistic precession. Apsidal precession can make the debris stream cross itself after several orbits, likely leading to fast debris energy dissipation. If the star is disrupted in an inclined orbit around a spinning hole, nodal precession reduces the probability of self-intersection, and circularization may take many dynamical timescales, delaying the onset of flare activity. An examination of the particle dynamics suggests that quasi-periodic flares with short durations, produced when the center of the tidal stream passes pericenter, may occur in the early-time light curve. The late-time light curve may still show power-law behavior which is generic to disk accretion processes. The detection triggers for future surveys should be extended to capture such 'non-standard' short-term flaring activity before the event enters the asymptotic decay phase, as this activity is likely to be more sensitive to physical parameters such as the black hole spin.

  14. Nanosensors as Reservoir Engineering Tools to Map Insitu Temperature Distributions in Geothermal Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan Ames

    2011-06-15

    The feasibility of using nanosensors to measure temperature distribution and predict thermal breakthrough in geothermal reservoirs is addressed in this report. Four candidate sensors were identified: melting tin-bismuth alloy nanoparticles, silica nanoparticles with covalently-attached dye, hollow silica nanoparticles with encapsulated dye and impermeable melting shells, and dye-polymer composite time-temperature indicators. Four main challenges associated with the successful implementation of temperature nanosensors were identified: nanoparticle mobility in porous and fractured media, the collection and detection of nanoparticles at the production well, engineering temperature sensing mechanisms that are both detectable and irreversible, and inferring the spatial geolocation of temperature measurements in order to map temperature distribution. Initial experiments were carried out to investigate each of these challenges. It was demonstrated in a slim-tube injection experiment that it is possible to transport silica nanoparticles over large distances through porous media. The feasibility of magnetic collection of nanoparticles from produced fluid was evaluated experimentally, and it was estimated that 3% of the injected nanoparticles were recovered in a prototype magnetic collection device. An analysis technique was tailored to nanosensors with a dye-release mechanism to estimate temperature measurement geolocation by analyzing the return curve of the released dye. This technique was used in a hypothetical example problem, and good estimates of geolocation were achieved. Tin-bismuth alloy nanoparticles were synthesized using a sonochemical method, and a bench heating experiment was performed using these nanoparticles. Particle growth due to melting was observed, indicating that tin-bismuth nanoparticles have potential as temperature nanosensors

  15. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2001-06-16

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  16. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2001-12-11

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  17. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. Scott Hickman

    2003-01-17

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  18. South Dakota Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 9 8 10 48 35 47 64 0 1980's 0 0 0 200 371 394 92 231 363 335 1990's 253 77 30 19 22 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  19. North Dakota Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 8,684 113 2,358 1990's 2,386 2,128 2,391 2,231 2,577 2,813 2,727 196 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  20. U.S. Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1973 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1974 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1975 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1976 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1977 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1978 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1979 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1980 110,000 105,000 114,000 110,000 118,000 114,000 114,000 114,000 115,000 118,000 112,000 122,000 1981 108,000 101,000 109,000 108,000 115,000 109,000

  1. New Mexico Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 1,508 355 403 1970's 1,022 8,293 8,128 7,157 14,832 16,232 14,470 1980's 13,057 12,173 12,339 13,759 12,520 14,993 14,485 15,465 15,184 17,104 1990's 16,125 17,094 16,540 16,568 18,982 9,615 10,131 10,456 10,032 9,781 2000's 15,280 20,009 20,977 9,817 8,674 8,151 7,437 7,637 7,671 7,740 2010's 7,513 6,687 9,906 12,583 16,701

  2. North Dakota Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 8,684 113 2,358 1990's 2,386 2,128 2,391 2,231 2,577 2,813 2,727 196 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  3. South Dakota Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 9 8 10 48 35 47 64 0 1980's 0 0 0 200 371 394 92 231 363 335 1990's 253 77 30 19 22 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  4. New Mexico Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 1,585 1,316 1,468 1,420 1,417 1,348 1,272 1,370 1,380 1,501 1,484 1,532 1992 1,381 1,233 1,393 1,237 1,500 1,429 1,555 1,390 1,413 1,563 1,247 1,198 1993 1,024 1,175 1,499 1,478 1,540 1,386 1,374 1,442 1,387 1,395 1,329 1,537 1994 1,173 1,346 1,718 1,693 1,765 1,588 1,574 1,652 1,589 1,599 1,523 1,761 1995 594 682 870 858 894 804 797 837 805 810 771 892 1996 884 824 900 864 906 859 816 828 796 806 811 838 1997 904 827 920 887 912 843 883

  5. U.S. Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1930's 73,507 84,925 101,551 171,401 1940's 362,916 644,379 752,619 824,803 882,979 1,061,951 1,038,242 1,083,119 1,220,579 1,273,205 1950's 1,396,546 1,438,827 1,410,501 1,438,606 1,518,737 1,540,804 1,426,648 1,417,263 1,482,975 1,612,109 1960's 1,753,996 1,682,754 1,736,722 1,843,297 1,647,108 1,604,204 1,451,516 1,590,574 1,486,092 1,455,205 1970's 1,376,351 1,310,458 1,236,292 1,171,361 1,079,890 860,956 859,410

  6. North Dakota Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 223 222 230 228 233 230 239 233 222 207 220 242 1997 110 87 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0...

  7. South Dakota Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 13 10 8 7 1 1 8 7 6 6 5 4 1992 4 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 4 2 1 1993 0 0 0 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 1994 3 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1995 0 0...

  8. New York Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0...

  9. New Mexico Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 1,508 355 403 1970's 1,022 8,293 8,128 7,157 14,832 16,232 14,470 1980's 13,057 12,173 12,339...

  10. New York Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0...

  11. GPFA-AB_Phase1ReservoirTask2DataUpload

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teresa E. Jordan

    2015-10-22

    This submission to the Geothermal Data Repository (GDR) node of the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) in support of Phase 1 Low Temperature Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis for the Appalachian Basin. The files included in this zip file contain all data pertinent to the methods and results of this tasks output, which is a cohesive multi-state map of all known potential geothermal reservoirs in our region, ranked by their potential favorability. Favorability is quantified using a new metric, Reservoir Productivity Index, as explained in the Reservoirs Methodology Memo (included in zip file). Shapefile and images of the Reservoir Productivity and Reservoir Uncertainty are included as well.

  12. On the variation of solar flare coronal X-ray source sizes with energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey, Natasha L. S.; Kontar, Eduard P.; Bian, Nicolas H. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ Glasgow (United Kingdom); Emslie, A. Gordon, E-mail: n.jeffrey@physics.gla.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    Observations with RHESSI have enabled the detailed study of the structure of dense hard X-ray coronal sources in solar flares. The variation of source extent with electron energy has been discussed in the context of streaming of non-thermal particles in a one-dimensional cold target model and the results used to constrain both the physical extent of, and density within, the electron acceleration region. Here, we extend this investigation to a more physically realistic model of electron transport that takes into account the finite temperature of the ambient plasma, the initial pitch angle distribution of the accelerated electrons, and the effects of collisional pitch angle scattering. The finite temperature results in the thermal diffusion of electrons, which leads to the observationally inferred value of the acceleration region volume being an overestimate of its true value. The different directions of the electron trajectories, a consequence of both the non-zero injection pitch angle and scattering within the target, cause the projected propagation distance parallel to the guiding magnetic field to be reduced, so that a one-dimensional interpretation can overestimate the actual density by a factor of up to ?6. The implications of these results for the determination of acceleration region properties (specific acceleration rate, filling factor, etc.) are discussed.

  13. KAPPA DISTRIBUTION MODEL FOR HARD X-RAY CORONAL SOURCES OF SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oka, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Krucker, S.; Lin, R. P. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California Berkeley (United States)] [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California Berkeley (United States)

    2013-02-10

    Solar flares produce hard X-ray emission, the photon spectrum of which is often represented by a combination of thermal and power-law distributions. However, the estimates of the number and total energy of non-thermal electrons are sensitive to the determination of the power-law cutoff energy. Here, we revisit an 'above-the-loop' coronal source observed by RHESSI on 2007 December 31 and show that a kappa distribution model can also be used to fit its spectrum. Because the kappa distribution has a Maxwellian-like core in addition to a high-energy power-law tail, the emission measure and temperature of the instantaneous electrons can be derived without assuming the cutoff energy. Moreover, the non-thermal fractions of electron number/energy densities can be uniquely estimated because they are functions of only the power-law index. With the kappa distribution model, we estimated that the total electron density of the coronal source region was {approx}2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}. We also estimated without assuming the source volume that a moderate fraction ({approx}20%) of electrons in the source region was non-thermal and carried {approx}52% of the total electron energy. The temperature was 28 MK, and the power-law index {delta} of the electron density distribution was -4.3. These results are compared to the conventional power-law models with and without a thermal core component.

  14. Dynamics of double layers, ion acceleration, and heat flux suppression during solar flares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, T. C.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.

    2014-09-20

    Observations of flare-heated electrons in the corona typically suggest confinement of electrons. The confinement mechanism, however, remains unclear. The transport of coronal hot electrons into ambient plasma was recently investigated by particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Electron transport was significantly suppressed by the formation of a highly localized, nonlinear electrostatic potential in the form of a double layer (DL). In this work large-scale PIC simulations are performed to explore the dynamics of DLs in larger systems where, instead of a single DL, multiple DLs are generated. The primary DL accelerates return current electrons, resulting in high velocity electron beams that interact with ambient ions. This forms a Buneman unstable system that spawns more DLs. Trapping of heated return current electrons between multiple DLs strongly suppresses electron transport. DLs also accelerate ambient ions and produce strong ion flows over an extended region. This clarifies the mechanism by which hot electrons in the corona couple to and accelerate ions to form the solar wind. These new dynamics in larger systems reveal a more likely picture of DL development and their impact on the ambient plasma in the solar corona. They are applicable to the preparation for in situ coronal space missions like the Solar Probe Plus.

  15. The formation of kappa-distribution accelerated electron populations in solar flares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bian, Nicolas H.; Stackhouse, Duncan J.; Kontar, Eduard P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Emslie, A. Gordon, E-mail: n.bian@physics.gla.ac.uk, E-mail: d.stackhouse.1@research.gla.ac.uk, E-mail: eduard@astro.gla.ac.uk, E-mail: emslieg@wku.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Driven by recent RHESSI observations of confined loop-top hard X-ray sources in solar flares, we consider stochastic acceleration of electrons in the presence of Coulomb collisions. If electron escape from the acceleration region can be neglected, the electron distribution function is determined by a balance between diffusive acceleration and collisions. Such a scenario admits a stationary solution for the electron distribution function that takes the form of a kappa distribution. We show that the evolution toward this kappa distribution involves a 'wave front' propagating forward in velocity space, so that electrons of higher energy are accelerated later; the acceleration timescales with energy according to ?{sub acc} ? E {sup 3/2}. At sufficiently high energies escape from the finite-length acceleration region will eventually dominate. For such energies, the electron velocity distribution function is obtained by solving a time-dependent Fokker-Planck equation in the 'leaky-box' approximation. Solutions are obtained in the limit of a small escape rate from an acceleration region that can effectively be considered a thick target.

  16. RAPID ENHANCEMENT OF SHEARED EVERSHED FLOW ALONG THE NEUTRAL LINE ASSOCIATED WITH AN X6.5 FLARE OBSERVED BY HINODE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng Na; Choudhary, Debi Prasad; Liu Chang; Wang Haimin E-mail: debiprasad.choudhary@csun.edu E-mail: haimin@flare.njit.edu

    2011-05-20

    We present G-band and Ca II H observations of NOAA AR 10930 obtained by Hinode/SOT on 2006 December 6 covering an X6.5 flare. The Local Correlation Tracking technique was applied to the foreshortening-corrected G-band image series to acquire horizontal proper motions in this complex {beta}{gamma}{delta} active region. With the continuous high-quality, spatial and temporal resolution G-band data, we not only confirm the rapid decay of outer penumbrae and darkening of the central structure near the flaring neutral line, but also unambiguously detect for the first time the enhancement of the sheared Evershed flow (average horizontal flow speed increased from 330 {+-} 3.1 to 403 {+-} 4.6 m s{sup -1}) along the neutral line right after the eruptive white-light flare. Post-flare Ca II H images indicate that the originally fanning out field lines at the two sides of the neutral line get connected. Since penumbral structure and Evershed flow are closely related to photospheric magnetic inclination or horizontal field strength, we interpret the rapid changes of sunspot structure and surface flow as the result of flare-induced magnetic restructuring down to the photosphere. The magnetic fields turn from fanning out to inward connection causing outer penumbrae decay, meanwhile those near the flaring neutral line become more horizontal leading to stronger Evershed flow there. The inferred enhancement of horizontal magnetic field near the neutral line is consistent with recent magnetic observations and theoretical predictions of flare-invoked photospheric magnetic field change.

  17. Monitoring the Bulalo geothermal reservoir, Philippines, using precision gravity data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    San Andres, R.B.; Pedersen, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    Precision gravity monitoring of the Bulalo geothermal field began in 1980 to estimate the natural mass recharge to the reservoir. Between 1980 and 1991, gravity decreases exceeding 2.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} N/kg (250 microgals) were observed in response to fluid withdrawals. A maximum rate of {minus}26 microgals per year was observed near the production center. Mass discharges predicted by recent reservoir simulation modeling generally match those inferred from the observed gravity data. According to simulation studies, no recharge occurred between 1980 and 1984. The mass recharge between 1984 and 1991 was estimated to be 30% of net fluid withdrawal during the same period, equivalent to an average rate of 175 kg/s (630 metric tons per hour).

  18. Seismic analysis applied to the delimiting of a gas reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronquillo, G.; Navarro, M.; Lozada, M.; Tafolla, C.

    1996-08-01

    We present the results of correlating seismic models with petrophysical parameters and well logs to mark the limits of a gas reservoir in sand lenses. To fulfill the objectives of the study, we used a data processing sequence that included wavelet manipulation, complex trace attributes and pseudovelocities inversion, along with several quality control schemes to insure proper amplitude preservation. Based on the analysis and interpretation of the seismic sections, several areas of interest were selected to apply additional signal treatment as preconditioning for petrophysical inversion. Signal classification was performed to control the amplitudes along the horizons of interest, and to be able to find an indirect interpretation of lithologies. Additionally, seismic modeling was done to support the results obtained and to help integrate the interpretation. The study proved to be a good auxiliary tool in the location of the probable extension of the gas reservoir in sand lenses.

  19. Lower 48 States Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Barrels) Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Lower 48 States Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA NA 3,341 3,274 2000's 3,508 4,806 4,725 4,846 4,436 5,096 4,732 5,055 4,871 5,382 2010's 6,358 8,483 11,082 12,561 14,268 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  20. On Leakage from Geologic Storage Reservoirs of CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, Karsten

    2006-02-14

    Large amounts of CO2 would need to be injected underground to achieve a significant reduction of atmospheric emissions. The large areal extent expected for CO2 plumes makes it likely that caprock imperfections will be encountered, such as fault zones or fractures, which may allow some CO2 to escape from the primary storage reservoir. Leakage of CO2 could also occur along wellbores. Concerns with escape of CO2 from a primary geologic storage reservoir include (1) acidification of groundwater resources, (2) asphyxiation hazard when leaking CO2 is discharged at the land surface, (3) increase in atmospheric concentrations of CO2, and (4) damage from a high-energy, eruptive discharge (if such discharge is physically possible). In order to gain public acceptance for geologic storage as a viable technology for reducing atmospheric emissions of CO2, it is necessary to address these issues and demonstrate that CO2 can be injected and stored safely in geologic formations.

  1. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olson; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla

    2004-06-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and the Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plan that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data were to be generated during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The demonstration phase has been delayed by Goldrus because of funding problems. Since the first of the year, Goldrus has been active in searching for partners to help finance the project. To this end it has commissioned several small consulting studies to technically support its effort to secure a partner. After financial support is obtained, the demonstration phase of the project will proceed. Since just after the beginning of the year, BEG has curtailed project activities and spending of DOE funds except for the continued support of one engineering student. This student has now completed his work and has written a thesis describing his research (titled ''Stimulating enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in west Texas light oil reservoir''). We plan to recommence our work on the project as soon as the operator obtains necessary funding to carry out the demonstration phase of the project. In order to complete all activities specified in the proposal, it will be necessary to request an extension of the project from the originally defined completion date. We are confident that Goldrus will obtain the necessary funding to continue and that we can complete the project if an extension is granted. We strongly believe that the results of this study will provide the impetus for a new approach to enhanced oil recovery in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the United States.

  2. State of Seismic Methods For Geothermal Reservoir Exploration and Assessment

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    -D Seismic Methods For Geothermal Reservoir Exploration and Assessment - Summary E.L Majer Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Introduction A wide variety of seismic methods covering the spectrum from DC to kilohertz have been employed at one time or the other in geothermal environments. The reasons have varied from exploration for a heat source to attempting to find individual fractures producing hot fluids. For the purposes here we will assume that overall objective of seismic imaging is for

  3. NFFLOW: A reservoir simulator incorporating explicit fractures (SPE 153890)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, E.J.; Sams, W.N.

    2012-01-01

    NFFLOW is a research code that quickly and inexpensively simulates flow in moderately fractured reservoirs. It explicitly recognizes fractures separately from rock matrix. In NFFLOW fracture flow is proportional to the pressure gradient along the fracture, and flow in the rock matrix is determined by Darcys Law. The two flow mechanisms are coupled through the pressure gradient between a fracture and its adjacent rock matrix. Presented is a promising change to NFFLOW that allows for flow across a rock matrix block.

  4. Published New Reservoir Proved Revision Revision New Field Discoveries

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Total natural gas proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, wet after lease separation, 2014 billion cubic feet Published New Reservoir Proved Revision Revision New Field Discoveries Estimated Proved Reserves Adjustments Increases Decreases Sales Acquisitions Extensions Discoveries in Old Fields Production Reserves State and subdivision 12/31/13 (+,-) (+) (-) (-) (+) (+) (+) (+) (-) 12/31/14 Alaska 7,383 -25 268 690 167 195 146 0 0 305 6,805 Lower 48 States 346,611 4,930 55,060 53,654

  5. Published New Reservoir Proved Revision Revision New Field Discoveries

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Nonassociated natural gas proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, wet after lease separation, 2014 billion cubic feet Published New Reservoir Proved Revision Revision New Field Discoveries Estimated Proved Reserves Adjustments Increases Decreases Sales Acquisitions Extensions Discoveries in Old Fields Production Reserves State and Subdivision 12/31/13 (+,-) (+) (-) (-) (+) (+) (+) (+) (-) 12/31/14 Alaska 955 -24 89 137 0 34 138 0 0 101 954 Lower 48 States 294,549 3,533 41,975 44,047

  6. Published New Reservoir Proved Revision Revision New Field Discoveries

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Associated-dissolved natural gas proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, wet after lease separation, 2014 billion cubic feet Published New Reservoir Proved Revision Revision New Field Discoveries Estimated Proved Reserves Adjustments Increases Decreases Sales Acquisitions Extensions Discoveries in Old Fields Production Reserves State and Subdivision 12/31/13 (+,-) (+) (-) (-) (+) (+) (+) (+) (-) 12/31/14 Alaska 6,428 -1 179 553 167 161 8 0 0 204 5,851 Lower 48 States 52,062 1,397

  7. Mercury Speciation in Piscivorous Fish from Mining-impacted Reservoirs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mercury Speciation in Piscivorous Fish from Mining-impacted Reservoirs Mercury toxicity generates environmental concerns in diverse aquatic systems because methylmercury enters the water column in diverse ways then biomagnifies through food webs. At the apex of many freshwater food webs, piscivorous fish can then extend that trophic transfer and potential for neurotoxicity to wildlife and humans. Mining activities, particularly those associated with the San Francisco Bay region, can generate

  8. Field development options for a waterflooded heavy-oil reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasraie, M. ); Sammon, P.H. ); Jespersen, P.J. )

    1993-09-01

    Battrum Unit 4 is a moderately heavy-oil reservoir in Saskatchewan producing under waterflood from a thin sand. This paper describes a history match of previous field behavior and systematically analyzes through the use of numerical simulation the potential benefits to production of further waterflooding (with and without infill drilling), steamflooding, and horizontal drilling. It is found that the remaining oil recovery potential of a steamflood with horizontal well is significantly higher than that of any of the waterflood options.

  9. A Parallel Stochastic Framework for Reservoir Characterization and History Matching

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thomas, Sunil G.; Klie, Hector M.; Rodriguez, Adolfo A.; Wheeler, Mary F.

    2011-01-01

    The spatial distribution of parameters that characterize the subsurface is never known to any reasonable level of accuracy required to solve the governing PDEs of multiphase flow or species transport through porous media. This paper presents a numerically cheap, yet efficient, accurate and parallel framework to estimate reservoir parameters, for example, medium permeability, using sensor information from measurements of the solution variables such as phase pressures, phase concentrations, fluxes, and seismic and well log data. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the method.

  10. Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures in Southeastern Idaho using Multicomponent Geothermometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neupane, Ghanashyam; Mattson, Earl D.; McLing, Travis L.; Palmer, Carl D.; Smith, Robert W.; Wood, Thomas R.; Podgorney, Robert K.

    2015-03-01

    Southeastern Idaho exhibits numerous warm springs, warm water from shallow wells, and hot water within oil and gas test wells that indicate a potential for geothermal development in the area. Although the area exhibits several thermal expressions, the measured geothermal gradients vary substantially (19 61 C/km) within this area, potentially suggesting a redistribution of heat in the overlying ground water from deeper geothermal reservoirs. We have estimated reservoir temperatures from measured water compositions using an inverse modeling technique (Reservoir Temperature Estimator, RTEst) that calculates the temperature at which multiple minerals are simultaneously at equilibrium while explicitly accounting for the possible loss of volatile constituents (e.g., CO2), boiling and/or water mixing. Compositions of a selected group of thermal waters representing southeastern Idaho hot/warm springs and wells were used for the development of temperature estimates. The temperature estimates in the the region varied from moderately warm (59 C) to over 175 C. Specifically, hot springs near Preston, Idaho resulted in the highest temperature estimates in the region.

  11. Gypsy Field project in reservoir characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Meara, Jr., D. J.

    1997-05-01

    The overall objective of this project is to use the extensive Gypsy Field laboratory and data set as a focus for developing and testing reservoir characterization methods that are targeted at improved recovery of conventional oil. The Gypsy Field laboratory consists of coupled outcrop and subsurface sites which have been characterized to a degree of detail not possible in a production operation. Data from these sites entail geological descriptions, core measurements, well logs, vertical seismic surveys, a 3D seismic survey, crosswell seismic surveys, and pressure transient well tests. The overall project consists of four interdisciplinary sub-projects which are closely interlinked: modeling depositional environments; sweep efficiency; tracer testing; and integrated 3D seismic interpretation. The first of these aims at improving the ability to model complex depositional environments which trap movable oil. The second is a development geophysics project which proposes to improve the quality of reservoir geological models through better use of 3D seismic data. The third investigates the usefulness of a new numerical technique for identifying unswept oil through rapid calculation of sweep efficiency in large reservoir models. The fourth explores what can be learned from tracer tests in complex depositional environments, particularly those which are fluvial dominated.

  12. Geological input to reservoir simulation, Champion Field, offshore Brunei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, R.; Salahudin, S.; Ho, T.C.

    1994-07-01

    Brunei Shell Petroleum's giant Champion field is in a mature stage of development with about 23 yr of production history to date. The field comprises a complex sequence of Miocene shallow marine and deltaic layered clastic reservoirs cut by numerous growth faults. This study was aimed at providing a quantified estimate of the effect of lateral and vertical discontinuities within the I and J reservoirs on the recovery for both depletion drive and in a waterflood, with a view to identifying the optimal method of completing the development of the oil reserves in this area. Geological input to the ECLIPSE simulator was aimed at quantifying two key parameters: (1) STOIIP connected to the well bore and (2) permeability contrast. Connected STOIIP is a function of the domain size of interconnected sand bodies, and this parameter was quantified by the use of detailed sedimentology resulting in sand-body facies maps for each reservoir sublayer. Permeability contrast was quantified by using a wireline-log based algorithm, calibrated against core data, which improved the existing accuracy of permeability estimates in this part of the field. Results of simulation runs illustrate the importance of quantifying geologic heterogeneity and provide valuable information for future field development planning.

  13. A Thermoelastic Hydraulic Fracture Design Tool for Geothermal Reservoir Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad Ghassemi

    2003-06-30

    Geothermal energy is recovered by circulating water through heat exchange areas within a hot rock mass. Geothermal reservoir rock masses generally consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks that have low matrix permeability. Therefore, cracks and fractures play a significant role in extraction of geothermal energy by providing the major pathways for fluid flow and heat exchange. Thus, knowledge of conditions leading to formation of fractures and fracture networks is of paramount importance. Furthermore, in the absence of natural fractures or adequate connectivity, artificial fracture are created in the reservoir using hydraulic fracturing. At times, the practice aims to create a number of parallel fractures connecting a pair of wells. Multiple fractures are preferred because of the large size necessary when using only a single fracture. Although the basic idea is rather simple, hydraulic fracturing is a complex process involving interactions of high pressure fluid injections with a stressed hot rock mass, mechanical interaction of induced fractures with existing natural fractures, and the spatial and temporal variations of in-situ stress. As a result it is necessary to develop tools that can be used to study these interactions as an integral part of a comprehensive approach to geothermal reservoir development, particularly enhanced geothermal systems. In response to this need we have set out to develop advanced thermo-mechanical models for design of artificial fractures and rock fracture research in geothermal reservoirs. These models consider the significant hydraulic and thermo-mechanical processes and their interaction with the in-situ stress state. Wellbore failure and fracture initiation is studied using a model that fully couples poro-mechanical and thermo-mechanical effects. The fracture propagation model is based on a complex variable and regular displacement discontinuity formulations. In the complex variable approach the displacement discontinuities are defined from the numerical solution of a complex hypersingular integral equation written for a given fracture configuration and loading. The fracture propagation studies include modeling interaction of induced fractures with existing discontinuities such as faults and joints. In addition to the fracture propagation studies, two- and three-dimensional heat extraction solution algorithms have been developed and used to estimate heat extraction and the variations of the reservoir stress with cooling. The numerical models have been developed in a user-friendly environment to create a tool for improving fracture design and investigating single or multiple fracture propagation in rock.

  14. Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Batzle

    2006-04-30

    During this last period of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), we finalized integration of rock physics, well log analysis, seismic processing, and forward modeling techniques. Most of the last quarter was spent combining the results from the principal investigators and come to some final conclusions about the project. Also much of the effort was directed towards technology transfer through the Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators mini-symposium at UH and through publications. As a result we have: (1) Tested a new method to directly invert reservoir properties, water saturation, Sw, and porosity from seismic AVO attributes; (2) Constrained the seismic response based on fluid and rock property correlations; (3) Reprocessed seismic data from Ursa field; (4) Compared thin layer property distributions and averaging on AVO response; (5) Related pressures and sorting effects on porosity and their influence on DHI's; (6) Examined and compared gas saturation effects for deep and shallow reservoirs; (7) Performed forward modeling using geobodies from deepwater outcrops; (8) Documented velocities for deepwater sediments; (9) Continued incorporating outcrop descriptive models in seismic forward models; (10) Held an open DHI symposium to present the final results of the project; (11) Relations between Sw, porosity, and AVO attributes; (12) Models of Complex, Layered Reservoirs; and (14) Technology transfer Several factors can contribute to limit our ability to extract accurate hydrocarbon saturations in deep water environments. Rock and fluid properties are one factor, since, for example, hydrocarbon properties will be considerably different with great depths (high pressure) when compared to shallow properties. Significant over pressure, on the other hand will make the rocks behave as if they were shallower. In addition to the physical properties, the scale and tuning will alter our hydrocarbon indicators. Gas saturated reservoirs change reflection amplitudes significantly. The goal for the final project period was to systematically combine and document these various effects for use in deep water exploration and transfer this knowledge as clearly and effectively as possible.

  15. Altering Reservoir Wettability to Improve Production from Single Wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. W. Weiss

    2006-09-30

    Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured and typically produce less than 10% original oil in place during primary recovery. Spontaneous imbibition has proven an important mechanism for oil recovery from fractured reservoirs, which are usually weak waterflood candidates. In some situations, chemical stimulation can promote imbibition of water to alter the reservoir wettability toward water-wetness such that oil is produced at an economic rate from the rock matrix into fractures. In this project, cores and fluids from five reservoirs were used in laboratory tests: the San Andres formation (Fuhrman Masho and Eagle Creek fields) in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico; and the Interlake, Stony Mountain, and Red River formations from the Cedar Creek Anticline in Montana and South Dakota. Solutions of nonionic, anionic, and amphoteric surfactants with formation water were used to promote waterwetness. Some Fuhrman Masho cores soaked in surfactant solution had improved oil recovery up to 38%. Most Eagle Creek cores did not respond to any of the tested surfactants. Some Cedar Creek anticline cores had good response to two anionic surfactants (CD 128 and A246L). The results indicate that cores with higher permeability responded better to the surfactants. The increased recovery is mainly ascribed to increased water-wetness. It is suspected that rock mineralogy is also an important factor. The laboratory work generated three field tests of the surfactant soak process in the West Fuhrman Masho San Andres Unit. The flawlessly designed tests included mechanical well clean out, installation of new pumps, and daily well tests before and after the treatments. Treatments were designed using artificial intelligence (AI) correlations developed from 23 previous surfactant soak treatments. The treatments were conducted during the last quarter of 2006. One of the wells produced a marginal volume of incremental oil through October. It is interesting to note that the field tests were conducted in an area of the field that has not met production expectations. The dataset on the 23 Phosphoria well surfactant soaks was updated. An analysis of the oil decline curves indicted that 4.5 lb of chemical produced a barrel of incremental oil. The AI analysis supports the adage 'good wells are the best candidates.' The generally better performance of surfactant in the high permeability core laboratory tests supports this observation. AI correlations were developed to predict the response to water-frac stimulations in a tight San Andres reservoir. The correlations maybe useful in the design of Cedar Creek Anticline surfactant soak treatments planned for next year. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance scans of dolomite cores to measure porosity and saturation during the high temperature laboratory work were acquired. The scans could not be correlated with physical measurement using either conventional or AI methods.

  16. An hourglass model for the flare of HST-1 in M87

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wen-Po; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Chen, Yong Jun; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Chun-Cheng

    2013-12-01

    To explain the multi-wavelength light curves (from radio to X-ray) of HST-1 in the M87 jet, we propose an hourglass model that is a modified two-zone system of Tavecchio and Ghisellini (hereafter TG08): a slow hourglass-shaped or Laval-nozzle-shaped layer connected by two revolving exponential surfaces surrounding a fast spine through which plasma blobs flow. Based on the conservation of magnetic flux, the magnetic field changes along the axis of the hourglass. We adopt the result of TG08the high-energy emission from GeV to TeV can be produced through inverse Compton by the two-zone system, and the photons from radio to X-ray are mainly radiated by the fast inner zone system. Here, we only discuss the light curves of the fast inner blob from radio to X-ray. When a compressible blob travels down the axis of the first bulb in the hourglass, because of magnetic flux conservation, its cross section experiences an adiabatic compression process, which results in particle acceleration and the brightening of HST-1. When the blob moves into the second bulb of the hourglass, because of magnetic flux conservation, the dimming of the knot occurs along with an adiabatic expansion of its cross section. A similar broken exponential function could fit the TeV peaks in M87, which may imply a correlation between the TeV flares of M87 and the light curves from radio to X-ray in HST-1. The Very Large Array (VLA) 22 GHz radio light curve of HST-1 verifies our prediction based on the model fit to the main peak of the VLA 15 GHz radio one.

  17. SUNSPOT ROTATION, SIGMOIDAL FILAMENT, FLARE, AND CORONAL MASS EJECTION: THE EVENT ON 2000 FEBRUARY 10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, X. L.; Qu, Z. Q.; Kong, D. F.

    2012-07-20

    We find that a sunspot with positive polarity had an obvious counterclockwise rotation and resulted in the formation and eruption of an inverse S-shaped filament in NOAA Active Region 08858 from 2000 February 9 to 10. The sunspot had two umbrae which rotated around each other by 195 Degree-Sign within about 24 hr. The average rotation rate was nearly 8 Degree-Sign hr{sup -1}. The fastest rotation in the photosphere took place during 14:00 UT to 22:01 UT on February 9, with a rotation rate of nearly 16 Degree-Sign hr{sup -1}. The fastest rotation in the chromosphere and the corona took place during 15:28 UT to 19:00 UT on February 9, with a rotation rate of nearly 20 Degree-Sign hr{sup -1}. Interestingly, the rapid increase of the positive magnetic flux occurred only during the fastest rotation of the rotating sunspot, the bright loop-shaped structure, and the filament. During the sunspot rotation, the inverse S-shaped filament gradually formed in the EUV filament channel. The filament experienced two eruptions. In the first eruption, the filament rose quickly and then the filament loops carrying the cool and the hot material were seen to spiral counterclockwise into the sunspot. About 10 minutes later, the filament became active and finally erupted. The filament eruption was accompanied with a C-class flare and a halo coronal mass ejection. These results provide evidence that sunspot rotation plays an important role in the formation and eruption of the sigmoidal active-region filament.

  18. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability trends. The Lower Grandstand sand consists of two coarsening-upward shoreface sands sequences while the Upper Grandstand consists of a single coarsening-upward shoreface sand. Each of the shoreface sands shows a distinctive permeability profile with high horizontal permeability at the top getting progressively poorer towards the base of the sand. In contrast, deltaic sandstones in the overlying Ninuluk are more permeable at the base of the sands, with decreasing permeability towards the sand top. These trends impart a strong permeability anisotropy to the reservoir and are being incorporated into the reservoir model. These observations also suggest that horizontal wells should target the upper part of the major sands. Natural fractures may superimpose another permeability pattern on the Umiat reservoir that need to be accounted for in both the simulation and in drilling. Examination of legacy core from Umiat field indicate that fractures are present in the subsurface, but don't provide information on their orientation and density. Nearby surface exposures of folds in similar stratigraphy indicate there are at least three possible fracture sets: an early, N/S striking set that may predate folding and two sets possibly related to folding: an EW striking set of extension fractures that are parallel to the fold axes and a set of conjugate shear fractures oriented NE and NW. Analysis of fracture spacing suggests that these natural fractures are fairly widely spaced (25-59 cm depending upon the fracture set), but could provide improved reservoir permeability in horizontal legs drilled perpendicular to the open fracture set. The phase behavior of the Umiat fluid needed to be well understood in order for the reservoir simulation to be accurate. However, only a small amount of Umiat oil was available; this oil was collected in the 1940’s and was severely weathered. The composition of this ‘dead’ Umiat fluid was characterized by gas chromatography. This analysis was then compared to theoretical Umiat composition derived using the Pedersen method with original Umiat fluid properties published in the original reports. This comparison allowed estimation of the ‘lost’ light hydrocarbon fractions. An Umiat 'dead' oil sample then could be physically created by adding the lost light ends to the weatherized Umiat dead oil sample. This recreated sample was recombined with solution gas to create a 'pseudo-live' Umiat oil sample which was then used for experimental PVT and phase behavior studies to determine fluid properties over the range of reservoir pressures and temperatures. The phase behavior of the ‘pseudo-live’ oil was also simulated using the Peng- Robinson equations of state (EOS). The EOS model was tuned with measured experimental data to accurately simulate the differential liberation tests in order to obtain the necessary data for reservoir simulation studies, including bubble point pressure and oil viscosity. The bubble point pressure of the reconstructed Umiat oil is 345 psi, suggesting that maintenance of reservoir pressures above that pressure will be important for the any proposed production technique. A major part of predicting how the Umiat reservoir will perform is determining the relative permeability of oil in the presence of ice. Early in the project, UAF work on samples of the Umiat reservoir indicated that there is a significant reduction in the relatively permeability of oil in the presence of ice. However, it was not clear as to why this reduction occurred or where the ice resided. To explore this further, additional experimental and theoretical work was conducted. Core flood experiments were performed on two clean Berea sandstone cores under permafrost conditions to determine the relative permeability to oil (kro) over a temperature range of 23ºC to - 10ºC and for a range of connate water salinities. Both cores showed maximum reduction in relative permeability to oil when saturated with deionized water and less reduction when saturated with saline water. This reduction in relative permeability can be explained by formation of ice crystals in the center of pores. Theoretically, the radius of ice formed in the center of the pore can be determined using the Kozeny–Carman Equation by assuming the pores and pore throats as a cube with ‘N’ identical parallel pipes embedded in it. Using the values of kro obtained from the experimental work as input to the Kozeny–Carman Equation at -10ºC, the radius of ice crystals dropped from 0.145 μm to 0.069 μm when flooding-water salinity is increased to 6467 ppm. This explains the reduction of relative permeability with decreasing salinity but does not take into consideration other effects such as variations in pore throat structure. In addition, fluids like deionized water, saline water, and antifreeze (a mixture of 60% ethylene or propylene glycol with 40% water) were tested to find the best flooding agent for frozen reservoirs. At 0ºC, 9% greater recovery was observed with antifreeze was used as a flooding agent as compared to using saline water. Antifreeze showed 48% recovery even at -10ºC, at which temperature the rest of the fluids failed to increase production. Preliminary evaluation of drilling fluids indicate that the brine-based muds caused significantly less swelling in the Umiat reservoir sands when compared to fresh-water based muds. However since freezing filtrate is another cause of formation damage, a simple water-based-mud may not a viable option. It is recommended that new fluids be tested, including different salts, brines, polymers and oil-based fluids. These fluids should be tested at low temperatures in order to determine the potential for formation damage, the fluid properties under these conditions and to ensure that the freezing point is below that of the reservoir. In order to reduce the surface footprint while accessing the maximum amount of the Lower Grandstand interval, simulations used development from 5 surface locations with a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers. There is no active aquifer support due to small peizometric head in the area and no existing gas cap, so an alternative method of pressure support is needed. Cold gas injection was used in the simulations as it is considered the most viable means of providing pressure maintenance while maintaining wellbore stability and reducing impact on the permafrost. Saline water injection may be a viable alternative, though this may have a detrimental effect on permafrost. In the short term, the results of this work are being incorporated into Linc Energy’s drilling and development plan. This project has also provided valuable information on the rock and fluid properties of low temperature reservoirs as well as the efficacy of potential production techniques for Umiat or similar shallow frozen reservoirs in the circum-Arctic.

  19. Turbulent pitch-angle scattering and diffusive transport of hard X-ray-producing electrons in flaring coronal loops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kontar, Eduard P.; Bian, Nicolas H.; Emslie, A. Gordon; Vilmer, Nicole E-mail: emslieg@wku.edu

    2014-01-10

    Recent observations from RHESSI have revealed that the number of non-thermal electrons in the coronal part of a flaring loop can exceed the number of electrons required to explain the hard X-ray-emitting footpoints of the same flaring loop. Such sources cannot, therefore, be interpreted on the basis of the standard collisional transport model, in which electrons stream along the loop while losing their energy through collisions with the ambient plasma; additional physical processes, to either trap or scatter the energetic electrons, are required. Motivated by this and other observations that suggest that high-energy electrons are confined to the coronal region of the source, we consider turbulent pitch-angle scattering of fast electrons off low-frequency magnetic fluctuations as a confinement mechanism, modeled as a spatial diffusion parallel to the mean magnetic field. In general, turbulent scattering leads to a reduction of the collisional stopping distance of non-thermal electrons along the loop, and hence to an enhancement of the coronal hard X-ray source relative to the footpoints. The variation of source size L with electron energy E becomes weaker than the quadratic behavior pertinent to collisional transport, with the slope of L(E) depending directly on the mean free path ? associated with the non-collisional scattering mechanism. Comparing the predictions of the model with observations, we find that ? ? (10{sup 8}-10{sup 9}) cm for ?30 keV, less than the length of a typical flaring loop and smaller than, or comparable to, the size of the electron acceleration region.

  20. Stochastic acceleration of electrons by fast magnetosonic waves in solar flares: the effects of anisotropy in velocity and wavenumber space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pongkitiwanichakul, Peera; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.

    2014-11-20

    We develop a model for stochastic acceleration of electrons in solar flares. As in several previous models, the electrons are accelerated by turbulent fast magnetosonic waves ({sup f}ast waves{sup )} via transit-time-damping (TTD) interactions. (In TTD interactions, fast waves act like moving magnetic mirrors that push the electrons parallel or anti-parallel to the magnetic field). We also include the effects of Coulomb collisions and the waves' parallel electric fields. Unlike previous models, our model is two-dimensional in both momentum space and wavenumber space and takes into account the anisotropy of the wave power spectrum F{sub k} and electron distribution function f {sub e}. We use weak turbulence theory and quasilinear theory to obtain a set of equations that describes the coupled evolution of F{sub k} and f {sub e}. We solve these equations numerically and find that the electron distribution function develops a power-law-like non-thermal tail within a restricted range of energies E in (E {sub nt}, E {sub max}). We obtain approximate analytic expressions for E {sub nt} and E {sub max}, which describe how these minimum and maximum energies depend upon parameters such as the electron number density and the rate at which fast-wave energy is injected into the acceleration region at large scales. We contrast our results with previous studies that assume that F{sub k} and f {sub e} are isotropic, and we compare one of our numerical calculations with the time-dependent hard-X-ray spectrum observed during the 1980 June 27 flare. In our numerical calculations, the electron energy spectra are softer (steeper) than in models with isotropic F{sub k} and f {sub e} and closer to the values inferred from observations of solar flares.