National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for flammable gaseous element

  1. Composition, apparatus, and process, for sorption of gaseous compounds of group II-VII elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tom, Glenn M.; McManus, James V.; Luxon, Bruce A.

    1991-08-06

    Scavenger compositions are disclosed, which have utility for effecting the sorptive removal of hazardous gases containing Group II-VII elements of the Periodic Table, such as are widely encountered in the manufacture of semiconducting materials and semiconductor devices. Gas sorption processes including the contacting of Group II-VII gaseous compounds with such scavenger compositions are likewise disclosed, together with critical space velocity contacting conditions pertaining thereto. Further described are gas contacting apparatus, including mesh structures which may be deployed in gas contacting vessels containing such scavenger compositions, to prevent solids from being introduced to or discharged from the contacting vessel in the gas stream undergoing treatment. A reticulate heat transfer structure also is disclosed, for dampening localized exothermic reaction fronts when gas mixtures comprising Group II-VII constituents are contacted with the scavenger compositions in bulk sorption contacting vessels according to the invention.

  2. Methodology for flammable gas evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopkins, J.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    There are 177 radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The waste generates flammable gases. The waste releases gas continuously, but in some tanks the waste has shown a tendency to trap these flammable gases. When enough gas is trapped in a tank`s waste matrix, it may be released in a way that renders part or all of the tank atmosphere flammable for a period of time. Tanks must be evaluated against previously defined criteria to determine whether they can present a flammable gas hazard. This document presents the methodology for evaluating tanks in two areas of concern in the tank headspace:steady-state flammable-gas concentration resulting from continuous release, and concentration resulting from an episodic gas release.

  3. Use Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process Oven Efficiency Use Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process Oven Efficiency This process heating ...

  4. THE IMPACT OF OZONE ON THE LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT OF HYDROGEN IN VESSELS CONTAINING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherburne, Carol; Osterberg, Paul; Johnson, Tom; Frawely, Thomas

    2013-01-23

    The Savannah River Site, in conjunction with AREVA Federal services, has designed a process to treat dissolved radioactive waste solids with ozone. It is known that in this radioactive waste process, radionuclides radiolytically break down water into gaseous hydrogen and oxygen, which presents a well defined flammability hazard. Flammability limits have been established for both ozone and hydrogen separately; however, there is little information on mixtures of hydrogen and ozone. Therefore, testing was designed to provide critical flammability information necessary to support safety related considerations for the development of ozone treatment and potential scale-up to the commercial level. Since information was lacking on flammability issues at low levels of hydrogen and ozone, a testing program was developed to focus on filling this portion of the information gap. A 2-L vessel was used to conduct flammability tests at atmospheric pressure and temperature using a fuse wire ignition source at 1 percent ozone intervals spanning from no ozone to the Lower Flammable Limit (LFL) of ozone in the vessel, determined as 8.4%(v/v) ozone. An ozone generator and ozone detector were used to generate and measure the ozone concentration within the vessel in situ, since ozone decomposes rapidly on standing. The lower flammability limit of hydrogen in an ozone-oxygen mixture was found to decrease from the LFL of hydrogen in air, determined as 4.2 % (v/v) in this vessel. From the results of this testing, Savannah River was able to develop safety procedures and operating parameters to effectively minimize the formation of a flammable atmosphere.

  5. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HU TA

    2009-10-26

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  6. Use Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process Oven

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency | Department of Energy Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process Oven Efficiency Use Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process Oven Efficiency This process heating tip sheet recommends using lower flammable limit monitoring equipment to improve oven efficiency. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #11 Use Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process Oven Efficiency (October 2007) (228.04 KB) More Documents & Publications Check

  7. Flammable gas interlock spoolpiece flow response test plan and procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, T.C., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-13

    The purpose of this test plan and procedure is to test the Whittaker electrochemical cell and the Sierra Monitor Corp. flammable gas monitors in a simulated field flow configuration. The sensors are used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) Flammable Gas Interlock (FGI), to detect flammable gases, including hydrogen and teminate the core sampling activity at a predetermined concentration level.

  8. Estimation of Flammability Limits of Selected Fluorocarbons with F(sub 2) and CIF(sub3)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trowbridge, L.D.

    1999-09-01

    During gaseous diffusion plant operations, conditions leading to the formation of flammable gas mixtures may occasionally arise. Currently, these could consist of the evaporative coolant CFC-114 and fluorinating agents such as F(sub 2) and CIF(sub 3). Replacement of CFC-114 with non-ozone-depleting substitutes such as c-C(sub 4)F(sub 8) and C(sub 4)F(sub 10) is planned. Consequently, in the future, these too must be considered potential ''fuels'' in flammable gas mixtures. Two questions of practical interest arise: (1) can a particular mixture sustain and propagate a flame if ignited, and (2) what is the maximum pressure that can be generated by the burning (and possibly exploding) gas mixture, should ignite? Experimental data on these systems are limited. To assist in answering these questions, a literature search for relevant data was conducted, and mathematical models were developed to serve as tools for predicting potential detonation pressures and estimating (based on empirical correlations between gas mixture thermodynamics and flammability for known systems) the composition limits of flammability for these systems. The models described and documented in this report are enhanced versions of similar models developed in 1992.

  9. Flammable gas data evaluation. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, P.D.; Meyer, P.A.; Miller, N.E.

    1996-10-01

    The Hanford Site is home to 177 large, underground nuclear waste storage tanks. Numerous safety and environmental concerns surround these tanks and their contents. One such concern is the propensity for the waste in these tanks to generate, retain, and periodically release flammable gases. This report documents some of the activities of the Flammable Gas Project Data Evaluation Task conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company during fiscal year 1996. Described in this report are: (1) the results of examining the in-tank temperature measurements for insights into gas release behavior; (2) the preliminary results of examining the tank waste level measurements for insights into gas release behavior; and (3) an explanation for the observed hysteresis in the level/pressure measurements, a phenomenon observed earlier this year when high-frequency tank waste level measurements came on-line.

  10. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEACHAM JE

    2009-10-26

    This report assesses the steady state flammability level under off normal ventilation conditions in the tank headspace for 28 double-shell tanks (DST) and 149 single shell-tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. Flammability was calculated using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule, and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. This revision updates the hydrogen generation rate input data for all 177 tanks using waste composition information from the Best Basis Inventory Detail Report (data effective as of August 4,2008). Assuming only barometric breathing, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 11 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-10l) and 36 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203). Assuming zero ventilation, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 10 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-101) and 34 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203).

  11. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEACHAM JE

    2008-11-17

    This report assesses the steady state flammability level under off normal ventilation conditions in the tank headspace for 28 double-shell tanks (DST) and 149 single shell-tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. Flammability was calculated using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule, and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. This revision updates the hydrogen generation rate input data for al1 177 tanks using waste composition information from the Best Basis Inventory Detail Report (data effective as of August 4,2008). Assuming only barometric breathing, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 13 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-102) and 36 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203). Assuming zero ventilation, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 12 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-102) and 34 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203).

  12. The Chemistry of Flammable Gas Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ZACH, J.J.

    2000-10-30

    The document collects information from field instrumentation, laboratory tests, and analytical models to provide a single source of information on the chemistry of flammable gas generation at the Hanford Site. It considers the 3 mechanisms of formation: radiolysis, chemical reactions, and thermal generation. An assessment of the current models for gas generation is then performed. The results are that the various phenomena are reasonably understood and modeled compared to field data.

  13. Safetygram Gaseous Hydrogen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, highly flammable gas. It is also the lightestweight gas. Since hydrogen is noncorrosive, special materials of construction are not usually required. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Pressure Piping code specify vessel and piping design requirements for the pressures and temperatures involved. Applicable Dangerous Goods regulations specify requirements for vessels used for transportation.

  14. Assessment of gas flammability in transuranic waste container

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connolly, M.J.; Loehr, C.A.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Spangler, L.R.

    1995-12-01

    The Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package [Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) SARP] set limits for gas generation rates, wattage limits, and flammable volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in transuranic (TRU) waste containers that would be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Based on existing headspace gas data for drums stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), over 30 percent of the contact-handled TRU waste drums contain flammable VOC concentrations greater than the limit. Additional requirements may be imposed for emplacement of waste in the WIPP facility. The conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the facility required that flame tests be performed if significant levels of flammable VOCs were present in TRU waste containers. This paper describes an approach for investigating the potential flammability of TRU waste drums, which would increase the allowable concentrations of flammable VOCS. A flammability assessment methodology is presented that will allow more drums to be shipped to WIPP without treatment or repackaging and reduce the need for flame testing on drums. The approach includes experimental work to determine mixture lower explosive limits (MLEL) for the types of gas mixtures observed in TRU waste, a model for predicting the MLEL for mixtures of VOCS, hydrogen, and methane, and revised screening limits for total flammable VOCs concentrations and concentrations of hydrogen and methane using existing drum headspace gas data and the model predictions.

  15. FLAMMABLE GAS DIFFUSION THROUGH SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) DOMES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEACHAM, J.E.

    2003-11-10

    This report quantified potential hydrogen diffusion through Hanford Site Single-Shell tank (SST) domes if the SSTs were hypothetically sealed airtight. Results showed that diffusion would keep headspace flammable gas concentrations below the lower flammability limit in the 241-AX and 241-SX SST. The purpose of this document is to quantify the amount of hydrogen that could diffuse through the domes of the SSTs if they were hypothetically sealed airtight. Diffusion is assumed to be the only mechanism available to reduce flammable gas concentrations. The scope of this report is limited to the 149 SSTs.

  16. Low flammability cap-sensitive flexible explosive composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Martin G.

    1992-01-14

    A cap-sensitive flexible explosive composition of reduced flammability is provided by incorporating a finely divided, cap-sensitive explosive in a flame resistant polymeric binder system which contains a compatible flame retardant material.

  17. Element

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Departmental Element 2. System Name/ Major Application Name 3. Location 4. Name of System Owner/ Information or Data Owner 5. Contact Information 6. Does the system collect or maintain Social Security numbers? 7. Source of Legal Requirement/Authority to Collect or Maintain Social Security Numbers? 8. Does the system have a Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA)? 9. Does the system have a System of Records Notice (SORN)? If yes, provide the name of the System of Records Notice. 10. Does the system

  18. NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History U.S. 148,450 139,621 157,047 151,450 160,290 156,305 1973-2016

  19. Particulate and Gaseous Emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Gaseous Emissions - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  20. GASEOUS DISPOSAL PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, R.F.; Thomasson, F.R.; Hicks, J.H.

    1963-01-22

    A method is described of removing gaseous radioactive Xe and Kr from water containing O. The method consists in stripping the gases from the water stream by means of H flowing countercurrently to the stream. The gases are then heated in a deoxo bed to remove O. The carrier gas is next cooled and passed over a charcoal adsorbent bed maintained at a temperature of about --280 deg F to remove the Xe and Kr. (AEC)

  1. Flammable Gas Detection for the D-Zero Gas System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spires, L.D.; Foglesong, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-02-11

    The use of flammable gas and high voltage in detector systems is common in many experiments at Fermilab. To mitigate the hazards associated with these systems, Fermilab Engineering Standard SD-45B (Ref. 1) was adopted. Since this note is meant to be a guide and not a mandatory standard, each experiment is reviewed for compliance with SD-45B by the flammable gas safety subcommittee. Currently, there are only two types of flammable gas in use, ethane (Appendix A) and methane (Appendix B). The worst flammable-gas case is C2H6 (ethane), which has an estimated flow rate that is 73% of the CH4 (methane) flow but a heat of combustion (in kcal/g-mole) that is 173% of that of methane. In the worst case, if ethane were to spew through its restricting orifice into its gas line at 0 psig and then through a catastrophic leak into Room 215 (TRD) or Room 511 (CDC/FDCNTX), the time that would be required to build up a greater than Class 1 inventory (0.4kg H2 equivalent) would be 5.2 hours (Ref. 2). Therefore a worst-case flammable gas leak would have to go undetected for over 5 hours in order to transform a either mixing room to an environment with a Risk Class greater than Class 1. The mixing systems, gas lines, and detectors themselves will be thoroughly leak checked prior to active service. All vessels that are part of the mixing systems will be protected from overpressure by safety valves vented outside the building. Both the input and output of all detector volumes are protected from overpressure in the same way. The volume immediately outside the central tracking detectors is continuously purged by nitrogen from boiloff from the main nitrogen dewar at the site. However, if flammable gas were to build up in the mixing rooms or particular detector areas, no matter how unlikely, flammable gas detectors that are part of the interlock chain of each gas mixing system will shut down the appropriate system. This includes shutting off the output of flammable gas manifolds within the

  2. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels; Phase 3: Effects of Winter Gasoline Volatility and Ethanol Content on Blend Flammability; Flammability Limits of Denatured Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; Clark, W.

    2011-07-01

    This study assessed differences in headspace flammability for summertime gasolines and new high-ethanol content fuel blends. The results apply to vehicle fuel tanks and underground storage tanks. Ambient temperature and fuel formulation effects on headspace vapor flammability of ethanol/gasoline blends were evaluated. Depending on the degree of tank filling, fuel type, and ambient temperature, fuel vapors in a tank can be flammable or non-flammable. Pure gasoline vapors in tanks generally are too rich to be flammable unless ambient temperatures are extremely low. High percentages of ethanol blended with gasoline can be less volatile than pure gasoline and can produce flammable headspace vapors at common ambient temperatures. The study supports refinements of fuel ethanol volatility specifications and shows potential consequences of using noncompliant fuels. E85 is flammable at low temperatures; denatured ethanol is flammable at warmer temperatures. If both are stored at the same location, one or both of the tanks' headspace vapors will be flammable over a wide range of ambient temperatures. This is relevant to allowing consumers to splash -blend ethanol and gasoline at fueling stations. Fuels compliant with ASTM volatility specifications are relatively safe, but the E85 samples tested indicate that some ethanol fuels may produce flammable vapors.

  3. NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History U.S. 148,450 139,621 157,047 151,450 160,290 156,305 1973-2016

    Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010 2011 2012

  4. Flammability Control In A Nuclear Waste Vitrification System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zamecnik, John R.; Choi, Alexander S.; Johnson, Fabienne C.; Miller, Donald H.; Lambert, Daniel P.; Stone, Michael E.; Daniel, William E. Jr.

    2013-07-25

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site processes high-level radioactive waste from the processing of nuclear materials that contains dissolved and precipitated metals and radionuclides. Vitrification of this waste into borosilicate glass for ultimate disposal at a geologic repository involves chemically modifying the waste to make it compatible with the glass melter system. Pretreatment steps include removal of excess aluminum by dissolution and washing, and processing with formic and nitric acids to: 1) adjust the reduction-oxidation (redox) potential in the glass melter to reduce radionuclide volatility and improve melt rate; 2) adjust feed rheology; and 3) reduce by steam stripping the amount of mercury that must be processed in the melter. Elimination of formic acid in pretreatment has been studied to eliminate the production of hydrogen in the pretreatment systems, which requires nuclear grade monitoring equipment. An alternative reductant, glycolic acid, has been studied as a substitute for formic acid. However, in the melter, the potential for greater formation of flammable gases exists with glycolic acid. Melter flammability is difficult to control because flammable mixtures can be formed during surges in offgases that both increase the amount of flammable species and decrease the temperature in the vapor space of the melter. A flammable surge can exceed the 60% of the LFL with no way to mitigate it. Therefore, careful control of the melter feed composition based on scaled melter surge testing is required. The results of engineering scale melter tests with the formic-nitric flowsheet and the use of these data in the melter flammability model are presented.

  5. Modeling Tools for Flammability Ranking of Low-GWP Refrigerant Blends |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Modeling Tools for Flammability Ranking of Low-GWP Refrigerant Blends Modeling Tools for Flammability Ranking of Low-GWP Refrigerant Blends Credit: National Institute of Standards and Technology Credit: National Institute of Standards and Technology Modeling Tools for Flammability Ranking of Low-GWP Refrigerant Blends Credit: National Institute of Standards and Technology Modeling Tools for Flammability Ranking of Low-GWP Refrigerant Blends Lead Performer: National

  6. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant | November 2009 Aerial View Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant | November 2009 Aerial View The current mission at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant is to effectively implement EM responsibilities, obligations and activities to accomplish environmental remediation actions in compliance with regulatory milestones and agreements; disposition legacy and newly generated waste; implement Cold

  7. Extruder system and method for treatment of a gaseous medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silvi, Norberto; Perry, Robert James; Singh, Surinder Prabhjot; Balch, Gary Stephen; Westendorf, Tiffany Elizabeth Pinard

    2016-04-05

    A system for treatment of a gaseous medium, comprises an extruder having a barrel. The extruder further comprises a first inlet port, a second inlet port, and a plurality of outlet ports coupled to the barrel. The first inlet port is configured for feeding a lean sorbent, the second inlet port is configured for feeding a gaseous medium, and the plurality of outlet ports are configured for releasing a plurality of components removed from the gaseous medium. Further, the extruder comprises a plurality of helical elements coupled to a plurality of kneading elements, mounted on a shaft, and disposed within the barrel. The barrel and the plurality of helical and kneading elements together form an absorption unit and a desorption unit. The first and second inlet ports are formed in the absorption unit and the plurality of outlet ports are formed in the absorption and desorption units.

  8. SIMPLE TRANSIENT CALCULATIONS OF CELL FLAMMABLE GAS CONCENTRATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    , J; David Allison , D; John Mccord, J

    2009-05-06

    The Saltstone Facility at Savannah River Site (SRS) mixes low-level radiological liquid waste with grout for permanent disposal as cement in vault cells. The grout mixture is poured into each cell in approximately 17 batches (8 to 10 hours duration). The grout mixture contains ten flammable gases of concern that are released from the mixture into the cell. Prior to operations, simple parametric transient calculations were performed to develop batch parameters (including schedule of batch pours) to support operational efficiency while ensuring that a flammable gas mixture does not develop in the cell vapor space. The analysis demonstrated that a nonflammable vapor space environment can be achieved, with workable operational constraints, without crediting the ventilation flow as a safety system control. Isopar L was identified as the primary flammable gas of concern. The transient calculations balanced inflows of the flammable gases into the vapor space with credited outflows of diurnal breathing through vent holes and displacement from new grout pours and gases generated. Other important features of the analyses included identifying conditions that inhibited a well-mixed vapor space, the expected frequency and duration of such conditions, and the estimated level of stratification that could develop.

  9. Flammable gas interlock spoolpiece flow response test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, T.C., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-24

    The purpose of this test report is to document the testing performed under the guidance of HNF-SD-WM-TC-073, {ital Flammable Gas Interlock Spoolpiece Flow Response Test Plan and Procedure}. This testing was performed for Lockheed Martin Hanford Characterization Projects Operations (CPO) in support of Rotary Mode Core Sampling jointly by SGN Eurisys Services Corporation and Numatec Hanford Company. The testing was conducted in the 305 building Engineering Testing Laboratory (ETL). NHC provides the engineering and technical support for the 305 ETL. The key personnel identified for the performance of this task are as follows: Test responsible engineering manager, C. E. Hanson; Flammable Gas Interlock Design Authority, G. P. Janicek; 305 ETL responsible manager, N. J. Schliebe; Cognizant RMCS exhauster engineer, E. J. Waldo/J. D. Robinson; Cognizant 305 ETL engineer, K. S. Witwer; Test director, T. C. Schneider. Other support personnel were supplied, as necessary, from 305/306 ETL. The testing, on the flammable Gas Interlock (FGI) system spoolpiece required to support Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) of single shell flammable gas watch list tanks, took place between 2-13-97 and 2-25-97.

  10. Project W-030 flammable gas verification monitoring test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BARKER, S.A.

    1999-02-24

    This document describes the verification monitoring campaign used to document the ability of the new ventilation system to mitigate flammable gas accumulation under steady state tank conditions. This document reports the results of the monitoring campaign. The ventilation system configuration, process data, and data analysis are presented.

  11. Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Delivery Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Gaseous hydrogen is most commonly delivered either by trucks or through pipelines. Because gaseous hydrogen is typically produced at relatively low pressures (20-30 bar), it must be compressed prior to transport. Learn more about gaseous hydrogen compression. Trucks that haul gaseous hydrogen are called tube trailers. Gaseous hydrogen is compressed to pressures of 180 bar (~2,600 psig) or higher into long cylinders which are stacked on the trailer that the

  12. School science project 'demystifies' Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    School science project 'demystifies' Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site School science project 'demystifies' Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site June 2, 2015 - 10:40am ...

  13. Independent Activity Report, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - August 2011 Independent Activity Report, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - August 2011 August 2011 Orientation Visit to the Portsmouth ...

  14. Gaseous-fuel engine technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    This publication contains three distinct groups of papers covering gaseous-fuel injection and control, gaseous-fuel engine projects, and gaseous-fuel engine/vehicle applications. Contents include: ultra rapid natural gas port injection; a CNG specific fuel injector using latching solenoid technology; development of an electronically-controlled natural gas-fueled John Deere PowerTech 8.1L engine; adapting a Geo Metro to run on natural gas using fuel-injection technology; behavior of a closed loop controlled air valve type mixer on a natural gas fueled engine under transient operation; and a turbocharged lean-burn 4.3 liter natural gas engine.

  15. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION & LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE [SEC 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HU, T.A.

    2003-09-30

    Flammable gases such as hydrogen, ammonia, and methane are observed in the tank dome space of the Hanford Site high-level waste tanks. This report assesses the steady-state flammability level under normal and off-normal ventilation conditions in the tank dome space for 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The steady-state flammability level was estimated from the gas concentration of the mixture in the dome space using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. A time-dependent equation of gas concentration, which is a function of the gas release and ventilation rates in the dome space, has been developed for both soluble and insoluble gases. With this dynamic model, the time required to reach the specified flammability level at a given ventilation condition can be calculated. In the evaluation, hydrogen generation rates can be calculated for a given tank waste composition and its physical condition (e.g., waste density, waste volume, temperature, etc.) using the empirical rate equation model provided in Empirical Rate Equation Model and Rate Calculations of Hydrogen Generation for Hanford Tank Waste, HNF-3851. The release rate of other insoluble gases and the mass transport properties of the soluble gas can be derived from the observed steady-state gas concentration under normal ventilation conditions. The off-normal ventilation rate is assumed to be natural barometric breathing only. A large body of data is required to do both the hydrogen generation rate calculation and the flammability level evaluation. For tank waste that does not have sample-based data, a statistical-based value from probability distribution regression was used based on data from tanks belonging to a similar waste group. This report (Revision 3) updates the input data of hydrogen generation rates calculation for 177 tanks using the waste composition information in the Best-Basis Inventory Detail

  16. Retained Gas Sampling Results for the Flammable Gas Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.M. Bates; L.A. Mahoney; M.E. Dahl; Z.I. Antoniak

    1999-11-18

    The key phenomena of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue are generation of the gas mixture, the modes of gas retention, and the mechanisms causing release of the gas. An understanding of the mechanisms of these processes is required for final resolution of the safety issue. Central to understanding is gathering information from such sources as historical records, tank sampling data, tank process data (temperatures, ventilation rates, etc.), and laboratory evaluations conducted on tank waste samples.

  17. Systems acceptance and operability testing for rotary mode core sampling in flammable gas tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbett, J.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-29

    This document provides instructions for the system acceptance and operability testing of the rotary mode core sampling system, modified for use in flammable gas tanks.

  18. Overview of the Flammability of Gases Generated in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LA Mahoney; JL Huckaby; SA Bryan; GD Johnson

    2000-07-21

    This report presents an overview of what is known about the flammability of the gases generated and retained in Hanford waste tanks in terms of the gas composition, the flammability and detonability limits of the gas constituents, and the availability of ignition sources. The intrinsic flammability (or nonflammability) of waste gas mixtures is one major determinant of whether a flammable region develops in the tank headspace; other factors are the rate, surface area, volume of the release, and the tank ventilation rate, which are not covered in this report.

  19. Fuel Cells and Renewable Gaseous Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 3-C: Renewable Gaseous FuelsFuel Cells and Renewable Gaseous FuelsSarah Studer, ORISE Fellow—Fuel Cell Technologies Office, U.S. Department of Energy

  20. Photon detectors with gaseous amplification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Va`vra, J.

    1996-08-01

    Gaseous photon detectors, including very large 4{pi}-devices such as those incorporated in SLD and DELPHI, are finally delivering physics after many years of hard work. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photoelectrons. Among detector builders, there is hardly anybody who did not make mistakes in this area, and who does not have a healthy respect for the problems involved. This point is stressed in this paper, and it is suggested that only a very small operating phase space is available for running gaseous photon detectors in a very large system with good efficiency and few problems. In this paper the authors discuss what was done correctly or incorrectly in first generation photon detectors, and what would be their recommendations for second generation detectors. 56 refs., 11 figs.

  1. DOE Releases Request for Information for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Information for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Deactivation & Remediation Services DOE Releases Request for Information for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Deactivation & ...

  2. Research Division flammable gas system calibration procedure and stability studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semenchenko, A.; Hojvat, C.

    1993-03-01

    The number of detectors which shifted from initial 50% LEL calibration by more than 5% over 90 days period is small enough in order to increase the time interval between calibrations at least to 120 days, but with any further increase in time between the calibrations probability of SC100 failure greatly increases. In order to keep the number of detectors with abnormal sensitivity low, we would recommend 120 days to be the maximum allowable interval for our present environmental conditions. Information is also presentd on the calibration of the SC100 Combustible Gas Sensor and the DC110 controller. The sensorand controlled form part of the flammable gas detecting systems installed at Fermilab.

  3. Flammable gas tank waste level reconciliation for 241-SX-105

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddie, L.A.

    1997-06-23

    Fluor Daniel Northwest was authorized to address flammable gas issues by reconciling the unexplained surface level increases in Tank 241-SX-105 (SX-105, typical). The trapped gas evaluation document states that Tank SX-105 exceeds the 25% of the lower flammable limit criterion, based on a surface level rise evaluation. The Waste Storage Tank Status and Leak Detection Criteria document, commonly referred to as the Welty Report is the basis for this letter report. The Welty Report is also a part of the trapped gas evaluation document criteria. The Welty Report contains various tank information, including: physical information, status, levels, and dry wells. The unexplained waste level rises were attributed to the production and retention of gas in the column of waste corresponding to the unaccounted for surface level rise. From 1973 through 1980, the Welty Report tracked Tank SX-105 transfers and reported a net cumulative change of 20.75 in. This surface level increase is from an unknown source or is unaccounted for. Duke Engineering and Services Hanford and Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation are interested in determining the validity of unexplained surface level changes reported in the Welty Report based upon other corroborative sources of data. The purpose of this letter report is to assemble detailed surface level and waste addition data from daily tank records, logbooks, and other corroborative data that indicate surface levels, and to reconcile the cumulative unaccounted for surface level changes as shown in the Welty Report from 1973 through 1980. Tank SX-105 initially received waste from REDOX starting the second quarter of 1955. After June 1975, the tank primarily received processed waste (slurry) from the 242-S Evaporator/Crystallizer and transferred supernate waste to Tanks S-102 and SX-102. The Welty Report shows a cumulative change of 20.75 in. from June 1973 through December 1980.

  4. Flammable gas tank waste level reconcilliation for 241-SX-102

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddie, L.A.

    1997-06-23

    Fluoro Dynel Northwest (FDNW) was authorized to address flammable gas issues by reconciling the unexplained surface level increases in Tank 24 1-S-1 1 1 (S-I 1 1, typical). The trapped gas evaluation document (ref 1) states that Tank SX-102 exceeds the 25% of the lower flammable limit (FL) criterion (ref 2), based on a surface level rise evaluation. The Waste Storage Tank Status and Leak Detection Criteria document, commonly referred to as the ``Wallet Report`` is the basis for this letter report (ref 3). The Wallet Report is also a part of the trapped gas evaluation document criteria. The Wallet Report contains various tank information, including: physical information, status, levels, and dry wells, see Appendix A. The unexplained waste level rises were attributed to the production and retention of gas in the column of waste corresponding to the unacquainted for surface level rise. From 1973 through 1980, the Wallet Report tracked Tank S- 102 transfers and reported a net cumulative change of 19.95 in. This surface level increase is from an unknown source or is unacquainted for. Duke Engineering and Services Hanford (DASH) and Leached Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) are interested in determining the validity of the unexplained surface level changes reported in the 0611e Wallet Report based upon other corroborative sources of data. The purpose of this letter report is to assemble detailed surface level and waste addition data from daily tank records, logbooks, and other corroborative data that indicate surface levels, and to reconcile the cumulative unacquainted for surface level changes as shown in the Wallet Report from 1973 through 1980.

  5. Gaseous Hydrogen Compression | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    » Gaseous Hydrogen Compression Gaseous Hydrogen Compression Hydrogen is typically produced at relatively low pressures (20-30 bar) and must be compressed prior to transport. Most compressors used today for gaseous hydrogen compression are either positive displacement compressors or centrifugal compressors. Positive displacement compressors can be reciprocating or rotary. Reciprocating compressors use a motor with a linear drive to move a piston or a diaphragm back and forth. This motion

  6. Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring

    2007-06-01

    Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

  7. Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    selected aspects of the work planning and control process being implemented by the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) contractor, Fluor-Babcock & Wilcox Portsmouth (FBP). ...

  8. Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. ...

  9. Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Plant - November 2013 Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - November 2013 November 5, 2013 Review of Preparedness for Severe Natural Phenomena Events ...

  10. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Final Environmental Assessment...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Point of contact for more information: Robert Smith, Department of Energy-Paducah Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Final Environmental Assessment for Potential Land and Facilities ...

  11. Flammable gas issues in double-contained receiver tanks. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peurrung, L.M.; Mahoney, L.A.; Stewart, C.W.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Bryan, S.A.; Shepard, C.L.

    1998-08-01

    Four double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTs) at Hanford will be used to store salt-well pumped liquids from tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List. This document was created to serve as a reference document describing the current knowledge of flammable gas issues in DCRTs. The document identifies, describes, evaluates, and attempts to quantify potential gas carryover and release mechanisms. It estimates several key parameters needed for these calculations, such as initial aqueous concentrations and ventilation rate, and evaluates the uncertainty in those estimates. It justifies the use of the Schumpe model for estimating vapor-liquid equilibrium constants. It identifies several potential waste compatibility issues (such as mixing and pH or temperature changes) that could lead to gas release and provides a basis for calculating their effects. It evaluates the potential for gas retention in precipitated solids within a DCRT and whether retention could lead to a buoyant displacement instability (rollover) event. It discusses rates of radiolytic, thermal, and corrosive hydrogen generation within the DCRT. It also describes in detail the accepted method of calculating the lower flammability limit (LFL) for mixtures of flammable gases. The report incorporates these analyses into two models for calculating headspace flammability, one based on instantaneous equilibrium between dissolved gases and the headspace and one incorporating limited release rates based on mass-transfer considerations. Finally, it demonstrates the use of both models to estimate headspace flammable gas concentrations and minimum ventilation rates required to maintain concentrations below 25% of the LFL.

  12. TRU waste transportation -- The flammable gas generation problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connolly, M.J.; Kosiewicz, S.T.

    1997-11-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has imposed a flammable gas (i.e., hydrogen) concentration limit of 5% by volume on transuranic (TRU) waste containers to be shipped using the TRUPACT-II transporter. This concentration is the lower explosive limit (LEL) in air. This was done to minimize the potential for loss of containment during a hypothetical 60 day period. The amount of transuranic radionuclide that is permissible for shipment in TRU waste containers has been tabulated in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP, 1) to conservatively prevent accumulation of hydrogen above this 5% limit. Based on the SARP limitations, approximately 35% of the TRU waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab (INEEL), Los Alamos National Lab (LANL), and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) cannot be shipped in the TRUPACT-II. An even larger percentage of the TRU waste drums at the Savannah River Site (SRS) cannot be shipped because of the much higher wattage loadings of TRU waste drums in that site`s inventory. This paper presents an overview of an integrated, experimental program that has been initiated to increase the shippable portion of the Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste inventory. In addition, the authors will estimate the anticipated expansion of the shippable portion of the inventory and associated cost savings. Such projection should provide the TRU waste generating sites a basis for developing their TRU waste workoff strategies within their Ten Year Plan budget horizons.

  13. HIGH ENERGY GASEOUS DISCHARGE DEVICES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Josephson, V.

    1960-02-16

    The high-energy electrical discharge device described comprises an envelope, a pair of main discharge electrodes supported in opposition in the envelope, and a metallic shell symmetrically disposed around and spaced from the discharge path between the electrodes. The metallic shell comprises a first element of spaced helical turns of metallic material and a second element of spaced helical turns of methllic material insulatedly supported in superposition outside the first element and with the turns overlapping the gap between the turns of the first element.

  14. Process for exchanging hydrogen isotopes between gaseous hydrogen and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hindin, Saul G.; Roberts, George W.

    1980-08-12

    A process for exchanging isotopes of hydrogen, particularly tritium, between gaseous hydrogen and water is provided whereby gaseous hydrogen depeleted in tritium and liquid or gaseous water containing tritium are reacted in the presence of a metallic catalyst.

  15. Development of Compact Gaseous Sensors with Internal Reference...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compact Gaseous Sensors with Internal Reference for Monitoring O2 and NOx in Combustion Environments Development of Compact Gaseous Sensors with Internal Reference for Monitoring ...

  16. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant - GW OU Northwest Plume | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Gaseous Diffusion Plant - GW OU Northwest Plume Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant - GW OU Northwest Plume January 1, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis US Department of Energy Groundwater ...

  17. DOE Issues Final Request for Proposal for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Support Services DOE Issues Final Request for Proposal for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Support Services October 6, 2014 - 4:13pm Addthis Media ...

  18. DOE Issues Final Request for Proposal for Portsmouth Gaseous...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Support Services DOE Issues Final Request for Proposal for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Support Services December 9, 2014 - 3:37pm Addthis ...

  19. DOE Seeks Small Businesses for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Seeks Small Businesses for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Infrastructure Support Services DOE Seeks Small Businesses for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Infrastructure Support Services ...

  20. EA-1927: Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Potential Land and Facilities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Potential Land and Facilities Transfers; McCracken County, Kentucky EA-1927: Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Potential Land and Facilities ...

  1. DOE Seeks Small Businesses for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Infrastructure Support Services DOE Seeks Small Businesses for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Infrastructure Support Services July 2, 2014 - ...

  2. Deactivation Project Begins at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Begins at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Deactivation Project Begins at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant October 21, 2014 - 5:00pm Addthis EM Paducah site lead Jennifer Woodard ...

  3. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - Quadrant I Groundwater Investigat...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - Quadrant I Groundwater Investigative (5-Unit) Area Plume Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - Quadrant I Groundwater Investigative (5-Unit) ...

  4. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant - GW OU Southwest Plume | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Southwest Plume Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant - GW OU Southwest Plume January 1, 2014 - ... InstallationName, State: Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, KY Responsible DOE Office: ...

  5. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant - GW OU Northeast Plume | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Northeast Plume Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant - GW OU Northeast Plume January 1, 2014 - ... InstallationName, State: Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, KY Responsible DOE Office: ...

  6. Combination free electron and gaseous laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, Charles A. (Los Alamos, NM); Rockwood, Stephen D. (Los Alamos, NM); Stein, William E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1980-01-01

    A multiple laser having one or more gaseous laser stages and one or more free electron stages. Each of the free electron laser stages is sequentially pumped by a microwave linear accelerator. Subsequently, the electron beam is directed through a gaseous laser, in the preferred embodiment, and in an alternative embodiment, through a microwave accelerator to lower the energy level of the electron beam to pump one or more gaseous lasers. The combination laser provides high pulse repetition frequencies, on the order of 1 kHz or greater, high power capability, high efficiency, and tunability in the synchronous production of multiple beams of coherent optical radiation.

  7. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels, Phase 2: Evaluations of Field Samples and Laboratory Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; LaViolette, M.

    2010-04-01

    Study to measure the flammability of gasoline/ethanol fuel vapors at low ambient temperatures and develop a mathematical model to predict temperatures at which flammable vapors were likely to form.

  8. Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant – November 2013

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Review of Preparedness for Severe Natural Phenomena Events at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant.

  9. Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant- January 2013

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Review of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Work Planning and Control Activities Prior to Work Execution

  10. Process for removing metal carbonyls from gaseous streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyd, R.L.; Pignet, T.P.

    1988-04-26

    A process for removing metal carbonyl contaminates from a gaseous stream is described containing such contaminates and which is free from sulfur contaminates, which process comprises contacting the gaseous stream with a zinc sulfide absorbent to thereby remove metal carbonyl contaminates from the gaseous stream, and separating the gaseous stream from the zinc sulfide absorbent.

  11. Flammability of selected heat resistant alloys in oxygen gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zawierucha, R.; McIlroy, K.; Million, J.F.

    1995-12-31

    Within recent years, the use of oxygen has increased in applications where elevated temperatures and corrosion may be significant factors. In such situations, traditional alloys used in oxygen systems will not be adequate. Where alternative alloys must be utilized, based upon environmental requirements, it is essential that they may be characterized with respect to their ignition and combustion resistance in oxygen. Promoted ignition and promoted ignition-combustion are terms which have been used to describe a situation where a substance with low oxygen supports the combustion of a compatibility ignites and more ignition resistant material. In this paper, data will be presented on the promoted ignition-combustion behavior of selected heat resistant engineering alloys that may be considered for gaseous oxygen applications in severe environments. In this investigation, alloys have been evaluated via both flowing and static (fixed volume) approaches using a rod configuration. Oxygen-nitrogen gas mixtures with compositions ranging from approximately 40 to 99.7% oxygen at pressures of 3.55 to 34.6 MPa were used in the comparative studies.

  12. K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Process Building | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    » Signature Facilities » K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Process Building K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Process Building K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Process Building New! K-25 Virtual Museum The K-25 plant, located on the southwestern end of the Oak Ridge reservation, used the gaseous diffusion method to separate uranium-235 from uranium-238. Based on the well-known principle that molecules of a lighter isotope would pass through a porous barrier more readily than molecules of a heavier one, gaseous diffusion

  13. Flammable gas safety program. Analytical methods development: FY 1994 progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.; Grant, K.; Hoopes, V.; Lerner, B.; Lucke, R.; Mong, G.; Rau, J.; Wahl, K.; Steele, R.

    1994-09-01

    This report describes the status of developing analytical methods to account for the organic components in Hanford waste tanks, with particular focus on tanks assigned to the Flammable Gas Watch List. The methods that have been developed are illustrated by their application to samples obtained from Tank 241-SY-101 (Tank 101-SY).

  14. Summary of tank information relating salt well pumping to flammable gas safety issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caley, S.M.; Mahoney, L.A.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Hanford Site has 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. Active use of these SSTs was phased out completely by November 1980, and the first step toward final disposal of the waste in the SSTs is interim stabilization, which involves removing essentially all of the drainable liquid from the tank. Stabilization can be achieved administratively, by jet pumping to remove drainable interstitial liquid, or by supernatant pumping. To date, 116 tanks have been declared interim stabilized; 44 SSTs have had drainable liquid removed by salt well jet pumping. Of the 149 SSTs, 19 are on the Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL) because the waste in these tanks is known or suspected, in all but one case, to generate and retain mixtures of flammable gases, including; hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. Salt well pumping to remove the drainable interstitial liquid from these SSTs is expected to cause the release of much of the retained gas, posing a number of safety concerns. The scope of this work is to collect and summarize information, primarily tank data and observations, that relate salt well pumping to flammable gas safety issues. While the waste within FGWL SSTs is suspected offering flammable gases, the effect of salt well pumping on the waste behavior is not well understood. This study is being conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company as part of the Flammable Gas Project at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Understanding the historical tank behavior during and following salt well pumping will help to resolve the associated safety issues.

  15. Gaseous insulators for high voltage electrical equipment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; James, David R.; Pace, Marshall O.; Pai, Robert Y.

    1979-01-01

    Gaseous insulators comprise compounds having high attachment cross sections for electrons having energies in the 0-1.3 electron volt range. Multi-component gaseous insulators comprise compounds and mixtures having overall high electron attachment cross sections in the 0-1.3 electron volt range and moderating gases having high cross sections for inelastic interactions with electrons of energies 1-4 electron volts. Suitable electron attachment components include hexafluorobutyne, perfluorobutene-2, perfluorocyclobutane, perfluorodimethylcyclobutane, perfluorocyclohexene, perfluoromethylcyclohexane, hexafluorobutadiene, perfluoroheptene-1 and hexafluoroazomethane. Suitable moderating gases include N.sub.2, CO, CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The gaseous insulating mixture can also contain SF.sub.6, perfluoropropane and perfluorobenzene.

  16. Gaseous insulators for high voltage electrical equipment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; James, David R.; Pace, Marshall O.; Pai, Robert Y.

    1981-01-01

    Gaseous insulators comprise compounds having high attachment cross sections for electrons having energies in the 0-1.3 electron volt range. Multi-component gaseous insulators comprise compounds and mixtures having overall high electron attachment cross sections in the 0-1.3 electron volt range and moderating gases having high cross sections for inelastic interactions with electrons of energies 1-4 electron volts. Suitable electron attachment components include hexafluorobutyne, perfluorobutene-2, perfluorocyclobutane, perfluorodimethylcyclobutane, perfluorocyclohexene, perfluoromethylcyclohexane, hexafluorobutadiene, perfluoroheptene-1 and hexafluoroazomethane. Suitable moderating gases include N.sub.2, CO, CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The gaseous insulating mixture can also contain SF.sub.6, perfluoropropane and perfluorobenzene.

  17. Fuel Cells and Renewable Gaseous Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cell Technologies Office | 1 7/14/2015 Fuel Cells and Renewable Gaseous Fuels Bioenergy 2015: Renewable Gaseous Fuels Breakout Session Sarah Studer, PhD ORISE Fellow Fuel Cell Technologies Office Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energy June 24, 2015 Washington, DC Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 2 7/14/2015 7/14/2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Integrated approach to widespread commercialization of H 2 and fuel cells Fuel Cell Cost Durability H 2 Cost

  18. Methods and systems for deacidizing gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Liang

    2010-05-18

    An improved process for deacidizing a gaseous mixture using phase enhanced gas-liquid absorption is described. The process utilizes a multiphasic absorbent that absorbs an acid gas at increased rate and leads to reduced overall energy costs for the deacidizing operation.

  19. A safety assessment of rotary mode core sampling in flammable gas single shell tanks: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond, R.E.

    1996-04-15

    This safety assessment (SA) addresses each of the required elements associated with the installation, operation, and removal of a rotary-mode core sampling (RMCS) device in flammable-gas single-shell tanks (SSTs). The RMCS operations are needed in order to retrieve waste samples from SSTs with hard layers of waste for which push-mode sampling is not adequate for sampling. In this SA, potential hazards associated with the proposed action were identified and evaluated systematically. Several potential accident cases that could result in radiological or toxicological gas releases were identified and analyzed and their consequences assessed. Administrative controls, procedures and design changes required to eliminate or reduce the potential of hazards were identified. The accidents were analyzed under nine categories, four of which were burn scenarios. In SSTS, burn accidents result in unacceptable consequences because of a potential dome collapse. The accidents in which an aboveground burn propagates into the dome space were shown to be in the ``beyond extremely unlikely`` frequency category. Given the unknown nature of the gas-release behavior in the SSTS, a number of design changes and administrative controls were implemented to achieve these low frequencies. Likewise, drill string fires and dome space fires were shown to be very low frequency accidents by taking credit for the design changes, controls, and available experimental and analytical data. However, a number of Bureau of Mines (BOM) tests must be completed before some of the burn accidents can be dismissed with high confidence. Under the category of waste fires, the possibility of igniting the entrapped gases and the waste itself were analyzed. Experiments are being conducted at the BOM to demonstrate that the drill bit is not capable of igniting the trapped gas in the waste. Laboratory testing and thermal analysis demonstrated that, under normal operating conditions, the drill bit will not create high

  20. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from High Ethanol Content Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D.; Bardon, M.; Pucher, G.

    2008-10-01

    Study determined the flammability of fuel tank headspace vapors as a function of ambient temperature for seven E85 fuel blends, two types of gasoline, and denatured ethanol at a low tank fill level.

  1. Senior DOE Officials Visit Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Senior DOE Officials Visit Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site Senior DOE Officials Visit Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site April 29, 2015 - 12:00pm Addthis EM Paducah site ...

  2. The Promise of Renewable Gaseous Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Promise of Renewable Gaseous Fuels The Promise of Renewable Gaseous Fuels Breakout Session 3-C: Renewable Gaseous Fuels The Promise of Renewable Gaseous Fuels Jeffrey Reed, Director of Business Strategy and Development, Southern California Gas Company/San Diego Gas & Electric reed_bioenergy_2015.pdf (1.91 MB) More Documents & Publications QER - Comment of American Gas Association 3 Initial Results of the DeNOx SCR System by Urea Injection in the Euro 5 Bus Renewable Natural Gas

  3. Methodology for Predicting Flammable Gas Mixtures in Double Contained Receiver Tanks [SEC 1 THRU SEC 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HEDENGREN, D.C.

    2000-01-31

    This methodology document provides an estimate of the maximum concentrations of flammable gases (ammonia, hydrogen, and methane) which could exist in the vapor space of a double-contained receiver tank (DCRT) from the simultaneous saltwell pumping of one or more single-shell tanks (SSTs). This document expands Calculation Note 118 (Hedengren et a1 1997) and removes some of the conservatism from it, especially in vapor phase ammonia predictions. The methodologies of Calculation Note 118 (Hedengren et a1 1997) are essentially identical for predicting flammable gas mixtures in DCRTs from saltwell pumping for low DCRT ventilation rates, 1e, < 1 cfm. The hydrogen generation model has also been updated in the methodology of this document.

  4. Laboratory flammability studies of mixtures of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cashdollar, K L; Hertzberg, M; Zlochower, I A; Lucci, C E; Green, G M; Thomas, R A

    1992-06-26

    At the request of the Department of Energy and the Westinghouse Hanford Company, the Bureau of Mines has investigated the flammability of mixtures of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and air. This work is relevant to the possible hazards of flammable gas generation from nuclear waste tanks at Hanford, WA. The tests were performed in a 120-L spherical chamber under both quiescent and turbulent conditions using both electric spark and pyrotechnic ignition sources. The data reported here for binary mixtures of hydrogen in air generally confirm the data of previous investigators, but they are more comprehensive than those reported previously. The results clarify to a greater extent the complications associated with buoyancy, turbulence, and selective diffusion. The data reported here for ternary mixtures of hydrogen and nitrous oxide in air indicate that small additions of nitrous oxide (relative to the amount of air) have little effect, but that higher concentrations of nitrous oxide (relative to air) significantly increase the explosion hazard.

  5. Potential Flammable Gas Explosion in the TRU Vent and Purge Machine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vincent, A

    2006-04-05

    The objective of the analysis was to determine the failure of the Vent and Purge (V&P) Machine due to potential explosion in the Transuranic (TRU) drum during its venting and/or subsequent explosion in the V&P machine from the flammable gases (e.g., hydrogen and Volatile Organic Compounds [VOCs]) vented into the V&P machine from the TRU drum. The analysis considers: (a) increase in the pressure in the V&P cabinet from the original deflagration in the TRU drum including lid ejection, (b) pressure wave impact from TRU drum failure, and (c) secondary burns or deflagrations resulting from excess, unburned gases in the cabinet area. A variety of cases were considered that maximized the pressure produced in the V&P cabinet. Also, cases were analyzed that maximized the shock wave pressure in the cabinet from TRU drum failure. The calculations were performed for various initial drum pressures (e.g., 1.5 and 6 psig) for 55 gallon TRU drum. The calculated peak cabinet pressures ranged from 16 psig to 50 psig for various flammable gas compositions. The blast on top of cabinet and in outlet duct ranged from 50 psig to 63 psig and 12 psig to 16 psig, respectively, for various flammable gas compositions. The failure pressures of the cabinet and the ducts calculated by structural analysis were higher than the pressure calculated from potential flammable gas deflagrations, thus, assuring that V&P cabinet would not fail during this event. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 68 calculations showed that for a failure pressure of 20 psig, the available vent area in the V&P cabinet is 1.7 to 2.6 times the required vent area depending on whether hydrogen or VOCs burn in the V&P cabinet. This analysis methodology could be used to design the process equipment needed for venting TRU waste containers at other sites across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex.

  6. Gaseous modification of MCrAlY coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vance, Steven J.; Goedjen, John G.; Sabol, Stephen M.; Sloan, Kelly M.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes methods for modifying MCrAlY coatings by using gaseous carburization, gaseous nitriding or gaseous carbonitriding. The modified MCrAlY coatings are useful in thermal barrier coating systems, which may be used in gas turbine engines.

  7. Equipment design guidance document for flammable gas waste storage tank new equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smet, D.B.

    1996-04-11

    This document is intended to be used as guidance for design engineers who are involved in design of new equipment slated for use in Flammable Gas Waste Storage Tanks. The purpose of this document is to provide design guidance for all new equipment intended for application into those Hanford storage tanks in which flammable gas controls are required to be addressed as part of the equipment design. These design criteria are to be used as guidance. The design of each specific piece of new equipment shall be required, as a minimum to be reviewed by qualified Unreviewed Safety Question evaluators as an integral part of the final design approval. Further Safety Assessment may be also needed. This guidance is intended to be used in conjunction with the Operating Specifications Documents (OSDs) established for defining work controls in the waste storage tanks. The criteria set forth should be reviewed for applicability if the equipment will be required to operate in locations containing unacceptable concentrations of flammable gas.

  8. Flammability Analysis For Actinide Oxides Packaged In 9975 Shipping Containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurinat, James E.; Askew, Neal M.; Hensel, Steve J.

    2013-03-21

    Packaging options are evaluated for compliance with safety requirements for shipment of mixed actinide oxides packaged in a 9975 Primary Containment Vessel (PCV). Radiolytic gas generation rates, PCV internal gas pressures, and shipping windows (times to reach unacceptable gas compositions or pressures after closure of the PCV) are calculated for shipment of a 9975 PCV containing a plastic bottle filled with plutonium and uranium oxides with a selected isotopic composition. G-values for radiolytic hydrogen generation from adsorbed moisture are estimated from the results of gas generation tests for plutonium oxide and uranium oxide doped with curium-244. The radiolytic generation of hydrogen from the plastic bottle is calculated using a geometric model for alpha particle deposition in the bottle wall. The temperature of the PCV during shipment is estimated from the results of finite element heat transfer analyses.

  9. Diffusion method of seperating gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pontius, Rex B.

    1976-01-01

    A method of effecting a relatively large change in the relative concentrations of the components of a gaseous mixture by diffusion which comprises separating the mixture into heavier and lighter portions according to major fraction mass recycle procedure, further separating the heavier portions into still heavier subportions according to a major fraction mass recycle procedure, and further separating the lighter portions into still lighter subportions according to a major fraction equilibrium recycle procedure.

  10. Method for reacting nongaseous material with a gaseous reactant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lumpkin, Robert E.; Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy

    1979-03-27

    This invention relates to a new and novel method and apparatus for reacting nongaseous material with a gaseous reactant comprising introducing a first stream containing a nongaseous material into a reaction zone; simultaneously introducing a second stream containing a gaseous reactant into the reaction zone such that the gaseous reactant immediately contacts and reacts with the first stream thereby producing a gaseous product; forming a spiralling vortex within the reaction zone to cause substantial separation of gases, including the gaseous product, from the nongaseous material; forming and removing a third stream from the reaction zone containing the gaseous product which is substantially free of the nongaseous material before a major portion of the gaseous product can react with the nongaseous material; and forming and removing a fourth stream containing the nongaseous material from the reaction zone.

  11. TECHNICAL JUSTIFICATION FOR CHOOSING PROPANE AS A CALIBRATION AGENT FOR TOTAL FLAMMABLE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) DETERMINATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOUGLAS, J.G.

    2006-07-06

    This document presents the technical justification for choosing and using propane as a calibration standard for estimating total flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an air matrix. A propane-in-nitrogen standard was selected based on a number of criteria: (1) has an analytical response similar to the VOCs of interest, (2) can be made with known accuracy and traceability, (3) is available with good purity, (4) has a matrix similar to the sample matrix, (5) is stable during storage and use, (6) is relatively non-hazardous, and (7) is a recognized standard for similar analytical applications. The Waste Retrieval Project (WRP) desires a fast, reliable, and inexpensive method for screening the flammable VOC content in the vapor-phase headspace of waste containers. Table 1 lists the flammable VOCs of interest to the WRP. The current method used to determine the VOC content of a container is to sample the container's headspace and submit the sample for gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The driver for the VOC measurement requirement is safety: potentially flammable atmospheres in the waste containers must be allowed to diffuse prior to processing the container. The proposed flammable VOC screening method is to inject an aliquot of the headspace sample into an argon-doped pulsed-discharge helium ionization detector (Ar-PDHID) contained within a gas chromatograph. No actual chromatography is performed; the sample is transferred directly from a sample loop to the detector through a short, inert transfer line. The peak area resulting from the injected sample is proportional to the flammable VOC content of the sample. However, because the Ar-PDHID has different response factors for different flammable VOCs, a fundamental assumption must be made that the agent used to calibrate the detector is representative of the flammable VOCs of interest that may be in the headspace samples. At worst, we desire that calibration with the selected calibrating

  12. The Promise of Renewable Gaseous Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reed, Southern California Gas Company The Promise of Renewable Gaseous Fuels June 24, 2015 DOE Bioenergy Summit 2 2 Southern California Gas Company » The nation's largest natural gas distribution utility  20.9 million consumers  5.8 million meters  500 communities » Subsidiary of Sempra Energy (SRE) » Affiliated with SDG&E » Leader in customer satisfaction, pipeline safety and environmental solutions NOx is a Unique Challenge for SoCal Over 80% of Southern California is in

  13. Results of vapor space monitoring of flammable gas Watch List tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkins, N.E.

    1997-09-18

    This report documents the measurement of headspace gas concentrations and monitoring results from the Hanford tanks that have continuous flammable gas monitoring. The systems used to monitor the tanks are Standard Hydrogen Monitoring Systems. Further characterization of the tank off-gases was done with Gas Characterization Systems and vapor grab samples. The background concentrations of all tanks are below the action level of 6250 ppm. Other information which can be derived from the measurements (such as generation rate, release rate, and ventilation rate) is also discussed.

  14. EA-1927: Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Potential Land and Facilities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transfers; McCracken County, Kentucky | Department of Energy 27: Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Potential Land and Facilities Transfers; McCracken County, Kentucky EA-1927: Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Potential Land and Facilities Transfers; McCracken County, Kentucky SUMMARY DOE's Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office prepared an EA that assesses the potential environmental impacts of the proposed transfer of land and facilities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant from DOE to other

  15. Energy Department Extends Contract for Cleanup of Portsmouth Gaseous

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diffusion Plant | Department of Energy Extends Contract for Cleanup of Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Energy Department Extends Contract for Cleanup of Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant March 28, 2016 - 9:00pm Addthis Media Contact Brad Mitzelfelt, 859-219-4035 brad.mitzelfelt@lex.doe.gov LEXINGTON, Ky. - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced that it has exercised its option to extend the contract for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the Portsmouth Gaseous

  16. Non-Destructive Analysis Calibration Standards for Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (GDP) Decommissioning | Department of Energy Non-Destructive Analysis Calibration Standards for Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP) Decommissioning Non-Destructive Analysis Calibration Standards for Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP) Decommissioning The decommissioning of Gaseous Diffusion Plant facilities requires accurate, non-destructive assay (NDA) of residual enriched uranium in facility components for safeguards and nuclear criticality safety purposes. Current practices used to perform NDA

  17. DOE Seeks Deactivation Contractor for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Deactivation Contractor for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant DOE Seeks Deactivation Contractor for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant August 9, 2013 - 5:30pm Addthis Media Contact Bill Taylor, 803-952-8564 bill.taylor@srs.gov Cincinnati - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Request for Task Proposal (RTP) for deactivation activities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. These services are required so that DOE can address the return

  18. DOE Seeks Quotes for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Environmental

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technical Services | Department of Energy Quotes for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Environmental Technical Services DOE Seeks Quotes for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Environmental Technical Services August 13, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Bill Taylor Bill.Taylor@srs.gov 803-952-8564 Cincinnati- The Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Request for Quotation (RFQ) for an Environmental Technical Services acquisition at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP) for the

  19. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant - KY

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    01 Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant - KY 01 Site ID (CSD Index Number): KY.01 Site Name: Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site Summary: Site Link: http://energy.gov/pppo/paducah-site External Site Link: Alternate Name(s): Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Alternate Name Documents: Location: Paducah, Kentucky Location Documents: Historical Operations (describe contaminants): Historical Operations Documents: Eligibility Determination: Owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). DOE oversees

  20. Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - April

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2013 | Department of Energy Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - April 2013 Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - April 2013 April 2013 Review of the Integrated Safety Management System Phase I Verification Review at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant The Office of Enforcement and Oversight (Independent Oversight), within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), conducted an independent review of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth/Paducah

  1. DOE Issues Final Request for Proposal for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plant Support Services | Department of Energy Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Support Services DOE Issues Final Request for Proposal for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Support Services December 9, 2014 - 3:37pm Addthis Media Contact Lynette Chafin, 513-246-0461, Lynette.Chafin@emcbc.doe.gov Cincinnati -- The U.S. Department of Energy today issued a Final Request for Proposal (RFP), for the continued performance of infrastructure support services at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion

  2. DOE Seeks Proposals for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Technical

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Services Contract | Department of Energy Proposals for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Technical Services Contract DOE Seeks Proposals for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Technical Services Contract June 19, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Bill Taylor bill.taylor@srs.gov 803-952-8564 Cincinnati - The Department of Energy today issued a Draft Request for Proposals (RFP) for an Environmental Technical Services acquisition at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant near Piketon, Ohio.

  3. Property:PotentialBiopowerGaseousGeneration | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Megawatthour Gigawatt hours - 0.000001 GWh, Gigawatt hour, Gigawatthour Joules - 3600000 J, Joules, joules Pages using the property "PotentialBiopowerGaseousGeneration" Showing 25...

  4. OSTIblog Articles in the gaseous diffusion Topic | OSTI, US Dept...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Related Topics: 70th Anniversary, atomic bomb, DOE Research & Development (R&D) Accomplishments, electromagnetic, gaseous diffusion, Manhattan Project, nuclear chain reaction, ...

  5. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Draft Paducah Environmental Assessment...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Draft Environmental Assessment (EA) for Potential Land and Facilities Transfers at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in McCracken County, Kentucky. DOE is inviting comments on...

  6. ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF TOA PARTITIONING ON DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS FLAMMABILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, G.

    2013-06-18

    An assessment has been made to evaluate the impact on the DWPF melter off-gas flammability of increasing the amount of TOA in the current solvent used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process Unit (MCU) process. The results of this study showed that the concentrations of nonvolatile carbon of the current solvent limit (150 ppm) in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product would be about 7% higher and the nonvolatile hydrogen would be 2% higher than the actual current solvent (126 ppm) with an addition of up to 3 ppm of TOA when the concentration of Isopar L in the effluent transfer is controlled below 87 ppm and the volume of MCU effluent transfer to DWPF is limited to 15,000 gallons per Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)/SME cycle. Therefore, the DWPF melter off-gas flammability assessment is conservative for up to an additional 3 ppm of TOA in the effluent based on these assumptions. This report documents the calculations performed to reach this conclusion.

  7. 2011 GASEOUS IONS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Anderson

    2011-03-04

    The Gaseous Ions: Structures, Energetics and Reactions Gordon Research Conference will focus on ions and their interactions with molecules, surfaces, electrons, and light. The conference will cover theory and experiments, and systems ranging from molecular to biological to clusters to materials. The meeting goal continues to be bringing together scientists interested in fundamentals, with those applying fundamental phenomena to a wide range of practical problems. Each of the ten conference sessions will focus on a topic within this spectrum, and there will also be poster sessions for contributed papers, with sufficient space and time to allow all participants to present their latest results. To encourage active participation by young investigators, about ten of the poster abstracts will be selected for 15 minute 'hot topic' talks during the conference sessions. Hot topic selection will be done about a month before the meeting. Funds should be available to offset the participation cost for young investigators.

  8. Report on the handling of safety information concerning flammable gases and ferrocyanide at the Hanford waste tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    This report discusses concerns safety issues, and management at Hanford Tank Farm. Concerns center on the issue of flammable gas generation which could ignite, and on possible exothermic reactions of ferrocyanide compounds which were added to single shell tanks in the 1950's. It is believed that information concerning these issues has been mis-handled and the problems poorly managed. (CBS)

  9. Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denise Baclawski

    2010-03-08

    The University of Nevada, Reno Fire Science Academy (FSA) applied for grant funding to develop and deliver programs for municipal, rural, and volunteer firefighters. The FSA specializes in preparing responders for a variety of emergency events, including flammable liquid fires resulting from accidents, intentional acts, or natural disasters. Live fire training on full scale burnable props is the hallmark of FSA training, allowing responders to practice critical skills in a realistic, yet safe environment. Unfortunately, flammable liquid live fire training is often not accessible to municipal, rural, or volunteer firefighters due to limited department training budgets, even though most department personnel will be exposed to flammable liquid fire incidents during the course of their careers. In response to this training need, the FSA developed a course during the first year of the grant (Year One), Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters. During the three years of the grant, a total of 2,029 emergency responders received this training. In Year Three, two new courses, a train-the-trainer for Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community and Management of Large-Scale Disasters for Public Officials were developed and pilot tested during the Real-World Disaster Management Conference held at the FSA in June of 2007. Two research projects were conducted during Years Two and Three. The first, conducted over a two year period, evaluated student surveys regarding the value of the flammable liquids training received. The second was a needs assessment conducted for rural Nevada. Both projects provided important feedback and a basis for curricula development and improvements.

  10. Assessment of the impact of the next generation solvent on DWPF melter off-gas flammability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, W. E.

    2013-02-13

    An assessment has been made to evaluate the impact on the DWPF melter off-gas flammability of replacing the current solvent used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process Unit (MCU) process with the Next Generation Solvent (NGS-MCU) and blended solvent. The results of this study showed that the concentrations of nonvolatile carbon and hydrogen of the current solvent in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product would both be about 29% higher than their counterparts of the NGS-MCU and blended solvent in the absence of guanidine partitioning. When 6 ppm of guanidine (TiDG) was added to the effluent transfer to DWPF to simulate partitioning for the NGS-MCU and blended solvent cases and the concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the effluent transfer was controlled below 87 ppm, the concentrations of nonvolatile carbon and hydrogen of the NGS-MCU and blended solvent were still about 12% and 4% lower, respectively, than those of the current solvent. It is, therefore, concluded that as long as the volume of MCU effluent transfer to DWPF is limited to 15,000 gallons per Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)/SME cycle and the concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the effluent transfer is controlled below 87 ppm, using the current solvent assumption of 105 ppm Isopar{reg_sign} L or 150 ppm solvent in lieu of NGS-MCU or blended solvent in the DWPF melter off-gas flammability assessment is conservative for up to an additional 6 ppm of TiDG in the effluent due to guanidine partitioning. This report documents the calculations performed to reach this conclusion.

  11. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1984-06-19

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  12. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, John E.; Jalan, Vinod M.

    1984-01-01

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  13. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur-containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1982-07-07

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorbtion capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  14. Growth of graphene films from non-gaseous carbon sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tour, James; Sun, Zhengzong; Yan, Zheng; Ruan, Gedeng; Peng, Zhiwei

    2015-08-04

    In various embodiments, the present disclosure provides methods of forming graphene films by: (1) depositing a non-gaseous carbon source onto a catalyst surface; (2) exposing the non-gaseous carbon source to at least one gas with a flow rate; and (3) initiating the conversion of the non-gaseous carbon source to the graphene film, where the thickness of the graphene film is controllable by the gas flow rate. Additional embodiments of the present disclosure pertain to graphene films made in accordance with the methods of the present disclosure.

  15. Combustion characteristics of alternative gaseous fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, O.; Veloo, Peter S.; Liu, N.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental flame properties of mixtures of air with hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and C{sub 1}C{sub 4} saturated hydrocarbons were studied both experimentally and numerically. The fuel mixtures were chosen in order to simulate alternative gaseous fuels and to gain insight into potential kinetic couplings during the oxidation of fuel mixtures. The studies included the use of the counterflow configuration for the determination of laminar flame speeds, as well as extinction and ignition limits of premixed flames. The experiments were modeled using the USC Mech II kinetic model. It was determined that when hydrocarbons are added to hydrogen flames as additives, flame ignition, propagation, and extinction are affected in a counterintuitive manner. More specifically, it was found that by substituting methane by propane or n-butane in hydrogen flames, the reactivity of the mixture is reduced both under pre-ignition and vigorous burning conditions. This behavior stems from the fact that propane and n-butane produce higher amounts of methyl radicals that can readily recombine with atomic hydrogen and reduce thus the rate of the H + O{sub 2} ? O + OH branching reaction. The kinetic model predicts closely the experimental data for flame propagation and extinction for various fuel mixtures and pressures, and for various amounts of carbon dioxide in the fuel blend. On the other hand, it underpredicts, in general, the ignition temperatures.

  16. An analysis of tank and pump pit flammable gas data in support of saltwater pumping safety basis simplification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MCCAIN, D.J.

    2000-07-26

    Hanford Site high-level waste tanks are interim stabilized by pumping supernatant and interstitial waste liquids to double-shell tanks (DSTs) through a saltwell pump (SWP). The motor to this SWP is located atop the tank, inside a pump pit. A pumping line extends down from the pump motor into the well area, located in the salt/sludge solids in the tank below. Pumping of these wastes is complicated by the fact that some of the wastes generate and retain potentially hazardous amounts of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. Monitoring of flammable gas concentrations during saltwell pumping activities has shown that one effect of pumping is acceleration in the release of accumulated hydrogen. A second effect is that of a temporarily increased hydrogen concentration in both the dome space and pump pit. There is a safety concern that the hydrogen concentration during saltwell pumping activities might approach the lower flammability limit (LFL) in either the tank dome space or the pump pit. The current Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG 2000) for saltwell pumping requires continuous flammable gas monitoring in both the pump pit and the tank vapor space during saltwell pumping. The FSAR also requires that portable exhauster fans be available by most of the passively ventilated tanks to be saltwell pumped in the event that additional air flow is required to dilute the headspace concentration of flammable gases to acceptable levels. The first objective of this analysis is to review the need for an auxiliary exhauster. Since the purpose of the exhauster is to diffuse unacceptably high flammable gas concentrations, discovery of an alternate method of accomplishing the same task may provide cost savings. The method reviewed is that of temporarily stopping the saltwell pumps. This analysis also examines the typical hydrogen concentration peaks and the rates of increase in hydrogen levels already witnessed in tanks during saltwell pumping activities. The historical data

  17. EM Begins Demolishing K-31 Gaseous Diffusion Building

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    OAK RIDGE, Tenn. – EM's demolition of the K-31 Building at Oak Ridge’s East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) began Wednesday, marking the removal of the fourth of five gaseous diffusion buildings at the former uranium enrichment site.

  18. Method for removing acid gases from a gaseous stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorin, Everett; Zielke, Clyde W.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking a heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure by contacting the feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, thereafter separating a gaseous stream containing hydrogen, at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases from the molten metal halide and regenerating the molten metal halide, thereby producing a purified molten metal halide stream for recycle to the hydrocracking zone, an improvement comprising; contacting the gaseous acid gas, hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels-containing stream with the feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to remove acid gases from the acid gas containing stream. Optionally at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels are separated from gaseous stream containing hydrogen, hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases prior to contacting the gaseous stream with the feedstock.

  19. Energy Department Selects Deactivation Contractor for Paducah Gaseous

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diffusion Plant | Department of Energy Deactivation Contractor for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Energy Department Selects Deactivation Contractor for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant July 22, 2014 - 5:48pm Addthis News Media Contact Brad Mitzelfelt, (859) 219-4035, brad.mitzelfelt@lex.doe.gov LEXINGTON, Ky. - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today awarded a Task Order under the Nationwide Environmental Management ID/IQ Unrestricted Contract to Fluor Federal Services, Inc. for

  20. Development of Compact Gaseous Sensors with Internal Reference for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Monitoring O2 and NOx in Combustion Environments | Department of Energy Compact Gaseous Sensors with Internal Reference for Monitoring O2 and NOx in Combustion Environments Development of Compact Gaseous Sensors with Internal Reference for Monitoring O2 and NOx in Combustion Environments Compact sensors have been developed to allow for real-time monitoring of O2 and NOx during combustion. deer08_singh.pdf (396.99 KB) More Documents & Publications Compact Electrochemical Bi-functional

  1. Lessons Learned from Practical Field Experience with High Pressure Gaseous

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuels | Department of Energy Practical Field Experience with High Pressure Gaseous Fuels Lessons Learned from Practical Field Experience with High Pressure Gaseous Fuels Presentation given by Douglas Horne of the Clean Vehicle Energy Foundation at the CNG and Hydrogen Lessons Learned Workshop on December 10, 2009 cng_h2_workshop_7_horne.pdf (4.54 MB) More Documents & Publications High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life Issues Workshop Notes from

  2. DOE Seeks Small Businesses for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Infrastructure Support Services | Department of Energy Small Businesses for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Infrastructure Support Services DOE Seeks Small Businesses for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Infrastructure Support Services June 10, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Bill Taylor, 803-952-8564 bill.taylor@srs.gov Cincinnati -- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Draft Request for Proposal (RFP) seeking eligible small businesses under North American Industry

  3. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Final Environmental Assessment for

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE Site Tours Nostalgic for Former Workers Paducah DOE Site Tours Nostalgic for Former Workers July 15, 2016 - 9:35am Addthis Eugene Waggoner poses for a portrait in the C-300 Central Control Building at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. (Story and photo by Dylan Nichols, Fluor Paducah Deactivation Project.) Eugene Waggoner poses for a portrait in the C-300 Central Control Building at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. (Story and photo by Dylan Nichols, Fluor Paducah Deactivation Project.)

  4. Testing and Certification of Gaseous Storage Tanks for Vehicles: The

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    European Commission (EC) Perspective | Department of Energy Testing and Certification of Gaseous Storage Tanks for Vehicles: The European Commission (EC) Perspective Testing and Certification of Gaseous Storage Tanks for Vehicles: The European Commission (EC) Perspective These slides were presented at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on September 27 - 29, 2010, in Beijing, China. ihfpv_moretto.pdf (1.17 MB) More Documents & Publications International Hydrogen

  5. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant -

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    026 Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - 026 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (026 ) More information at http://energy.gov/em Designated Name: Not Designated under FUSRAP Alternate Name: Portsmouth, OH, Site Location: Pike County, Ohio Evaluation Year: Not considered for FUSRAP - in another program Site Operations: Production of enriched uranium Site Disposition: Remediation in progress by DOE Office of Environmental Management. After the site is complete, it

  6. DOE Awards Contract for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Infrastructure

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Support Services | Department of Energy Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Infrastructure Support Services DOE Awards Contract for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Infrastructure Support Services June 17, 2015 - 5:45pm Addthis Media Contact: Lynette Chafin, 513-246-0461, Lynette.Chafin@emcbc.doe.gov Cincinnati -- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced the award of a contract to Swift & Staley, Inc. of Kevil, Kentucky, for the performance of infrastructure support services at the

  7. DOE Awards Contract for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Infrastructure

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Support Services | Department of Energy Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Infrastructure Support Services DOE Awards Contract for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Infrastructure Support Services January 15, 2016 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Lynette Chafin, 513-246-0461 Lynette.Chafin@emcbc.doe.gov Cincinnati -- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced the award of a contract to Portsmouth Mission Alliance, LLC of Idaho Falls, Idaho, for the performance of infrastructure

  8. DOE Releases Request for Information for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deactivation & Remediation Services | Department of Energy Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Deactivation & Remediation Services DOE Releases Request for Information for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Deactivation & Remediation Services September 2, 2015 - 3:00pm Addthis Media Contact Lynette Chafin, 513-246-0461, Lynette.Chafin@emcbc.doe.gov Cincinnati -- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Request for Information (RFI) seeking to solicit input via capability

  9. DOE Seeks Small Businesses for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Infrastructure Support Services | Department of Energy Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Infrastructure Support Services DOE Seeks Small Businesses for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Infrastructure Support Services July 2, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Bill Taylor, 803-952-8564, bill.taylor@srs.gov Cincinnati -- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Draft Request for Proposal (RFP) seeking eligible small businesses under North American Industry Classification System

  10. Nuclear fuel element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Armijo, Joseph S.; Coffin, Jr., Louis F.

    1980-04-29

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has an improved composite cladding comprised of a moderate purity metal barrier of zirconium metallurgically bonded on the inside surface of a zirconium alloy tube. The metal barrier forms a shield between the alloy tube and a core of nuclear fuel material enclosed in the composite cladding. There is a gap between the cladding and the core. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 30 percent of the thickness of the composite cladding and has low neutron absorption characteristics. The metal barrier serves as a preferential reaction site for gaseous impurities and fission products and protects the alloy tube from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. Methods of manufacturing the composite cladding are also disclosed.

  11. Nuclear fuel element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Armijo, Joseph S.; Coffin, Jr., Louis F.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has a composite cladding having a substrate and a metal barrier metallurgically bonded on the inside surface of the substrate so that the metal barrier forms a shield between the substrate and the nuclear fuel material held within the cladding. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 30 percent of the thickness of the cladding and is comprised of a low neutron absorption metal of substantially pure zirconium. The metal barrier serves as a preferential reaction site for gaseous impurities and fission products and protects the substrate from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. The substrate of the composite cladding is selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably is a zirconium alloy. Methods of manufacturing the composite cladding are also disclosed.

  12. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant- Quadrant I Groundwater Investigative (5-Unit) Area Plume

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Groundwater Database Report - Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - Quadrant I Groundwater Investigative (5-Unit) Area Plume

  13. Investigation of Flammable Gas Releases from High Level Waste Tanks during Periodic Mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swingle, R.F.

    1999-01-07

    The Savannah River Site processes high-level radioactive waste through precipitation by the addition of sodium tetraphenylborate in a large (approximately 1.3 million gallon) High Level Waste Tank. Radiolysis of water produces a significant amount of hydrogen gas in this slurry. During quiescent periods the tetraphenylborate slurry retains large amounts of hydrogen as dissolved gas and small bubbles. When mixing pumps start, large amounts of hydrogen release due to agitation of the slurry. Flammability concerns necessitate an understanding of the hydrogen retention mechanism in the slurry and a model of how the hydrogen releases from the slurry during pump operation. Hydrogen concentration data collected from the slurry tank confirmed this behavior in the full-scale system. These measurements also provide mass transfer results for the hydrogen release during operation. The authors compared these data to an existing literature model for mass transfer in small, agitated reactors and developed factors to scale this existing model to the 1.3 million gallon tanks in use at the Savannah River Site. The information provides guidance for facility operations.

  14. Independent design review report for truck {number_sign}1 modifications for flammable gas tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, G.W.

    1997-05-09

    The East and West Tank Farm Standing Order 97-01 requires that the PMST be modified to include purging of the enclosed space underneath the shielded receiver weather cover per National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 496, Purged and Pressurized Enclosures for Electrical Equipment. The Standing Order also requires that the PMST be modified by replacing the existing electrical remote latch (RLU) unit with a mechanical remote latch unit. As the mechanical remote latch unit was exactly like the RLU installed on the Rotary Mode Core Sampler Trucks (RMCST) and the design for the RMCST went through formal design review, replacing the RLU was done utilizing informal design verification and was completed per work package ES-97-0028. As the weather cover purge was similar to the design for the RMCSTS, this design was reviewed using the independent review method with multiple independent reviewers. A function design criteria (WHC-SD-WM-FDC-048, Functional Design Criteria for Core Sampling in Flammable Gas Watch List Tanks) provided the criteria for the modifications. The review consisted of distributing the design review package to the reviewers and collecting and dispositioning the RCR comments. The review package included the ECNs for review, the Design Compliance Matrix, copies of all drawings affected, and copies of outstanding ECNs against these drawings. A final meeting was held to ensure that all reviewers were aware of the changes to ECNs from incorporation of RCR comments.

  15. Process for removing carbonyl sulfide from gaseous streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tellis, C.

    1981-11-10

    This invention relates to a process for reducing the carbonyl sulfide content of a gaseous stream which has a concentration of carbonyl sulfide of from at least 1 to about 100 parts per million, by volume, which comprises providing an absorbent bed wherein the absorbent comprises zinc oxide and contains no more than 5%, by weight, of an oxide of an alkli or alkaline earth metal, and contacting said process stream with said adsorbent bed at a temperature of from about ambient to 250/sup 0/ C. For a period of time sufficient to remove at least 90% of the carbonyl sulfide content of said gaseous stream.

  16. MELTER OFF-GAS FLAMMABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR DWPF ALTERNATE REDUCTANT FLOWSHEET OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, A.

    2011-07-08

    Glycolic acid and sugar are being considered as potential candidates to substitute for much of the formic acid currently being added to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed as a reductant. A series of small-scale melter tests were conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) in January 2011 to collect necessary data for the assessment of the impact of these alternate reductants on the melter off-gas flammability. The DM10 melter with a 0.021 m{sup 2} melt surface area was run with three different feeds which were prepared at SRNL based on; (1) the baseline formic/nitric acid flowsheet, (2) glycolic/formic/nitric acid flowsheet, and (3) sugar/formic/nitric acid flowsheet - these feeds will be called the baseline, glycolic, and sugar flowsheet feeds, respectively, hereafter. The actual addition of sugar to the sugar flowsheet feed was made at VSL before it was fed to the melter. For each feed, the DM10 was run under both bubbled (with argon) and non-bubbled conditions at varying melter vapor space temperatures. The goal was to lower its vapor space temperature from nominal 500 C to less than 300 C at 50 C increments and maintain steady state at each temperature at least for one hour, preferentially for two hours, while collecting off-gas data including CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} concentrations. Just a few hours into the first test with the baseline feed, it was discovered that the DM10 vapor space temperature would not readily fall below 350 C simply by ramping up the feed rate as the test plan called for. To overcome this, ambient air was introduced directly into the vapor space through a dilution air damper in addition to the natural air inleakage occurring at the operating melter pressure of -1 inch H{sub 2}O. A detailed description of the DM10 run along with all the data taken is given in the report issued by VSL. The SRNL personnel have analyzed the DM10 data and identified 25 steady state periods lasting from 32 to 92 minutes for all

  17. Integration of the Uncertainties of Anion and TOC Measurements into the Flammability Control Strategy for Sludge Batch 8 at the DWPF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, T. B.

    2013-03-14

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been working with the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) in the development and implementation of a flammability control strategy for DWPFs melter operation during the processing of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). SRNLs support has been in response to technical task requests that have been made by SRRs Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) organization. The flammability control strategy relies on measurements that are performed on Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) samples by the DWPF Laboratory. Measurements of nitrate, oxalate, formate, and total organic carbon (TOC) standards generated by the DWPF Laboratory are presented in this report, and an evaluation of the uncertainties of these measurements is provided. The impact of the uncertainties of these measurements on DWPFs strategy for controlling melter flammability also is evaluated. The strategy includes monitoring each SME batch for its nitrate content and its TOC content relative to the nitrate content and relative to the antifoam additions made during the preparation of the SME batch. A linearized approach for monitoring the relationship between TOC and nitrate is developed, equations are provided that integrate the measurement uncertainties into the flammability control strategy, and sample calculations for these equations are shown to illustrate the impact of the uncertainties on the flammability control strategy.

  18. Methods for deacidizing gaseous mixtures by phase enhanced absorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Liang

    2012-11-27

    An improved process for deacidizing a gaseous mixture using phase enhanced gas-liquid absorption is described. The process utilizes a multiphasic absorbent that absorbs an acid gas at increased rate and leads to reduced overall energy costs for the deacidizing operation.

  19. Atmospheric escape by magnetically driven wind from gaseous planets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Yuki A.; Suzuki, Takeru K.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2014-09-01

    We calculate the mass loss driven by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves from hot Jupiters by using MHD simulations in one-dimensional flux tubes. If a gaseous planet has a magnetic field, MHD waves are excited by turbulence at the surface, dissipate in the upper atmosphere, and drive gas outflows. Our calculation shows that mass-loss rates are comparable to the observed mass-loss rates of hot Jupiters; therefore, it is suggested that gas flow driven by MHD waves can play an important role in the mass loss from gaseous planets. The mass-loss rate varies dramatically with the radius and mass of a planet: a gaseous planet with a small mass but an inflated radius produces a very large mass-loss rate. We also derive an analytical expression for the dependence of mass-loss rate on planet radius and mass that is in good agreement with the numerical calculation. The mass-loss rate also depends on the amplitude of the velocity dispersion at the surface of a planet. Thus, we expect to infer the condition of the surface and the internal structure of a gaseous planet from future observations of mass-loss rate from various exoplanets.

  20. Stellar and gaseous nuclear disks observed in nearby (U)LIRGs...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Stellar and gaseous nuclear disks observed in nearby (U)LIRGs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stellar and gaseous nuclear disks observed in nearby (U)LIRGs We present ...

  1. The importance of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} for sulphation of gaseous KCl - An experimental investigation in a biomass fired CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassman, Haakan; Baefver, Linda; Aamand, Lars-Erik

    2010-09-15

    This paper is based on results obtained during co-combustion of wood pellets and straw in a 12 MW circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler. Elemental sulphur (S) and ammonium sulphate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}) were used as additives to convert the alkali chlorides (mainly KCl) to less corrosive alkali sulphates. Their performance was then evaluated using several measurement tools including, IACM (on-line measurements of gaseous alkali chlorides), a low-pressure impactor (particle size distribution and chemical composition of extracted fly ash particles), and deposit probes (chemical composition in deposits collected). The importance of the presence of either SO{sub 2} or SO{sub 3} for gas phase sulphation of KCl is also discussed. Ammonium sulphate performed significantly better than elemental sulphur. A more efficient sulphation of gaseous KCl was achieved with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} even when the S/Cl molar ratio was less than half compared to sulphur. Thus the presence of gaseous SO{sub 3} is of greater importance than that of SO{sub 2} for the sulphation of gaseous KCl. (author)

  2. Proposed On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plant | Department of Energy Disposal Facility (OSDF) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Proposed On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Full Document and Summary Versions are available for download Proposed On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (436.49 KB) Summary - Proposed On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (47.06 KB) More Documents & Publications Briefing: DOE EM ITR Landfill

  3. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-10-01

    Volume 2 consists of 19 reports describing technical effort performed by Government Contractors in the area of LNG Safety and Environmental Control. Report topics are: simulation of LNG vapor spread and dispersion by finite element methods; modeling of negatively buoyant vapor cloud dispersion; effect of humidity on the energy budget of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vapor cloud; LNG fire and explosion phenomena research evaluation; modeling of laminar flames in mixtures of vaporized liquefied natural gas (LNG) and air; chemical kinetics in LNG detonations; effects of cellular structure on the behavior of gaseous detonation waves under transient conditions; computer simulation of combustion and fluid dynamics in two and three dimensions; LNG release prevention and control; the feasibility of methods and systems for reducing LNG tanker fire hazards; safety assessment of gelled LNG; and a four band differential radiometer for monitoring LNG vapors.

  4. Program plan for evaluation and remediation of the generation and release of flammable gases in Hanford Site waste tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, G.D.

    1991-08-01

    This program plan describes the activities being conducted for the resolution of the flammable gas problem that is associated with 23 high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The classification of the wastes in all of these tanks is not final and some wastes may not be high-level wastes. However, until the characterization and classification is complete, all the tanks are treated as if they contain high-level waste. Of the 23 tanks, Tank 241-SY-101 (referred to as Tank 101-SY) has exhibited significant episodic releases of flammable gases (hydrogen and nitrous oxide) for the past 10 years. The major near-term focus of this program is for the understanding and stabilization of this tank. An understanding of the mechanism for gas generation and the processes for the episodic release will be obtained through sampling of the tank contents, laboratory studies, and modeling of the tank behavior. Additional information will be obtained through new and upgraded instrumentation for the tank. A number of remediation, or stabilization, concepts will be evaluated for near-term (2 to 3 years) applications to Tank 101-SY. Detailed safety assessments are required for all activities that will occur in the tank (sampling, removal of equipment, and addition of new instruments). This program plan presents a discussion of each task, provides schedules for near-term activities, and gives a summary of the expected work for fiscal years 1991, 1992, and 1993. 16 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. A safety equipment list for rotary mode core sampling systems operation in single shell flammable gas tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SMALLEY, J.L.

    1999-05-18

    This document identifies all interim safety equipment to be used for rotary mode core sampling of single-shell flammable gas tanks utilizing Rotary Mode Core Sampling systems (RMCS). This document provides the safety equipment for RMCS trucks HO-68K-4600, HO-68K-4647, trucks three and four respectively, and associated equipment. It is not intended to replace or supersede WHC-SD-WM-SEL-023, (Kelly 1991), or WHC-SD-WM-SEL-032, (Corbett 1994), which classifies 80-68K-4344 and HO-68K-4345 respectively. The term ''safety equipment'' refers to safety class (SC) and safety significant (SS) equipment, where equipment refers to structures, systems and components (SSC's). The identification of safety equipment in this document is based on the credited design safety features and analysis contained in the Authorization Basis (AB) for rotary mode core sampling operations in single-shell flammable gas tanks. This is an interim safety classification since the AB is interim. This document will be updated to reflect the final RMCS equipment safety classification designations upon completion of a final AB which will be implemented with the release of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).

  6. Method of producing gaseous products using a downflow reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D; Rozmiarek, Robert T; Hornemann, Charles C

    2014-09-16

    Reactor systems and methods are provided for the catalytic conversion of liquid feedstocks to synthesis gases and other noncondensable gaseous products. The reactor systems include a heat exchange reactor configured to allow the liquid feedstock and gas product to flow concurrently in a downflow direction. The reactor systems and methods are particularly useful for producing hydrogen and light hydrocarbons from biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons using aqueous phase reforming. The generated gases may find used as a fuel source for energy generation via PEM fuel cells, solid-oxide fuel cells, internal combustion engines, or gas turbine gensets, or used in other chemical processes to produce additional products. The gaseous products may also be collected for later use or distribution.

  7. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horak, C.M.

    1993-09-01

    This two-part report, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Environmental Report for 1992, is published annually. It reflects the results of an environmental monitoring program designed to quantify potential increases in the concentration of contaminants and potential doses to the resident human population. The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) overall goal for environmental management is to protect the environment and PGDP`s neighbors and to maintain full compliance with all current regulations. The current environmental strategy is to identify any deficiencies and to develop a system to resolve them. The long-range goal of environmental management is to minimize the source of pollutants, reduce the generation of waste, and minimize hazardous waste by substitution of materials.

  8. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Environmental report for 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Counce-Brown, D.

    1991-09-01

    This two-part report, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site Environmental Report for 1990, is published annually. It reflects the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) on the area's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation, and wildlife. In addition, an assessment of the effect of PGDP effluents on the resident human population is made. PGDP's overall goal for environmental management is to protect the environment and PGDP's neighbors and to maintain full compliance with all current regulations. The current environmental strategy is to identify any deficiencies and to develop a system to resolve them. The long-range goal of environmental management is to minimize the source of pollutants, to reduce the formation of waste, and to minimize hazardous waste by substitution of materials.

  9. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to summarize effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance results and compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and orders at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Environmental monitoring at PGDP consists of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is direct measurement or the collection and analysis of samples of liquid and gaseous discharges to the environment. Environmental surveillance is direct measurement or the collection and analysis of samples of air, water, soil, foodstuff, biota, and other media. Environmental monitoring is performed to characterize and quantify contaminants, assess radiation exposures of members of the public, demonstrate compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements, and detect and assess the effects (if any) on the local environment. Multiple samples are collected throughout the year and are analyzed for radioactivity, chemical content, and various physical attributes.

  10. Process and composition for drying of gaseous hydrogen halides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tom, Glenn M.; Brown, Duncan W.

    1989-08-01

    A process for drying a gaseous hydrogen halide of the formula HX, wherein X is selected from the group consisting of bromine, chlorine, fluorine, and iodine, to remove water impurity therefrom, comprising: contacting the water impurity-containing gaseous hydrogen halide with a scavenger including a support having associated therewith one or more members of the group consisting of: (a) an active scavenging moiety selected from one or more members of the group consisting of: (i) metal halide compounds dispersed in the support, of the formula MX.sub.y ; and (ii) metal halide pendant functional groups of the formula -MX.sub.y-1 covalently bonded to the support, wherein M is a y-valent metal, and y is an integer whose value is from 1 to 3; (b) corresponding partially or fully alkylated compounds and/or pendant functional groups, of the metal halide compounds and/or pendant functional groups of (a); wherein the alkylated compounds and/or pendant functional groups, when present, are reactive with the gaseous hydrogen halide to form the corresponding halide compounds and/or pendant functional groups of (a); and M being selected such that the heat of formation, .DELTA.H.sub.f of its hydrated halide, MX.sub.y.(H.sub.2 O).sub.n, is governed by the relationship: .DELTA.H.sub.f .gtoreq.n.times.10.1 kilocalories/mole of such hydrated halide compound wherein n is the number of water molecules bound to the metal halide in the metal halide hydrate. Also disclosed is an appertaining scavenger composition and a contacting apparatus wherein the scavenger is deployed in a bed for contacting with the water impurity-containing gaseous hydrogen halide.

  11. Federal Facility Agreement for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Summary

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Federal Facility Agreement for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant State Kentucky Agreement Type Federal Facility Agreement Legal Driver(s) CERCLA/RCRA Scope Summary Ensure that the environmental impacts of activities at the Site are investigated and appropriate response actions are taken. Parties U.S. DOE; Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet; U.S. EPA Date 2/01/1998 SCOPE * Ensure all releases of hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants are addressed to

  12. Method and apparatus for analyzing particle-containing gaseous suspensions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Solomon, Peter R.; Carangelo, Robert M.; Best, Philip E.

    1987-01-01

    The method and apparatus permit analyses, by optical means, of properties of gaseous suspensions of particles, by measuring radiation that is emitted, transmitted or scattered by the particles. Determinations of composition, size, temperature and spectral emittance can be performed either in-situ or by sampling, and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometric techniques are most effectively used. Apparatus specifically adapted for performing radiation scattering analyses, and for collecting radiation from different sources, are provided.

  13. Method and apparatus for analyzing particle-containing gaseous suspensions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Solomon, P.R.; Carangelo, R.M.; Best, P.E.

    1987-03-24

    The method and apparatus permit analyses, by optical means, of properties of gaseous suspensions of particles, by measuring radiation that is emitted, transmitted or scattered by the particles. Determinations of composition, size, temperature and spectral emittance can be performed either in-situ or by sampling, and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometric techniques are most effectively used. Apparatus specifically adapted for performing radiation scattering analyses, and for collecting radiation from different sources, are provided. 51 figs.

  14. Onsite Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plant UF6 Cylinder Destructive Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong; Carter, Jennifer C.; McNamara, Bruce K.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Phillips, Jon R.; Curtis, Michael M.

    2012-07-17

    The IAEA safeguards approach for gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) includes measurements of gross, partial, and bias defects in a statistical sampling plan. These safeguard methods consist principally of mass and enrichment nondestructive assay (NDA) verification. Destructive assay (DA) samples are collected from a limited number of cylinders for high precision offsite mass spectrometer analysis. DA is typically used to quantify bias defects in the GCEP material balance. Under current safeguards measures, the operator collects a DA sample from a sample tap following homogenization. The sample is collected in a small UF6 sample bottle, then sealed and shipped under IAEA chain of custody to an offsite analytical laboratory. Current practice is expensive and resource intensive. We propose a new and novel approach for performing onsite gaseous UF6 DA analysis that provides rapid and accurate assessment of enrichment bias defects. DA samples are collected using a custom sampling device attached to a conventional sample tap. A few micrograms of gaseous UF6 is chemically adsorbed onto a sampling coupon in a matter of minutes. The collected DA sample is then analyzed onsite using Laser Ablation Absorption Ratio Spectrometry-Destructive Assay (LAARS-DA). DA results are determined in a matter of minutes at sufficient accuracy to support reliable bias defect conclusions, while greatly reducing DA sample volume, analysis time, and cost.

  15. Gas phase decontamination of gaseous diffusion process equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bundy, R.D.; Munday, E.B.; Simmons, D.W.; Neiswander, D.W.

    1994-03-01

    D&D of the process facilities at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) will be an enormous task. The EBASCO estimate places the cost of D&D of the GDP at the K-25 Site at approximately $7.5 billion. Of this sum, nearly $4 billion is associated with the construction and operation of decontamination facilities and the dismantlement and transport of contaminated process equipment to these facilities. In situ long-term low-temperature (LTLT) gas phase decontamination is being developed and demonstrated at the K-25 site as a technology that has the potential to substantially lower these costs while reducing criticality and safeguards concerns and worker exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials. The objective of gas phase decontamination is to employ a gaseous reagent to fluorinate nonvolatile uranium deposits to form volatile LJF6, which can be recovered by chemical trapping or freezing. The LTLT process permits the decontamination of the inside of gas-tight GDP process equipment at room temperature by substituting a long exposure to subatmospheric C1F for higher reaction rates at higher temperatures. This paper outlines the concept for applying LTLT gas phase decontamination, reports encouraging laboratory experiments, and presents the status of the design of a prototype mobile system. Plans for demonstrating the LTLT process on full-size gaseous diffusion equipment are also outlined briefly.

  16. Self-scrubbing removal of submicron particles from gaseous effluents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1993-07-06

    A method is described for removal of submicron particles from gaseous effluents which contain sulfur dioxide among other substances, comprising the steps of: injecting liquid water droplets into a gaseous effluent containing submicron particles, said effluent being at a temperature higher than the bulk water dew point, said injection step cooling the effluent to approximately the bulk dew point of water and causing at least some but less than all of the water to evaporate; delaying the injection of any further substances into the effluent until the effluent and the injected water reach a substantially uniform temperature at approximately the bulk water dew point; following said delay, injecting gaseous ammonia into the resulting mixture of effluent and water in order to cause ammonium sulfite on said submicron particles, thus increasing the size of said particles, and also such as to cause water to condense onto the ammonium sulfite-coated particles, thus further increasing the size of said particles; and separating at least some of the resultant enlarged particles from the effluent.

  17. Flammable Gas Safety Program: Mechanisms of gas generation from simulated SY Tank Farm wastes. Progress report, FY 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barefield, E.K.; Boadtright, D.; Deshpande, A.; Doctorovich, F.; Liotta, C.L.; Neumann, H.M.; Seymore, S.

    1995-09-01

    This is the final report for work done at Georgia Tech during Fiscal Year 1994. The objectives of this work were to develop a better understanding of the mechanism of formation of flammable gases in the thermal decomposition of metal complexants, such as HEDTA and sodium glycolate, in simulated SY waste mixtures. This project is a continuation of work begun under earlier contracts with Westinghouse Hanford Co. Three major areas are discussed: development of a reliable analysis for dissolved ammonia, the initiation of long term studies of HEDTA decomposition in stainless steel vessels and product analyses through 3800 h, and further consideration of product analyses and kinetic data reported in FY 1993 for decomposition of HEDTA and sodium glycolate in Teflon-lined glass vessels. A brief exploration was also made of the speciation of aluminum(l1l) in the presence of HEDTA as a function of pH using {sup 27}Al NMR.

  18. Engine gaseous, aerosol precursor and particulate at simulated flight altitude conditions. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wey, C.C.

    1998-10-01

    The overall objective of the NASA Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) is to develop scientific bases for assessing atmospheric impacts of the exhaust emissions by both current and future fleets of subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Among the six primary elements of the AEAP is Emissions Characterization. The objective of the Emission Characterization effort is to determine the exhaust emission constituents and concentrations at the engine exit plane. The specific objective of this engine test is to obtain a database of gaseous and particulate emissions as a function of fuel sulfur and engine operating conditions. The database of the particulate emission properties is to be used as a comparative baseline with subsequent flight measurement. The engine used in this test was a Pratt and Whitney F100-200E turbofan engine. Aviation fuel (Jet A) with a range of fuel sulfur was used. Low and high sulfur values are limited by commercially available fuels and by fuel specification limits of 0.3% by weight. Test matrix was set by parametrically varying the combustor inlet temperature (T3) between idle and maximum power setting at simulated SLS and up to five other altitudes for each fuel. Four diagnostic systems, extractive and non-intrusive, were assembled for the gaseous and particulate emissions characterization measurements study. NASA extractive system includes smoke meter and analyzers for measurement of CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, NOx, O{sub 2}, total unburnt hydrocarbons (THC), and SO{sub 2}. Particulate emissions were characterized by University of Missouri-Rolla Mobile Aerosol Sampling System.

  19. Evaluation of mitigation strategies in Facility Group 1 double-shell flammable-gas tanks at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unal, C.; Sadasivan, P.; Kubic, W.L.; White, J.R.

    1997-11-01

    Radioactive nuclear waste at the Hanford Site is stored in underground waste storage tanks at the site. The tanks fall into two main categories: single-shell tanks (SSTs) and double-shell tanks (DSTs). There are a total of 149 SSTs and 28 DSTs. The wastes stored in the tanks are chemically complex. They basically involve various sodium salts (mainly nitrite, nitrate, carbonates, aluminates, and hydroxides), organic compounds, heavy metals, and various radionuclides, including cesium, strontium, plutonium, and uranium. The waste is known to generate flammable gas (FG) [hydrogen, ammonia, nitrous oxide, hydrocarbons] by complex chemical reactions. The process of gas generation, retention, and release is transient. Some tanks reach a quasi-steady stage where gas generation is balanced by the release rate. Other tanks show continuous cycles of retention followed by episodic release. There currently are 25 tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL). The objective of this report is to evaluate possible mitigation strategies to eliminate the FG hazard. The evaluation is an engineering study of mitigation concepts for FG generation, retention, and release behavior in Tanks SY-101, AN-103, AN 104, An-105, and Aw-101. Where possible, limited quantification of the effects of mitigation strategies on the FG hazard also is considered. The results obtained from quantification efforts discussed in this report should be considered as best-estimate values. Results and conclusions of this work are intended to help in establishing methodologies in the contractor`s controls selection analysis to develop necessary safety controls for closing the FG unreviewed safety question. The general performance requirements of any mitigation scheme are discussed first.

  20. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bean, R.W.

    1963-11-19

    A ceramic fuel element for a nuclear reactor that has improved structural stability as well as improved cooling and fission product retention characteristics is presented. The fuel element includes a plurality of stacked hollow ceramic moderator blocks arranged along a tubular raetallic shroud that encloses a series of axially apertured moderator cylinders spaced inwardly of the shroud. A plurality of ceramic nuclear fuel rods are arranged in the annular space between the shroud and cylinders of moderator and appropriate support means and means for directing gas coolant through the annular space are also provided. (AEC)

  1. Process for obtaining gaseous streams rich in ethene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, J.A.; Coutinho, P.H.

    1981-02-17

    This invention relates to the production of ethene with a highly profitable yield by means of fluidized bed catalytic cracking of a mixture containing 0.13 to 50 parts by weight of ethanol to 100 parts by weight of hydrocarbons blend at a temperature between 430/sup 0/C and 550/sup 0/C., and pressure between 0 and 5.0kg/cm2 ga in such way that the final gaseous product resulting therefrom has an ethene content between 18.8% and 64% by volume.

  2. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Environmental report for 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Counce-Brown, D.

    1991-09-01

    This calendar year 1990 annual report on environmental surveillance of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) and its environs consists of two parts: the summary, discussion, and conclusions (Part 1) and the data presentation (Part 2). The objectives of this report are as follows: report 1990 monitoring data for the installation and its environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site, provide reasonably detailed information about the plant site and plant operations, provide detailed information on input and assumptions used in all calculations, provide trend analyses (when appropriate) to indicate increases and decreases in environmental impact, and provide general information on plant quality assurance.

  3. Theoretical solution of the minimum charge problem for gaseous detonations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ostensen, R.W.

    1990-12-01

    A theoretical model was developed for the minimum charge to trigger a gaseous detonation in spherical geometry as a generalization of the Zeldovich model. Careful comparisons were made between the theoretical predictions and experimental data on the minimum charge to trigger detonations in propane-air mixtures. The predictions are an order of magnitude too high, and there is no apparent resolution to the discrepancy. A dynamic model, which takes into account the experimentally observed oscillations in the detonation zone, may be necessary for reliable predictions. 27 refs., 9 figs.

  4. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant - TN

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    02 Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant - TN 02 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (TN.02 ) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition: Radioactive Materials Handled: Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Radiological Survey(s): Site Status: Also see http://www.mbe.doe.gov/me70/manhattan/come_through.htm Documents Related to Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant

  5. DOE Issues Final Request for Proposal for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Support Services | Department of Energy Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Support Services DOE Issues Final Request for Proposal for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Support Services October 6, 2014 - 4:13pm Addthis Media Contact Bill Taylor, 803-952-8564, bill.taylor@srs.gov Cincinnati -- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Final Request for Proposal (RFP), for the performance of infrastructure support services at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Paducah, Kentucky. A

  6. Characterization of the Installed Costs of Prime Movers Using Gaseous Opportunity Fuels, September 2007

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A report addendum and final white paper for the Characterization of the Installed Costs of Prime Movers Using Gaseous Opportunity Fuels

  7. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Infrastructure Support Contract Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant- May 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Evaluation to determine whether Infrastructure Support Contract Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant is continuing to perform at a level deserving DOE-VPP Star recognition.

  8. Regenerable sorbent and method for removing hydrogen sulfide from hot gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrior, Jr., William L. (Morgantown, WV)

    1978-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is effectively removed from hot gaseous mixtures useful for industrial purposes by employing a solid absorbent consisting of silica-supported iron oxide in pellet form.

  9. Low energy consumption method for separating gaseous mixtures and in particular for medium purity oxygen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jujasz, Albert J.; Burkhart, James A.; Greenberg, Ralph

    1988-01-01

    A method for the separation of gaseous mixtures such as air and for producing medium purity oxygen, comprising compressing the gaseous mixture in a first compressor to about 3.9-4.1 atmospheres pressure, passing said compressed gaseous mixture in heat exchange relationship with sub-ambient temperature gaseous nitrogen, dividing the cooled, pressurized gaseous mixture into first and second streams, introducing the first stream into the high pressure chamber of a double rectification column, separating the gaseous mixture in the rectification column into a liquid oxygen-enriched stream and a gaseous nitrogen stream and supplying the gaseous nitrogen stream for cooling the compressed gaseous mixture, removing the liquid oxygen-enriched stream from the low pressure chamber of the rectification column and pumping the liquid, oxygen-enriched steam to a predetermined pressure, cooling the second stream, condensing the cooled second stream and evaporating the oxygen-enriched stream in an evaporator-condenser, delivering the condensed second stream to the high pressure chamber of the rectification column, and heating the oxygen-enriched stream and blending the oxygen-enriched stream with a compressed blend-air stream to the desired oxygen concentration.

  10. EA-1927: Conveyance of Land and Facilities at the Paducah Gaseous...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Draft EA for potential land and facilities transfers at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in McCracken County, Kentucky. OPPORTUNITES FOR PUBLIC COMMENT No public comment...

  11. EA-1856: Conveyance of Real Property at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Pike County, Ohio

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of conveyance of land and facilities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, in Piketon, Ohio, for economic development purposes.

  12. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Infrastructure Support Contract Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant- March 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Evaluation to determine whether the Infrastructure Support Contract Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant is continuing to perform at a level deserving DOE-VPP Star recognition.

  13. Programmatic Elements

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2007-07-11

    The Guide provides acceptable methods of meeting the requirements of DOE O 151.1C for programmatic elements that sustain the emergency management program and maintain the readiness of the program to respond to an emergency. Supersedes DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 5-1, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 5-2, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 5-3, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 5-4, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 7-1, and DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 7-3.

  14. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant annual site environmental report for 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horak, C.M.

    1994-11-01

    This calendar year (CY) 1993 annual report on environmental monitoring of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth) and its environs consists of three separate documents: a summary pamphlet for the general public; a more detail discussion and of compliance status, data, and environmental impacts (this document); and a volume of detailed data that is available on request. The objectives of this report are to report compliance status during 1993; provide information about the plant site and plant operations; report 1993 monitoring data for the installation and its environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site; document information on input and assumptions used in calculations; provide trend analyses (where appropriate) to indicate increases and decreases in environmental impact, and provide general information on quality assurance for the environmental monitoring program.

  15. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.W. )

    1990-10-01

    This two-part environmental report is published annually. It reflects the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) on the area's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation, and wildlife. In addition, an assessment of the effect of PGDP effluents on the resident human population is made. PGDP's overall goal for environmental management is to protect the environment and PGDP's neighbors and to maintain full compliance with all current regulations. The current environmental strategy is to identify any deficiencies and to develop a system to resolve them. The long-range goal of environmental management is to minimize the source of pollutants, to reduce the formation of waste, and to minimize hazardous waste by substitution of materials. 36 refs.

  16. Seismic issues at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, K.E. )

    1989-11-01

    A seismic expert workshop was held at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) on March 13--15, 1989. the PGDP is operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy (DOE). During the last twenty years the design criteria for natural phenomenon hazards has steadily become more demanding at all of the DOE Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) sites. The purpose of the two-day workshop was to review the seismic vulnerability issues of the PGDP facilities. Participants to the workshop included recognized experts in the fields of seismic engineering, seismology and geosciences, and probabilistic analysis, along with engineers and other personnel from Energy Systems. A complete list of the workshop participants is included in the front of this report. 29 refs.

  17. Structure of the NiFe2O4(001) surface in contact with gaseous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structure of the NiFe2O4(001) surface in contact with gaseous O2 and water vapor Citation ... Title: Structure of the NiFe2O4(001) surface in contact with gaseous O2 and water vapor ...

  18. Effects of radiation and compression on propagating spherical flames of methane/air mixtures near the lean flammability limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Zheng [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Large discrepancies between the laminar flame speeds and Markstein lengths measured in experiments and those predicted by simulations for ultra-lean methane/air mixtures bring a great concern for kinetic mechanism validation. In order to quantitatively explain these discrepancies, a computational study is performed for propagating spherical flames of lean methane/air mixtures in different spherical chambers using different radiation models. The emphasis is focused on the effects of radiation and compression. It is found that the spherical flame propagation speed is greatly reduced by the coupling between thermal effect (change of flame temperature or unburned gas temperature) and flow effect (inward flow of burned gas) induced by radiation and/or compression. As a result, for methane/air mixtures near the lean flammability limit, the radiation and compression cause large amounts of under-prediction of the laminar flame speeds and Markstein lengths extracted from propagating spherical flames. Since radiation and compression both exist in the experiments on ultra-lean methane/air mixtures reported in the literature, the measured laminar flame speeds and Markstein lengths are much lower than results from simulation and thus cannot be used for kinetic mechanism validation. (author)

  19. Guidelines for Transportation, Handling, and Use of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil. Part 1. Flammability and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oasmaa, Anja; Kalli, Anssi; Lindfors, Christian; Elliott, Douglas C.; Springer, David L.; Peacocke, Cordner; Chiaramonti, David

    2012-05-04

    An alternative sustainable fuel, biomass-derived fast pyrolysis oil or 'bio-oil', is coming into the market. Fast pyrolysis pilot and demonstration plants for fuel applications producing tonnes of bio-oil are in operation, and commercial plants are under design. There will be increasingly larger amounts of bio-oil transportation on water and by land, leading to a need for specifications and supporting documentation. Bio-oil is different from conventional liquid fuels, and therefore must overcome both technical and marketing hurdles for its acceptability in the fuels market. A comprehensive Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is required, backed with independent testing and certification. In order to standardise bio-oil quality specifications are needed. The first bio-oil burner fuel standard in ASTM (D7544) was approved in 2009. CEN standardisation has been initiated in Europe. In the EU a new chemical regulation system, REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals) is being applied. Registration under REACH has to be made if bio-oil is produced or imported to the EU. In the USA and Canada, bio-oil has to be filed under TOSCA (US Toxic Substances Control Act). In this paper the state of the art on standardisation is discussed, and new data for the transportation guidelines is presented. The focus is on flammability and toxicity.

  20. Fuel elements of thermionic converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, R.L.; Gontar, A.S.; Nelidov, M.V.; Nikolaev, Yu.V.; Schulepov, L.N.

    1997-01-01

    Work on thermionic nuclear power systems has been performed in Russia within the framework of the TOPAZ reactor program since the early 1960s. In the TOPAZ in-core thermionic convertor reactor design, the fuel element`s cladding is also the thermionic convertor`s emitter. Deformation of the emitter can lead to short-circuiting and is the primary cause of premature TRC failure. Such deformation can be the result of fuel swelling, thermocycling, or increased unilateral pressure on the emitter due to the release of gaseous fission products. Much of the work on TRCs has concentrated on preventing or mitigating emitter deformation by improving the following materials and structures: nuclear fuel; emitter materials; electrical insulators; moderator and reflector materials; and gas-exhaust device. In addition, considerable effort has been directed toward the development of experimental techniques that accurately mimic operational conditions and toward the creation of analytical and numerical models that allow operational conditions and behavior to be predicted without the expense and time demands of in-pile tests. New and modified materials and structures for the cores of thermionic NPSs and new fabrication processes for the materials have ensured the possibility of creating thermionic NPSs for a wide range of powers, from tens to several hundreds of kilowatts, with life spans of 5 to 10 years.

  1. THE EFFECT OF THE PRESENCE OF OZONE ON THE LOWER FLAMMABILITY LIMIT OF HYDROGEN IN VESSELS CONTAINING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherburne, C.

    2012-01-12

    The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process uses ozone to effect the oxidation of metal oxalates produced during the dissolution of sludge in the Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks. The ozone reacts with the metal oxalates to form metal oxide and hydroxide precipitants, and the CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and any unreacted O{sub 3} gases are discharged into the vapor space. In addition to the non-radioactive metals in the waste, however, the SRS radioactive waste also contains a variety of radionuclides, hence, hydrogen gas is also present in the vapor space of the ECC system. Because hydrogen is flammable, the impact of this resultant gas stream on the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) of hydrogen must be understood for all possible operating scenarios of both normal and off-normal situations, with particular emphasis at the elevated temperatures and pressures of the typical ECC operating conditions. Oxygen is a known accelerant in combustion reactions, but while there are data associated with the behavior of hydrogen/oxygen environments, recent, relevant studies addressing the effect of ozone on the flammability limit of hydrogen proved scarce. Further, discussions with industry experts verified the absence of data in this area and indicated that laboratory testing, specific to defined operating parameters, was needed to comprehensively address the issue. Testing was thus designed and commissioned to provide the data necessary to support safety related considerations for the ECC process. A test matrix was developed to envelope the bounding conditions considered credible during ECC processing. Each test consists of combining a gas stream of high purity hydrogen with a gas stream comprised of a specified mixture of ozone and oxygen in a temperature and pressure regulated chamber such that the relative compositions of the two streams are controlled. The gases are then stirred to obtain a homogeneous mixture and ignition attempted by applying 10J of energy to a

  2. Response Elements

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2007-07-11

    The Guide provides acceptable methods for meeting the requirement of DOE O 151.1C for response elements that respond or contribute to response as needed in an emergency. Supersedes DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-1, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-2, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-3, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-4, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-1, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-2, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-3, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-4, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-5, and DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-6.

  3. Application of Gaseous Sphere Injection Method for Modeling Under-expanded H2 Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitesides, R; Hessel, R P; Flowers, D L; Aceves, S M

    2010-12-03

    A methodology for modeling gaseous injection has been refined and applied to recent experimental data from the literature. This approach uses a discrete phase analogy to handle gaseous injection, allowing for addition of gaseous injection to a CFD grid without needing to resolve the injector nozzle. This paper focuses on model testing to provide the basis for simulation of hydrogen direct injected internal combustion engines. The model has been updated to be more applicable to full engine simulations, and shows good agreement with experiments for jet penetration and time-dependent axial mass fraction, while available radial mass fraction data is less well predicted.

  4. Nuclear criticality safety aspects of gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in the diffusion cascade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffer, J.E.

    1997-04-01

    This paper determines the nuclear safety of gaseous UF{sub 6} in the current Gaseous Diffusion Cascade and auxiliary systems. The actual plant safety system settings for pressure trip points are used to determine the maximum amount of HF moderation in the process gas, as well as the corresponding atomic number densities. These inputs are used in KENO V.a criticality safety models which are sized to the actual plant equipment. The ENO V.a calculation results confirm nuclear safety of gaseous UF{sub 6} in plant operations..

  5. Effect of gaseous inhibitors on PCDD/F formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruokojaervi, P.H.; Halonen, I.A.; Tuppurainen, K.A.; Tarhanen, J.; Ruuskanen, J.

    1998-10-15

    Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from municipal waste incineration are currently a subject of considerable public concern because of their extreme toxicity. PCDD/F formation in incineration processes is being studied widely, but studies on inhibition are quite sparse, especially in a pilot-plant scale. In this work, the effect of four gaseous inhibitors (sulfur dioxide, ammonia, dimethylamine, and methyl mercaptan) on PCDD/PCDF formation in the combustion of liquid fuel was studied using a pilot-scale plant. The inhibitors were injected into the flue gas stream after the first economizer at a temperature of 670 C and just before the second economizer at 410 C. Both the chlorophenol and PCDD and PCDF concentrations decreased when inhibitors were added. Particle-phase PCDD/F concentrations in particular decreased by up to 98%. The results suggest that the formation of PCDD/Fs is hindered in the particle phase at the early stages of the PCDD/F formation chain, probably even before precursors such as chlorophenols have been formed.

  6. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.W. )

    1990-10-01

    This calendar year 1989 annual report on environmental surveillance of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) and its environs consists of two parts: the Summary, Discussion, and Conclusions (Part 1) and the Data Presentation (Part 2). The objectives of this report are the following: report 1989 monitoring data for the installation and its environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site, provide reasonably detailed information about the plant site and plant operations, provide detailed information on input and assumptions used in all calculations, provide trend analyses (where appropriate) to indicate increases and decreases in environmental impact, and provide general information on plant quality assurance. Routine monitoring and sampling for radiation, radioactive materials, and chemical substances on and off the DOE site are used to document compliance with appropriate standards, to identify trends, to provide information for the public, and to contribute to general environmental knowledge. The surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of protecting the public, employees, and environment from harm that could be caused by its activities and reducing negative environmental impacts to the greatest degree practicable. Environmental-monitoring information complements data on specific releases, trends, and summaries. 26 refs.

  7. Photoelectron spectroscopy of wet and gaseous samples through graphene membranes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kraus, Jürgen; Reichelt, Robert; Günther, Sebastian; Gregoratti, Luca; Amati, Matteo; Kiskinova, Maya; Yulaev, Alexander; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Kolmakov, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and microscopy are highly important for exploring morphologically and chemically complex liquid–gas, solid–liquid and solid–gas interfaces under realistic conditions, but the very small electron mean free path inside dense media imposes serious experimental challenges. Currently, near ambient pressure PES is conducted using dexterously designed electron energy analyzers coupled with differentially pumped electron lenses which make it possible to conduct PES measurements at a few hPa. This report proposes an alternative ambient pressure approach that can be applied to a broad class of samples and be implemented in conventional PES instruments. It uses ultrathin electron transparent but molecularmore » impermeable membranes to isolate the high pressure sample environment from the high vacuum PES detection system. We show that the separating graphene membrane windows are both mechanically robust and sufficiently transparent for electrons in a wide energy range to allow soft X-ray PES of liquid and gaseous water. The performed proof-of-principle experiments confirm the possibility to probe vacuum-incompatible toxic or reactive samples placed inside such hermetic, gas flow or fluidic environmental cells.« less

  8. Innovative Decontamination Technology for Use in Gaseous Diffusion Plant Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, M.J.; Norton, C.J.; Fraikor, G.B.; Potter, G.L.; Chang, K.C.

    2006-07-01

    The results of bench scale tests demonstrated that TechXtract{sup R} RadPro{sup TM} technology (hereinafter referred to as RadPro{sup R}) can provide 100% coverage of complex mockup gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) equipment and can decontaminate uranium (U) deposits with 98% to 99.99% efficiency. Deployment tests demonstrated RadPro{sup R} can be applied as foam, mist/fog, or steam, and fully cover the internal surfaces of complex mockup equipment, including large piping. Decontamination tests demonstrated that two formulations of RadPro{sup R}, one with neutron attenuators and one without neutron attenuators, could remove up to 99.99% of uranyl fluoride deposits, one of the most difficult to remove deposits in GDP equipment. These results were supplemented by results from previous tests conducted in 1994 that showed RadPro{sup R} could remove >97% of U and Tc-99 contamination from actual GDP components. Operational use of RadPro{sup R} at other DOE and commercial facilities also support these data. (authors)

  9. Bioavailability study for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phipps, T.L.; Kszos, L.A.

    1996-08-01

    The overall purpose of this plan is to assess the bioavailability of metals in the continuous and intermittent outfalls. The results may be used to determine alternative metal limits that more appropriately measure the portion of metal present necessary for toxicity to aquatic life. These limits must remain protective of in-stream aquatic life; thus, the highest concentration of metal in the water will be determined concurrently with an assessment of acute or chronic toxicity on laboratory tests. Using the method developed by the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW), biomonitoring results and chemical data will be used to recommend alternative metal limits for the outfalls of concern. The data will be used to meet the objectives of the study: (1) evaluate the toxicity of continuous outfalls and intermittent outfalls at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant; (2) determine the mean ratio of dissolved to Total Recoverable metal for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn in the continuous and intermittent outfalls; (3) determine whether the concentration of total recoverable metal discharged causes toxicity to fathead minnows and /or Ceriodaphnia; and (4) determine alternative metal limits for each metal of concern (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn).

  10. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Northwest Plume interceptor system evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laase, A.D.; Clausen, J.L.

    1998-07-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) recently installed an interceptor system consisting of four wells, evenly divided between two well fields, to contain the Northwest Plume. As stated in the Northwest Plume Record of Decision (ROD), groundwater will be pumped at a rate to reduce further contamination and initiate control of the northwest contaminant plume. The objective of this evaluation was to determine the optimum (minimal) well field pumping rates required for plume hotspot containment. Plume hotspot, as defined in the Northwest Plume ROD and throughout this report, is that portion of the plume with trichloroethene (TCE) concentrations greater than 1,000 {micro}g/L. An existing 3-dimensional groundwater model was modified and used to perform capture zone analyses of the north and south interceptor system well fields. Model results suggest that the plume hotspot is not contained at the system design pumping rate of 100 gallons per minute (gal/min) per well field. Rather, the modeling determined that north and south well field pumping rates of 400 and 150 gal/min, respectively, are necessary for plume hotspot containment. The difference between the design and optimal pumping rates required for containment can be attributed to the discovery of a highly transmissive zone in the vicinity of the two well fields.

  11. IAEA verification experiment at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, D.M.; Subudhi, M.; Calvert, O.L.; Bonner, T.N.; Adams, J.G.; Cherry, R.C.; Whiting, N.E.

    1998-08-01

    In April 1996, the United States (US) added the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant to the list of facilities eligible for the application of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. At that time, the US proposed that the IAEA carry out a Verification Experiment at the plant with respect to the downblending of about 13 metric tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in the form of UF{sub 6}. This material is part of the 226 metric tons of fissile material that President Clinton has declared to be excess to US national-security needs and which will be permanently withdrawn from the US nuclear stockpile. In September 1997, the IAEA agreed to carry out this experiment, and during the first three weeks of December 1997, the IAEA verified the design information concerning the downblending process. The plant has been subject to short-notice random inspections since December 17, 1997. This paper provides an overview of the Verification Experiment, the monitoring technologies used in the verification approach, and some of the experience gained to date.

  12. Vented nuclear fuel element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Leonard N.; Kaznoff, Alexis I.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel cell for use in a thermionic nuclear reactor in which a small conduit extends from the outside surface of the emitter to the center of the fuel mass of the emitter body to permit escape of volatile and gaseous fission products collected in the center thereof by virtue of molecular migration of the gases to the hotter region of the fuel.

  13. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report, CY 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses work at the Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department of ORNL. An operating summary, upgrade activities and maintenance activities are presented for the Process Waste Treatment Plant, Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant, and Runoff Treatment Facility.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ANTIFOAM TRACKING SYSTEM AS AN OPTION TO SUPPORT THE MELTER OFF-GAS FLAMMABILITY CONTROL STRATEGY AT THE DWPF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, T.; Lambert, D.

    2014-08-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been working with the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) in the development and implementation of an additional strategy for confidently satisfying the flammability controls for DWPF’s melter operation. An initial strategy for implementing the operational constraints associated with flammability control in DWPF was based upon an analytically determined carbon concentration from antifoam. Due to the conservative error structure associated with the analytical approach, its implementation has significantly reduced the operating window for processing and has led to recurrent Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) and Melter Feed Tank (MFT) remediation. To address the adverse operating impact of the current implementation strategy, SRR issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to SRNL requesting the development and documentation of an alternate strategy for evaluating the carbon contribution from antifoam. The proposed strategy presented in this report was developed under the guidance of a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) and involves calculating the carbon concentration from antifoam based upon the actual mass of antifoam added to the process assuming 100% retention. The mass of antifoam in the Additive Mix Feed Tank (AMFT), in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT), and in the SME is tracked by mass balance as part of this strategy. As these quantities are monitored, the random and bias uncertainties affecting their values are also maintained and accounted for. This report documents: 1) the development of an alternate implementation strategy and associated equations describing the carbon concentration from antifoam in each SME batch derived from the actual amount of antifoam introduced into the AMFT, SRAT, and SME during the processing of the batch. 2) the equations and error structure for incorporating the proposed strategy into melter off-gas flammability assessments

  15. Method for selectively removing fluorine and fluorine-containing contaminants from gaseous UF.sub.6

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Robert L.; Otey, Milton G.; Perkins, Roy W.

    1982-01-01

    This invention is a method for effecting preferential removal and immobilization of certain gaseous contaminants from gaseous UF.sub.6. The contaminants include fluorine and fluorides which are more reactive with CaCO.sub.3 than is UF.sub.6. The method comprises contacting the contaminant-carrying UF.sub.6 with particulate CaCO.sub.3 at a temperature effecting reaction of the contaminant and the CaCO.sub.3.

  16. DOE Releases Final Request for Proposal for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deactivation and Remediation Services | Department of Energy Releases Final Request for Proposal for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Deactivation and Remediation Services DOE Releases Final Request for Proposal for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Deactivation and Remediation Services July 21, 2016 - 2:00pm Addthis Media Contact: Lynette Chafin, 513-246-0461 Cincinnati -- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Request for Proposals (RFP) for deactivation and remediation services

  17. Milestone Report #2: Direct Evaporator Leak and Flammability Analysis Modifications and Optimization of the Organic Rankine Cycle to Improve the Recovery of Waste Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen

    2013-09-01

    The direct evaporator is a simplified heat exchange system for an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) that generates electricity from a gas turbine exhaust stream. Typically, the heat of the exhaust stream is transferred indirectly to the ORC by means of an intermediate thermal oil loop. In this project, the goal is to design a direct evaporator where the working fluid is evaporated in the exhaust gas heat exchanger. By eliminating one of the heat exchangers and the intermediate oil loop, the overall ORC system cost can be reduced by approximately 15%. However, placing a heat exchanger operating with a flammable hydrocarbon working fluid directly in the hot exhaust gas stream presents potential safety risks. The purpose of the analyses presented in this report is to assess the flammability of the selected working fluid in the hot exhaust gas stream stemming from a potential leak in the evaporator. Ignition delay time for cyclopentane at temperatures and pressure corresponding to direct evaporator operation was obtained for several equivalence ratios. Results of a computational fluid dynamic analysis of a pinhole leak scenario are given.

  18. Stratified charge combustion system and method for gaseous fuel internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhoades, W.A. Jr.

    1986-03-11

    This patent describes a stratified charge combustion system for use in a gaseous fuel internal combustion engine. This system consists of: (a) a combustion chamber; (b) an ignition; (c) a gaseous fuel injection valve assembly in communication with the combustion chamber and in spaced relationship from the ignition source with a portion of the inside surfaces extending between the fuel injection valve assembly and the ignition source. The fuel valve assembly defines an entry port for the entrance of gaseous fuel, the entry port is recessed outside of a fixed inside surface. (d) means for pressuring the gaseous fuel prior to injection; and (e) a curved transitional surface extending from the entry port toward the portion of the inside surfaces extending between the fuel injection valve assembly and the ignition source. The curved transitional surface curves away from the direction of the entry port. The curved transitional surface has a curvature for the particular direction and configuration of the entry port. The particular configuration of the portion of the inside surfaces extends between the injection valve assembly and the ignition source. The particular arrangment of the fuel injection valve assembly in the combustion chamber, and for the particular pressure of the gaseous fuel is to produce the Coanda Effect in the injected gaseous fuel flow after it passes through the entry port and follows the curved transitional surface under the Coanda Effect. As the curved transitional surface curves away from the direction of the entry port, a flow is produced of the gaseous fuel that clings to and follows the particular configuration of the inside surfaces to the ignition source.

  19. The Thermodynamic Properties of the f-Elements and their Compounds. Part 2. The Lanthanide and Actinide Oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konings, Rudy J. M. Bene, Ondrej; Kovcs, Attila; Manara, Dario; Sedmidubsk, David; Gorokhov, Lev; Iorish, Vladimir S.; Yungman, Vladimir; Shenyavskaya, E.; Osina, E.

    2014-03-15

    A comprehensive review of the thermodynamic properties of the oxide compounds of the lanthanide and actinide elements is presented. The available literature data for the solid, liquid, and gaseous state have been analysed and recommended values are presented. In case experimental data are missing, estimates have been made based on the trends in the two series, which are extensively discussed.

  20. EA-1856: Conveyance of Land and Facilities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant for Economic Development Purposes, Piketon, Ohio

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of conveyance of land and facilities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, in Piketon, Ohio, for economic development purposes.

  1. Discrete Element Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  2. Method and apparatus for producing laser radiation following two-photon excitation of a gaseous medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bischel, William K. [Menlo Park, CA; Jacobs, Ralph R. [Livermore, CA; Prosnitz, Donald [Hamden, CT; Rhodes, Charles K. [Palo Alto, CA; Kelly, Patrick J. [Fort Lewis, WA

    1979-02-20

    Method and apparatus for producing laser radiation by two-photon optical pumping of an atomic or molecular gaseous medium and subsequent lasing action. A population inversion is created as a result of two-photon absorption of the gaseous species. Stark tuning is utilized, if necessary, in order to tune the two-photon transition into exact resonance. In particular, gaseous ammonia (NH.sub.3) or methyl fluoride (CH.sub.3 F) is optically pumped by a pair of CO.sub.2 lasers to create a population inversion resulting from simultaneous two-photon excitation of a high-lying vibrational state, and laser radiation is produced by stimulated emission of coherent radiation from the inverted level.

  3. Oak Ridge National Lebroatory Liquid&Gaseous Waste Treatment System Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.

    2003-09-09

    Excellence in Laboratory operations is one of the three key goals of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Agenda. That goal will be met through comprehensive upgrades of facilities and operational approaches over the next few years. Many of ORNL's physical facilities, including the liquid and gaseous waste collection and treatment systems, are quite old, and are reaching the end of their safe operating life. The condition of research facilities and supporting infrastructure, including the waste handling facilities, is a key environmental, safety and health (ES&H) concern. The existing infrastructure will add considerably to the overhead costs of research due to increased maintenance and operating costs as these facilities continue to age. The Liquid Gaseous Waste Treatment System (LGWTS) Reengineering Project is a UT-Battelle, LLC (UT-B) Operations Improvement Program (OIP) project that was undertaken to develop a plan for upgrading the ORNL liquid and gaseous waste systems to support ORNL's research mission.

  4. Method and apparatus for producing laser radiation following two-photon excitation of a gaseous medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bischel, W.K.; Jacobs, R.R.; Prosnitz, D.P.; Rhodes, C.K.; Kelly, P.J.

    1979-02-20

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for producing laser radiation by two-photon optical pumping of an atomic or molecular gaseous medium and subsequent lasing action. A population inversion is created as a result of two-photon absorption of the gaseous species. Stark tuning is utilized, if necessary, in order to tune the two-photon transition into exact resonance. In particular, gaseous ammonia (NH[sub 3]) or methyl fluoride (CH[sub 3]F) is optically pumped by a pair of CO[sub 2] lasers to create a population inversion resulting from simultaneous two-photon excitation of a high-lying vibrational state, and laser radiation is produced by stimulated emission of coherent radiation from the inverted level. 3 figs.

  5. U.S., Ohio Approve Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site D&D Plans |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy , Ohio Approve Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site D&D Plans U.S., Ohio Approve Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site D&D Plans July 30, 2015 - 3:00pm Addthis The Portsmouth Site’s large process buildings and other facilities are shown here. The Portsmouth Site's large process buildings and other facilities are shown here. PIKETON, Ohio - The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) and DOE have agreed to a plan to demolish the massive, iconic

  6. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Bcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Bcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Bcf)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","09/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  7. Method and an apparatus for non-invasively determining the quantity of an element in a body organ

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vartsky, D.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1980-06-27

    An apparatus and a method for determining in a body organ the amount of an element with the aid of a gaseous gamma ray source, where the element and the source are paired in predetermined pairs, and with the aid of at least one detector selected from the group consisting of Ge(Li) and NaI(Tl). Gamma rays are directed towards the organ, thereby resonantly scattering the gamma rays from nuclei of the element in the organ; the intensity of the gamma rays is detected by the detector; and the amount of the element in the organ is then substantially proportional to the detected intensity of the gamma rays.

  8. Environmental Restoration Site-Specific Plan for the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, FY 93

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-15

    The purpose of this Site-Specific Plan (SSP) is to describe past, present, and future activities undertaken to implement Environmental Restoration and Waste Management goals at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The SSP is presented in sections emphasizing Environmental Restoration description of activities, resources, and milestones.

  9. D&D of the French High Enrichment Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BEHAR, Christophe; GUIBERTEAU, Philippe; DUPERRET, Bernard; TAUZIN, Claude

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes the D&D program that is being implemented at France's High Enrichment Gaseous Diffusion Plant, which was designed to supply France's Military with Highly Enriched Uranium. This plant was definitively shut down in June 1996, following French President Jacques Chirac's decision to end production of Highly Enriched Uranium and dismantle the corresponding facilities.

  10. Real Time Demonstration Project XRF Performance Evaluation Report for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant AOC 492

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Robert L

    2008-04-03

    This activity was undertaken to demonstrate the applicability of market-available XRF instruments to quantify metal concentrations relative to background and risk-based action and no action levels in Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) soils. As such, the analysis below demonstrates the capabilities of the instruments relative to soil characterization applications at the PGDP.

  11. Method of absorbing UF.sub.6 from gaseous mixtures in alkamine absorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lafferty, Robert H.; Smiley, Seymour H.; Radimer, Kenneth J.

    1976-04-06

    A method of recovering uranium hexafluoride from gaseous mixtures employing as an absorbent a liquid composition at least one of the components of which is chosen from the group consisting of ethanolamine, diethanolamine, and 3-methyl-3-amino-propane-diol-1,2.

  12. TREATMENT OF GASEOUS EFFLUENTS ISSUED FROM RECYCLING – A REVIEW OF THE CURRENT PRACTICES AND PROSPECTIVE IMPROVEMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; William Kerlin; Steven Bakhtiar

    2010-11-01

    The objectives of gaseous waste management for the recycling of nuclear used fuel is to reduce by best practical means (ALARA) and below regulatory limits, the quantity of activity discharged to the environment. The industrial PUREX process recovers the fissile material U(VI) and Pu(IV) to re-use them for the fabrication of new fuel elements e.g. recycling plutonium as a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel or recycling uranium for new enrichment for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Meanwhile the separation of the waste (activation and fission product) is performed as a function of their pollution in order to store and avoid any potential danger and release towards the biosphere. Raffinate, that remains after the extraction step and which contains mostly all fission products and minor actinides is vitrified, the glass package being stored temporarily at the recycling plant site. Hulls and end pieces coming from PWR recycled fuel are compacted by means of a press leading to a volume reduced to 1/5th of initial volume. An organic waste treatment step will recycle the solvent, mainly tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) and some of its hydrolysis and radiolytic degradation products such as dibutyl phosphate (HDPB) and monobutyl phosphate (H2MBP). Although most scientific and technological development work focused on high level waste streams, a considerable effort is still under way in the area of intermediate and low level waste management. Current industrial practices for the treatment of gaseous effluents focusing essentially on Iodine-129 and Krypton-85 will be reviewed along with the development of novel technologies to extract, condition, and store these fission products. As an example, the current industrial practice is to discharge Kr-85, a radioactive gas, entirely to the atmosphere after dilution, but for the large recycling facilities envisioned in the near future, several techniques such as 1) cryogenic distillation and selective absorption in solvents, 2) adsorption on activated

  13. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL ELEMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beaver, R.J.; Leitten, C.F. Jr.

    1962-04-17

    A boron-10 containing reactor control element wherein the boron-10 is dispersed in a matrix material is describeri. The concentration of boron-10 in the matrix varies transversely across the element from a minimum at the surface to a maximum at the center of the element, prior to exposure to neutrons. (AEC)

  14. Process and system for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gaseous streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basu, Arunabha; Meyer, Howard S.; Lynn, Scott; Leppin, Dennis; Wangerow, James R.

    2012-08-14

    A multi-stage UCSRP process and system for removal of sulfur from a gaseous stream in which the gaseous stream, which contains a first amount of H.sub.2S, is provided to a first stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess SO.sub.2 mode at a first amount of SO.sub.2, producing an effluent gas having a reduced amount of SO.sub.2, and in which the effluent gas is provided to a second stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess H.sub.2S mode, producing a product gas having an amount of H.sub.2S less than said first amount of H.sub.2S.

  15. Energy and materials flows in the production of liquid and gaseous oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, S.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1980-08-01

    Liquid and gaseous oxygen is produced in an energy-intensive air separation processo that also generates nitrogen. More than 65% of the cost of oxygen is attributable to energy costs. Energy use and materials flows are analyzed for various air separation methods. Effective approaches to energy and material conservation in air separation plants include efficient removal of contaminants (carbon dioxide and water), centralization of air products user-industries so that large air separation plants are cost-effective and the energy use in transportation is minimized, and increased production of nitrogen. Air separation plants can produce more than three times more nitrogen than oxygen, but present markets demand, at most, only 1.5 times more. Full utlization of liquid and gaseous nitrogen should be encouraged, so that the wasted separation energy is minimized. There are potential markets for nitrogen in, for example, cryogenic separation of metallic and plastic wastes, cryogenic particle size reduction, and production of ammonia for fertilizer.

  16. Long-range global warming impact of gaseous diffusion plant operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trowbridge, L.D.

    1992-09-01

    The DOE gaseous diffusion plant complex makes extensive use of CFC-114 as a primary coolant. As this material is on the Montreal Protocol list of materials scheduled for production curtailment, a substitute must be found. In addition to physical cooling properties, the gaseous diffusion application imposes the unique requirement of chemical inertness to fluorinating agents. This has narrowed the selection of a near-term substitute to two fully fluorinated material, FC-318 and FC-3110, which are likely to be strong, long-lived greenhouse gases. In this document, calculations are presented showing, for a number of plausible scenarios of diffusion plant operation and coolant replacement strategy, the future course of coolant use, greenhouse gas emissions (including coolant and power-related indirect CO{sub 2} emissions), and the consequent global temperature impacts of these scenarios.

  17. Natural phenomena hazards evaluation of equipment and piping of Gaseous Diffusion Plant Uranium Enrichment Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singhal, M.K.; Kincaid, J.H.; Hammond, C.R.; Stockdale, B.I.; Walls, J.C.; Brock, W.R.; Denton, D.R.

    1995-12-31

    In support of the Gaseous Diffusion Plant Safety Analysis Report Upgrade program (GDP SARUP), a natural phenomena hazards evaluation was performed for the main process equipment and piping in the uranium enrichment buildings at Paducah and Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plants. In order to reduce the cost of rigorous analyses, the evaluation methodology utilized a graded approach based on an experience data base collected by SQUG/EPRI that contains information on the performance of industrial equipment and piping during past earthquakes. This method consisted of a screening walkthrough of the facility in combination with the use of engineering judgment and simple calculations. By using these screenings combined with evaluations that contain decreasing conservatism, reductions in the time and cost of the analyses were significant. A team of experienced seismic engineers who were trained in the use of the DOE SQUG/EPRI Walkdown Screening Material was essential to the success of this natural phenomena hazards evaluation.

  18. The synthetic elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    Prior to 1940, the heaviest element known was uranium, discovered in 1789. Since that time the elements 93 through 109 have been synthesized and identified and the elements 43, 61, 85, and 87 which were missing form the periodic tables of the 1930's have been discovered. The techniques and problems involved in these discoveries and the placement of the transuranium elements in the periodic table will be discussed. The production and positive identification of elements heavier than Md (Z=101), which have very short half-lives and can only be produced an atom-at-a-time, are very difficult and there have been controversies concerning their discovery. Some of the new methods which have been developed and used in these studies will be described. The prospects for production of still heavier elements will be considered.

  19. Environmental Restoration Site-Specific Plan for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, FY 93

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-15

    This report provides an overview of the major Environmental Restoration (ER) concerns at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The identified solid waste management units at PGDP are listed. In the Department of Energy (DOE) Five Year Plan development process, one or more waste management units are addressed in a series of activity data sheets (ADSs) which identify planned scope, schedule, and cost objectives that are representative of the current state of planned technical development for individual or multiple sites.

  20. Flow, Mixing and Combustion of Transient Turbulent Gaseous Jets in Confined

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cylindrical Geometries | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Flow, Mixing and Combustion of Transient Turbulent Gaseous Jets in Confined Cylindrical Geometries PI Name: Christos Frouzakis PI Email: frouzakis@lav.mavt.ethz.ch Institution: Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETHZ) Allocation Program: ESP Year: 2015 Research Domain: Engineering Tier 2 Code Development Project Numerical Methods/Algorithms Direct numerical simulations for this project will be based on the open source

  1. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of Spray Booth Operations in X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheaffer, M.K.; Keeton, S.C.

    1993-09-20

    This report evaluates nuclear criticality safety for Spray Booth Operations in the Decontamination and Recovery Facility, X-705, at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A general description of current procedures and related hardware/equipment is presented. Control parameters relevant to nuclear criticality safety are explained, and a consolidated listing of administrative controls and safety systems is developed. Based on compliance with DOE Orders and MMES practices, the overall operation is evaluated, and recommendations for enhanced safety are suggested.

  2. OSTIblog Articles in the gaseous diffusion Topic | OSTI, US Dept of Energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information gaseous diffusion Topic The Manhattan Project -- Its Operations by Mary Schorn 29 Nov, 2012 in Science Communications 4236 ManhattanProjectMap320.jpg The Manhattan Project -- Its Operations Read more about 4236 Major operations for the Manhattan Engineer District (Manhattan Project) took place in remote site locations in the states of Tennessee, New Mexico, and Washington, with additional research being conducted in university laboratories at

  3. METHOD FOR THE RECOVERY AND PURIFICATION OF GASEOUS UF$sub 6$ FROM GASEOUS MIXTURES AND UF$sub 7$NO AND UF$sub 7$NO$sub 2$ PRODUCTS PRODUCED THEREBY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ogle, P.R. Jr.

    1962-06-16

    A method is given for recovering uranium hexafluoride from a gaseous mixture containing said uranium hexafluoride and extraneous gaseous impurities. The method comprises reacting said mixture with a nitrogen oxyfluoride at a temperature in the range - 100 to 50 deg C to thereby form a solid compound having the empirical formula UF/sub 7/N(O)/sub x/ where x is a number from 1 to 2. (AEC)

  4. Laser acceleration of protons using multi-ion plasma gaseous targets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Tung -Chang; Shao, Xi; Liu, Chuan -Sheng; Eliasson, Bengt; W. T. Hill, III; Wang, Jyhpyng; Chen, Shih -Hung

    2015-02-01

    We present a theoretical and numerical study of a novel acceleration scheme by applying a combination of laser radiation pressure and shielded Coulomb repulsion in laser acceleration of protons in multi-species gaseous targets. By using a circularly polarized CO₂ laser pulse with a wavelength of 10 μm—much greater than that of a Ti: Sapphire laser—the critical density is significantly reduced, and a high-pressure gaseous target can be used to achieve an overdense plasma. This gives us a larger degree of freedom in selecting the target compounds or mixtures, as well as their density and thickness profiles. By impinging such amore » laser beam on a carbon–hydrogen target, the gaseous target is first compressed and accelerated by radiation pressure until the electron layer disrupts, after which the protons are further accelerated by the electron-shielded carbon ion layer. An 80 MeV quasi-monoenergetic proton beam can be generated using a half-sine shaped laser beam with a peak power of 70 TW and a pulse duration of 150 wave periods.« less

  5. Laser acceleration of protons using multi-ion plasma gaseous targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Tung -Chang; Shao, Xi; Liu, Chuan -Sheng; Eliasson, Bengt; W. T. Hill, III; Wang, Jyhpyng; Chen, Shih -Hung

    2015-02-01

    We present a theoretical and numerical study of a novel acceleration scheme by applying a combination of laser radiation pressure and shielded Coulomb repulsion in laser acceleration of protons in multi-species gaseous targets. By using a circularly polarized CO₂ laser pulse with a wavelength of 10 μm—much greater than that of a Ti: Sapphire laser—the critical density is significantly reduced, and a high-pressure gaseous target can be used to achieve an overdense plasma. This gives us a larger degree of freedom in selecting the target compounds or mixtures, as well as their density and thickness profiles. By impinging such a laser beam on a carbon–hydrogen target, the gaseous target is first compressed and accelerated by radiation pressure until the electron layer disrupts, after which the protons are further accelerated by the electron-shielded carbon ion layer. An 80 MeV quasi-monoenergetic proton beam can be generated using a half-sine shaped laser beam with a peak power of 70 TW and a pulse duration of 150 wave periods.

  6. Method and apparatus for the selective separation of gaseous coal gasification products by pressure swing adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghate, Madhav R.; Yang, Ralph T.

    1987-01-01

    Bulk separation of the gaseous components of multi-component gases provided by the gasification of coal including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and acid gases (carbon dioxide plus hydrogen sulfide) are selectively adsorbed by a pressure swing adsorption technique using activated carbon, zeolite or a combination thereof as the adsorbent. By charging a column containing the adsorbent with a gas mixture and pressurizing the column to a pressure sufficient to cause the adsorption of the gases and then reducing the partial pressure of the contents of the column, the gases are selectively and sequentially desorbed. Hydrogen, the least absorbable gas of the gaseous mixture, is the first gas to be desorbed and is removed from the column in a co-current direction followed by the carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. With the pressure in the column reduced to about atmospheric pressure the column is evacuated in a countercurrent direction to remove the acid gases from the column. The present invention is particularly advantageous as a producer of high parity hydrogen from gaseous products of coal gasification and as an acid gas scrubber.

  7. Method and apparatus for the selective separation of gaseous coal gasification products by pressure swing adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghate, M.R.; Yang, R.T.

    1985-10-03

    Bulk separation of the gaseous components of multi-component gases provided by the gasification of coal including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and acid gases (carbon dioxide plus hydrogen sulfide) are selectively adsorbed by a pressure swing adsorption technique using activated carbon zeolite or a combination thereof as the adsorbent. By charging a column containing the adsorbent with a gas mixture and pressurizing the column to a pressure sufficient to cause the adsorption of the gases and then reducing the partial pressure of the contents of the column, the gases are selectively and sequentially desorbed. Hydrogen, the least absorbable gas of the gaseous mixture, is the first gas to be desorbed and is removed from the column in a co-current direction followed by the carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. With the pressure in the column reduced to about atmospheric pressure the column is evacuated in a countercurrent direction to remove the acid gases from the column. The present invention is particularly advantageous as a producer of high purity hydrogen from gaseous products of coal gasification and as an acid gas scrubber. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Rate Case Elements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proceeding Rate Information Residential Exchange Program Surplus Power Sales Reports Rate Case Elements BPA's rate cases are decided "on the record." That is, in making a decision...

  9. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL ELEMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newson, H.W.

    1960-09-13

    A novel composite neutronic reactor control element is offered. The element comprises a multiplicity of sections arranged in end-to-end relationship, each of the sections having a markedly different neutron-reactive characteristic. For example, a three-section control element could contain absorber, moderator, and fuel sections. By moving such an element longitudinally through a reactor core, reactivity is decreased by the absorber, increased slightly by the moderator, or increased substantially by the fuel. Thus, control over a wide reactivity range is provided.

  10. EA-0767: Construction and Experiment of an Industrial Solid Waste Landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary at the U.S. Department of Energy's Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion plant...

  11. STAR FORMATION IN THE EXTENDED GASEOUS DISK OF THE ISOLATED GALAXY CIG 96

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Espada, D.; Sabater, J.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Sulentic, J.; Munoz-Mateos, J. C.; Gil de Paz, A.; Verley, S.; Leon, S.

    2011-07-20

    We study the Kennicutt-Schmidt star formation law and efficiency in the gaseous disk of the isolated galaxy CIG 96 (NGC 864), with special emphasis on its unusually large atomic gas (H I) disk (r{sub Hmathsci}/r{sub 25} = 3.5, r{sub 25} = 1.'85). We present deep Galaxy Evolution Explorer near- and far-UV observations, used as a recent star formation tracer, and we compare them with new, high-resolution (16''or 1.6 kpc) Very Large Array H I observations. The UV and H I maps show good spatial correlation outside the inner 1', where the H I phase dominates over H{sub 2}. Star-forming regions in the extended gaseous disk are mainly located along the enhanced H I emission within two (relatively) symmetric, giant gaseous spiral arm-like features, which emulate an H I pseudo-ring at r {approx_equal} 3'. Inside this structure, two smaller gaseous spiral arms extend from the northeast and southwest of the optical disk and connect to the previously mentioned H I pseudo-ring. Interestingly, we find that the (atomic) Kennicutt-Schmidt power-law index systematically decreases with radius, from N {approx_equal} 3.0 {+-} 0.3 in the inner disk (0.'8-1.'7) to N = 1.6 {+-} 0.5 in the outskirts of the gaseous disk (3.'3-4.'2). Although the star formation efficiency (SFE), the star formation rate per unit of gas, decreases with radius where the H I component dominates as is common in galaxies, we find that there is a break of the correlation at r = 1.5r{sub 25}. At radii 1.5r{sub 25} < r < 3.5r{sub 25}, mostly within the H I pseudo-ring structure, regions exist whose SFE remains nearly constant, SFE {approx_equal} 10{sup -11} yr{sup -1}. We discuss possible mechanisms that might be triggering the star formation in the outskirts of this galaxy, and we suggest that the constant SFE for such large radii (r > 2r{sub 25}) and at such low surface densities might be a common characteristic in extended UV disk galaxies.

  12. MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTY PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL GRADE API PIPELINE STEELS IN HIGH PRESSURE GASEOUS HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stalheim, Mr. Douglas; Boggess, Todd; San Marchi, Chris; Jansto, Steven; Somerday, Dr. B; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Sofronis, Prof. Petros

    2010-01-01

    The continued growth of the world s developing countries has placed an ever increasing demand on traditional fossil fuel energy sources. This development has lead to increasing research and development of alternative energy sources. Hydrogen gas is one of the potential alternative energy sources under development. Currently the most economical method of transporting large quantities of hydrogen gas is through steel pipelines. It is well known that hydrogen embrittlement has the potential to degrade steel s mechanical properties when hydrogen migrates into the steel matrix. Consequently, the current pipeline infrastructure used in hydrogen transport is typically operated in a conservative fashion. This operational practice is not conducive to economical movement of significant volumes of hydrogen gas as an alternative to fossil fuels. The degradation of the mechanical properties of steels in hydrogen service is known to depend on the microstructure of the steel. Understanding the levels of mechanical property degradation of a given microstructure when exposed to hydrogen gas under pressure can be used to evaluate the suitability of the existing pipeline infrastructure for hydrogen service and guide alloy and microstructure design for new hydrogen pipeline infrastructure. To this end, the 2 Copyright 2010 by ASME microstructures of relevant steels and their mechanical properties in relevant gaseous hydrogen environments must be fully characterized to establish suitability for transporting hydrogen. A project to evaluate four commercially available pipeline steels alloy/microstructure performance in the presences of gaseous hydrogen has been funded by the US Department of Energy along with the private sector. The microstructures of four pipeline steels were characterized and then tensile testing was conducted in gaseous hydrogen and helium at pressures of 800, 1600 and 3000 psi. Based on measurements of reduction of area, two of the four steels that performed the best

  13. Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans Johannes G.; Merkel, Timothy C.; Baker, Richard W.

    2012-05-15

    A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas back to the combustor.

  14. MOLDED SEALING ELEMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradford, B.W.; Skinner, W.J.

    1959-03-24

    Molded sealing elements suitable for use under conditions involving exposure to uranium hexafluoride vapor are described. Such sealing elements are made by subjecting graphitic carbons to a preliminary treatment with uranium hexafluoride vapor, and then incorporating polytetrafluorethylene in them. The resulting composition has good wear resistant and frictional properties and is resistant to disintegration by uranium hexafluoride over long periods of exposure.

  15. Neutronic fuel element fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korton, George

    2004-02-24

    This disclosure describes a method for metallurgically bonding a complete leak-tight enclosure to a matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant channels. Coolant tubes containing solid filler pins are disposed in the coolant channels. A leak-tight metal enclosure is then formed about the entire assembly of fuel matrix, coolant tubes and pins. The completely enclosed and sealed assembly is exposed to a high temperature and pressure gas environment to effect a metallurgical bond between all contacting surfaces therein. The ends of the assembly are then machined away to expose the pin ends which are chemically leached from the coolant tubes to leave the coolant tubes with internal coolant passageways. The invention described herein was made in the course of, or under, a contract with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. It relates generally to fuel elements for neutronic reactors and more particularly to a method for providing a leak-tight metal enclosure for a high-performance matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant tubes. The planned utilization of nuclear energy in high-performance, compact-propulsion and mobile power-generation systems has necessitated the development of fuel elements capable of operating at high power densities. High power densities in turn require fuel elements having high thermal conductivities and good fuel retention capabilities at high temperatures. A metal clad fuel element containing a ceramic phase of fuel intimately mixed with and bonded to a continuous refractory metal matrix has been found to satisfy the above requirements. Metal coolant tubes penetrate the matrix to afford internal cooling to the fuel element while providing positive fuel retention and containment of fission products generated within the fuel matrix. Metal header plates are bonded to the coolant tubes at each end of the fuel element and a metal cladding or can completes the fuel-matrix enclosure

  16. In situ synthesis of TiH{sub 2} layer on metallic titanium foil through gaseous hydrogen free acid-hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Na; Wang, Guancong; Liu, Hong; Ohachi, Tadashi

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: The reaction mechanism for in situ synthesizing TiH{sub 2} layer on titanium foil by a gaseous hydrogen free acid-hydrothermal methodology. - Highlights: • A dense TiH{sub 2} layer is synthesized by a hydrogen free acid-hydrothermal method. • Hydrogen in a TiH{sub 2} layer synthesized can release at low temperature. • During the dehydrogenation process, there is no any intermediate phase forming. • We report a method of low-cost, low-risk and convenience toward productive TiH{sub 2}. - Abstract: A novel strategy for synthesis of TiH{sub 2} layer on surface of metallic titanium by using an acid-hydrothermal method was proposed. During the synthesis process, no any elemental hydrogen was involved. X-ray powder diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy results confirmed that a TiH{sub 2} layer of 20 μm thickness on a Ti foil surface can be formed in situ by an interface reaction of metallic titanium with sulfuric acid solution, hydrochloric acid, or phosphoric acid, which is a hydrogen self-storage process. By tuning reaction parameters, for example, concentration of acid, composition and morphology of TiH{sub 2}-Ti hybrid materials can be adjusted. The TiH{sub 2} layer on a metallic titanium surface can be decompounded completely heated below 400 °C. This convenient, safe and low-cost method is a promising gaseous hydrogen free approach for the synthesis of hydride-based hydrogen storage materials.

  17. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shackleford, M.H.

    1958-12-16

    A fuel element possessing good stability and heat conducting properties is described. The fuel element comprises an outer tube formed of material selected from the group consisting of stainhess steel, V, Ti. Mo. or Zr, a fuel tube concentrically fitting within the outer tube and containing an oxide of an isotope selected from the group consisting of U/sup 235/, U/sup 233/, and Pu/sup 239/, and a hollow, porous core concentrically fitting within the fuel tube and formed of an oxide of an element selected from the group consisting of Mg, Be, and Zr.

  18. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, W.F.; Tellefson, D.R.; Shimazaki, T.T.

    1962-04-10

    A plate type fuel element which is particularly useful for organic cooled reactors is described. Generally, the fuel element comprises a plurality of fissionable fuel bearing plates held in spaced relationship by a frame in which the plates are slidably mounted in grooves. Clearance is provided in the grooves to allow the plates to expand laterally. The plates may be rigidly interconnected but are floatingly supported at their ends within the frame to allow for longi-tudinal expansion. Thus, this fuel element is able to withstand large temperature differentials without great structural stresses. (AEC)

  19. Elements in biological AMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogel, J.S.; McAninch, J.; Freeman, S.

    1996-08-01

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) provides high detection sensitivity for isotopes whose half-lives are between 10 years and 100 million years. {sup 14}C is the most developed of such isotopes and is used in tracing natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in the Earth`s biosphere. Thirty-three elements in the main periodic table and 17 lanthanides or actinides have long lived isotopes, providing potential tracers for research in elemental biochemistry. Overlap of biologically interesting heavy elements and possible AMS tracers is discussed.

  20. Process for oxidation of hydrogen halides to elemental halogens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyke, Stephen E.

    1992-01-01

    An improved process for generating an elemental halogen selected from chlorine, bromine or iodine, from a corresponding hydrogen halide by absorbing a molten salt mixture, which includes sulfur, alkali metals and oxygen with a sulfur to metal molar ratio between 0.9 and 1.1 and includes a dissolved oxygen compound capable of reacting with hydrogen halide to produce elemental halogen, into a porous, relatively inert substrate to produce a substrate-supported salt mixture. Thereafter, the substrate-supported salt mixture is contacted (stage 1) with a hydrogen halide while maintaining the substrate-supported salt mixture during the contacting at an elevated temperature sufficient to sustain a reaction between the oxygen compound and the hydrogen halide to produce a gaseous elemental halogen product. This is followed by purging the substrate-supported salt mixture with steam (stage 2) thereby recovering any unreacted hydrogen halide and additional elemental halogen for recycle to stage 1. The dissolved oxygen compound is regenerated in a high temperature (stage 3) and an optical intermediate temperature stage (stage 4) by contacting the substrate-supported salt mixture with a gas containing oxygen whereby the dissolved oxygen compound in the substrate-supported salt mixture is regenerated by being oxidized to a higher valence state.

  1. JACKETED FUEL ELEMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wigner, E.P.; Szilard, L.; Creutz, E.C.

    1959-02-01

    These fuel elements are comprised of a homogeneous metallic uranium body completely enclosed and sealed in an aluminum cover. The uranium body and aluminum cover are bonded together by a layer of zinc located between them. The bonding layer serves to improve transfer of heat, provides an additional protection against corrosion of the uranium by the coolant, and also localizes any possible corrosion by preventing travel of corrosive material along the surface of the fuel element.

  2. COMPOSITE FUEL ELEMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurford, W.J.; Gordon, R.B.; Johnson, W.A.

    1962-12-25

    A sandwich-type fuel element for a reactor is described. This fuel element has the shape of an elongated flat plate and includes a filler plate having a plurality of compartments therein in which the fuel material is located. The filler plate is clad on both sides with a thin cladding material which is secured to the filler plate only to completely enclose the fuel material in each compartment. (AEC)

  3. Investigation of gas-phase decontamination of internally radioactively contaminated gaseous diffusion process equipment and piping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bundy, R.D.; Munday, E.B.

    1991-01-01

    Construction of the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) was begun during World War 2 to produce enriched uranium for defense purposes. These plants, which utilized UF{sub 6} gas, were used primarily for this purpose through 1964. From 1959 through 1968, production shifted primarily to uranium enrichment to supply the nuclear power industry. Additional UF{sub 6}-handling facilities were built in feed and fuel-processing plants associated with the uranium enrichment process. Two of the five process buildings at Oak ridge were shut down in 1964. Uranium enrichment activities at Oak Ridge were discontinued altogether in 1985. In 1987, the Department of Energy (DOE) decided to proceed with a permanent shutdown of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). DOE intends to begin decommissioning and decontamination (D D) of ORGDP early in the next century. The remaining two GDPs are expected to be shut down during the next 10 to 40 years and will also require D D, as will the other UF{sub 6}-handling facilities. This paper presents an investigation of gas- phase decontamination of internally radioactively contaminated gaseous diffusion process equipment and piping using powerful fluorinating reagents that convert nonvolatile uranium compounds to volatile UF{sub 6}. These reagents include ClF{sub 3}, F{sub 2}, and other compounds. The scope of D D at the GDPs, previous work of gas-phase decontamination, four concepts for using gas-phase decontamination, plans for further study of gas-phase decontamination, and the current status of this work are discussed. 13 refs., 15 figs.

  4. Replacement of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) at the DOE gaseous diffusion plants: An assessment of global impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Socolof, M.L.; Saylor, R.E.; McCold, L.N.

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) formerly operated two gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) for enriching uranium and maintained a third shutdown GDP. These plants maintain a large inventory of dichlorotetrafluorethane (CFC-114), a cholorofluorocarbon (CFC), as a coolant. The paper evaluates the global impacts of four alternatives to modify GDP coolant system operations for a three-year period beginning in 1996. Interim modification of GDP coolant system operations has the potential to reduce stratospheric ozone depletion from GDP coolant releases while a permanent solution is studied.

  5. Measurement of the electron antineutrino mass from the beta spectrum of gaseous tritium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, D.A.

    1986-12-01

    A measurement has been made of the mass of the electron antineutrino using the beta spectrum from a source of gaseous molecular tritium, and an upper limit of 36 eV/c/sup 2/ has been set on this mass. This measurement is the first upper limit on neutrino mass that does not rely on assumptions about the atomic configuration after the beta decay, and it has significantly smaller systematic errors associated with it than do previous measurements. 130 refs., 83 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Draft Paducah Environmental Assessment for Potential Land and Facilities Transfers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE is evaluating the potential conveyance (lease, easement, and/or title transfer) of real property that may be determined to be excessed, underutilized or unneeded at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). After appropriate agency reviews, DOE could transfer PGDP real property to one or more entities for a range of economic development and/or recreational uses. DOEs potential action is designed to reduce the footprint of the site and the cost for maintenance of the site, providing opportunities for beneficial reuse. DOE prepared this Draft Environmental Assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental consequences associated with potential land and facilities transfers.

  7. Mechanistic study of the isotopic-exchange reaction between gaseous hydrogen and palladium hydride powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Outka, D.A.; Foltz, G.W. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA))

    1991-07-01

    A detailed mechanism for the isotopic-exchange reaction between gaseous hydrogen and solid palladium hydride is developed which extends previous model for this reaction by specifically including surface reactions. The modeling indicates that there are two surface-related processes that contribute to the overall rate of exchange: the desorption of hydrogen from the surface and the exchange between surface hydrogen and bulk hydrogen. This conclusion is based upon measurements examining the effect of small concentrations of carbon monoxide were helpful in elucidating the mechanism. Carbon monoxide reversibly inhibits certain steps in the exchange; this slows the overall rate of exchange and changes the distribution of products from the reactor.

  8. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-10-01

    This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 3 contains reports from 6 government contractors on LPG, anhydrous ammonia, and hydrogen energy systems. Report subjects include: simultaneous boiling and spreading of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on water; LPG safety research; state-of-the-art of release prevention and control technology in the LPG industry; ammonia: an introductory assessment of safety and environmental control information; ammonia as a fuel, and hydrogen safety and environmental control assessment.

  9. 2013 GASEOUS IONS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, FEBRUARY 24 - MARCH 1, 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Evan

    2013-03-01

    The Gaseous Ions: Structures, Energetics and Reactions Gordon Research Conference will focus on ions and their interactions with molecules, surfaces, electrons, and light. The long-standing goal of our community is to develop new strategies for capturing complex molecular architectures as gas phase ions where they can be isolated, characterized and manipulated with great sensitivity. Emergent areas of interest include catalytic mechanisms, cryogenic processing of ions extracted from solution, ion fragmentation mechanisms, and new methods for ion formation and structural characterization. The conference will cover theoretical and experimental advances on systems ranging from model studies at the molecular scale to preparation of nanomaterials and characterization of large biological molecules.

  10. Proposed On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF) at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    OH EM Project: On-Site Disposal Facility ETR Report Date: February 2008 ETR-12 United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) External Technical Review of the Proposed On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF) at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Why DOE-EM Did This Review The On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF) is proposed for long-term containment of contaminated materials from the planned Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) activities at the