National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for flared marketed production

  1. Product transfer service chosen over LPG flaring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horn, J.; Powers, M.

    1994-07-01

    Seadrift Pipeline Corp. recently decommissioned its Ella Pipeline, an 108-mile, 8-in. line between the King Ranch and a Union Carbide plant at Seadrift, Texas. The pipeline company opted for the product transfer services of pipeline Dehydrators Inc. to evacuate the ethane-rich LPG mixture from the pipeline instead of flaring the LPG or displacing it with nitrogen at operating pressures into another pipeline. The product transfer system of Pipeline Dehydrators incorporates the use of highly specialized portable compressors, heat exchangers and interconnected piping. The product transfer process of evacuating a pipeline is an economically viable method that safely recovers a very high percentage of the product while maintaining product purity. Using positive-displacement compressors, PLD transferred the LPG from the idled 8-in. Ella line into an adjacent 12-in. ethane pipeline that remained in service at approximately 800 psig. Approximately 4.3 million lb of LPG (97% ethane, 2.7% methane and 0.3% propane) were transferred into the ethane pipeline, lowering the pressure on the Ella Pipeline from 800 psig to 65 psig.

  2. Natural Gas Marketed Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price Marketed Production Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By:...

  3. Market dynamics immediately before and after financial shocks: Quantifying the Omori, productivity, and Bath laws

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    Market dynamics immediately before and after financial shocks: Quantifying the Omori, productivity market shocks. We define the time of a market shock Tc to be the time for which the market volatility V" triggered by the "main shock" is quan- titatively similar to earthquakes and solar flares, which have been

  4. Relationship between magnetic power spectrum and flare productivity in solar active regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Relationship between magnetic power spectrum and flare productivity in solar active regions V day, being equal to 1 when the specific flare productivity is one C1.0 flare per day. The power index.I. Abramenko Big Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 N. Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314, USA ABSTRACT Power

  5. Free Magnetic Energy and Flare Productivity of Active Regions , Changyi Tan2,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Free Magnetic Energy and Flare Productivity of Active Regions Ju Jing1 , Changyi Tan2,3 , Yuan Yuan with which we are able to estimate the free magnetic energy stored in the active regions. The magnitude scaling correlation between the free magnetic energy and the soft X-ray flare index of active regions

  6. Natural Gas Marketed Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See(STEO),7F e28 3.24 3.23200950 3.69

  7. Natural Gas Marketed Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See(STEO),7F e28 3.24 3.23200950

  8. Natural Gas Marketed Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See(STEO),7F e28 3.24 3.23200950 Monthly

  9. Natural Gas Marketed Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,Decade Year-03.823,172 3,009 2,8515,674,120Market Centers

  10. CERTIFIED FOREST PRODUCTS MARKETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    industry sectors with PEFC C-o-C certification June 2003 Construction 1% Pulp & paper 4% Wood manufacturing% Sawnwood 13% Panels 9% RW & primary 5% Windows & doors 5% Pulp & paper 5% DIY products 6% Trade & retailers 5% Other primary forest industries 6% Sawmilling 39% Timber trade 43% #12;Forest industry sectors

  11. Statistical study of free magnetic energy and flare productivity of solar active regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, J. T.; Jing, J.; Wang, S.; Wang, H. M. [Space Weather Research Laboratory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Wiegelmann, T., E-mail: sjt@bao.ac.cn [Max-Planck-Institut fur Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Strasse 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany)

    2014-06-20

    Photospheric vector magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory are utilized as the boundary conditions to extrapolate both nonlinear force-free and potential magnetic fields in solar corona. Based on the extrapolations, we are able to determine the free magnetic energy (FME) stored in active regions (ARs). Over 3000 vector magnetograms in 61 ARs were analyzed. We compare FME with the ARs' flare index (FI) and find that there is a weak correlation (<60%) between FME and FI. FME shows slightly improved flare predictability relative to the total unsigned magnetic flux of ARs in the following two aspects: (1) the flare productivity predicted by FME is higher than that predicted by magnetic flux and (2) the correlation between FI and FME is higher than that between FI and magnetic flux. However, this improvement is not significant enough to make a substantial difference in time-accumulated FI, rather than individual flare, predictions.

  12. RADIOACTIVE POSITRON EMITTER PRODUCTION BY ENERGETIC ALPHA PARTICLES IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, R. J. [Code 7650, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kozlovsky, B. [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Share, G. H., E-mail: murphy@ssd5.nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: benz@wise.tau.ac.il, E-mail: share@astro.umd.edu [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of the 0.511 MeV positron-annihilation line from solar flares are used to explore the flare process in general and ion acceleration in particular. In flares, positrons are produced primarily by the decay of radioactive positron-emitting isotopes resulting from nuclear interactions of flare-accelerated ions with ambient solar material. Kozlovsky et al. provided ion-energy-dependent production cross sections for 67 positron emitters evaluated from their threshold energies (some <1 MeV nucleon{sup –1}) to a GeV nucleon{sup –1}, incorporating them into a computer code for calculating positron-emitter production. Adequate cross-section measurements were available for proton reactions, but not for ?-particle reactions where only crude estimates were possible. Here we re-evaluate the ?-particle cross sections using new measurements and nuclear reaction codes. In typical large gamma-ray line flares, proton reactions dominate positron production, but ?-particle reactions will dominate for steeper accelerated-ion spectra because of their relatively low threshold energies. With the accelerated-{sup 3}He reactions added previously, the code is now reliable for calculating positron production from any distribution of accelerated-ion energies, not just those of typical flares. We have made the code available in the online version of the Journal. We investigate which reactions, projectiles, and ion energies contribute to positron production. We calculate ratios of the annihilation-line fluence to fluences of other gamma-ray lines. Such ratios can be used in interpreting flare data and in determining which nuclear radiation is most sensitive for revealing acceleration of low-energy ions at the Sun.

  13. ENHANCING MARKETING WITH ENGINEERING: OPTIMAL PRODUCT LINE DESIGN FOR HETEROGENEOUS MARKETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    ENHANCING MARKETING WITH ENGINEERING: OPTIMAL PRODUCT LINE DESIGN FOR HETEROGENEOUS MARKETS Jeremy of Business. #12;- 1 - ENHANCING MARKETING WITH ENGINEERING: OPTIMAL PRODUCT LINE DESIGN FOR HETEROGENEOUS MARKETS ABSTRACT Successful product line design and development often requires balancing technical

  14. Biomass-Derived Energy Products and Co-Products Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biomass-Derived Energy Products and Co-Products Market This report identifies the bio-fuels and co & Earth Science & Technology ­ University of Hawai`i at Manoa #12;Biomass-Derived Energy Products and Co agency thereof. #12;Biomass Derived Energy Products and Co- Products Market and Off-take Study Hawaii

  15. ALTERNATIVE AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES PRODUCTION, MANAGEMENT & MARKETING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Laughlin, Jay

    ALTERNATIVE AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES PRODUCTION, MANAGEMENT & MARKETING Cooperative Extension directly. Otherwise, backtrack to their suppliers, in person or by telephone. For the first few years

  16. Experimental Markets for Product Concepts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Nicholas T.

    2001-07-01

    Market prices are well known to efficiently collect and aggregate diverse information regarding the value of commodities and assets. The role of markets has been particularly suitable to pricing financial securities. This ...

  17. New product forecasting in volatile markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Alexander (Alexander Lee)

    2014-01-01

    Forecasting demand for limited-life cycle products is essentially projecting an arc trend of demand growth and decline over a relatively short time horizon. When planning for a new limited-life product, many marketing and ...

  18. A Market-Driven Approach to Product Family Design A Market-Driven Approach to Product Family Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wei

    A Market-Driven Approach to Product Family Design 1 A Market-Driven Approach to Product Family@psu.edu. #12;A Market-Driven Approach to Product Family Design 2 A Market-Driven Approach to Product Family research interests are in demand modeling, decision-based design, and market-driven product family design

  19. Enhancing marketing with engineering: Optimal product line design for heterogeneous markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    Enhancing marketing with engineering: Optimal product line design for heterogeneous markets Jeremy design and development often require a balance of technical and market tradeoffs. Quantitative methods: John H. Roberts Keywords: Product line design Heterogeneity Decomposition Analytical target cascading

  20. Marketing wood Products on the Internet: IHLA, 1998 Marketing Wood Products on the Internet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marketing wood Products on the Internet: IHLA, 1998 Marketing Wood Products on the Internet IHLA Fall Regional Meetings - 1998 Bob Smith "When history is written, the creation of the Internet may in the past few years than the Internet. Every major newspaper, magazine, and television station have covered

  1. Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities In Latin America: A Focus on Brazil Richard Vlosky, Ph.D. Professor-Forest Products Marketing Interim Director-Louisiana Forest Products Laboratory Industry Strategic Services & Publisher: WOOD Markets Monthly newsletter WOOD Markets 2002 - The Solid Wood

  2. PRODUCTION OF {sup 9}Be THROUGH THE {alpha}-FUSION REACTION OF METAL-POOR COSMIC RAYS AND STELLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kawasaki, Masahiro E-mail: kawasaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2013-04-10

    Spectroscopic observations of metal-poor stars have indicated possible {sup 6}Li abundances that are much larger than the primordial abundance predicted in the standard big bang nucleosynthesis model. Possible mechanisms of {sup 6}Li production in metal-poor stars include pregalactic and cosmological cosmic-ray (CR) nucleosynthesis and nucleosynthesis by flare-accelerated nuclides. We study {sup 9}Be production via two-step {alpha}-fusion reactions of CR or flare-accelerated {sup 3,4}He through {sup 6}He and {sup 6,7}Li, in pregalactic structure, intergalactic medium, and stellar surfaces. We solve transfer equations of CR or flare particles and calculate nuclear yields of {sup 6}He, {sup 6,7}Li, and {sup 9}Be taking account of probabilities of processing {sup 6}He and {sup 6,7}Li into {sup 9}Be via fusions with {alpha} particles. Yield ratios, i.e., {sup 9}Be/{sup 6}Li, are then calculated for the CR and flare nucleosynthesis models. We suggest that the future observations of {sup 9}Be in metal-poor stars may find enhanced abundances originating from metal-poor CR or flare activities.

  3. Consumer Online Search and New-Product Marketing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Ho

    2013-01-01

    intelligence for new-product marketing. My dissertation hasadds new insights to the marketing area. 1.2. ReferencesIndustry,” Journal of Marketing Research, 43 (May), 287-95.

  4. Evaluation of Niche Markets For Small Scale Forest Products Companies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    better equipped to serve each. A similar phenomenon occurred within retail markets in the 1990'sEvaluation of Niche Markets For Small Scale Forest Products Companies Jan J. Hacker Resource.....................................................................................................................3 2.0 Niche Markets in General

  5. Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities Richard Vlosky, Ph.D. Professor-Forest Products Marketing Interim Director-Louisiana Forest Products Laboratory School of Renewable Natural, R.E. Taylor & Associates Ltd. Forest Industry Strategic Services & Publisher: WOOD Markets Monthly

  6. Forest Products Market Information Systems in the UNECE region.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forest Products Market Information Systems in the UNECE region. L. Farquharson August 2007 #12;#12;A report into Forest Products Market Information Systems_____________________________ 1 1. EXECUTIVE____________________________________________________15 #12;2 ____________________________ A report into Forest Products Market Information Systems 2 1

  7. Biomass-Derived Energy Products and Co-Products Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability As part of Cooperative Agreement No. DE-Products Market and Off-take Study Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery, USA Prepared for Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Company Puunene, Hawaii, USA By Stillwater Associates LLC

  8. Production and Marketing Practices for Texas Peaches. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, H. F.; Denman, T. E.; Randolph, U. A.; Storey, J. B.; Sorensen, H. B.; Brison, F. R.; Burns, E. E.; Hancock, B. G.

    1961-01-01

    with the wholesale and retail gr planning the movement of the crop. A well-organized m system requires about 30 days to plan and move the pr from the farm to the consumef. Production and Marketing Practices for Texas Peaches If. F. Morris, T. E. Denman, U. A.... Randolph, J. B. Storey, H. B. Sorensen, F. R. Brison, E. E. Burns and B. G. Hancock* SH EXPLORERS INTRODUCED the first peach into u tne area now included in Texas in the 16th century. Anglo-American colonists early in the 19th century brought...

  9. Coordinated Dynamic Control of Marketing and Production Jian Yang,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Jian

    Coordinated Dynamic Control of Marketing and Production Jian Yang,1 Xiaolong Zhang2 1 Department profit maximization problem for a firm exercising control on both marketing and production. The firm's marketing effort impacts the current-period demand, which in turn affects future demand in a dissipating

  10. Essays on New Product Development in Emerging Markets 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanson, Nicole Lynn

    2015-07-27

    Global firms are increasingly moving new product development (NPD) to large emerging markets, such as India and China. In my dissertation, I study two potential NPD strategies that a global firm can pursue when entering an emerging market- (1...

  11. Linkages between the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Didziulis, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    To understand the crude oil price determination process it is necessary to extend the analysis beyond the markets for petroleum. Crude oil prices are determined in two closely related markets: the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products. An econometric-linear programming model was developed to capture the linkages between the markets for crude oil and refined products. In the LP refiners maximize profits given crude oil supplies, refining capacities, and prices of refined products. The objective function is profit maximization net of crude oil prices. The shadow price on crude oil gives the netback price. Refined product prices are obtained from the econometric models. The model covers the free world divided in five regions. The model is used to analyze the impacts on the markets of policies that affect crude oil supplies, the demands for refined products, and the refining industry. For each scenario analyzed the demand for crude oil is derived from the equilibrium conditions in the markets for products. The demand curve is confronted with a supply curve which maximizes revenues providing an equilibrium solution for both crude oil and product markets. The model also captures crude oil price differentials by quality. The results show that the demands for crude oil are different across regions due to the structure of the refining industries and the characteristics of the demands for refined products. Changes in the demands for products have a larger impact on the markets than changes in the refining industry. Since markets for refined products and crude oil are interrelated they can't be analyzed individually if an accurate and complete assessment of a policy is to be made. Changes in only one product market in one region affect the other product markets and the prices of crude oil.

  12. Microsoft Word - Enable New Products Services and Markets_Final...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    options Enable new products, services, and markets Provide power quality for the digital economy Optimize asset utilization and operate efficiently Anticipate &...

  13. Forecasting consumer products using prediction markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trepte, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Prediction Markets hold the promise of improving the forecasting process. Research has shown that Prediction Markets can develop more accurate forecasts than polls or experts. Our research concentrated on analyzing Prediction ...

  14. U.S. Forest Products Annual Market Review and Prospects,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Abstract This paper describes the current state of the U.S. economy and provides general and statistical Market Trends....................2 Timber Products Production, Trade, and Consumption.....3 Statistics ................................3 Energy Policy Initiatives....................................................9 Wood Energy

  15. Businesses Mobilize Production through Markets: Parametric Modeling of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Douglas R.

    Businesses Mobilize Production through Markets: Parametric Modeling of Path-dependent Outcomes; Revised September 3, 2002; Accepted September 3, 2002 Business is modeled as interlocking social constructions that emerge in mobilizing differentiated production flows amidst uncertainty. The model

  16. A Bayesian Approach to Solar Flare Prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. S. Wheatland

    2004-03-26

    A number of methods of flare prediction rely on classification of physical characteristics of an active region, in particular optical classification of sunspots, and historical rates of flaring for a given classification. However these methods largely ignore the number of flares the active region has already produced, in particular the number of small events. The past history of occurrence of flares (of all sizes) is an important indicator to future flare production. We present a Bayesian approach to flare prediction, which uses the flaring record of an active region together with phenomenological rules of flare statistics to refine an initial prediction for the occurrence of a big flare during a subsequent period of time. The initial prediction is assumed to come from one of the extant methods of flare prediction. The theory of the method is outlined, and simulations are presented to show how the refinement step of the method works in practice.

  17. Nucleosynthesis in stellar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Tatischeff; J. -P. Thibaud; I. Ribas

    2008-01-11

    Nuclear interactions of ions accelerated at the surface of flaring stars can produce fresh isotopes in stellar atmospheres. Although this nucleosynthesis is not significant for the chemical evolution of the Galaxy, it can be important for a number of measurements of "anomalously" high 6-Li and 7-Li abundances. We discuss the possible role of stellar flares to explain the recent report of high 6-Li abundances in metal-poor halo stars and the well-established correlation between Li abundance and stellar activity in young open clusters. We then study the possibility of observing directly Li production during flares of nearby and active dwarfs of spectral type M.

  18. PRODUCTIVITY OF SOLAR FLARES AND MAGNETIC HELICITY INJECTION IN ACTIVE REGIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    effect on cell phones and the global positioning system and heat up the terrestrial atmosphere within). Solar flares produce high energy particles, radiation, and erupting magnetic structures that are related to geomagnetic storms. Their strong electro- magnetic radiations from radio waves to gamma-rays have direct

  19. Financing the Production and Marketing of Texas Broilers. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bebout, Harley

    1956-01-01

    the production and market- ing of the birds they finance and to what extent the producer shares in the production and market- ing decisions. TABLE 1. NUMBER OF BROILERS PRODUCED IN --- TEXAS, 1946-55 Broilers, Year Percent of - thousands U. S. total... financing, production and marketing services. As petition has increased in the industry, they have assumed more and more of the pro- ion and price risk. FINANCING PLANS FOR OPERATIONS havt all f able " ,- of the rely ( as the type ( 4 number...

  20. Is FLARE for Solar flare?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Fargion

    2005-12-07

    The Fermi Lab Liquid ARgon experiment, FLARE, a huge neutrino argon-liquid project detector of 50 kt mass, might in a near future enlarge the neutrino telescope accuracy revealing in detail solar, supernova, atmospheric as well as largest solar flares neutrino. Indeed the solar energetic (E_p > 100 MeVs) flare particles (protons, alpha) while scattering among themselves or hitting the solar atmosphere must produce on sun prompt charged pions, whose decay (as well as their sequent muon decays) into secondaries is source of a copious solar neutrino "flare" (at tens or hundreds MeV energy). These brief (minutes) neutrino "burst" at largest flare peak may overcome by three to five order of magnitude the steady atmospheric neutrino noise on the Earth, possibly leading to their emergence and detection above the thresholds. The largest prompt "burst" solar neutrino flare may be detected in future FLARE neutrino detectors both in electron and positron and possibly in its muon pair neutrino component. Our estimate for the recent and exceptional October - November 2003 solar flares and last January 20th 2005 exceptional flare might lead to a few events for future FLARE or near unity for present Super-KamiokandeII. The neutrino spectra may reflect the neutrino flavor oscillations and mixing in flight. In neutrino detectors a surprising (correlated) muon appearance may occur while a rarer tau appearance may even marginally take place. A comparison of the solar neutrino flare signal with other neutrino foreground is estimated: it offer the first opportunity for an independent road map to disentangle the neutrino flavor puzzles, as well a prompt alarm system for dangerous solar flare eruptions.

  1. Floating Production Systems Market Is Expected To Reach USD 38...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Production Systems Market Is Expected To Reach USD 38,752.7 Million Globally By 2019 Home > Groups > Future of Condition Monitoring for Wind Turbines Wayne31jan's picture...

  2. Production Methods and New Markets for Texas Florist Crops. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorensen, H. B.; DeWerth, A.F.; Jensen, E. R.

    1958-01-01

    and elsewhere indicated that there was no appreciable market for flowers for use in the home and little industry effort was being directed toward developing the market, this project was designed to study the potential market for flow- ers for home use... for small, high-quality plants for this mar- ket. Mass market outlets that will absorb these new type plants designed for mass production can be especially important to flower growers. A large part of greenhouse operational costs is fixed and can...

  3. Selling green power in California: Product, industry, and market trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, R.H.; Pickle, S.J.

    1998-05-01

    As one of the first US stages to open its doors to retail electric competition, California offers an important opportunity to assess the effectiveness of green power marketing as a mechanism for supporting renewable energy. This report is an interim assessment of key green power product, industry, and market trends in California. The report identifies and analyzes: the potential size of the green power market in California; the companies participating in the green power market; the green power products being offered and their prices; the impact of the green market on renewable generators and the environment; and the influence of several public policies and non-governmental programs on the market for green power. Data used in this paper have been collected, in large part, from surveys and interviews with green power marketers that took place between December 1997 and April 1998. There remain legitimate concerns over the viability of green power marketing to support significant quantities of renewable energy and provide large environmental gains, and it is far too early to assess the overall strength of customer demand for renewable energy. A critical finding of this report is that, because of the high cost of acquiring and servicing residential customers and the low utility default service price, green power marketing affords new energy service providers one of the only viable entrees to California`s residential marketplace.

  4. Timber Products Equipment Services MarketPlace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    energy development and energy efficiency improvement technology. Grand Rapids The Grand Rapids plant energy." It plans to focus upon renewable energy- related businesses, possibly clustering like: page: DNR Stumpage Prices 2 Biomass Research 3 Market Outlook 4 Sawmill and Specialty Mill Survey 6

  5. Identification of demand in differentiated products markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Megerdichian, Aren

    2010-01-01

    Characteristics . . . . . . . OLS and CX Estimates, Product-2.3 Conditional Exogeneity (CX) . . . . . . . . iv Models ofAIDS CX . . . . . . . . . Simulation . . . . . . . . Merger

  6. Wood products trade and foreign markets: Asian market profile issue, November 1993. Foreign agriculture circular

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Contents: trade summary; significant developments; status of usda/ccc export credit guarantees for wood products; US global export status; trends in US exports to the pacific rim; market profiles for wood products; pacific rim; europe; commodity/country trade tables; US exports, 1988 - 1st half 1993; US imports, 1988 - 1st half 1993.

  7. After record sales and production, international met markets plummet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2009-03-15

    After surging in 2007 and most of 2008, both the demand and the pricing for coal collapsed in 2008's final quarter. The article discusses last year's market and gives some predictions on 2009's production and prices. The National Mining Association predicts that production of coking coal will fall 11% due to plunging demand for steel. 4 photos.

  8. Global Markets for Verified Legal Wood Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    wood products (FSC, PEFC) Retailers interested in corporate social responsibility (CSR) and protecting reputation, starting in 1990s. FSC and PEFC certification standards developed, which include independent 3rd, PEFC) Major international companies, such as WalMart or IKEA, now require suppliers to be able

  9. OPTIMAL PRODUCTION POLICY UNDER THE CARBON EMISSION MARKET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OPTIMAL PRODUCTION POLICY UNDER THE CARBON EMISSION MARKET REDOUANE BELAOUAR, ARASH FAHIM, AND NIZAR TOUZI Abstract. The aim of this paper is to address the effect of the carbon emission allowance cases; when the firm is not a large polluter, when it has a large contribution in emission of carbon

  10. Market Trial: Selling Off-Grid Lighting Products in Rural Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tracy, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    trial of off-grid LED lighting products in Maai Mahiu, aa relatively costly LED lighting product. If market spoilageand higher quality LED lighting products. Another potential

  11. Detecting Solar Neutrino Flares and Flavors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Fargion

    2004-04-16

    Intense solar flares originated in sun spots produce high energy particles (protons, $\\alpha$) well observable by satellites and ground-based detectors. The flare onset produces signals in different energy bands (radio, X, gamma and neutrons). The most powerful solar flares as the ones occurred on 23 February 1956, 29 September 1989 and the more recent on October 28th, and the 2nd, 4th, 13th of November 2003 released in sharp times the largest flare energies (${E}_{FL} \\simeq {10}^{31}\\div {10}^{32} erg). The high energy solar flare protons scatter within the solar corona and they must be source of a prompt neutrino burst through the production of charged pions. Later on, solar flare particles hitting the atmosphere may marginally increase the atmospheric neutrino flux. The prompt solar neutrino flare may be detected in the largest underground $\

  12. Production and pricing patterns in the international crude oil market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    This study focuses on measuring the patterns of production and pricing of the major oil-exporting countries over the past decade. It conducts a series of empirical investigations, relying largely on quarterly data, into the determinants of the distribution of oil liftings in the OPEC areas, including the significance of relative crude oil price incentives, the stability of oil prices and market shares, the components of the residual demand for OPEC oil with emphasis on fluctuations in speculative demand for oil inventories, the impact of effective capacity utilization and speculative demand on major price escalations, and the sensitivity of Saudi Arabian price preferences to evolving net demand reaction to higher oil prices and to the share it is able to retain of the OPEC market. The background for this analysis is provided by a review of the historical evolution of oil and energy consumption, production and development patterns during the postwar era, and the reversal of theoretical frameworks for analyzing the international oil market are described, and the rationale for the noncompetitive view of oil prices and production in major exporting countries is detailed. Finally, the transformation of the structure of crude oil marketing over the past decade is analyzed, emphasizing growing competitive trends in the industry mixed with residual oligopolistic tendencies.

  13. Technology diffusion of energy-related products in residential markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, L.J.; Bruneau, C.L.

    1987-05-01

    Acceptance of energy-related technologies by end residential consumers, manufacturers of energy-related products, and other influential intermediate markets such as builders will influence the potential for market penetration of innovative energy-related technologies developed by the Department of Energy, Office of Building and Community Systems (OBCS). In this report, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed the available information on technology adoption, diffusion, and decision-making processes to provide OBCS with a background and understanding of the type of research that has previously been conducted on this topic. Insight was gained as to the potential decision-making criteria and motivating factors that influence the decision-maker(s) selection of new technologies, and some of the barriers to technology adoption faced by potential markets for OBCS technologies.

  14. Forest Products Marketing Workshop / Novi Sad / 3 6 April 2006 DAVID BILLS CBE FICFOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forest Products Marketing Workshop / Novi Sad / 3 ­ 6 April 2006 DAVID BILLS CBE FICFOR Marketing Campaigns Reflections & Lessons Serbia UNECE 5/4/2006 #12;Forest Products Marketing Workshop / Novi Sad / 3 ­ 6 April 2006 Marketing Campaigns · Australia (1988-1994) Promotion of the Forest Industry

  15. Expert Feature: Designing Better Products by Coordinating Marketing Research and Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    Expert Feature: Designing Better Products by Coordinating Marketing Research and Engineering Jeremy to be responsible for the design, manufacturing and marketing of a new product. As industries and markets have grown, the scale, scope and complexity of these tasks has led to a division of labor: Marketing, design

  16. Estimates of global, regional, and national annual CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring: 1950--1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boden, T.A.; Marland, G.; Andres, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    This document describes the compilation, content, and format of the most comprehensive C0{sub 2}-emissions database currently available. The database includes global, regional, and national annual estimates of C0{sub 2} emissions resulting from fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing, and gas flaring in oil fields for 1950--92 as well as the energy production, consumption, and trade data used for these estimates. The methods of Marland and Rotty (1983) are used to calculate these emission estimates. For the first time, the methods and data used to calculate CO, emissions from gas flaring are presented. This C0{sub 2}-emissions database is useful for carbon-cycle research, provides estimates of the rate at which fossil-fuel combustion has released C0{sub 2} to the atmosphere, and offers baseline estimates for those countries compiling 1990 C0{sub 2}-emissions inventories.

  17. TIMBER COMMITTEE EUROPEAN FORESTRY COMMISSION Forest Products Marketing--from Principles to Practice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TIMBER COMMITTEE EUROPEAN FORESTRY COMMISSION Forest Products Marketing--from Principles to Practice Balkan Training Workshop, April 2006 F A O FOREST PRODUCTSFOREST PRODUCTS MARKETS & TRADE INMARKETS & TRADE IN THE UNECE REGIONTHE UNECE REGION byby Mr. EdMr. Ed PepkePepke Forest Products Marketing

  18. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    a more complete market valuation of solar PV. I incorporateto analyze the market value of solar PV. The market bene?tsI evaluate the market economics of solar PV. While accurate

  19. Joint production and economic retention quantity decisions in capacitated production systems serving multiple market segments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katariya, Abhilasha Prakash

    2009-05-15

    In this research, we consider production/inventory management decisions of a rmthat sells its product in two market segments during a nite planning horizon. In thebeginning of each period, the rm makes a decision on how much to produce basedon...

  20. Physics of ion acceleration in the solar flare on 2005 September 7 determines c-ray and neutron production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    by the neutron monitors at Mt. Chacaltaya and Mexico City and by the solar neutron telescopes at ChacaltayaPhysics of ion acceleration in the solar flare on 2005 September 7 determines c-ray and neutron-sur-Yvette, France g Konan University, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-0000, Japan h Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory

  1. A Market-Driven Approach to the Design of Platform-Based Product Families

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wei

    A Market-Driven Approach to the Design of Platform-Based Product Families Deepak Kumar* and Wei existing design methods integrate market considerations (e.g., customer preferences, competition variant in the family. The novel Market-Driven Product Family Design (MPFD) methodology proposed here

  2. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    a wholesale electricity market in which capacity costs arecapacity would have helped to undermine market power during the California electricityCapacity shortages and the exercise of market power that occurred during the 2000-2001 California electricity

  3. Market Trial: Selling Off-Grid Lighting Products in Rural Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tracy, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    A. Jacobson (2007) “The Off-Grid Lighting Market in WesternBudget: The Economics of Off-Grid Lighting for Small6 Market Trial: Selling Off-Grid Lighting Products in Rural

  4. Nuclear hydrogen: An assessment of product flexibility and market viability Audun Botterud a,, Bilge Yildiz b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yildiz, Bilge

    for nuclear energy technologies in general, ranging from waste management to proliferation. HoweverNuclear hydrogen: An assessment of product flexibility and market viability Audun Botterud a Available online 27 August 2008 Keywords: Nuclear hydrogen and electricity production Product flexibility

  5. Linking Marketing and Engineering Product Design Decisions via Analytical Target Cascading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    Linking Marketing and Engineering Product Design Decisions via Analytical Target Cascadingà Jeremy to consumers and are feasible to produce. The resulting marketing and engineering design goals are driven of coordinating marketing and engineering design problems in a way that is proven to yield the joint optimal

  6. Refiner/marketer targets production of transportation fuels and distillates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Citgo Petroleum Corp., the wholly owned subsidiary of Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA), the Venezuelan national oil company, owns two gasoline producing refineries, a 305,000-b/d system in Lake Charles, La., and a 130,000-b/d facility in Corpus Christi, Texas. Each is considered a deep conversion facility capable of converting heavy, sour crudes into a high percentage of transportation fuels and distillates. Two smaller refineries, one in Paulsboro, N.J., and one in Savannah, GA., have the capacity to process 40,000 b/d and 28,000 b/d of crude, respectively, for asphalt products. In the past two years, Citgo`s light oils refineries operated safely and reliably with a minimum of unscheduled shutdowns. An ongoing emphasis to increase reliability has resulted in extended run lengths at the refineries. Citgo has invested $314 million at its facilities in 1995, much of this toward environmental and regulatory projects, such as the new waste water treatment unit at the Lake Charles refinery. Over the next few years, Citgo expects to complete $1.5 billion in capital spending for major processing units such as a 60,000-b/d FCC feed hydrotreater unit at the Lake Charles refinery and crude expansion at the Corpus Christi refinery. Product exchanges and expanded transport agreements are allowing Citgo to extend its marketing reach.

  7. UN/ECE Timber Committee Market Statement on Forest Products Markets in 2002 and 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    rise in oil prices have been only partly counterbalanced by relative strength in North American housing markets. However in the euro area, housing investment fell by 3% in 2001 and continued to fall

  8. The Influence of Product Markets on Industrial Relations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, William

    domination by merchant retailers who fixed prices by reference to the cheapest labour market from which they could obtain substitute goods, wherever that might be. The employment standards of the local labour market become threatened by those... (Turner, 1962: 377). Even today some continue to exercise discipline over their members, such as the association that organises electrical contractors for the construction industry, where licensing and safety issues are dominant. Because labour can...

  9. Collective Acceleration in Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barletta, W.

    2008-01-01

    Collective Acceleration in Solar Flares w. Barletta, S.S.COLLECTIVE ACCELERATION IN SOLAR FLARES* W. Barletta (1), S.Park, MD 20742 Abstract Solar flare data are examined with

  10. Flare System Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R.

    2003-01-01

    , steam, nitrogen, and natural gas. By properly operating and maintaining the flare system and with minor improvements, significant savings can be achieved....

  11. An Empirical Examination of Stock Market Reactions to Introduction of Co-branded Products 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Zixia

    2012-10-19

    This dissertation examines how the stock market reacts to announcements of introduction of co-branded new products. Despite the apparent enthusiasm of practitioners towards co-branding--the practice of using two established brand names on the same...

  12. Indonesia's Arun LPG plant production is unique in Far East markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naklie, M.M.; Penick, D.P.; Denton, L.A.; Kartiyoso, I.

    1987-08-03

    Entry of the Arun (Indonesia) LNG plant into the LPG Far East markets is significant because its supplies for those markets are not tied to gas being extracted in association with crude oil. Arun LPG products are extracted from gas that is processed into and marketed as LNG. This article on the Arun LNG plant analyzes its LPG process and the significance of the LPG project on the plant's markets. Particular attention is paid to: 1.) LPG recovery; 2.) LPG fractionation; and 3.) Far East trade.

  13. An integrated life cycle quality model for general public market software products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suryn, Witold

    An integrated life cycle quality model for general public market software products Witold Suryn1 of the software product results from its ultimate quality seen by both acquirers and end users. An integrated life cycle quality model, further called complement model for software product quality combines high level

  14. Impact of Technological Change and Productivity on the Coal Market

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the components of past gains in productivity, including regional shifts, the exit of less productive producers, and technological progress Future prospects for continuing productivity gains at sustained, but lower, rates of improvement are discussed.

  15. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    Production of Solar Photovoltaic Cells”, Center for theconcerns is solar photovoltaic cells (PVs), which captureProduction of Solar Photovoltaic Cells Solar PV cells

  16. Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES Project)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachel Henderson; Robert Fickes

    2007-12-31

    The Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES) project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under Preferred Upstream Management Projects (PUMP III). Project partners included the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) as lead agency working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the California Oil Producers Electric Cooperative (COPE). The project was designed to demonstrate that the entire range of oilfield 'stranded gases' (gas production that can not be delivered to a commercial market because it is poor quality, or the quantity is too small to be economically sold, or there are no pipeline facilities to transport it to market) can be cost-effectively harnessed to make electricity. The utilization of existing, proven distribution generation (DG) technologies to generate electricity was field-tested successfully at four marginal well sites, selected to cover a variety of potential scenarios: high Btu, medium Btu, ultra-low Btu gas, as well as a 'harsh', or high contaminant, gas. Two of the four sites for the OFFGASES project were idle wells that were shut in because of a lack of viable solutions for the stranded noncommercial gas that they produced. Converting stranded gas to useable electrical energy eliminates a waste stream that has potential negative environmental impacts to the oil production operation. The electricity produced will offset that which normally would be purchased from an electric utility, potentially lowering operating costs and extending the economic life of the oil wells. Of the piloted sites, the most promising technologies to handle the range were microturbines that have very low emissions. One recently developed product, the Flex-Microturbine, has the potential to handle the entire range of oilfield gases. It is deployed at an oilfield near Santa Barbara to run on waste gas that is only 4% the strength of natural gas. The cost of producing oil is to a large extent the cost of electric power used to extract and deliver the oil. Researchers have identified stranded and flared gas in California that could generate 400 megawatts of power, and believe that there is at least an additional 2,000 megawatts that have not been identified. Since California accounts for about 14.5% of the total domestic oil production, it is reasonable to assume that about 16,500 megawatts could be generated throughout the United States. This power could restore the cost-effectiveness of thousands of oil wells, increasing oil production by millions of barrels a year, while reducing emissions and greenhouse gas emissions by burning the gas in clean distributed generators rather than flaring or venting the stranded gases. Most turbines and engines are designed for standardized, high-quality gas. However, emerging technologies such as microturbines have increased the options for a broader range of fuels. By demonstrating practical means to consume the four gas streams, the project showed that any gases whose properties are between the extreme conditions also could be utilized. The economics of doing so depends on factors such as the value of additional oil recovered, the price of electricity produced, and the alternate costs to dispose of stranded gas.

  17. Energy Efficiency, Building Productivity and the Commercial Buildings Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, D.W.

    2002-05-16

    The energy-efficiency gap literature suggests that building buyers are often short-sighted in their failure to apply life-cycle costing principles to energy efficient building technologies, with the result that under investment in these advanced technology occurs. This study examines the reasons this behavior may occur, by analyzing the pressures that market forces place on purchasers of buildings. Our basic conclusion is that the fundamental manner in which the buildings sector does business creates pressures to reduce initial capital outlays and to hedge against a variety of risks, including the ability of building owners to capture benefits from energy efficiency. Starting from the position that building buyers' willingness to pay drives choices over building attributes, we examine basic market principles, the structure of the buildings market, including the role of lenders, and policies that promote penetration of energy efficient technologies. We conclude that greater attention to buyers, and to the incentives and constraints they face, would promote a better understanding of building investment choices and contribute to better policies to promote the penetration of these technologies into markets.

  18. Market Trial: Selling Off-Grid Lighting Products in Rural Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tracy, Jennifer; Alstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2010-06-21

    In this study, we performed a market trial of off-grid LED lighting products in Maai Mahiu, arural Kenyan town. Our goals were to assess consumer demand and consumer preferences with respect to off-grid lighting systems and to gain feedback from off-grid lighting users at the point of purchase and after they have used to products for some time.

  19. Colorado Natural Gas Marketed Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 Relative StandardFeet) MarketedDecade Year-0

  20. U.S. Natural Gas Marketed Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion CubicEnergy Markets 24,Presented To:8, 2012 |Origin StateU.S.Year Jan FebYear JanYear

  1. Federal Offshore--Louisiana Natural Gas Marketed Production (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969CentralWells (Million Cubic Feet) DecadeFeet) Marketed

  2. Calif--onshore Natural Gas Marketed Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1ProvedProvedonsh ShaleMarketed

  3. South Dakota Natural Gas Marketed Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541C. Temperature andResidentialConsumption (MillionMarketed

  4. Utah Natural Gas Marketed Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentric viewing system for light| DepartmentMarketed

  5. Virginia Natural Gas Marketed Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricN A CountyFeet) Deliveries to ElectricPriceMarketed

  6. West Virginia Natural Gas Marketed Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricN AProjectAdministrationWestConsumptionMarketed

  7. Prediction of Solar Flares from a Statistical Analysis of Events during Solar Cycle 23

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. Q. Qu

    2008-11-14

    Ways to give medium- and short-term predictions of solar flares are proposed according to the statistical analysis of events during solar cycle 23. On one hand, the time distribution of both C and M class flares shows two main periods of 13.2 and 26.4 months in this cycle by wavelet analysis. On the other hand, active regions of specific magnetic configurations and their evolutions give high productivity of C class flares but relatively low productivity of energetic (M and X class) flares. Furthermore, by considering the measurable kinetic features of active regions, i.e., the rotation of the sunspots, some active regions of specified types are observed to have high energetic flare productivity, above 66%. The periodicity of the activity revealed can be used for medium-term C and M class flare forecasting and the high productivity of active regions forms the basis for short-term prediction of individual energetic flares.

  8. Electrifying Integration: Electricity Production and the South-East Europe Regional Energy Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hooper, E.; Medvedev, A.

    an anonymous referee. ELECTRIFYING INTEGRATION: ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION AND THE SOUTH-EAST EUROPE REGIONAL ENERGY MARKET Elizabeth Hooper and Andrei Medvedev Centre for Competition Policy University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, United... and territories of the region entered a legally binding agreement, the Energy Treaty which established the Energy Community of South East Europe (ECSEE), and committed the parties to the formation of a regional electricity market. All are new or aspiring...

  9. FOREST PRODUCTS MARKET IN 2007 AND PROSPECTS FOR 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .3 %); the pulp, paper and paper products (+ 13.1 %) and the furniture production (+ 10.8 %). The GDP evolution affecting the forest and forest industries sector In Romania, the year 2007 represents the sixth consecutive in the first semester, the services ­ with 51.4 % the second placed being the industry with 27

  10. Software Product Lines structuring based upon Market Montse Ereo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leavens, Gary T.

    Nowadays the increasing demand for customized products and services in traditional areas such as Automotion Platform". This successful approach is also being considered in the design of software-based components Platform Development methods and the transference of this know-how to Software Product Development

  11. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    behind table 2 if one is evaluating solar PV production overthan one to two percentage points in solar PV valuation. Areplaced by one unit of electricity from on-site solar PV is

  12. Consumer Online Search and New-Product Marketing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Ho

    2013-01-01

    willingness-to-search (WTS) that may change over the courseschedule and consumers’ WTS are the two key elements thatconsumers have different levels of WTS for the new-product’s

  13. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    that by turning the solar panels more towards the west,peak production from the solar panels can be more closelyproduction from these solar panels over the two- year period

  14. Early Fuel Cell Market Deployments: ARRA and Combined (IAA, DLA, ARRA); Quarter 1 2012 Composite Data Products - Deployment (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation is about the Early Fuel Cell Market Deployments: ARRA and Combined (IAA, DLA, ARRA). Quarter 1 2012 Composite Data Products - Deployment March 8, 2012.

  15. Early Fuel Cell Market Deployments: ARRA and Combined (IAA, DLA, ARRA); November 2011 Composite Data Products - Deployment (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation is about the Early Fuel Cell Market Deployments: ARRA and Combined (IAA, DLA, ARRA). November 2011 Composite Data Products - Deployment November 30, 2011.

  16. Marketing of Tropical Hardwood Wood Products from Ghana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Methodology · Trade and Industry Directory 254 forest products manufacturers 133 had fax addresses · Conducted be successfully reached by fax · 19 responded to questionnaire = 30.2% #12;Firm Size Based on Number of Employees (n = 19 respondents) Less than 50 employees 51-100 employees 101-250 employees 251-500 employees

  17. Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Marketed Production (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969CentralWells (Million CubicBased Production (MillionFeet)

  18. Louisiana--onshore Natural Gas Marketed Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential ConsumersProduction (Million Barrels)Gross

  19. Alaska Natural Gas Marketed Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers4.32 4.46ProductionCrude%DecadeYearNetDecade

  20. California Natural Gas Marketed Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona -ProductionWetReservesCubic(NoNetDecade

  1. California Natural Gas Marketed Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona -ProductionWetReservesCubic(NoNetDecadeYear

  2. New Mexico Natural Gas Marketed Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2,2,435,2226 (nextNetperProductionNet

  3. New Mexico Natural Gas Marketed Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2,2,435,2226 (nextNetperProductionNetYear Jan Feb Mar Apr

  4. North Dakota Natural Gas Marketed Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5Net+Production (MillionDecade

  5. North Dakota Natural Gas Marketed Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5Net+Production (MillionDecadeYear

  6. Texas--onshore Natural Gas Marketed Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0Proved Reserves (BillionProduction(MillionGross Withdrawals

  7. West Virginia Natural Gas Marketed Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0ProvedDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Year Jan% ofProduction

  8. Global Timber and Wood Products Market Update -a news brief from Wood Resources International LLC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global Timber and Wood Products Market Update - a news brief from Wood Resources International LLC to be the major destination for Latin American wood chips, reports the Wood Resource Quarterly In late 2011 wood chips from only three countries: Vietnam, Indonesia and Australia, who together shipped 1

  9. Parameterization of solar flare dose 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lamarche, Anne Helene

    1995-01-01

    A critical aspect of missions to the Moon or Mars is the safety and health of the crew. Radiation in space is a hazard for astronauts, especially high-energy radiation following certain types of solar flares. A solar flare ...

  10. Supply Chain Integration, Product Modularity, and Market Valuation: Evidence from the Solar Energy Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davies, Jane; Joglekar, Nitin

    2013-07-17

    of the solar modules that are ultimately installed as panels on rooftops to Page 15 convert solar energy to electricity. The supply chain for the production of thin-film cells involves a subset of these processes: the production of solar cells... provided by investment analysts’ reports or is estimated based on the known production capacity for the firm compared to the size of the solar PV market. Given the lack of a readily available representation of the solar PV supply chain network, we...

  11. Predicted and verified evolution of power-law exponent in product market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hisano, Ryohei; Mizuno, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    Power-law distributions constitute a generic empirical statistical regularity found in many complex systems. A recently developed theory finds that the interplay between one of the most universal ingredient, i.e., stochastic proportional growth, and stochastic birth and death processes, leads to generic power law distributions together with a non-universal exponent which depends explicitly on the characteristics of growth, birth and death. In particular, the theory rationalizes Zipf's law and explains deviations from it, for instance for the distribution of firm and of city sizes. Here, we report the first complete test of the theory, based on the empirical analysis from a real world complex phenomenon, namely the dynamics of market shares in the consumer electronics market. We estimate directly from the data the average growth rate of market shares, their standard deviation, the birth rates as well as the "death" hazard rate of products. When plugged in the theory, this predicts the power law exponent of the...

  12. Markets slow to develop for Niger delta gas reserves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, D. [Thomas and Associates, Hastings (United Kingdom)

    1995-11-27

    Nigeria produces a very high quality, light, sweet crude oil but with a large percentage of associated gas derived from a high gas-to-oil ratio. Official proved gas reserves, both associated and nonassociated, are 120 tcf. Proved and probable reserves are estimated as high as 300 tcf. The internal market for gas has only begun to develop since the 1980s, and as a result approximately 77% of associated gas production is flared. Domestic gas consumption is currently approximately 700 MMcfd and is projected to have a medium term potential of 1.450 bcfd. The article discusses resource development, gas markets, gas flaring, gas use programs, the Bonny LNG scheme, the gas reserve base, LNG project status, competition, and energy opportunities.

  13. Addendum to industrial market assessment of the products of mild gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this report is to review and update the 1988 report by J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc., ``Industrial Market Assessment of the Products of Mild Gasification, and to more fully present market opportunities for two char-based products from the mild gasification process (MGP): Formcoke for the iron and steel industry, and activated carbon for wastewater cleanup and flue gas scrubbing. Please refer to the original report for additional details. In the past, coal conversion projects have and liquids produced, and the value of the residual char was limited to its fuel value. Some projects had limited success until gas and oil competition overwhelmed them. The strategy adopted for this assessment is to seek first a premium value for the char in a market that has advantages over gas and oil, and then to find the highest values possible for gases, liquids, and tars, either on-site or sold into existing markets. During the intervening years since the 1988 report, there have been many changes in the national economy, industrial production, international competition, and environmental regulations. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) will have a large impact on industry. There is considerable uncertainty about how the Act will be implemented, but it specifically addresses coke-oven batteries. This may encourage industry to consider formcoke produced via mild gasification as a low-pollution substitute for conventional coke. The chemistry and technology of coke making steel were reviewed in the 1988 market assessment and will not be repeated here. The CAAA require additional pollution control measures for most industrial facilities, but this creates new opportunities for the mild gasification process.

  14. Addendum to industrial market assessment of the products of mild gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this report is to review and update the 1988 report by J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc., Industrial Market Assessment of the Products of Mild Gasification, and to more fully present market opportunities for two char-based products from the mild gasification process (MGP): Formcoke for the iron and steel industry, and activated carbon for wastewater cleanup and flue gas scrubbing. Please refer to the original report for additional details. In the past, coal conversion projects have and liquids produced, and the value of the residual char was limited to its fuel value. Some projects had limited success until gas and oil competition overwhelmed them. The strategy adopted for this assessment is to seek first a premium value for the char in a market that has advantages over gas and oil, and then to find the highest values possible for gases, liquids, and tars, either on-site or sold into existing markets. During the intervening years since the 1988 report, there have been many changes in the national economy, industrial production, international competition, and environmental regulations. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) will have a large impact on industry. There is considerable uncertainty about how the Act will be implemented, but it specifically addresses coke-oven batteries. This may encourage industry to consider formcoke produced via mild gasification as a low-pollution substitute for conventional coke. The chemistry and technology of coke making steel were reviewed in the 1988 market assessment and will not be repeated here. The CAAA require additional pollution control measures for most industrial facilities, but this creates new opportunities for the mild gasification process.

  15. Gamma-ray burst flares: X-ray flaring. II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swenson, C. A.; Roming, P. W. A., E-mail: cswenson@astro.psu.edu [Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    We present a catalog of 498 flaring periods found in gamma-ray burst (GRB) light curves taken from the online Swift X-Ray Telescope GRB Catalogue. We analyzed 680 individual light curves using a flare detection method developed and used on our UV/optical GRB Flare Catalog. This method makes use of the Bayesian Information Criterion to analyze the residuals of fitted GRB light curves and statistically determines the optimal fit to the light curve residuals in an attempt to identify any additional features. These features, which we classify as flares, are identified by iteratively adding additional 'breaks' to the light curve. We find evidence of flaring in 326 of the analyzed light curves. For those light curves with flares, we find an average number of ?1.5 flares per GRB. As with the UV/optical, flaring in our sample is generally confined to the first 1000 s of the afterglow, but can be detected to beyond 10{sup 5} s. Only ?50% of the detected flares follow the 'classical' definition of ?t/t ? 0.5, with many of the largest flares exceeding this value.

  16. Hydrogen production and delivery analysis in US markets : cost, energy and greenhouse gas emissions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintz, M.; Gillette, J.; Elgowainy, A.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen production cost conclusions are: (1) Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) is the least-cost production option at current natural gas prices and for initial hydrogen vehicle penetration rates, at high production rates, SMR may not be the least-cost option; (2) Unlike coal and nuclear technologies, the cost of natural gas feedstock is the largest contributor to SMR production cost; (3) Coal- and nuclear-based hydrogen production have significant penalties at small production rates (and benefits at large rates); (4) Nuclear production of hydrogen is likely to have large economies of scale, but because fixed O&M costs are uncertain, the magnitude of these effects may be understated; and (5) Given H2A default assumptions for fuel prices, process efficiencies and labor costs, nuclear-based hydrogen is likely to be more expensive to produce than coal-based hydrogen. Carbon taxes and caps can narrow the gap. Hydrogen delivery cost conclusions are: (1) For smaller urban markets, compressed gas delivery appears most economic, although cost inputs for high-pressure gas trucks are uncertain; (2) For larger urban markets, pipeline delivery is least costly; (3) Distance from hydrogen production plant to city gate may change relative costs (all results shown assume 100 km); (4) Pipeline costs may be reduced with system 'rationalization', primarily reductions in service pipeline mileage; and (5) Liquefier and pipeline capital costs are a hurdle, particularly at small market sizes. Some energy and greenhouse gas Observations: (1) Energy use (per kg of H2) declines slightly with increasing production or delivery rate for most components (unless energy efficiency varies appreciably with scale, e.g., liquefaction); (2) Energy use is a strong function of production technology and delivery mode; (3) GHG emissions reflect the energy efficiency and carbon content of each component in a production-delivery pathway; (4) Coal and natural gas production pathways have high energy consumption and significant GHG emissions (in the absence of carbon caps, taxes or sequestration); (5) Nuclear pathway is most favorable from energy use and GHG emissions perspective; (6) GH2 Truck and Pipeline delivery have much lower energy use and GHG emissions than LH2 Truck delivery; and (7) For LH2 Truck delivery, the liquefier accounts for most of the energy and GHG emissions.

  17. Determinants of export marketing strategies of forest products companies in the context of transition --The case of Slovakia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Determinants of export marketing strategies of forest products companies in the context of export performance have been extensively examined in the literature. Although marketing strategy is considered to be one of the major determinants of export performance, little attention has been paid

  18. Solar Flares and particle acceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    energy ~2 1032 ergs #12;"Standard" model of a solar flare/CME Solar corona T ~ 106 K => 0.1 keV per MeV Proton energies >100 MeV Large solar flare releases about 1032 ergs (about half energy-free emission) #12;X-ray spectrum of solar flares Thermal X-rays Non-thermal X-rays Gamma-ray lines Ramaty High

  19. The effect of falling market concentration on prices, generator behaviour and productive efficiency in the England and Wales electricity market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweeting, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    A universal prediction of the various oligopoly models used to predict and explain behaviour in the England and Wales (E&W) electricity wholesale market is that divestiture of plants by the two large incumbent generators ...

  20. ,"Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Marketed Production (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008LNGUndergroundDry Natural GasGas, WetLiquidsMarketed Production

  1. ,"Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Marketed Production (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008Wellhead PriceConsumption by9"CoalbedGas, WetPlantPlantMarketed Production

  2. ,"Alaska--State Offshore Natural Gas Marketed Production (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEAConsumed" ,"ClickGas, WetMarketed Production

  3. Industrial market assessment of the products of mild gasification: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinor, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this study is to determine the best available conditions, in terms of market volumes and prices, for the products from a mild gasification facility. A process feasibility study will then have to determine the cost of building and operating a facility to make those products. The study is presented as a summary of the options available to a coal producer for creating added product value. For this reason, three specific coal mines owned by AMAX Inc. were chosen, and the options were analyzed from the viewpoint of increasing the total revenue derived from those coals. No specific mild gasification, or mild devolatilization technology was assumed during the assessment. The analysis considers only product prices, volumes, and specifications. It does not assign any intangible value or national benefit to substituting coal for oil or to producing a cleaner fuel. Although it would be desirable to conceive of a product slate which would be immune from energy price fluctuations, such a goal is probably unattainable and no particular emphasis was placed on it. 76 figs., 75 tabs.

  4. Reduction of Hydrocarbon Losses to Flare Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Page, J.

    1979-01-01

    action to minimize hydrocarbon releases, 2) install flare gas recovery systems, and 3) recover or reduce process streams which have to be continuous1y vented to the flare system. This report discusses alternate designs for flare gas monitoring and flare...

  5. RHESSI observation of flare elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paolo C. Grigis; Arnold O. Benz

    2006-02-14

    RHESSI observations of elementary flare bursts are presented. These solar flare elements are distinct emission peaks of a duration of some tens of seconds present in the hard X-ray light curves. They are characterized by consistent soft-hard-soft spectral behavior, which can be described in a quantitative way and compared which predictions from acceleration models. A detailed analysis of hard X-ray images for an M5 class flare shows that elementary flare bursts do not occur at distinct locations, but as twin X-ray sources move smoothly along an arcade of magnetic loops. This observation apparently contradicts the predictions of standard translation invariant 2.5-dimensional reconnection models.

  6. Muon and Tau Neutrinos Spectra from Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Fargion; F. Moscato

    2004-05-03

    Solar neutrino flares and mixing are considered. Most power-full solar flare as the ones occurred on 23th February 1956, September 29th 1989, 28th October and on 2nd-4th November 2003 are sources of cosmic rays, X, gamma and neutrino bursts. These flares took place both on front or in the edge and in the hidden solar disk. The observed and estimated total flare energy should be a source of a prompt secondary neutrino burst originated, by proton-proton-pion production on the sun itself; a more delayed and spread neutrino flux signal arise by the solar charged flare particles reaching the terrestrial atmosphere. Our first estimates of neutrino signals in largest underground detectors hint for few events in correlation with, gamma,radio onser. Our approximated spectra for muons and taus from these rare solar eruption are shown over the most common background. The muon and tau signature is very peculiar and characteristic over electron and anti-electron neutrino fluxes. The rise of muon neutrinos will be detectable above the minimal muon threshold of 113 MeV. The rarest tau appearence will be possible only for hardest solar neutrino energies above 3.471 GeV

  7. Coronal Trapping of Energetic Flare Particles: Yohkoh/HXT Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metcalf, Thomas R.

    the energization of the solar corona. The most common interpretation for the production of the observed HXR fluxes Alexander Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Department H1­12, Bldg. 252, 3251 Hanover St in a search for spectral evidence of the coronal trapping of energetic particles during solar flares. Two

  8. Impact of U.S. Wholesale Demand for Canned Sardines on Market Accessibility of Potential Gulf of Mexico Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Impact of U.S. Wholesale Demand for Canned Sardines on Market Accessibility of Potential Gulf their demand characteristics. Results in- dicate that opportunities for entry exist, especiallyfor products was packed in soy oil. The major sources for imported sar- dines are Norway, Peru, Portugal, Japan

  9. Early Fuel Cell Market Deployments: ARRA and Combined (IAA, DLA, ARRA); Quarter 3 2012 Composite Data Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.; Post, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes early fuel cell market composite data products for the third quarter of 2012 for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and combined (IAA, DLA, ARRA) deployment projects.

  10. Early Fuel Cell Market Deployments: ARRA and Combined (IAA, DLA, ARRA): Quarter 4 2013 Composite Data Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.

    2014-06-01

    This report includes the composite data products (CDPs) for early fuel cell market deployments in quarter 4 of 2013. Results are presented for ARRA (projects funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 [ARRA]) and Combined (projects funded by DOE Interagency Agreements [IAA], Department of Defense Defense Logistics Agency [DLA], and ARRA).

  11. Forest Products Marketing on the Internet "When history is written, the creation of the Internet may be ranked

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forest Products Marketing on the Internet Bob Smith "When history is written, the creation of the Internet may be ranked alongside Johann Gutenberg's printing press and Marconi's radio as among the major attention in the past year than the Internet. Every major newspaper, magazine, and television station have

  12. Observations of Electrons from the Decay of Solar Flare Neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Dröge; D. Ruffolo; B. Klecker

    1996-04-03

    We have found evidence for fluxes of energetic electrons in interplanetary space on board the ISEE-3 spacecraft which we interpret as the decay products of neutrons generated in a solar flare on 1980 June 21. The decay electrons arrived at the s/c shortly before the electrons from the flare and can be distinguished from the latter by their distinctive energy spectrum. The time profile of the decay electrons is in good agreement with the results from a simulation based on a scattering mean free path derived from a fit to the flare electron data. The comparison with simultaneously observed decay protons and a published direct measurement of high-energy neutrons places important constraints on the parent neutron spectrum.

  13. Impact of Hydrogen Production onImpact of Hydrogen Production on U.S. Energy MarketsU.S. Energy Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    prices. · Evaluate impacts on U.S. energy markets including price and consumption changes for coal demands for hydrogen as a fuel, and impacts on feedstock price and supplies under alternative at ½ level of gasoline. H2IOSTE - H2IOSTE + H2 FCV assumed to be 3.0 times as efficient as gasoline ICE

  14. OPTICAL DISCOVERY OF PROBABLE STELLAR TIDAL DISRUPTION FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Velzen, Sjoert; Farrar, Glennys R. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, NY 10003 (United States); Gezari, Suvi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Morrell, Nidia [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Casillas 601, La Serena (Chile); Zaritsky, Dennis [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Oestman, Linda [Institut de Fisica d'Altes Energies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Smith, Mathew [Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, 7701 (South Africa); Gelfand, Joseph [New York University-Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Drake, Andrew J., E-mail: s.vanvelzen@astro.ru.nl [Center for Advance Computing Research, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91225 (United States)

    2011-11-10

    Using archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) multi-epoch imaging data (Stripe 82), we have searched for the tidal disruption of stars by supermassive black holes in non-active galaxies. Two candidate tidal disruption events (TDEs) are identified. The TDE flares have optical blackbody temperatures of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} K and observed peak luminosities of M{sub g} = -18.3 and -20.4 ({nu}L{sub {nu}} = 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42}, 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}, in the rest frame); their cooling rates are very low, qualitatively consistent with expectations for tidal disruption flares. The properties of the TDE candidates are examined using (1) SDSS imaging to compare them to other flares observed in the search, (2) UV emission measured by GALEX, and (3) spectra of the hosts and of one of the flares. Our pipeline excludes optically identifiable AGN hosts, and our variability monitoring over nine years provides strong evidence that these are not flares in hidden AGNs. The spectra and color evolution of the flares are unlike any SN observed to date, their strong late-time UV emission is particularly distinctive, and they are nuclear at high resolution arguing against these being first cases of a previously unobserved class of SNe or more extreme examples of known SN types. Taken together, the observed properties are difficult to reconcile with an SN or an AGN-flare explanation, although an entirely new process specific to the inner few hundred parsecs of non-active galaxies cannot be excluded. Based on our observed rate, we infer that hundreds or thousands of TDEs will be present in current and next-generation optical synoptic surveys. Using the approach outlined here, a TDE candidate sample with O(1) purity can be selected using geometric resolution and host and flare color alone, demonstrating that a campaign to create a large sample of TDEs, with immediate and detailed multi-wavelength follow-up, is feasible. A by-product of this work is quantification of the power spectrum of extreme flares in AGNs.

  15. Energy Dept. Reports: U.S. Fuel Cell Market Production and Deployment...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department released three new reports today showcasing strong growth across the U.S. fuel cell and hydrogen technologies market-continuing America's leadership in clean...

  16. Energy Dept. Reports: U.S. Fuel Cell Market Production and Deployment...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department released three new reports today showcasing strong growth across the U.S. fuel cell and hydrogen technologies market - continuing America's leadership in clean...

  17. U.S. Fuel Cell Market Production and Deployment Continues Strong...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    released three new reports on December 19 showcasing strong growth across the U.S. fuel cell and hydrogen technologies market. According to these reports, the United States...

  18. Earth Planets Space, , , Flares and the Chromosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, Hugh

    produces in the photospheric magnetic field. Key words: Solar flares, Solar chromosphere, Solar corona understand about solar flares. The reason for this was the recognition, in the 19th and early 20th cen The radiative energy of a solar flare appears mainly in the optical and UV continuum, which form in the lower

  19. OVERVIEW OF SOLAR FLARES The Yohkoh Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Chapter 8 OVERVIEW OF SOLAR FLARES The Yohkoh Perspective Hugh Hudson Space Sciences Laboratory, UC This chapter reviews the physics of solar flares, with special emphasis on the past decade. During this decade, corona 1 #12;2 1. Introduction The physics of solar flares seems too broad a subject to review adequately

  20. Solar Flares STFC Advanced Summer School

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Solar Flares STFC Advanced Summer School in Solar Physics H. S. Hudson Space Sciences Laboratory · A solar flare is, strictly speaking, the electromagnetic radiation from a coronal magnetic energy release and CME require a magnetic storage to supply the energy: #12;Glasgow Summerschool 2011 Why is flare

  1. Lithium-6 from Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Ramaty; V. Tatischeff; J. P. Thibaud; B. Kozlovsky; N. Mandzhavidze

    2000-03-23

    By introducing a hitherto ignored Li-6 producing process, due to accelerated He-3 reactions with He-4, we show that accelerated particle interactions in solar flares produce much more Li-6 than Li-7. By normalizing our calculations to gamma-ray data we demonstrate that the Li-6 produced in solar flares, combined with photospheric Li-7, can account for the recently determined solar wind lithium isotopic ratio, obtained from measurements in lunar soil, provided that the bulk of the flare produced lithium is evacuated by the solar wind. Further research in this area could provide unique information on a variety of problems, including solar atmospheric transport and mixing, solar convection and the lithium depletion issue, and solar wind and solar particle acceleration.

  2. Essays on market structure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruan, Feng

    2012-06-26

    Some of the most important work in the development of economic theory is associated with the study of market structure. In essence, most markets are two-sided. For example, product markets connect tens of thousands of ...

  3. Scaling laws of solar and stellar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markus J. Aschwanden; Robert A. Stern; Manuel Güdel

    2007-10-12

    In this study we compile for the first time comprehensive data sets of solar and stellar flare parameters, including flare peak temperatures T_p, flare peak volume emission measures EM_p, and flare durations t_f from both solar and stellar data, as well as flare length scales L from solar data. Key results are that both the solar and stellar data are consistent with a common scaling law of EM_p ~ T_p^4.7, but the stellar flares exhibit ~250 times higher emission measures (at the same flare peak temperature). For solar flares we observe also systematic trends for the flare length scale L(T_p) ~ T_p^0.9 and the flare duration t_F(T_p) ~ T_p^0.9 as a function of the flare peak temperature. Using the theoretical RTV scaling law and the fractal volume scaling observed for solar flares, i.e., V(L) ~ L^2.4, we predict a scaling law of EM_p ~ T_p^4.3, which is consistent with observations, and a scaling law for electron densities in flare loops, n_p ~ T_p^2/L ~ T_p^1.1. The RTV-predicted electron densities were also found to be consistent with densities inferred from total emission measures, n_p=(EM_p/q_V*V)^1/2, using volume filling factors of q_V=0.03-0.08 constrained by fractal dimensions measured in solar flares. Our results affect also the determination of radiative and conductive cooling times, thermal energies, and frequency distributions of solar and stellar flare energies.

  4. Marketing Plan Company Description

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dahl, David B.

    Marketing Plan Company Description: Consumer company that provides a product to helps boost Marketing Swat Team Project Description and Deliverables: The team will Identify the best online vehicles of promotions from YouTube celebs, co- marketing with related businesses, affiliate marketing, cross marketing

  5. A NEW CORRELATION BETWEEN GRB X-RAY FLARES AND THE PROMPT EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonbas, E. [Department of Physics, University of Adiyaman, 02040 Adiyaman (Turkey); MacLachlan, G. A.; Shenoy, A.; Dhuga, K. S.; Parke, W. C., E-mail: edasonbas@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2013-04-20

    From a sample of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi and Swift missions, we have extracted the minimum variability timescales for temporal structures in the light curves associated with the prompt emission and X-ray flares. A comparison of this variability timescale with pulse parameters such as rise times, determined via pulse-fitting procedures, and spectral lags, extracted via the cross-correlation function, indicates a tight correlation between these temporal features for both the X-ray flares and the prompt emission. These correlations suggest a common origin for the production of X-ray flares and the prompt emission in GRBs.

  6. Market Trial: Selling Off-Grid Lighting Products in Rural Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tracy, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    2007) “The Off-Grid Lighting Market in Western Kenya: LEDMills (2008) “Solid-State Lighting on a Shoestring Budget:The Economics of Off-Grid Lighting for Small Business in

  7. Advertising in a Competitive Market: The Role of Product Standards, Customer Learning, and Switching Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Eric T.

    Standard models of competition predict that firms will sell less when competitors target their customers with advertising. This is particularly true in mature markets with many competitors that sell relatively undifferentiated ...

  8. Retail market test: An in-depth evaluation of a new product concept for lamb. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naylor, Robert Kenneth

    1967-01-01

    19 Objectives and Related Hypotheses 21 IV LITEPATSLRE REVIEW 24 Retail Market Tests 25 Matched-lot controlled experiments 25 Test store versus control store experiments. . 27 Latin-square experiments . . . , . ~ . , 28 Factorial experiments 28... Multiple covariance analysis Field Organization for the Market Test 50 50 VI THE RETAIL STORE TEST 52 General Consumer Awareness 52 General Sales Analysis Lamb sales analysis Summary Pork sales analysis Beef sales analysis 53 53 57 58 59...

  9. A Market Dynamics Model for New Industrial Products and Its Application Author(s): Shmuel S. Oren and Michael H. Rothkopf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms by subjective or market researchdata, is usually theoretical market shares based upon consumer preferences under design decisions. They are used to aid decision makers who must define new product designs, decide

  10. Magnetic reconnection configurations and particle acceleration in solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, P. F.

    types of solar flares. Upper panel: two-ribbon flares; Lower panel: compact flares. The color showsMagnetic reconnection configurations and particle acceleration in solar flares P. F. Chen, W. J space under different magnetic configurations. Key words: solar flares, magnetic reconnection, particle

  11. Recent Flare Studies at NJIT Outline of Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    continuum brightening (white-light flares) Black-light solar flares (BLFs; Henoux et al. 1990): electron flares. - Solar limb in D3, showing a narrow, bright band above the photosphere between 1000 and 2500 km3/28/2014 1 Recent Flare Studies at NJIT Lecture 10 Outline of Studies Black Light Flares Moreton

  12. The Ulysses Catalog of Solar Hard X-Ray Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tranquille, C.; Hurley, K.; Hudson, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    Sturrock, P.A. (ed. ) Solar Flares: A Monograph from SkylabSmith E.V.P. : 1963, Solar Flares, Macmillan, New York.Catalog of Solar Hard X-Ray Flares Table 1 (Continued. )

  13. Flare Gas Recovery in Shell Canada Refineries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, G. D.; Wey, R. E.; Chan, H. H.

    1983-01-01

    six years total operating experience with modern flare gas recovery units. The compression facilities in each utilize a two-stage reciprocating machine, one liquid seal drum per flare stack, and an automated load control strategy. The purpose... these issues. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION A schematic of a typical refinery flare gas recovery facility is shown in Figure I. The facilities include the following pieces of equipment: - compressor suction drum - compressor set - inter-stage knock-out drum...

  14. Solar flares: Preflare Phase SOLAR FLARES are believed to be the result of a sud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martens, Petrus C.

    build­up and the trigger mechanism is at the heart of understanding the physics of solar flaresSolar flares: Preflare Phase SOLAR FLARES are believed to be the result of a sud­ den conversion of a large amount of FREE MAGNETIC ENERGY, previously stored in the solar CORONA. The release takes place

  15. Particle Acceleration in Solar Flares and Enrichment of 3He and Heavy Ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vahe' Petrosian

    2008-08-13

    We discuss possible mechanisms of acceleration of particles in solar flares and show that turbulence plays an important role in all the mechanism. It is also argued that stochastic particle acceleration by turbulent plasma waves is the most likely mechanism for production of the high energy electrons and ions responsible for observed radiative signatures of solar flares and for solar energetic particle or SEPs, and that the predictions of this model agrees well with many past and recent high spectral and temporal observations of solar flares. It is shown that, in addition, the model explains many features of SEPs that accompany flares. In particular we show that it can successfully explain the observed extreme enhancement, relative to photospheric values, of $^3$He ions and the relative spectra of $^3$He and $^4$He. It has also the potential of explaining the relative abundances of most ions including the increasing enhancements of heavy ions with ion mass or mass-to-charge ratio.

  16. Volume 15, number 1 February 2010 markets products analysis research Forecasts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    projects have been identified, with the bulk being cogeneration, wood pellets and cellulosic ethanol. · u to the historical raw material supply for the pulp and paper/composite panelboard industries. t Wood Pellet markets/trends growth of the global Wood Pellet industry ...continued What's InsIde global prIce trends analysis 1 Wood

  17. Prediction of Solar Flare Size and Time-to-Flare Using Support Vector Machine Regression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boucheron, Laura E; McAteer, R T James

    2015-01-01

    We study the prediction of solar flare size and time-to-flare using 38 features describing magnetic complexity of the photospheric magnetic field. This work uses support vector regression to formulate a mapping from the 38-dimensional feature space to a continuous-valued label vector representing flare size or time-to-flare. When we consider flaring regions only, we find an average error in estimating flare size of approximately half a \\emph{geostationary operational environmental satellite} (\\emph{GOES}) class. When we additionally consider non-flaring regions, we find an increased average error of approximately 3/4 a \\emph{GOES} class. We also consider thresholding the regressed flare size for the experiment containing both flaring and non-flaring regions and find a true positive rate of 0.69 and a true negative rate of 0.86 for flare prediction. The results for both of these size regression experiments are consistent across a wide range of predictive time windows, indicating that the magnetic complexity fe...

  18. Expanded Marketing Opportunities for Dry Onion Production in Texas: An Interregional Analysis of the Spring and Summer Seasons. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, Stephen; Goodwin, H.L.; Schafer, Carl; Schmitz, John

    1990-01-01

    ..................................................................................... 1 United States ................................................................................ 1 Texas ............................................................................... ~ ......... 2 Dry Onion Market Shares and Competing Regions... .............................................................................. 17 Results ........................................................................................... 20 Ability of Texas to Expand Its Market Share .................................................. 21 Vulnerability of Texas' Market Share...

  19. Field Testing of Automated Demand Response for Integration of Renewable Resources in California's Ancillary Services Market for Regulation Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila

    2013-01-01

    the Market Report for PJM: Ancillary Service Markets. 2010Response for Wholesale Ancillary Services", Grid—Kintner—Meyer, Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of

  20. The local Poisson hypothesis for solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. S. Wheatland

    2001-07-09

    The question of whether flares occur as a Poisson process has important consequences for flare physics. Recently Lepreti et al. presented evidence for local departure from Poisson statistics in the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) X-ray flare catalog. Here it is argued that this effect arises from a selection effect inherent in the soft X-ray observations; namely that the slow decay of enhanced flux following a large flare makes detection of subsequent flares less likely. It is also shown that the power-law tail of the GOES waiting-time distribution varies with the solar cycle. This counts against any intrinsic significance to the appearance of a power law, or to the value of its index.

  1. Hinode Observations of Vector Magnetic Field Change Associated with a Flare on 2006 December 13

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masahito Kubo; Takaaki Yokoyama; Yukio Katsukawa; Bruce W Lites; Saku Tsuneta; Yoshinori Suematsu; Kiyoshi Ichimoto; Toshifumi Shimizu; Shin'ichi Nagata; Theodore D Tarbell; Richard A Shine; Alan M Title; David Elmore

    2007-09-17

    Continuous observations of a flare productive active region 10930 were successfully carried out with the Solar Optical Telescope onboard the Hinode spacecraft during 2007 December 6 to 19. We focus on the evolution of photospheric magnetic fields in this active region, and magnetic field properties at the site of the X3.4 class flare, using a time series of vector field maps with high spatial resolution. The X3.4 class flare occurred on 2006 December 13 at the apparent collision site between the large, opposite polarity umbrae. Elongated magnetic structures with alternatingly positive and negative polarities resulting from flux emergence appeared one day before the flare in the collision site penumbra. Subsequently, the polarity inversion line at the collision site became very complicated. The number of bright loops in Ca II H increased during the formation of these elongated magnetic structures. The flare ribbons and bright loops evolved along the polarity inversion line and one footpoint of the bright loop was located in a region having a large departure of field azimuth angle with respect to its surroundings. The SOT observations with high spatial resolution and high polarization precision reveal temporal change in fine structure of magnetic fields at the flare site: some parts of the complicated polarity inversion line then disappeared, and in those regions the azimuth angle of photospheric magnetic field changed by about 90 degrees, becoming more spatially uniform within the collision site.

  2. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Wellhead Value and Marketed Production"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA -Annual",2014Proved Reserves, Wet After LeaseAnnual",2014Value and Marketed

  3. ,"Federal Offshore--Alabama Natural Gas Marketed Production (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008LNG StorageCoalbed Methane Proved Reserves (BillionGulf ofMarketed

  4. Alaska--State Offshore Natural Gas Marketed Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers4.32Elements) GasThousandMarketed

  5. Market assessment for active solar heating and cooling products. Category B: a survey of decision-makers in the HVAC marketplace. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-09-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of the market for solar heating and cooling products for new and retrofit markets is reported. The emphasis is on the analysis of solar knowledge among HVAC decision makers and a comprehensive evaluation of their solar attitudes and behavior. The data from each of the following sectors are described and analyzed: residential consumers, organizational and manufacturing buildings, HVAC engineers and architects, builders/developers, and commercial/institutional segments. (MHR)

  6. U.S Markets for Certified and Non-Certified Hardwood Tropical Forest Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the fact that tropical forests have a longer growing period, hence encouraging the paper industry to use tropical hardwood pulp for paper production (U.S. and International Institutions 1983). In 2000, the United Agricultural Center Baton Rouge, Louisiana Louisiana Forest Products Development Center Working Paper #76

  7. Developing a Marketing Plan 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bevers, Stan; Waller, Mark L.; Amosson, Stephen H.; McCorkle, Dean

    2009-03-02

    Developing a good marketing plan will help you identify and quantify costs, set price goals, determine potential price outlook, examine production and price risk, and develop a strategy for marketing your crop. This publication describes...

  8. HVAC Market Study:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HVAC Market Study: Understanding how energy efficient products get to market Fall 2014 through Winter 2015 Research Manager: Carrie Cobb, clcobb@bpa.gov, 503-230-4985 HVAC systems...

  9. SOLAR FLARE CYCLES , M. D. POPESCU1, 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SOLAR FLARE CYCLES G. MARI1 , M. D. POPESCU1, 2 1 Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy solar flare periodicity intervals. Our analysis includes a statistical investigation of flare occurrence and the strength of solar cycles. For that purpose, we studied not only the number of flares occurring monthly

  10. SPECIAL TOPICS FALL 2015 Marketing High-Technology Products and Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and services have been catalysts for significant changes in business, society and GDP/capita. Imagine your life cost consumer products like the Nest to equipment with 7-figure price tags. This course surveys

  11. Location of Narrowband Spikes in Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold O. Benz; Pascal Saint-Hilaire; Nicole Vilmer

    2001-12-19

    Narrowband spikes of the decimeter type have been identified in dynamic spectrograms of Phoenix-2 of ETH Zurich and located in position with the Nancay Radioheliograph at the same frequency. The spike positions have been compared with the location of hard X-ray emission and the thermal flare plasma in soft X-rays and EUV lines. The decimetric spikes are found to be single sources located some 20" to 400" away from the flare site in hard or soft X-rays. In most cases there is no bright footpoint nearby. In at least two cases the spikes are near loop tops. These observations do not confirm the widely held view that the spike emission is produced by some loss-cone instability masering near the footpoints of flare loops. On the other hand, the large distance to the flare sites and the fact that these spikes are all observed in the flare decay phase make the analyzed spike sources questionable sites for the main flare electron acceleration. They possibly indicate coronal post-flare acceleration sites.

  12. Giant AGN Flares and Cosmic Ray Bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glennys R. Farrar; Andrei Gruzinov

    2008-09-15

    We predict a new class of very intense, short-duration AGN flares capable of accelerating the highest energy cosmic rays, resulting from the tidal disruption of a star or from a disk instability. The rate and power of these flares readily explains the observed flux and density statistics of UHECRs. The photon bursts produced by the predicted AGN flares are discussed; they may soon be detectable. Observations are shown to exclude that continuous jets of powerful Active Galactic Nuclei are the sole source of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays; the stringent requirements for Gamma Ray Bursts to be the source are delineated.

  13. STUDY OF TRANSPORTATION OF GTL PRODUCTS FROM ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE (ANS) TO MARKETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godwin A. Chukwu, Ph.D., P.E.

    2002-09-01

    The Alaskan North Slope is one of the largest hydrocarbon reserves in the US where Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) technology can be successfully implemented. The proven and recoverable reserves of conventional natural gas in the developed and undeveloped fields in the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) are estimated to be 38 trillion standard cubic feet (TCF) and estimates of additional undiscovered gas reserves in the Arctic field range from 64 TCF to 142 TCF. Transportation of the natural gas from the remote ANS is the key issue in effective utilization of this valuable and abundance resource. The throughput of oil through the Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) has been on decline and is expected to continue to decline in future. It is projected that by the year 2015, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level that there will be a critical need for pumping additional liquid from GTL process to provide an adequate volume for economic operation of TAPS. The pumping of GTL products through TAPS will significantly increase its economic life. Transporting GTL products from the North Slope of Alaska down to the Marine terminal at Valdez is no doubt the great challenge facing the Gas to Liquids options of utilizing the abundant natural gas resource of the North Slope. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate and assess the economic feasibility of transporting GTL products through the TAPS. Material testing program for GTL and GTL/Crude oil blends was designed and implemented for measurement of physical properties of GTL products. The measurement and evaluation of the properties of these materials were necessary so as to access the feasibility of transporting such materials through TAPS under cold arctic conditions. Results of the tests indicated a trend of increasing yield strength with increasing wax content. GTL samples exhibited high gel strengths at temperatures as high as 20 F, which makes it difficult for cold restart following winter shutdowns. Simplified analytical models were developed to study the flow of GTL and GTL/crude oil blends through TAPS in both commingled and batch flow models. The economics of GTL transportations by either commingled or batching mode were evaluated. The choice of mode of transportation of GTL products through TAPS would depend on the expected purity of the product and a trade-off between loss in product value due to contamination and cost of keeping the product pure at the discharge terminal.

  14. US imports. Part II. Refined product market shares, then and now

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-07-08

    Unlike imports of crude oil to the US, which were up 45.7% between 1977 and 1986, imports of petroleum products have fallen by about 8.6% during the same period. The crude oil price crash of 1986 deepened US dependency on imports of crude, from 21.4% in 1977 to 25.4% in 1986, but reduced the dependency in the case of total refined products from 11.32% in 1977 to 11.13% in 1986. Comparing the first four months of 1987 with 1986, US dependency on imported petroleum products is down 2.73 percentage points; import dependency on OPEC petroleum products is down 4.60 percentage points; dependency on Arab OPEC countries product imports is down 1.88 percentage points; and for Eastern Hemisphere exporters, that dependency has fallen 2.17 percentage points. This issue also contains: (1) ED refining netback data from the US Gulf and West coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore for early July 1987; and (2) ED fuel price/tax series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, July 1987 edition. 4 figures, 5 tables.

  15. The Energetics of a Flaring Solar Active Region, and Observed Flare Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. S. Wheatland

    2008-02-26

    A stochastic model for the energy of a flaring solar active region is presented, generalising and extending the approach of Wheatland & Glukhov (1998). The probability distribution for the free energy of an active region is described by the solution to a master equation involving deterministic energy input and random jump transitions downwards in energy (solar flares). It is shown how two observable distributions, the flare frequency-energy distribution and the flare waiting-time distribution, may be derived from the steady-state solution to the master equation, for given choices for the energy input and for the rates of flare transitions. An efficient method of numerical solution of the steady-state master equation is presented. Solutions appropriate for flaring, involving a constant rate of energy input and power-law distributed jump transition rates, are numerically investigated. The flare-like solutions exhibit power-law flare frequency-energy distributions below a high energy rollover, set by the largest energy the active region is likely to have. The solutions also exhibit approximately exponential (i.e. Poisson) waiting-time distributions, despite the rate of flaring depending on the free energy of the system.

  16. Solar Neutron Event in Association with a Large Solar Flare on November 24, 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Watanabe; Y. Muraki; Y. Matsubara; K. Murakami; T. Sako; H. Tsuchiya; S. Masuda; M. Yoshimori; N. Ohmori; P. Miranda; N. Martinic; R. Ticona; A. Velarde; F. Kakimoto; S. Ogio; Y. Tsunesada; H. Tokuno; Y. Shirasaki

    2003-04-03

    Solar neutrons have been detected using the neutron monitor located at Mt. Chacaltaya, Bolivia, in association with a large solar flare on November 24, 2000. This is the first detection of solar neutrons by the neutron monitor that have been reported so far in solar cycle 23. The statistical significance of the detection is 5.5 sigma. In this flare, the intense emission of hard X-rays and gamma-rays has been observed by the Yohkoh Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) and Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS), respectively. The production time of solar neutrons is better correlated with those of hard X-rays and gamma-rays than with the production time of soft X-rays. The observations of the solar neutrons on the ground have been limited to solar flares with soft X-ray class greater than X8 in former solar cycles. In this cycle, however, neutrons were detected associated with an X2.3 solar flare on November 24, 2000. This is the first report of the detection of solar neutrons on the ground associated with a solar flare with its X-ray class smaller than X8.

  17. A Functional Approach to Assessing Flexible Ramping Product's Impact on Electricity Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    plan with respect to renewable energy pen- etration (in particular, wind and solar power) is constantly. While CAISO and MISO are leading the design, it is not clear how such products may affect stressing the power system due to their stochastic nature. For example, California requires 33% of its

  18. 9. Marketing and Sales Getting people to buy your product and to buy it

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solem, Jan Erik

    Work http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Technology-Adoption-Lifecycle.png #12;Promotion: Blogs #12) Product Already discussed in previous chapter Promotion TV? Newspapers? WOM? Blogs? What works. What doesnComputerVisionStartup Some Promotion Options Online Blogs, Google Ads, Social Media, App Stores TV Print Media WOM Word

  19. Domestic petroleum-product prices around the world. Survey: free market or government price controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-27

    In this issue, Energy Detente draws from their regular Western and Eastern Hemisphere Fuel Price/Tax Series, each produced monthly, and adds other survey data and analysis for a broad view of 48 countries around the world. They find that seven Latin American nations, including OPEC members Venezuela and Ecuador, are among the ten countries with lowest gasoline prices. In this Fourth Special Price Report, Energy Detente provides a first-time presentation of which prices are government-controlled, and which are free to respond to market forces. South Korea, with fixed prices since 1964, has the highest premium-grade gasoline price in our survey, US $5.38 per gallon. Paraguay, with prices fixed by PETROPAR, the national oil company, has the second highest premium gasoline price, US $4.21 per gallon. Nicaragua, also with government price controls, ranks third highest in the survey, with US $3.38 per gallon for premium gasoline. Kuwait shows the lowest price at US $0.55 per gallon. Several price changes from the previous survey reflect changes in currency exchange as all prices are converted to US dollars. The Energy Detente fuel price/tax series is presented for Western Hemisphere countries.

  20. Reducing Safety Flaring through Advanced Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hokanson, D.; Lehman, K.; Matsumoto, S.; Takai, N.; Takase, F.

    2010-01-01

    An advanced process control application, using DMCplus® (Aspen Technology, Inc.), was developed to substantially reduce fuel gas losses to the flare at a large integrated refining / petrochemical complex. Fluctuations in internal fuel gas system...

  1. Sauget Plant Flare Gas Reduction Project 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ratkowski, D. P.

    2007-01-01

    Empirical analysis of stack gas heating value allowed the Afton Chemical Corporation Sauget Plant to reduce natural gas flow to its process flares by about 50% while maintaining the EPA-required minimum heating value of the gas streams....

  2. Production Incentives and Payment Methods in Major Texas Fluid Milk Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krienke, A. B.; Stelly, Randall

    1967-01-01

    of demand for fluid milk products is low. Therefore, even with extreme fluctu ations in the price for Grade A milk, it may be difficult to obtain desired adjustments in consumption. For this reason, at least during certain seasons, some Grade A milk... class. Several producer payment methods have been developed which not only define an equitable means for allocating Class I and Class II sales to individual producers but which also are expected to provide the incentive for certain types...

  3. The Shape of M Dwarf Flares in Kepler Light Curves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davenport, James R A

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-precise light curves from Kepler provide the best opportunity to determine rates and statistical properties of stellar flares. From 11 months of data on the active M4 dwarf, GJ 1243, we have built the largest catalog of flares for a single star: over 6100 events. Combining 885 of our most pristine flares, we generated an empirical white-light flare template. This high-fidelity template shows a rapid initial rise, and two distinct exponential cooling phases. This template is useful in constraining flare energies and for improved flare detection in many surveys. Complex, multi-peaked events are more common for higher energy flares in this sample. Using our flare template we characterize the structure of complex events. In this contributed talk, I presented results from our boutique study of GJ 1243, and described an expanded investigation of the structure of complex flares and their connection to solar events.

  4. Impulsive phase flare energy transport by large-scale Alfven waves and the electron acceleration problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Fletcher; H. S. Hudson

    2007-12-20

    The impulsive phase of a solar flare marks the epoch of rapid conversion of energy stored in the pre-flare coronal magnetic field. Hard X-ray observations imply that a substantial fraction of flare energy released during the impulsive phase is converted to the kinetic energy of mildly relativistic electrons (10-100 keV). The liberation of the magnetic free energy can occur as the coronal magnetic field reconfigures and relaxes following reconnection. We investigate a scenario in which products of the reconfiguration - large-scale Alfven wave pulses - transport the energy and magnetic-field changes rapidly through the corona to the lower atmosphere. This offers two possibilities for electron acceleration. Firstly, in a coronal plasma with beta waves propagate as inertial Alfven waves. In the presence of strong spatial gradients, these generate field-aligned electric fields that can accelerate electrons to energies on the order of 10 keV and above, including by repeated interactions between electrons and wavefronts. Secondly, when they reflect and mode-convert in the chromosphere, a cascade to high wavenumbers may develop. This will also accelerate electrons by turbulence, in a medium with a locally high electron number density. This concept, which bridges MHD-based and particle-based views of a flare, provides an interpretation of the recently-observed rapid variations of the line-of-sight component of the photospheric magnetic field across the flare impulsive phase, and offers solutions to some perplexing flare problems, such as the flare "number problem" of finding and resupplying sufficient electrons to explain the impulsive-phase hard X-ray emission.

  5. ON THE DURATION OF BLAZAR SYNCHROTRON FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eichmann, B.; Schlickeiser, R.; Rhode, W.

    2012-01-10

    A semi-analytical model is presented that describes the temporal development of a blazar synchrotron flare for the case of a broadband synchrotron power spectrum. We examine three different injection scenarios and present its influence on the synchrotron flare. An accurate approximation of the half-life of a synchrotron flare is analytically computed and we give some illustrative examples of the time evolution of the emergent synchrotron intensity by using a numerical integration method. The synchrotron flare starts at all photon energies right after the injection of ultrarelativistic electrons into the spherical emission volume of radius R and its duration exceeds the light travel time 2R/c in the low energy regime. Furthermore, the flare duration extends by the period of injection of relativistic electrons into the emission knot. However, the energetic and spatial distribution of these injected electrons has no significant influence on the flare duration. We obtain a temporal behavior that agrees most favorably with the observations of PKS 2155-304 on 2006 July 29-30 and it differs considerably from the results that were recently achieved by using a monochromatic approximation of the synchrotron power.

  6. EIT and TRACE responses to flare plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Tripathi; G. Del Zanna; H. E. Mason; C. Chifor

    2008-02-26

    Aims: To understand the contribution of active region and flare plasmas to the $\\lambda$195 channels of SOHO/EIT (Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope) and TRACE (Transition Region and Coronal Explorer). Methods: We have analysed an M8 flare simultaneously observed by the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS), EIT, TRACE and RHESSI. We obtained synthetic spectra for the flaring region and an outer region using the differential emission measures (DEM) of emitting plasma based on CDS and RHESSI observations and the CHIANTI atomic database. We then predicted the EIT and TRACE count rates. Results: For the flaring region, both EIT and TRACE images taken through the $\\lambda$195 filter are dominated by Fe ${\\rm XXIV}$ (formed at about 20 MK). However, in the outer region, the emission was primarily due to the Fe${\\rm XII}$, with substantial contributions from other lines. The average count rate for the outer region was within 25% the observed value for EIT, while for TRACE it was a factor of two higher. For the flare region, the predicted count rate was a factor of two (in case of EIT) and a factor of three (in case of TRACE) higher than the actual count rate. Conclusions: During a solar flare, both TRACE and EIT $\\lambda$195 channels are found to be dominated by Fe ${\\rm XXIV}$ emission. Reasonable agreement between predictions and observations is found, however some discrepancies need to be further investigated.

  7. Are there Radio-quiet Solar Flares?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold O. Benz; Roman Brajsa; Jasmina Magdalenic

    2007-01-19

    Some 15% of solar flares having a soft X-ray flux above GOES class C5 are reported to lack coherent radio emission in the 100 - 4000 MHz range (type I - V and decimetric emissions). A detailed study of 29 such events reveals that 22 (76%) of them occurred at a radial distance of more than 800'' from the disk center, indicating that radio waves from the limb may be completely absorbed in some flares. The remaining seven events have statistically significant trends to be weak in GOES class and to have a softer non-thermal X-ray spectrum. All of the non-limb flares that were radio-quiet > 100 MHz were accompanied by metric type III emission below 100 MHz. Out of 201 hard X-ray flares, there was no flare except near the limb (R>800'') without coherent radio emission in the entire meter and decimeter range. We suggest that flares above GOES class C5 generally emit coherent radio waves when observed radially above the source.

  8. The bridge across is better known as Marketing. The process of turning your ideas into products, finding the right price for the product, getting it

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    to survive. Industries where marketers excel include: Banks, insurance companies Oil and Gas exploration and Communication Professionals. To learn more, visit www.calgarycma.com Student Club Alliances in Marketing (AIM

  9. Federal Offshore--Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Marketed Production (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 RelativeSoutheast Region AboutFeet)Production (MillionCubicCubic

  10. Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Marketed Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0Proved Reserves (BillionProduction

  11. Market Research Report - Global Open Source Software Market Size...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    we deeply analyzed the world's main region market conditions that including the product price, profit, capacity, production, capacity utilization, supply, demand and industry...

  12. The Origin of the Solar Flare Waiting-Time Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. S. Wheatland

    2000-05-08

    It was recently pointed out that the distribution of times between solar flares (the flare waiting-time distribution) follows a power law, for long waiting times. Based on 25 years of soft X-ray flares observed by Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) instruments it is shown that 1. the waiting-time distribution of flares is consistent with a time-dependent Poisson process, and 2. the fraction of time the Sun spends with different flaring rates approximately follows an exponential distribution. The second result is a new phenomenological law for flares. It is shown analytically how the observed power-law behavior of the waiting times originates in the exponential distribution of flaring rates. These results are argued to be consistent with a non-stationary avalanche model for flares.

  13. Teaching Direct Marketign and Small Farm Viability, 2nd Edition. Unit 2 - Overview of Produce Marketing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    on farm products in specific markets and marketing areas.Unit 2.0 | 41 Overview of Produce Marketing 42 | Unit 2.0?Overview of Produce Marketing

  14. New waste-heat refrigeration unit cuts flaring, reduces pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brant, B.; Brueske, S.; Erickson, D.; Papar, R.

    1998-05-18

    Planetec Utility Services Co. Inc. and Energy Concepts Co. (ECC), with the help of the US Department of Energy (DOE), developed and commissioned a unique waste-heat powered LPG recovery plant in August 1997 at the 30,000 b/d Denver refinery, operated by Ultramar Diamond Shamrock (UDS). This new environmentally friendly technology reduces flare emissions and the loss of salable liquid-petroleum products to the fuel-gas system. The waste heat ammonia absorption refrigeration plant (Whaarp) is the first technology of its kind to use low-temperature waste heat (295 F) to achieve sub-zero refrigeration temperatures ({minus}40 F) with the capability of dual temperature loads in a refinery setting. The ammonia absorption refrigeration is applied to the refinery`s fuel-gas makeup streams to condense over 180 b/d of salable liquid hydrocarbon products. The recovered liquid, about 64,000 bbl/year of LPG and gasoline, increases annual refinery profits by nearly $1 million, while substantially reducing air pollution emissions from the refinery`s flare.

  15. Using Marketing Muscle to Sell Fat: The Rise of Obesity in the Modern Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zimmerman, Frederick J

    2011-01-01

    marketing mix Product Product innovation Price Value mealdeals, product placement, product innovation, sophisticatedextension, sales. Food product innovation. Food science en-

  16. Spatial Relationship between Solar Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Yashiro; G. Michalek; S. Akiyama; N. Gopalswamy; R. A. Howard

    2007-10-16

    We report on the spatial relationship between solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) observed during 1996-2005 inclusive. We identified 496 flare-CME pairs considering limb flares (distance from central meridian > 45 deg) with soft X-ray flare size > C3 level. The CMEs were detected by the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). We investigated the flare positions with respect to the CME span for the events with X-class, M-class, and C-class flares separately. It is found that the most frequent flare site is at the center of the CME span for all the three classes, but that frequency is different for the different classes. Many X-class flares often lie at the center of the associated CME, while C-class flares widely spread to the outside of the CME span. The former is different from previous studies, which concluded that no preferred flare site exists. We compared our result with the previous studies and conclude that the long-term LASCO observation enabled us to obtain the detailed spatial relation between flares and CMEs. Our finding calls for a closer flare-CME relationship and supports eruption models typified by the CSHKP magnetic reconnection model.

  17. Rapid Transition of Uncombed Penumbrae to Faculae during Large Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    field evolution in solar photosphere plays important roles in building energy and triggering eruption structure associated with major flares. Taking advantage of two near-limb events, we found that in sections: flares -- Sun: magnetic topology -- sunspots #12;­ 2 ­ 1. INTRODUCTION Solar flares have been understood

  18. Version on March 21, 2002 STATISTICAL EVIDENCE FOR SYMPATHETIC FLARES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Subject headings: Sun: flare - Sun: X-ray - Sun: corona 1 Big Bear Solar Observatory, NJIT, 40386 North as solar flares in different active regions that apparently occur as the common result of activation, which are defined as unrelated solar flares that occur at nearly the same time. However

  19. Probabilistic forecasting of solar flares from vector magnetogram data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnes, Graham

    Probabilistic forecasting of solar flares from vector magnetogram data G. Barnes,1 K. D. Leka,1 E to solar flare forecasting, adapted to provide the probability that a measurement belongs to either group, the groups in this case being solar active regions which produced a flare within 24 hours and those

  20. Driving Major Solar Flares and Eruptions: Carolus J. Schrijver

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrijver, Karel

    Driving Major Solar Flares and Eruptions: A Review Carolus J. Schrijver Lockheed Martin Adv. Techn: emerging flux 1 Introduction We have known of the phenomenon called 'solar flare' ever since the first,000 refereed publications with the words 'flare' and 'Sun' or 'solar' in the abstract. Even the limited focus

  1. THE 22-YEAR SOLAR MAGNETIC CYCLE. II. FLARE ACTIVITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE 22-YEAR SOLAR MAGNETIC CYCLE. II. FLARE ACTIVITY G. MARI, M. D. POPESCU, A. C. DONEA, M. MIERLA cycle, a cycle that had an unexpected behaviour. Here we analyze the occurrence of the solar flares predicted of the current 11-year solar cycle. We conclude that it could be determined by a pulse of flare

  2. Blazar Flaring Rates Measured with GLAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. D. Dermer; B. L. Dingus

    2003-12-22

    We derive the minimum observing time scales to detect a blazar at a given flux level with the LAT on GLAST in the scanning and pointing modes. Based upon Phase 1 observations with EGRET, we predict the GLAST detection rate of blazar flares at different flux levels. With some uncertainty given the poor statistics of bright blazars, we predict that a blazar flare with integral flux >~ 200e-8 ph(> 100 MeV) cm^{-2} s^{-1}, which are the best candidates for Target of Opportunity pointings and extensive temporal and spectral studies, should occur every few days.

  3. Blazar Flaring Rates Measured with GLAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dermer, C D

    2004-01-01

    We derive the minimum observing time scales to detect a blazar at a given flux level with the LAT on GLAST in the scanning and pointing modes. Based upon Phase 1 observations with EGRET, we predict the GLAST detection rate of blazar flares at different flux levels. With some uncertainty given the poor statistics of bright blazars, we predict that a blazar flare with integral flux >~ 200e-8 ph(> 100 MeV) cm^{-2} s^{-1}, which are the best candidates for Target of Opportunity pointings and extensive temporal and spectral studies, should occur every few days.

  4. Niche Marketing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCorkle, Dean; Anderson, David P.

    2009-05-01

    Niche markets are small, specialized markets for goods or services. Agricultural producers have many opportunities for niche marketing, and this strategy can contribute to the profitability of a firm. Examples of niche markets are included...

  5. Natural Gas Marketed Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013...

  6. Natural Gas Marketed Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2,2,435,222 2,389,991 2,480,107 2,473,618 2,407,387

  7. The Relation between Solar Eruption Topologies and Observed Flare Features I: Flare Ribbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savcheva, A; McKillop, S; McCauley, P; Hanson, E; Su, Y; Werner, E; DeLuca, E E

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a topological magnetic field investigation of seven two-ribbon flares in sigmoidal active regions observed with Hinode, STEREO, and SDO. We first derive the 3D coronal magnetic field structure of all regions using marginally unstable 3D coronal magnetic field models created with the flux rope insertion method. The unstable models have been shown to be a good model of the flaring magnetic field configurations. Regions are selected based on their pre-flare configurations along with the appearance and observational coverage of flare ribbons, and the model is constrained using pre-flare features observed in extreme ultraviolet and X-ray passbands. We perform a topology analysis of the models by computing the squashing factor, Q, in order to determine the locations of prominent quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs). QSLs from these maps are compared to flare ribbons at their full extents. We show that in all cases the straight segments of the two J-shaped ribbons are matched very well by the flux...

  8. MEASUREMENTS OF ABSOLUTE ABUNDANCES IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. EVE observes both high temperature Fe emission lines (Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and continuum emission from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum emission it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias (f). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature, it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential emission measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is f = 1.17 ± 0.22. This analysis suggests that the bulk of the plasma evaporated during a flare comes from deep in the chromosphere, below the region where elemental fractionation occurs.

  9. Properties of Flares-Generated Seismic Waves on the Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. G. Kosovichev

    2005-12-31

    The solar seismic waves excited by solar flares (``sunquakes'') are observed as circular expanding waves on the Sun's surface. The first sunquake was observed for a flare of July 9, 1996, from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) space mission. However, when the new solar cycle started in 1997, the observations of solar flares from SOHO did not show the seismic waves, similar to the 1996 event, even for large X-class flares during the solar maximum in 2000-2002. The first evidence of the seismic flare signal in this solar cycle was obtained for the 2003 ``Halloween'' events, through acoustic ``egression power'' by Donea and Lindsey. After these several other strong sunquakes have been observed. Here, I present a detailed analysis of the basic properties of the helioseismic waves generated by three solar flares in 2003-2005. For two of these flares, X17 flare of October 28, 2003, and X1.2 flare of January 15, 2005, the helioseismology observations are compared with simultaneous observations of flare X-ray fluxes measured from the RHESSI satellite. These observations show a close association between the flare seismic waves and the hard X-ray source, indicating that high-energy electrons accelerated during the flare impulsive phase produced strong compression waves in the photosphere, causing the sunquake. The results also reveal new physical properties such as strong anisotropy of the seismic waves, the amplitude of which varies significantly with the direction of propagation. The waves travel through surrounding sunspot regions to large distances, up to 120 Mm, without significant decay. These observations open new perspectives for helioseismic diagnostics of flaring active regions on the Sun and for understanding the mechanisms of the energy release and transport in solar flares.

  10. Chief Marketing Officer Health Promotion Specialist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennett, Daniel

    · Chief Marketing Officer · Health Promotion Specialist · Director of Communications · Account/Manager · Communication Specialist · Marketing Director · Senior Account Manager · Project Manager · Research Assistant of Public Relations · International Marketing Manager · Product Manager · Clinical Trial Manager Genentech

  11. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies – Tasks 3 & 4 Report Economic, Energy, and Environmental Analysis of Hydrogen Production and Delivery Options in Select Alabama Markets: Preliminary Case Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.; Gillette, Jerry; Elgowainy, Amgad; Mintz, Marianne

    2007-12-01

    This report documents a set of case studies developed to estimate the cost of producing, storing, delivering, and dispensing hydrogen for light-duty vehicles for several scenarios involving metropolitan areas in Alabama. While the majority of the scenarios focused on centralized hydrogen production and pipeline delivery, alternative delivery modes were also examined. Although Alabama was used as the case study for this analysis, the results provide insights into the unique requirements for deploying hydrogen infrastructure in smaller urban and rural environments that lie outside the DOE’s high priority hydrogen deployment regions. Hydrogen production costs were estimated for three technologies – steam-methane reforming (SMR), coal gasification, and thermochemical water-splitting using advanced nuclear reactors. In all cases examined, SMR has the lowest production cost for the demands associated with metropolitan areas in Alabama. Although other production options may be less costly for larger hydrogen markets, these were not examined within the context of the case studies.

  12. HOME ADVOCACY POLICY DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC OUTREACH PRODUCTION MARKET DEVELOPMENT MARKETING RESEARCH MAGAZINE http://www.ontariograinfarmer.ca/MAGAZINE.aspx?aid=172

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raizada, Manish N.

    ­ from fields and then sell them to various bio-product industries or as a bio-fuel for electrical power for sustaining its quality and health, says a University of Guelph soil science professor. Dr. Paul Voroney says THE SECRETS OF CORN ROOT ARCHITECTURE Natalie Osborne Corn's extensive root system can account for up to half

  13. Strategies for Marketing and Driving Demand for Commercial Financing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategies for Marketing and Driving Demand for Commercial Financing Products Strategies for Marketing and Driving Demand for Commercial Financing Products Better Buildings...

  14. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development task 5 -- market study of the gas fired ATS. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), in partnership with the Department of Energy, will develop a family of advanced gas turbine-based power systems (ATS) for widespread commercialization within the domestic and international industrial marketplace, and to the rapidly changing electric power generation industry. The objective of the jointly-funded Program is to introduce an ATS with high efficiency, and markedly reduced emissions levels, in high numbers as rapidly as possible following introduction. This Topical Report is submitted in response to the requirements outlined in Task 5 of the Department of Energy METC Contract on Advanced Combustion Systems, Contract No, DE AC21-93MC30246 (Contract), for a Market Study of the Gas Fired Advanced Turbine System. It presents a market study for the ATS proposed by Solar, and will examine both the economic and siting constraints of the ATS compared with competing systems in the various candidate markets. Also contained within this report is an examination and analysis of Solar`s ATS and its ability to compete in future utility and industrial markets, as well as factors affecting the marketability of the ATS.

  15. Market Research Company Description

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dahl, David B.

    development - Market research for enterprise and education adoption - Plan and execute a company-wide pingMarket Research Company Description: A company focused on developing web-based graphical and future products and then develop the necessary strategies and collateral to stay on the bleeding edge

  16. Smokeless Control of Flare Steam Flow Rate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agar, J.; Balls, B. W.

    1979-01-01

    inside the glass. The instrument has a vibrating spool accu rately machined from a material resistant to wet H2S, The patented flow path through the transducer (Figure 8) inhibits moisture and dirt from contaminating the spool and enables installation..., also the inclusion of average values for ZG and ZA' REFERENCES 1. API Publication 931, Chapter 15, "Flares", Manual on Disposal of Refinery Wastes, Volume on Atmospheric Emissions, 1977 American Petroleum Institute, Refinery Department, 2120 L...

  17. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  18. Super-hot (T > 30 MK) Thermal Plasma in Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caspi, Amir

    2010-01-01

    R. , et al. 1980, in Solar Flares: A Monograph from SKYLABR. , et al. 1980, in Solar Flares: A Monograph from SKYLAB1988, The Physics of Solar Flares (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge

  19. Faint Coronal Hard X-rays From Accelerated Electrons in Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glesener, Lindsay Erin

    2012-01-01

    also be applicable to solar flares. Figure is from Lin (High-Energy Aspects of Solar Flares, (Space Science Reviews2002 July 23 class X4.8 solar flare, showing thermal (red)

  20. Initial Observations of Sunspot Oscillations Excited by Solar Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. G. Kosovichev; T. Sekii

    2007-10-09

    Observations of a large solar flare of December 13, 2006, using Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on Hinode spacecraft revealed high-frequency oscillations excited by the flare in the sunspot chromosphere. These oscillations are observed in the region of strong magnetic field of the sunspot umbra, and may provide a new diagnostic tool for probing the structure of sunspots and understanding physical processes in solar flares.

  1. THE MECHANISMS FOR THE ONSET AND EXPLOSIVE ERUPTION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AND ERUPTIVE FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpen, J. T.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.

    2012-11-20

    We have investigated the onset and acceleration of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and eruptive flares. To isolate the eruption physics, our study uses the breakout model, which is insensitive to the energy buildup process leading to the eruption. We performed 2.5D simulations with adaptive mesh refinement that achieved the highest overall spatial resolution to date in a CME/eruptive flare simulation. The ultra-high resolution allows us to separate clearly the timing of the various phases of the eruption. Using new computational tools, we have determined the number and evolution of all X- and O-type nulls in the system, thereby tracking both the progress and the products of reconnection throughout the computational domain. Our results show definitively that CME onset is due to the start of fast reconnection at the breakout current sheet. Once this reconnection begins, eruption is inevitable; if this is the only reconnection in the system, however, the eruption will be slow. The explosive CME acceleration is triggered by fast reconnection at the flare current sheet. Our results indicate that the explosive eruption is caused by a resistive instability, not an ideal process. Moreover, both breakout and flare reconnections begin first as a form of weak tearing characterized by slowly evolving plasmoids, but eventually transition to a fast form with well-defined Alfvenic reconnection jets and rapid flux transfer. This transition to fast reconnection is required for both CME onset and explosive acceleration. We discuss the key implications of our results for CME/flare observations and for theories of magnetic reconnection.

  2. Modelling repeatedly flaring delta-sunspots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatterjee, Piyali; Carlsson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Active regions (AR) appearing on the surface of the Sun are classified into $\\alpha$, $\\beta$, $\\gamma$, and $\\delta$ by the rules of the Mount Wilson Observatory, California on the basis of their topological complexity. Amongst these, the $\\delta$-sunspots are known to be super-active and produce the most X-ray flares. Here, we present results from a simulation of the Sun by mimicking the upper layers and the corona, but starting at a more primitive stage than any earlier treatment. We find that this initial state consisting of only a thin sub-photospheric magnetic sheet breaks into multiple flux-tubes which evolve into a colliding-merging system of spots of opposite polarity upon surface emergence, similar to those often seen on the Sun. The simulation goes on to produce many exotic $\\delta$-sunspot associated phenomena: repeated flaring in the range of typical solar flare energy release and ejective helical flux ropes with embedded cool-dense plasma filaments resembling solar coronal mass ejections.

  3. Massively Parallel Simulations of Solar Flares and Plasma Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grauer, Rainer

    in space- and astrophysical plasmasystems include solar flares and hydro- or magnetohydrodynamic turbulence a pure MPI parallelization, which, however requires a careful optimization of the multi

  4. Market Training Markets 301

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    Adequacy Analysis · Ancillary Service Plans · Offer Curves Di h bl R · Settlements · Market Monitoring in the resource dispatch process · Differentiate between a MP's Resource Plan, Ancillary Service Plan, and its to assets · For submitting ancillary service capacity plans (Up and Down Regulation and Spinning

  5. A Changing Market for Biofuels and Bioproducts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research, Development, Demonstration, & Market Transformation Feedstock Supply & Logistics R&D * Terrestrial * Algae * Product Logistics Preprocessing Conversion R&D *...

  6. UNECE TIMBER COMMITTEE Market Discussions, 3-4 October 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    products market developments · China's forest products markets · Sustainable forest products industry · Paper & pulp · Value-added #12;UNECE TIMBER COMMITTEE Market Discussions, 3-4 October 2006 Photo: NTC: Stora Enso UNECE Timber Committee Market Discussions Theme: "China's influence on forest products

  7. Manifestations of energetic electrons with anisotropic distributions in solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    observations of hard X-ray (HXR) and microwave (MW) emissions in foot- points of solar flares are often closelyManifestations of energetic electrons with anisotropic distributions in solar flares II. Gyrosynchrotron microwave emission Alexey A. Kuznetsov1,2 & Valentina V. Zharkova3 ABSTRACT We investigate

  8. Blazar Alerts with the HAWC Online Flare Monitor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weisgarber, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory monitors the gamma-ray sky in the 100 GeV to 100 TeV energy range with > 95% uptime and unprecedented sensitivity for a survey instrument. The HAWC Collaboration has implemented an online flare monitor that detects episodes of rapid flaring activity from extragalactic very high energy (VHE) sources in the declination band from -26 to 64 degrees. This allows timely alerts to be sent to multiwavelength instruments without human intervention. The preliminary configuration of the online flare monitor achieves sensitivity to flares of at least 1 hour duration that attain an average flux of 10 times that of the Crab Nebula. While flares of this magnitude are not common, several flares reaching the level of 10 Crab have been observed in the VHE band within the past decade. With its survey capabilities and high duty cycle, HAWC will expand the observational data set on these particularly extreme flares. We characterize the sensitivity of the online flare monitor an...

  9. Size dependence of solar X-ray flare properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marina Battaglia; Paolo C. Grigis; Arnold O. Benz

    2005-05-09

    Non-thermal and thermal parameters of 85 solar flares of GOES class B1 to M6 (background subtracted classes A1 to M6) have been compared to each other. The hard X-ray flux has been measured by RHESSI and a spectral fitting provided flux and spectral index of the non-thermal emission, as well as temperature and emission measure of the thermal emission. The soft X-ray flux was taken from GOES measurements. We find a linear correlation in a double logarithmic plot between the non-thermal flux and the spectral index. The higher the acceleration rate of a flare, the harder the non-thermal electron distribution. The relation is similar to the one found by a comparison of the same parameters from several sub-peaks of a single flare. Thus small flares behave like small subpeaks of large flares. Thermal flare properties such as temperature, emission measure and the soft X-ray flux also correlate with peak non-thermal flux. A large non-thermal peak flux entails an enhancement in both thermal parameters. The relation between spectral index and the non-thermal flux is an intrinsic feature of the particle acceleration process, depending on flare size. This property affects the reported frequency distribution of flare energies.

  10. Initial test of a Bayesian approach to solar flare prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. S. Wheatland

    2004-11-14

    A test of a new Bayesian approach to solar flare prediction (Wheatland 2004a) is presented. The approach uses the past history of flaring together with phenomenological rules of flare statistics to make a prediction for the probability of occurrence of a large flare within an interval of time, or to refine an initial prediction (which may incorporate other information). The test of the method is based on data from the Geostationary Observational Environmental Satellites (GOES), and involves whole-Sun prediction of soft X-ray flares for 1976-2003. The results show that the method somewhat over-predicts the probability of all events above a moderate size, but performs well in predicting large events.

  11. Design Enhancements To Improve Flare Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dooley, K. A.; McLeod, G. M.; Lorenz, M. D.

    1997-01-01

    and purge gases. It was configured as a two-stage system with each stage consisting of multiple burners. The original burners were of a fin plate design. The flare system was designed to operate at low pressure due to venting constraints imposed... was reconfigured to accommodate the lower heat content via the addition of an alternate first stage. The new stage was comprised of three new burners designed for lower flowrates and for gases with lower heating values than the original fin-plate burners...

  12. Summarizing FLARE assay images in colon carcinogenesis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leyk Williams, Malgorzata

    2006-04-12

    times the distance between the moments of the head and tail DNA distributions. Symmetry of the head was assumed, and hence the tail area could be identi ed. Another measure used in comet analysis is the relative tail moment (RTM) (Riso et al. 1999... of damage was then computed by the program for each comet. The standard output from FLARE analysis is the relative tail moment (RTM) (Hellman et al. 1995, Morris et al. 1999, Riso et al. 1999), de ned as RTM = 100*(tail moment)/(tail moment + head moment...

  13. Teaching Direct Marketing and Small Farm Viability, 2nd Edition. Unit 3 - Community Supported Agriculture (CSA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    food production and marketing can bring. It also shows thatrelating to growing and marketing produce, herbs, and cutdual purpose: as a stable marketing opportunity for growers,

  14. On the Efficiency of Competitive Electricity Markets With Time-Invariant Retail Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin; Holland, Stephen P.

    2003-01-01

    homogeneous product in the retail market, and P would facein wholesale and retail markets Equilibrium prices in thecompetitive investment and retail markets would attain the

  15. Forest Products Marketing -LITHUANIA Market Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (+10) EU(25) Nordicc. Poland Lithuania Estonia Latvia Russia Furniture industry Pulp& paper industry CONSUMPTION - Domestic industry - Export - Households (fire wood) 6,4 mln.m3 ~3,5 ~ 1,4 ~1,5 Source

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  17. Product and program management : battling the strangler trees of system and social complexity in the software market jungle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hempe, John A. (John Alan)

    2006-01-01

    An exploration of Software Product and Program Management as recently emergent roles in the information technology sector is presented. The exploration is presented in six sections divided into two major parts. The first ...

  18. Agricultural niche market risk-takers: analysis of production practices and information sources of Texas meat goat producers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coleman, Kelly Lee Ann

    2001-01-01

    auctions; 6) supplemental feed their herds; and 7) graze their herds on native brushy rangeland. Innovativeness of producers and its relationship to demographic, educational, and production variables were examined. The data revealed that more innovative...

  19. The Flare-ona of EK Draconis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayres, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    EK Draconis (HD 129333: G1.5 V) is a well-known young (50 Myr) solar analog. In 2012, Hubble Space Telescope returned to EK Dra to follow up a far-ultraviolet (FUV) SNAPshot visit by Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) two years earlier. The brief SNAP pointing had found surprisingly redshifted, impulsively variable subcoronal "hot-line" emission of Si IV 140 nm (T~ 80,000 K). Serendipitously, the 2012 follow-on program witnessed one of the largest FUV flares ever recorded on a sunlike star, which again displayed strong redshifts (downflows) of 30-40 km/s, even after compensating for small systematics in the COS velocity scales, uncovered through a cross-calibration by Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). The (now reduced, but still substantial) ~10 km/s hot-line redshifts outside the flaring interval did not vary with rotational phase, so cannot be caused by "Doppler Imaging" (bright surface patches near a receding limb). Density diagnostic O IV] 140 nm multiplet line ratios of EK Dra suggest log(Ne)~ ...

  20. The study of solar flares with the extended cellular automaton (XCA) model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anastasiadis, Anastasios

    ) at a temporal snap­shot during a flare. explain the power­law frequency distributions of the solar flareThe study of solar flares with the extended cellular automaton (X­CA) model H. Isliker 1 , A of cellular automaton (CA) model, the extended CA (X­CA), for the study of solar flares. The X­CA model

  1. SMALL AND LARGE-SCALE MAGNETIC FIELDS INVOLVED WITH SOLAR FLARES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ABSTRACT SMALL AND LARGE-SCALE MAGNETIC FIELDS INVOLVED WITH SOLAR FLARES by Chang Liu Solar flares of an EUV sigmoid. #12;SMALL AND LARGE-SCALE MAGNETIC FIELDS INVOLVED WITH SOLAR FLARES by Chang Liu RESERVED #12;APPROVAL PAGE SMALL AND LARGE-SCALE MAGNETIC FIELDS INVOLVED WITH SOLAR FLARES Chang Liu Dr

  2. Solar Flares and the Chromosphere A white paper for the Decadal Survey*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Solar Flares and the Chromosphere A white paper for the Decadal Survey* L. Fletcher, R. Turkmani, H acceleration (De Pontieu et al. 2007). The need for chromospheric observations of flares: The solar flare of radiation in a solar flare (Canfield et al 1986, Neidig 1989, Woods et al. 2004). In other words, solar

  3. Earth Planets Space, 00, 000--000, 2000 Solar Flare Mechanism Based on Magnetic Arcade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Earth Planets Space, 00, 000--000, 2000 Solar Flare Mechanism Based on Magnetic Arcade Reconnection of solar flares based on re­ sistive reconnection of magnetic field subject to continuous increase flares. 1. INTRODUCTION Solar flares are intense, abrupt release of energy occurring usually

  4. Submitted to Ap.J. A Model of Solar Flares and Their Homologous Behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Submitted to Ap.J. A Model of Solar Flares and Their Homologous Behavior G. S. Choe and C. Z. Cheng@pppl.gov ABSTRACT A model describing physical processes of solar flares and their homologous behavior is presented. #12; -- 2 -- Subject headings: Sun: flares, MHD, methods: numerical 1. INTRODUCTION Solar flares

  5. X-ray and EUV Observations of GOES C8 Solar Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    X-ray and EUV Observations of GOES C8 Solar Flare Events Kathy Reeves1, Trevor Bowen1,2, Paola;Solar Flares Tuesday, February 19, 2013 #12;Solar Flares Tuesday, February 19, 2013 #12;Solar Dynamics Veronig et al, A&A, 2002 Tuesday, February 19, 2013 #12;Flare Timing GOESflux(Wm-2) Rise Decay Tuesday

  6. GAMMA-RAY POLARIMETRY OF TWO X-CLASS SOLAR FLARES Steven E. Boggs,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    GAMMA-RAY POLARIMETRY OF TWO X-CLASS SOLAR FLARES Steven E. Boggs,1 W. Coburn, and E. Kalemci Space 2005 May 29; accepted 2005 October 18 ABSTRACT We have performed the first polarimetry of solar flare Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) for two large flares: the GOES X4.8-class solar flare of 2002

  7. The Effects of Solar Flares on Planetary Ionospheres PAUL WITHERS1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    The Effects of Solar Flares on Planetary Ionospheres PAUL WITHERS1 and MICHAEL MENDILLO1 1 Center 353 1531) During solar flares, the Sun's X-ray irradiance increases dramatically, often within a few during solar flares. Similar increases in plasma densities during solar flares have been observed

  8. Submitted to Ap.J. A Model of Solar Flares and Their Homologous Behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Submitted to Ap.J. A Model of Solar Flares and Their Homologous Behavior G. S. Choe and C. Z. Cheng@pppl.gov ABSTRACT A model describing physical processes of solar flares and their homologous behavior is presented. #12;­ 2 ­ Subject headings: Sun: flares, MHD, methods: numerical 1. INTRODUCTION Solar flares

  9. Market Transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    Summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its market transformation subprogram.

  10. Solar-type Magnetic Reconnection Model for Magnetar Giant Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Youhei Masada; Shigehiro Nagataki; Kazunari Shibata; Toshio Terasawa

    2010-05-24

    We present a theoretical model describing magnetar giant flares on the basis of solar flare/coronal mass ejection theory. In our model, a preflare activity plays a crucial role in driving evaporating flows and supplying baryonic matters into the magnetosphere. The loaded baryonic matter, that is called "prominence", is then gradually uplifted via crustal cracking with maintaining a quasi-force-free equilibrium of the magnetosphere. Finally the prominence is erupted by the magnetic pressure force due to the loss of equilibrium triggered by the explosive magnetic reconnection. The giant flare should be induced as a final outcome of the prominence eruption accompanied by large-scale field reconfigurations. An essential difference between solar and magnetar flares is the control process of their evolutionary dynamics. The flaring activity on magnetars is mainly controlled by the radiative process unlike the solar flare governed by the electron conduction. It is highly suggestive that our model is accountable for the physical properties of the extraordinary giant flare observed on 2004 December 27 from SGR1806-20, including the source of baryonic matters loaded in the expanding ejecta observed after the giant burst.

  11. Distinguishing Solar Flare Types by Differences in Reconnection Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric G. Blackman

    1997-04-24

    Observations show that magnetic reconnection and its slow shocks occur in solar flares. The basic magnetic structures are similar for long duration event (LDE) flares and faster compact impulsive (CI) flares, but the former require less non-thermal electrons than the latter. Slow shocks can produce the required non-thermal electron spectrum for CI flares by Fermi acceleration if electrons are injected with large enough energies to resonate with scattering waves. The dissipation region may provide the injection electrons, so the overall number of non-thermal electrons reaching the footpoints would depend on the size of the dissipation region and its distance from the chromosphere. In this picture, the LDE flares have converging inflows toward a dissipation region that spans a smaller overall length fraction than for CI flares. Bright loop-top X-ray spots in some CI flares can be attributed to particle trapping at fast shocks in the downstream flow, the presence of which is determined by the angle of the inflow field and velocity to the slow shocks.

  12. OBSERVATIONS OF THERMAL FLARE PLASMA WITH THE EUV VARIABILITY EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Harry P.; Doschek, George A. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Mariska, John T. [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    One of the defining characteristics of a solar flare is the impulsive formation of very high temperature plasma. The properties of the thermal emission are not well understood, however, and the analysis of solar flare observations is often predicated on the assumption that the flare plasma is isothermal. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory provides spectrally resolved observations of emission lines that span a wide range of temperatures (e.g., Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and allow for thermal flare plasma to be studied in detail. In this paper we describe a method for computing the differential emission measure distribution in a flare using EVE observations and apply it to several representative events. We find that in all phases of the flare the differential emission measure distribution is broad. Comparisons of EVE spectra with calculations based on parameters derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites soft X-ray fluxes indicate that the isothermal approximation is generally a poor representation of the thermal structure of a flare.

  13. CONSTRAINING SOLAR FLARE DIFFERENTIAL EMISSION MEASURES WITH EVE AND RHESSI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caspi, Amir [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); McTiernan, James M. [Space Sciences Laboratory University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    Deriving a well-constrained differential emission measure (DEM) distribution for solar flares has historically been difficult, primarily because no single instrument is sensitive to the full range of coronal temperatures observed in flares, from ?2 to ?50 MK. We present a new technique, combining extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory with X-ray spectra from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), to derive, for the first time, a self-consistent, well-constrained DEM for jointly observed solar flares. EVE is sensitive to ?2-25 MK thermal plasma emission, and RHESSI to ?10 MK; together, the two instruments cover the full range of flare coronal plasma temperatures. We have validated the new technique on artificial test data, and apply it to two X-class flares from solar cycle 24 to determine the flare DEM and its temporal evolution; the constraints on the thermal emission derived from the EVE data also constrain the low energy cutoff of the non-thermal electrons, a crucial parameter for flare energetics. The DEM analysis can also be used to predict the soft X-ray flux in the poorly observed ?0.4-5 nm range, with important applications for geospace science.

  14. Distinguishing Solar Flare Types by Differences in Reconnection Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blackman, E G

    1997-01-01

    Observations show that magnetic reconnection and its slow shocks occur in solar flares. The basic magnetic structures are similar for long duration event (LDE) flares and faster compact impulsive (CI) flares, but the former require less non-thermal electrons than the latter. Slow shocks can produce the required non-thermal electron spectrum for CI flares by Fermi acceleration if electrons are injected with large enough energies to resonate with scattering waves. The dissipation region may provide the injection electrons, so the overall number of non-thermal electrons reaching the footpoints would depend on the size of the dissipation region and its distance from the chromosphere. In this picture, the LDE flares have converging inflows toward a dissipation region that spans a smaller overall length fraction than for CI flares. Bright loop-top X-ray spots in some CI flares can be attributed to particle trapping at fast shocks in the downstream flow, the presence of which is determined by the angle of the inflow...

  15. Discovering Tau and Muon Solar Neutrino Flares above backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Fargion; F. Moscato

    2004-07-11

    Solar neutrino flares astronomy is at the edge of its discover. High energy flare particles (protons, alpha) whose self scattering within the solar corona is source of a rich prompt charged pions are also source of sharp solar neutrino "burst" (at tens-hundred MeV) produced by their pion-muon primary decay in flight. This brief (minute) solar neutrino "burst" at largest peak overcome by four-five order of magnitude the steady atmospheric neutrino noise at the Earth. Later on, solar flare particles hitting the terrestrial atmosphere may marginally increase the atmospheric neutrino flux without relevant consequences. Largest prompt "burst" solar neutrino flare may be detected in present or better in future largest neutrino underground neutrino detectors. Our estimate for the recent and exceptional October - November 2003 solar flares gives a number of events above or just near unity for Super-Kamiokande. The neutrino spectra may reflect in a subtle way the neutrino flavour mixing in flight. A surprising tau appearance may even occur for a hard ({E}_{nu}_{mu}--> {E}_{nu}_{tau} > 4 GeV) flare spectra. A comparison of the solar neutrino flare (at their birth place on Sun and after oscillation on the arrival on the Earth) with other neutrino foreground is here described and it offer an independent road map to disentangle the neutrino flavour puzzles and its secret flavour mixing angles .

  16. Solar Flare Measurements with STIX and MiSolFA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casadei, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Solar flares are the most powerful events in the solar system and the brightest sources of X-rays, often associated with emission of particles reaching the Earth and causing geomagnetic storms, giving problems to communication, airplanes and even black-outs. X-rays emitted by accelerated electrons are the most direct probe of solar flare phenomena. The Micro Solar-Flare Apparatus (MiSolFA) is a proposed compact X-ray detector which will address the two biggest issues in solar flare modeling. Dynamic range limitations prevent simultaneous spectroscopy with a single instrument of all X-ray emitting regions of a flare. In addition, most X-ray observations so far are inconsistent with the high anisotropy predicted by the models usually adopted for solar flares. Operated at the same time as the STIX instrument of the ESA Solar Orbiter mission, at the next solar maximum (2020), they will have the unique opportunity to look at the same flare from two different directions: Solar Orbiter gets very close to the Sun wit...

  17. Time-Dependent Modeling of Gamma-ray Flares in Blazar PKS1510-089

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saito, Shinya; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Sikora, Marek; Moderski, Rafal

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a new approach for constraining luminous blazars, incorporating fully time-dependent and self-consistent modeling of bright gamma-ray flares of PKS1510-089 resolved with Fermi-LAT, in the framework of the internal shock scenario. The results of our modeling imply the location of the gamma-ray flaring zone outside of the broad-line region, namely around 0.3pc from the core for a free-expanding jet with the opening angle Gamma, \\theta_\\mathrm{jet} \\simeq 1 (where Gamma is the jet bulk Lorentz factor), up to \\simeq 3pc for a collimated outflow with Gamma, \\theta_\\mathrm{jet} \\simeq 0.1. Moreover, under the Gamma, \\theta_\\mathrm{jet} \\simeq 1 condition, our modeling indicates the maximum efficiency of the jet production during the flares, with the total jet energy flux strongly dominated by protons and exceeding the available accretion power in the source. This is in contrast to the quiescence states of the blazar, characterized by lower jet kinetic power and an approximate energy equipartition be...

  18. Evaluating preproduction prototypes of new energy-efficiency products in realistic test beds is an essential step before market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    ), a home built to code has a rating of 100 and a net zero energy home has a rating of 0. The ZEBRAlliance savings compared to a code built home. In addition, these homes could be net zero energy with solarEvaluating preproduction prototypes of new energy-efficiency products in realistic test beds

  19. The first observed stellar X-ray flare oscillation: Constraints on the flare loop length and the magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U. Mitra-Kraev; L. K. Harra; D. R. Williams; E. Kraev

    2005-03-17

    We present the first X-ray observation of an oscillation during a stellar flare. The flare occurred on the active M-type dwarf AT Mic and was observed with XMM-Newton. The soft X-ray light curve (0.2-12 keV) is investigated with wavelet analysis. The flare's extended, flat peak shows clear evidence for a damped oscillation with a period of around 750 s, an exponential damping time of around 2000 s, and an initial, relative peak-to-peak amplitude of around 15%. We suggest that the oscillation is a standing magneto-acoustic wave tied to the flare loop, and find that the most likely interpretation is a longitudinal, slow-mode wave, with a resulting loop length of (2.5 +- 0.2) e10 cm. The local magnetic field strength is found to be (105 +- 50) G. These values are consistent with (oscillation-independent) flare cooling time models and pressure balance scaling laws. Such a flare oscillation provides an excellent opportunity to obtain coronal properties like the size of a flare loop or the local magnetic field strength for the otherwise spatially-unresolved star.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  2. Evidence that solar flares drive global oscillations in the Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Karoff; H. Kjeldsen

    2008-03-21

    Solar flares are large explosions on the Sun's surface caused by a sudden release of magnetic energy. They are known to cause local short-lived oscillations travelling away from the explosion like water rings. Here we show that the energy in the solar acoustic spectrum is correlated with flares. This means that the flares drive global oscillations in the Sun in the same way that the entire Earth is set ringing for several weeks after a major earthquake like the December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake. The correlation between flares and energy in the acoustic spectrum of disk-integrated sunlight is stronger for high-frequency waves than for ordinary p-modes which are excited by the turbulence in the near surface convection zone immediately beneath the photosphere.

  3. Detecting Solar Neutrino Flare in Megaton and km^3 detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniele Fargion; Paola Di Giacomo

    2009-01-21

    To foresee a solar flare neutrino signal we infer its upper and lower bound. The upper bound was derived since a few years by general energy equipartition arguments on observed solar particle flare. The lower bound, the most compelling one for any guarantee neutrino signal, is derived by most recent records of hard Gamma bump due to solar flare on January 2005 (by neutral pion decay).The observed gamma flux reflects into a corresponding one for the neutrinos, almost one to one. Therefore we obtain minimal bounds already at the edge of present but quite within near future Megaton neutrino detectors. Such detectors are considered mostly to reveal cosmic supernova background or rare Local Group (few Mpc) Supernovas events. However Megaton or even inner ten Megaton Ice Cube detector at ten GeV threshold may also reveal traces of solar neutrino in hardest energy of solar flares. Icecube, marginally, too. Solar neutrino flavors may shine light on neutrino mixing angles.

  4. Interferometric at-wavelength flare characterization of EUV optical systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick P. (Oakland, CA); Goldberg, Kenneth Alan (Berkeley, CA)

    2001-01-01

    The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI) provides the high-accuracy wavefront characterization critical to the development of EUV lithography systems. Enhancing the implementation of the PS/PDI can significantly extend its spatial-frequency measurement bandwidth. The enhanced PS/PDI is capable of simultaneously characterizing both wavefront and flare. The enhanced technique employs a hybrid spatial/temporal-domain point diffraction interferometer (referred to as the dual-domain PS/PDI) that is capable of suppressing the scattered-reference-light noise that hinders the conventional PS/PDI. Using the dual-domain technique in combination with a flare-measurement-optimized mask and an iterative calculation process for removing flare contribution caused by higher order grating diffraction terms, the enhanced PS/PDI can be used to simultaneously measure both figure and flare in optical systems.

  5. Obscuration of Flare Emission by an Eruptive Prominence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopalswamy, Nat

    2013-01-01

    We report on the eclipsing of microwave flare emission by an eruptive prominence from a neighboring region as observed by the Nobeyama Radioheliograph at 17 GHz. The obscuration of the flare emission appears as a dimming feature in the microwave flare light curve. We use the dimming feature to derive the temperature of the prominence and the distribution of heating along the length of the filament. We find that the prominence is heated to a temperature above the quiet Sun temperature at 17 GHz. The duration of the dimming is the time taken by the eruptive prominence in passing over the flaring region. We also find evidence for the obscuration in EUV images obtained by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission.

  6. Leukemia cutis resembling a flare-up of psoriasis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira, Márcia; Caetano, Mónica; Amorim, Isabel; Selores, Manuela

    2006-01-01

    resembling a flare-up of psoriasis Márcia Ferreira, Mónicaof a 64-year-old man with psoriasis who presented with a 4-colored to erythematous, psoriasis-like papules and plaques

  7. Associated Shale Gas- From Flares to Rig Power 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallace, Elizabeth Michelle

    2014-10-16

    From September 2011 to July 2013 the percentage of flared associated gas produced in the Bakken shale formation decreased from 36% to 29%. Although the percentage decreased, the volume of associated gas produced has almost tripled to 900 MMcf...

  8. Electron Firehose instability and acceleration of electrons in solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gunnar Paesold; Arnold O. Benz

    2000-01-14

    An electron distribution with a temperature anisotropy T_par/T_perp > 1 can lead to the Electron Firehose instability (Here par and perp denote directions relative to the background magnetic field B_0). Since possible particle acceleration mechanisms in solar flares exhibit a preference of energizing particles in parallel direction, such an anisotropy is expected during the impulsive phase of a flare. The properties of the excited waves and the thresholds for instability are investigated by using linearized kinetic theory. These thresholds were connected to the pre-flare plasma parameters by assuming an acceleration model acting exclusively in parallel direction. For usually assumed pre-flare plasma conditions the electrons become unstable during the acceleration process and lefthand circularly polarized waves with frequencies of about the proton gyrofrequency are excited at parallel propagation. Indications have been found, that the largest growth rates occur at oblique propagation and the according frequencies lie well above the proton gyrofrequency.

  9. 15.810 Introduction to Marketing, Spring 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hauser, John

    This course is an introduction to the theory and application of marketing. Marketing topics covered include Customer needs, Company skills, Competition, Collaborators, and Context in marketing and product development (5C's). ...

  10. Petroleum Marketing Annual, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-10-31

    In world crude oil markets, 1987 was a year of limited recovery and relative stability after the dramatic price slide of early 1986. Both foreign and domestic crude thereafter, ending the year somewhat higher than a year ago. In contrast, product wholesale markets remained relatively stable throughout the year, while retail prices sustained a fairly steady increase. As has been the case for over a decade, major price movements in international oil markets generally reflected responses to actual or perceived changes in the policies of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and/or its members. The year began with prices on an upward trend, in reaction to the December 1986 OPEC meeting in which the members resolved to return to an official pricing structure (a departure from the market-based pricing of 1986), and to reduce output quotas. Prices continued to rise until August, when evidence of continued OPEC overproduction appeared to outweigh market optimism, triggering a gradual slide that lasted the remainder of the year. Even with the downturn in the fourth quarter, crude oil markets in 1987, as measured by refiner acquisition costs, finished the year above year-end 1986 levels, and considerably above the lows reached in mid-1986. OPEC's struggle to maintain stable prices and production levels in 1987 reflected the organization's difficulties in reaching and enforcing agreements among its politically and economically diverse membership. 11 figs., 49 tabs.

  11. Technical support for the Ohio Clean Coal Technology Program. Volume 2, Baseline of knowledge concerning process modification opportunities, research needs, by-product market potential, and regulatory requirements: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L.

    1989-08-28

    This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LR1 and comprises two volumes. Volume 1 presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume 2 consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

  12. ECE/FAO Forest Products Annual Market Review, 2000-2001 __________________________________________________________ 1 Note: the basis of information in this chapter is not the UNECE TIMBER database built on country-supplied

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , with conflicting stakeholder interests, divergent views on certification as well as differences of opinionECE/FAO Forest Products Annual Market Review, 2000, it is based on the author's experience, claims by certification organizations and a partial survey of a new

  13. Statistical Models for Solar Flare Interval Distribution in Individual Active Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuki Kubo

    2008-02-01

    This article discusses statistical models for solar flare interval distribution in individual active regions. We analyzed solar flare data in 55 active regions that are listed in the GOES soft X-ray flare catalog. We discuss some problems with a conventional procedure to derive probability density functions from any data set and propose a new procedure, which uses the maximum likelihood method and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) to objectively compare some competing probability density functions. We found that lognormal and inverse Gaussian models are more likely models than the exponential model for solar flare interval distribution in individual active regions. The results suggest that solar flares do not occur randomly in time; rather, solar flare intervals appear to be regulated by solar flare mechanisms. We briefly mention a probabilistic solar flare forecasting method as an application of a solar flare interval distribution analysis.

  14. Multi-Thread Hydrodynamic Modeling of a Solar Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harry P. Warren

    2005-07-13

    Past hydrodynamic simulations have been able to reproduce the high temperatures and densities characteristic of solar flares. These simulations, however, have not been able to account for the slow decay of the observed flare emission or the absence of blueshifts in high spectral resolution line profiles. Recent work has suggested that modeling a flare as an sequence of independently heated threads instead of as a single loop may resolve the discrepancies between the simulations and observations. In this paper we present a method for computing multi-thread, time-dependent hydrodynamic simulations of solar flares and apply it to observations of the Masuda flare of 1992 January 13. We show that it is possible to reproduce the temporal evolution of high temperature thermal flare plasma observed with the instruments on the \\textit{GOES} and \\textit{Yohkoh} satellites. The results from these simulations suggest that the heating time-scale for a individual thread is on the order of 200 s. Significantly shorter heating time scales (20 s) lead to very high temperatures and are inconsistent with the emission observed by \\textit{Yohkoh}.

  15. Observational evidence for return currents in solar flare loops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marina Battaglia; Arnold O. Benz

    2008-06-11

    Context: The common flare scenario comprises an acceleration site in the corona and particle transport to the chromosphere. Using satellites available to date it has become possible to distinguish between the two processes of acceleration and transport, and study the particle propagation in flare loops in detail, as well as complete comparisons with theoretical predictions. Aims: We complete a quantitative comparison between flare hard X-ray spectra observed by RHESSI and theoretical predictions. This enables acceleration to be distinguished from transport and the nature of transport effects to be explored. Methods: Data acquired by the RHESSI satellite were analyzed using full sun spectroscopy as well as imaging spectroscopy methods. Coronal source and footpoint spectra of well observed limb events were analyzed and quantitatively compared to theoretical predictions. New concepts are introduced to existing models to resolve discrepancies between observations and predictions. Results: The standard thin-thick target solar flare model cannot explain the observations of all events. In the events presented here, propagation effects in the form of non-collisional energy loss are of importance to explain the observations. We demonstrate that those energy losses can be interpreted in terms of an electric field in the flare loop. One event seems consistent with particle propagation or acceleration in lower than average density in the coronal source. Conclusions: We find observational evidence for an electric field in flare loops caused by return currents.

  16. Market Power and Efficiency in a Computational Electricity Market With Discriminatory Double-Auction Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    to household, industry, or commercial users in a retail market. Short-run production efficiency in a wholesal1 Market Power and Efficiency in a Computational Electricity Market With Discriminatory Double electricity market operating in the short run under systematically varied concentration and capacity

  17. Market Transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-02-15

    This Fuel Cell Technologies Program fact sheet outlines current status and challenges in the market transformation of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies.

  18. Market Transformation

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This Fuel Cell Technologies Program fact sheet outlines current status and challenges in the market transformation of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies.

  19. Market Acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2010-09-28

    The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its market acceleration subprogram.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-26

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  1. Teaching Direct Marketing and Small Farm Viability: Resources for Instructors, 2nd Edition. Part 9 - Land Tenure Options and Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    day-to-day production and marketing decisions – and absenteemicro) • Based on your marketing plan, what are your needsunion and cooperative marketing. Their mission is to help

  2. Gamma-Ray Polarimetry of Two X-Class Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steven E. Boggs; W. Coburn; E. Kalemci

    2005-10-19

    We have performed the first polarimetry of solar flare emission at gamma-ray energies (0.2-1 MeV). These observations were performed with the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) for two large flares: the GOES X4.8-class solar flare of 2002 July 23, and the X17-class flare of 2003 October 28. We have marginal polarization detections in both flares, at levels of 21% +/- 9% and -11% +/- 5% respectively. These measurements significantly constrain the levels and directions of solar flare gamma-ray polarization, and begin to probe the underlying electron distributions.

  3. NEMS International Energy Module, model documentation report: World Oil Market, Petroleum Products Supply and Oxygenates Supply components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-04

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is developing the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) to enhance its energy forecasting capabilities and to provide the Department of Energy with a comprehensive framework for analyzing alternative energy` futures. NEMS is designed with a multi-level modular structure that represents specific energy supply activities, conversion processes, and demand sectors as a series of self-contained units which are linked by an integrating mechanism. The NEMS International Energy Module (IEM) computes world oil prices and the resulting patterns of international trade in crude oil and refined products. This report is a reference document for energy analysts, model users, and the public that is intended to meet EIA`s legal obligation to provide adequate documentation for all statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, section 57(b)(1). Its purpose is to describe the structure of the IEM. Actual operation of the model is not discussed here. The report contains four sections summarizing the overall structure of the IEM and its interface with other NEMS modules, mathematical specifications of behavioral relationships, and data sources and estimation methods. Following a general description of the function and rationale of its key components, system and equation level information sufficient to permit independent evaluation of the model`s technical details is presented.

  4. Capacity Markets for Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Creti, Anna; Fabra, Natalia

    2004-01-01

    and design of electricity capacity markets. Our work has twoMarkets for Electricity capacity markets, and so, when thesemain features of electricity capacity markets. We have used

  5. Risk, Unemployment, and the Stock Market: A Rare-Event-Based Explanation of Labor Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahana, Michael J.

    Risk, Unemployment, and the Stock Market: A Rare-Event-Based Explanation of Labor Market Volatility proposes an explanation of labor market volatility based on time-varying risk, modeled as a small, implying both greater risk in productivity and lower expected growth rates. Thus even if labor productivity

  6. Marketing and Market Transformation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Market Transformation Presentation More Documents & Publications Marketing and Market Transformation Working with the Real Estate Sector Trends in Real Estate and Energy Efficiency...

  7. Anti-Neutrino Imprint in Solar Neutrino Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Fargion

    2006-06-09

    Future neutrino detector at Megaton mass might enlarge the neutrino telescope thresholds revealing cosmic supernova background and largest solar flares neutrino. Indeed the solar energetic flare particles while scattering among themselves on Solar corona atmosphere must produce prompt charged pions, whose chain decays are source of solar (electron-muon) neutrino "flare" (at tens or hundreds MeV energy). These brief (minutes) neutrino "burst" at largest flare peak may overcome by three to five order of magnitude the steady atmospheric neutrino noise on the Earth, possibly leading to their detection above detection. Moreover the birth of anti-neutrinos at a few tens MeVs is well loudly flaring above a null thermal "hep" anti-neutrino solar background and also above a tiny supernova relic and atmospheric noise. The largest prompt solar anti-neutrino "burst" may be well detected in future SuperKamikande (Gadolinium implemented) by anti-neutrino signatures mostly in inverse Beta decay. Our estimate for the recent and exceptional October - November 2003 solar flares and January 20th 2005 exceptional eruption might lead to a few events above or near unity for existing Super-Kamiokande and above unity for Megaton detectors. The neutrino spectra may reflect in a subtle way the neutrino flavor oscillations and mixing in flight. A comparison of the solar neutrino flare (at their birth place on Sun and after oscillation on the arrival on the Earth) with other neutrino foreground is estimated: it offers an independent track to disentangle the neutrino flavor puzzles and its most secret mixing angles. The sharpest noise-free anti-neutrino imprint maybe its first clean voice.

  8. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 2 JULY 2013 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS2670 Self-organized criticality in X-ray flares of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    statistical results of X-ray flares of GRBs with known redshifts, and show that X-ray flares and solar flares-organized criticality (SOC) system. The statistical properties of X-ray flares of GRBs are similar to solar flares for the first time. On the other hand, it is well known that solar flares with a timescale of hours

  9. Spectral Hardening of Large Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paolo C. Grigis; Arnold O. Benz

    2008-05-01

    RHESSI observations are used to quantitatively study the hard X-ray evolution in 5 large solar flares selected for spectral hardening in the course of the event. The X-ray bremsstrahlung emission from non-thermal electrons is characterized by two spectroscopically distinct phases: impulsive and gradual. The impulsive phase usually consists of several emission spikes following a soft-hard-soft spectral pattern, whereas the gradual stage manifests itself as spectral hardening while the flux slowly decreases. Both the soft-hard-soft (impulsive) phase and the hardening (gradual) phase are well described by piecewise linear dependence of the photon spectral index on the logarithm of the hard X-ray flux. The different linear parts of this relation correspond to different rise and decay phases of emission spikes. The temporal evolution of the spectra is compared with the configuration and motion of the hard X-ray sources in RHESSI images. These observations reveal that the two stages of electron acceleration causing these two different behaviors are closely related in space and time. The transition between the impulsive and gradual phase is found to be smooth and progressive rather than abrupt. This suggests that they arise because of a slow change in a common accelerator rather than being caused by two independent and distinct acceleration processes. We propose that the hardening during the decay phase is caused by continuing particle acceleration with longer trapping in the accelerator before escape.

  10. Marketing water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    stream_source_info Marketing water savings.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9143 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Marketing water savings.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 tx H2... are partnering with federal and state agencies and universities to develop new programs or market existing ones. In North Central Texas, the city of McKin- ney and Texas AgriLife Research and Exten- sion Urban Solutions Center at Dallas recently began...

  11. Super-hot (T > 30 MK) Thermal Plasma in Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caspi, Amir

    2010-01-01

    MNRAS, 148, 17 Kane, S. R. , et al. 1980, in Solar Flares: AMonograph from SKYLAB Solar Workshop II, ed. P. A.Moore, R. , et al. 1980, in Solar Flares: A Monograph from

  12. ELECTROMAGNETIC AND CORPUSCULAR EMISSION FROM THE SOLAR FLARE OF 1991 JUNE 15: CONTINUOUS ACCELERATON OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    detected previously in only a few ground level events (GLE) detected by the neutron monitor network (e-flare loop system were also recorded. In Figure 1 we show the post-flare loops observed at Big Bear

  13. Connecting Flares and Transient Mass Loss Events in Magnetically Active Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osten, Rachel A

    2015-01-01

    We explore the ramification of associating the energetics of extreme mag- netic reconnection events with transient mass loss in a stellar analogy with solar eruptive events. We establish energy partitions relative to the total bolometric radiated flare energy for different observed components of stellar flares, and show that there is rough agreement for these values with solar flares. We apply an equipartition between the bolometric radiated flare energy and kinetic energy in an accompanying mass ejection, seen in solar eruptive events and expected from reconnection. This allows an integrated flare rate in a particular waveband to be used to estimate the amount of associated transient mass loss. This approach is supported by a good correspondence between observational flare signatures on high flaring rate stars and the Sun, which suggests a common physical origin. If the frequent and extreme flares that young solar-like stars and low-mass stars experience are accompanied by transient mass loss in the form of ...

  14. Space weather effects on the Mars ionosphere due to solar flares and meteors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    Space weather effects on the Mars ionosphere due to solar flares and meteors P. Withers (1), M observed two aspects of space weather at Mars. Following solar flares of both moderate to strong magnitude

  15. Thermal and non-thermal energies in solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascal Saint-Hilaire; Arnold O. Benz

    2005-03-03

    The energy of the thermal flare plasma and the kinetic energy of the non-thermal electrons in 14 hard X-ray peaks from 9 medium-sized solar flares have been determined from RHESSI observations. The emissions have been carefully separated in the spectrum. The turnover or cutoff in the low-energy distribution of electrons has been studied by simulation and fitting, yielding a reliable lower limit to the non-thermal energy. It remains the largest contribution to the error budget. Other effects, such as albedo, non-uniform target ionization, hot target, and cross-sections on the spectrum have been studied. The errors of the thermal energy are about equally as large. They are due to the estimate of the flare volume, the assumption of the filling factor, and energy losses. Within a flare, the non-thermal/thermal ratio increases with accumulation time, as expected from loss of thermal energy due to radiative cooling or heat conduction. Our analysis suggests that the thermal and non-thermal energies are of the same magnitude. This surprising result may be interpreted by an efficient conversion of non-thermal energy to hot flare plasma.

  16. Impulsive Heating of Solar Flare Ribbons Above 10 MK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simões, Paulo J A; Fletcher, Lyndsay

    2015-01-01

    The chromospheric response to the input of flare energy is marked by extended extreme ultraviolet (EUV) ribbons and hard X-ray (HXR) footpoints. These are usually explained as the result of heating and bremsstrahlung emission from accelerated electrons colliding in the dense chromospheric plasma. We present evidence of impulsive heating of flare ribbons above 10 MK in a two-ribbon flare. We analyse the impulsive phase of SOL2013-11-09T06:38, a C2.6 class event using data from Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board of Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) to derive the temperature, emission measure and differential emission measure of the flaring regions and investigate the evolution of the plasma in the flaring ribbons. The ribbons were visible at all SDO/AIA EUV/UV wavelengths, in particular, at 94 and 131 \\AA\\ filters, sensitive to temperatures of 8 MK and 12 MK. Time evolution of the emission measure of the plasma above 10 MK at the ribb...

  17. Repeated X-ray Flaring Activity in Sagittarius A*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillaume Belanger; Andrea Goldwurm; Fulvio Melia; Farah Yusef-Zadeh; Philippe Ferrando; Delphine Porquet; Nicolas Grosso; Robert Warwick

    2005-08-19

    Investigating the spectral and temporal characteristics of the X-rays coming from Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) is essential to our development of a more complete understanding of the emission mechanisms in this supermassive black hole located at the center of our Galaxy. Several X-ray flares with varying durations and spectral features have already been observed from this object. Here we present the results of two long XMM-Newton observations of the Galactic nucleus carried out in 2004, for a total exposure time of nearly 500 ks. During these observations we detected two flares from Sgr A* with peak 2-10 keV luminosities about 40 times (L ~ 9x10^34 erg s?1) above the quiescent luminosity: one on 2004 March 31 and another on 2004 August 31. The first flare lasted about 2.5 ks and the second about 5 ks. The combined fit on the Epic spectra yield photon indeces of about 1.5 and 1.9 for the first and second flare respectively. This hard photon index strongly suggests the presence of an important population of non-thermal electrons during the event and supports the view that the majority of flaring events tend to be hard and not very luminous.

  18. A Unified Computational Model for Solar and Stellar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allred, Joel C; Carlsson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    We present a unified computational framework which can be used to describe impulsive flares on the Sun and on dMe stars. The models assume that the flare impulsive phase is caused by a beam of charged particles that is accelerated in the corona and propagates downward depositing energy and momentum along the way. This rapidly heats the lower stellar atmosphere causing it to explosively expand and dramatically brighten. Our models consist of flux tubes that extend from the sub-photosphere into the corona. We simulate how flare-accelerated charged particles propagate down one-dimensional flux tubes and heat the stellar atmosphere using the Fokker-Planck kinetic theory. Detailed radiative transfer is included so that model predictions can be directly compared with observations. The flux of flare-accelerated particles drives return currents which additionally heat the stellar atmosphere. These effects are also included in our models. We examine the impact of the flare-accelerated particle beams on model solar and...

  19. On flare predictability based on sunspot group evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Korsos, Marianna; Erdelyi, Robert; Baranyi, Tunde

    2015-01-01

    The forecast method introduced by Kors\\'os et al.(2014) is generalised from the horizontal magnetic gradient (GM), defined between two opposite polarity spots, to all spots within an appropriately defined region close to the magnetic neutral line of an active region. This novel approach is not limited to searching for the largest GM of two single spots as in previous methods. Instead, the pre-flare conditions of the evolution of spot groups is captured by the introduction of the weighted horizontal magnetic gradient, or W_GM. This new proxy enables the potential of forecasting flares stronger than M5. The improved capability includes (i) the prediction of flare onset time and (ii) an assessment whether a flare is followed by another event within about 18 hours. The prediction of onset time is found to be more accurate here. A linear relationship is established between the duration of converging motion and the time elapsed from the moment of closest position to that of the flare onset of opposite polarity spot...

  20. Market Power in Pollution Permit Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montero, Juan Pablo

    As with other commodity markets, markets for trading pollution permits have not been immune to market power concerns. In this paper, I survey the existing literature on market power in permit trading but also contribute ...

  1. Multipollutant markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montero, Juan-Pablo

    2001-01-01

    I study the optimal design of marketable permit systems to regulate various pollutants (e.g. air pollution in urban areas) when the regulator lives in a real world of imperfect information and incomplete enforcement. I ...

  2. Power marketing and renewable energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, J.M.

    1997-09-01

    Power marketing refers to wholesale and retail transactions of electric power made by companies other than public power entities and the regulated utilities that own the generation and distribution lines. The growth in power marketing has been a major development in the electric power industry during the last few years, and power marketers are expected to realize even more market opportunities as electric industry deregulation proceeds from wholesale competition to retail competition. This Topical Issues Brief examines the nature of the power marketing business and its relationship with renewable power. The information presented is based on interviews conducted with nine power marketing companies, which accounted for almost 54% of total power sales by power marketers in 1995. These interviews provided information on various viewpoints of power marketers, their experience with renewables, and their respective outlooks for including renewables in their resource portfolios. Some basic differences exist between wholesale and retail competition that should be recognized when discussing power marketing and renewable power. At the wholesale level, the majority of power marketers stress the commodity nature of electricity. The primary criteria for developing resource portfolios are the same as those of their wholesale customers: the cost and reliability of power supplies. At the retail level, electricity may be viewed as a product that includes value-added characteristics or services determined by customer preferences.

  3. Understanding the China energy market: trends and opportunities 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbara Drazga

    2005-05-15

    The report is broken up into 4 Sections: Section I - Overview of China Energy Market (historical background, market value, consumption, production, reserves, export and import, market segmentation, market forecast); Section II - Market Analysis (PEST analysis, Porter's five forces analysis, socio-economic trends, consumption trends); Section III - Market Segments (electricity, oil, natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, nuclear power, coal, renewables, photovoltaics, wind power, hydroelectric power. Each market segment details current and planned projects, and lists participants in that sector); and Section IV - Breaking Into the Market (regulatory framework, methods of market entry, foreign investment, challenges, government agencies).

  4. Well-observed dynamics of flaring and peripheral coronal magnetic loops during an M-class limb flare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Jinhua; Zhou, Tuanhui; Ji, Haisheng; Feng, Li; Wiegelmann, Thomas; Inhester, Bernd

    2014-08-20

    In this paper, we present a variety of well-observed dynamic behaviors for the flaring and peripheral magnetic loops of the M6.6 class extreme limb flare that occurred on 2011 February 24 (SOL2011-02-24T07:20) from EUV observations by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory and X-ray observations by RHESSI. The flaring loop motion confirms the earlier contraction-expansion picture. We find that the U-shaped trajectory delineated by the X-ray corona source of the flare roughly follows the direction of a filament eruption associated with the flare. Different temperature structures of the coronal source during the contraction and expansion phases strongly suggest different kinds of magnetic reconnection processes. For some peripheral loops, we discover that their dynamics are closely correlated with the filament eruption. During the slow rising to abrupt, fast rising of the filament, overlying peripheral magnetic loops display different responses. Two magnetic loops on the elbow of the active region had a slow descending motion followed by an abrupt successive fast contraction, while magnetic loops on the top of the filament were pushed outward, slowly being inflated for a while and then erupting as a moving front. We show that the filament activation and eruption play a dominant role in determining the dynamics of the overlying peripheral coronal magnetic loops.

  5. Early Abnormal Temperature Structure of X-ray Looptop Source of Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jinhua Shen; Tuanhui Zhou; Haisheng Ji; Na Wang; Wenda Cao; Haimin Wang

    2008-08-29

    This Letter is to investigate the physics of a newly discovered phenomenon -- contracting flare loops in the early phase of solar flares. In classical flare models, which were constructed based on the phenomenon of expansion of flare loops, an energy releasing site is put above flare loops. These models can predict that there is a vertical temperature gradient in the top of flare loops due to heat conduction and cooling effects. Therefore, the centroid of an X-ray looptop source at higher energy bands will be higher in altitude, for which we can define as normal temperature distribution. With observations made by {\\it RHESSI}, we analyzed 10 M- or X-class flares (9 limb flares). For all these flares, the movement of looptop sources shows an obvious U-shaped trajectory, which we take as the signature of contraction-to-expansion of flare loops. We find that, for all these flares, normal temperature distribution does exist, but only along the path of expansion. The temperature distribution along the path of contraction is abnormal, showing no spatial order at all. The result suggests that magnetic reconnection processes in the contraction and expansion phases of these solar flares are different.

  6. Automatic Solar Flare Detection Using MLP, RBF and SVM , Frank Y. Shih1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in light curves. In the mean time, solar flares also emit high velocity charged particles that take one1 Automatic Solar Flare Detection Using MLP, RBF and SVM Ming Qu1 , Frank Y. Shih1 , Ju Jing2. The focus of the automatic solar flare detection is on the development of efficient feature

  7. Solar Flare Intermittency and the Earth's Temperature Anomalies Nicola Scafetta1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scafetta, Nicola

    Solar Flare Intermittency and the Earth's Temperature Anomalies Nicola Scafetta1,2 and Bruce J; published 17 June 2003) We argue that Earth's short-term temperature anomalies and the solar flare data sets that corresponds to the one that would be induced by the solar flare intermittency. The mean

  8. LETTER Earth Planets Space, 61, 577580, 2009 Flares and the chromosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    magnetic field. Key words: Solar flares, solar chromosphere, solar corona, Alfv´en waves. 1. Introduction The chromosphere historically has been the origin of much of what we understand about solar flares. The rea- son of a solar flare appears mainly in the optical and UV continuum, which form in the lower solar atmosphere

  9. Statistical Assessment of Photospheric Magnetic Features in Imminent Solar Flares Predictions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Statistical Assessment of Photospheric Magnetic Features in Imminent Solar Flares Predictions Hui in solar physics to predict solar flares. 1. Introduction Over the past decades, mankind has become more of the primary objectives in space weather research is to predict the occurrence of solar flares and Coronal Mass

  10. Modeling atmospheric effects of the September 1859 solar flare B. C. Thomas,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, Charles H.

    Modeling atmospheric effects of the September 1859 solar flare B. C. Thomas,1 C. H. Jackman,2 and A. Melott(2007),ModelingatmosphericeffectsoftheSeptember1859 solar flare, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L06810 of the work in this area. [3] The solar flare of 1 September 1859 was one of the most intense white

  11. Splinter Proposal for Cool Stars 16 Title: Solar and Stellar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, Hugh

    Splinter Proposal for Cool Stars 16 Title: Solar and Stellar Flares 1. Names of the session for CS16. Solar and stellar flares have striking similarities, so important parts of the underlying to initiate discussions to bridge this gap, via a splinter session on solar and stellar flares at Cool Stars

  12. A Novel Forecasting System for Solar Particle Events and Flares (FORSPEF)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anastasiadis, Anastasios

    A Novel Forecasting System for Solar Particle Events and Flares (FORSPEF) A Papaioannou1 Energetic Particles (SEPs) result from intense solar eruptive events such as solar flares and coronal mass. In this work, we present FORSPEF (Forecasting Solar Particle Events and Flares), a novel dual system, designed

  13. GEOMAGNETIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE SOLAR FLARES DURING THE LAST HALE SOLAR CYCLE (II)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GEOMAGNETIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE SOLAR FLARES DURING THE LAST HALE SOLAR CYCLE (II) Georgeta Maris phenomena. We analyze the cyclic variability of solar flares (registered in H and X-ray) and compare)) for the last Hale cycle. The solar cycles 22 and 23 are different in the level of flare activity

  14. Solar Flare Element Abundances from the Solar Assembly for X-rays (SAX) on MESSENGER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nittler, Larry R.

    Solar Flare Element Abundances from the Solar Assembly for X-rays (SAX) on MESSENGER Brian RV have been analyzed for 526 large flares detected with the Solar Assembly for X-rays (SAX on 2004 August 3 and capture into orbit around Mercury in 2011, SAX has observed hundreds of solar flares

  15. Anisotropic Bremsstrahlung Emission and the form of Regularized Electron Flux Spectra in Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piana, Michele

    ,3 , & John C. Brown4 ABSTRACT The cross-section for bremsstrahlung photon emission in solar flares is in gen is related to the position of the flare on the solar disk and the direction(s) of the pre-collision electrons relative to the local solar vertical. We compare mean electron flux spectra for the flare of August 21

  16. PROPERTIES OF THE ACCELERATION REGIONS IN SEVERAL LOOP-STRUCTURED SOLAR FLARES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piana, Michele

    PROPERTIES OF THE ACCELERATION REGIONS IN SEVERAL LOOP-STRUCTURED SOLAR FLARES Jingnan Guo1 , A-energy electrons accelerated in solar flares is the hard X-ray bremsstrahlung that they produce as they propagate et al. (2008) analyzed a set of extended coronal flare loops located near the solar limb, and were

  17. Early Abnormal Temperature Structure of X-ray Looptop Source of Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Early Abnormal Temperature Structure of X-ray Looptop Source of Solar Flares Jinhua Shen1 processes in the contraction and expansion phases of these solar flares are different. Subject headings: Sun: activity -- Sun: magnetic reconnection -- Sun: flares 1. Introduction It is widely accepted that solar

  18. Automatic Solar Flare Tracking Using Image Processing Qu Ming and Shih Frank (shih@njit.edu)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Automatic Solar Flare Tracking Using Image Processing Techniques Qu Ming and Shih Frank (shih Abstract. Measurement of the evolution properties of solar flares through their complete cyclic development the properties of solar flares. We also present our solution for automatically tracking the apparent separation

  19. PPPL-3450 PPPL-3450 Solar Flare Mechanism Based on Magnetic Arcade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PPPL-3450 PPPL-3450 UC-70 Solar Flare Mechanism Based on Magnetic Arcade Reconnection and Island, 00, 000­000, 2000 Solar Flare Mechanism Based on Magnetic Arcade Reconnection and Island Merging C. Z-0451 (Received ; Revised ; Accepted ) We propose a model describing physical processes of solar flares based

  20. A topological analysis of the magnetic breakout model for an eruptive solar flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priest, Eric

    A topological analysis of the magnetic breakout model for an eruptive solar flare BY RHONA MACLEAN model gives an elegant explanation for the onset of an eruptive solar flare, involving magnetic types of bifurcation. Keywords: solar flare; magnetic breakout; magnetic topology; solar corona 1

  1. Regularized reconstruction of the differential emission measure from solar flare hard X-ray spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piana, Michele

    Regularized reconstruction of the differential emission measure from solar flare hard X-ray spectra for solar flare hard X-rays, it is currently unclear whether the electron distribution responsible simulated data and real photon spectra recorded by RHESSI. Subject headings: Sun: flares 1. Introduction

  2. Toward magnetic field dissipation during the 23 July 2002 solar flare measured with Solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zharkova, Valentina V.

    Toward magnetic field dissipation during the 23 July 2002 solar flare measured with Solar. Benkhalil (2005), Toward magnetic field dissipation during the 23 July 2002 solar flare measured with Solar] It is widely accepted that the source of primary energy release in solar flares is associated with magnetic

  3. Determination of Electron Flux Spectra in a Solar Flare with Ran Augmented Regularization Method: Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piana, Michele

    Determination of Electron Flux Spectra in a Solar Flare with Ran Augmented Regularization Method. (2004) have shown how to recover mean source electron spectra F(E) in solar flares through a physical a solar flare observed by RHESSI on 26 February, 2002. Results using different orders of regularization

  4. Solar Flare Tracking Using Image Processing Techniques , Frank Y. Shih1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar Flare Tracking Using Image Processing Techniques Ming Qu1 , Frank Y. Shih1 , Ju Jing2 grants IIS-0324816, ATM 0233931 and ATM 0313591. Abstract. Automatic property measurement of solar flares through their complete cyclic development is valuable in the studies of solar flares. From the analysis

  5. DOI 10.1007/s11207-015-0710-3 SOLAR AND STELLAR FLARES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aulanier, Guillaume

    Solar Phys DOI 10.1007/s11207-015-0710-3 SOLAR AND STELLAR FLARES From Coronal Observations to MHD Simulations, the Building Blocks for 3D Models of Solar Flares (Invited Review) M. Janvier1 · G. Aulanier2 · P Abstract Solar flares are energetic events taking place in the Sun's atmosphere, and their effects can

  6. Radio emission from acceleration sites of solar flares , Gregory D. Fleishman1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    microwave and decimeter continuum bursts may be a signature of the stochastic acceleration in solar flaresRadio emission from acceleration sites of solar flares Yixuan Li1 , Gregory D. Fleishman1 acceleration site of a solar flare. Specifically, we calculate incoherent radio emission produced within two

  7. Dynamic Magnetography of Solar Flaring Loops Gregory D. Fleishman1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) demonstrated that the mean magnetic field in a solar flare derived from the microwave spectrum yields resultsDynamic Magnetography of Solar Flaring Loops Gregory D. Fleishman1,2 , Gelu M. Nita1 , Dale E. Gary with shaking, which allows the derivation of the magnetic field and other parameters along a solar flaring loop

  8. A Reconnecting Current Sheet Imaged in A Solar Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Tongjiang; Stenborg, Guillermo; Liu, Chang; Wang, Haimin

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection changes the magnetic field topology and powers explosive events in astrophysical, space and laboratory plasmas. For flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the solar atmosphere, the standard model predicts the presence of a reconnecting current sheet, which has been the subject of considerable theoretical and numerical modeling over the last fifty years, yet direct, unambiguous observational verification has been absent. In this Letter we show a bright sheet structure of global length (>0.25 Rsun) and macroscopic width ((5 - 10)x10^3 km) distinctly above the cusp-shaped flaring loop, imaged during the flare rising phase in EUV. The sheet formed due to the stretch of a transequatorial loop system, and was accompanied by various reconnection signatures that have been dispersed in the literature. This unique event provides a comprehensive view of the reconnection geometry and dynamics in the solar corona.

  9. Complex Flare Dynamics Initiated by a Filament-Filament Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Chunming; Alexander, David; Sun, Xudong; McAteer, James

    2015-01-01

    We report on an eruption involving a relatively rare filament-filament interaction on 2013 June 21, observed by SDO and STEREO-B. The two filaments were separated in height within AR 11777. The onset of the eruption of the lower filament was accompanied simultaneously by the apparent descent of the upper filament resulting in a convergence and direct interaction of the two filaments. The interaction was accompanied by the heating of plasmas surrounding the upper filament and the subsequent coalescence of the filaments into a magnetically complex structure, whose eruption was associated with an M2.9 class solar flare. Magnetic loop shrinkage and descending dark voids were observed at different locations as part of the large flare energy release giving us a unique insight into these dynamic flare phenomena.

  10. Energy Partitions and Evolution in a Purely Thermal Solar Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleishman, Gregory D; Gary, Dale E

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a solely thermal flare, which we detected in the microwave range from the thermal gyro- and free-free emission it produced. An advantage of analyzing thermal gyro emission is its unique ability to precisely yield the magnetic field in the radiating volume. When combined with observationally-deduced plasma density and temperature, these magnetic field measurements offer a straightforward way of tracking evolution of the magnetic and thermal energies in the flare. For the event described here, the magnetic energy density in the radio-emitting volume declines over the flare rise phase, then stays roughly constant during the extended peak phase, but recovers to the original level over the decay phase. At the stage where the magnetic energy density decreases, the thermal energy density increases; however, this increase is insufficient, by roughly an order of magnitude, to compensate for the magnetic energy decrease. When the magnetic energy release is over, the source parameters come back to ne...

  11. Product development practices that matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Nisheeth

    2010-01-01

    Product Development consists of activities to transforms a market opportunity and technological innovation into successful products. Several waves of improvements in technological innovation and product development have ...

  12. Data products: what do we want? The Radio Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Data products: what do we want? #12;The Radio Sun #12;The Radio Sun #12;Radio Emission Mechanisms) is produced by nonthermal electrons in flares. #12;The Radio Sun in Frequency #12;What do we see in a radio

  13. Multi-wavelength analysis of high energy electrons in solar flares: a case study of August 20, 2002 flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Kasparova; M. Karlicky; E. P. Kontar; R. A. Schwartz; B. R. Dennis

    2005-08-30

    A multi-wavelength spatial and temporal analysis of solar high energy electrons is conducted using the August 20, 2002 flare of an unusually flat (gamma=1.8) hard X-ray spectrum. The flare is studied using RHESSI, Halpha, radio, TRACE, and MDI observations with advanced methods and techniques never previously applied in the solar flare context. A new method to account for X-ray Compton backscattering in the photosphere (photospheric albedo) has been used to deduce the primary X-ray flare spectra. The mean electron flux distribution has been analysed using both forward fitting and model independent inversion methods of spectral analysis. We show that the contribution of the photospheric albedo to the photon spectrum modifies the calculated mean electron flux distribution, mainly at energies below 100 keV. The positions of the Halpha emission and hard X-ray sources with respect to the current-free extrapolation of the MDI photospheric magnetic field and the characteristics of the radio emission provide evidence of the closed geometry of the magnetic field structure and the flare process in low altitude magnetic loops. In agreement with the predictions of some solar flare models, the hard X-ray sources are located on the external edges of the Halpha emission and show chromospheric plasma heated by the non-thermal electrons. The fast changes of Halpha intensities are located not only inside the hard X-ray sources, as expected if they are the signatures of the chromospheric response to the electron bombardment, but also away from them.

  14. Research Study - Global Enterprise VoIP Equipment Market Forecasts...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    we deeply analyzed the world's main region market conditions that including the product price, profit, capacity, production, capacity utilization, supply, demand and industry...

  15. Global GPS Phones Market Size, Segmentation, Demand Forecast...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    we deeply analyzed the world's main region market conditions that including the product price, profit, capacity, production, capacity utilization, supply, demand and industry...

  16. Global Energy Efficient IT Equipment Industry 2015 Market Research...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on. Then it analyzed the world's main region market conditions, including the product price, profit, capacity, production, capacity utilization, supply, demand and industry...

  17. Global Shuttleless Loom Industry 2015 Market Research Report...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on. Then it analyzed the world's main region market conditions, including the product price, profit, capacity, production, capacity utilization, supply, demand and industry...

  18. Global Dicyandiamide Industry 2015 Market Research Report | OpenEI...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on. Then it analyzed the world's main region market conditions, including the product price, profit, capacity, production, capacity utilization, supply, demand and industry...

  19. Global High-purity Pentoxide Industry 2015 Market Research Report...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on. Then it analyzed the world's main region market conditions, including the product price, profit, capacity, production, capacity utilization, supply, demand and industry...

  20. Global Mainframe As A Cloud Machine Market Size, Share, Growth...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    we deeply analyzed the world's main region market conditions that including the product price, profit, capacity, production, capacity utilization, supply, demand and industry...

  1. Global POF Shrink Film Industry 2015 Market Research Report ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on. Then it analyzed the world's main region market conditions, including the product price, profit, capacity, production, capacity utilization, supply, demand and industry...

  2. EFFECTS OF CHANGES IN U.S. ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM CORN GRAIN, CORN STOVER, AND SWITCHGRASS ON WORLD AGRICULTURAL MARKETS AND TRADE 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campiche, Jody L.

    2010-07-14

    The renewable energy industry continues to expand at a rapid pace. New advances in cellulosic ethanol technologies have the potential to reduce our dependency on foreign oil. The evolution of these new biofuel markets could have significant effects...

  3. Sudden Disappearance of a Small Sunspot Associated with the February 20, 2002 M2.4 Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with, solar flares (Severny 1964; Zvereva & Severny 1970; Moore et al. 1984; Kosovichev & Zharkova 1999 the solar surface. Spirock et al. (2002) studied the X20 flare on April 2, 2001, the largest solar flare solar flares. It now becomes clear that with the high cadence (1 minute) and high resolution (1 to 2

  4. FLARE ACTIVITY AND THE STRENGTH OF SOLAR CYCLES Miruna Daniela Popescu, Georgeta Mari, Adrian Oncica, Marilena Mierla

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FLARE ACTIVITY AND THE STRENGTH OF SOLAR CYCLES Miruna Daniela Popescu, Georgeta Mari, Adrian The paper evaluates the solar flare activity during the last three 11-year cycles (the period 1976 - 2001). The flare occurrence follows the solar cycle (SC) with some particularities for each class of flares

  5. A STATISTICAL STUDY OF SHEAR MOTION OF THE FOOTPOINTS IN TWO-RIBBON FLARES Yingna Su,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Yingna

    : corona -- Sun: flares -- Sun: magnetic fields -- Sun: UV radiation 1. INTRODUCTION Solar flares can been reported in almost 20 solar flares, which suggests that this motion may be a common feature in solar flares. In this paper we have made a detailed statistical study of the shear motion

  6. TIDAL DISRUPTION FLARES: THE ACCRETION DISK PHASE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montesinos Armijo, Matias; De Freitas Pacheco, Jose A. [Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Laboratoire Cassiopee, Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis Bd de l'Observatoire, BP 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)

    2011-08-01

    The evolution of an accretion disk, formed as a consequence of the disruption of a star by a black hole, is followed by solving numerically hydrodynamic equations. The present investigation aims to study the dependence of resulting light curves on dynamical and physical properties of such a transient disk during its existence. One of the main results derived from our simulations is that blackbody fits of X-ray data tend to overestimate the true mean disk temperature. In fact, the temperature derived from blackbody fits should be identified with the color X-ray temperature rather than the average value derived from the true temperature distribution along the disk. The time interval between the beginning of the circularization of the bound debris and the beginning of the accretion process by the black hole is determined by the viscous (or accretion) timescale, which also fixes the rising part of the resulting light curve. The luminosity peak coincides with the beginning of matter accretion by the black hole and the late evolution of the light curve depends on the evolution of the debris fallback rate. Peak bolometric luminosities are in the range 10{sup 45}-10{sup 46} erg s{sup -1}, whereas peak luminosities in soft X-rays (0.2-2.0 keV) are typically one order of magnitude lower. The typical timescale derived from our preferred models for the flare luminosity to decay by two orders of magnitude is about 3-4 yr. Predicted soft X-ray light curves reproduce quite well data on galaxies in which a variable X-ray emission possibly related to a tidal event was detected. In the cases of NGC 3599 and IC 3599, data are reproduced well by models defined by a black hole with mass {approx}10{sup 7} M{sub sun} and a disrupted star of about 1 solar mass. The X-ray variation observed in XMMSL1 is consistent with a model defined by a black hole with mass {approx}3 x 10{sup 6} M{sub sun} and a disrupted star of 1 solar mass, while that observed in the galaxy situated in the cluster A1689 is consistent with a model including a black hole of {approx}10{sup 7} M{sub sun} and a disrupted star of {approx}0.5 M{sub sun}.

  7. EUV Non-thermal Line Broadening and High-energy particles during Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kawate, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the relationship between the location of EUV nonthermal broadening and high-energy particles during the large flares by using EUV imaging spectrometer onboard {\\it Hinode}, Nobeyama Radio Polarimeter, Nobeyama Radioheliograph, and Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard {\\it Solar Dynamic Observatory}. We have analyzed the five large flare events which contain thermal rich, intermediate, and thermal poor flares classified by the definition discussed in the paper. We found that, in the case of thermal rich flares, the nonthermal broadening of \\ion{Fe}{24} occurred at the top of the flaring loop at the beginning of the flares. The source of the 17 GHz microwave is located at the footpoint of the flare loop. On the other hand, in the case of intermediate/thermal poor flares, the nonthermal broadening of \\ion{Fe}{24} occurred at the footpoint of the flare loop at the beginning of the flares. The source of the 17 GHz microwave is located at the top of the flaring loop. We discussed the difference betw...

  8. GRB 060714: No Clear Dividing Line Between Prompt Emission and X-ray Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. A. Krimm; J. Granot; F. Marshal; M. Perri; S. D. Barthelmy; D. N. Burrows; N. Gehrels; P. Mészáros; D. Morris

    2007-04-16

    The long gamma-ray burst GRB 060714 was observed to exhibit a series of five X-ray flares beginning ~70 s after the burst trigger T0 and continuing until T0 + ~200 s. The first two flares were detected by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on the Swift satellite, before Swift had slewed to the burst location, while the last three flares were strongly detected by the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) but only weakly detected by the BAT. This burst provides an unusual opportunity to track a complete sequence of flares over a wide energy range. The flares were very similar in their light curve morphology, showing power-law rise and fall components, and in most cases significant sub-structure. The flares also showed strong evolution with time, both spectrally and temporally. The small time scale and large amplitude variability observed are incompatible with an external shock origin for the flares, and support instead late time sporadic activity either of the central source or of localized dissipation events within the outflow. We show that the flares in GRB 060714 cannot be the result of internal shocks in which the contrast in the Lorentz factor of the colliding shells is very small, and that this mechanism faces serious difficulties in most Swift GRBs. The morphological similarity of the flares and the prompt emission and the gradual and continual evolution of the flares with time makes it difficult and arbitrary to draw a dividing line between the prompt emission and the flares.

  9. Temporal aspects and frequency distributions of solar soft X-ray flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Veronig; M. Temmer; A. Hanslmeier; W. Otruba; M. Messerotti

    2002-07-11

    A statistical analysis of almost 50000 soft X-ray (SXR) flares observed by GOES during the period 1976-2000 is presented. On the basis of this extensive data set, statistics on temporal properties of soft X-ray flares, such as duration, rise and decay times with regard to the SXR flare classes is presented. Correlations among distinct flare parameters, i.e. SXR peak flux, fluence and characteristic times, and frequency distributions of flare occurrence as function of the peak flux, the fluence and the duration are derived. We discuss the results of the analysis with respect to statistical flare models, the idea of coronal heating by nanoflares, and elaborate on implications of the obtained results on the Neupert effect in solar flares.

  10. Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seaman, John

    2013-01-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittal’s Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

  11. Evolution and Flare Activity of Delta-Sunspots in Cycle 23

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takizawa, Kan

    2015-01-01

    The emergence and magnetic evolution of solar active regions (ARs) of beta-gamma-delta type, which are known to be highly flare-productive, were studied with the SOHO/MDI data in Cycle 23. We selected 31 ARs that can be observed from their birth phase, as unbiased samples for our study. From the analysis of the magnetic topology (twist and writhe), we obtained the following results. i) Emerging beta-gamma-delta ARs can be classified into three topological types as "quasi-beta", "writhed" and "top-to-top". ii) Among them, the "writhed" and "top-to-top" types tend to show high flare activity. iii) As the signs of twist and writhe agree with each other in most cases of the "writhed" type (12 cases out of 13), we propose a magnetic model in which the emerging flux regions in a beta-gamma-delta AR are not separated but united as a single structure below the solar surface. iv) Almost all the "writhed"-type ARs have downward knotted structures in the mid portion of the magnetic flux tube. This, we believe, is the es...

  12. Plasma Turbulence and Stochastic Acceleration in Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vahe Petrosian

    1999-11-18

    Observational aspects of solar flares relevant to the acceleration process of electrons and protons are reviewed and it is shown that most of these observations can be explained by the interaction with flare plasma of a power law energy distribution of electrons (and protons) that are injected at the top of a flaring loop, in the so-called thick target model. Some new observations that do not agree with this model are described and it is shown that these can be explained most naturally if most of the energy released by the reconnection process goes first into the generation of plasma turbulence, which accelerates, scatters and traps the ambient electrons near the top of the loop stochastically. The resultant bremsstrahlung photon spectral and spatial distributions agree with the new observations. This model is also justified by some theoretical arguments. Results from numerical evaluation of the spectra of the accelerated electrons and their bremsstrahlung emission are compared with observations and shown how one can constrain the model parameters describing the flare plasma and the spectrum and the energy density of the turbulence.

  13. Relative timing of solar flares observed at different wavelengths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Veronig; B. Vrsnak; M. Temmer; A. Hanslmeier

    2002-08-05

    The timing of 503 solar flares observed simultaneously in hard X-rays, soft X-rays and H-alpha is analyzed. We investigated the start and the peak time differences in different wavelengths, as well as the differences between the end of the hard X-ray emission and the maximum of the soft X-ray and H-alpha emission. In more than 90% of the analyzed events, a thermal preheating seen in soft X-rays is present prior to the impulsive flare phase. On average, the soft X-ray emission starts 3 min before the hard X-ray and the H-alpha emission. No correlation between the duration of the preheating phase and the importance of the subsequent flare is found. Furthermore, the duration of the preheating phase does not differ for impulsive and gradual flares. For at least half of the events, the end of the nonthermal emission coincides well with the maximum of the thermal emission, consistent with the beam-driven evaporation model. On the other hand, for about 25% of the events there is strong evidence for prolonged evaporation beyond the end of the hard X-rays. For these events, the presence of an additional energy transport mechanism, most probably thermal conduction, seems to play an important role.

  14. Solar flare impulsive phase emission observed with SDO/EVE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, Michael B.; Milligan, Ryan O.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P., E-mail: mkennedy29@qub.ac.uk [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-10

    Differential emission measures (DEMs) during the impulsive phase of solar flares were constructed using observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) and the Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method. Emission lines from ions formed over the temperature range log T{sub e} = 5.8-7.2 allow the evolution of the DEM to be studied over a wide temperature range at 10 s cadence. The technique was applied to several M- and X-class flares, where impulsive phase EUV emission is observable in the disk-integrated EVE spectra from emission lines formed up to 3-4 MK and we use spatially unresolved EVE observations to infer the thermal structure of the emitting region. For the nine events studied, the DEMs exhibited a two-component distribution during the impulsive phase, a low-temperature component with peak temperature of 1-2 MK, and a broad high-temperature component from 7 to 30 MK. A bimodal high-temperature component is also found for several events, with peaks at 8 and 25 MK during the impulsive phase. The origin of the emission was verified using Atmospheric Imaging Assembly images to be the flare ribbons and footpoints, indicating that the constructed DEMs represent the spatially average thermal structure of the chromospheric flare emission during the impulsive phase.

  15. Simulations of the Mars ionosphere during a solar flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    .05.23 08:00-10:00 Spring AGU Meeting 2006, Acapulco, Mexico #12;Increased fluxes of X-rays during solarSimulations of the Mars ionosphere during a solar flare Paul Withers, Joei Wroten, Michael Mendillo simulations of the Mars ionosphere driven by temporally-varying solar fluxes, concentrating on 15 and 26 April

  16. Global Energetics of Solar Flares: II. Thermal Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aschwanden, M J; Ryan, D; Caspi, A; McTiernan, J M; Warren, H P

    2015-01-01

    We present the second part of a project on the global energetics of solar flares and CMEs that includes about 400 M- and X-class flares observed with AIA/SDO during the first 3.5 years of its mission. In this Paper II we compute the differential emission measure (DEM) distribution functions and associated multi-thermal energies, using a spatially-synthesized Gaussian DEM forward-fitting method. The multi-thermal DEM function yields a significantly higher (by an average factor of $\\approx 14$), but more comprehensive (multi-)thermal energy than an isothermal energy estimate from the same AIA data. We find a statistical energy ratio of $E_{th}/E_{diss} \\approx 2\\%-40\\%$ between the multi-thermal energy $E_{th}$ and the magnetically dissipated energy $E_{diss}$, which is an order of magnitude higher than the estimates of Emslie et al.~2012. For the analyzed set of M and X-class flares we find the following physical parameter ranges: $L=10^{8.2}-10^{9.7}$ cm for the length scale of the flare areas, $T_p=10^{5.7}-...

  17. Soft X-ray emission in flaring coronal loops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinto, R F; Brun, A S

    2014-01-01

    Solar flares are associated with intense soft X-ray emission generated by the hot flaring plasma in coronal magnetic loops. Kink unstable twisted flux-ropes provide a source of magnetic energy which can be released impulsively and account for the heating of the plasma in flares. We investigate the temporal, spectral and spatial evolution of the properties of the thermal X-ray emission produced in such kink-unstable magnetic flux-ropes using a series of MHD simulations. We deduce emission diagnostics and their temporal evolution and discuss the results of the simulations with respect to observations. The numerical setup used consists of a highly twisted loop embedded in a region of uniform and untwisted background coronal magnetic field. We let the kink instability develop, compute the evolution of the plasma properties in the loop (density, temperature) and deduce the X-ray emission properties of the plasma during the whole flaring episode. During the initial phase of the instability plasma heating is mostly ...

  18. Solar flare electron acceleration: comparing theories and observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold O. Benz; Pascal Saint-Hilaire

    2003-08-19

    A popular scenario for electron acceleration in solar flares is transit-time damping of low-frequency MHD waves excited by reconnection and its outflows. The scenario requires several processes in sequence to yield energetic electrons of the observed large number. Until now there was very little evidence for this scenario, as it is even not clear where the flare energy is released. RHESSI measurements of bremsstrahlung by non-thermal flare electrons yield energy estimates as well as the position where the energy is deposited. Thus quantitative measurements can be put into the frame of the global magnetic field configuration as seen in coronal EUV line observations. We present RHESSI observations combined with TRACE data that suggest primary energy inputs mostly into electron acceleration and to a minor fraction into coronal heating and primary motion. The more sensitive and lower energy X-ray observations by RHESSI have found also small events (C class) at the time of the acceleration of electron beams exciting meter wave Type III bursts. However, not all RHESSI flares involve Type III radio emissions. The association of other decimeter radio emissions, such as narrowband spikes and pulsations, with X-rays is summarized in view of electron acceleration

  19. Cursed Resources? Political Conditions and Oil Market Volatility*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    a country's political conditions affect oil production within its borders. We show production, with very democratic regimes exhibiting less volatility in their oil production than more of oil production volatility. Our finding has implications both for understanding world oil markets

  20. Capacity Markets for Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Creti, Anna; Fabra, Natalia

    2004-01-01

    England and Wales Electricity Market”, Power Working PaperFelder (1996), “Should Electricity Markets Have a Capacityand Competitive Electricity Markets”, mimeo, IDEI, available

  1. Information Markets and Aggregation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phatak, Narahari Mohan

    2012-01-01

    2.2 Market Design . . . . . . . . . . .experience in prediction market design with Crowdcast. Thisa useful survey of market design and application from the

  2. Nordic Market Report 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ..........................................................................38 7 RETAIL MARKETS .........................................................................40 7.........................................................................................................................43 7.4 RETAIL MARKETS: CONCLUSIONS NORDIC RETAIL MARKET WITH FREE CHOICE OF SUPPLIER.........................46 9.2 A WELL

  3. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2010-01-29

    The focus of this report is the U.S. solar electricity market, including photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. The report is organized into five chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of global and U.S. installation trends. Chapter 2 presents production and shipment data, material and supply chain issues, and solar industry employment trends. Chapter 3 presents cost, price, and performance trends. Chapter 4 discusses policy and market drivers such as recently passed federal legislation, state and local policies, and developments in project financing. Chapter 5 provides data on private investment trends and near-term market forecasts.

  4. Reducing Emissions in Plant Flaring Operations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duck, B.

    2011-01-01

    latest technologies and reducing green house gas emissions.1 The company also created a Green Team with the objective of achieving zero injury, zero pollution, and zero accidents for all production facilities. These Green Teams advocated the company's new...

  5. The optical flare and afterglow light curve of GRB 050904 at redshift z=6.29

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. M. Wei; T. Yan; Y. Z. Fan

    2005-12-07

    GRB050904 is very interesting since it is by far the most distant GRB event known to date($z=6.29$). It was reported that during the prompt high energy emission phase, a very bright optical flare was detected, and it was temporal coincident with an X-ray flare. Here we use two models to explain the optical flare, One is the "late internal shock model", in which the optical flare is produced by the synchrotron radiation of the electrons accelerated by the late internal shock, and the X-ray flare is produced by the synchrotron-self-Compton mechanism. The other is the external forward-reverse shock model, in which the optical flare is from the reverse shock emission and the X-ray flare is attributed to the central engine activity. We show that with proper parameters, a bright optical flare can appear in both models. We think the "late internal shock model" is more favored since in this model the optical flash and the X-ray flare have the same origin, which provides a natural explanation of the temporal coincidence of them. In the forward-reverse shock scenario, fits to the optical flare and the late afterglow suggests that the physical parameters of the reverse shock are much different from that of forward shock, as found in modeling the optical flash of GRB 990123 previously.

  6. High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission From Solar Flares: Summary of Fermi LAT Detections and Analysis of Two M-Class Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2013-01-01

    We present the detections of 19 solar flares detected in high-energy gamma rays (above 100 MeV) with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) during its first four years of operation. Interestingly, all flares are associated with fairly fast Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and are not all powerful X-ray flares. We then describe the detailed temporal, spatial and spectral characteristics of the first two long-lasting events: the 2011 March 7 flare, a moderate (M3.7) impulsive flare followed by slowly varying gamma-ray emission over 13 hours, and the 2011 June 7 M2.5 flare, which was followed by gamma-ray emission lasting for 2 hours. We compare the Fermi-LAT data with X-ray and proton data measurements from GOES and RHESSI. We argue that a hadronic origin of the gamma rays is more likely than a leptonic origin and find that the energy spectrum of the proton distribution softens after the 2011 March 7 flare, favoring a scenario with continuous acceleration at the flare site. This work suggests that proton acceleratio...

  7. Fermi Solar Flare Observations We propose to continue and expand our work over the last three years to make Fermi solar flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi

    1 Fermi Solar Flare Observations 1. Summary We propose to continue and expand our work over the last three years to make Fermi solar flare data readily available for analysis by the international solar physics community. The two-year time frame of the proposed effort is extremely important for solar

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum product sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  9. SIMULATION OF DESCENDING MULTIPLE SUPRA-ARCADE RECONNECTION OUTFLOWS IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cecere, M.; Schneiter, M.; Costa, A.; Elaskar, S.; Maglione, S.

    2012-11-10

    After recent Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations by Savage, McKenzie, and Reeves, we revisit the scenario proposed by us in previous papers. We have shown that sunward, generally dark plasma features that originated above posteruption flare arcades are consistent with a scenario where plasma voids (which we identify as supra-arcade reconnection outflows, SAROs) generate the bouncing and interfering of shocks and expansion waves upstream of an initial localized deposition of energy that is collimated in the magnetic field direction. In this paper, we analyze the multiple production and interaction of SAROs and their individual structures that make them relatively stable features while moving. We compare our results with observations and with the scenarios proposed by other authors.

  10. Discovery of 6.035GHz Hydroxyl Maser Flares in IRAS18566+0408

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Marzouk, A A; Hofner, P; Kurtz, S; Linz, H; Olmi, L

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of 6.035GHz hydroxyl (OH) maser flares toward the massive star forming region IRAS18566+0408 (G37.55+0.20), which is the only region known to show periodic formaldehyde (4.8 GHz H2CO) and methanol (6.7 GHz CH3OH) maser flares. The observations were conducted between October 2008 and January 2010 with the 305m Arecibo Telescope in Puerto Rico. We detected two flare events, one in March 2009, and one in September to November 2009. The OH maser flares are not simultaneous with the H2CO flares, but may be correlated with CH3OH flares from a component at corresponding velocities. A possible correlated variability of OH and CH3OH masers in IRAS18566+0408 is consistent with a common excitation mechanism (IR pumping) as predicted by theory.

  11. DISCOVERY OF 6.035 GHz HYDROXYL MASER FLARES IN IRAS 18566+0408

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Marzouk, A. A.; Araya, E. D.; Hofner, P.; Kurtz, S.; Linz, H.; Olmi, L.

    2012-05-10

    We report the discovery of 6.035 GHz hydroxyl (OH) maser flares toward the massive star-forming region IRAS 18566+0408 (G37.55+0.20), which is the only region known to show periodic formaldehyde (4.8 GHz H{sub 2}CO) and methanol (6.7 GHz CH{sub 3}OH) maser flares. The observations were conducted between 2008 October and 2010 January with the 305 m Arecibo Telescope in Puerto Rico. We detected two flare events, one in 2009 March and one in 2009 September to November. The OH maser flares are not simultaneous with the H{sub 2}CO flares, but may be correlated with CH{sub 3}OH flares from a component at corresponding velocities. A possible correlated variability of OH and CH{sub 3}OH masers in IRAS 18566+0408 is consistent with a common excitation mechanism (IR pumping) as predicted by theory.

  12. Market Organization and Efficiency in Electricity Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    Market Organization and Efficiency in Electricity Markets Erin T. Mansur and Matthew W. White October 2007 ­ Draft Abstract Electricity markets exhibit two different forms of organization costs. Our analysis points to the merits of organized market institutions for electricity, a central

  13. Housing market report Capital city market report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Richard

    Housing market report Capital city market report Prepared January 2014 Dr Andrew Wilson, Senior economies. The national housing market will record positive growth again in 2014, although the level will impact other local housing markets, particularly in Sydney and Melbourne. Over 2013, the Australian

  14. Return currents and energy transport in the solar flaring atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Codispoti, Anna; Piana, Michele; Pinamonti, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    According to a standard ohmic perspective, the injection of accelerated electrons into the flaring region violates local charge equilibrium and therefore, in response, return currents are driven by an electric field to equilibrate such charge violation. In this framework, the energy loss rate associated to these local currents has an ohmic nature and significantly shortens the acceleration electron path. In the present paper we adopt a different viewpoint and, specifically, we study the impact of the background drift velocity on the energy loss rate of accelerated electrons in solar flares. We first utilize the Rutherford cross-section to derive the formula of the energy loss rate when the collisional target has a finite temperature and the background instantaneously and coherently moves up to equilibrate the electron injection. We then use the continuity equation for electrons and imaging spectroscopy data provided by RHESSI to validate this model. Specifically, we show that this new formula for the energy l...

  15. The Acceleration of Ions in Solar Flares During Magnetic Reconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knizhnik, Kalman; Drake, James F

    2011-01-01

    The acceleration of solar flare ions during magnetic reconnection is explored via particle-in-cell simulations that self-consistently follow the motions of both protons and $\\alpha$ particles. We demonstrate that the dominant ion heating during reconnection with a guide field (a magnetic component perpendicular to the reconnection plane) results from pickup behavior during the entry into reconnection exhausts. In contrast with anti-parallel reconnection, the temperature increment is dominantly transverse, rather than parallel, to the local magnetic field. The comparison of protons and alphas reveals a mass-to-charge ($M/Q$) threshold in pickup behavior that favors heating of high $M/Q$ ions over protons, which is consistent with impulsive flare observations.

  16. Slow Magnetoacoustic Oscillations in the Microwave Emission of Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sujin; Shibasaki, K

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the microwave data, obtained in the 17 GHz channel of the Nobeyama Radioheliograph during the M1.6 flare on 4th Nov 2010, revealed the presence of 11.8-min oscillations of the emitting plasma density. The oscilla- tions decayed with the characteristic time of about 25-min. These oscillations are also well-seen in the variation of EUV emission intensity measured in the 335 A channel of SDO/AIA. The observed properties of the oscillations are consistent with the properties of so-called SUMER oscillations, observed in the EUV and soft X-ray bands usually as a periodic Doppler shift. The accepted interpretation of SUMER oscillations is a standing slow magnetoacoustic wave. Our analysis presents the first direct observation of the slow magnetoacoustic oscillations in the microwave emission of a solar flare.

  17. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of cultivation systems.

  18. Forecasting Market Demand for New Telecommunications Services: An Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parsons, Simon

    Forecasting Market Demand for New Telecommunications Services: An Introduction Peter Mc in demand forecasting for new communication services. Acknowledgments: The writing of this paper commenced employers or consultancy clients. KEYWORDS: Demand Forecasting, New Product Marketing, Telecommunica- tions

  19. DECENTRALIZING SEMICONDUCTOR CAPACITY PLANNING VIA INTERNAL MARKET COORDINATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, David

    and S. DAVID WU Manufacturing Logistics Institute, Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems semiconductor manufacturer: marketing managers reserve capacity from manufacturing based on product demands, while attempting to maximize profit; manufacturing managers allocate capacity to competing marketing

  20. Max '91: flare research at the next solar maximum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, B.; Canfield, R.; Bruner, M.; Emslie, G.; Hildner, E.; Hudson, H.; Hurford, G.; Lin, R.; Novick, R.; Tarbell, T.

    1988-01-01

    To address the central scientific questions surrounding solar flares, coordinated observations of electromagnetic radiation and energetic particles must be made from spacecraft, balloons, rockets, and ground-based observatories. A program to enhance capabilities in these areas in preparation for the next solar maximum in 1991 is recommended. The major scientific issues are described, and required observations and coordination of observations and analyses are detailed. A program plan and conceptual budgets are provided.

  1. Marketing meeting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousandReport)PriceHistoricEnergyApril 25,4MarioMark D.MarkMarketDHP

  2. Coal Markets

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural Gas ReservesAlabamaAboutTotalWhy I Chose EIA EIACoal Markets

  3. Redeeming the Truth: Robert Morden and the Marketing of Authority in Early World Atlases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    York, Laura Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    and book trades. Book Marketing and Book Piracy WhateverCissie. “The Production and Marketing of Populuxe Goods inCartography: Making and Marketing Maps in Eighteenth-Century

  4. Investment Efficiency in Competitive Electricity Markets With and Without Time-Varying Retail Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin; Holland, Stephen P.

    2002-01-01

    homogeneous product in the retail market, and would face noin wholesale and retail markets Equilibrium prices in thec) = r. In the ?at-rate retail market, however, there is now

  5. Notes of frequency of occurence and energetics of the solar-type stellar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gershberg, R E

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of the 30-year ago ground-based photometry and the recent Kepler space experiment there have been considered frequencies of occurrence and energetics of the solar-type stellar flares. It was concluded that frequencies of occurrence of such flares are proportional to sizes of stellar surfaces, and estimates of maximum flare radiation from the results of the ground-based photometry and space observations practically coincide.

  6. HARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE FLUX SPECTRA OF THE 2 NOVEMBER 1991 SOLAR FLARE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE FLUX SPECTRA OF THE 2 NOVEMBER 1991 SOLAR FLARE CHIK-YIN LEE1,2 and HAIMIN analysed the hard X-ray and microwave flux spectra of the solar flare (BATSE No. 1791) on 2 November 1991 for this study. This paper studies the hard X-ray and microwave spectra of the solar flare on 2 November 1991

  7. Seismic Emissions from a Highly Impulsive M6.7 Solar Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. C. Martinez-Oliveros; H. Moradi; A-C. Donea

    2008-01-09

    On 10 March 2001 the active region NOAA 9368 produced an unusually impulsive solar flare in close proximity to the solar limb. This flare has previously been studied in great detail, with observations classifying it as a type 1 white-light flare with a very hard spectrum in hard X-rays. The flare was also associated with a type II radio burst and coronal mass ejection. The flare emission characteristics appeared to closely correspond with previous instances of seismic emission from acoustically active flares. Using standard local helioseismic methods, we identified the seismic signatures produced by the flare that, to date, is the least energetic (in soft X-rays) of the flares known to have generated a detectable acoustic transient. Holographic analysis of the flare shows a compact acoustic source strongly correlated with the impulsive hard X-ray, visible continuum, and radio emission. Time-distance diagrams of the seismic waves emanating from the flare region also show faint signatures, mainly in the eastern sector of the active region. The strong spatial coincidence between the seismic source and the impulsive visible continuum emission reinforces the theory that a substantial component of the seismic emission seen is a result of sudden heating of the low photosphere associated with the observed visible continuum emission. Furthermore, the low-altitude magnetic loop structure inferred from potential--field extrapolations in the flaring region suggests that there is a significant inverse correlation between the seismicity of a flare and the height of the magnetic loops that conduct the particle beams from the corona.

  8. Extremely Large EUV Late Phase of Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Kai; Zhang, Jie; Cheng, Xin; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong

    2015-01-01

    The second peak in the Fe XVI 33.5 nm line irradiance observed during solar flares by Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) is known as Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) late phase. Our previous paper (Liu et al. 2013) found that the main emissions in the late phase are originated from large-scale loop arcades that are closely connected to but different from the post flare loops (PFLs), and we also proposed that a long cooling process without additional heating could explain the late phase. In this paper, we define the extremely large late phase because it not only has a bigger peak in the warm 33.5 irradiance profile, but also releases more EUV radiative energy than the main phase. Through detailedly inspecting the EUV images from three point-of-view, it is found that, besides the later phase loop arcades, the more contribution of the extremely large late phase is from a hot structure that fails to erupt. This hot structure is identified as a flux rope, which is quickly energized by the flare reconnection...

  9. Interacting CMEs and their associated flare and SEP activities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shanmugaraju, A

    2015-01-01

    We have analyzed a set of 25 interacting events which are associated with the DH type II bursts. These events are selected from the Coronal Mass Ejections observed during the period 1997-2010 in SOHO/LASCO and DH type IIs in Wind/WAVES. Their pre and primary CMEs from nearby active regions are identified using LASCO and EIT images and their height-time diagrams. Their interacting time and height are obtained, and their associated activities, such as, flares and solar energetic particles (>10pfu) are also investigated. Results from the analysis are: primary CMEs are much faster than the pre-CMEs, their X-ray flares are also stronger (X and M class) compared to the flares (C and M class) of pre-CMEs. Most of the events occurred during the period 2000-2006. From the observed width and speed of pre and primary CMEs, the pre-CMEs are found to be less energetic than the primary CMEs. While the primary CMEs are tracked up to the end of LASCO field of view, most of the pre-CMEs are tracked up to < 26Rs. The SEP in...

  10. Magnetic Energy Dissipation during the 2014 March 29 Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aschwanden, Markus J

    2015-01-01

    We calculated the time evolution of the free magnetic energy during the 2014-Mar-29 flare (SOL2014-03-29T17:48), the first X-class flare detected by IRIS. The free energy was calculated from the difference between the nonpotential field, constrained by the geometry of observed loop structures, and the potential field. We use AIA/SDO and IRIS images to delineate the geometry of coronal loops in EUV wavelengths, as well as to trace magnetic field directions in UV wavelengths in the chromosphere and transition region. We find an identical evolution of the free energy for both the coronal and chromospheric tracers, as well as agreement between AIA and IRIS results, with a peak free energy of $E_{free}(t_{peak}) \\approx (45 \\pm 2) \\times 10^{30}$ erg, which decreases by an amount of $\\Delta E_{free} \\approx (29 \\pm 3) \\times 10^{30}$ erg during the flare decay phase. The consistency of free energies measured from different EUV and UV wavelengths for the first time here, demonstrates that vertical electric currents...

  11. The spectral evolution of impulsive solar X-ray flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paolo C. Grigis; Arnold O. Benz

    2004-07-20

    The time evolution of the spectral index and the non-thermal flux in 24 impulsive solar hard X-ray flares of GOES class M was studied in RHESSI observations. The high spectral resolution allows for a clean separation of thermal and non-thermal components in the 10-30 keV range, where most of the non-thermal photons are emitted. Spectral index and flux can thus be determined with much better accuracy than before. The spectral soft-hard-soft behavior in rise-peak-decay phases is discovered not only in the general flare development, but even more pronounced in subpeaks. An empirically found power-law dependence between the spectral index and the normalization of the non-thermal flux holds during the rise and decay phases of the emission peaks. It is still present in the combined set of all flares. We find an asymmetry in this dependence between rise and decay phases of the non-thermal emission. There is no delay between flux peak and spectral index minimum. The soft-hard-soft behavior appears to be an intrinsic signature of the elementary electron acceleration process.

  12. Looptop Hard X-Ray Emission in Solar Flares: Images and Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vahe' Petrosian; Timothy Q. Donaghy; James M. McTiernan

    2001-12-14

    The discovery of hard X-ray sources near the top of a flaring loop by the HXT instrument on board the YOHKOH satellite represents a significant progress towards the understanding of the basic processes driving solar flares. In this paper we extend the previous study of limb flares by Masuda (1994) by including all YOHKOH observations up through August 1998. We report that from October 1991 to August 1998, YOHKOH observed 20 X-ray bright limb flares (where we use the same selection criteria as Masuda), of which we have sufficient data to analyze 18 events, including 8 previously unanalyzed flares. Of these 18 events, 15 show detectable impulsive looptop emission. Considering that the finite dynamic range (about a decade) of the detection introduces a strong bias against observing comparatively weak looptop sources, we conclude that looptop emission is a common feature of all flares. We summarize the observations of the footpoint to looptop flux ratio and the spectral indices. We present light curves and images of all the important newly analyzed limb flares. Whenever possible we present results for individual pulses in multipeak flares and for different loops for multiloop flares. We then discuss the statistics of the fluxes and spectral indices of the looptop and footpoint sources taking into account observational selection biases. The importance of these observations (and those expected from the scheduled HESSI satellite with its superior angular spectral and temporal resolution) in constraining acceleration models and parameters is discussed briefly.

  13. Observation of solar flares through the ART-P telescope side shield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Lutovinov; M. Pavlinsky; S. Grebenev

    2001-06-13

    Some preliminary results of observations of six solar flares though the ART-P telescop side shield in 1990-1992 are presented.

  14. Space weather effects on the Mars ionosphere due to solar flares and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    Space weather effects on the Mars ionosphere due to solar flares and meteors Paul Withers1, Michael in the ionospheric response to these aspects of space weather. #12;

  15. Global energetics of solar flares. I. Magnetic energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Xu, Yan; Jing, Ju E-mail: yan.xu@njit.edu

    2014-12-10

    We present the first part of a project on the global energetics of solar flares and coronal mass ejections that includes about 400 M- and X-class flares observed with Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We calculate the potential (E{sub p} ), the nonpotential (E {sub np}) or free energies (E {sub free} = E {sub np} – E{sub p} ), and the flare-dissipated magnetic energies (E {sub diss}). We calculate these magnetic parameters using two different NLFFF codes: the COR-NLFFF code uses the line-of-sight magnetic field component B{sub z} from HMI to define the potential field, and the two-dimensional (2D) coordinates of automatically detected coronal loops in six coronal wavelengths from AIA to measure the helical twist of coronal loops caused by vertical currents, while the PHOT-NLFFF code extrapolates the photospheric three-dimensional (3D) vector fields. We find agreement between the two codes in the measurement of free energies and dissipated energies within a factor of ? 3. The size distributions of magnetic parameters exhibit powerlaw slopes that are approximately consistent with the fractal-diffusive self-organized criticality model. The magnetic parameters exhibit scaling laws for the nonpotential energy, E{sub np}?E{sub p}{sup 1.02}, for the free energy, E{sub free}?E{sub p}{sup 1.7} and E{sub free}?B{sub ?}{sup 1.0}L{sup 1.5}, for the dissipated energy, E{sub diss}?E{sub p}{sup 1.6} and E{sub diss}?E{sub free}{sup 0.9}, and the energy dissipation volume, V?E{sub diss}{sup 1.2}. The potential energies vary in the range of E{sub p} = 1 × 10{sup 31}-4 × 10{sup 33} erg, while the free energy has a ratio of E {sub free}/E{sub p} ? 1%-25%. The Poynting flux amounts to F {sub flare} ? 5 × 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} during flares, which averages to F {sub AR} ? 6 × 10{sup 6} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} during the entire observation period and is comparable with the coronal heating rate requirement in active regions.

  16. Understanding Competitive Pricing and Market Power in Wholesale Electricity Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    1999-01-01

    Power in Wholesale Electricity Markets Severin Borensteincompetition, electricity markets Abstract: Discussions ofin restructured electricity markets have revealed many

  17. Diagnosing Market Power in California's Deregulated Wholesale Electricity Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin; Bushnell, James; Wolak, Frank

    1999-01-01

    Market Power in Electricity Markets: Beyond Concentrationin the California Electricity Markets," mimeo, University ofin the California Electricity Market." Mimeo. University of

  18. hi MARKET SUPPLEMENT STATUS MARKET SUPPLEMENT STATUS for: _____________________________________________

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    hi MARKET SUPPLEMENT STATUS MARKET SUPPLEMENT STATUS for i:\\appoint\\revision\\market supplement forms\\market supplement status form.rtf Print Form #12;hi

  19. Market design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newbery, David

    2006-03-14

    is model is attrac t i v e where separate jurisdictions under diffe rent TSOs are again prepared to allow an SO to handle bids into the energy spot market and for using in terco n n e c t o r s to be cleared simulta n e o u s l y . It appear s to work... % of the total), the heavily - c o n t r a c t e d power- i n t e n s i v e indust r y (appro x . 30%) and the rest (appro x . 65%). Demand from the boiler segment – which can easil y switc h betwe e n oil and electr i c i t y – fell sharpl y when prices...

  20. Title: Marketing Assistant Description

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schweik, Charles M.

    Title: Marketing Assistant Description: The UMass Amherst Career Services Office is searching for a student interested in marketing. The Marketing Assistant will work closely with our in-office marketing Brainstorm new and exciting marketing strategies, including social media Participate and contribute

  1. Sandia Energy - Solar Market Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Market Transformation Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Market Transformation Solar Market TransformationTara...

  2. Information Brief on Green Power Marketing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Information Brief on Green Power Marketing Fourth Edition August 1999 · NREL/TP-620-26901 Blair-26901 Information Brief on Green Power Marketing Fourth Edition Blair Swezey and Lori Bird Prepared under Task No for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed

  3. CSEM WP 132 MARKET POWER IN CALIFORNIA'S

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley. University of

    RFG) gasoline have again exceeded U.S. average prices by much more than the difference in production costs.........................................................................................................28 #12;1 1. Introduction In March 2004, California gasoline prices once again increased rapidlyCSEM WP 132 MARKET POWER IN CALIFORNIA'S GASOLINE MARKET Severin Borenstein, James Bushnell

  4. Fundamental Drivers of Pacific Northwest Power Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , utilities, power marketers, investors, and others on wholesale electricity and natural gas markets. Experts Load Transmission Thermal Hydro Wind (2005) #12;Natural Gas Capacity 6 5,000 MW of Natural Gas;Natural Gas Power Plant Production is Significantly Down 2010 to 2012 13 #12;Mid C Peak Heat Rates 14

  5. AWEA Small Wind Turbine Global Market Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    and pushes the total installed capacity in the u.S. to 100 MW.2 Half of this 100-MW milestone capacity came networks, defining new market niches, and scaling up production. u.S. installed capacity increased by 15 Displaced Carbon Dioxide 17 Building-Mounted Turbines 17 Manufacturing 18 The Global Market 21 Solar

  6. Robust Aerial Object Tracking in Images with Lens Flare Andreas Nussberger1, Helmut Grabner1 and Luc Van Gool1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grabner, Helmut

    often result in a high number of false detections. Depending on the solar radiation lens flares are very the date, time, position and attitude of the observer we predict the lens flare direction within the image

  7. MARKETING PLAN PELLETED AND CRUMBLED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;MARKETING PLAN FOR PELLETED AND CRUMBLED COMPOSTED muLTRY MANURE PRODUCT JUNE, 1995 Prepared by should not be consideredto reflect the policy or position of I!aviromnentCanada. #12;Pelleted. Roger McNeill, Environment Canada I Zbeetnofl Consulting, 1995 #12;Pelleted and Crumbled, Composted

  8. The Asian Wood Pellet Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Asian Wood Pellet Markets Joseph A. Roos and Allen M. Brackley United States Department Wood Pellet plant in North Pole, Alaska. Clockwise from upper left: pelleting machine; pellets bagged for home use; a Superior Pellet Fuels bag; inventory of product ready for shipment to retailers. Upper

  9. Coal Market Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System's (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 (AEO2014). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM's two submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS) and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS).

  10. Trends in End-Use Industries to Shape Growth in Global Forest Products Market, According to a New Report by Global Industry Analysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , such as origin of raw materials, and manufacturing process. Globalization offers several benefits to the industry technologically improved products. Globalization has also brought about a gradual change, with sourcing of raw materials shifting to emerging forest producing regions. Demand for forest products is also determined

  11. The Impulsive Phase in Solar Flares: Recent Multi-wavelength Results and their Implications for Microwave Modeling and Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Lyndsay

    2013-01-01

    This short paper reviews several recent key observations of the processes occurring in the lower atmosphere (chromosphere and photosphere) during flares. These are: evidence for compact and fragmentary structure in the flare chromosphere, the conditions in optical flare footpoints, step-like variations in the magnetic field during the flare impulsive phase, and hot, dense 'chromospheric' footpoints. The implications of these observations for microwaves are also discussed.

  12. Measuring Unilateral Market Power in Wholesale Electricity Markets: The California Market 1998 - 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolak, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Wholesale Electricity Market,” American Economic Review,in a Competitive Electricity Market,” International Economica Competitive Electricity Market,” January 2001, available

  13. CAROL OSBORNE ADVERTISING & MARKETING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jank, Wolfgang

    CAROL OSBORNE ADVERTISING & MARKETING PROFESSIONAL Email cosborne@tampabay.rr.com Phone 813, Florida 33609 advertising, promotions, and marketing research. Classical training from ad agency to client marketing communications management and engagement to alternative media Advertising and sales promotions

  14. Internal Labor Markets Under External Market Pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jeong Yeon

    2015-03-01

    Through an empirical investigation of 11 Korean firms before and after the Asian financial crisis, the author examines the impact of increasing external market pressures on internal labor market (ILM) practices. In addition, ...

  15. Digital asset pricing in the textbook market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molina, Katherine (Katherine V.)

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. college textbook market is in the midst of a seismic shift: publishers are creating new products, students are demanding more sophisticated digital content and instructors are just beginning to experiment with ...

  16. Essays on International Market Entry Strategy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Myunggook

    2011-10-21

    Two important issues regarding international market entry strategy remain largely unexplored: international launch time window (the elapsed time between product launch in the home country and launch in the focal country) ...

  17. Competition in an evolving stochastic market 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    "In an efficient market all identical goods must have only one price." So states the aptly named law of one price. In the real world, however, one may easily verify that identical products are often sold for different ...

  18. Temporal Evolution of Free Magnetic Energy Associated with Four X-class Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    energy for much of the solar activity such as flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs)(see, for review magnetic configuration for conversion into kinetic and/or thermal energy) and its temporal variationTemporal Evolution of Free Magnetic Energy Associated with Four X-class Flares Ju Jing1 , P. F

  19. A SOLAR FLARE MODEL IN BETWEEN MHD AND CELLULAR AUTOMATON* Heinz Isliker1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anastasiadis, Anastasios

    ) and the reproduction of the observed solar flare statistics. On the other hand the energy release process has been to explain the solar flare statistics derived from observations. These models simulate the storage of this approach is the treatment of a large number of elementary energy release events (avalanches

  20. ACCELERATION AND ENRICHMENT OF 3 IMPULSIVE SOLAR FLARES BY ELECTRON FIREHOSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ACCELERATION AND ENRICHMENT OF 3 He IN IMPULSIVE SOLAR FLARES BY ELECTRON FIREHOSE WAVES G. Paesold A new mechanism for acceleration and enrichment of 3 He during impulsive solar flares is presented. Low of the free energy stored in a temperature anisotropy (Te > Te ) of the bulk energized electron population

  1. TRACE and YOHKOH Observations of a White Light Flare Thomas R. Metcalf1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metcalf, Thomas R.

    . Hudson 2 , and Dana W. Longcope3 ABSTRACT We present observations of a large solar white light flare at 400 km s-1 . This is evidence in favor of particle acceleration models which energize the electrons), are typically the most energetic of solar flares. "White light" refers to continuum emission in excess

  2. HARD X-RAY EMISSIONS FROM PARTIALLY OCCULTED SOLAR FLARES Sam Krucker1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    HARD X-RAY EMISSIONS FROM PARTIALLY OCCULTED SOLAR FLARES Sa¨m Krucker1 and R. P. Lin1,2 krucker occulted by the solar limb provide diagnostics of coronal hard X-ray (HXR) emissions in the absence of generally much brighter emissions from footpoints of flare loops. In this paper, a statis- tical survey

  3. Extended decimeter radio emission after large solar flares A.O. Benz a,*, H. Perret a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    by extremely intense radio emissions at decimeter wave- lengths. The radio emission continued long afterExtended decimeter radio emission after large solar flares A.O. Benz a,*, H. Perret a , P. Saint; accepted 19 September 2005 Abstract The large solar flares of October and November 2003 were accompanied

  4. Electron-Electron Bremsstrahlung Emission and the Inference of Electron Flux Spectra in Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piana, Michele

    to the hard X-ray emission from solar flares, the latter is normally ignored. Such an omission in the study of hard X-ray spectra from solar flares. With the high-resolution hard X- ray spectra madeElectron-Electron Bremsstrahlung Emission and the Inference of Electron Flux Spectra in Solar

  5. Longrange magnetic couplings between solar flares and coronal mass ejections observed by SDO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrijver, Karel

    Longrange magnetic couplings between solar flares and coronal mass ejections observed by SDO between solar flares and coronal mass ejections observed by SDO and STEREO, J. Geophys. Res., 116, A04108 to view much of the solar surface and atmosphere simultaneously and continuously. These nearglobal

  6. Thermodynamic Spectrum of Solar Flares Based on SDO/EVE Observations: Techniques and First Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuming; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Kai; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong; Chamberlin, Phillip C

    2015-01-01

    SDO/EVE provide rich information of the thermodynamic processes of solar activities, particularly of solar flares. Here, we develop a method to construct thermodynamic spectrum (TDS) charts based on the EVE spectral lines. Reading from the charts, we are able to easily recognize if there is a late phase following a main phase of a flare, and able to learn the begin, peak and end times of the flare as well as the drift of the temperature, i.e., the cooling rate, of the heated plasma during the flare. Through four M-class flares of different types, we illustrate which thermodynamic information can be revealed from the TDS charts. Further, we investigate the TDS charts of all the flares greater than M5.0, and some interesting results are achieved. First, there are two distinct drift patterns, called Type I and Type II. For Type I flares, the enhanced emission drifts from high to low temperture, whereas for Type II flares, the drift is somewhat reversed, suggesting a more violent and durable heating during Type I...

  7. NEUTRON AND ELECTROMAGNETIC EMISSIONS DURING THE 1990 MAY 24 SOLAR FLARE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    NEUTRON AND ELECTROMAGNETIC EMISSIONS DURING THE 1990 MAY 24 SOLAR FLARE L. G. KOCHAROV,* JEONGWOO revised form 15 July, 1994) Abstract. In this paper, we are primarilyconcerned with the solar neutron emission during the 1990 May 24 flare, utilizing the counting rate of the Climax neutron monitor

  8. Calibrated Estimates of the Energy in Major Flares of GRS 1915+105

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Punsly, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the energetics of the major radio flare of October 8 2005 in GRS 1915+105. The flare is of particular interest because it is one of the most luminous and energetic radio flares from a Galactic black hole that has ever been observed. The motivation is two-fold. One, to learn more about the energetics of this most extreme phenomenon and its relationship to the accretion state. The second is to verify if the calibrated estimates of the energy of major radio flares (based on the peak low frequency optically thin flux) derived from flares in the period 1996-2001 in Punsly & Rodriguez (2013), PR13 hereafter, can be used to estimate plasmoid energy beyond this time period. We find evidence that the calibrated curves are still accurate for this strong flare. Furthermore, the physically important findings of PR13 are supported by the inclusion of this flare: the flare energy is correlated with both the intrinsic bolometric X-ray luminosity, $L_{\\mathrm{bol}}$, $\\sim 1$ hour before ejection and $L_{\\math...

  9. Return currents and energy transport in the solar flaring Anna Codispoti1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piana, Michele

    Return currents and energy transport in the solar flaring atmosphere Anna Codispoti1 ,Gabriele electrons in solar flares. We first utilize the Rutherford cross-section to derive the formula of the energy for the energy loss rate provides a better fit of the experimental data with respect to the model based

  10. MICROWAVE AND HARD XRAY OBSERVATIONS OF FOOTPOINT EMISSION FROM SOLAR FLARES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Stephen

    MICROWAVE AND HARD X­RAY OBSERVATIONS OF FOOTPOINT EMISSION FROM SOLAR FLARES M. R. KUNDU Dept radio and X­ray imaging data for two solar flares in order to test the idea that asymmetric microwaves and hard x­rays (HXR) has been known to exist for a long time. This connection is manifested

  11. Seismic Emissions from a Highly Impulsive M6.7 Solar Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Seismic Emissions from a Highly Impulsive M6.7 Solar Flare J.C. Mart´inez-Oliveros, H. Moradi, A characteristics appeared to closely correspond with previous instances of seismic emission from acoustically active flares. Using standard local helioseismic methods, we identified the seismic sig- natures produced

  12. Large Solar Flares and their Ionospheric D-region Enhancements Neil R. Thomson and Craig J. Rodger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otago, University of

    1 Large Solar Flares and their Ionospheric D-region Enhancements Neil R. Thomson and Craig J Division, British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK On 4 November 2003, the largest solar flare ever recorded solar flares the X-ray flux received at the Earth increases dramatically, often within a few minutes

  13. ELECTRON FLUX SPECTRAL IMAGING OF SOLAR FLARES THROUGH REGULARIZED ANALYSIS OF HARD X-RAY SOURCE VISIBILITIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piana, Michele

    ELECTRON FLUX SPECTRAL IMAGING OF SOLAR FLARES THROUGH REGULARIZED ANALYSIS OF HARD X-RAY SOURCE a new method for imaging spectroscopy analysis of hard X-ray emission during solar flares. The method the method to a solar flare observed on 2002 February 20 by the RHESSI instrument. The event is characterized

  14. STEREOSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF THE HARD X-RAY SOURCE IN THE GIANT SOLAR FLARE ON 2003 NOVEMBER 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McTiernan, James M.

    STEREOSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF THE HARD X-RAY SOURCE IN THE GIANT SOLAR FLARE ON 2003 NOVEMBER 4 S. R Received 2004 June xx; accepted 2004 xxxx xx ABSTRACT The hard X-ray source in the "giant" solar flare on 4 indicated that, in each of the eleven solar flares, the 20 keV non-thermal electrons at the Sun dissipated

  15. Global analysis of active longitudes of solar X-ray flares L. Zhang a,b,c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    Global analysis of active longitudes of solar X-ray flares L. Zhang a,b,c , K. Mursula a,Ã, I: Solar X-rays Flares Active longitudes a b s t r a c t There is increasing evidence that various called active longitudes. We have earlier analyzed the longitudinal occurrence of solar X-ray flares

  16. Solar Physics with Radio Observations, Proceedings of Nobeyama Symposium 1998, NRO Report Millimeter Interferometer Observations of Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Stephen

    the current state of millimeter interferometry of solar flares and the issues which can be addressedV--energy electrons in the impulsive phase of solar flares as well as from hot dense plasma in the thermal decay phase. BIMA now consists of 10 antennas and is capable of snapshot imaging of solar flares with excellent

  17. SOLAR FLARE ELEMENT ABUNDANCES FROM THE SOLAR ASSEMBLY FOR X-RAYS (SAX) ON Brian R. Dennis1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nittler, Larry R.

    SOLAR FLARE ELEMENT ABUNDANCES FROM THE SOLAR ASSEMBLY FOR X-RAYS (SAX) ON MESSENGER Brian R been analyzed for 526 large flares detected with the Solar Assembly for X-rays (SAX) on the Mercury ­ Sun: flares ­ Sun: X-rays, gamma-rays 1. INTRODUCTION The Solar Assembly for X-rays (SAX) is part

  18. Using the Maximum X-ray Flux Ratio and X-ray Background to Predict Solar Flare Class

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winter, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    We present the discovery of a relationship between the maximum ratio of the flare flux (namely, 0.5-4 Ang to the 1-8 Ang flux) and non-flare background (namely, the 1-8 Ang background flux), which clearly separates flares into classes by peak flux level. We established this relationship based on an analysis of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) X-ray observations of ~ 50,000 X, M, C, and B flares derived from the NOAA/SWPC flares catalog. Employing a combination of machine learning techniques (K-nearest neighbors and nearest-centroid algorithms) we show a separation of the observed parameters for the different peak flaring energies. This analysis is validated by successfully predicting the flare classes for 100% of the X-class flares, 76% of the M-class flares, 80% of the C-class flares and 81% of the B-class flares for solar cycle 24, based on the training of the parametric extracts for solar flares in cycles 22-23.

  19. ON THE MECHANICAL ENERGY AVAILABLE TO DRIVE SOLAR FLARES A. N. McClymont and G. H. Fisher

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    ON THE MECHANICAL ENERGY AVAILABLE TO DRIVE SOLAR FLARES A. N. McClymont and G. H. Fisher Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 Abstract. Where does solar flare energy come from? More, generated in the solar interior, can carry sufficient free energy to power even the largest flares ever

  20. Housing market report Capital city market report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Richard

    Housing market report Capital city market report Prepared February 2014 Dr Andrew Wilson, Senior mortgage interest rates, the current, once in a decade energy of the Sydney housing market is set house price growth since 2009 with the median house price increasing by 9.8 percent. All capital cities

  1. Northwest Energy Market Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Treaty Storage Agreement Non-Wires Northwest Energy Market Assessment Oversupply Smart Grid Wind Integration Northwest Energy Market Assessment Since 2012, the Northwest Power...

  2. Biofuels Market Opportunities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2C—Fostering Technology Adoption II: Expanding the Pathway to Market Biofuels Market Opportunities John Eichberger, Vice President Government Relations, National Association of Convenience Stores

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  5. From coronal observations to MHD simulations, the building blocks for 3D models of solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janvier, Miho; Demoulin, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Solar flares are energetic events taking place in the Sun's atmosphere, and their effects can greatly impact the environment of the surrounding planets. In particular, eruptive flares, as opposed to confined flares, launch coronal mass ejections into the interplanetary medium, and as such, are one of the main drivers of space weather. After briefly reviewing the main characteristics of solar flares, we summarize the processes that can account for the build up and release of energy during their evolution. In particular, we focus on the development of recent 3D numerical simulations that explain many of the observed flare features. These simulations can also provide predictions of the dynamical evolution of coronal and photospheric magnetic field. Here we present a few observational examples that, together with numerical modelling, point to the underlying physical mechanisms of the eruptions.

  6. Looptop and Footpoint Impulsive Hard X-Rays and Stochastic Electron Acceleration in Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vahé Petrosian

    2002-07-22

    The discovery of hard X-rays from tops of flaring loops by the HXT of YOHKOH represents a significant progress in the understanding of solar flares. This report describes the properties of 20 limb flares observed by YOHKOH from October 1991 to August 1998, 15 of which show detectable impulsive looptop emission. Considering the finite dynamic range (about a decade) of the detection it can be concluded that looptop emission is a common feature of all flares. The light curves and images of a representative flare are presented and the statistical properties of the footpoint and looptop fluxes and spectral indexes are summarized. The importance of these observations, and those expected from RHESSI with its superior angular, spectral and temporal resolution, in constraining the acceleration models and parameters is discussed. briefly.

  7. Illinois Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYearYear Jan Feb MarMay-15Vented and Flared

  8. Solar Flare Activity Closely Monitored | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLE DIRECTIVES PursuantEnergySolar Flare Activity Closely Monitored

  9. Ohio Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYear JanNew FieldDecade Year-0 Year-1Vented and Flared

  10. Strategies for Marketing and Driving Demand for Commercial Financing...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Financing and Commercial Peer Exchange Call: Strategies for Marketing and Driving Demand for Commercial Financing Products, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, February 2, 2012....

  11. Bloomberg New Energy Finance Carbon Markets formerly New Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: London-based carbon markets division of New Energy Finance which provides analysis, price forecasting, consultancy and risk management services relating to carbon....

  12. Design of currency, markets, and economy for knowledge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Dawei

    2012-01-01

    Information markets benefit the communities they serve by facilitating electronic distributed exchange of information. Further benefits include enhancing knowledge sharing, innovation, and productivity. This research ...

  13. Solar X-ray Flare Hazards on the Surface of Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David S. Smith; John M. Scalo

    2006-10-03

    Putative organisms on the Martian surface would be exposed to potentially high doses of ionizing radiation during strong solar X-ray flares. We extrapolate the observed flare frequency-energy release scaling relation to releases much larger than seen so far for the sun, an assumption supported by observations of flares on other solar- and subsolar-mass main sequence stars. We calculate the surficial reprocessed X-ray spectra using a Monte Carlo code we have developed. Biological doses from indirect genome damage are calculated for each parameterized flare spectrum by integration over the X-ray opacity of water. We estimate the mean waiting time for solar flares producing a given biological dose of ionizing radiation on Mars and compare with lethal dose data for a wide range of terrestrial organisms. These timescales range from decades for significant human health risk to 0.5 Myr for D. radiodurans lethality. Such doses require total flare energies of 10^33--10^38 erg, the lower range of which has been observed for other stars. Flares are intermittent bursts, so acute lethality will only occur on the sunward hemisphere during a sufficiently energetic flare, unlike low-dose-rate, extended damage by cosmic rays. We estimate the soil and CO_2 ice columns required to provide 1/e shielding as 4--9 g cm^-2, depending on flare mean energy and atmospheric column density. Topographic altitude variations give a factor of two variation in dose for a given flare. Life in ice layers that may exist ~ 100 g cm^-2 below the surface would be well protected.

  14. Brightest Fermi-LAT flares of PKS 1222+216: implications on emission and acceleration processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kushwaha, Pankaj; Singh, K. P.; Sahayanathan, Sunder

    2014-11-20

    We present a high time resolution study of the two brightest ?-ray outbursts from a blazar PKS 1222+216 observed by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) in 2010. The ?-ray light curves obtained in four different energy bands, 0.1-3, 0.1-0.3, 0.3-1, and 1-3 GeV, with time bins of six hours, show asymmetric profiles with similar rise times in all the bands but a rapid decline during the April flare and a gradual one during the June flare. The light curves during the April flare show an ?2 day long plateau in 0.1-0.3 GeV emission, erratic variations in 0.3-1 GeV emission, and a daily recurring feature in 1-3 GeV emission until the rapid rise and decline within a day. The June flare shows a monotonic rise until the peak, followed by a gradual decline powered mainly by the multi-peak 0.1-0.3 GeV emission. The peak fluxes during both the flares are similar except in the 1-3 GeV band in April, which is twice the corresponding flux during the June flare. Hardness ratios during the April flare indicate spectral hardening in the rising phase followed by softening during the decay. We attribute this behavior to the development of a shock associated with an increase in acceleration efficiency followed by its decay leading to spectral softening. The June flare suggests hardening during the rise followed by a complicated energy dependent behavior during the decay. Observed features during the June flare favor multiple emission regions while the overall flaring episode can be related to jet dynamics.

  15. Analysis of the Russian Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lychuk, Taras; Evans, Meredydd; Halverson, Mark A.; Roshchanka, Volha

    2012-12-01

    This report provides analysis of the Russian energy efficiency market for the building sector from the perspective of U.S. businesses interested in exporting relevant technologies, products and experience to Russia. We aim to help U.S. energy efficiency and environmental technologies businesses to better understand the Russian building market to plan their market strategy.

  16. New Farmer's Guide: Cultivating Success at Farmers Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    Follow-through builds trust 13 Your farmers market retail stand 14 Displaying your products 14 CreatingNew Farmer's Guide: Cultivating Success at Farmers Markets by Randii MacNear and Shelly G. Keller California © Davis Farmers Market Association, 2012 #12;Table of conTenTs Introduction 1 About the authors 2

  17. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, S.

    2010-01-01

    2007). Global Concentrated Solar Power Markets andLLC. (2007). Global Concentrated Solar Power Markets and

  18. RETURN CURRENTS AND ENERGY TRANSPORT IN THE SOLAR FLARING ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Codispoti, Anna; Torre, Gabriele; Piana, Michele; Pinamonti, Nicola [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Genova, via Dodecaneso 35, I-16146 Genova (Italy)

    2013-08-20

    According to the standard Ohmic perspective, the injection of accelerated electrons into the flaring region violates local charge equilibrium and therefore, in response, return currents are driven by an electric field to equilibrate such charge violation. In this framework, the energy loss rate associated with these local currents has an Ohmic nature and significantly shortens the accelerated electron path. In the present paper, we adopt a different viewpoint and, specifically, we study the impact of the background drift velocity on the energy loss rate of accelerated electrons in solar flares. We first utilize the Rutherford cross-section to derive the formula of the energy loss rate when the collisional target has a finite temperature and the background instantaneously and coherently moves up to equilibrate the electron injection. We then use the continuity equation for electrons and imaging spectroscopy data provided by RHESSI to validate this model. We show that this new formula for the energy loss rate provides a better fit of the experimental data with respect to the model based on the effects of standard Ohmic return currents.

  19. Maximum gravitational-wave energy emissible in magnetar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alessandra Corsi; Benjamin J. Owen

    2011-02-16

    Recent searches of gravitational-wave (GW) data raise the question of what maximum GW energies could be emitted during gamma-ray flares of highly magnetized neutron stars (magnetars). The highest energies (\\sim 10^{49} erg) predicted so far come from a model [K. Ioka, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 327, 639 (2001)] in which the internal magnetic field of a magnetar experiences a global reconfiguration, changing the hydromagnetic equilibrium structure of the star and tapping the gravitational potential energy without changing the magnetic potential energy. The largest energies in this model assume very special conditions, including a large change in moment of inertia (which was observed in at most one flare), a very high internal magnetic field, and a very soft equation of state. Here we show that energies of 10^{48}-10^{49} erg are possible under more generic conditions by tapping the magnetic energy, and we note that similar energies may also be available through cracking of exotic solid cores. Current observational limits on gravitational waves from magnetar fundamental modes are just reaching these energies and will beat them in the era of advanced interferometers.

  20. Dynamic Precursors of Flares in Active Region NOAA 10486

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Korsos, M B; Baranyi, T; Ludmany, A

    2015-01-01

    Four different methods are applied here to study the precursors of flare activity in the Active Region NOAA 10486. Two approaches track the temporal behaviour of suitably chosen features (one, the weighted horizontal gradient WGM, is generalised form the horizontal gradient of the magnetic field, GM; another is the sum of the horizontal gradient of the magnetic field, GS, for all sunspot pairs). WGM is a photospheric indicator that is a proxy measure of magnetic non-potentiality of a specific area of the active region, i.e. it captures the temporal variation of the weighted horizontal gradient of magnetic flux summed up for the region where opposite magnetic polarities are highly mixed. The third one, referred to as the separateness parameter, S(lf), considers the overall morphology. Further, GS and S(lf) are photospheric newly defined quick-look indicators of the polarity mix of the entire active region. The fourth method is tracking the temporal variation of small x-ray flares, their times of succession and...

  1. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Third quarterly technical progress report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.; Shoop, K.

    1994-06-01

    Column flotation represents a significant improvement over conventional flotation for many applications. This improvement consists of increased selectivity between hydrophobic and hydrophilic particles, which allows the column to produce higher-purity products. A schematic of the column used is given in Figure 1. The basic procedure for the flotation column experiments was as follows: 500 grams of the sludge from Plant A (prepared as described in the Second Quarterly Report) was suspended at 40% solids in distilled water, to produce 1600 ml of slurry. Reagents were added, and the slurry was agitated vigorously for 1 minute. Frother was added to all of the water to be added to the column, at a rate of 0.03 grams/liter (approximately 0.4 kilograms per metric ton, Kg/mt). The frother used was Dowfroth 200 (a mixture of polypropylene glycol methyl ethers, with a mean molecular weight of 200). The column was started, all of the water flowrates were set as desired, and the drain valve was closed. As soon as the water level had reached the base of the feed inlet tube (approximately 1 minute after closing the drain valve), the 1600 ml feed slurry was added over a 15 second interval. This allowed the feed to be added to the column with a minimum of disturbance to the froth layer, and without causing either surging of the pulp level or large losses to the sinks product. Flotation was carried out for 9 minutes after closing the drain valve. Froth and sinks products were collected, filtered, dried at 45{degrees}C, weighed, and analyzed by thermogravimetic analysis. It is readily seen that, when no collector is added, the column produces a product that is markedly higher purity than that produced by conventional flotation. The addition of oleic acid collector to the column feed is not able to produce any further improvement in product quality, and only results in a loss of product recovery.

  2. Impulsive and Long Duration High-Energy Gamma-ray Emission From the Very Bright 2012 March 7 Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observed two bright X-class solar flares on 2012 March 7, and detected gamma-rays up to 4 GeV. We detected gamma-rays both during the impulsive and temporally-extended emission phases, with emission above 100 MeV lasting for approximately 20 hours. Accurate localization of the gamma-ray production site(s) coincide with the solar active region from which X-ray emissions associated with these flares originated. Our analysis of the >100 MeV gamma-ray emission shows a relatively rapid monotonic decrease in flux during the first hour of the impulsive phase, and a much slower, almost monotonic decrease in flux for the next 20 hours. The spectra can be adequately described by a power law with a high energy exponential cutoff, or as resulting from the decay of neutral pions produced by accelerated protons and ions with an isotropic power-law energy distribution. The required proton spectrum has a number index ~3, with minor variations during the impulsive phase, while during the t...

  3. Measurements and modeling of total solar irradiance in X-class solar flares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Christopher Samuel; Chamberlin, Phillip Clyde; Hock, Rachel

    2014-05-20

    The Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) from NASA's SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment can detect changes in the total solar irradiance (TSI) to a precision of 2 ppm, allowing observations of variations due to the largest X-class solar flares for the first time. Presented here is a robust algorithm for determining the radiative output in the TIM TSI measurements, in both the impulsive and gradual phases, for the four solar flares presented in Woods et al., as well as an additional flare measured on 2006 December 6. The radiative outputs for both phases of these five flares are then compared to the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiance output from the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) in order to derive an empirical relationship between the FISM VUV model and the TIM TSI data output to estimate the TSI radiative output for eight other X-class flares. This model provides the basis for the bolometric energy estimates for the solar flares analyzed in the Emslie et al. study.

  4. GRB 060714: No Clear Dividing Line Between Prompt Emission and X-ray Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krimm, H A; Marshal, F; Perri, M; Barthelmy, S D; Burrows, D N; Gehrels, N; Mészáros, P; Morris, D

    2007-01-01

    The long gamma-ray burst GRB 060714 was observed to exhibit a series of five X-ray flares beginning ~70 s after the burst trigger T0 and continuing until T0 + ~200 s. The first two flares were detected by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on the Swift satellite, before Swift had slewed to the burst location, while the last three flares were strongly detected by the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) but only weakly detected by the BAT. This burst provides an unusual opportunity to track a complete sequence of flares over a wide energy range. The flares were very similar in their light curve morphology, showing power-law rise and fall components, and in most cases significant sub-structure. The flares also showed strong evolution with time, both spectrally and temporally. The small time scale and large amplitude variability observed are incompatible with an external shock origin for the flares, and support instead late time sporadic activity either of the central source or of localized dissipation events within the outflow. ...

  5. Confined Flares in Solar Active Region 12192 from 2014 October 18 to 29

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Huadong; Ma, Suli; Yang, Shuhong; Li, Leping; Huang, Xin; Xiao, Junmin

    2015-01-01

    Using the observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), we investigate six X-class and twenty-nine M-class flares occurring in solar active region (AR) 12192 from October 18 to 29. Among them, thirty (including six X- and twenty-four M-class) flares originated from the AR core and the other five M-flares appeared at the AR periphery. Four of the X-flares exhibited similar flaring structures, indicating they were homologous flares with analogous triggering mechanism. The possible scenario is: photospheric motions of emerged magnetic fluxes lead to shearing of the associated coronal magnetic field, which then yields a tether-cutting favorable configuration. Among the five periphery M-flares, four were associated with jet activities. The HMI vertical magnetic field data show that the photospheric fluxes of opposite magnetic polarities emerged, converged and canceled with each other at the footpoints of the jets bef...

  6. UNIVERSAL BEHAVIOR OF X-RAY FLARES FROM BLACK HOLE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, F. Y.; Dai, Z. G.; Yi, S. X.; Xi, S. Q. E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn

    2015-01-01

    X-ray flares have been discovered in black hole systems such as gamma-ray bursts, the tidal disruption event Swift J1644+57, the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* at the center of our Galaxy, and some active galactic nuclei. Occurrences of X-ray flares are always accompanied by relativistic jets. However, it is still unknown whether or not there is a physical analogy among such X-ray flares produced in black hole systems spanning nine orders of magnitude in mass. Here, we report observed data of X-ray flares and show that they have three statistical properties similar to solar flares, including power-law distributions of their energies, durations, and waiting times, which can be explained by a fractal-diffusive, self-organized criticality model. These statistical similarities, together with the fact that solar flares are triggered by a magnetic reconnection process, suggest that all of the X-ray flares are consistent with magnetic reconnection events, implying that their concomitant relativistic jets may be magnetically dominated.

  7. Survey on solar X-ray flares and associated coherent radio emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold O. Benz; Paolo Grigis; Andre Csillagy; Pascal Saint-Hilaire

    2004-10-19

    The radio emission during 201 X-ray selected solar flares was surveyed from 100 MHz to 4 GHz with the Phoenix-2 spectrometer of ETH Zurich. The selection includes all RHESSI flares larger than C5.0 jointly observed from launch until June 30, 2003. Detailed association rates of radio emission during X-ray flares are reported. In the decimeter wavelength range, type III bursts and the genuinely decimetric emissions (pulsations, continua, and narrowband spikes) were found equally frequently. Both occur predominantly in the peak phase of hard X-ray (HXR) emission, but are less in tune with HXRs than the high-frequency continuum exceeding 4 GHz, attributed to gyrosynchrotron radiation. In 10% of the HXR flares, an intense radiation of the above genuine decimetric types followed in the decay phase or later. Classic meter-wave type III bursts are associated in 33% of all HXR flares, but only in 4% they are the exclusive radio emission. Noise storms were the only radio emission in 5% of the HXR flares, some of them with extended duration. Despite the spatial association (same active region), the noise storm variations are found to be only loosely correlated in time with the X-ray flux. In a surprising 17% of the HXR flares, no coherent radio emission was found in the extremely broad band surveyed. The association but loose correlation between HXR and coherent radio emission is interpreted by multiple reconnection sites connected by common field lines.

  8. Optimizing Profits from Hydroelectricity Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leclercq, Remi

    Optimizing Profits from Hydroelectricity Production Daniel De Ladurantaye Michel Gendreau Jean the profits obtained by the stochastic model. Keywords: Hydroelectricity, electricity market, prices, dams countries deregulate their electricity market, new challenges appear for hydroelectricity producers

  9. Urinary Symptom Flare in 712 {sup 125}I Prostate Brachytherapy Patients: Long-Term Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyes, Mira; Miller, Stacy; Moravan, Veronika; Pickles, Tom; Liu, Mitchell; Spadinger, Ingrid; Lapointe, Vincent; Morris, W. James

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To describe the late transient worsening of urinary symptoms ('urinary symptom flare') in 712 consecutive prostate brachytherapy patients, associated predictive factors, association with rectal and urinary toxicity, and the development of erectile dysfunction. Methods and Materials: Patients underwent implantation between 1998 and 2003 (median follow-up, 57 months). International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) toxicity, and erectile function data were prospectively collected. Flare was defined as an increase in IPSS of >=5 and of >=8 points greater than the post-treatment nadir. The relationships between the occurrence of flare and the patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were examined. The Cox proportional hazards method was used to test individual variables and the multivariate models. Results: The incidence of flare was 52% and 30% using the flare definition of an IPSS of >=5 and >=8 points greater than the postimplant nadir, respectively. Of the patients with symptoms, 65% had resolution of their symptoms within 6 months and 91% within 1 year. Flares most commonly occurred 16-24 months after implantation. On multivariate analysis, a greater baseline IPSS and greater maximal postimplant IPSS were the predictors of flare, regardless of the flare definition used. Androgen suppression was a predictor for fewer flares (IPSS >=5). Diabetes and prostate edema predicted for more frequent flares (IPSS >=8). Patients with flare had a greater incidence of RTOG Grade 3 urinary toxicity and RTOG Grade 2 or greater rectal toxicity. No association was found between erectile dysfunction and the occurrence of flare. Conclusion: Urinary symptom flare is a common, transient phenomenon after prostate brachytherapy. A greater baseline IPSS and maximal postimplant IPSS were the strongest predictive factors. Flare was associated with a greater incidence of late RTOG Grade 3 urinary toxicity and greater rate of late RTOG Grade 2 or greater rectal toxicity.

  10. An X-ray, IR, and Submillimeter Flare of Sagittarius A*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. P. Marrone; F. K. Baganoff; M. R. Morris; J. M. Moran; A. M. Ghez; S. D. Hornstein; C. D. Dowell; D. J. Munoz; M. W. Bautz; G. R. Ricker; W. N. Brandt; G. P. Garmire; J. R. Lu; K. Matthews; J. -H. Zhao; R. Rao; G. C. Bower

    2008-07-14

    Energetic flares are observed in the Galactic supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* from radio to X-ray wavelengths. On a few occasions, simultaneous flares have been detected in IR and X-ray observations, but clear counterparts at longer wavelengths have not been seen. We present a flare observed over several hours on 2006 July 17 with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, the Keck II telescope, the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, and the Submillimeter Array. All telescopes observed strong flare events, but the submillimeter peak is found to occur nearly 100 minutes after the X-ray peak. Submillimeter polarization data show linear polarization in the excess flare emission, increasing from 9% to 17% as the flare passes through its peak, consistent with a transition from optically thick to thin synchrotron emission. The temporal and spectral behavior of the flare require that the energetic electrons responsible for the emission cool faster than expected from their radiative output. This is consistent with adiabatic cooling in an expanding emission region, with X-rays produced through self-Compton scattering, although not consistent with the simplest model of such expansion. We also present a submillimeter flare that followed a bright IR flare on 2005 July 31. Compared to 2006, this event had a larger peak IR flux and similar submillimeter flux, but it lacked measurable X-ray emission. It also showed a shorter delay between the IR and submillimeter peaks. Based on these events we propose a synchrotron and self-Compton model to relate the submillimeter lag and the variable IR/X-ray luminosity ratio.

  11. Global Macrogol 6000 Market Size and Growth up to 2015 : Radiant...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    we deeply analyzed the world's main region market conditions that including the product price, profit, capacity, production, capacity utilization, supply, demand and industry...

  12. Simbol-X capability of detecting the non-thermal emission of stellar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Argiroffi; G. Micela; A. Maggio

    2008-01-16

    We investigate the capability of detecting, with Simbol-X, non-thermal emission during stellar flares, and distinguishing it from hot thermal emission. We find that flare non-thermal emission is detectable when at least ~20 cts are detected with the CZT detector in the 20-80 keV band. Therefore Simbol-X will detect the non-thermal emission from some of the X-ray brightest nearby stars, whether the thermal vs. non-thermal relation, derived for solar flares, holds.

  13. Neutrino Solar Flare detection for a saving alert system of satellites and astronauts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniele Fargion

    2011-06-19

    Largest Solar Neutrino Flare may be soon detectable by Deep Core neutrino detector immediately and comunicate to satellites or astronauts. Its detection is the fastest manifestation of a later (tens minutes,hours) dangerous cosmic shower. The precursor trigger maybe saving satellites and even long flight astronauts lives. We shall suggest how. Moreover their detection may probe the inner solar flare acceleration place as well as the neutrino flavor mixing in a new different parameter windows. We show the updated expected rate and signature of neutrinos and antineutrinos in largest solar flare for present tens Megaton Deep Core telescope at tens Gev range. Speculation for additional Icecube gigaton array signals are also considered.

  14. Regularized energy-dependent solar flare hard x-ray spectral index

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eduard P. Kontar; Alexander L. MacKinnon

    2005-06-05

    The deduction from solar flare X-ray photon spectroscopic data of the energy dependent model-independent spectral index is considered as an inverse problem. Using the well developed regularization approach we analyze the energy dependency of spectral index for a high resolution energy spectrum provided by Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). The regularization technique produces much smoother derivatives while avoiding additional errors typical of finite differences. It is shown that observations imply a spectral index varying significantly with energy, in a way that also varies with time as the flare progresses. The implications of these findings are discussed in the solar flare context.

  15. Market Power in California's Gasoline Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin; Bushnell, James; Lewis, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Price Study Kayser, Hilke A. , 2000. Gasoline Demand andCar Choice: Estimating Gasoline Demand Using HouseholdIN GASOLINE MARKETS.

  16. The dynamics of commodity spot and futures markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    2001-01-01

    I discuss the short-run dynamics of commodity prices, production, and inventories, as well as the sources and effects of market volatility. I explain how prices, rates of production, and inventory levels are interrelated, ...

  17. Nonlinear Analysis and Dynamic Structure in the Energy Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aghababa, Hajar

    2012-08-31

    and tests different null hypotheses. It utilizes the daily spot price observations on five major products in the energy market. The results suggest that the time series daily spot prices of the energy products are highly nonlinear in their nature...

  18. Diagnosing Unilateral Market Power in Electricity Reserves Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knittel, Christopher R; Metaxoglou, Konstantinos

    2008-01-01

    Equilibrium in Electricity Markets,” 2004, Journal ofEquilibrium Mod- els of Electricity Markets: Stability, Non-s Restructured Wholesale Electricity Market,” 2002, American

  19. Measuring Market Inefficiencies in California's Restructured Wholesale Electricity Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin; Bushnell, Jim; Wolak, Frank A.

    2002-01-01

    nia's Wholesale Electricity Market During Summer 2000: The2002). \\The Trouble with Electricity Markets: Understandingin California's Electricity Market." Journal of Industrial

  20. Diagnosing Unilateral Market Power in Electricity Reserves Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knittel, Christopher R; Metaxoglou, Konstantinos

    2008-01-01

    the re- sult of a market design, where ideological rhetoricthat emerged from the market design, generated millions ofMarket Equilibria under Alternative Auction Designs,” 2002,

  1. Observations and modelling of Helium lines in solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simões, Paulo J A; Labrosse, Nicolas; Kerr, Graham S

    2015-01-01

    We explore the response of the He II 304 {\\AA} and He I 584 {\\AA} line intensities to electron beam heating in solar flares using radiative hydrodynamic simulations. Comparing different electron beams parameters, we found that the intensities of both He lines are very sensitive to the energy flux deposited in the chromosphere, or more specifically to the heating rate, with He II 304 {\\AA} being more sensitive to the heating than He I 584 {\\AA}. Therefore, the He line ratio increases for larger heating rates in the chromosphere. A similar trend is found in observations, using SDO/EVE He irradiance ratios and estimates of the electron beam energy rate obtained from hard X-ray data. From the simulations, we also found that spectral index of the electrons can affect the He ratio but a similar effect was not found in the observations.

  2. Optimal Electron Energies for Driving Chromospheric Evaporation in Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reep, Jeffrey; Alexander, David

    2015-01-01

    In the standard model of solar flares, energy deposition by a beam of electrons drives strong chromospheric evaporation leading to a significantly denser corona and much brighter emission across the spectrum. Chromospheric evaporation was examined in great detail by Fisher, Canfield, & McClymont (1985a,b,c), who described a distinction between two different regimes, termed explosive and gentle evaporation. In this work, we examine the importance of electron energy and stopping depths on the two regimes and on the atmospheric response. We find that with explosive evaporation, the atmospheric response does not depend strongly on electron energy. In the case of gentle evaporation, lower energy electrons are significantly more efficient at heating the atmosphere and driving up-flows sooner than higher energy electrons. We also find that the threshold between explosive and gentle evaporation is not fixed at a given beam energy flux, but also depends strongly on the electron energy and duration of heating. Furt...

  3. Microwave Signature of Relativistic Positrons in Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleishman, Gregory; Meshalkina, Nataliia

    2013-01-01

    Relativistic antiparticles can be created in high-energy nuclear interactions; thus, detection of antiparticles in an astrophysical source can tell us something remarkable about the underlying high-energy processes and nuclear interactions. However, once created, the antiparticles remain a minor fraction of their conjugant normal particles, so the detection of the antiparticles represents a big science challenge. To address this challenge we employ imaging and polarimetry of microwave radiation produced as the positrons gyrate in the ambient magnetic field. The key property of the radiation used in this method is that the oppositely charged particles, electrons and positrons, produce radiation with opposite helicity, easily distinguishable by currently operating radio facilities. Analysis of available spatially resolved microwave data augmented by independent magnetic field measurements allows us to remotely detect the relativistic positron component in several solar flares.

  4. Triggering of Remote Flares by Magnetic Flux Emergence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Yixing

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of new emerging solar active regions on the large-scale magnetic environment of existing regions. We first present a theoretical approach to quantify the "interaction energy" between new and pre-existing regions as the difference between (i) the summed magnetic energies of their individual potential fields and (ii) the energy of their superposed potential fields. We expect that this interaction energy can, depending upon the relative arrangements of newly emerged and pre-existing magnetic flux, indicate the existence of "topological" free magnetic energy in the global coronal field that is independent of any "internal" free magnetic energy due to coronal electric currents flowing within the newly emerged and pre-existing flux systems. We then examine the interaction energy in two well-studied cases of flux emergence, but find that the predicted energetic perturbation is relatively small compared to energies released in large solar flares. Next, we present an observational study on the infl...

  5. Adding Value to Agricultural Products 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, David P.; Hanselka, Daniel

    2009-06-01

    You can significantly increase farm income by adding value to agricultural products and marketing those products effectively. This publication explains how to design a value-added product based on consumer preferences and how to build a business...

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-09-30

    International crude oil spot markets staged a modest recovery in mid-July, although continued high levels of production, particularly within the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), made long term market strength appear unlikely. Crude oil output was held down slightly by temporary situations, including the explosion of the Piper Alpha platform in the North Sea and damage to a Colombian export pipeline. However, production in excess of OPEC quotas by several of its member countries pointed to a continuing surplus of crude oil on world markets in the immediate future. In the United States, the composite refiner acquisition cost of crude oil fell $1.08 per barrel, or 6.9 percent, to an average of $14.63 per barrel for July. Because of the continual slide in crude oil prices throughout June, the late-July price turnaround was not sufficient to result in an increase in the average price for the month. Total refiner sales statistics for the major petroleum products showed a 2.6 percent decrease from June. 12 figs., 53 tabs.

  7. Intellectual Property for Market Innovation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, John F; Abramawitz, Micheal

    2006-01-01

    discourage future market innovation. Mobil Oil Corp. v.Property for Market Innovation by Michael Abramowicz * andHarvard College. Market Innovation example, whether consumer

  8. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, S.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrating Solar Power—Technology, Cost, and Markets.Concentrating Solar Power—Technology, Cost, and Markets.Concentrating Solar Power—Technology, Cost, and Markets.

  9. Ancillary services market in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomez, Tomas; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Liew, Lucy; Khavkin, Mark

    1999-01-01

    on the Operation of the Ancillary Services Markets of theOperator (CAISO). 1999. Ancillary Service Market RedesignMethodology for AGC Ancillary Services Markets. Paper

  10. Plasma motions and non-thermal line broadening in flaring twisted coronal loops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordovskyy, Mykola; Browning, Philippa

    2015-01-01

    Observation of coronal EUV spectral lines offers an opportunity to evaluate the thermal structure and flows in flaring atmospheres. This, in turn, can be used to estimate the partitioning between the thermal and kinetic energies released in flares. Our aim is to forward-model large-scale (50-10000 km) velocity distributions in order to interpret non-thermal broadening of different spectral EUV lines observed in flares. The developed models allow us to understand the origin of the observed spectral line shifts and broadening, and link these features to particular physical phenomena in flaring atmospheres. We use ideal MHD to derive unstable twisted magnetic fluxtube configurations in a gravitationally-stratified atmosphere. The evolution of these twisted fluxtubes is followed using resistive MHD, with anomalous resistivity depending on the local density and temperature. The model also takes into account the thermal conduction and radiative losses. The model allows us to evaluate average velocities and velocity...

  11. The Search for >35 MeV Neutrons from the June 3, 2012 Impulsive Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koga, K; Matsumoto, H; Muraki, Y; Okudaira, T Obara O; Shibata, S; Yamamoto, T; Goka, T

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed a highly impulsive solar flare observed on June 3, 2012. In association with this flare, emissions of hard X-rays, high-energy gamma rays, and neutrons were detected by the detectors onboard the FERMI, RHESSI satellites and the International Space Station. We compared those results with the pictures taken by the UV telescope onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory satellite and found the crossing structure of two magnetic ropes at two positions on the solar surface almost at the same time. High-energy gamma rays were detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope satellite, implying that the impulsive flare was one of a major source of proton acceleration processes on the solar surface. At the beginning of research, impulsive solar flares were considered to be the main source of particle acceleration processes; our current observations have confirmed this hypothesis.

  12. X-ray flares from dense shells formed in gamma-ray burst explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hascoet, R; Daigne, F; Mochkovitch, R

    2015-01-01

    Bright X-ray flares are routinely detected by the Swift satellite during the early afterglow of gamma-ray bursts, when the explosion ejecta drives a blast wave into the external medium. We suggest that the flares are produced as the reverse shock propagates into the tail of the ejecta. The ejecta is expected to contain a few dense shells formed at an earlier stage of the explosion. We show an example of how such dense shells form and describe how the reverse shock interacts with them. A new reflected shock is generated in this interaction, which produces a short-lived X-ray flare. The model provides a natural explanation for the main observed features of the X-ray flares --- the fast rise, the steep power-law decline, and the characteristic peak duration \\Delta t /t= (0.1-0.3).

  13. RELATIVE ASTROMETRY OF COMPACT FLARING STRUCTURES IN Sgr A* WITH POLARIMETRIC VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Michael D.

    We demonstrate that polarimetric interferometry can be used to extract precise spatial information about compact polarized flares of Sgr A*. We show that, for a faint dynamical component, a single interferometric baseline ...

  14. Evidence of Bulk Acceleration of the GRB X-ray Flare Emission Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uhm, Z Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the most luminous explosions in the universe, invoke relativistic jets beaming towards Earth with the highest velocities for bulk motion in the universe. Some of them are followed by softer, less energetic, X-ray flares, which also move with relativistic velocities towards Earth. Observations and theoretical modeling suggest that X-ray flares share a similar physical mechanism as GRB prompt emission itself. Here we show a clear observational evidence that the X-ray flare emission region is undergoing rapid acceleration as the photons are emitted. The observed X-ray flare light curves and photon index evolution can be interpreted within a simple toy model invoking synchrotron radiation in an accelerating emission region far from the GRB central engine. Such an acceleration process demands an additional energy dissipation source other than kinetic energy, which points towards a significant Poynting-flux in the emission region.

  15. Capacity Building in Sharing Forest and Market Information Prague & Krtiny, Czech Republic, 25 October 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capacity Building in Sharing Forest and Market Information Prague & Krtiny, Czech Republic, 25 Specialist UNECE/FAO Timber Branch Geneva, Switzerland #12;Capacity Building in Sharing Forest and Market forest products market information #12;Capacity Building in Sharing Forest and Market Information Prague

  16. Organizing a Marketing Club 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Jackie; Waller, Mark L.; Anderson, Carl; Welch, Mark

    2008-10-21

    A marketing club is a group of people who usually meet once or twice a month with the common goal of increasing their knowledge of marketing and other risk management concepts. This publication offers suggestions for ...

  17. From the flea market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krasnow, Ariel Rebecca

    1986-01-01

    This thesis is about marketplaces in general, and one flea · market in particular. It explores some of the physical potentials the market has for generating a building and some of the social implications of a controversy ...

  18. Essays on insurance markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothschild, Casey

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three chapters on adverse-selection type insurance markets. Chapter 1 develops a model for analyzing non-exclusive insurance markets. It establishes that the "screening" considerations of ...

  19. Marketing alternative fueled automobiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Alex (Yi Alexis)

    2011-01-01

    Marketing alternative fueled vehicles is a difficult challenge for automakers. The foundation of the market, the terms of competition, and the customer segments involved are still being defined. But automakers can draw ...

  20. Essays on multichannel marketing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushwaha, Tarun Lalbahadur

    2009-05-15

    2007 Major Subject: Marketing iii ABSTRACT Essays on Multichannel Marketing. (August 2007) Tarun Lalbahadur Kushwaha, B.Sc., Gujarat University; M.A.S., Nirma University; M.S., Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Venkatesh...