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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flaming gorge dam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

EIS-0351: Operation of Flaming Gorge Dam, Colorado River Storage Project, Colorado River, UT  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Secretary of the United States Department of the Interior (Secretary), acting through the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is considering whether to implement a proposed action under which Flaming Gorge Dam would be operated to achieve the flow and temperature regimes recommended in the September 2000 report Flow and Temperature Recommendations for Endangered Fishes in the Green River Downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam (2000 Flow and Temperature Recommendations), published by the Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program (Recovery Program).

2

Effects of hydropower operations on recreational use and nonuse values at Glen Canyon and Flaming Gorge Dams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increases in streamflows are generally positively related to the use values of angling and white-water boating, and constant flows tend to increase the use values more than fluctuating flows. In most instances, however, increases in streamflows beyond some threshold level cause the use values to decrease. Expenditures related to angling and white-water boating account for about $24 million of activity in the local economy around Glen Canyon Dam and $24.8 million in the local economy around flaming Gorge Dam. The range of operational scenarios being considered in the Western Area Power Administration`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement, when use rates are held constant, could change the combined use value of angling and white-water boating below Glen Canyon Dam, increasing it by as much as 50%, depending on prevailing hydrological conditions. Changes in the combined use value below Flaming Gorge Dam could range from a decrease of 9% to an increase of 26%. Nonuse values, such as existence and bequest values, could also make a significant contribution to the total value of each site included in this study; however, methodological and data limitations prevented estimating how each operational scenario could change nonuse values.

Carlson, J.L.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

The effects of overwinter flowson the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout size classes in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. Until recently, and since the early 1990s, single daily peak releases or steady flows have been the operational pattern of the dam during the winter period. However, releases from Flaming Gorge Reservoir followed a double-peak pattern (two daily flow peaks) during the winters of 2006-2007 and 2008-2009. Because there is little recent long-term history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on trout body condition in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from winter double-peaking operations (Hayse et al. 2009). Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of historical trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate the potential effects of hydropower operations. The results from analyses based on the combined size classes of trout (85-630 mm) were presented in Magnusson et al. (2008). The results of this earlier analysis suggested possible relationships between trout condition and flow, but concern that some of the relationships resulted from size-based effects (e.g., apparent changes in condition may have been related to concomitant changes in size distribution, because small trout may have responded differently to flow than large trout) prompted additional analysis of within-size class relationships. This report presents the results of analyses of three different size classes of trout (small: 200-299 mm, medium: 300-399 mm, and large: {ge}400 mm body length). We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming Gorge Dam, and to (2) evaluate the relative importance of the effects of flow (i.e., flow volumes and flow variability), trout abundance (catch per unit effort [CPUE]), and benthic macroinvertebrate abundance on trout condition for different size classes of trout.

Magnusson, A. K.; LaGory, K. E.; Hayse, J. W.; Environmental Science Division

2010-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

4

Evaluation of laboratory test method for determining the potential alkali contribution from aggregate and the ASR safety of the Three-Gorges dam concrete  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The releasable alkali from granite, which was used in the Three-Gorges concrete dam project in China, and from gneiss and feldspar was estimated by extraction in distilled water and super-saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solution. Results show that: i) the finer the particles and the higher the temperature, the greater and faster the release of alkali; ii) compared with extraction by distilled water, super-saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solution had a stronger activation on feldspar than on granite and gneiss; iii) for the three rocks tested, thermal activation had the largest effect on gneiss and a lower and similar effect on granite and feldspar. For very fine particles, temperature had a similar effect on the release of alkali by all three rocks. Because the aggregate used in the Three-Gorges dam concrete is non-reactive and a low calcium fly ash was used in the concrete, ASR would not be an issue for the dam, despite the release of alkali from the aggregate into the concrete.

Lu Duyou [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xin Mafan Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210009 (China)]. E-mail: duyoulu@njut.edu.cn; Zhou, Xiaoling [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xin Mafan Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210009 (China); Xu Zhongzi [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xin Mafan Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210009 (China); Lan Xianghui [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xin Mafan Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210009 (China); Tang Mingshu [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xin Mafan Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210009 (China); Fournier, Benoit [ICON/CANMET, Natural Resources Canada, 405 Rocherster Street, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0G1 (Canada)

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

5

Columbia Gorge Gap Winds: Their Climatological Influence and Synoptic Evolution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper quantifies the impact of the Columbia Gorge on the weather and climate within and downstream of this mesoscale gap and examines the influence of synoptic-scale flow on gorge weather. Easterly winds occur more frequently and are ...

Justin Sharp; Clifford F. Mass

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Be dammed.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Be Dammed is a research?based project that explores concepts of flow and containment, particularly looking at the interrelations between the planning and construction of large… (more)

Caycedo, Carolina

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Western Pond Turtle Recovery Columbia Gorge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Western Pond Turtle Recovery in the Columbia Gorge Project ID 200102700 Submitted by: 4 March 2009 species of concern Western Pond Turtle Washington Status #12;Columbia Mainstem Goals · Maintain;Western Pond Turtle Recovery Current Efforts · Head Start · Population Reintroduction · Predator Control

8

Flame Chemistry and Diagnostics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Details Photoionization Mass Spectrometer Flame Conditions Flame Chemistry Insights (n-butanol flame) Experiment vs. Model Fuel-Consumption Pathways...

9

A Review of the Oldowan Culture from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... primitive stone industry in Bed I at Olduvai Gorge was first recorded in Nature on December 26, 1931. The name Oldowan was later given to this culture, which had been ...

M. D. LEAKEY

1966-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

10

Spatiotemporal characteristics of the Huangtupo landslide in the Three Gorges region (China) constrained by radar interferometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Landslide Disaster Mitigation in Three Gorges Reservoir...reservoir monitoring. Energy Procedia (2011) 4...In: Comprehensive Renewable Energy-Sayigh A., ed...in Landslide Disaster Mitigation in Three Gorges Reservoir......

R. Tomás; Z. Li; P. Liu; A. Singleton; T. Hoey; X. Cheng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Engineering Geologic Assessment of Risk to Visitors: Canyon Lake Gorge, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Presented here are the results of a study of geological hazards conducted in Canyon Lake Gorge of Central Texas. Canyon Lake Gorge formed in 2002 when the emergency spillway of Canyon Lake was overtopped. Since that time, the gorge has been opened...

Kolkmeier, Benjamin D.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

12

E-Print Network 3.0 - anapodaris gorge south Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

PLAN The Cornell campus includes a diversity of urban, suburban, Summary: Tompkins County countryside Cascadilla Gorge 12;41 Cornell's extended campus in Tompkins County is...

13

Dam Safety Program (Florida)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Dam safety in Florida is a shared responsibility among the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), the regional water management districts, the United States Army Corps of Engineers ...

14

Experimental Implement Manufacture and Use; A Case Study from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Implement Manufacture and Use; A Case Study from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania P. R. Jones Experiments involving the manufacture and use...models came from two sites in upper bed IV at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. The following conclusions are drawn. Widespread use of terms...

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Dam Safety (North Carolina)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

North Carolina Administrative Code Title 15A, Subchapter 2K lays out further regulations for the design, approval, construction, maintenance, and inspection of dams to ensure public safety and...

16

Flame front geometry in premixed turbulent flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental and numerical determinations of flame front curvature and orientation in premixed turbulent flames are presented. The experimental data is obtained from planar, cross sectional images of stagnation point flames at high Damkoehler number. A direct numerical simulation of a constant energy flow is combined with a zero-thickness, constant density flame model to provide the numerical results. The computational domain is a 32{sup 3} cube with periodic boundary conditions. The two-dimensional curvature distributions of the experiments and numerical simulations compare well at similar q{prime}/S{sub L} values with means close to zero and marked negative skewness. At higher turbulence levels the simulations show that the distributions become symmetric about zero. These features are also found in the three dimensional distributions of curvature. The simulations support assumptions which make it possible to determine the mean direction cosines from the experimental data. This leads to a reduction of 12% in the estimated flame surface area density in the middle of the flame brush. 18 refs.

Shepherd, I.G. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Ashurst, W.T. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Transport of Atmospheric Aerosol by Gap Winds in the Columbia River Gorge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Typical diurnal wind patterns and their relationship to transport of atmospheric aerosol in the Columbia River gorge of Oregon and Washington are addressed in this paper. The measurement program included measurements of light scattering by ...

Mark C. Green; Jin Xu; Narendra Adhikari

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Flood Protection and Dam Safety (Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

All dams in Virginia are subject to the Dam Safety Act and Dam Safety Regulations unless specifically excluded. A dam is excluded if it: (a) is less than six feet high; (b) has a maximum capacity...

19

Regulations and Permits Related to Dams (Vermont)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Vermont law requires a permit, or a dam order, for the construction, alteration, or removal of dams impounding more than 500,000 cubic feet of water, including any accumulated sediments. Dam...

20

Dams, Dikes, and Other Devices; Dam Safety Program (North Dakota) |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Dikes, and Other Devices; Dam Safety Program (North Dakota) Dikes, and Other Devices; Dam Safety Program (North Dakota) Dams, Dikes, and Other Devices; Dam Safety Program (North Dakota) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Home Weatherization Program Info State North Dakota Program Type Siting and Permitting These regulations govern the permitting, construction, operation, inspection, and hazard classifications of dams, dikes, and other water

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flaming gorge dam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Safety of Dams and Reservoirs Act (Nebraska)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This act regulates dams and associated reservoirs to protect health and public safety and minimize adverse consequences associated with potential dam failure. The act describes the responsibilities...

22

ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW FOR CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION DETERMINATION  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Flaming Gorge Microwave Site Communications Building Access Road Repairs Flaming Gorge Microwave Site Communications Building Access Road Repairs Daggett County, Utah A. Brief Description of Proposal: Westem Area Power Administration (Westem) proposes to conduct routine maintenance and repair an access road right-of-way to its Flaming Gorge microwave site communications building. The building is located on a hill to the west of the Flaming Gorge Dam visitor center parking lot. Road improvements will be conducted on approximately 500 linear feet of existing road to improve drivability and access by Western crews to the communications building. Western crews will utilize rubber-tired vehicles including a motor grader, backhoe tractor, and bobcat skid steer loader to improve the access road and create a safe travel surface.

23

EIS-0351: Final Environmental Impact Statement | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

1: Final Environmental Impact Statement 1: Final Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0351: Final Environmental Impact Statement Operation of Flaming Gorge Dam The Secretary of the United States Department of the Interior (Secretary), acting through the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is considering whether to implement a proposed action under which Flaming Gorge Dam would be operated to achieve the flow and temperature regimes recommended in the September 2000 report Flow and Temperature Recommendations for Endangered Fishes in the Green River Downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam (2000 Flow and Temperature Recommendations), published by the Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program (Recovery Program). EIS-0351-FEIS-01-2006.pdf EIS-0351-FEIS-02-2006.pdf EIS-0351-FEIS-03-2006.pdf More Documents & Publications

24

Microsoft Word - ExSum-Sept05.doc  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Flaming Gorge Dam Final Environmental Impact Statement Executive Summary U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation Upper Colorado Region Salt Lake City, Utah September 2005 Note to the Reader This Executive Summary provides an overview of the proposed action analyzed in the Operation of Flaming Gorge Dam Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). It is intended to provide a concise report of the proposed action, alternatives, and environmental consequences which are explained and analyzed in detail in the EIS. Because a number of those on the EIS mailing list asked only for a copy

25

Perspectives on Dam Removal: York Creek Dam and the Water Framework Directive  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Retirement of Dams and Hydroelectric Facilities. ASCE, Newon the Allier River, a hydroelectric plant in France. Thethe dam generating hydroelectric power versus the ecological

Lawrence, Justin E; Pollak, Josh D; Richmond, Sarah F

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Columbia River Gorge Vegetation Management Project Final Environmental Assessment DOE/EA-1162  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

COLUMBIA COLUMBIA RIVER MANAGEMENT PR GORGE OJECT VEGETAT ON Final Environmental Assessment DO E/EA-l 162 BONNEVILLE row,. ..", ",,,,.,,0. W x ? -- -- ------ .- .-- b I . , (, I I I ( t ,1 ,0 , . ,' I , ,- , !" 1 , I I ,; ,, 1 1 I .1 . . COLUMBIA RIVER GORGE VEGETATION MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT (Hanford-Ostrander and North BonnevilI&Midway Transmission Line Rights-of-Way) Table of Contents Page . 2 3 pqose and Need Background hbfic evolvement Swq ' ' Decbions to Be Made PROPOSED A~ON AND ~~RNA~S Mtemative k No Action " Manual, Mechnical, and Biological Metbh - Ntemative W. Proposed Action- htegrated Vegetation Management ~) tih Herbicides Herbici& Meth& -. PhedActions Comparison of Mtematives ~ . . . . . . ti~D E~OW~ ~ E_O_~m .. CONSEQ~N~S Affmd Environment . Environment Consquen~ hti Use Soils Vegetation Water Resources WildlfeResources Air Quali@lGlobal Warning

27

Dam Safety Regulation (Mississippi) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Dam Safety Regulation (Mississippi) Dam Safety Regulation (Mississippi) Dam Safety Regulation (Mississippi) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Developer Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Transportation Utility Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Home Weatherization Program Info State Mississippi Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality The purpose of the Dam Safety Regulation is to ensure that all dams constructed in the state of Mississippi are permitted and thus do not potentially harm wildlife, water supplies and property. Any person or entity proposing to construct, enlarge, repair, or alter a dam or reservoir

28

Dynamics and structure of stretched flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program aims to gain fundamental understanding on the structure, geometry, and dynamics of laminar premixed flames, and relate these understanding to the practical issues of flame extinction and stabilization. The underlying fundamental interest here is the recent recognition that the response of premixed flames can be profoundly affected by flame stretch, as manifested by flow nonuniformity, flame curvature, and flame/flow unsteadiness. As such, many of the existing understanding on the behavior of premixed flames need to be qualitatively revised. The research program consists of three major thrusts: (1) detailed experimental and computational mapping of the structure of aerodynamically-strained planar flames, with emphasis on the effects of heat loss, nonequidiffusion, and finite residence time on the flame thickness, extent of incomplete reaction, and the state of extinction. (2) Analytical study of the geometry and dynamics of stretch-affected wrinkled flame sheets in simple configurations, as exemplified by the Bunsen flame and the spatially-periodic flame, with emphasis on the effects of nonlinear stretch, the phenomena of flame cusping, smoothing, and tip opening, and their implications on the structure and burning rate of turbulent flames. (3) Stabilization and blowoff of two-dimensional inverted premixed and stabilization and determining the criteria governing flame blowoff. The research is synergistically conducted through the use of laser-based diagnostics, computational simulation of the flame structure with detailed chemistry and transport, and mathematical analysis of the flame dynamics.

Law, C.K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Non-Powered Dams Resource Assessment | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Non-Powered Dams Resource Assessment Non-Powered Dams Resource Assessment 652011waterpowerpeerreviewnpdornloctober2011.pptx More Documents & Publications An...

30

Ethanol Consumption by Rat Dams During Gestation,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ethanol Consumption by Rat Dams During Gestation, Lactation and Weaning Increases Ethanol examined effects of ethanol consumption in rat dams during gestation, lactation, and weaning on voluntary ethanol consumption by their adolescent young. We found that exposure to an ethanol-ingesting dam

Galef Jr., Bennett G.

31

Salmon study sparks row over dams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... see some of the dams removed against federal agencies charged with maintaining the dams, providing power and protecting salmon. Thirty-one federal dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries ... River and its tributaries collectively provide some 60% of the region's electricity. The Bonneville ...

Jeff Tollefson

2008-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

32

Flame front structure of turbulent premixed flames of syngas oxyfuel mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In order to investigate oxyfuel combustion characteristics of typical composition of coal gasification syngas connected to CCS systems. Instantaneous flame front structure of turbulent premixed flames of CO/H2/O2/CO2 mixtures which represent syngas oxyfuel combustion was quantitatively studied comparing with CH4/air and syngas/air flames by using a nozzle-type Bunsen burner. Hot-wire anemometer and OH-PLIF were used to measure the turbulent flow and detect the instantaneous flame front structure, respectively. Image processing and statistical analyzing were performed using the Matlab Software. Flame surface density, mean progress variable, local curvature radius, mean flame volume, and flame thickness, were obtained. Results show that turbulent premixed flames of syngas possess wrinkled flame front structure which is a general feature of turbulent premixed flames. Flame surface density for the CO/H2/O2/CO2 flame is much larger than that of CO/H2/O2/air and CH4/air flames. This is mainly caused by the smaller flame intrinsic instability scale, which would lead to smaller scales and less flame passivity response to turbulence presented by Markstain length, which reduce the local flame stretch against turbulence vortex. Peak value of Possibility Density Function (PDF) distribution of local curvature radius, R, for CO/H2/O2/CO2 flames is larger than those of CO/H2/O2/air and CH4/air flames at both positive and negative side and the corresponding R of absolute peak PDF is the smallest. This demonstrates that the most frequent scale is the smallest for CO/H2/O2/CO2 flames. Mean flame volume of CO/H2/O2/CO2 flame is smaller than that of CH4/air flame even smaller than that of CO/H2/O2/air flame. This would be due to the lower flame height and smaller flame wrinkles.

Meng Zhang; Jinhua Wang; Jin Wu; Zhilong Wei; Zuohua Huang; Hideaki Kobayashi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Dam Safety (Delaware) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Dam Safety (Delaware) Dam Safety (Delaware) Dam Safety (Delaware) < Back Eligibility Construction Fed. Government Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility State/Provincial Govt Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Program Info Start Date 2004 State Delaware Program Type Safety and Operational Guidelines Provider Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control The Delaware Dam Safety Law was adopted in 2004 and provides the framework for proper design, construction, operation, maintenance, and inspection of dams in the interest of public health, safety, and welfare. The law requires licensing, inspections and preparation of emergency action plans (EAPs) for publicly owned dams with a high or significant hazard potential.

34

Power Plant Dams (Kansas) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Power Plant Dams (Kansas) Power Plant Dams (Kansas) Power Plant Dams (Kansas) < Back Eligibility Commercial Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State Kansas Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Health and Environment This act states the provisions for erection and maintenance of dams. When any person, corporation or city may be desirous of erecting and maintaining a milldam or dam for generating power across any watercourse, the party so desiring to do the same may run the stream over the land of any other person by ditching or otherwise, and he, she or it may obtain the right to erect and maintain said dam and keep up and maintain the necessary ditches

35

Cal Flame: Order (2015-CE-14015)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE ordered Cal Flame to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Cal Flame had failed to certify that refrigerator basic model BBQ09849P-H complies with the applicable energy conservation standards.

36

Production Of Fullerenic Soot In Flames  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the production of fullerenic nanostructures is described in which unsaturated hydrocarbon fuel and oxygen are combusted in a burner chamber at a sub-atmospheric pressure, thereby establishing a flame. The condensibles of the flame are collected at a post-flame location. The condensibles contain fullerenic nanostructures, such as single and nested nanotubes, single and nested nanoparticles and giant fullerenes. The method of producing fullerenic soot from flames is also described.

Howard, Jack B. (Winchester, MA); Vander Sande, John B. (Newbury, MA); Chowdhury, K. Das (Cambridge, MA)

2000-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

37

Production of fullerenic nanostructures in flames  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the production of fullerenic nanostructures is described in which unsaturated hydrocarbon fuel and oxygen are combusted in a burner chamber at a sub-atmospheric pressure, thereby establishing a flame. The condensibles of the flame are collected at a post-flame location. The condensibles contain fullerenic nanostructures, such as single and nested nanotubes, single and nested nanoparticles and giant fullerenes. The method of producing fullerenic soot from flames is also described.

Howard, Jack B. (Winchester, MA); Vander Sande, John B. (Newbury, MA); Chowdhury, K. Das (Cambridge, MA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Green River Locks and Dams 3, 4, 5, 6 and Barren River Lock and Dam 1 Disposition, Kentucky  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Green River Locks and Dams 3, 4, 5, 6 and Barren River Lock and Dam 1 Disposition, Kentucky 16 September 2014 ABSTRACT: Green River Locks and Dams 3 through 6 and Barren River Lock and Dam 1 were. The Green River Locks and Dams 5 and 6 ceased operations in 1951 due to a marked decline in navigation

US Army Corps of Engineers

39

Premixed-gas flames Paul D. Ronney  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Premixed-gas flames Paul D. Ronney Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1453 USA ronney@usc.edu Keywords: Microgravity; premixed-gas; cool flames; turbulence. Reference: Ronney, P. D., "Premixed-Gas Flames," in: Microgravity Combustion

40

Dam Safety Regulations (Connecticut) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Safety Regulations (Connecticut) Safety Regulations (Connecticut) Dam Safety Regulations (Connecticut) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State Connecticut Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Energy and Environmental Protection All dams, except those owned by the U.S., are under the jurisdiction of these regulations. These dams will be classified by hazard rating, and may

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flaming gorge dam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Clothes That Care -- Flame Resistant Protection.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.. 8-1272 othes That Care- Flame Resistant Protection" TOoe ZTA245.7 8873 NQ.'2'T2 Texas Agricultural Extension Service . The Texas A&M University System Daniel C. Pfannstiel, Director, College Station, Texas , ? Clothes That Care- Flame... Resistant Protection Claudia Kerbel * Concern for a safer environment has led to changes in many of the everyday products we use , including clothing . In the' past dec ade, flame-resistant (FR) garments and fabrics have become more available than ever...

Kerbel, Claudia

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Perspectives on Dam Removal: York Creek Dam and the Water Framework Directive  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

supply, flood control, hydropower, and recreation. However,as changes induced by hydropower, flood control, or waterFERC requires private hydropower dams to provide “equal

Lawrence, Justin E; Pollak, Josh D; Richmond, Sarah F

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

High-Pressure Flame Speed Measurements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

addition on flame speeds of hydrocarbon fuels 3. Soot formation and explosive gasification in burning droplets of dieselbiodieselethanol blends C. K. Law Princeton...

44

Flame retardant finishing of cotton fleece.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In this research, an inorganic phosphorus-containing flame retardant system was developed for cotton fleece. The aluminum hydroxyphosphate (AHP) formed in situ on cotton by the… (more)

Wu, Xialing

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Providing protection: Agencies receive funding to repair, upgrade dams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 26 Providing protection Agencies receive funding to repair, upgrade dams along with local partners, can apply for grant funds, he said. Construction of the dams began through four federal authorizations... totaling about $11 million. Of the 343 dams currently classified as high hazard, Scattered across Texas are almost 2,000 nondescript, earthen dams built on private land to protect property, roads, and bridges from flood damages. Some of these dams...

Wythe, Kathy

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Milner Dam Wind Park | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Milner Dam Wind Park Milner Dam Wind Park Jump to: navigation, search Name Milner Dam Wind Park Facility Milner Dam Wind Park Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Exergy Developer Exergy Energy Purchaser Idaho Power Location Cassia County ID Coordinates 42.495962°, -114.021106° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.495962,"lon":-114.021106,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

47

Dams (South Dakota) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

You are here You are here Home » Dams (South Dakota) Dams (South Dakota) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative State/Provincial Govt Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Home Weatherization Program Info State South Dakota Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources Dam construction in South Dakota requires a Location Notice or a Water Right Permit. A Location Notice is a form that must be filed with the County Register of Deeds, and is the only paperwork required if (a) the proposed dam will impound 25 acre feet of water or less at the primary

48

Dams and Energy Sectors Interdependency Study  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

[Type text] [Type text] Dams and Energy Sectors Interdependency Study September 2011 September 2011 Page 2 Abstract The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) collaborated to examine the interdependencies between two critical infrastructure sectors - Dams and Energy. 1 The study highlights the importance of hydroelectric power generation, with a particular emphasis on the variability of weather patterns and competing demands for water which determine the water available for hydropower production. In recent years, various regions of the Nation suffered drought, impacting stakeholders in both the Dams and Energy Sectors. Droughts have the potential to affect the operation of dams and reduce hydropower production,

49

The Cool Flame Combustion of Ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article The Cool Flame Combustion of Ethanol J. Brown C. F. H. Tipper The kinetics...products of the cool flame combustion of ethanol between about 280 and 330 C have been...much less for a 1 : 2 than for a 1 : 1 ethanol/oxygen mixture at constant T and varied...

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

A Hydrogen Singing-Flame Ionization Detector  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......occurs un- der certain hydrogen, air, and sam- ple...which was the fact that methods of increas- ing ion...inverted glass jar over a hydrogen diffusion flame to demonstrate...optimum in the normal hydrogen diffusion flame and...reasons for the higher ion production. Advantages of the......

L. B. Graiff

1965-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Polymer combustion: effects of flame emissivity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...gas phase. Polymer combustion chemistry is modelled...investigating polymer combustion it has proven advantageous...properties and treat the heat flux from the ignition...luminous flames from hydrocarbon fuels, it is common...A (1999) Polymer combustion: effects of flame emissivity...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

On the extraction of laminar flame speed and Markstein length from outwardly propagating spherical flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large discrepancies among the laminar flame speeds and Markstein lengths of methane/air mixtures measured by different researchers using the same constant-pressure spherical flame method are observed. As an effort to reduce these discrepancies, one linear model (LM, the stretched flame speed changes linearly with the stretch rate) and two non-linear models (NM I and NM II, the stretched flame speed changes non-linearly with the stretch rate) for extracting the laminar flame speed and Markstein length from propagating spherical flames are investigated. The accuracy and performance of the LM, NM I, and NM II are found to strongly depend on the Lewis number. It is demonstrated that NM I is the most accurate for mixtures with large Lewis number (positive Markstein length) while NM II is the most accurate for mixtures with small Lewis number (negative Markstein length). Therefore, in order to get accurate laminar flame speed and Markstein length from spherical flame experiments, different non-linear models should be used for different mixtures. The validity of the theoretical results is further demonstrated by numerical and experimental studies. The results of this study can be used directly in spherical flame experiments measuring the laminar flame speed and Markstein length. (author)

Chen, Zheng [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

53

Model flames in the Boussinesq limit: Rising Natalia Vladimirova  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model flames in the Boussinesq limit: Rising bubbles Natalia Vladimirova ASC/Flash Center the Boussinesq buoyancy approximation, we study a bubble of reaction products rising in the reactant fluid under with a specified speed. The flame speed, although known for laminar flame, is #12;Model flames in the Boussinesq

Vladimirova, Natalia

54

Evidence of a Quaternary dammed Lake in the Mawat–Chwarta area, Western Zagros, Kurdistan Region, NE-Iraq  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The Mawat–Chwarta valley is located north of the Sulaimania City at Northern Iraq and is surrounded by high mountains on all sides. White laminated sediments with annual varves on a millimetre scale have been recorded at eight localities on the valley gentle slopes. Sedimentological, palaeontological and geomorphological data of these sediments suggest that a lake occupied the valley during the Quaternary. The sediments are of two types, purely fine-grained and fine-grained with coarse interbeds, the two types occur at an elevation difference of about 62 m. The two types are interpreted as representing deep (abyssal) and shoreline deposits, respectively, and indicate the approximate depth of the lake. The sediments contain the fresh water green algae of the genus Botryococcus in addition to a few leaves, scattered plant debris and some pollen grains mainly of herbaceous plants. Contrary to the general south-western drainage pattern in Northern Iraq the Mawat–Chwarta valley is drained to the north, where the Mawat River passes now through deep and narrow gorges along which rock slides and debris plugs are known to have occurred in the past. These mass wasting events are considered here to have blogged the runoff of the valley in the past and eventually led to the formation of a large dammed lake. Numerical chronology work failed, which requires further investigation in the future.

Polla Khanaqa; Kamal Haji Karim; Walter Riegel

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Grand River Dam Authority | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dam Authority Dam Authority Jump to: navigation, search Name Grand River Dam Authority Place Oklahoma Utility Id 7490 Utility Location Yes Ownership S NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle2 Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] Energy Information Administration Form 826[2] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png general service Commercial general service commercial Commercial large general servic time of use distributional Commercial

56

MFR PAPER 1222 Effects of Dams on Pacific Salmon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Their numbers were few and their total effect was relatively minor. In the 1880's dams for hydroelectric power. In the 1930's major hydroelectric dams were built on the mainstem Columbia River (Fig. I), initiating

57

Numerical studies of flames in wide tubes:?Stability limits of curved stationary flames  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flame dynamics in wide tubes with ideally adiabatical and slip walls is studied by means of direct numerical simulations of the complete set of hydrodynamical equations including thermal conduction, fuel diffusion, viscosity, and chemical kinetics. Stability limits of curved stationary flames in wide tubes and the hydrodynamic instability of these flames (the secondary Darrieus-Landau instability) are investigated. The stability limits found in the present numerical simulations are in a very good agreement with the previous theoretical predictions. It is obtained that close to the stability limits the secondary Darrieus-Landau instability results in an extra cusp at the flame front. It is shown that the curved flames subject to the secondary Darrieus-Landau instability propagate with velocity considerably larger than the velocity of the stationary flames.

O. Yu. Travnikov; V. V. Bychkov; M. A. Liberman

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Aromatics oxidation and soot formation in flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is concerned with the kinetics and mechanisms of aromatics oxidation and soot and fullerenes formation in flames. The scope includes detailed measurements of profiles of stable and radical species concentrations in low-pressure one-dimensional premixed flames. Intermediate species identifications and mole fractions, fluxes, and net reaction rates calculated from the measured profiles are used to test postulated reaction mechanisms. Particular objectives are to identify and to determine or confirm rate constants for the main benzene oxidation reactions in flames, and to characterize fullerenes and their formation mechanisms and kinetics.

Howard, J.B.; Pope, C.J.; Shandross, R.A.; Yadav, T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Hydropower Generators Will Deliver New Energy from an Old Dam  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

City of Tacoma expands hydroelectric dam to produce more than 23,000 megawatt hours of electricity annually.

60

Design of a Sediment Mitigation System for Conowingo Dam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design of a Sediment Mitigation System for Conowingo Dam Rayhan Ain, Kevin Cazenas, Sheri Gravette as enhanced erosion of sediment due to significantly increased flow rates and constant interaction of water with the Dam. During these events, the sediment build up at Conowingo Dam in the Lower Susquehanna River has

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flaming gorge dam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Enol Intermediates Unexpectedly Found in Flames  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Enol Intermediates Unexpectedly Found in Flames Print Enol Intermediates Unexpectedly Found in Flames Print For those studying flame chemistry and the properties of combustion intermediates by means of molecular beam mass spectrometry, the addition of tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) from a synchrotron to photoionize the beam for mass spectrometry makes for a powerful technique capable of differentiating between isomers with the same molecular weight and composition. With the help of a unique experimental apparatus, an international team of American, Chinese, and German researchers has exploited this selectivity to identify chemical compounds known as enols as apparently ubiquitous intermediates in flames burning a variety of fuels. This surprising observation will require combustion modelers to revise their models to account for the presence of these compounds.

62

Enol Intermediates Unexpectedly Found in Flames  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Enol Intermediates Unexpectedly Found in Flames Print Enol Intermediates Unexpectedly Found in Flames Print For those studying flame chemistry and the properties of combustion intermediates by means of molecular beam mass spectrometry, the addition of tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) from a synchrotron to photoionize the beam for mass spectrometry makes for a powerful technique capable of differentiating between isomers with the same molecular weight and composition. With the help of a unique experimental apparatus, an international team of American, Chinese, and German researchers has exploited this selectivity to identify chemical compounds known as enols as apparently ubiquitous intermediates in flames burning a variety of fuels. This surprising observation will require combustion modelers to revise their models to account for the presence of these compounds.

63

Enol Intermediates Unexpectedly Found in Flames  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Enol Intermediates Unexpectedly Found in Flames Print Enol Intermediates Unexpectedly Found in Flames Print For those studying flame chemistry and the properties of combustion intermediates by means of molecular beam mass spectrometry, the addition of tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) from a synchrotron to photoionize the beam for mass spectrometry makes for a powerful technique capable of differentiating between isomers with the same molecular weight and composition. With the help of a unique experimental apparatus, an international team of American, Chinese, and German researchers has exploited this selectivity to identify chemical compounds known as enols as apparently ubiquitous intermediates in flames burning a variety of fuels. This surprising observation will require combustion modelers to revise their models to account for the presence of these compounds.

64

Flood of protest hits Indian dams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... up once more in the Indian state of Sikkim, where the 520-mega­watt Teesta IV hydroelectric project would block a tributary of the Brahmaputra (see ‘A deluge of dams’) ... a panacea for both problems, and it plans to add another 110,000 megawatts of hydroelectric capacity by 2025, an eightfold increase. ...

Jane Qiu

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

65

Chapter 13 Water Resources Hoover Dam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 13 Water Resources #12;Hoover Dam #12;The Colorado River Basin Population growth and removed by evaporation. Decrease or loss of vegetation due to climate change, wildfire, or land use affect the stream-channel form and processes. Vegetation Factors #12;Wildfire increases soil erosion

Pan, Feifei

66

The structure of the carbon black flame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE STRUCTURE OF THE CARBON BLACK FLAME A Dissertation By W1 111 ami Kermit Anderson THEHSR UCOF Approval as to style and content recommended Head of tiie Department of Chemistry A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural... and Mechanical College of. Texas in Parti ail Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE STRUCTURE OF THE CARBON BLACK FLAME Major Subject: Chemistry AB William Hermit Anderson:\\ t * August 1945 THE STRUCTURE OF THE. CARBON...

Anderson, W. Kermi

1945-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

NO concentration imaging in turbulent nonpremixed flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The importance of NO as a pollutant species is well known. An understanding of the formation characteristics of NO in turbulent hydrocarbon flames is important to both the desired reduction of pollutant emissions and the validation of proposed models for turbulent reacting flows. Of particular interest is the relationship between NO formation and the local flame zone, in which the fuel is oxidized and primary heat release occurs. Planar imaging of NO provides the multipoint statistics needed to relate NO formation to the both the flame zone and the local turbulence characteristics. Planar imaging of NO has been demonstrated in turbulent flames where NO was seeded into the flow at high concentrations (2000 ppm) to determine the gas temperature distribution. The NO concentrations in these experiments were significantly higher than those expected in typical hydrocarbon-air flames, which require a much lower detectability limit for NO measurements. An imaging technique based on laser-induced fluorescence with sufficient sensitivity to study the NO formation mechanism in the stabilization region of turbulent lifted-jet methane flames.

Schefer, R.W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Characterisation of an oxy-coal flame through digital imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents investigations into the impact of oxy-fuel combustion on flame characteristics through the application of digital imaging and image processing techniques. The characteristic parameters of the flame are derived from flame images that are captured using a vision-based flame monitoring system. Experiments were carried out on a 0.5 MW{sub th} coal combustion test facility. Different flue gas recycle ratios and furnace oxygen levels were created for two different coals. The characteristics of the flame and the correlation between the measured flame parameters and corresponding combustion conditions are described and discussed. The results show that the flame temperature decreases with the recycle ratio for both test coals, suggesting that the flame temperature is effectively controlled by the flue gas recycle ratio. The presence of high levels of CO{sub 2} at high flue gas recycle ratios may result in delayed combustion and thus has a detrimental effect on the flame stability. (author)

Smart, John; Riley, Gerry [RWE npower plc, Windmill Hill Business Park, Whitehill Way, Swindon SN5 6PB (United Kingdom); Lu, Gang; Yan, Yong [Instrumentation, Control and Embedded Systems Research Group, School of Engineering and Digital Arts, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NT (United Kingdom)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

69

Blowoff dynamics of bluff body stabilized turbulent premixed flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article concerns the flame dynamics of a bluff body stabilized turbulent premixed flame as it approaches lean blowoff. Time resolved chemiluminescence imaging along with simultaneous particle image velocimetry and OH planar laser-induced fluorescence were utilized in an axisymmetric bluff body stabilized, propane-air flame to determine the sequence of events leading to blowoff and provide a quantitative analysis of the experimental results. It was found that as lean blowoff is approached by reduction of equivalence ratio, flame speed decreases and the flame shape progressively changes from a conical to a columnar shape. For a stably burning conical flame away from blowoff, the flame front envelopes the shear layer vortices. Near blowoff, the columnar flame front and shear layer vortices overlap to induce high local stretch rates that exceed the extinction stretch rates instantaneously and in the mean, resulting in local flame extinction along the shear layers. Following shear layer extinction, fresh reactants can pass through the shear layers to react within the recirculation zone with all other parts of the flame extinguished. This flame kernel within the recirculation zone may survive for a few milliseconds and can reignite the shear layers such that the entire flame is reestablished for a short period. This extinction and reignition event can happen several times before final blowoff which occurs when the flame kernel fails to reignite the shear layers and ultimately leads to total flame extinguishment. (author)

Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Kostka, Stanislav; Renfro, Michael W.; Cetegen, Baki M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, 191 Auditorium Road, U-3139, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

Integrative seismic safety evaluation of a high concrete arch dam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An integrative seismic safety evaluation of an arch dam should include all sources of nonlinearities, dynamic interactions between different components and the external loads. The present paper investigates the calibration procedure and nonlinear seismic response of an existing high arch dam. The first part explains the conducted analyses for the static and thermal calibrations of the dam based on site measurements. The second part investigates the nonlinear seismic analysis of the calibrated model considering the effect of joints, cracking of mass concrete, reservoir–dam–rock interaction, hydrodynamic pressure inside the opened joints and the geometric nonlinearity. Penetration of the water inside the opened joints accelerates the damage process. The integrative seismic assessment of a case study shows that the dam will fail under the maximum credible earthquake scenario. The dam is judged to be severely damaged with extensive cracking and the joints undergo opening/sliding. A systematic procedure is proposed for seismic and post-seismic safety of dams.

M.A. Hariri-Ardebili; M.R. Kianoush

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Flames in Type Ia Supernova: Deflagration-Detonation Transition in the Oxygen Burning Flame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Flames in Type Ia Supernova: Deflagration-Detonation Transition in the Oxygen Burning Flame S. E of these regions can be supersonic and could initiate a detonation. Subject headings: supernovae: general a late time transition of the thermonuclear burning to a detonation wave (e.g., Hoflich et al. 1995

72

Characterization of syngas laminar flames using the Bunsen burner configuration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laminar flame speeds of syngas mixtures (H2/CO/Air) have been studied using the Bunsen flame configuration with both straight and nozzle burners. The flame surface area and flame cone angle methodologies, respectively based on the OH* chemiluminescence and Schlieren imaging techniques, have been performed to extract flame speeds for a wide range of equivalence ratios (0.3 syngas flames with 0.6 < ? < 1.0 and 10% < %H2 < 70% is proposed. A particular attention has been devoted to the development and validation of the OH* chemiluminescence methodology with the identification of important parameters governing the measurement accuracy.

N. Bouvet; C. Chauveau; I. Gökalp; S.-Y. Lee; R.J. Santoro

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Sustainable Energy Dam: research into possible improvement of dam/dike safety by application of sustainable energy on dams/dikes:.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A study on the use of the Afsluitdijk (or more generic, enclosure dams in general) for the generation of energy. Focus in this study in… (more)

Wondergem, D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Bull Trout Population Assessment in the Columbia River Gorge : Annual Report 2000.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We summarized existing knowledge regarding the known distribution of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) across four sub-basins in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington. The Wind River, Little White Salmon River, White Salmon River, and the Klickitat River sub-basins were analyzed. Cold water is essential to the survival, spawning, and rearing of bull trout. We analyzed existing temperature data, installed Onset temperature loggers in the areas of the four sub-basins where data was not available, and determined that mean daily water temperatures were <15 C and appropriate for spawning and rearing of bull trout. We snorkel surveyed more than 74 km (46.25 mi.) of rivers and streams in the four sub-basins (13.8 km at night and 60.2 km during the day) and found that night snorkeling was superior to day snorkeling for locating bull trout. Surveys incorporated the Draft Interim Protocol for Determining Bull Trout Presence (Peterson et al. In Press). However, due to access and safety issues, we were unable to randomly select sample sites nor use block nets as recommended. Additionally, we also implemented the Bull Trout/Dolly Varden sampling methodology described in Bonar et al. (1997). No bull trout were found in the Wind River, Little White Salmon, or White Salmon River sub-basins. We found bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat drainage of the Klickitat River Sub-basin. Bull trout averaged 6.7 fish/100m{sup 2} in Trappers Creek, 2.6 fish/100m{sup 2} on Clearwater Creek, and 0.4 fish/100m{sup 2} in Little Muddy Creek. Bull trout was the only species of salmonid encountered in Trappers Creek and dominated in Clearwater Creek. Little Muddy Creek was the only creek where bull trout and introduced brook trout occurred together. We found bull trout only at night and typically in low flow regimes. A single fish, believed to be a bull trout x brook trout hybrid, was observed in the Little Muddy Creek. Additional surveys are needed in the West Fork Klickitat and mainstem Klickitat to determine the distribution of bull trout throughout the drainage and to determine the extent of hybridization with brook trout.

Byrne, Jim; McPeak, Ron

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Hoover Dam Bypass Project Phase II  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DOE/EA-1478 DOE/EA-1478 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT Western' s Hoover Dam Bypass Project Phase II (Double-Circuiting a Portion of the Hoover-Mead #5 and #7 230-kV Transmission Lines with the Henderson-Mead #1 230-kV Transmission Line, Clark County, Nevada) Prepared for: U.S. Department of Energy Western Area Power Administration 615 S. 43 rd Avenue Phoenix, Arizona 85009 Prepared by: Transcon Environmental 3740 East Southern Avenue, Suite 218 Mesa, Arizona 85206 (480) 807-0095 October 2003 Western Area Power Administration Hoover Dam Bypass Project Phase II page i Environmental Assessment TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................1 1.1 Background..................................................................................................................................1

76

Synergistic effect of nanosilica aerogel with phosphorus flame retardants on improving flame retardancy and leaching resistance of wood  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nanosilica (Nano-SiO2) sol fabricated by a sol-gel process was introduced into wood modification with phosphorus flame retardants to improve the flame retardancy and leaching resistance of wood. The obtained materials were characterized by ...

Xiaodan Zhu, Yiqiang Wu, Cuihua Tian, Yan Qing, Chunhua Yao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

White Flame Energy switches to backhoes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mountaintop coal operator, White Flame Energy has switched to different truck-shovel arrangement. Along with many surface mining operations throughout central Appalachia, the company is using hoe-configured hydraulic excavators as opposed to the traditional front-shovel arrangements. Located in Varney, WV, White Flame Energy uses two Terex O & K mining shovels, an RH170 and an RH 200, which have the capacity to move 2 million cu yards per month from five seams, primarily the Coalburg, Stockton, and No 5 Block and associated rider seams. The article records conversations on the operations with Mike Vines, the general manager, and Don Nicewonder, the owner of White Flame Energy. 2 photos.

Fiscor, S.

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

A Universal Detector for Liquid Chromatography: The Flame Aerosol Detector  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......a turbu- lent air-hydrogen flame into which the...application of calibration methods similar to those often...of the flame as one method of production of charged droplets...case. In the air-hydrogen flame of a conventional......

Stephen A. Wise; Richard A. Mowery; Jr; Richard S. Juvet; Jr

1979-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Investigations of swirl flames in a gas turbine model combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermochemical states of three swirling CH{sub 4}/air diffusion flames, stabilized in a gas turbine model combustor, were investigated using laser Raman scattering. The flames were operated at different thermal powers and air/fuel ratios and exhibited different flame behavior with respect to flame instabilities. They had previously been characterized with respect to their flame structures, velocity fields, and mean values of temperature, major species concentrations, and mixture fraction. The single-pulse multispecies measurements presented in this article revealed very rapid mixing of fuel and air, accompanied by strong effects of turbulence-chemistry interactions in the form of local flame extinction and ignition delay. Flame stabilization is accomplished mainly by hot and relatively fuel-rich combustion products, which are transported back to the flame root within an inner recirculation zone. The flames are not attached to the fuel nozzle, and are stabilized approximately 10 mm above the fuel nozzle, where fuel and air are partially premixed before ignition. The mixing and reaction progress in this area are discussed in detail. The flames are short (<50 mm), especially that exhibiting thermoacoustic oscillations, and reach a thermochemical state close to adiabatic equilibrium at the flame tip. The main goals of this article are to outline results that yield deeper insight into the combustion of gas turbine flames and to establish an experimental database for the validation of numerical models.

Meier, W.; Duan, X.R.; Weigand, P. [Institut fuer Verbrennungstechnik, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Pfaffenwaldring 38, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Flame Spectra in the Photographic Infra-Red  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...H O bands in the flame of moist carbon monoxide indicates that in this flame the excitation is a result of the combustion processes; this agrees with earlier theories on the formation of vibrationally activated molecules of CO in this flame...

1942-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flaming gorge dam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Dams and Reservoirs Safety Act (South Carolina) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Dams and Reservoirs Safety Act (South Carolina) Dams and Reservoirs Safety Act (South Carolina) Dams and Reservoirs Safety Act (South Carolina) < Back Eligibility Utility Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Institutional Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State South Carolina Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control The Dams and Reservoirs Safety Act provides for the certification and inspection of dams in South Carolina and confers regulatory authority on the Department of Health and Environmental Control. Owners of dams and reservoirs are responsible for maintaining the safety of the structures,

82

Safe Dams Act of 1972 (Tennessee) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Safe Dams Act of 1972 (Tennessee) Safe Dams Act of 1972 (Tennessee) Safe Dams Act of 1972 (Tennessee) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Investor-Owned Utility Transportation Utility Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Home Weatherization Program Info State Tennessee Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Tennessee Department Of Environment and Conservation The Safe Dams Act of 1973 (SDA) gives the Commissioner of the Department of Environment and Conservation the power to issue certificates authorizing the construction, alteration, or operation of a dam. A dam is defined as any artificial barrier, together with appurtenant works, which does or may impound or divert water, and which either (1) is or will be twenty (20)

83

Women @ Energy: Kerstin Kleese van Dam | Department of Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Kerstin Kleese van Dam Kerstin Kleese van Dam Women @ Energy: Kerstin Kleese van Dam March 27, 2013 - 3:41pm Addthis Kerstin Kleese van Dam is an associate division director of the Computational Science and Mathematics Division and leads the Scientific Data Management Group at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Kerstin Kleese van Dam is an associate division director of the Computational Science and Mathematics Division and leads the Scientific Data Management Group at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Check out other profiles in the Women @ Energy series and share your favorites on Pinterest. Kerstin Kleese van Dam has led the charge at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to resolve data management, analysis, and knowledge discovery challenges in extreme-scale data environments. She also directs data

84

Modeling the costs and benefits of dam construction from a multidisciplinary perspective  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, energy, and environmental protection well into the future, a broader view of dams is needed. We thus and to articulate priorities associated with a dam project, making the decision process about dams more informed dams, the next generation may witness a renewed intensity in large dam development in the U.S. More

Tullos, Desiree

85

Computatonal and experimental study of laminar flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research has centered on an investigation of the effects of complex chemistry and detailed transport on the structure and extinction of hydrocarbon flames in counterflow, cylindrical and coflowing axisymmetric configurations. The authors have pursued both computational and experimental aspects of the research in parallel. The computational work has focused on the application of accurate and efficient numerical methods for the solution of the one and two-dimensional nonlinear boundary value problems describing the various reacting systems. Detailed experimental measurements were performed on axisymmetric coflow flames using two-dimensional imaging techniques. In particular, spontaneous Raman scattering and laser induced fluorescence were used to measure the temperature, major and minor species profiles.

Smooke, M.D.; Long, M.B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

A Numerical Study of the Superadiabatic Flame Temperature Phenomenon in HN3 Flame O. P. Korobeinichev,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

@cua.edu #12;2 ABSTRACT The phenomenon of superadiabatic flame temperature (SAFT) was discovered the revised mechanism. The results demonstrate presence of the SAFT phenomenon in the HN3/N2 flame. Analysis of the flame structure and the kinetic mechanism indicates that the cause of SAFT is in the kinetic mechanism

Knyazev, Vadim D.

87

Georgia Safe Dams Act of 1978 (Georgia) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Safe Dams Act of 1978 (Georgia) Safe Dams Act of 1978 (Georgia) Georgia Safe Dams Act of 1978 (Georgia) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Developer Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Home Weatherization Program Info State Georgia Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Georgia Department of Natural Resources The purpose of the Georgia Safe Dams Act is to provide regulation,

88

Montana Dam Safety Act (Montana) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Montana Dam Safety Act (Montana) Montana Dam Safety Act (Montana) Montana Dam Safety Act (Montana) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Retail Supplier Institutional Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Home Weatherization Program Info Start Date 1985 State Montana Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation This Act establishes the state's interest in the construction of dams for water control and regulation and for hydropower generation purposes. It

89

Dam Design and Construction (Wisconsin) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Dam Design and Construction (Wisconsin) Dam Design and Construction (Wisconsin) Dam Design and Construction (Wisconsin) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Home Weatherization Program Info Start Date 1985 State Wisconsin Program Type Safety and Operational Guidelines Provider Department of Natural Resources These regulations apply to dams that are not owned by the U.S. government

90

Environmental Impacts of Increased Hydroelectric Development at Existing Dams  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This report describes the environmental impacts of a proposed U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiative to promote the development of hydropower resources at existing dams.

91

Potential Geomorphic and Ecological Impacts of Marmot Dam Removal, Sandy River, OR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Marmot Dam is a 13-meter (42 ft) high hydroelectric diversion dam on the Sandy River that is owned Run Hydroelectric project and began the process of creating a decommissioning plan for the dam

92

The distribution of dams in Costa Rica and their hydrologic impacts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dam construction has increased exponentially over the past century, primarily in temperate environments. While the impacts of dams in temperate regions have been well-documented, a parallel level of research on dam impacts has not been achieved...

Laurencio, Laura Richards

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

93

Power-Law Wrinkling Turbulence-Flame Interaction Model for Astrophysical Flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We extend a model for turbulence-flame interactions (TFI) to consider astrophysical flames with a particular focus on combustion in type Ia supernovae. The inertial range of the turbulent cascade is nearly always under-resolved in simulations of astrophysical flows, requiring the use of a model in order to quantify the effects of subgrid-scale wrinkling of the flame surface. We provide implementation details to extend a well-tested TFI model to low-Prandtl number flames for use in the compressible hydrodynamics code FLASH. A local, instantaneous measure of the turbulent velocity is calibrated for FLASH and verification tests are performed. Particular care is taken to consider the relation between the subgrid rms turbulent velocity and the turbulent flame speed, especially for high-intensity turbulence where the turbulent flame speed is not expected to scale with the turbulent velocity. Finally, we explore the impact of different TFI models in full-star, three-dimensional simulations of type Ia supernovae.

Jackson, Aaron P; Calder, Alan C

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Increased Cytotoxicity of Oxidized Flame Soot  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Increased Cytotoxicity of Oxidized Flame Soot Increased Cytotoxicity of Oxidized Flame Soot Title Increased Cytotoxicity of Oxidized Flame Soot Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Holder, Amara L., Brietta J. Carter, Regine Goth-Goldstein, Donald Lucas, and Catherine P. Koshland Journal Atmospheric Pollution Research Volume 3 Start Page 25 Issue 1 Pagination 25-31 Date Published 01/2012 Keywords health effects, ozone, soot, toxicity Abstract Combustion-generated particles released into the atmosphere undergo reactions with oxidants, which can change the particles' physiochemical characteristics. In this work, we compare the physical and chemical properties and cellular response of particles fresh from a flame with those oxidized by ozone and nitrogen dioxide. The reaction with ozone and nitrogen dioxide does not significantly modify the physical characteristics of the particles (primary particle size, fractal dimension, and surface area). However, oxidation affects the chemical characteristics of the particles, creating more oxygen and nitrogen containing functional groups, and increases their hydrophilicity. In addition, oxidized soot generates more reactive oxygen species, as measured by the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. Furthermore, oxidized soot is 1.5-2 times more toxic than soot that was not reacted with ozone, but the inflammatory response, measured by interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion, is unchanged. These results imply that combustion-generated particles released into the atmosphere will have an increased toxicity on or after high ozone days.

95

Spectrum of the Flame of Ethylene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1 December 1934 research-article Spectrum of the Flame of Ethylene W. M. Vaidya The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences. www.jstor.org

1934-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

A DETAILED RESEARCH PLAN TO ASSESS BEHAVIOR OF ADULT SUMMER/FALL CHINOOK UPSTREAM OF WELLS DAM USING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

........................................................................ 11 3.6.3 Chief Joseph Dam Powerhouse

97

Using ArcGIS to extrapolate greenhouse gas emissions on the Pengxi River, a tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using ArcGIS to extrapolate greenhouse gas emissions on the Pengxi River, a tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir in China Lindsey MW Yasarer, PhD Candidate, University of Kansas Dr. Zhe Li, Associate Professor, Chongqing University Dr.... Belinda Sturm, Associate Professor, University of Kansas RESERVOIR GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS (Image from FURNAS www.dsr.inpe.br) HOW TO SCALE UP GHG EMISSIONS? PROJECT OBJECTIVE: Estimate overall greenhouse gas emissions from the Pengxi River Backwater...

Yasarer, Lindsey

2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

98

Processes affecting the spatial and temporal variability of methane in a temperate dammed river system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gas emissions from a hydroelectric reservoir (Brazil’sgas emissions from hydroelectric dams: controversies provideP. M. , 2005a. Do hydroelectric dams mitigate global

Bilsley, Nicole A.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Dam Safety and Encroachments Act (Pennsylvania) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Dam Safety and Encroachments Act (Pennsylvania) Dam Safety and Encroachments Act (Pennsylvania) Dam Safety and Encroachments Act (Pennsylvania) < Back Eligibility Utility Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State Pennsylvania Program Type Safety and Operational Guidelines Provider Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection This act sets the standards and criteria for the siting and design of dams, water obstructions and encroachments considering both existing and projected conditions. It requires operational plans to be prepared and implemented by owners and also requires monitoring, inspection and reporting of conditions affecting the safety of dams, water obstructions

100

Dams and Energy Sectors Interdependency Study, September 2011 | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Dams and Energy Sectors Interdependency Study, September 2011 Dams and Energy Sectors Interdependency Study, September 2011 Dams and Energy Sectors Interdependency Study, September 2011 The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) collaborated to examine the interdependencies between two critical infrastructure sectors - Dams and Energy. The study highlights the importance of hydroelectric power generation, with a particular emphasis on the variability of weather patterns and competing demands for water which determine the water available for hydropower production. Dams-Energy Interdependency Study.pdf More Documents & Publications Hydroelectric Webinar Presentation Slides and Text Version Impacts of Long-term Drought on Power Systems in the U.S. Southwest - July 2012 Before the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flaming gorge dam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Flame quality monitor system for fixed firing rate oil burners  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for determining and indicating the flame quality, or efficiency of the air-fuel ratio, in a fixed firing rate heating unit, such as an oil burning furnace, is provided. When the flame brightness falls outside a preset range, the flame quality, or excess air, has changed to the point that the unit should be serviced. The flame quality indicator output is in the form of lights mounted on the front of the unit. A green light indicates that the flame is about in the same condition as when the burner was last serviced. A red light indicates a flame which is either too rich or too lean, and that servicing of the burner is required. At the end of each firing cycle, the flame quality indicator goes into a hold mode which is in effect during the period that the burner remains off. A yellow or amber light indicates that the burner is in the hold mode. In this mode, the flame quality lights indicate the flame condition immediately before the burner turned off. Thus the unit can be viewed when it is off, and the flame condition at the end of the previous firing cycle can be observed.

Butcher, Thomas A. (Pt. Jefferson, NY); Cerniglia, Philip (Moriches, NY)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Turbulent Nonpremixed Flames (TNF): Experimental Data Archives and Computational Submodels  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

In the 1990s an international collaboration formed around a series of workshops that became known collectively as the International Workshop on Measurement and Computation of Turbulent Non-Premixed Flames (TNF). An online library, hosted by Sandia National Laboratory (California) was established that provides data sets and submodels or "mechanisms" for the study of turbulence-chemistry interactions in turbulent nonpremixed and partially premixed combustion. Data are organized by flame types: simple jet flames, piloted jet flames, bluff body flames, and swirl flames. These data sets provide a means for collaborative comparisons of both measured and simulated/modeled research results and also assist scientists in determining priorities for further research. More than 20 data sets or databases are available from this website, along with various downloadable files of chemical mechanisms. The website also provides an extensive bibliography and the proceedings of the workshops themselves from 1996 through 2012. Information continues to be added to this collection.

103

New developments in the theory of flame propagation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two topics in combustion fluid mechanics are discussed. The first is a theory of the outward propagating spherical flame in the regime of well-developed hydrodynamic instability. In a qualitative agreement with experimental observations it is shown that the flame assumes a fractal-like wrinkled structure resulting in the overall burning rate acceleration. In contrast to hydrodynamically unstable flames, the expanding flame subject exclusively to the effect of diffusive instability does not indicate any disposition toward acceleration. The second topic concerns the dynamics of diffusively unstable flames subjected to radiative heat losses. At high enough heat losses the flame breaks up into separate self-propagating cap-like flamelets while a significant portion of the fuel remains unconsumed.

Sivashinsky, G.I. [City College of the City Univ. of New York, NY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

104

The advanced flame quality indicator system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

By combining oil tank monitoring, systems diagnostics and flame quality monitoring in an affordable system that communicates directly with dealers by telephone modem, Insight Technologies offers new revenue opportunities and the capability for a new order of customer relations to oil dealers. With co-sponsorship from New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, we have incorporated several valuable functions to a new product based on the original Flame Quality Indicator concept licensed from the US DOE`s Brookhaven National Laboratory. The new system is the Advanced Flame Quality Indicator, or AFQI. As before, the AFQI monitors and reports the intensity of the burner flame relative to a calibration established when the burner is set up at AFQI installation. Repairs or adjustments are summoned by late-night outgoing telephone calls when limits are exceeded in either direction, indicating an impending contamination or other malfunction. A independently, a pressure transducer for monitoring oil tank level and filter condition, safety lockout alarms and a temperature monitor; all reporting automatically at instructed intervals via an on-board modem to a central station PC computer (CSC). Firmware on each AFQI unit and Insight-supplied software on the CSC automatically interact to maintain a customer database for an oil dealer, an OEM, or a regional service contractor. In addition to ensuring continuously clean and efficient operation, the AFQI offers the oil industry a new set of immediate payoffs, among which are reduced outages and emergency service calls, shorter service calls from cleaner operation, larger oil delivery drops, the opportunity to stretch service intervals to as along as three years in some cases, new selling features to keep and attract customers, and greatly enhanced customer contact, quality and reliability.

Oman, R.; Rossi, M.J.; Calia, V.S.; Davis, F.L.; Rudin, A. [Insight Technologies, Inc., Bohemia, NY (United States)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Advancing predictive models for particulate formation in turbulent flames via massively parallel direct numerical simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...gaseous flames in gas turbine combustion chambers...using a flamelet/progress variable approach...flame of natural gas. Combust. Flame...and R Suntz. 2002 Progress in characterization...calculations. Technical report, University of Technology...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Dams, Mills, and Electric Power (Missouri) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Mills, and Electric Power (Missouri) Mills, and Electric Power (Missouri) Dams, Mills, and Electric Power (Missouri) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative State/Provincial Govt Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Home Weatherization Program Info State Missouri Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Missouri Department of Natural Resources The Water Resources Center of the Missouri Department of Natural Resources is responsible for implementing regulations pertaining to dam and reservoir safety. Any person or corporation may erect a dam across any watercourse, provided that: (a) the entity is chartered to construct, operate and

107

Regulation of Dams and Bridges Affecting Navigable Waters (Wisconsin) |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Dams and Bridges Affecting Navigable Waters Dams and Bridges Affecting Navigable Waters (Wisconsin) Regulation of Dams and Bridges Affecting Navigable Waters (Wisconsin) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Home Weatherization Program Info Start Date 2007 State Wisconsin Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Natural Resources Chapter 31 of the Wisconsin Statutes lays out the regulations relevant to

108

Flame-wall interaction simulation in a turbulent channel flow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction between turbulent premixed flames and channel walls is studied. Combustion is represented by a simple irreversible reaction with a large activation temperature. A low heat release assumption is used, but feedback to the flowfield can be allowed through viscosity changes. The effect of wall distance on local and global flame structure is investigated. Quenching distances and maximum wall heat fluxed computed in laminar cases are compared to DNS results. It is found that quenching distances decrease and maximum heat fluxes increase relative to laminar flame values, scaling with the turbulent strain rate. It is shown that these effects are due to large coherent structures which push flame elements towards the wall. The effect of wall strain in flame-wall interaction is studied in a stagnation line flow; this is used to explain the DNS results. The effects of the flame on the flow through viscosity changes is studied. It is also shown that remarkable flame events are produced by flame interaction with a horseshoe vortex: burned gases are pushed towards the wall at high speed and induce quenching and high wall heat flux while fresh gases are expelled from the wall region and form finger-like structures. Effects of the wall on flame surface density are investigated.

Bruneaux, G.; Akselvoll, K.; Poinsot, T.; Ferziger, J.H.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Surface wettability studies of PDMS using flame plasma treatment .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The flame plasma treatment studied in this thesis was able to oxidize the surface of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) in a fraction of a second. It was… (more)

Wang, Xin C

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

TSSGNEO suggestions for refinement of safety criteria for dam at the Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analysis of radial-displacements of the dam, measured by direct and inverted plumb lines, indicates that curves of the variation in radial displacements of the dam at different elevations make it possible to plot diagrams of increases in the radial displacement over the entire height of the dam, i.e., inclines of the axis of the dam to the vertical.

Savich, A. I.; Gaziev, E. G. [Expert Commission on Assessment of the 'Dam - Bed' System at the Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP (Russian Federation)] [Expert Commission on Assessment of the 'Dam - Bed' System at the Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP (Russian Federation)

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

111

Peak discharge of a Pleistocene lava-dam outburst flood in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

produced the largest known flood on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. The Hyaloclastite Dam was up to 366 Canyon; Colorado river; Pleistocene floods; Lava dams; Hydraulic modeling; Paleoflood indicators; DamPeak discharge of a Pleistocene lava-dam outburst flood in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA Cassandra R

112

FIELD TEST OF THE FLAME QUALITY INDICATOR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The flame quality indicator concept was developed at BNL specifically to monitor the brightness of the flame in a small oil burner and to provide a ''call for service'' notification when the brightness has changed from its setpoint, either high or low. In prior development work BNL has explored the response of this system to operational upsets such as excess air changes, fouled atomizer nozzles, poor fuel quality, etc. Insight Technologies, Inc. and Honeywell, Inc. have licensed this technology from the U.S. Department of Energy and have been cooperating to develop product offerings which meet industry needs with an optimal combination of function and price. Honeywell has recently completed the development of the Flame Quality Monitor (FQM or Honeywell QS7100F). This is a small module which connects via a serial cable to the burners primary operating control. Primary advantages of this approach are simplicity, cost, and ease of installation. Call-for-service conditions are output in the form of front panel indicator lights and contact closure which can trigger a range of external communication options. Under this project a field test was conducted of the FQM in cooperation with service organizations in Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and Connecticut. At total of 83 field sites were included. At each site the FQM was installed in parallel with another embodiment of this concept--the Insight AFQI. The AFQI incorporates a modem and provides the ability to provide detailed information on the trends in the flame quality over the course of the two year test period. The test site population was comprised of 79.5% boilers, 13.7% warm air furnaces, and 6.8% water heaters. Nearly all were of residential size--with firing rates ranging from 0.6 gallons of oil per hour to 1.25. During the course of the test program the monitoring equipment successfully identified problems including: plugged fuel lines, fouled nozzles, collapsed combustion chambers, and poor fuel pump cut-off. Service organizations can use these early indications to reduce problems and service costs. There were also some ''call-for-service'' indications for which problems were not identified. The test program also showed that monitoring of the flame can provide information on burner run times and this can be used to estimate current oversize factors and to determine actual fuel usage, enabling more efficient fuel delivery procedures.

Andrew M. Rudin; Thomas Butcher; Henry Troost

2003-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

113

Effect of Blending on High-Pressure Laminar Flame Speed Measurements, Markstein Lengths, and Flame Stability of Hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 5, and 10 .................................................. 40 Figure 26 Pure CH3OCH3 results for initial pressures of 1, 5, and 10 atm ................................................ 41 Figure 27 Flame speed results for 80/20 CH4/C2H6... .............................................................................................. 44 Figure 30 Flame speed results for 80/20 CH4/CH3OCH3 at initial pressures of 1, 5, and 10 atm compared to modeled results .................................................................................. 45 Figure 31 Flame speed results...

Lowry, William Baugh

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

114

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic absorption flame Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

flame Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: atomic absorption flame Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Appendix 1: Experimental Studies...

115

Route-Specific Passage Proportions and Survival Rates for Fish Passing through John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Bonneville Dam in 2010 and 2011  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report fulfills a request of the U.S. Army Engineer District, Portland, Oregon, to produce an interim report of estimates of route-specific fish passage proportions and survival rates for lower Columbia River dams in 2010 and 2011. The estimates are needed to update the Compass Model for the Columbia River Treaty and the new Biological Opinion before detail technical reports are published in late 2012. This report tabulates route-specific fish-passage proportions and survival rates for steelhead and Chinook salmon smolts passing through various sampled routes at John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Bonneville Dam in 2010 and 2011. Results were compiled from analyses of data acquired in spring 2010 and 2011 studies that were specifically designed to estimate dam-passage and forebay-to-tailrace survival rates, travel time metrics, and spill passage efficiency, as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion and the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. The study designs allowed for estimation of route-specific fish passage proportions and survival rates as well as estimation of forebay-passage survival, all of which are summarized herein.

Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

116

REVIEW PLAN John Redmond Dam Reservoir, Coffee County, Kansas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;#12;REVIEW PLAN John Redmond Dam Reservoir, Coffee County, Kansas Reallocation Study Tulsa...................................................................................................................11 12. REVIEW PLAN APPROVAL AND UPDATES........................................................................................11 13. REVIEW PLAN POINTS OF CONTACT

US Army Corps of Engineers

117

Libby Dam Wildlife Habitat Enhancement, 1992 Final Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report of a project that was initiated in September, 1984 to mitigate for the loss of big game winter and spring range by the Libby Dam hydroelectric facility.

Holifield, Jennifer; Komac, Ron (Kootenai National Forest, Fisher River Ranger District, Libby MT)

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

IMPACTS OF LANDSLIDE DAMS ON MOUNTAIN VALLEY MORPHOLOGY  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Landslide dams can influence mountain-valley morphology significantly in the vicinity of the ... and their impoundments, and thus influence the long-term effects of these natural features on mountain-valley morph...

R.L. SCHUSTER

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

A hydraulic model study of the gray reef dam spillway  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A HYDRAULIC MODEL STUDY OF THE GRAY REEF DAM SPILLWAY A Thesis by ALI AKHTAR QURAISHI Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE January 1961 Major Subject: Civil Engineering A HYDRAULIC MODEL STUDY OF THE GRAY REEF DAM SPILLWAY A Thesis ALI AKHTAR QURAISHI Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Comm' e Head of the Depa ment January 1961 ACKNOWLEDGMENT...

Quraishi, Ali Akhtar

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

120

Underwater noise generated by Columbia River hydroelectric dams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Low?frequency (10–1000 Hz) underwater noise measurements have been made in water within and upstream from four Columbia River hydroelectric dams. The motivation for these measurements was to map out the sound field within and upstream from the power dams as a first step in understanding the effect of this field on the behavior of migrating salmonids that must choose between the bypass system or intakes to the turbines. Eventually sound may be used to guide the juvenile fish safely past the turbine intakes and into the bypass system. Thus far single hydrophonemeasurements have been made in the bypass slots within the dam and at a number of locations upstream from the dam. The noise level varies with location decreasing as the hydrophone is moved upsteam from the dam and as the hydrophone is moved closer to the water surface immediately upstream of the dam as well as in the bypass slot. The noise spectra below 200 Hz are highly modulated displaying one or more sharp peaks which indicates resonances in the structural generating mechanism or propagation path. The spectrum level and modulation vary significantly from one dam to another and sometimes from one configuration to another (e.g. when one of the turbines is on or off). A final set of measurements will be made at the Bonneville Dam using several hydrophones placed at a number of locations in the vicinity of the intake channel and these may help identify sources and propagation paths to the hydrophone. [Work sponsored by U. S. Army Corps of Engineers.

Robert T. Miyamoto; Steven O. McConnell; James J. Anderson; Blake E. Feist

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flaming gorge dam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Introduction HYBRID FLAME: combustion of a combustible gas and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in numerous cases (e.g. explosion in coal mines) QUENCHING DISTANCES: narrowest passage through which aflame due to the difficulty of obtaining a hybrid flame. Setup Methodology Dust fed by actuator with methane Future Work Verify data obtained for methane and aluminum flame Run test with constant equivalence ratio

Barthelat, Francois

122

Low-Temperature Oxidation and Cool Flames of Propane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1954 research-article Low-Temperature Oxidation and Cool Flames of Propane J. H. Knox R. G. W. Norrish A detailed analytical study of the cool-flame oxidation of propane has been carried out using a continuous-flow technique with a view...

1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Author's personal copy Combustion and Flame 151 (2007) 104119  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Author's personal copy Combustion and Flame 151 (2007) 104­119 www May 2007 Available online 28 June 2007 Abstract Laminar flame speeds of lean H2/CO/CO2 (syngas) fuel but overpredict the measurements at higher temperatures. © 2007 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier

Lieuwen, Timothy C.

124

Analyzing and Tracking Burning Structures in Lean Premixed Hydrogen Flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of premixed burners capable of stably burning ultra-lean hydrogen-air fuel mixtures. Such burners couldAnalyzing and Tracking Burning Structures in Lean Premixed Hydrogen Flames Peer-Timo Bremer, Member demonstrate our approach by analyzing three numerical simulations of lean hydrogen flames subject to different

Pascucci, Valerio

125

On the Evolution of Thermonuclear Flames on Large Scales  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The thermonuclear explosion of a massive white dwarf in a Type Ia supernova explosion is characterized by vastly disparate spatial and temporal scales. The extreme dynamic range inherent to the problem prevents the use of direct numerical simulation and forces modelers to resort to subgrid models to describe physical processes taking place on unresolved scales. We consider the evolution of a model thermonuclear flame in a constant gravitational field on a periodic domain. The gravitational acceleration is aligned with the overall direction of the flame propagation, making the flame surface subject to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The flame evolution is followed through an extended initial transient phase well into the steady state regime. The properties of the evolution of flame surface are examined. We confirm the form of the governing equation of the evolution suggested by Khokhlov in 1995. The mechanism of vorticity production and the interaction between vortices and the flame surface are discussed. Previously observed periodic behavior of the flame evolution is reproduced and is found to be caused by the turnover of the largest eddies. The characteristic timescales are found to be similar to the turnover time of these eddies. Relations between flame surface creation and destruction processes and basic characteristics of the flow are discussed. We find that the flame surface creation strength is associated with the Rayleigh-Taylor timescale. Also, in fully developed turbulence, the flame surface destruction strength scales as 1/L3, where L is the turbulent driving scale. The results of our investigation provide support for Khokhlov's self-regulating model of turbulent thermonuclear flames. Based on these results, one can revise and extend the original model. The revision uses a local description of the flame surface enhancement and the evolution of the flame surface since the onset of turbulence, rendering it free from the assumption of an instantaneous steady state of turbulence. This new model can be applied to the initial transient phase of the flame evolution, where the self-regulation mechanism yet to be fully established. Details of this new model will be presented in a forthcoming paper.

Ju Zhang; O. E. Bronson Messer; Alexei M. Khokhlov; Tomasz Plewa

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Investigations of swirl flames in a gas turbine model combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A gas turbine model combustor for swirling CH{sub 4}/air diffusion flames at atmospheric pressure with good optical access for detailed laser measurements is discussed. Three flames with thermal powers between 7.6 and 34.9 kW and overall equivalence ratios between 0.55 and 0.75 were investigated. These behave differently with respect to combustion instabilities: Flame A burned stably, flame B exhibited pronounced thermoacoustic oscillations, and flame C, operated near the lean extinction limit, was subject to sudden liftoff with partial extinction and reanchoring. One aim of the studies was a detailed experimental characterization of flame behavior to better understand the underlying physical and chemical processes leading to instabilities. The second goal of the work was the establishment of a comprehensive database that can be used for validation and improvement of numerical combustion models. The flow field was measured by laser Doppler velocimetry, the flame structures were visualized by planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of OH and CH radicals, and the major species concentrations, temperature, and mixture fraction were determined by laser Raman scattering. The flow fields of the three flames were quite similar, with high velocities in the region of the injected gases, a pronounced inner recirculation zone, and an outer recirculation zone with low velocities. The flames were not attached to the fuel nozzle and thus were partially premixed before ignition. The near field of the flames was characterized by fast mixing and considerable finite-rate chemistry effects. CH PLIF images revealed that the reaction zones were thin (=<0.5 mm) and strongly corrugated and that the flame zones were short (h=<50 mm). Despite the similar flow fields of the three flames, the oscillating flame B was flatter and opened more widely than the others. In the current article, the flow field, structures, and mean and rms values of the temperature, mixture fraction, and species concentrations are discussed. Turbulence intensities, mixing, heat release, and reaction progress are addressed. In a second article, the turbulence-chemistry interactions in the three flames are treated.

Weigand, P.; Meier, W.; Duan, X.R.; Stricker, W.; Aigner, M. [Institut fuer Verbrennungstechnik, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Pfaffenwaldring 38, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Electrical probe diagnostics for the laminar flame quenching distance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simplified theory, previously developed for the general case of weakly ionized gas flow, is used to predict electrical probe response when the flame is quenched on the probe surface. This theory is based on the planar model of space charge sheaths around the measuring electrode. For the flame quenching case, by assuming that the sheath thickness is comparable with the thermal boundary layer thickness, probe current can be related to flame quenching distance. The theoretical assumptions made to obtain the analytical formulation of probe current were experimentally proved by using direct visualization and high-frequency PIV. The direct visualization method was also used to validate the results of flame quenching distance values obtained with electrical probe. The electrical probe diagnostics have been verified for both head-on and sidewall flame quenching regimes and for stoichiometric methane/air and propane/air mixtures in a pressure range of 0.05-0.6 MPa. (author)

Karrer, Maxime; Makarov, Maxime [Renault Technocentre, 78288 Guyancourt Cedex (France); Bellenoue, Marc; Labuda, Sergei; Sotton, Julien [Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique, CNRS, 86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil (France)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

128

Trapping and aerogelation of nanoparticles in negative gravity hydrocarbon flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the experimental realization of continuous carbon aerogel production using a flame aerosol reactor by operating it in negative gravity (?g; up-side-down configuration). Buoyancy opposes the fuel and air flow forces in ?g, which eliminates convectional outflow of nanoparticles from the flame and traps them in a distinctive non-tipping, flicker-free, cylindrical flame body, where they grow to millimeter-size aerogel particles and gravitationally fall out. Computational fluid dynamics simulations show that a closed-loop recirculation zone is set up in ?g flames, which reduces the time to gel for nanoparticles by ?10{sup 6}?s, compared to positive gravity (upward rising) flames. Our results open up new possibilities of one-step gas-phase synthesis of a wide variety of aerogels on an industrial scale.

Chakrabarty, Rajan K., E-mail: rajan.chakrabarty@gmail.com [Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Laboratory for Aerosol Science, Spectroscopy, and Optics, Desert Research Institute, Nevada System of Higher Education, Reno, Nevada 89512 (United States); Novosselov, Igor V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Enertechnix Inc., Maple Valley, Washington 98068 (United States); Beres, Nicholas D.; Moosmüller, Hans [Laboratory for Aerosol Science, Spectroscopy, and Optics, Desert Research Institute, Nevada System of Higher Education, Reno, Nevada 89512 (United States); Sorensen, Christopher M. [Condensed Matter Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States); Stipe, Christopher B. [TSI Incorporated, 500 Cardigan Rd, Shoreview, Minnesota 55126 (United States)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

129

Turbulence-Flame Interactions in Type Ia Supernovae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The large range of time and length scales involved in type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) requires the use of flame models. As a prelude to exploring various options for flame models, we consider, in this paper, high-resolution three-dimensional simulations of the small-scale dynamics of nuclear flames in the supernova environment in which the details of the flame structure are fully resolved. The range of densities examined, 1 to $8 \\times 10^7$ g cm$^{-3}$, spans the transition from the laminar flamelet regime to the distributed burning regime where small scale turbulence disrupts the flame. The use of a low Mach number algorithm facilitates the accurate resolution of the thermal structure of the flame and the inviscid turbulent kinetic energy cascade, while implicitly incorporating kinetic energy dissipation at the grid-scale cutoff. For an assumed background of isotropic Kolmogorov turbulence with an energy characteristic of SN Ia, we find a transition density between 1 and $3 \\times 10^7$ g cm$^{-3}$ where the nature of the burning changes qualitatively. By $1 \\times 10^7$ g cm$^{-3}$, energy diffusion by conduction and radiation is exceeded, on the flame scale, by turbulent advection. As a result, the effective Lewis Number approaches unity. That is, the flame resembles a laminar flame, but is turbulently broadened with an effective diffusion coefficient, $D_T \\sim u' l$, where $u'$ is the turbulent intensity and $l$ is the integral scale. For the larger integral scales characteristic of a real supernova, the flame structure is predicted to become complex and unsteady. Implications for a possible transition to detonation are discussed.

A. J. Aspden; J. B. Bell; M. S. Day; S. E. Woosley; M. Zingale

2008-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

130

Division of Water, Part 673: Dam Safety Regulations (New York) | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

3: Dam Safety Regulations (New York) 3: Dam Safety Regulations (New York) Division of Water, Part 673: Dam Safety Regulations (New York) < Back Eligibility Fed. Government Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative State/Provincial Govt Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Home Weatherization Program Info State New York Program Type Safety and Operational Guidelines Provider NY Department of Environmental Conservation These regulations address dam safety, define dam hazard categories and inspection procedures, and apply to any owner of a dam. Dam owners are required to maintain dams in a safe condition at all times and to comply with Department inquiries for information on the status of a given dam

131

REAL TIME FLAME MONITORING OF GASIFIER BURNER AND INJECTORS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is submitted to the United States Department of Energy in partial fulfillment of the contractual requirements for Phase I of the project titled, ''Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier Burner and Injectors'', under co-operative agreement number DE-FS26-02NT41585. The project is composed of three one-year budget periods. The work in each year is divided into separate Tasks to facilitate project management, orderly completion of all project objectives, budget control, and critical path application of personnel and equipment. This Topical Report presents results of the Task 1 and 2 work. The 2 D optical sensor was developed to monitor selected UV and visible wavelengths to collect accurate flame characterization information regarding mixing, flame shape, and flame rich/lean characteristic. Flame richness, for example, was determined using OH and CH intensity peaks in the 300 to 500 nanometer range of the UV and visible spectrum. The laboratory burner was operated over a wide range of air to fuel ratio conditions from fuel rich to fuel lean. The sooty oxygen enriched air flames were established to test the sensor ability to characterize flame structures with substantial presence of hot solid particles emitting strong ''black body radiation''. The knowledge gained in these experiments will be very important when the sensor is used for gasifier flame analyses. It is expected that the sensor when installed on the Global Energy gasifier will be exposed to complex radiation patterns. The measured energy will be a combination of spectra emitted by the combusting gases, hot solid particulates, and hot walls of the gasifier chamber. The ability to separate flame emissions from the ''black body emissions'' will allow the sensor to accurately determine flame location relative to the gasifier walls and the injectors, as well as to analyze the flame's structure and condition. Ultimately, this information should enable the gasification processes to be monitored and controlled and as a result increase durability and efficiency of the gasifier. To accomplish goals set for Task 2 GTI will utilize the CANMET Coal Gasification Research facility. The Entrained Coal Gasifier Burner Test Stand has been designed and is currently under construction in the CANMET Energy Technology Center (CETC), the research and technology arm of Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). This Gasifier Burner Stand (GBS) is a scaled-down mock-up of a working gasifier combustion system that can provide the flexible platform needed in the second year of the project to test the flame sensor. The GBS will be capable of simulating combustion and gasification processes occurring in commercial gasifiers, such as Texaco, Shell, and Wabash River.

James Servaites; Serguei Zelepouga; David Rue

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Study on laminar flame speed and flame structure of syngas with varied compositions using OH-PLIF and spectrograph  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Various Bunsen flame information of premixed syngas/air mixtures was systematically collected. A CCD camera was used to capture the flame images. The OH-PLIF technique was applied to obtain the flame OH distribution and overall flame radiation spectra were measured with a spectrograph. Experiments were conducted on a temperature un-controlled burner and syngas over a wide range of H2/CO ratios (from 0.25 to 4) and equivalence ratios (from 0.5 to 1.2). Results show that increasing hydrogen fraction ( X H 2 ) extends the blow-off limit significantly. The measured laminar flame speed using cone-angle method based on CCD flame imaging and OH-PLIF images increases remarkably with the increase of X H 2 , and these measurements agrees well with kinetic modeling predictions through Li's mechanism when the temperature for computation is corrected. Kinetic study shows that as X H 2 increases, the production of H and OH radicals is accelerated. Additionally, the main H radical production reaction (or OH radical consumption reactions) changes from R29 (CO + OH = CO2 + H) to R3 (H2 + OH = H2O + H) as X H 2 increases. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to access the dominant reactions when X H 2 increases. The difference on flame color for different X H 2 mixtures is due to their difference in radiation spectrum of the intermediate radicals produced in combustion.

Jin Fu; Chenglong Tang; Wu Jin; Luong Dinh Thi; Zuohua Huang; Yang Zhang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Four Dam Pool Power Agency FDPPA | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dam Pool Power Agency FDPPA Dam Pool Power Agency FDPPA Jump to: navigation, search Name Four Dam Pool Power Agency (FDPPA) Place Anchorage, Alaska Zip 99515 Sector Hydro Product Joint action agency consisting of four hydroelectric projects that was organized by five electric cooperatives that purchase power from the facilities. Coordinates 38.264985°, -85.539014° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":38.264985,"lon":-85.539014,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

134

E-Print Network 3.0 - analysis model dam Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

water from Yongdam Dam. The advantages of a model such as the one... , irrigation, hydropower, and recreation. Two major dams are ... Source: Kim, Young-Oh - Department of Civil...

135

E-Print Network 3.0 - arch dams including Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

part of the East Branch Dam Safety Initiative in Elk County, Pa. The site development work went to Tab... seepage-related dam safety concerns at East Branch Clarion River Lake in...

136

Methane Emissions from Large Dams as Renewable Energy Resources: A Developing Nation Perspective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By means of a theoretical model, bootstrap resampling and data provided by the International Commission On Large Dams (ICOLD (2003) World register of dams. http://www.icold-cigb.org) we found that global large da...

Ivan B. T. Lima; Fernando M. Ramos…

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

DOWNSTREAM BENTHIC RESPONSES TO SMALL DAM REMOVAL IN A COLDWATER STREAM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

removals on downstream periphyton and macroinvertebrates in Boulder Creek, WI (USA). The dams were 180 m such as flood abatement, irrigation, recreation and hydropower. There are more than 75 000 dams over 1.8 m high

Stanley, Emily

138

Mills, Dams, and Reservoirs (Massachusetts) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

You are here You are here Home » Mills, Dams, and Reservoirs (Massachusetts) Mills, Dams, and Reservoirs (Massachusetts) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Home Weatherization Program Info State Massachusetts Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Conservation and Recreation This chapter of the Massachusetts General Laws outlines procedures to

139

The Sensor Fish - Making Dams More Salmon-Friendly  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article describes the Sensor Fish, an instrument package that travels through hydroelectric dams collecting data on the hazardous conditions that migrating salmon smolt encounter. The Sensor Fish was developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory with funding from DOE and the US Army Corps of Engineers and has been used at several federal and utility-run hydroelectric projects on the Snake and Columbia Rivers of the US Pacific Northwest. The article describes the evolution of the Sensor Fish design and provides examples of its use at McNary and Ice Harbor dams.

Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Keilman, Geogre

2004-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

140

Theoretical Adiabatic Temperature and Chemical Composition of Sodium Combustion Flame  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sodium fire safety analysis requires fundamental combustion properties, e.g., heat of combustion, flame temperature, and composition. We developed the GENESYS code for a theoretical investigation of sodium combustion flame.Our principle conclusions on sodium combustion under atmospheric air conditions are (a) the maximum theoretical flame temperature is 1950 K, and it is not affected by the presence of moisture; the uppermost limiting factor is the chemical instability of the condensed sodium-oxide products under high temperature; (b) the main combustion product is liquid Na{sub 2}O in dry air condition and liquid Na{sub 2}O with gaseous NaOH in moist air; and (c) the chemical equilibrium prediction of the residual gaseous reactants in the flame is indispensable for sodium combustion modeling.

Okano, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Akira [O-arai Engineering Center (Japan)

2003-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flaming gorge dam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

The effect of fuel composition on flame dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As fuel sources diversify, the gas turbine industry is under increasing pressure to develop fuel-flexible plants, able to use fuels with a variety of compositions from a large range of sources. However, the dynamic characteristics vary considerably with composition, in many cases altering the thermoacoustic stability of the combustor. We compare the flame dynamics, or the response in heat release rate of the flame to acoustic perturbations, of the three major constituents of natural gas: methane, ethane, and propane. The heat release rate is quantified using OH* chemiluminescence and product gas temperature. Gas temperature is measured by tracking the absorption of two high-temperature water lines, via Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy. The flame dynamics of the three fuels differ significantly. The changes in flame dynamics due to variations in fuel composition have the potential to have a large effect on the thermoacoustic stability of the combustor. (author)

Hendricks, Adam G.; Vandsburger, Uri [Department of Mechanical Engineering - 0238, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

Probing flame chemistry with MBMS, theory, and modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective is to establish kinetics of combustion and molecular-weight growth in C{sub 3} hydrocarbon flames as part of an ongoing study of flame chemistry. Specific reactions being studied are (1) the growth reactions of C{sub 3}H{sub 5} and C{sub 3}H{sub 3} with themselves and with unsaturated hydrocarbons and (2) the oxidation reactions of O and OH with C{sub 3}`s. This approach combines molecular-beam mass spectrometry (MBMS) experiments on low-pressure flat flames; theoretical predictions of rate constants by thermochemical kinetics, Bimolecular Quantum-RRK, RRKM, and master-equation theory; and whole-flame modeling using full mechanisms of elementary reactions.

Westmoreland, P.R. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Fuel Properties to Enable Lifted-Flame Combustion  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Page 1 E.Kurtz File Name.pptx Fuel Properties to Enable Lifted Flame Combustion Eric Kurtz Ford Motor Company June 19, 2014 FT017 This presentation does not contain any...

144

Compliance Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Smolt Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Summer 2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon at Bonneville Dam during summer 2012, as required by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion. The study also estimated smolt passage survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam to the tailrace 1 km below the dam, as well as forebay residence time, tailrace egress, and spill passage efficiency, as required in the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Existing schemes for constructing high concrete dams and ways to improve them  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1. Improvement of the existing cyclic methods of constructing concrete dams in recent years made it possible to ...

V. I. Teleshev; V. K. Loshak

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

ORISE: Helping Bureau of Reclamation with National Security Exercises at  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

plans full-scale exercises to test security at major U.S. Bureau of plans full-scale exercises to test security at major U.S. Bureau of Reclamation dams ORISE has served as lead exercise planner for the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation's Critical Infrastructure Exercise Program since its inception in 2003. Six of the dams operated by BOR are designated as National Critical Infrastructure facilities: Flaming Gorge, Folsom, Glen Canyon, Grand Coulee, Hoover and Shasta. The program helps BOR answer an important question-are these massive dams secure in the event of a terrorist attack? Exercise programs for each of these critical facilities typically extend over a 12-month period during which ORISE facilitates a series of exercise events that test emergency response plans. ORISE guides the dam's staff,

147

An Assessment of Energy Potential at Non-Powered Dams in the...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

DAM CEMVR DES MOINES POLK IA DES MOINES 1975 94.2 2,021 119,400 24.3 84 B. EVERETT JORDAN DAM CESAW HAYWOOD CHATHAM NC HAW 1974 61.0 1,460 55,846 23.9 85 LOCK C-1 DAM AT...

148

Green River Lake and Dam interim plan benefits ecosystem By John Hickey  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

11 Green River Lake and Dam interim plan benefits ecosystem By John Hickey Hydrologic Engineering that water is released from Green River Dam in Kentucky. In May 2006, the interim plan was approved shown that operation of Green River Dam can be changed in ways that improve ecosystems while continuing

US Army Corps of Engineers

149

Wildlife Impact Assessment and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Phase 1, Volume Two (B), Clark Fork River Projects, Cabinet Gorge and Noxon Rapids Dams, Operator, Washington Water Power Company.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents best available information concerning the wildlife species impacted and the degree of the impact. A target species list was developed to focus the impact assessment and to direct mitigation efforts. Many non-target species also incurred impacts but are not discussed in this report. All wildlife habitats inundated by the two reservoirs are represented by the target species. It was assumed the numerous non-target species also affected will be benefited by the mitigation measures adopted for the target species. Impacts addressed are limited to those directly attributable to the loss of habitat and displacement of wildlife populations due to the construction and operation of the two hydroelectric projects. Secondary impacts, such as the relocation of railroads and highways, and the increase of the human population, were not considered. In some cases, both positive and negative impacts were assessed; and the overall net effect was reported. The loss/gain estimates reported represent impacts considered to have occurred during one point in time except where otherwise noted. When possible, quantitative estimates were developed based on historical information from the area or on data from similar areas. Qualitative loss estimates of low, moderate, or high with supporting rationale were assessed for each species or species group.

Wood, Marilyn

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Stability Regimes of Turbulent Nitrogen-Diluted Hydrogen Jet Flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One option for combustion in zero-emission Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants is non-premixed combustion of nitrogen-diluted hydrogen in air. An important aspect to non-premixed combustion is flame stability or anchoring, though only a few fundamental stability studies of these flames have taken place to date. The following paper presents the results of experiments investigating the effects of nitrogen diluent fraction, jet diameter, and exit velocity on the static stability limits of a turbulent hydrogen jet flame issuing from a thin-lipped tube into a quiescent atmosphere. Four different stability limits are observed: detachment from the burner lip, reattachment to the burner lip, transition from a laminar lifted flame base to blowout or to a turbulent lifted flame, and transition from a turbulent lifted flame to blowout. The applicability of existing theories and correlations to the stability results is discussed. These results are an important step in assessing the viability of a non-premixed combustion approach using hydrogen diluted with nitrogen as a fuel.

Weiland, N.T.; Strakey, P.A.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Modeling variable density effects in turbulent flames -- Some basic considerations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper discusses the basic physical phenomena involved in pressure-density interactions, and presents models of pressure-velocity, pressure-scalar, baroclinic and dilatation effects for variable density low Mach-number turbulence. Their implementation in the {kappa}-{epsilon} framework is then described and their performance evaluated. The models assume that both scalar transport and turbulence generation arising from pressure-density interactions in flames are caused by the motion of large scale turbulent thermals superposed on the normal turbulence mechanism. The velocity of the thermals is related directly to the mean pressure gradient and local density differences in the flames. It is furthermore assumed that the correction for dilatation effects in the {kappa}-{epsilon} system can be determined from the constraint of conservation of the angular momentum of turbulence per unit mass. Simple corrections of the {kappa}-{epsilon} system are proposed for fast chemistry diffusion and premixed flames subject to variable pressure gradients, which offer substantial improvements in the predictions of the flames. some problems remain, particularly in predictions of turbulence in premixed flames, owing to large scale instabilities of the flames observed in the experiments.

Chomiak, J.; Nisbet, J.R. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Thermo and Fluid Dynamics] [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Thermo and Fluid Dynamics

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Noise in non?premixed turbulent syngas flames  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A turbulent syngas flame may generate acoustic noise of high acoustic intensity in a combustion chamber. This may lead to the failure of construction components in a gas turbine engine in periods of the order of 1–100 hours. The research as described in the literature has almost exclusively been performed on the generation of noise in premixed methane or propane flames. Syngas fuel is a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide and the burners used are of the non?premixed type. In this research the effect of turbulence and syngas composition on noise generation is investigated. A laboratory is set up to test syngas flames of a thermal power of 50 kW in a cylindrical air?cooled combustion chamber. Experiments are performed at several fuel compositions and burner inlet conditions. The flame sound intensity is measured in the combustion chamber equipped with acoustic dampers. The paper discusses the measured sound spectra. A model is derived for the generation of sound in a turbulent non?premixed flame. In this model it is shown that the sound generation is related to the dependence of density on mixture fraction in a flame with fast chemistry. A fluctuation in mixture fraction will lead to sound generation.

Sikke A. Klein; Jim B. W. Kok

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

On the Evolution of Thermonuclear Flames on Large Scales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The thermonuclear explosion of a massive white dwarf in a Type Ia supernova explosion is characterized by vastly disparate spatial and temporal scales. The extreme dynamic range inherent to the problem prevents the use of direct numerical simulation and forces modelers to resort to subgrid models to describe physical processes taking place on unresolved scales. We consider the evolution of a model thermonuclear flame in a constant gravitational field on a periodic domain. The gravitational acceleration is aligned with the overall direction of the flame propagation, making the flame surface subject to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The flame evolution is followed through an extended initial transient phase well into the steady-state regime. The properties of the evolution of flame surface are examined. We confirm the form of the governing equation of the evolution suggested by Khokhlov (1995). The mechanism of vorticity production and the interaction between vortices and the flame surface are discussed. The results of our investigation provide the bases for revising and extending previous subgrid-scale model.

Ju Zhang; O. E. Bronson Messer; Alexei M. Khokhlov; Tomasz Plewa

2006-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

154

Flood Control Reservoirs Operable September 30, 2007 Characteristics of Dam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Creek Superior 960 34,500 NPP F Earth 25 978 ARKANSAS Blakely Mountain Ouachita Dam Ouachita Hot Springs-Ft.) Permanent Pool (Acreage) or No Pool (NPP) Project Functions Type Height (Feet) Length (Feet) ALASKA Chena River Lakes Chena Tanana Chena River Fairbanks 1979 2,000 NPP FRD Earth 50 40,200 ARIZONA Adobe Gila

US Army Corps of Engineers

155

Flood Control Reservoirs Operable September 30, 2008 Characteristics of Dam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Creek Superior 960 34,500 NPP F Earth 25 978 ARKANSAS Blakely Mountain Ouachita Dam Ouachita Hot Springs-Ft.) Permanent Pool (Acreage) or No Pool (NPP) Project Functions Type Height (Feet) Length (Feet) ALASKA Chena River Lakes Chena Tanana Chena River Fairbanks 1979 2,000 NPP FRD Earth 50 40,200 ARIZONA Adobe Gila

US Army Corps of Engineers

156

2D THD and 3D TEHD analysis of large spindle supported thrust bearings with pins and double layer system used in the three gorges hydroelectric generators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A 2D THD model and a 3DTEHD model for large spindle supported thrust bearings were set up and used to analyze the lubrication performance of the Three Gorges test thrust beating withpins and double layer system developed by Alstom Power. The finite difference method was employed to solve the THD model, and the thermal-elasticdeformations in the pad and runner were obtained by the finite element software ANSYS11.0. The data transfer between the THD model and ANSYS11.0 was carried out automatically by an interface program.A detailed comparison between the experimental results and numerical predictions by the two different modelsset up in this paper was carried out. Poor agreement has been found between the theoretical results obtained by 2D THD model and experimental data, while 3D TEHD provides fairly good agreement, confirming the importance of thermal effects and thermal-elastic deformations in both pad and runner.

B Huang; Z D Wu; J L Wu; L Q Wang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

10 Questions for a Computational Scientist: Kerstin Kleese-Van Dam |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

a Computational Scientist: Kerstin Kleese-Van Dam a Computational Scientist: Kerstin Kleese-Van Dam 10 Questions for a Computational Scientist: Kerstin Kleese-Van Dam June 9, 2011 - 4:35pm Addthis Kerstin Kleese-Van Dam Kerstin Kleese-Van Dam Niketa Kumar Niketa Kumar Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Science gave me the opportunity to contribute to addressing some of society's big challenges - climate change, environmental remediation, sustainable clean energy and secure power. Kerstin Kleese-Dam, Computational Scientist Meet Kerstin Kleese-Van Dam. At Pacific Northwest National Lab, she's a master of computers and data - covering a wide span of projects from genomic sciences and climate change to nanometer-scale imaging and power grids. She recently spent some time to give us the download on her many

158

Investigation of H2 Concentration and Combustion Instability Effects on the Kinetics of Strained Syngas Flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The flame extinction limits of syngas (H{sub 2}-CO) flames were measured using a twin-flame-counter-flow burner. Plots of Extinction limits vs. global stretch rates were generated at different mixture compositions and an extrapolation method was used to calculate the flame extinction limit corresponding to an experimentally unattainable zero-stretch condition. The zero-stretch extinction limit of H{sub 2}-CO mixtures decreases (from rich to lean) with the increase in H{sub 2} concentration in the mixture. The average difference between the measured flame extinction limit and the Le Chatelier's calculation is around {approx} 7%. The measured OH{sup -} chemiluminescent data indicates that regardless of mixture compositions the OH radical concentration reduces (within the experimental uncertainties) to an extinction value prior to the flame extinction. Flame extinction limits of H{sub 2}-CO mixtures measured in a flat-flame burner configuration also show a similar relation. Additionally, the measured laminar flame velocity close to the extinction indicates that regardless of fuel composition the premixed flame of hydrogen fuel blends extinguishes when the mixture laminar flame velocity falls below a critical value. The critical laminar flame velocity at extinction for H{sub 2}-CO premixed flames (measured in the flat flame burner configuration) is found to be 3.77({+-}0.38) cm/s. An externally perturbed H{sub 2}-CO twin flame was not experimentally achievable for the mixture conditions used in the present investigation. A slightest perturbation in the flow-field distorts the H{sub 2}-CO twin-flame. The flame becomes highly unstable with the introduction of an externally excited flow oscillation.

Ahsan R. Choudhuri

2006-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

159

Turbulent flame speed for syngas at gas turbine relevant conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Modifications of conventional natural-gas-fired burners for operation with syngas fuels using lean premixed combustion is challenging due to the different physicochemical properties of the two fuels. A key differentiating parameter is the turbulent flame velocity, ST, commonly expressed as its ratio to the laminar flame speed, SL. This paper reports an experimental investigation of premixed syngas combustion at gas turbine like conditions, with emphasis on the determination of ST/SL derived as global fuel consumption per unit time. Experiments at pressures up to 2.0 MPa, inlet temperatures and velocities up to 773 K and 150 m/s, respectively, and turbulence intensity to laminar flame speed ratios, u?/SL, exceeding 100 are presented for the first time. Comparisons between different syngas mixtures and methane clearly show much higher ST/SL for the former fuel. It is shown that ST/SL is strongly dependent on preferential diffusive-thermal (PDT) effects, co-acting with hydrodynamic effects, even for very high u?/SL. ST/SL increases with rising hydrogen content in the fuel mixture and with increasing pressure. A correlation for ST/SL valid for all investigated fuel mixtures, including methane, is proposed in terms of turbulence properties (turbulence intensity and integral length scale), combustion properties (laminar flame speed and laminar flame thickness) and operating conditions (pressure and inlet temperature). The correlation captures effects of preferential diffusive-thermal and hydrodynamic instabilities.

S. Daniele; P. Jansohn; J. Mantzaras; K. Boulouchos

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Grid resolution effects on LES of a piloted methane-air flame K. A. Kemenov  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

not only for canonical geome- tries like laboratory jet flames but also for complex ones like gas-turbine in the flame shows some residual grid dependence. Introduction Large Eddy Simulation (LES) has proved

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flaming gorge dam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Layer-by-Layer Nanocoatings with Flame Retardant and Oxygen Barrier Properties: Moving Toward Renewable Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) clay to create a renewable flame retardant nanocoating for polyurethane foam. This coating system completely stops the melting of a flexible polyurethane foam when exposed to direct flame from a butane torch, with just 10 bilayers (~ 30 nm thick...

Laufer, Galina 1985-

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

162

The fabrication and properties characterization of wood-based flame retardant composites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Wood-based flame retardant composites were fabricated based on vacuum-pressure impregnating method after high intensive microwave pretreatment. The effects of ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and modified nano-zinc borate (nZB) addition on flame-retardation ...

Xia He, Xianjun Li, Zhu Zhong, Yongli Yan, Qunying Mou, Chunhua Yao, Chun Wang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol flame deposition Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

search results for: aerosol flame deposition Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Flame aerosol nano-technology has been developed to preparation of thin and defect-free porous membrane...

164

Metrological tool for the characterization of flame fronts based on the coupling of heat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

° flame inclination angle due to wind [ ]th i W theoretical radiative heat flux received by the ith target

Boyer, Edmond

165

Dam Construction and Maintenance (Minnesota) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Construction and Maintenance (Minnesota) Construction and Maintenance (Minnesota) Dam Construction and Maintenance (Minnesota) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State Minnesota Program Type Siting and Permitting Dams may be constructed, improved, or repaired on private, non-navigable waters subject to certain timelines; however, previously-developed hydropower mechanisms cannot be disrupted. The State may also choose to

166

Turbocharger with sliding piston, and having vanes and leakage dams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A turbocharger having a sliding piston for regulating exhaust gas flow into the turbine wheel includes a set of first vanes mounted on a fixed first wall of the turbine nozzle and projecting axially toward an opposite second wall of the nozzle, and/or a set of second vanes mounted on the end of the piston and projecting in an opposite axial direction toward the first wall of the nozzle. For the/each set of vanes, there are leakage dams formed on the wall that is adjacent the vane tips when the piston is closed. The leakage dams are closely adjacent the vane tips and discourage exhaust gas from leaking in a generally radial direction past the vane tips as the piston just begins to open from its fully closed position.

Roberts, Quentin (Nancy, FR); Alnega, Ahmed (Thaon Les Vosges, FR)

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

167

Flame Synthesis of One-Dimensional Metal Oxide Nanomaterials  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Synthesis of One-Dimensional Metal Oxide Nanomaterials Synthesis of One-Dimensional Metal Oxide Nanomaterials Alexei V. Saveliev Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA Robust, scalable, and energy efficient methods of nanomaterial synthesis are needed to meet the demands of current and potential applications. Flames have been successfully applied for the synthesis of metal oxide and ceramic nanopowders largely composed of spherical particles and their aggregates. In recent years, premixed and diffusion flames have been employed for the synthesis of 1-D carbon nanoforms such as carbon fibers and carbon nanotubes. The extension of flame methods to gas phase and solid support synthesis of 1-D inorganic nanoforms is of great interest and significance. This talk presents

168

Seismic safety of earth dams: A probabilistic approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The evaluation of the potential for slope sliding and/or liquefaction failure of earthen dams subjected to earthquake loadings is most often based on deterministic procedures of both the excitation input and of the physical model. Such treatment provides answers in the form of either factor of safety values or a yes or no as to whether liquefaction will occur or not. Uncertainties in the physical properties of the soil in the embankment and the foundation layers underlying the dam are typically treated with parametric studies. Consideration of probabilities pertaining to the uncertainties of the earthquake and of the site characterization is expected to augment the prediction of failure potential by associating slope and liquefaction failure to generic properties of the earthquake and of the site characterization. In this study, the procedures for conditional slope failure/liquefaction probabilities are formulated based on a series of simulated deterministic analyses of a dam cross section . These synthetic earthquakes emanate from a 1-D stationary stochastic process of zero mean and an analytical form of power spectral density function. The response of the dam section is formed upon a dynamic finite element approach which provides the temporal variations of the stresses, strains and pore water pressure throughout the model. The constitutive response of the granular soil skeleton and its coupling with the fluid phase is formulated based on the Biot dynamic equations of motion with nonlinear terms compensated for into soil hysteretic damping. Lastly, a stochastic approach to liquefaction based on the transferring of the input motion statistics to the cross section is presented.

Simos, N.; Costantino, C.J.; Reich, M.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Flood Control Reservoirs Operable September 30, 2009 Characteristics of Dam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pine 1953 2,768,500 20,900 FPRSW Earth 235 1,100 Blue Mountain Arkansas Petit Jean River Paris 1947 257 Marysville 1941 69,000 400 DR Concrete 280 1,142 Hidden Dam- Hensley Lake San Joaquin Fresno River Madera 1975 90,000 5,000 FIRW Earth 163 5,730 Isabella San Joaquin Kern River Bakersfield 1953 567,100 1

US Army Corps of Engineers

170

LES/probability density function approach for the simulation of an ethanol spray flame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LES/probability density function approach for the simulation of an ethanol spray flame Colin Heye a an experimental pilot-stabilized ethanol spray flame. In this particular flame, droplet evaporation occurs away: Large-eddy simulation; Probability density function; Flamelet/progress variable approach; Ethanol

Raman, Venkat

171

Radiation-Driven Flame Spread Over Thermally-Thick Fuels in Quiescent Microgravity Environments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation-Driven Flame Spread Over Thermally-Thick Fuels in Quiescent Microgravity Environments-non-premixed, flame-spread Submitted to Twenty-Ninth International Symposium on Combustion, Sapporo, Japan, July 21 ­ July 26, 2002. #12;Radiation-Driven Flame Spread Over Thermally-Thick Fuels in Quiescent Microgravity

172

Prediction of oxy-coal flame stand-off using high-fidelity thermochemical models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Prediction of oxy-coal flame stand-off using high-fidelity thermochemical models and the one Abstract An Eulerian one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model is applied to simulate oxy-coal combustion temperature and mixing rate on oxy-coal flame is simulated and discussed where flame stand-off is used

173

Turbulent Oxygen Flames in Type Ia Supernovae A. J. Aspden1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Turbulent Oxygen Flames in Type Ia Supernovae A. J. Aspden1 , J. B. Bell1 , and S. E. Woosley2 oxygen flames. The two aims of the paper are to examine the response of the inductive oxygen flame to intense levels of turbulence, and to explore the possibility of transition to detonation in the oxygen

174

Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish Passage through Bonneville Dam in 2004  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conduct fish-passage studies at Bonneville Dam in 2004. These studies support the Portland District's goal of maximizing fish-passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. Major passage routes include 10 turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 1 (B1), an 18-bay spillway, and eight turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 2 (B2). In this report, we present results of four studies related to juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam. The studies were conducted between April 15 and July 15, 2004, encompassing most of the spring and summer migrations. Studies included evaluations of (1) Project fish passage efficiency and other major passage metrics, (2) B2 fish guidance efficiency and gap loss, (3) smolt approach and fate at the B2 Corner Collector (B2CC), and (4) B2 vertical barrier screen head differential.

Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Schilt, Carl R.; Kim, Jina; Johnson, Peter N.; Hanks, Michael E.; Patterson, Deborah S.; Skalski, John R.; Hedgepeth, J

2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

175

Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier Burner and Injectors  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier Burner and Injectors Background The Gasification Technologies Program at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) supports research and development (R&D) in the area of gasification-a process whereby carbon-based materials (feedstocks) such as coal are converted into synthesis gas (syngas), which is separated into hydrogen (H 2 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) gas streams in a combustion turbine-generator as a way to generate clean electricity while

176

Oxy-fuel Combustion of Ethanol in Premixed Flames  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(11-14) First, measurements using a heat flux setup for liquid fuels were studied on ethanol + air combustion. ... The heat flux method builds on the principle that heat is transferred to the unburnt gas, cooling the plate, while heat transfer from the flame heats the plate. ... A detailed kinetic scheme was compiled using known data on EtOH kinetics and is self-consistent in that it closely predicts laminar flame speed of EtOH, CH4, MeOH, and C2-hydrocarbons. ...

Jenny D. Nauclér; Moah Christensen; Elna J. K. Nilsson; Alexander A. Konnov

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

177

Microsoft Word - Contents-comments-Sept.doc  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Flaming Gorge Dam Final Environmental Impact Statement Comments on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Responses U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation Upper Colorado Region Salt Lake City, Utah September 2005 The mission of the Department of the Interior is to protect and provide access to our Nation's natural and cultural heritage and honor our trust responsibilities to Indian tribes and our commitments to island communities. The mission of the Bureau of Reclamation is to manage, develop, and protect water and related resources in an environmentally and economically sound manner in the interest of

178

Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

November 25, 2005 November 25, 2005 EIS-0372: Final Environmental Impact Statement Bangor Hydro-Electric Company (BHE) Northeast Reliability Interconnect September 1, 2005 EIS-0351: Final Environmental Impact Statement Operation of Flaming Gorge Dam August 26, 2005 EIS-0372: Draft Environmental Impact Statement Bangor Hydro-Electric Company (BHE) Northeast Reliability Interconnect August 5, 2005 EIS-0355: Final Environmental Impact Statement Remediation of the Moab Uranium Mill Tailings, Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah July 1, 2005 EIS-0353: Final Environmental Impact Statement South Fork Flathead Watershed Westslope Cutthroat Trout Conservation Program April 29, 2005 EIS-0348: Final Site-wide Environmental Impact Statement Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and

179

Experimental study of industrial gas turbine flames including quantification of pressure influence on flow field, fuel/air premixing and flame shape  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A commercial swirl burner for industrial gas turbine combustors was equipped with an optically accessible combustion chamber and installed in a high-pressure test-rig. Several premixed natural gas/air flames at pressures between 3 and 6 bar and thermal powers of up to 1 MW were studied by using a variety of measurement techniques. These include particle image velocimetry (PIV) for the investigation of the flow field, one-dimensional laser Raman scattering for the determination of the joint probability density functions of major species concentrations, mixture fraction and temperature, planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) of OH for the visualization of the flame front, chemiluminescence measurements of OH* for determining the lift-off height and size of the flame and acoustic recordings. The results give insights into important flame properties like the flow field structure, the premixing quality and the turbulence–flame interaction as well as their dependency on operating parameters like pressure, inflow velocity and equivalence ratio. The 1D Raman measurements yielded information about the gradients and variation of the mixture fraction and the quality of the fuel/air mixing, as well as the reaction progress. The OH PLIF images showed that the flame was located between the inflow of fresh gas and the recirculated combustion products. The flame front structures varied significantly with Reynolds number from wrinkled flame fronts to fragmented and strongly corrugated flame fronts. All results are combined in one database that can be used for the validation of numerical simulations.

Ulrich Stopper; Wolfgang Meier; Rajesh Sadanandan; Michael Stöhr; Manfred Aigner; Ghenadie Bulat

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Estimating the seismic stability of the arch dam in the Chirkeiskaya hydrosystem  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A calculation analysis of the arch dam constructed in an area with standardized seismicity of magnitude 9-10 is presented.

Khrapkov, A. A.; Skomorovskaya, E. Ya

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flaming gorge dam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Damming the Mekong: the social, economic and environmental consequences of the Nam Theun 2 Hydroelectric Project.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??More than a decade after the World Bank was forced out of the dam-building industry due to the social and environmental consequences of the projects… (more)

Wolf, Jason

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Small-scale Interaction of Turbulence with Thermonuclear Flames in Type Ia Supernovae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microscopic turbulence-flame interactions of thermonuclear fusion flames occuring in Type Ia Supernovae were studied by means of incompressible direct numerical simulations with a highly simplified flame description. The flame is treated as a single diffusive scalar field with a nonlinear source term. It is characterized by its Prandtl number, Pr << 1, and laminar flame speed, S_L. We find that if S_L ~ u', where u' is the rms amplitude of turbulent velocity fluctuations, the local flame propagation speed does not significantly deviate from S_L even in the presence of velocity fluctuations on scales below the laminar flame thickness. This result is interpreted in the context of subgrid-scale modeling of supernova explosions and the mechanism for deflagration-detonation-transitions.

J. C. Niemeyer; W. K. Bushe; G. R. Ruetsch

1999-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

183

NETL: Investigation on Flame Characteristics and Burner Operability Issues  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Investigation on Flame Characteristics and Burner Operability Issues of Oxy-Fuel Combustion Investigation on Flame Characteristics and Burner Operability Issues of Oxy-Fuel Combustion Project No.: DE-FE0002402 NETL has partnered with the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) to investigate the characteristics of oxy-fuel flames and assess their impact on the operability of oxy-fuel combustion systems. The examination of fundamental flame characteristics data and related burner operability parameters are essential for designing and developing oxy-fuel combustion systems for new power plants and retrofitting existing power generation units. In an oxy-fuel system, coal is combusted in an enriched oxygen environment using pure oxygen diluted with recycled CO2 or water vapor (H2O), resulting in a flue stream consisting only of CO2 and H2O (no other co-contaminants) (Figure 1). Oxy-fuel combustion is promising for CCUS applications because water can be condensed out of the CO2/H2O flue stream to produce a relatively pure CO2 end product for capture. Oxy-fuel combustion and subsequent CO2 capture is currently being considered by the DOE's Innovations for Existing Plants Program as having the potential to meet the goal of 90 percent CO2 capture without increasing the cost of electricity more than 35 percent.

184

Ignition and Flame Quenching of Quiescent Fuel Mists  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Ignition and Flame Quenching of Quiescent Fuel Mists D. R. Ballal A. H. Lefebvre A...the ignition of quiescent multidroplet fuel mists which assumes that chemical reaction...spark, of an adequate concentration of fuel vapour in the ignition zone. From analysis...

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Flame Contact, a New Departure in Water Heating1  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... paper. We can, by a modification of this experiment, measure the depth of the flameless space, as the copper, if placed against the paper before it has time to ... gum, which is liable to swell and force the paper past the limit of the flameless space, and also to allow the paste to dry before applying the flame, as ...

1886-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

186

Measurements of Laminar Flame Velocity for Components of Natural Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gas in combustion engines and power generation systems. The main hydrocarbon included in natural gas, BP 20451, 1 Rue Grandville, 54001 Nancy, France 2 Division of Combustion Physics, Lund University performed by the heat flux method using a newly built flat flame adiabatic burner at atmospheric pressure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

187

Formation mechanism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in methane flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs up to 788 amu (C64H20) were detected in the combustion gases. Only the most applications including heating systems and gas turbines for electric power generation.62­64 The combustionFormation mechanism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in methane flames K. Siegmanna) Swiss

Sattler, Klaus

188

Treating Unresolvable Flame Physics in Simulations of Thermonuclear Supernovae  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Due to the small width of the subsonic burning front (flame) in thermonuclear supernovae, micrometers to centimeters, and the influence of turbulence, which adds structure to this front on a broad range of scales, it won't be possible in the foreseeable ... Keywords: Computational astrophysics, combustion, turbulence

Dean M. Townsley

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Paper # A02 Topic: Laminar Flames US Combustion Meeting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

been focused on synthetic fuel gas (syngas) combustion. Syngas is derived from coal throughPaper # A02 Topic: Laminar Flames 1 5th US Combustion Meeting Organized by the Western States Section of the Combustion Institute and Hosted by the University of California at San Diego March 25

Seitzman, Jerry M.

190

Analyzing and Tracking Burning Structures in Lean Premixed Hydrogen Flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- bly burning ultra-lean hydrogen-air fuel mixtures. Such burners could, for example, be used as oneAnalyzing and Tracking Burning Structures in Lean Premixed Hydrogen Flames P.-T. Bremer1, G. Weber2 of the temporal behavior. We demonstrate our approach by analyzing three numerical simulations of lean hydrogen

191

Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier and Injectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is a multistage effort with the final goal to develop a practical and reliable nonintrusive gasifier injector monitor to assess burner wear and need for replacement. The project team included the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Gas Technology Institute (GTI), North Carolina State University, and ConocoPhillips. This report presents the results of the sensor development and testing initially at GTI combustion laboratory with natural gas flames, then at the Canada Energy Technology Center (CANMET), Canada in the atmospheric coal combustor as well as in the pilot scale pressurized entrained flow gasifier, and finally the sensor capabilities were demonstrated at the Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) Gasifier and the Wabash River Repowering plant located in West Terre Haute, IN. The initial tests demonstrated that GTI gasifier sensor technology was capable of detecting shape and rich/lean properties of natural gas air/oxygen enriched air flames. The following testing at the Vertical Combustor Research Facility (VCRF) was a logical transition step from the atmospheric natural gas flames to pressurized coal gasification environment. The results of testing with atmospheric coal flames showed that light emitted by excited OH* and CH* radicals in coal/air flames can be detected and quantified. The maximum emission intensities of OH*, CH*, and black body (char combustion) occur at different axial positions along the flame length. Therefore, the excitation rates of CH* and OH* are distinct at different stages of coal combustion and can be utilized to identify and characterize processes which occur during coal combustion such as devolatilization, char heating and burning. To accomplish the goals set for Tasks 4 and 5, GTI utilized the CANMET Pressurized Entrained Flow Gasifier (PEFG). The testing parameters of the PEFG were selected to simulate optimum gasifier operation as well as gasifier conditions normally resulting from improper operation or failed gasifier injectors. The sensor developed under previous tasks was used to assess the spectroscopic characteristics of the gasifier flame. The obtained spectral data were successfully translated into flame temperature measurements. It was also demonstrated that the reduced spectral data could be very well correlated with very important gasification process parameters such as the air/fuel and water/fuel ratio. Any of these parameters (temperature, air/fuel, and water/fuel) is sufficient to assess burner wear; however, the tested sensor was capable of monitoring all three of them plus the flame shape as functions of burner wear. This will likely be a very powerful tool which should enable significant improvements in gasifier efficiency, reliability, and availability. The sensor technology was presented to the projectâ??s industrial partner (ConocoPhillips). The partner expressed its strong interest in continuing to participate in the field validation phase of GTI's Flame Monitor Project. Finally the sensor was tested in the PWR (Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne) gasification plant located at GTIâ??s research campus and at the ConocoPhillips industrial scale gasifier at Wabash River Indiana. The field trials of the GTI Gasifier sensor modified to withstand high temperature and pressure corrosive atmosphere of the industrial entrain flow gasifier. The project team successfully demonstrated the Gasifier Sensor system ability to monitor gasifier interior temperature maintaining unobstructed optical access for in excess of six week without any maintenance. The sensor examination upon completion of the trial revealed that the system did not sustain any damage and required minor cleanup of the optics.

Zelepouga, Serguei; Saveliev, Alexei

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

192

Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish Passage Through Bonneville Dam in 2005  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conduct fish-passage studies at Bonneville Dam in 2005. These studies support the Portland District's goal of maximizing fish-passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. Major passage routes include 10 turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 1 (B1), an 18-bay spillway, and eight turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 2 (B2). In this report, we present results of two studies related to juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam. The studies were conducted between April 16 and July 15, 2005, encompassing most of the spring and summer migrations. Studies included evaluations of (1) Project fish passage efficiency and other major passage metrics, and (2) smolt approach and fate at B1 Sluiceway Outlet 3C from the B1 forebay. Some of the large appendices are only presented on the compact disk (CD) that accompanies the final report. Examples include six large comma-separated-variable (.CSV) files of hourly fish passage, hourly variances, and Project operations for spring and summer from Appendix E, and large Audio Video Interleave (AVI) files with DIDSON-movie clips of the area upstream of B1 Sluiceway Outlet 3C (Appendix H). Those video clips show smolts approaching the outlet, predators feeding on smolts, and vortices that sometimes entrained approaching smolts into turbines. The CD also includes Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Files (PDF) of the entire report and appendices.

Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Hughes, James S.; Bouchard, Kyle E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Schilt, Carl R.; Hanks, Michael E.; Kim, Jina; Skalski, John R.; Hedgepeth, J.; Nagy, William T.

2006-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

193

Dam Safety Rules (West Virginia) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Safety Rules (West Virginia) Safety Rules (West Virginia) Dam Safety Rules (West Virginia) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Home Weatherization Program Info State West Virginia Program Type Safety and Operational Guidelines Provider Department of Environmental Protection This establishes requirements relating to the design, placement, construction, enlargement, alteration, removal, abandonment, and repair of

194

THE EFFECTS OF FLAME TEMPERATURE, PARTICLE SIZE AND EUROPIUM DOPING CONCENTRATION ON THE PROPERTIES OF Y2O3:EU PARTICLES FORMED IN A FLAME AEROSOL PROCESS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ix LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 Schematic of flame spray pyrolysis apparatus... 2 O 3 :Eu 9, 10 . A number of methods may be used to synthesize Y 2 O 3 :Eu particles, including colloidal methods 11-13 , combustion in fuel-oxidizer mixture 14 , evaporation? condensation 15, 16 , furnace spray pyrolysis 17 . Flame aerosol...

Yim, Hoon

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

195

and 19% of the stomachs of late-lifted fish were Food of the striped bass at Holyoke Dam was  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

below hydroelectric dams and feed on the parts of fish (anadromous or freshwater species) that die Kaplan turbine at a low-head hydroelectric dam. North Am. J. Fish. Manage. 5:33-38. HOLLIS, E. H. 1952

196

Water quality and sedimentation implications of installing a hydroelectric dam on the Río Baker in Chilean Patagonia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HidroAysen, a Chilean corporation operated by energy giant Endesa, has proposed to build two hydroelectric dams on the Rio Baker in the Aysin Region of Chilean Patagonia. The proposed dams have been met with a variety of ...

Leandro, Gianna Dee

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Dam and Hydroelectric Powerplant University of Hawai`i CEE 491University of Hawai`i CEE 491  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Karun 3 Dam and Hydroelectric Powerplant University of Hawai`i ­ CEE 491University of Hawai`i ­ CEE;Location #12;Description/Background Hydroelectric dam on Karun River Help with national energy needs

Prevedouros, Panos D.

198

Research Report Long lasting effects of rearing by an ethanol-consuming dam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Research Report Long lasting effects of rearing by an ethanol-consuming dam on voluntary ethanol rats as subjects, we examined effects of exposure during weaning to a dam consuming ethanol on adolescents' later affinity for ethanol. In a preliminary experiment, we offered rat pups a choice between 8

Galef Jr., Bennett G.

199

Do dams and levees impact nitrogen cycling? Simulating the effects of flood alterations on floodplain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Do dams and levees impact nitrogen cycling? Simulating the effects of flood alterations topography with a model of hydrology and nitrogen biogeochemistry to simulate floods of different magnitude a generalized floodplain biogeochemical model to determine whether dams and flood-control levees affect

Turner, Monica G.

200

Uncertainty analysis of river flooding and dam failure risks using local sensitivity computations.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to GUA while requiring only one simulation instead of several hundreds or thousands. For the floodUncertainty analysis of river flooding and dam failure risks using local sensitivity computations) for uncertainty analysis with respect to two major types of risk in river hydrodynamics: flash flood and dam

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flaming gorge dam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Effective mitigation of debris flows at Lemon Dam, La Plata County, Colorado  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effective mitigation of debris flows at Lemon Dam, La Plata County, Colorado Victor G. deWolfe a, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401, United States b Florida Water Conservancy District, Lemon Dam May 2007 Abstract To reduce the hazards from debris flows in drainage basins burned by wildfire

202

Independent External Peer Review Report Rough River Dam 18 August 2011 ii  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Independent External Peer Review Report ­ Rough River Dam 18 August 2011 ii This page intentionally blank. #12;Independent External Peer Review Report ­ Rough River Dam 18 August 2011 iii Table.3 Preparation and Charge for Peer Review Panel 7 3.4 Performing the IEPR 8 3.5 Preparation and Review of Draft

US Army Corps of Engineers

203

Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier Burner and Injectors  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

8 8 Gasification Technologies contacts Gary J. stiegel Gasification Technology Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236 412-386-4499 gary.stiegel@netl.doe.gov Jenny tennant Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 3610 Collins Ferry Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507 304-285-4830 jenny.tennant@netl.doe.gov David Rue Principal Investigator Gas Technology Institute 1700 South Mount Prospect Road Des Plaines, IL 60018 847-768-0508 david.rue@gastechnology.org Real Time Flame moniToRing oF gasiFieR BuRneR and injecToRs Description Combustion scientists and engineers have studied radiant emissions of various flames for many years. For some time, technologists have understood the rich potential for

204

Fuel effects on flame lift-off under diesel conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An apparent relation between the lift-off length under diesel conditions and the ignition quality of a fuel has previously been reported. To cast light on the underlying mechanism, the current study aims to separate flame lift-off effects of the chemical ignition delay from those of other fuel properties under diesel conditions. Flame lift-off was measured in an optical diesel engine by high-speed video imaging of OH-chemiluminescence. Fuel and ambient-gas properties were varied during the experiment. Only a weak correlation was found between ignition delay and lift-off length. The data indicate that this correlation is due to a common, stronger correlation with the ambient oxygen concentration. The chemical ignition delay and the fuel type had similar, weak effects on the lift-off length. A recently proposed mechanism for lift-off stabilization was used to interpret the results. It assumes that reactants approaching the lift-off position of the jet are mixed with high-temperature products found along the edges of the flame, which trigger autoignition. In this picture, the fuel effect is most likely due to differences in the amount of mixing with high-temperature products that is required for autoignition. In the current experiment, all lift-off effects seem to arise from variations in the reactant and product temperatures, induced by fuel and ambient properties. (author)

Persson, Helena; Andersson, Oeivind; Egnell, Rolf [Lund University (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Sciences

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

Flame propagation enhancement by plasma excitation of oxygen. Part I: Effects of O{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermal and kinetic effects of O{sub 3} on flame propagation were investigated experimentally and numerically by using C{sub 3}H{sub 8}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} laminar lifted flames. Ozone produced by a dielectric barrier plasma discharge was isolated and measured quantitatively by using absorption spectroscopy. Significant kinetic enhancement by O{sub 3} was observed by comparing flame stabilization locations with and without O{sub 3} production. Experiments at atmospheric pressures showed an 8% enhancement in the flame propagation speed for 1260 ppm of O{sub 3} addition to the O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} oxidizer. Numerical simulations showed that the O{sub 3} decomposition and reaction with H early in the pre-heat zone of the flame produced O and OH, respectively, from which the O reacted rapidly with C{sub 3}H{sub 8} and produced additional OH. The subsequent reaction of OH with the fuel and fuel fragments, such as CH{sub 2}O, provided chemical heat release at lower temperatures to enhance the flame propagation speed. It was shown that the kinetic effect on flame propagation enhancement by O{sub 3} reaching the pre-heat zone of the flame for early oxidation of fuel was much greater than that by the thermal effect from the energy contained within O{sub 3}. For non-premixed laminar lifted flames, the kinetic enhancement by O{sub 3} also induced changes to the hydrodynamics at the flame front which provided additional enhancement of the flame propagation speed. The present results will have a direct impact on the development of detailed plasma-flame kinetic mechanisms and provided a foundation for the study of combustion enhancement by O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}{delta}{sub g}) in part II of this investigation. (author)

Ombrello, Timothy; Won, Sang Hee; Ju, Yiguang [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Engineering Quadrangle, Olden Street, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Williams, Skip [Air Force Research Laboratory, Propulsion Directorate, 1950 Fifth Street, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 (United States)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

206

ORNL Trusted Corridors Project: Watts Bar Dam Inland Waterway Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radiation has existed everywhere in the environment since the Earth's formation - in rocks, soil, water, and plants. The mining and processing of naturally occurring radioactive materials for use in medicine, power generation, consumer products, and industry inevitably generate emissions and waste. Radiological measuring devices have been used by industry for years to measure for radiation in undesired locations or simply identify radioactive materials. Since the terrorist attacks on the United States on 9-11-01 these radiation measuring devices have proliferated in many places in our nation's commerce system. DOE, TVA, the Army Corps and ORNL collaborated to test the usefulness of these devices in our nation's waterway system on this project. The purpose of the Watts Bar Dam ORNL Trusted Corridors project was to investigate the security, safety and enforcement needs of local, state and federal government entities for state-of-the-art sensor monitoring in regards to illegal cargo including utilization of the existing infrastructure. TVA's inland waterways lock system is a recognized and accepted infrastructure by the commercial carrier industry. Safety Monitoring activities included tow boat operators, commercial barges and vessels, recreational watercraft and their cargo, identification of unsafe vessels and carriers, and, monitoring of domestic and foreign commercial vessels and cargo identification. Safety Enforcement activities included cargo safety, tracking, identification of hazardous materials, waterway safety regulations, and hazardous materials regulations. Homeland Security and Law Enforcement Applications included Radiological Dispersive Devices (RDD) identification, identification of unsafe or illicit transport of hazardous materials including chemicals and radiological materials, and screening for shipments of illicit drugs. In the Fall of 2005 the SensorNet funding for the project expired. After several unsuccessful attempts to find a Federal sponsor to continue with the project, the Watts Bar Dam Project was canceled and the Exploranium radiation monitors were removed from the doors of Watts Bar Dam in early 2006. The DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office decided to proceed with a Pilot building on the ORNL work performed at the TN and SC weigh stations in the highway sector of the Trusted Corridors project and eventually expanded it to other southern states under the name of Southeastern Corridor Pilot Project (SETCP). Many of the Phase I goals were achieved however real-world test data of private watercraft and barges was never obtained.

Walker, Randy M [ORNL; Gross, Ian G [ORNL; Smith, Cyrus M [ORNL; Hill, David E [ORNL

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report documents the technical results of the 3-year project entitled, “Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels,” funded under the NETL of DOE. The research was conducted under six main tasks: 1) program management and planning; 2) turbulent flame speed measurements of syngas mixtures; 3) laminar flame speed measurements with diluents; 4) NOx mechanism validation experiments; 5) fundamental NOx kinetics; and 6) the effect of impurities on NOx kinetics. Experiments were performed using primary constant-volume vessels for laminar and turbulent flame speeds and shock tubes for ignition delay times and species concentrations. In addition to the existing shock- tube and flame speed facilities, a new capability in measuring turbulent flame speeds was developed under this grant. Other highlights include an improved NOx kinetics mechanism; a database on syngas blends for real fuel mixtures with and without impurities; an improved hydrogen sulfide mechanism; an improved ammonia kintics mechanism; laminar flame speed data at high pressures with water addition; and the development of an inexpensive absorption spectroscopy diagnostic for shock-tube measurements of OH time histories. The Project Results for this work can be divided into 13 major sections, which form the basis of this report. These 13 topics are divided into the five areas: 1) laminar flame speeds; 2) Nitrogen Oxide and Ammonia chemical kinetics; 3) syngas impurities chemical kinetics; 4) turbulent flame speeds; and 5) OH absorption measurements for chemical kinetics.

Peterson, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankat; Plichta, Drew; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Camou, Alejandro; Aul, Christopher

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

208

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic-absorption flame photometry Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: atomic-absorption flame photometry Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 MICROCHEMICALJOURNAL33,304-...

209

IGNITION PROCESSES AND FLAME SPREADING IN A GRANULAR SOLID PROPELLANT BED.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Understanding the detailed ignition, flame spreading, and combustion processes inside of a granular solid propellant bed is vital for accurate internal ballistic modeling and development… (more)

Colletti, Alexander

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced flame quality Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

paper overviews the dynamics of bluff body... stabilized flames and describes the phenomenology of the blowoff process. The first section of the paper Source: Lieuwen, Timothy C....

211

Dam Control and Safety Act (West Virginia) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Control and Safety Act (West Virginia) Control and Safety Act (West Virginia) Dam Control and Safety Act (West Virginia) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Home Weatherization Program Info State West Virginia Program Type Safety and Operational Guidelines Provider Department of Environmental Protection This law grants authority to the secretary of the Department of Environmental Protection to control and exercise regulatory jurisdiction

212

Monitoring of Juvenile Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Spring 2010  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to estimate the survival for yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts during spring 2010 in a portion of the Columbia River that includes Bonneville Dam. The study estimated smolt survival from a virtual release at Bonneville Dam to a survival array 81 km downstream of Bonneville Dam. We also estimated median forebay residence time, median tailrace egress time, and spill passage efficiency (SPE), as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. A single release design was used to estimate survival from Bonneville Dam to a primary array located 81 km downstream of Bonneville. The approach did not include a reference tailrace release. Releases of acoustic-tagged smolts above John Day Dam to Hood River contributed to the formation of virtual releases at a Bonneville Dam forebay entrance array and at the face of the dam. A total of 3,880 yearling Chinook salmon and 3,885 steelhead smolts were tagged and released in the investigation. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) tag model number ATS-156dB, weighing 0.438 g in air, was used in this investigation.

Ploskey, Gene R.; Faber, Derrek M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Monitoring of Juvenile Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Spring 2010  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to estimate the survival for yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts during spring 2010 in a portion of the Columbia River that includes Bonneville Dam. The study estimated smolt survival from a virtual release at Bonneville Dam to a survival array 81 km downstream of Bonneville Dam. We also estimated median forebay residence time, median tailrace egress time, and spill passage efficiency (SPE), as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. A single release design was used to estimate survival from Bonneville Dam to a primary array located 81 km downstream of Bonneville. The approach did not include a reference tailrace release. Releases of acoustic-tagged smolts above John Day Dam to Hood River contributed to the formation of virtual releases at a Bonneville Dam forebay entrance array and at the face of the dam. A total of 3,880 yearling Chinook salmon and 3,885 steelhead smolts were tagged and released in the investigation. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) tag model number ATS-156dB, weighing 0.438 g in air, was used in this investigation.

Ploskey, Gene R.; Faber, Derrek M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Summer 2010  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to estimate dam passage and route specific survival rates for subyearling Chinook salmon smolts to a primary survival-detection array located 81 km downstream of the dam, evaluate a BGS located in the B2 forebay, and evaluate effects of two spill treatments. The 2010 study also provided estimates of forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, spill passage efficiency (SPE), and spill + B2 Corner Collector (B2CC) efficiency, as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. In addition, the study estimated forebay passage survival and survival of fish traveling from the forebay entrance array, through the dam and downstream through 81 km of tailwater.

Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Summer 2010  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to estimate dam passage and route specific survival rates for subyearling Chinook salmon smolts to a primary survival-detection array located 81 km downstream of the dam, evaluate a BGS located in the B2 forebay, and evaluate effects of two spill treatments. The 2010 study also provided estimates of forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, spill passage efficiency (SPE), and spill + B2 Corner Collector (B2CC) efficiency, as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. In addition, the study estimated forebay passage survival and survival of fish traveling from the forebay entrance array, through the dam and downstream through 81 km of tailwater.

Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Effects of Combustor Geometry on the Flowfields and Flame Properties of A  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Effects of Combustor Geometry on the Flowfields and Flame Properties of A Effects of Combustor Geometry on the Flowfields and Flame Properties of A Low-Swirl Injector Title Effects of Combustor Geometry on the Flowfields and Flame Properties of A Low-Swirl Injector Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2008 Authors Cheng, Robert K., and David Littlejohn Journal Proceedings of the Combustion Institute Type of Article Conference Paper Abstract The Low-swirl injector (LSI) is a novel dry-low NOx combustion method that is being developed for gas turbines to burn a variety of gaseous fuels including natural gas, low-Btu fuels, syngases and hydrogen. Its basic principle is described by a top level analytical model that relates the flame position to the flowfield similarity parameters and the turbulent flame speed correlation. The model was based on experimental measurements in open laboratory flames. It has been useful for guiding hardware development. As the LSI is being adapted to different engine configurations, one open question is how the combustor geometry and size affect its basic operating principle. The objective of this paper is to investigate these effects by conducting Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements in open and enclosed flames produced by a 6.35 cm diameter LSI using two quartz cylinders of 15.5 and 20 cm diameter to simulate the combustor casing. Results from 18 methane-air flames show that the enclosures do not alter the flame properties or the nearfield flow structures. The differences occur mostly in the farfield where the tighter enclosure deters the formation of a weak recirculation zone. The enclosure effects on hydrogen and hydrogen-methane flames were studies using the 20 cm cylinder. The results show that the outer recirculation zone generated at the corner of the dump plane promotes the formation of attached flames. However, the properties and nearfield flow features of the attached flames are similar to those of the lifted flames. At higher stoichiometries, the attached flame collapses to form a compact disc shaped flame that has very different flowfield structures. These results show that the enclosure effects on the LSI are strongly coupled to the fuel type and dump plane geometry but are less dependent on the enclosure size. These observations will provide the basis for developing computational methods that can be used as design tools for LSI adaptation

217

Investigation of the nonlinear response of turbulent premixed flames to imposed inlet velocity oscillations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Acoustically forced lean premixed turbulent bluff-body stabilized flames are investigated using turbulent combustion CFD. The calculations simulate aspects of the experimental investigation by Balachandran et al. [R. Balachandran, B. Ayoola, C. Kaminski, A. Dowling, E. Mastorakos, Combust. Flame 143 (2005) 37-55] and focus on the amplitude dependence of the flame response. For the frequencies of interest in this investigation an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) approach is appropriate. The combustion is represented using a modified laminar flamelet approach with an algebraic representation of the flame surface density. The predictions are compared with flame surface density (FSD) and OH* chemiluminescence measurements. In the experiments the response of the flame has been quantified by means of a number of single-frequency, amplitude-dependent transfer functions. The predicted flame shape and position are in good agreement with the experiment. The dynamic response of the flame to inlet velocity forcing is also well captured by the calculations. At moderate frequencies nonlinear behavior of the transfer functions is observed as the forcing amplitude is increased. In the experiments this nonlinearity was attributed in part to the rollup of the reacting shear layer into vortices and in part to the collision of the inner and outer flame sheets. This transition to nonlinearity is also observed in the transfer functions obtained from the predictions. Furthermore, the vortex shedding and flame-sheet collapse may be seen in snapshots of the predicted flow field taken throughout the forcing cycle. The URANS methodology successfully predicts the behavior of the forced premixed turbulent flames and captures the effects of saturation in the transfer function of the response of the heat release to velocity fluctuations. (author)

Armitage, C.A.; Mastorakos, E.; Cant, R.S. [Department of Engineering, Trumpington Street, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Balachandran, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

218

Effects of fuel type and equivalence ratios on the flickering of triple flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental study has been conducted in axisymmetric, co-flowing triple flames with different equivalence ratios of the inner and outer reactant streams (2<{phi}{sub in}<3 and 0{<=}{phi}{sub out}<0.7). Different fuel combinations, like propane/propane, propane/methane or methane/methane in the inner and outer streams respectively, have been used in the experiments. The structures of the triple flames have been compared for the different fuel combinations and equivalence ratios. The conditions under which triple flames exhibit oscillation have been identified. During the oscillation, the non-premixed flame and the outer lean premixed flame flicker strongly, while the inner rich premixed flame remains more or less stable. The flickering frequency has been evaluated through image processing and fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the average pixel intensity of the image frames. It is observed that, for all the fuel combinations, the frequency decreases with the increase in the outer equivalence ratio, while it is relatively invariant with the change in the inner equivalence ratio. However, an increase in the inner equivalence ratio affects the structure of the flame by increasing the heights of the inner premixed flame and non-premixed flame and also enlarges the yellow soot-laden zone at the tip of the inner flame. A scaling analysis of the oscillating flames has been performed based on the measured parameters, which show a variation of Strouhal number (St) with Richardson number (Ri) as St {proportional_to} Ri{sup 0.5}. The fuel type is found to have no influence on this correlation. (author)

Sahu, K.B.; Kundu, A.; Ganguly, R.; Datta, A. [Department of Power Engineering, Jadavpur University, Salt Lake Campus, Kolkata 700098 (India)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

219

Making a Low-Cost Soda Can Ethanol Burner for Out-of-Laboratory Flame Test Demonstrations and Experiments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Making a Low-Cost Soda Can Ethanol Burner for Out-of-Laboratory Flame Test Demonstrations and Experiments ... Video clips for the three flame tests shown in Figure 3, and for turning the burner on and off. ...

Henson L. Lee Yu; Perfecto N. Domingo, Jr.; Elliard Roswell S. Yanza; Armando M. Guidote, Jr.

2014-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

220

THE IMPACT OF VARIOUS OXIDIZERS ON THE OVERALL PERFORMACE OF A DIRECT FLAME SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The power output of a direct-flame solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) was studied using hydrogen (H2) as the fuel for the flame and various oxidizers,… (more)

Donadio, Nicholas

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flaming gorge dam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Effects of oxygen concentration on radiative loss from normal-gravity and microgravity methane diffusion flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laminar diffusion flames of methane, burning in quiescent oxidizing environments at atmospheric pressure, have been studied under both normal-gravity and microgravity conditions. Radiation from these flames is measured using a wide-view-angle, thermopile detector radiometer. The oxidizer was 18, 21, and 30 percent oxygen in nitrogen. 17 refs.

Bahadori, M.Y.; Edelman, R.B.; Stocker, D.P.; Sotos, R.G.; Vaughan, D.F. (Science Applications International Corp., Torrance, CA (United States) Rockwell International Corp., Rocketdyne Div., Canoga Park, CA (United States) NASA, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE FORMATION OF AROMATICS IN RICH METHANE FLAMES DOPED BY UNSATURATED COMPOUNDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

unsaturated hydrocarbons: allene and propyne, because they are precursors of propargyl radicals which are well as the background gas makes these flames more representative of the combustion of a real fuel compared to a flame by passing through a single pass heat exchanger [14]. Temperature profiles were obtained using a PtRh 3 hal

Boyer, Edmond

223

Large eddy simulation of one diffusion swirling flame European Combustion Meeting 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.5 7200 75900 Numerical method This research use large eddy simulation (LES) in software ANASYS FLUENT Simulations of Swirling Non-premixed Flames With Flamelet Models: A Comparison of Numerical Methods. FlowLarge eddy simulation of one diffusion swirling flame European Combustion Meeting 2011 Introduction

Berning, Torsten

224

The Effect of the Carrier Gas on Flame lonization Detector Sensitivity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......fraction of the hydrocarbon converted to CH...ion formation in hydrocarbon flames. The CH...1 ". While no data is presently available...12) that the heats of formation of...chemi-ionization in hydrocarbon flames appears to...International on Combustion, Academic Press......

A.T. Blades

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Combustion and Flame 156 (2009) 771779 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combustion and Flame 156 (2009) 771­779 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Combustion Cylindrical chamber Flow correction Hydrogen Syngas High pressure The effect of nonspherical (i.e. cylindrical are measured for hydrogen and syngas mixtures at atmospheric and elevated pressures. Flow-corrected flame

Ju, Yiguang

226

Kinetic effects of non-equilibrium plasma-assisted methane oxidation on diffusion flame extinction limits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The prod- ucts of plasma assisted CH4 oxidation were measured using the Two-photon Absorption Laser to understand the role of plasma generated species on ignition, flame speed, and flame stabilization. For ignition studies, the reduction of ignition delay time by non-equilibrium nanosecond pulsed discharges

Ju, Yiguang

227

Water-Power Development, Conservation of Hydroelectric Power Dams and Works  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Water-Power Development, Conservation of Hydroelectric Power Dams Water-Power Development, Conservation of Hydroelectric Power Dams and Works (Virginia) Water-Power Development, Conservation of Hydroelectric Power Dams and Works (Virginia) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Developer Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Systems Integrator Utility Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Home Weatherization Program Info State Virginia Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Virginia State Corporation Commission It is the policy of the Commonwealth of Virginia to encourage the utilization of its water resources to the greatest practicable extent, to control the waters of the Commonwealth, and also to construct or reconstruct dams in any rivers or streams within the Commonwealth for the

228

Wind Tunnel Experiments and Numerical Simulation of Snow Drifting around an Avalanche Protecting Dam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To learn about wind flow and snow drifting around avalanche dams, ... experiments were done in the Jules Verne Climatic Wind Tunnel. The paper reports the results from numerical wind flow simulations that were do...

Skuli Thordarson

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Two-dimensional dam break flooding simulation: a GIS-embedded approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the twenty-first century, around 200 notable dam and reservoir failures happened worldwide causing massive fatalities and economic costs. In order to reduce the losses, managers usually define mitigation st...

Massimiliano Cannata; Roberto Marzocchi

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Shape optimization of arch dams under earthquake loading using meta-heuristic algorithms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents efficiency of three meta-heuristic algorithms for large-scale shape optimization of double curvature arch dams under seismic loading condition with different constraints such as failure, st...

A. Kaveh; V. R. Mahdavi

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Comparison of ultraviolet and ultraviolet-infrared flame detection systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

detectors view a s1ngle area and a majority of detectors must sense a fire to signal an alarm) and time delay ci r- cu1ts, sensitivity adjustments, and integral self-test lamps and circuitry. Infrared detectors were improved by the addition of vot1ng... have been improved through an evolutionary process to the point where they have become highly reliable, stable and sensitive detectors of flames. With the recent advances in micro- processor based e'lectronics, it has become possible to combine both...

Dayton, Robert Mark

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

232

Scalar dissipation rate based flamelet modelling of turbulent premixed flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

curves of ??+ vs N+c conditioned on the progress variable ? for three cases: (a) methane–air, ? = 0.6, Le = 0.96, (b) propane–air, ? = 0.8, Le = 1.83 and (c) methane–air, ? = 1.4, Le = 1.17 . The ? = 0.7 curve for the propane–air case is shown in (d... closure for two mixtures: stoichiometric methane–air with K = 1.0 (•) and lean propane–air with KLe = 1.0 (?). The experimental data of Abdel- Gayed et al. (1987) for K = 1.0 are also shown (?). . . . . . . . . 111 7.9 The comparisons of flame speeds...

Kolla, Hemanth

2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

233

Metal rich stars in omega Cen: preliminary FLAMES GTO results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I present preliminary results for a sample of ~700 red giants in omega Cen, observed during the Ital-FLAMES Consortium GTO time in May 2003, for the Bologna Project on omega Cen. Preliminary Fe and Ca abundances confirm previous results: while the metal-poor and intermediate populations show a normal halo alpha-enhancement of [alpha/Fe]=$+0.3, the most metal-rich stars show a significantly lower [alpha/Fe]=+0.1. If the metal-rich stars have evolved within the cluster in a process of self-enrichment, the only way to lower their alpha-enhancement would be SNe type Ia intervention.

Pancino, E

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Metal rich stars in omega Cen: preliminary FLAMES GTO results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I present preliminary results for a sample of ~700 red giants in omega Cen, observed during the Ital-FLAMES Consortium GTO time in May 2003, for the Bologna Project on omega Cen. Preliminary Fe and Ca abundances confirm previous results: while the metal-poor and intermediate populations show a normal halo alpha-enhancement of [alpha/Fe]=$+0.3, the most metal-rich stars show a significantly lower [alpha/Fe]=+0.1. If the metal-rich stars have evolved within the cluster in a process of self-enrichment, the only way to lower their alpha-enhancement would be SNe type Ia intervention.

E. Pancino

2004-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

235

Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in the antarctic environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the historical record of dioxins, PCBs and DDTs in the same cores showed a decreasing trend. At present, PBDEs are recognized as a worldwide pollution problem since they have reached remote areas such as the deep ocean, the Arctic and Antarctica (de Boer et al... that cheerful and warm Brazilian spirit. You are my Aggie family! viii NOMENCLATURE #1; critical value of a statistical test used to reject the null hypothesis ANOVA Analysis of Variance BDE Brominated Diphenyl Ether BFR Brominated Flame Retardant DC...

Yogui, Gilvan Takeshi

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

236

An analytical model for flame propagation in low-Mach-number, variable-density flow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flame propagation is relevant in many practical applications involving heat transfer and the conversion of heat into mechanical work. Examples of such applications include spark-ignition engines, turbojets, ramjets, afterburners and rockets, although these devices may exhibit nonlocal and nonpropagating combustion phenomena as well. Here, a simple model problem is formulated to describe the coupling between premixed-flame and flow-field dynamics resulting from gas expansion within the flame. The energy conservation equation is integrated analytically across the flame in order to reduce the number of governing equations for the computational problem. A system of six equations and associated boundary conditions are formulated for computation of the time evolution of an initially prescribed three-dimensional velocity field and the flame surface.

Aldredge, R.C. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering] [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Dynamics of premixed flames in a narrow channel with a step-wise wall temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of channel height, inflow velocity and wall temperature on the dynamics and stability of unity Lewis number premixed flames in channels with specified wall temperature is investigated with steady and transient numerical simulations using a two-dimensional thermo-diffusive model. The simplified model is capable of capturing many of the transitions and the combustion modes observed experimentally and in direct numerical simulations in micro- and meso-scale channels, and indicates that the thermal flame/wall interaction is the mechanism leading to the observed flame instabilities. Finally, an ad-hoc one-dimensional model based on the flame-sheet approximation is tested in its capacity to reproduce some of the flame dynamics of the two-dimensional thermo-diffusive model. (author)

Kurdyumov, Vadim N. [Department of Energy, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pizza, Gianmarco [Aerothermochemistry and Combustion Systems Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich CH-8092 (Switzerland); Combustion Research, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen CH-5232 (Switzerland); Frouzakis, Christos E. [Aerothermochemistry and Combustion Systems Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich CH-8092 (Switzerland); Mantzaras, John [Combustion Research, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen CH-5232 (Switzerland)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

238

Characterization of a gas burner to simulate a propellant flame and evaluate aluminum particle combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study details the characterization and implementation of a burner designed to simulate solid propellant fires. The burner was designed with the ability to introduce particles (particularly aluminum) into a gas flame. The aluminized flame conditions produced by this burner are characterized based on temperature and heat flux measurements. Using these results, flame conditions are quantified in comparison to other well-characterized reactions including hydrocarbon and propellant fires. The aluminized flame is also used to measure the burning rate of the particles. This work describes the application of this burner for re-creating small-scale propellant flame conditions and as a test platform for experiments that contribute to the development of a particle combustion model, particularly in propellant fires. (author)

Jackson, Matt [Engineering Department, West Texas A and M University, Canyon, TX 79016 (United States); Pantoya, Michelle L. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Gill, Walt [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

239

Effects of copper catalytic reactions on the development of supersonic hydrogen flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Copper species are present in hydrogen flames in arc heated supersonic ramjet testing facilities. Homogeneous and heterogeneous copper catalytic reactions may affect the flame development by enhancing the recombination of hydrogen atoms. Computer simulation is used to investigate the effects of the catalytic reactions on the reaction and ignition times of the flames. The simulation uses a modified general chemical kinetics computer program to simulate the development of copper-contaminated hydrogen flames under scramjet testing conditions. Reaction times of hydrogen flames are found to be reduced due to the copper catalytic effects, but ignition times are much less sensitive to such effects. The reduction of reaction time depends on copper concentration, particle size (if copper is in the condensed phase), and Mach number (or initial temperature and pressure). As copper concentration increases or the particle size decreases, reaction time decreases. As Mach number increases (or pressure and temperature decrease), the copper catalytic effects are greater.

Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Berry, G.F.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

EIS-0480: Long-Term Experimental and Management Plan for the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Two agencies of the Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation and National Park Service, are jointly preparing a Long-Term Experimental and Management Plan for the Glen Canyon Dam and an EIS for adoption of the Plan. The Glen Canyon Dam, on the Colorado River in northern, Arizona, generates hydroelectric power that is marketed by DOE's Western Area Power Administration, a cooperating agency.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flaming gorge dam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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241

Hydropower and the environment: A case study at Glen Canyon Dam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The management of hydroelectric resources in the Colorado River requires a balancing of hydrologic, social, natural and cultural resources. The resulting management often has to deal with inherently conflicting objectives, short and long-term goals, time frames and operational flexibility. Glen Canyon Dam, AZ, on the Colorado River, controls the release of water into the Grand Canyon. The dam has been under intense public scrutiny since it was completed in 1963. An Environmental Impact Statement evaluating the future operations and options for Glen Canyon Dam was initiated by the Department of the Interior in 1989 and completed in 1995. An Adaptive Management approach to future operational management has been developed as part of the Glen Canyon Dam Environmental Impact Statement process. Future operations at Glen Canyon Dam will take into consideration the need to balance water movement and hydroelectricity development with natural, recreation, Native American and cultural needs. Future management of rivers requires acknowledgement of the dynamic nature of ecosystems and the need to link scientific information into the decision-making process. Lessons learned and programs developed at Glen Canyon Dam may be applied to other river systems.

Wegner, D.L. [Denver Technical Service Center, Flagstaff, AZ (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

242

3D Simulation of Dam-break effect on a Solid Wall using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dam is built for water supply, water flow or flooding control and electricity energy storage, but in other hand, dam is one of the most dangerous natural disaster in many countries including in Indonesia. The impact of dam break in neighbour area and is huge and many flooding in remote area, as happen in Dam Situ Gintung in Tangerang (close to Jakarta) in 2009. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), is one of numerical method based on Lagrangian grid which is ap- plied in astrophysical simulation may be used to solve the simulation on dam break effect. The development of SPH methods become alternative methods to solving Navier Stokes equation, which is main key in fluid dynamic simulation. In this paper, SPH is developed for supporting solid par- ticles in use for 3D dam break effect (3D-DBE) simulation. Solid particle have been treated same as fluid particles with additional calculation for converting gained position became translation and rotation of solid object in a whole body. With this capability, the r...

Suprijadi,; Naa, Christian; Putra, Anggy Trisnawan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Occurrence, fate and ecotoxicological assessment of pharmaceutically active compounds in wastewater and sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Chongqing, the Three Gorges Reservoir Area  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The occurrence, removal and ecotoxicological assessment of 21 pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) including antibiotics, analgesics, antiepileptics, antilipidemics and antihypersensitives, were studied at four municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Chongqing, the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Individual treatment unit effluents, as well as primary and secondary sludge, were sampled and analyzed for the selected PhACs to evaluate their biodegradation, persistence and partitioning behaviors. PhACs were identified and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction. All the 21 analyzed PhACs were detected in wastewater and the target PhACs except acetaminophen, ibuprofen and gemfibrozil, were also found in sludge. The concentrations of the antibiotics and SVT were comparable to or even higher than those reported in developed countries, while the case of other target PhACs was opposite. The elimination of PhACs except acetaminophen was incomplete and a wide range of elimination efficiencies during the treatment were observed, i.e. from “negative removal” to 99.5%. The removal of PhACs was insignificant in primary and disinfection processes, and was mainly achieved during the biological treatment. Based on the mass balance analysis, biodegradation is believed to be the primary removal mechanism, whereas only about 1.5% of the total mass load of the target PhACs was removed by sorption. Experimentally estimated distribution coefficients (< 500 L/kg, with a few exceptions) also indicate that biodegradation/transformation was responsible for the removal of the target PhACs. Ecotoxicological assessment indicated that the environment concentrations of single compounds (including sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, ofloxacin, azithromycin and erythromycin-H2O) in effluent and sludge, as well as the mixture of the 21 detected PhACs in effluent, sludge and receiving water had a significant ecotoxicological risk to algae. Therefore, further control of PhACs in effluent and sludge is required before their discharge and application to prevent their introduction into the environment.

Qing Yan; Xu Gao; You-Peng Chen; Xu-Ya Peng; Yi-Xin Zhang; Xiu-Mei Gan; Cheng-Fang Zi; Jin-Song Guo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Seven days: 6–12 July 2012  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Gorges Dam reaches full power China’s Three Gorges Dam — the world’s largest hydroelectric-power project — is now running at full capacity (22.5 gigawatts) after its ... is now running at full capacity (22.5 gigawatts) after its 32nd and final turbine was connected to the electricity grid on 4 July. Construction of the 2.3- ...

2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

245

Statistical errors in the fractal analysis of flame boundaries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high speed tomographic technique is used to evaluate the effect of spatial resolution, and requirements for statistical convergence on the fractal analysis of a turbulent, premixed, stoichiometric methane/air flame at high Damkoehler number. The gas velocity at the nozzle exit is 5 m/s, the turbulence intensity is 7%, the integral length scale 3 mm and hence the turbulence Reynolds number is 70. The light source is a copper vapor laser which produces 20ns, 5 mJ pulses at a 4KHz repetition rate. Cylindrical lenses transform the 38mm circular laser beam to a sheet 50 mm high and 0.6 mm thick. A high speed Fastax camera is used to record the tomographic images formed by the scattering of light from oil droplets seeded in the reactant flow. The films are digitized and the flame front extracted from the images by a thresholding technique. Digitization noise, which appears in the fractal plots at approximately twice the pixel resolution, can obscure the inner cutoff. Simple smoothing can remove this problem if the spatial resolution is sufficient. At insufficient resolution smoothing produces plausible resolutes are produced which in fact erroneous. If the inner cutoff is ambiguous the range over which the fractal dimension is determined will be unclear. The wide distribution of fractal dimensions obtained from the individual images indicates the necessity of ensemble averaging the fractal plots if reliable statistical results are to be obtained. 8 refs., 6 figs.

Shepherd, I.G.; Cheng, R.K.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Flame–vortex interaction in a reacting vortex ring  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Direct numerical simulations are used to study the flame–vortex interaction in a laminar reacting vortex ring. The chemical reaction occurs by a one-step Arrhenius-type reaction that mimics the combustion of typical hydrocarbon and air. The ring is generated by an axisymmetric jet that is impulsed to emit a cold fuel through a nozzle. The fuel enters a quiescent ambient at a much higher temperature. By adjusting the ratio of the ambient and fuel temperatures the ignition either occurs during the formation or post-formation phase of the ring. When ignition occurs during the formation phase of the ring the bulk of combustion is by a flame at the front of the vortex bubble. When ignition is delayed until after the formation phase most of the reaction occurs inside the vortex ring. It is found that premixing the fuel and the oxidizer enhances the amount of product formation. The heat released from the reaction significantly affects production redistribution and diffusion of the vorticity throughout the field. The results of the simulations also reveal that the heat of reaction affects the strain rate fields differently depending on when the ignition of the ring occurs.

J. S. Hewett; C. K. Madnia

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Pocket formation and the flame surface density equation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The occurrence and properties of singularities in the equation for the surface density function {sigma} {triple_bond}{vert_bar}{del}{Phi}{vert_bar} are analyzed analytically and numerically using data from two dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS) of pocket formation in a premixed methane-air flame. The various stages and the relevant time scales associated with pocket formation were determined in a previous study. It was found that isolated pockets form if and only if a nondegenerate critical point of a saddle point type appears. The appearance of a singularity in the isoline representing the flame front may have implications to modeling of the terms in the surface density function (sdf) approach during such transient events as pocket formation. The sink and source terms in sdf are evaluated in the neighborhood of a critical point using DNS data during pocket formation, and an analytic representation of a scalar in the vicinity of the critical point which allows for the computation of all kinematic properties. The analytic and computational results show that the normal restoration and dissipation terms in the sdf become singular at the critical point when the pocket emerges. Furthermore, the analytic results show that the singularities exactly cancel, and therefore, the main conclusion is that it is unnecessary to model the singular behavior of these terms at critical points. However, closure of their sum is recommended.

Kollman, W. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Chen, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

A model of particle nucleation in premixed ethylene flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed model of particle inception is proposed to delve into the physical structure and chemistry of combustion-formed particles. A sectional method is used, from a previously developed kinetic mechanism of particle formation with a double discretization of the particle phase in terms of C and H atom number. The present model also distinguishes between different particle structures based on their state of aggregation; single high molecular mass molecules, cluster of molecules and aggregates of clusters. The model predicts the mass of particles, hydrogen content and internal structure. It represents a first approach in following the chemical evolution and internal structure of the particles formed in flames, coupled with the main pyrolysis and oxidation of the fuel. The model is tested in atmospheric premixed flat flames of ethylene and the effect of fuel equivalence ratio on particle morphology is analyzed. Molecular weight growth of aromatic compounds and the inception of particles are predicted. The morphology of the particles and the number of molecules in the clusters at particle inception are also indicated. (author)

D'Anna, Andrea; Sirignano, Mariano [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita di Napoli ''Federico II'', Napoli (Italy); Kent, John [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Sydney (Australia)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

249

Understanding and predicting soot generation in turbulent non-premixed jet flames.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the results of a project funded by DoD's Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) on the science behind development of predictive models for soot emission from gas turbine engines. Measurements of soot formation were performed in laminar flat premixed flames and turbulent non-premixed jet flames at 1 atm pressure and in turbulent liquid spray flames under representative conditions for takeoff in a gas turbine engine. The laminar flames and open jet flames used both ethylene and a prevaporized JP-8 surrogate fuel composed of n-dodecane and m-xylene. The pressurized turbulent jet flame measurements used the JP-8 surrogate fuel and compared its combustion and sooting characteristics to a world-average JP-8 fuel sample. The pressurized jet flame measurements demonstrated that the surrogate was representative of JP-8, with a somewhat higher tendency to soot formation. The premixed flame measurements revealed that flame temperature has a strong impact on the rate of soot nucleation and particle coagulation, but little sensitivity in the overall trends was found with different fuels. An extensive array of non-intrusive optical and laser-based measurements was performed in turbulent non-premixed jet flames established on specially designed piloted burners. Soot concentration data was collected throughout the flames, together with instantaneous images showing the relationship between soot and the OH radical and soot and PAH. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for ethylene combustion, including fuel-rich chemistry and benzene formation steps, was compiled, validated, and reduced. The reduced ethylene mechanism was incorporated into a high-fidelity LES code, together with a moment-based soot model and models for thermal radiation, to evaluate the ability of the chemistry and soot models to predict soot formation in the jet diffusion flame. The LES results highlight the importance of including an optically-thick radiation model to accurately predict gas temperatures and thus soot formation rates. When including such a radiation model, the LES model predicts mean soot concentrations within 30% in the ethylene jet flame.

Wang, Hai (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA); Kook, Sanghoon; Doom, Jeffrey; Oefelein, Joseph Charles; Zhang, Jiayao; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Schefer, Robert W.; Pickett, Lyle M.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

(DOE/EIS-0183-SA-05): Supplement Analysis for the Boise River Diversion Dam Powerplant Rehabilitation, 10/17/02  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

October 17, 2002 October 17, 2002 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KECP-4 SUBJECT: Supplement Analysis for the Boise River Diversion Dam Powerplant Rehabilitation, DOE/EIS-0183-SA-05 memorandum Mark A. Jones Program Analyst - PGF-6 TO : Proposed Action: Boise River Diversion Dam - Amendment to Capital Investment Sub-Agreement, Contract Number DE-MS79-94BP94618 Proposed By: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) Location: Near Boise, in Ada County, Idaho Description of the Proposed Action: BPA proposes to fund Reclamation's rehabilitation of the powerplant at the existing Boise River Diversion Dam (Diversion Dam) to use the water resource at Diversion Dam for electrical power production. Analysis: The Diversion Dam is located about 7 miles southeast of Boise, Idaho on the Boise River, about

251

Finite-rate chemistry and transient effects in direct numerical simulations of turbulent nonpremixed flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three-dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent nonpremixed flames including finite-rate chemistry and heat release effects were performed. Two chemical reaction models were considered: (1) a single-step global reaction model in which the heat release and activation energy parameters are typical combustion applications, and (2) a two-step reaction model to stimulate radical production and consumption and to compare against the single-step model. The model problem consists of the interaction between an initially unstained laminar diffusion flame and a three-dimensional field of homogeneous turbulence. Conditions ranging from fast chemistry to the pure mixing limit were studied by varying a global Damkoehler number. Results suggest that turbulence-induced mixing acting along the stoichiometric line leads to a strong modification of the inner structure of the turbulent flame compared with a laminar strained flame, resulting in intermediate species concentrations well above the laminar prediction. This result is consistent the experimental observations. Comparison of the response of the turbulent flame structure due to changes in the scalar dissipation rate with a steady strained laminar flame reveals that unsteady strain rates experienced by the turbulent flame may be responsible for h3e observed high concentrations of reaction intermediates.

Mahalingam, S. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Center for Combustion Research] [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Center for Combustion Research; Chen, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility] [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Vervisch, L. [CORIA, Rouen (France). Laboratoire de Mechanique des Fluides Numeriques] [CORIA, Rouen (France). Laboratoire de Mechanique des Fluides Numeriques

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Simulations of flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transitions in methane-air systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transitions (DDT) in large obstructed channels filled with a stoichiometric methane-air mixture are simulated using a single-step reaction mechanism. The reaction parameters are calibrated using known velocities and length scales of laminar flames and detonations. Calculations of the flame dynamics and DDT in channels with obstacles are compared to previously reported experimental data. The results obtained using the simple reaction model qualitatively, and in many cases, quantitatively match the experiments and are found to be largely insensitive to small variations in model parameters. (author)

Kessler, D.A.; Gamezo, V.N.; Oran, E.S. [Laboratory for Computational Physics and Fluid Dynamics, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

253

CONTROL OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS IN NATURAL GAS DIFFUSION FLAMES BY USING CASCADE BURNERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this exploratory research project is to control the pollutant emissions of diffusion flames by modifying the air infusion rate into the flame. The modification was achieved by installing a cascade of venturis around the burning gas jet. The basic idea behind this technique is controlling the stoichiometry of the flame through changing the flow dynamics and rates of mixing in the combustion zone with a set of venturis surrounding the flame. A natural gas jet diffusion flame at burner-exit Reynolds number of 5100 was examined with a set of venturis of specific sizes and spacing arrangement. The thermal and composition fields of the baseline and venturi-cascaded flames were numerically simulated using CFD-ACE+, an advanced computational environment software package. The instantaneous chemistry model was used as the reaction model. The concentration of NO was determined through CFD-POST, a post processing utility program for CFD-ACE+. The numerical results showed that, in the near-burner, midflame and far-burner regions, the venturi-cascaded flame had lower temperature by an average of 13%, 19% and 17%, respectively, and lower CO{sub 2} concentration by 35%, 37% and 32%, respectively, than the baseline flame. An opposite trend was noticed for O{sub 2} concentration; the cascaded flame has higher O{sub 2} concentration by 7%, 26% and 44%, in average values, in the near-burner, mid-flame and far-burner regions, respectively, than in the baseline case. The results also showed that, in the near-burner, mid-flame, and far-burner regions, the venturi-cascaded flame has lower NO concentrations by 89%, 70% and 70%, in average values, respectively, compared to the baseline case. The numerical results substantiate that venturi-cascading is a feasible method for controlling the pollutant emissions of a burning gas jet. In addition, the numerical results were useful to understand the thermo-chemical processes involved. The results showed that the prompt-NO mechanism plays an important role besides the conventional thermal-NO mechanism. The computational results of the present study need to be validated experimentally.

Dr. Ala Qubbaj

2001-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

254

Evaluation of Behavioral Guidance Structure on Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at Bonneville Dam in 2009  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an acoustic-telemetry study at Bonneville Dam in 2009 to evaluate the effects of a behavioral guidance structure (BGS) in the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse forebay on fish passage and survival through the second powerhouse (B2), the dam as a whole, and through the first powerhouse and spillway combined. The BGS was deployed to increase the survival of fish passing through B2 by increasing the percentage of outmigrating smolts entering the B2 Corner Collector (B2CC)—a surface flow outlet known to be a relatively benign route for downstream passage at this dam. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. Study results indicated that having turbine 11 in service is important for providing flow conditions that are comparable to those observed in pre-BGS years (2004 and 2005) and in 2008. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

Faber, Derrek M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Hughes, James S.; Kim, Jin A.; Fu, Tao; Fischer, Eric S.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, J. R.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

An Inverted Co-Flow Diffusion Flame for Producing Soot  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We developed an inverted, co-flow, methane/air/nitrogen burner that generates a wide range of soot particles sizes and concentrations. By adjusting the flow rates of air, methane, and nitrogen in the fuel, the mean electric mobility diameter and number concentration are varied. Additional dilution downstream of the flame allows us to generate particle concentrations spanning those produced by spark-ignited and diesel engines: particles with mean diameters between 50 and 250 nm and number concentrations from 4.7 {center_dot} 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 7} cm{sup -3}. The range of achievable number concentrations, and therefore volume concentrations, can be increased by a factor of 30 by reducing the dilution ratio. These operating conditions make this burner valuable for developing and calibrating diagnostics as well as for other studies involving soot particles.

Stipe, Christopher B.; Higgins, Brian S.; Lucas, Donald; Koshland, Catherine P.; Sawyer, Robert F.

2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

256

Reaction zone visualisation in swirling spray n-heptane flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

process and consumed in the subsequent high temperature oxidation. Formaldehyde LIF was used for autoignition of methane jets [6], methanol, ethanol and acetone spray jet flames [7,8], and diesel fuel [9-11] and n-heptane [11,12] in HCCI engines. Najm... intensifier was 30,000 FL/FC and 80,000 FL/FC for CH2O and OH respectively. The laser powers were 12 mJ/pulse for OH PLIF and 300 mJ/pulse for CH2O PLIF. The intensifiers were triggered off the Q switch of each laser 6 with a gate of 220 ns. The CH2O PLIF...

Yuan, R.; Kariuki, J.; Dowlut, A.; Balachandran, R.; Mastorakos, E.

2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

257

Mechanisms governing fine particulate emissions from coal flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this program was to provide a basic understanding of the principal processes that govern the formation of particulate matter in the 0.5--10 {mu}m size range in pulverized coal flames. The mechanism that produces ash particles in this size range is not clear. Particle sizes smaller than the 0.5--10 {mu}m size range are generally accepted to result from a vaporization/condensation mechanism while particles larger than this size result from the coalescence of ash in coal particles which may breakup as they burn. This program combined experimental and theoretical studies to understand the mechanisms which control the production of ash in the 0.5--10 {mu}m size range. (VC)

Newton, G.H.; Schieber, C.; Socha, R.G.; Kramlich, J.C.

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Mechanisms governing fine particulate emissions from coal flames. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this program was to provide a basic understanding of the principal processes that govern the formation of particulate matter in the 0.5--10 {mu}m size range in pulverized coal flames. The mechanism that produces ash particles in this size range is not clear. Particle sizes smaller than the 0.5--10 {mu}m size range are generally accepted to result from a vaporization/condensation mechanism while particles larger than this size result from the coalescence of ash in coal particles which may breakup as they burn. This program combined experimental and theoretical studies to understand the mechanisms which control the production of ash in the 0.5--10 {mu}m size range. (VC)

Newton, G.H.; Schieber, C.; Socha, R.G.; Kramlich, J.C.

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

NO{sub x} control by flame management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the control of emissions from power generation boilers combustion modification, in the form of low NO{sub x} burner (LNB) design, is recognized as the basic and economic technique for minimising NO{sub x} production. Depending upon the application LNB`s alone may offer sufficient NO{sub x} control or may be used in conjunction with changes in boiler operating techniques to achieve ultra-low NO{sub x} operation. LNB designs are based on well established principles of fuel and air staging which control the mixing of fuel and combustion air in order to establish the flame chemistry and temperature conditions conducive to minimising NO{sub x} formation. These mixing processes need to be considered in conjunction with the fuel characteristics for maximum effectiveness.

Allen, J.W.; Beal, P.R. [International Combustion Ltd., Derby (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

260

A DNS study on the stabilization mechanism of a turbulent lifted ethylene jet flame in highly-heated coflow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the near-field of a three-dimensional spatially-developing turbulent ethylene jet flame in highly-heated coflow is performed with a reduced mechanism to determine the stabilization mechanism. The DNS was performed at a jet Reynolds number of 10,000 with over 1.29 billion grid points. The results show that auto-ignition in a fuel-lean mixture at the flame base is the main source of stabilization of the lifted jet flame. The Damkoehler number and chemical explosive mode (CEM) analysis also verify that auto-ignition occurs at the flame base. In addition to auto-ignition, Lagrangian tracking of the flame base reveals the passage of large-scale flow structures and their correlation with the fluctuations of the flame base similar to a previous study (Yoo et al., J. Fluid Mech. 640 (2009) 453-481) with hydrogen/air jet flames. It is also observed that the present lifted flame base exhibits a cyclic 'saw-tooth' shaped movement marked by rapid movement upstream and slower movement downstream. This is a consequence of the lifted flame being stabilized by a balance between consecutive auto-ignition events in hot fuel-lean mixtures and convection induced by the high-speed jet and coflow velocities. This is confirmed by Lagrangian tracking of key variables including the flame-normal velocity, displacement speed, scalar dissipation rate, and mixture fraction at the stabilization point.

Yoo, Chun S [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flaming gorge dam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

On The Toxicity of Flame Retardants in Buildings and What Can Be Done About  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

On The Toxicity of Flame Retardants in Buildings and What Can Be Done About On The Toxicity of Flame Retardants in Buildings and What Can Be Done About It Speaker(s): Arlene Blum Date: November 3, 2010 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: William Fisk Polystyrene, polyisocyanurate, and polyurethane are insulation materials that increase energy efficiency and whose use in buildings, especially energy efficient buildings, is growing rapidly. At the same time, the flame retardants currently in use with these materials are often chemicals that are known to be toxic or have not been adequately evaluated for their impact on human health and the environment. For example, all polystyrene foam insulation used in buildings is treated with HBCD, a persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic flame retardant. The impacts of exposure to

262

Coal Particle Measurement in a Pulverized Coal Flame with Digital Inline Holography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Digital inline holography with pulse illumination was applied to measure the 3D position and size of the burning coal particles in a laboratory-scale pulverized coal flame under strong...

Wu, Yingchun; Wu, Xuecheng; Zhou, Binwu; Yang, Jing; Chen, Linghong; Peng, Yueyu; Qiu, Kunzan; Grehan, Gerard; Cen, Kefa

263

Investigation of the Syngas Flame Characteristics at Elevated Pressures Using Optical and Laser Diagnostic Methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of pressure on the characteristics of syngas flames is investigated under gas turbine relevant...*...chemiluminescence imaging. An optically accessible combustor fitted with a swirl burner was operated...

Rajesh Sadanandan; Peter Kutne; Adam Steinberg…

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Synthesis of Highly Efficient Flame Retardant High-Density Polyethylene Nanocomposites with Inorgano-Layered Double  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Synthesis of Highly Efficient Flame Retardant High-Density Polyethylene Nanocomposites, Harbin 150080, P. R. China ABSTRACT: High-density polyethylene (HDPE) polymer nanocomposites containing. INTRODUCTION High density polyethylene (HDPE) has good electrical proper- ties, high stiffness, and tensile

Guo, John Zhanhu

265

Method for determining effective flame emissivity in a rotary kiln incinerator burning solid waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Temperature is the most important parameter for the improvement of combustion efficiency and the control of pollutants. In order to obtain accurate flame temperatures in a rotary kiln incinerator using non-int...

Jin-cai Du; Qun-xing Huang; Jian-hua Yan

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Effect of Plasma Pretreatment Followed by Nanoclay Loading on Flame Retardant Properties of Cotton Fabric  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this research work the effect of plasma treatment with nitrogen gas followed by nanoclay treatment on flame retardancy of cotton fabrics ... , nitrogen plasma pretreatment has synergistic effect on nanoclay fo...

Sheila Shahidi; Mahmood Ghoranneviss

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of combustion flames in four-burner impinging entrained-flow gasifier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On a laboratory-scale testing platform of impinging entrained-flow gasifier with four opposed burners, the flame images for diesel combustion and gasification process were measured with a single charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The two-dimensional multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis was employed to investigate the multifractal nature of the flame images. Sound power-law scaling in the annealed average of detrended fluctuations was unveiled when the order $q>0$ and the multifractal feature of flame images were confirmed. Further analyses identified two multifractal parameters, the minimum and maximum singularity $\\alpha_{\\min}$ and $\\alpha_{\\max}$, serving as characteristic parameters of the multifractal flames. These two characteristic multifractal parameters vary with respect to different experimental conditions.

Niu, Miao-Ren; Yan, Zhuo-Yong; Guo, Qing-Hua; Liang, Qin-Feng; Wang, Fu-Chen; Yu, Zun-Hong

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Large eddy simulations of premixed turbulent flame dynamics : combustion modeling, validation and analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High efficiency, low emissions and stable operation over a wide range of conditions are some of the key requirements of modem-day combustors. To achieve these objectives, lean premixed flames are generally preferred as ...

Kewlani, Gaurav

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

The Plasma Flame: Development and Application of a Hybrid Plasma at Atmospheric Pressure.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The focus of this work was to develop a hybrid plasma at atmospheric pressure, which we have deemed the “plasma flame†. This discharge is… (more)

King, Matthew Russell

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Laser induced spark ignition of coaxial methane/oxygen/nitrogen diffusion flames  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report the laser induced spark ignition (LSI) of coaxial methane/oxygen/nitrogen diffusion flames using the 1064 nm output of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The minimum ignition energy...

Li, Xiaohui; Yu, Yang; Yu, Xin; Liu, Chang; Fan, Rongwei; Chen, Deying

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

THE COMBUSTION OF SOLVENT REPINED COAL IN AN OPPOSED FLOW DIFFUSION FLAME  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

R.F. (1977). Combustion of coal in an opposed flow diffusionpulverized, solvent-refined coal. ASME Paper No. 76-WA/FU-6.OF SOLVENT REFINED COAL IN AN OPPOSED FLOW DIFFUSION FLAME*

Chin, W.K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Non-adiabatic flamelet modeling for combustion processes of oxy-natural gas flame  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to realistically predict the combustion characteristics of the oxy-fuel flame, the present study employs the non-adiabatic flamelet approach. In this combustion model, the detailed equilibrium chemist...

Gunhong Kim; Yongmo Kim

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

A Prehistoric Lahar-Dammed Lake And Eruption Of Mount Pinatubo Described In  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Prehistoric Lahar-Dammed Lake And Eruption Of Mount Pinatubo Described In Prehistoric Lahar-Dammed Lake And Eruption Of Mount Pinatubo Described In A Philippine Aborigine Legend Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: A Prehistoric Lahar-Dammed Lake And Eruption Of Mount Pinatubo Described In A Philippine Aborigine Legend Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: The prehistoric eruptions of Mount Pinatubo have followed a cycle: centuries of repose terminated by a caldera-forming eruption with large pyroclastic flows; a post-eruption aftermath of rain-triggered lahars in surrounding drainages and dome-building that fills the caldera; and then another long quiescent period. During and after the eruptions lahars descending along volcano channels may block tributaries from watersheds

274

Glen Canyon Dam Long-Term Experimental and Management Plan EIS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Glen Canyon LTEMP EIS Glen Canyon LTEMP EIS Glen Canyon Dam, a 1,300-MW water-storage and hydroelectric facility is located on the Colorado River upstream of the Grand Canyon. EVS is evaluating the effects of dam operations on the Colorado River. A comprehensive evaluation of Glen Canyon Dam operations and their effects on the Colorado River through the Grand Canyon is being conducted by the Department of the Interior with EVS assistance. The Long-Term Experimental and Management Plan (LTEMP) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) - the first such evaluation in over 15 years - will examine flow regimes to meet the goals of supplying water for communities, agriculture, and industry and will protect the resources of the Grand Canyon, while providing clean hydropower. The LTEMP EIS, which is expected to be completed by the end of 2013, will

275

A biometrical evaluation of relationships between dam weight and progeny preweaning performance in beef cattle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. "' F&. 0 I. 2 7 vari at ion. For hei fers in the two and six to nine age-of- dam categor i es, the F-r at los for heterogene i ty of regres- s ion coeff icients for birth weight were greater than one, but not s i gn i f i cant . These were the two...-?Isis sex-of ? progeny subcl asses. The model f it led for birth weight (BW), 100-day weight (WW), and preweaning aver age da i iy gain IADG) in each subclass included year and season of bi r I'h, d m wc i gist, dam we i qh I squared, and dam weiqht...

Smith, Gerald Max

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

276

Fish Migration, Dams, and Loss of Ecosystem Services in the Mekong Basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The past decade has seen increased international recognition of the importance of the services provided by natural ecosystems. It is unclear however whether such international awareness will lead to improved environmental management in many regions. We explore this issue by examining the specific case of fish migration and dams on the Mekong river. We determine that dams on the Mekong mainstem and major tributaries will have a major impact on the basin's fisheries and the people who depend upon them for food and income. We find no evidence that current moves towards dam construction will stop, and consider two scenarios for the future of the fisheries and other ecosystems of the basin. We conclude that major investment is required in innovative technology to reduce the loss of ecosystem services, and alternative livelihood strategies to cope with the losses that do occur

Dugan, Patrick J. [WorldFish Center; Barlow, Chris [Australian Center for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR); Agostinho, Angelo A. [Fundacao University, Parana Brazil; Baran, Eric [WorldFish Center; Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Chen, Daqing [Yangtze River Fisheries Research Institute, People's Republic of China; Cowx, Ian G. [Hull International Fisheries Research Institute, England; Ferguson, John W. [North West Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA; Jutagate, Tuantong [Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand; Mallen-Cooper, Martin [Fishway Consulting Service, Australia; Marmulla, Gerd [Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy; Nestler, John [USA Corps Engineers, Concord, MA USA; Petrere, Miquel [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro, Brazil; Winemiller, Kirk O. [Texas A& M University

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Direct numerical simulations of type Ia supernovae flames I: The landau-darrieus instability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Planar flames are intrinsically unstable in open domains due to the thermal expansion across the burning front--the Landau-Darrieus instability. This instability leads to wrinkling and growth of the flame surface, and corresponding acceleration of the flame, until it is stabilized by cusp formation. We look at the Landau-Darrieus in stability for C/O thermonuclear flames at conditions relevant to the late stages of a Type Ia supernova explosion. Two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of both single-mode and multi-mode perturbations using a low Mach number hydrodynamics code are presented. We show the effect of the instability on the flame speed as a function of both the density and domain size, demonstrate the existence of the small scale cutoff to the growth of the instability, and look for the proposed breakdown of the non-linear stabilization at low densities. The effects of curvature on the flame as quantified through measurements of the growth rate and computation of the corresponding Markstein number. While accelerations of a few percent are observed, they are too small to have any direct outcome on the supernova explosion.

Bell, J.B.; Day, M.S.; Rendleman, C.A.; Woosley, S.E.; Zingale, M.

2003-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

278

Optical determination of incipient soot particle concentrations in ethene laminar diffusion flames.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent studies in premixed flames have shown the existence of ''transparent particles.'' These particles, 2 nm in size and in high number densities are considered to be a phase transitional between the gas phase PAH species and particulate soot. In the present study, various optical diagnostics were evaluated for measuring the concentration of these particles in situ, Through such evaluations, a technique using extinction at two wavelengths was found to be ideal. While employing such a technique, the volume fractions of these particles in an ethene laminar diffusion flame were measured. Low in the flame, these particles were found to be concentrated in the fuel rich core, while at higher locations, they could be found with appreciable volume fractions even in the soot laden regions. Having given due consideration for the errors due to uncertainties in the optical constants, we report the existence of these particles in an ethene flame with volume fractions comparable to those of soot. Also, similar measurements performed in a low sooting ethene/methanol flame show the concentration of these particles to be of the same order of magnitude as in a pure ethene flame.

Gupta, S. B.; Santoro, R. J.

1999-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

279

Autoignited laminar lifted flames of propane in coflow jets with tribrachial edge and mild combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Characteristics of laminar lifted flames have been investigated experimentally by varying the initial temperature of coflow air over 800 K in the non-premixed jets of propane diluted with nitrogen. The result showed that the lifted flame with the initial temperature below 860 K maintained the typical tribrachial structure at the leading edge, which was stabilized by the balance mechanism between the propagation speed of tribrachial flame and the local flow velocity. For the temperature above 860 K, the flame was autoignited without having any external ignition source. The autoignited lifted flames were categorized in two regimes. In the case with tribrachial edge structure, the liftoff height increased nonlinearly with jet velocity. Especially, for the critical condition near blowout, the lifted flame showed a repetitive behavior of extinction and reignition. In such a case, the autoignition was controlled by the non-adiabatic ignition delay time considering heat loss such that the autoignition height was correlated with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. In the case with mild combustion regime at excessively diluted conditions, the liftoff height increased linearly with jet velocity and was correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. (author)

Choi, B.C.; Kim, K.N.; Chung, S.H. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

280

Evaluation of a Behavioral Guidance Structure at Bonneville Dam Second Powerhouse including Passage Survival of Juvenile Salmon and Steelhead using Acoustic Telemetry, 2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Summarizes research conducted at Bonneville Dam in 2008 to evaluate a prototype Behavioral Guidance Structure, that was deployed by the US Army Corps of Engineers in an effort to increase survival of outmigrating smolts at Bonneville Dam.

Faber, Derrek M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Hughes, James S.; McComas, Roy L.; Kim, Jina; Townsend, R. L.; Fu, Tao; Skalski, J. R.; Fischer, Eric S.

2010-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flaming gorge dam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Pages 41-52 Short-term effects of small dam removal on a freshwater mussel assemblage.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with appropriate planning, timing, and removal techniques, but additional monitoring is warrantePages 41-52 Short-term effects of small dam removal on a freshwater mussel assemblage. Ryan J 1053-637X EDITORIAL REVIEW BOARD #12;SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF SMALL DAM REMOVAL ON A FRESHWATER MUSSEL

Kwak, Thomas J.

282

Apparatus for efficient sidewall containment of molten metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields utilizing a ferromagnetic dam  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus is disclosed for casting sheets of metal from molten metal. The apparatus includes a containment structure having an open side, a horizontal alternating magnetic field generating structure and a ferromagnetic dam. The magnetic field and the ferromagnetic dam contain the molten metal from leaking out side portions of the open side of the containment structure. 25 figs.

Praeg, W.F.

1997-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

283

White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2002-2003 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on our progress from April 2002 through March 2003 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife)

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Compliance Monitoring of Yearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Spring 2011  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study was designed to estimate dam passage survival at Bonneville Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp) and to provide additional fish passage performance measures at that site as stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Carlson, Thomas J.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Compliance Monitoring of Yearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Spring 2011  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study was designed to estimate dam passage survival at Bonneville Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp) and to provide additional fish passage performance measures at that site as stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Carlson, Thomas J.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

286

White Sturgeon Mitigation & Restoration in the Columbia & Snake River Upstream from Bonneville Dam  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) Summary: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam Project. The project proposes to continue to carry out harvest monitoring and stock status updates coordinated with fisheries management planning, annual young-of-the year recruitment indexing, research, experimental artificial propagation, and transport of white sturgeon to less densely populated areas of the river(s). Additionally, release of hatchery-reared juveniles is proposed to evaluate release

287

Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation; Kokanee Stocking and Monitoring in Flathead Lake, 1995 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork-of the Flathead River reduced the reproductive success of kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) spawning in the Flathead River. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) authored a mitigation plan to offset those losses. The mitigation goal, stated in the Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributed to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam, is to: {open_quotes}Replace lost annual production of 100,000 kokanee adults, initially through hatchery production and pen rearing in Flathead Lake, partially replacing lost forage for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Flathead Lake.{close_quotes}

Fredenberg, Wade; Carty, Daniel (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Kalispell, MT); Cavigli, Jon (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Kalispell, MT)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Survival of Juvenile Chinook Salmon Passing the Bonneville Dam Spillway in 2007  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District (CENWP) funds numerous evaluations of fish passage and survival on the Columbia River. In 2007, the CENWP asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to conduct an acoustic telemetry study to estimate the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon passing the spillway at Bonneville Dam. This report documents the study results which are intended to be used to improve the conditions juvenile anadromous fish experience when passing through the dams that the Corps operates on the river.

Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Durham, Robin E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Kim, Jina; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; McComas, Roy L.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Eco-Design of River Fishways for Upstream Passage: Application for Hanfeng Dam, Pengxi River, China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper provides a scientific approach to eco-design of river fishways to allow upstream movement of fish past new and existing dams in China. This eco-design approach integrates principles of fish ecology/behavior and engineering, a scientific field also known as bio-engineering or eco-hydraulics. We define a fishway as a structure or mechanism to convey fish upstream past a dam. Man-made or natural stream beds can be part of the fishway mechanism. Fish include bony and non-bony fishes, and upstream passage is the concern here, not downstream passage. The problem is dams block access to upstream habitat used for spawning, rearing, and refuge, i.e., dams decrease habitat connectivity. A solution to alleviate this problem is to design fishways, preferably while the dam is being designed, but if necessary, as retrofits afterward to provide a route that fish can and will use to pass safely upstream without undue delay. Our eco-design approach for fishways involves eight steps: 1) identify the primary species of importance; 2) understand basic ecology and behavior of these fish; 3) characterize the environmental conditions where passage is or will be blocked; 4 identify fishway alternatives and select a preferred alternative; 5) establish eco-design criteria for the fishway, either from management agencies or, if necessary, developed specifically for the given site; 6) where needed, identify and perform research required to resolve critical uncertainties and finalize the eco-design criteria; 7) apply the eco-design criteria and site-specific considerations to design the fishway, involving peer-review by local stakeholders in the process; 8) build the fishway, monitor its effectiveness, and apply the lessons learned. Example fishways are described showing a range of eco-designs depending on the dam site and fish species of concern. We apply the eco-design principles to recommend an approach and next steps for a fishway to pass fish upstream at Hanfeng Dam, an existing regulating dam forming Hanfeng Lake on the Pengxi River near Kaixian, China.

Johnson, Gary E.; Rainey, William S.

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

290

Gravity currents with tailwaters in Boussinesq and non-Boussinesq systems: two-layer shallow-water dam-break solutions and Navier–Stokes simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We consider the dam-break initial stage of propagation of a gravity current of density $$\\rho _{c}$$ ...

M. Ungarish; Z. Borden; E. Meiburg

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

A new way to study teaching in animals: despite demonstrable benefits, rat dams do not teach their young what to eat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by mothers would be effective, if it occurred. We examined food choices of rat dams trained to eat one of twoA new way to study teaching in animals: despite demonstrable benefits, rat dams do not teach taught are large. Here, we determined, first, whether Rattus novegicus dams would modify their food

Galef Jr., Bennett G.

292

Synthesis and thermal studies of flexible polyurethane nanocomposite foams obtained using nanoclay modified with flame retardant compound  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work presents thermal studies of nanocomposites based on the flexible polyurethane (PU) matrix and filled using montmorillonite organically modified with organophosphorus flame retardant compound. Flexibl...

?ukasz Piszczyk; Magdalena Danowska…

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

An Assessment of Energy Potential at Non-Powered Dams in the United States  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

An Assessment of Energy Potential at Non-Powered Dams in the United States- The United States has produced clean, renewable electricity from hydropower for more than 100 years, but hydropower producing facilities represent only a fraction of the infrastructure development that has taken place on the nation’s waterways.

294

Passive revolution in the green economy: activism and the Belo Monte dam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Belo Monte is slated to be the world’s third largest dam, and it is Brazil’s largest infrastructure project, at a cost of at least USD 13 billion. It is forecast to produce around 11,000 GW of energy

Eve Bratman

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Durability Assessment of an Arch Dam using Inverse Analysis with Neural Networks and High Performance Computing.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the viscoelastic parameters; 3D FEM analysis using High Performance Computing (parallel and vector features) to run Performance Computing. E. M. R. Fairbairn, E. Goulart, A. L. G. A. Coutinho, N. F. F. Ebecken COPPEDurability Assessment of an Arch Dam using Inverse Analysis with Neural Networks and High

Coutinho, Alvaro L. G. A.

296

Assessment of Natural Stream Sites for Hydroelectric Dams in the Pacific Northwest Region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This pilot study presents a methodology for modeling project characteristics using a development model of a stream obstructing dam. The model is applied to all individual stream reaches in hydrologic region 17, which encompasses nearly all of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Project site characteristics produced by the modeling technique include: capacity potential, principal dam dimensions, number of required auxiliary dams, total extent of the constructed impoundment boundary, and the surface area of the resulting reservoir. Aggregated capacity potential values for the region are presented in capacity categories including total, that at existing dams, within federal and environmentally sensitive exclusion zones, and the balance which is consider available for greenfield development within the limits of the study. Distributions of site characteristics for small hydropower sites are presented and discussed. These sites are screened to identify candidate small hydropower sites and distributions of the site characteristics of this site population are presented and discussed. Recommendations are made for upgrading the methodology and extensions to make the results more accessible and available on a larger scale.

Douglas G. Hall; Kristin L. Verdin; Randy D. Lee

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Updating of Safety Criteria for Basic Diagnostic Indicators of Dam at the Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Values of diagnostic indicators [K]-limitations placed on radial displacements and turn angles of horizontal sections of the dam - which are permitted for each upper-pool level within the range from 520 to 539 m are determined and proposed for inclusion in the Declaration of Safety. Empirical relationships used to develop safety criteria K1 and K2 are modified.

Gordon, L. A.; Skvortsova, A. E. [JSC 'VNIIG im. B. E. Vedeneeva' (Russian Federation)] [JSC 'VNIIG im. B. E. Vedeneeva' (Russian Federation)

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

298

Analysis of Seismic Activity near Theodore Roosevelt Dam, Arizona, during the Occupation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

E Analysis of Seismic Activity near Theodore Roosevelt Dam, Arizona, during the Occupation, and Lepolt Linkimer Online Material: Plot of viable focal mechanisms and table of regional seismic velocity model. INTRODUCTION Rate and distribution of seismic activity are important indica- tors of the overall

Fouch, Matthew J.

299

ANCOLD 2000 Conference on Dams 1 ADVANCES IN THE PRACTICE AND USE OF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

business environment. In addition to engineering inputs, the new decision paradigm involves manifold, Ph.D., P.E., P.H., F.ASCE. Professor, Utah State University and Principal, RAC Engineers & Economists, Utah, USA. 2 A portfolio is a group of dams, which are the responsibility of a single owner

Bowles, David S.

300

EA-1994: Malheur Resource Area Jonesboro Diversion Dam Replacement Project, Malheur County, Oregon  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Bureau of Land Management, with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as a cooperating agency, prepared an EA that assesses the potential environmental impacts of the proposed authorization of a right of way to the Burns Paiute Tribe for replacement of an existing diversion dam and installation of a fish passage structure. BPA’s proposed action was to fund the project

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flaming gorge dam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Sluiceway Operations to Pass Juvenile Salmonids at The Dalles Dam, Columbia River, USA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Existing ice and trash sluiceways are commonly used to pass juvenile salmonids downstream at hydropower dams through a benign, non-turbine route. At The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River, managers undertook optimizing operations of sluiceway weirs to maximize survival of juvenile salmonids at the powerhouse. We applied fixed-location hydroacoustic methods to compare fish passage rates and sluiceway efficiencies for two weir configurations during 2004 and 2005: three weirs versus six weirs, located at the mid- versus east powerhouse, respectively. We also analyzed horizontal distributions of passage at the sluiceway and turbines and the effects of operating turbines beneath open sluiceway gates to provide supporting data relevant to operations optimization. Based on the findings, we recommend the following for long-term operations for the sluiceway at The Dalles Dam: open six rather than three sluiceway weirs to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway; open the three weirs above the western-most operating main turbine unit (MU) and the three weirs at MU 8 where turbine passage rates are relatively high; operate the turbine units below open sluiceway weirs as a standard procedure; operate the sluiceway 24 h/d year-round to maximize its benefits to juvenile salmonids; and use the same operations for spring and summer emigrants. These operational concepts are transferable to dams where sluiceway surface flow outlets are used protect downstream migrating fishes.

Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Skalski, J. R.; Klatte, Bernard A.

2013-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

302

Ice storm impacts on woody debris and debris dam formation in northeastern U.S. streams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ice storm impacts on woody debris and debris dam formation in northeastern U.S. streams Clifford E and associated streams. During 1999 and 2000, tree canopy damage, stream physical habitat, and wood deposition were evaluated within 51 first-, second-, and third-order streams located within five eastern

Kraft, Clifford E.

303

Development of a New Flame Speed Vessel to Measure the Effect of Steam Dilution on Laminar Flame Speeds of Syngas Fuel Blends at Elevated Pressures and Temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, including the H2O. .............................................................................................................................................. 35 Table 6 Standard L9 DOE test matrix for four factors (A-D) at three levels (1-3) (Ross... sensitivity analysis based on the maximum difference between the averaged laminar flame speeds at each DOE level (1, 2, or 3) for four oxygen equivalence ratios. ...................................................................................... 41 Table...

Krejci, Michael

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

304

Flame structure of wall-impinging diesel fuel sprays injected by group-hole nozzles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes an investigation of the flame structure of wall-impinging diesel sprays injected by group-hole nozzles in a constant-volume combustion vessel at experimental conditions typical of a diesel engine. The particular emphasis was on the effect of the included angle between two orifices (0-15 deg. in current study) on the flame structure and combustion characteristics under various simulated engine load conditions. The laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique was applied to analyze the spray and mixture properties. Direct flame imaging and OH chemiluminescence imaging were utilized to quantify the ignition delay, flame geometrical parameters, and OH chemiluminescence intensity. The images show that the asymmetric flame structure emerges in wall-impinging group-hole nozzle sprays as larger included angle and higher engine load conditions are applied, which is consistent with the spray shape observed by LAS. Compared to the base nozzle, group-hole nozzles with large included angles yield higher overall OH chemiluminescence intensity, wider flame area, and greater proportion of high OH intensity, implying the better fuel/air mixing and improved combustion characteristics. The advantages of group-hole nozzle are more pronounced under high load conditions. Based on the results, the feasibility of group-hole nozzle for practical direct injection diesel engines is also discussed. It is concluded that the asymmetric flame structure of a group-hole nozzle spray is favorable to reduce soot formation over wide engine loads. However, the hole configuration of the group-hole nozzle should be carefully considered so as to achieve proper air utilization in the combustion chamber. Stoichiometric diesel combustion is another promising application of group-hole nozzle. (author)

Gao, Jian; Moon, Seoksu; Nishida, Keiya; Matsumoto, Yuhei [Department of Mechanical System Engineering, University of Hiroshima, Higashi-Hiroshima, 739-8527 (Japan); Zhang, Yuyin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo Denki University, Tokyo, 101-8457 (Japan)

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

305

Mobility of Negative Ions in Flames by the Hall Effect Method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Variation with potential gradient of mobility of negative flame ions.—Using a flat salted flame, previously described by Wilson, between the poles of an electromagnet giving a field of 5000 gauss, the horizontal potential gradient X due to the current sent between two Pt electrodes and also the vertical potential gradient Y due to the Hall effect, were measured by means of two Pt sounding wires which could be rotated about a horizontal axis and which were connected to a quadrant electrometer. For a flame containing potassium carbonate the mobility k2=YHX was found to decrease from 26 m/sec for 1 volt/cm when the potential gradient was 1 volt/cm, to 16 m/sec for a gradient of 30 volts/cm. For a flame free from salt the mobility was some-what greater, decreasing from 26.5 m/sec for 5 volts/cm to 16 m/sec for 50 volts/cm. However, wide variation of concentration produced so little effect on the mobility that it could not be detected with certainty. The magneto-resistance effect which Heaps1 has shown enters into the mobility equation, was so small as to be negligible.Asymmetry of the Hall effect in flames.—The Hall effect was found to vary slightly with the direction of the magnetic field, the asymmetry being greater the greater the amount of salt in the flame. This asymmetry was probably due to the effect of the magnetic field on the upward velocity of the flame gases, which was evident in these experiments.

J. S. Watt

1925-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Thorium isotopes in colloidal fraction of water from San Marcos Dam, Chihuahua, Mexico  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main interest of this stiidy is to assess the contents and distribution of Th-series isotopes in colloidal fraction of surface water from San Marcos dam because the suspended particulate matter serves as transport medium for several pollutants. The aim of this work was to assess the distribution of thorium isotopes ( 232 Th and 230 Th ) contained in suspended matter. Samples were taken from three surface points along the San Marcos dam: water input midpoint and near to dam wall. In this last point a depth sampling was also carried out. Here three depth points were taken at 0.4 8 and 15 meters. To evaluate the thorium behavior in surface water from every water sample the colloidal fraction was separated between 1 and 0.1 ?m. Thorium isotopes concentraron in samples were obtained by alpha spectrometry. Activity concentrations obtained of 232 Th and 230 Th in surface points ranged from 0.3 to 0.5 Bq ? L-1 whereas in depth points ranged from 0.4 to 3.2 Bq ? L-1 respectively. The results show that 230 Th is in higher concentration than 232 Th in colloidal fraction. This can be attributed to a preference of these colloids to adsorb uranium. Thus the activity ratio 230 Th / 232 Th in colloidal fraction showed values from 2.3 to 10.2. In surface points along the dam 230 Th activity concentration decreases while 232 Th concentration remains constant. On the other hand activity concentrations of both isotopes showed a pointed out enhancement with depth. The results have shown a possible lixiviation of uranium from geological substrate into the surface water and an important fractionation of thorium isotopes which suggest that thorium is non-homogeneously distributed along San Marcos dam.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Giant otter population responses to habitat expansion and degradation induced by a mega hydroelectric dam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Large hydroelectric dams are major drivers of habitat loss and degradation in lowland Amazonia. Hydroelectric reservoirs reduce the habitat available for terrestrial species, but create new open-water and shoreline lake habitat that can potentially boost populations of aquatic and semi-aquatic species, such as the threatened giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis). To assess the impacts of mega-dams on this apex-predator, we surveyed the giant otter population across the 443,772-hectare Balbina Hydroelectric Reservoir of central Brazilian Amazonia between 14 and 25 years after this reservoir creation. We compared changes in habitat area and estimated giant otter population size between the reservoir pre- and post-filling stages. The Balbina dam created ?3525 islands and increased the open-water surface and total reservoir perimeter available to otters by a factor of 62.7 and 8.9, respectively. Some 25 years after damming, however, the estimated post-filling giant otter population size was only twice greater than that estimated before filling and 4.5 times smaller than would be predicted given the total available habitat area and density of dens quantified at a neighbouring undisturbed area used as a surrogate of the pre-filling phase. The observed mismatch between the proportional increase in otter population size and the much greater newly available reservoir habitat area is likely due to low habitat quality in terms of low fish prey productivity and scarcity of suitable sites for denning and territory demarcation. This should be considered in strategic environmental impact assessments of planned hydroelectric dams and in managing existing and future hydropower development in lowland tropical forests.

Ana Filipa Palmeirim; Carlos A. Peres; Fernando C.W. Rosas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Study of the performance of three micromixing models in transported scalar PDF simulations of a piloted jet diffusion flame ('Delft Flame III')  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Numerical simulation results are presented for a turbulent nonpremixed flame with local extinction and reignition. The transported scalar PDF approach is applied to the turbulence-chemistry interaction. The turbulent flow field is obtained with a nonlinear two-equation turbulence model. A C{sub 1} skeletal scheme is used as the chemistry model. The performance of three micromixing models is compared: the interaction by exchange with the mean model (IEM), the modified Curl's coalescence/dispersion model (CD) and the Euclidean minimum spanning tree model (EMST). With the IEM model, global extinction occurs. With the standard value of model constant C{sub f}=2, the CD model yields a lifted flame, unlike the experiments, while with the EMST model the correct flame shape is obtained. However, the conditional variances of the thermochemical quantities are underestimated with the EMST model, due to a lack of local extinction in the simulations. With the CD model, the flame becomes attached when either the value of C{sub f} is increased to 3 or the pilot flame thermal power is increased by a factor of 1.5. With increased value of C{sub f} better results for mixture fraction variance are obtained with both the CD and the EMST model. Lowering the value of C{sub f} leads to better predictions for mean temperature with EMST, but at the cost of stronger overprediction of mixture fraction variance. These trends are explained as a consequence of variance production by macroscopic inhomogeneity and the specific properties of the micromixing models. Local time stepping is applied so that convergence is obtained more quickly. Iteration averaging reduces statistical error so that the limited number of 50 particles per cell is sufficient to obtain accurate results. (author)

Merci, Bart [Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics, Ghent University-UGent, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Roekaerts, Dirk [Department of Multi-Scale Physics, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Naud, Bertrand [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

A lattice Boltzmann algorithm for calculation of the laminar jet diffusion flame  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new two-distribution lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) algorithm is presented to solve the laminar diffusion flames within the context of Burke-Schumann flame sheet model. One distribution models the transport of the Schvab-Zeldovich coupling function, or the mixture fraction to combine the energy and species equations. The other distribution models the quasi-incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the low Mach number approximation. In the quasi-incompressible flows, the thermodynamics quantities depend on the coupling function but not on the hydrodynamic pressure, and the fluid components are assumed to be compressible only in the mixing/reaction region. A systematic and consistent approach to deriving LBEs for the general advection-diffusion equation and the quasi-incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are also presented. The streaming step of the LBEs are discretized by the total variation diminishing (TVD) Lax-Wendroff scheme. Numerical simulations are carried out to reproduce the low frequency flame oscillation (or flame flicker) of buoyant jet diffusion flame. Comparison between the quasi-incompressible model and the incompressible model is presented and the role of non-solenoidal velocity is examined.

Lee, T. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, IIHR - Hydroscience and Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1527 (United States)]. E-mail: thlee@ccny.cuny.edu; Lin, C.-L. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, IIHR - Hydroscience and Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1527 (United States)]. E-mail: ching-long-lin@uiowa.edu; Chen, L.-D. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, National Advanced Driving Simulator, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1527 (United States)]. E-mail: lea-der-chen@uiowa.edu

2006-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

310

Use of laser-induced ionization to detect soot inception in premixed flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental measurements of laser-induced ionization were performed for ethene-air premixed flames operated near the soot inception point. Soot was ionized with a pulsed laser operated at 532 nm. The ionization signal was collected with a tungsten electrode located in the postflame region. Ionization signals were collected by use of both single-electrode and dual-electrode configurations. Earlier laser-induced- ionization studies focused on the use of a single biased electrode to generate the electric field, with the burner head serving as the path to ground. In many practical combustion systems, a path to ground is not readily available. To apply the laser-induced- ionization diagnostic to these geometries, a dual-electrode geometry must be employed. The influence of electrode configuration, flame equivalence ratio, and flame height on ionization signal detection was determined. The efficacy of the laser-induced-ionization diagnostic in detecting soot inception in the postflame region of a premixed flame by use of a dual-electrode configuration was investigated. Of the dual-electrode configurations tested, the dual-electrode geometry oriented parallel to the laser beam was observed to be most sensitive for detecting the soot inception point in a premixed flame.

Manzello, Samuel L.; Lee, Eui Ju; Mulholland, George W

2005-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

311

The Impacts of Wind Power Integration on Sub-Daily Variation in River Flows Downstream of Hydroelectric Dams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Impacts of Wind Power Integration on Sub-Daily Variation in River Flows Downstream of Hydroelectric Dams ... Due to their operational flexibility, hydroelectric dams are ideal candidates to compensate for the intermittency and unpredictability of wind energy production. ... In this paper, we examine the effects of increased (i.e., 5%, 15%, and 25%) wind market penetration on prices for electricity and reserves, and assess the potential for altered price dynamics to disrupt reservoir release schedules at a hydroelectric dam and cause more variable and unpredictable hourly flow patterns (measured in terms of the Richards-Baker Flashiness (RBF) index). ...

Jordan D. Kern; Dalia Patino-Echeverri; Gregory W. Characklis

2014-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

312

M AT E R I A L S S C I E N C E Making Flame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The best materials showed heat resistance up to 400°C. All the materials tested had little residual charM AT E R I A L S S C I E N C E Making Flame Retardant Polymeric flame-retardant materials after heat- ing to 1200°C, indicating al- most complete decomposi- tion, and produced no toxic materials

Blower, Sally

313

Feature Article Negative pressure dependence of mass burning rates of H2/CO/O2/diluent flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with predominantly CO, CO2, and H2O) as a fuel itself as synthetic gas or ``syngas" from coal or biomass gasification of burning rates, analysis of the key reactions and kinetic pathways, and modeling studies were performed and temperature dependence compared to Ar-diluted flames of the same flame temperature. Simulations were performed

Ju, Yiguang

314

Experimental Endeavour on a Pillar of Flame: Space Shuttle Rises with  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Experimental Endeavour on a Pillar of Flame: Space Shuttle Rises Experimental Endeavour on a Pillar of Flame: Space Shuttle Rises with Ambitious Technology Aboard Experimental Endeavour on a Pillar of Flame: Space Shuttle Rises with Ambitious Technology Aboard May 17, 2011 - 5:15pm Addthis Smoke cloud from Endeavour's Final Launge | Photo: NASA, Troy Cryder Smoke cloud from Endeavour's Final Launge | Photo: NASA, Troy Cryder Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science What are the key facts? Space Shuttle Endeavour, which lifted off on its final mission Monday, carrying the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) experiment. In addition to measuring how cosmic rays flow and what they are made of, the AMS will also search for cosmic rays made of a special form of matter known as antimatter. By looking for new particles in space via the AMS, scientists might

315

Experimental Endeavour on a Pillar of Flame: Space Shuttle Rises with  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Experimental Endeavour on a Pillar of Flame: Space Shuttle Rises Experimental Endeavour on a Pillar of Flame: Space Shuttle Rises with Ambitious Technology Aboard Experimental Endeavour on a Pillar of Flame: Space Shuttle Rises with Ambitious Technology Aboard May 17, 2011 - 5:15pm Addthis Smoke cloud from Endeavour's Final Launge | Photo: NASA, Troy Cryder Smoke cloud from Endeavour's Final Launge | Photo: NASA, Troy Cryder Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science What are the key facts? Space Shuttle Endeavour, which lifted off on its final mission Monday, carrying the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) experiment. In addition to measuring how cosmic rays flow and what they are made of, the AMS will also search for cosmic rays made of a special form of matter known as antimatter. By looking for new particles in space via the AMS, scientists might

316

Measurement of temperature distributions in large pool fires with the use of directional flame thermometers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Temperatures inside the flame zone of large regulatory pool fires measured during tests of radioactive materials packages vary widely with both time and position. Measurements made with several Directional Flame Thermometers, in which a thermocouple is attached to a thin metal sheet that quickly approaches flame temperatures, have been used to construct fire temperature distributions and cumulative probability distributions. As an aid to computer simulations of these large fires, these distributions are presented. The distributions are constructed by sorting fire temperature data into bins 10 C wide. A typical fire temperature distribution curve has a gradual increase starting at about 600 C, with the number of observations increasing to a peak near 1000 C, followed by an abrupt decrease in frequency, with no temperatures observed above 1200 C.

KOSKI,JORMAN A.

2000-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

317

Detailed modeling and laser-induced fluorescence imaging of nitric oxide in a NH3-seeded non-premixed methane/air flame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

non-premixed methane/air flame John B. Bell, Marcus S. Day, Joseph F. Grcar Computing Sciences-induced fluorescence imaging of nitric oxide in a NH3-seeded non-premixed methane/air flame Abstract In this paper we study the formation of NO in laminar, nitrogen diluted methane diffusion flames that are seeded

Bell, John B.

318

Laser-saturated fluorescence of nitric oxide and chemiluminescence measurements in premixed ethanol flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, nitric oxide laser-saturated fluorescence (LSF) measurements were acquired from premixed ethanol flames at atmospheric pressure in a burner. NO-LSF experimental profiles for fuel-rich premixed ethanol flames ({phi} = 1.34 and {phi} = 1.66) were determined through the excitation/detection scheme of the Q{sub 2}(26.5) rotational line in the A{sup 2}{sigma}{sup +} - X{sup 2}{pi} (0,0) vibronic band and {gamma}(0,1) emission band. A calibration procedure by NO doping into the flame was applied to establish the NO concentration profiles in these flames. Chemiluminescent emission measurements in the (0, 0) vibronic emission bands of the OH{sup *} (A{sup 2}{sigma}{sup +} - X{sup 2}{pi}) and CH{sup *}(A{sup 2}{delta} - X{sup 2}{pi}) radicals were also obtained with high spatial and spectral resolution for fuel-rich premixed ethanol flames to correlate them with NO concentrations. Experimental chemiluminescence profiles and the ratios of the integrated areas under emission spectra (A{sub CH*}/A{sub CH*}(max.) and A{sub CH*}/A{sub OH*}) were determined. The relationships between chemiluminescence and NO concentrations were established along the premixed ethanol flames. There was a strong connection between CH{sup *} radical chemiluminescence and NO formation and the prompt-NO was identified as the governing mechanism for NO production. The results suggest the optimum ratio of the chemiluminescence of two radicals (A{sub CH*}/A{sub OH*}) for NO diagnostic purposes. (author)

Marques, Carla S.T.; Barreta, Luiz G.; Sbampato, Maria E.; dos Santos, Alberto M. [Aerothermodynamic and Hypersonic Division, Institute of Advanced Studies - General Command of Aerospatial Technology, Rodovia dos Tamoios, km 5.5, 12228-001 Sao Jose dos Campos - SP (Brazil)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

319

Mitigation of thermoacoustic instability utilizing steady air injection near the flame anchoring zone  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to investigate the effectiveness of steady air injection near the flame anchoring zone in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities driven by flame-vortex interaction mechanism. We perform a systematic experimental study which involves using two different configurations of air injection in an atmospheric pressure backward-facing step combustor. The first configuration utilizes a row of micro-diameter holes allowing for air injection in the cross-stream direction just upstream of the step. The second configuration utilizes an array of micro-diameter holes located on the face of the step, allowing for air injection in the streamwise direction. The effects of each of these configurations are analyzed to determine which one is more effective in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities at different operating conditions. The tests are conducted while varying the equivalence ratio and the inlet temperature. The secondary air temperature is always the same as the inlet temperature. We used pure propane or propane/hydrogen mixtures as fuels. Combustion dynamics are explored through simultaneous pressure and heat release-rate measurements, and high-speed video images. When the equivalence ratio of the reactant mixture is high, it causes the flame to flashback towards the inlet channel. When air is injected in the cross-stream direction, the flame anchors slightly upstream of the step, which suppresses the instability. When air is injected in the streamwise direction near the edge of step, thermoacoustic instability could be eliminated at an optimum secondary air flow rate, which depends on the operating conditions. When effective, the streamwise air injection prevents the shedding of an unsteady vortex, thus eliminating the flame-vortex interaction mechanism and resulting in a compact, stable flame to form near the step. (author)

Murat Altay, H.; Hudgins, Duane E.; Speth, Raymond L.; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

320

A laser and molecular beam mass spectrometer study of low-pressure dimethyl ether flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation of dimethyl ether (DME) is studied in low-pressure flames using new molecular beam mass spectrometer and laser diagnostics. Two 30.0-Torr, premixed DME/oxygen/argon flames are investigated with stoichiometries of 0.98 and 1.20. The height above burner profiles of nine stable species and two radicals are measured. These results are compared to the detailed chemical reaction mechanism of Curran and coworkers. Generally good agreement is found between the model and data. The largest discrepancies are found for the methyl radical profiles where the model predicts qualitatively different trends in the methyl concentration with stoichiometry than observed in the experiment.

Andrew McIlroy; Toby D. Hain; Hope A. Michelsen; Terrill A. Cool

2000-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

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321

Reduction of Emissions from a Syngas Flame Using Micromixing and Dilution with CO2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen-rich syngas can be burned stably in the designed combustor, and each suite of nozzles forms a flame surface. ... The smaller dilution ratio and the higher fuel heating value means the fuel can be burned quickly after it leaves the nozzles, resulting in strong heat release in the frontal section of the burner. ... There are, however, gaps in the fundamental understanding of syngas combustion and emissions, as most previous research has focused on flames burning individual fuel components such as H2 and CH4, rather than syngas mixts. ...

Yongsheng Zhang; Tianming Yang; Xueqi Liu; Long Tian; Zhongguang Fu; Kai Zhang

2012-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

322

Method for producing flame retardant porous products and products produced thereby  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for fire retarding porous products used for thermal energy storage and products produced thereby is provided. The method includes treating the surface of the phase change material-containing porous products with a urea fire-retarding agent. Upon exposure to a flame, the urea forms an adduct with the phase change material which will not sustain combustion (is self-extinguishing) in air. No halogens or metal oxides are contained in the fire retardant, so no potentially noxious halide smoke or fumes are emitted if the product is continuously exposed to a flame. 1 fig.

Salyer, I.O.

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

323

Method for producing flame retardant porous products and products produced thereby  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for fire retarding porous products used for thermal energy storage and products produced thereby is provided. The method includes treating the surface of the phase change material-containing porous products with a urea fire-retarding agent. Upon exposure to a flame, the urea forms an adduct with the phase change material which will not sustain combustion (is self-extinguishing) in air. No halogens or metal oxides are contained in the fire retardant, so no potentially noxious halide smoke or fumes are emitted if the product is continuously exposed to a flame.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

324

Method for Producing Flame Retardant Porous Products and Products Produced Thereby  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for fire retarding porous products used for thermal energy storage and products produced thereby is provided. The method includes treating the surface of the phase change material-containing porous products with a urea fire-retarding agent. Upon exposure to a flame, the urea forms an adduct with the phase change material which will not sustain combustion (is self-extinguishing) in air. No halogens or metal oxides are contained in the fire retardant, so no potentially noxious halide smoke or fumes are emitted if the product is continuously exposed to a flame.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

325

Comparison of the combustion behavior of Orimulsion{trademark} and heavy fuel oil in 70 MW flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of an experimental study are shown in this publication to compare the combustion behavior of heavy fuel oil (HFO) and Orimulsion in 70 MW flames. The investigation was carried out with the use of the combustion test rig at the International Combustion Limited in Derby, UK. The main objective of this test work was to quantify the extent of differences in flame properties, particulate and gaseous emissions of Orimulsion and HFO. Under identical combustion conditions, axial profiles of flame temperature and radiation heat flux were determined at 70 MW thermal input and 1% O{sub 2} for both fuels. Gas compositions at flame tail and furnace exit were obtained to estimate flame length and emission of gaseous pollutants. Stack concentration, carbon content, size and chemical composition of fly ash were also measured. The effect of excess air level on exit NOx and CO concentration were studied. Results of detailed flame measurements and the parametric study have shown that orimulsion fuel can be burnt with 99.97% efficiency at 1% exit O{sub 2} with a modified burner system of Dunamenti Power Station. However, significant implications of Orimulsion firing were observed. Gas temperature data and CO concentrations at flame tail have indicated a 1.5--2 m longer flame for Orimulsion. At flame tail, gas temperature in the Orimulsion flame was higher by 100 C than that for HFO. Lower radiant heat flux was measured in the near burner region for Orimulsion. Higher SO{sub 3}, SO{sub 2} and lower NOx emission were found when firing Orimulsion. Despite the higher ash content of Orimulsion, its combustion resulted in smaller particulate emission, which might be due to fly ash deposition in the furnace.

Barta, L.E. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Horvath, G. [Hungarian Power Companies, Ltd., Budapest (Hungary); Allen, J.W.; Darar, J.S.; Wright, J.A. [International Combustion Ltd., Derby (United Kingdom). Rolls Royce Industrial Power Group; Szederkenyi, S.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

326

MHK Projects/Lock and Dam No 2 Hydroelectric Project | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Lock and Dam No 2 Hydroelectric Project Lock and Dam No 2 Hydroelectric Project < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":5,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"500px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"File:Aquamarine-marker.png","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":44.7486,"lon":-92.8048,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"http:\/\/prod-http-80-800498448.us-east-1.elb.amazonaws.com\/w\/images\/7\/74\/Aquamarine-marker.png","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

327

MISCELLANEOUS PAPER S71-17 EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE OF EARTH AND ROCK-FILL DAMS  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

MISCELLANEOUS PAPER S71-17 MISCELLANEOUS PAPER S71-17 EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE OF EARTH AND ROCK-FILL DAMS Report 2 ANALYSIS OF RESPONSE O F RIFLE.GAP D A M TO PROJECT RULISON UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR DETONATION bv J. E. Ahlberg, J. Fowler, L W. Heller ........ . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . - ...... *- , .... . . . - ->-w-J- * - : - . . June 1972 s~omsored by Office, Chief of Engineers, U. S. Army Conducted by U. S. A m y Engineer Waterways Experiment Station Soils and Pavements Laboratory Vicksburg, Mississippi APPROVED FOR WBLlC RELEASE: DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED L i s t o f Associated Reports Previous reports under Engineering Study 540 are: "A Comparative Summary o f Current Earth Dam Analysis Methods for Earthquake Response," issued by Office, Chief o f Engineers, a s Inclosure 1 to Engineer

328

Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing Through Bonneville Dam, 2010  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2010. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a single-release model. This also was the last year of evaluation of effects of a behavioral guidance device installed in the Powerhouse 2 forebay. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Kim, Jin A.; Royer, Ida M.; Batten, George W.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Etherington, D. J.; Faber, Derrek M.; Fischer, Eric S.; Fu, Tao; Hennen, Matthew J.; Mitchell, T. D.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing through Bonneville Dam, 2010  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2010. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a single-release model. This also was the last year of evaluation of effects of a behavioral guidance device installed in the Powerhouse 2 forebay. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Kim, Jin A.; Royer, Ida M.; Batten, George W.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Etherington, D. J.; Faber, Derrek M.; Fischer, Eric S.; Fu, Tao; Hennen, Matthew J.; Mitchell, Tyler; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1989-1990 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on our progress from April 1989 through March 1990 on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF), US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). Study objectives addressed by each agency are to describe the life history and population dynamics of subadults and adults between Bonneville and McNary dams and evaluate the need and identify potential methods for protecting, mitigating and enhancing populations downstream from McNary Dam, to describe the white sturgeon recreational fishery between Bonneville and McNary dams, describe reproductive and early life history characteristics downstream from Bonneville Dam and describe life history and population dynamics of subadults and adults downstream from Bonneville Dam, to describe reproduction and early life history characteristics, define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing and quantify extent of habitat available between Bonneville and McNary dams, and to describe reproduction and early life history characteristics, define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing and quantify extent of habitat available downstream from Bonneville Dam. Our approach is to work concurrently downstream and upstream from Bonneville Dam. Upstream from Bonneville Dam we began work in the Dalles Reservoir in 1987 and expanded efforts to Bonneville Reservoir in 1988 and John Day Reservoir in 1989. Highlights from this work is also included. 47 refs., 33 figs., 66 tabs.

Nigro, Anthony A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Oxygenation cost estimates in 1983 dollars for Cherokee and Douglas Dams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the Reservoir Releases Program, estimates of costs associated with providing high purity oxygen injection systems at Cherokee and Douglas Dams were computed in 1983 dollars. This report presents results of the computations. An 8.125% interest rate, a 25-year economic life, and a 10-year diffuser life were assumed. Weekly average dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) and turbine flowrate data were available for the years 1958 through 1980. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Fain, T.G.; Boyd, J.W.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Scientific substantiation of safe operation of the Earthen Dams at the Votkinsk HPP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over a period of 15 years, coworkers of the B. E. Vedeneev Scientific-Research Institute of Hydraulic Engineering have conducted scientific accompaniment of the operation of the earthen dams at the Votkinsk HPP. During that time, basic performance characteristics associated with complex hydrogeologic and hydrochemical conditions, and the forms of their unfavorable manifestations influencing the reliability and safety of the structures were revealed, and, recommendations and measures were developed for their elimination.

Deev, A. P.; Fisenko, V. F. [Votkinsk HPP Branch of the JSC 'RusGidro,' Chaikovskii (Russian Federation); Sol'skii, S. V.; Lopatina, M. G.; Gints, A. V.; Aref'eva, A. N. [JSC 'VNIIG im. B. E. Vedeneeva', Branch of JSC 'RusGidro' (Russian Federation)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

Design Tools to Assess Hydro-Turbine Biological Performance: Priest Rapids Dam Turbine Replacement Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the past two decades, there have been many studies describing injury mechanisms associated with turbine passage, the response of various fish species to these mechanisms, and the probability of survival through dams. Although developing tools to design turbines that improve passage survival has been difficult and slow, a more robust quantification of the turbine environment has emerged through integrating physical model data, fish survival data, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies. Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) operates the Priest Rapids Dam (PRD), a hydroelectric facility on the Columbia River in Washington State. The dam contains 10 Kaplan-type turbine units that are now almost 50 years old. The Utility District plans to refit all of these aging turbines with new turbines. The Columbia River at PRD is a migratory pathway for several species of juvenile and adult salmonids, so passage of fish through the dam is a major consideration when replacing the turbines. In this presentation, a method for turbine biological performance assessment (BioPA) is introduced. Using this method, a suite of biological performance indicators is computed based on simulated data from a CFD model of a proposed turbine design. Each performance indicator is a measure of the probability of exposure to a certain dose of an injury mechanism. Using known relationships between the dose of an injury mechanism and frequency of injury (dose–response) from laboratory or field studies, the likelihood of fish injury for a turbine design can be computed from the performance indicator. By comparing the values of the indicators from proposed designs, the engineer can identify the more-promising alternatives. We will present application of the BioPA method for baseline risk assessment calculations for the existing Kaplan turbines at PRD that will be used as the minimum biological performance that a proposed new design must achieve.

Richmond, Marshall C.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Serkowski, John A.; Strickler, Brad; Weisbeck, Molly; Dotson, Curtis L.

2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

334

Alternatives for physically modifying John Sevier detention dam to allow fish passage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies conducted in the vicinity of John Sevier Steam-Electric Plant (JSF) indicated some modification of the fish assemblage from that expected. By blocking movements of fish between Cherokee Reservoir and the upper Holston River, John Sevier detention dam has affected the fisheries in both systems. Providing passage for river-spawning fish at John Sevier detention dam might improve fish communities and fisheries in Cherokee Reservoir as well as upstream habitats. This would include enhanced reproductive success of river-spawning species found in Cherokee Reservoir (e.g., white bass and possibly striped bass and paddlefish) and repopulation of John Sevier Reservoir and the upper Holston River by several species presently found only downstream of the detention dam. TVA has identified and studied several alternatives that alone or in combination might improve the fisheries. Cost estimates were developed for three alternatives. These three alternatives with cost estimates are discussed briefly along with two other alternatives for which cost estimates have not been made. Merits of the three alternatives which have at least some possibility to improve migratory fish stocks are discussed in detail. 5 references.

Not Available

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Total Dissolved Gas Monitoring in Chum Salmon Spawning Gravels Below Bonneville Dam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Portland District), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted research to determine whether total dissolved gas concentrations are elevated in chum salmon redds during spring spill operations at Bonneville Dam. The study involved monitoring the total dissolved gas levels at egg pocket depth and in the river at two chum salmon spawning locations downstream from Bonneville Dam. Dissolved atmospheric gas supersaturation generated by spill from Bonneville Dam may diminish survival of chum (Oncorhynchus keta) salmon when sac fry are still present in the gravel downstream from Bonneville Dam. However, no previous work has been conducted to determine whether total dissolved gas (TDG) levels are elevated during spring spill operations within incubation habitats. The guidance used by hydropower system managers to provide protection for pre-emergent chum salmon fry has been to limit TDG to 105% after allowing for depth compensation. A previous literature review completed in early 2006 shows that TDG levels as low as 103% have been documented to cause mortality in sac fry. Our study measured TDG in the incubation environment to evaluate whether these levels were exceeded during spring spill operations. Total dissolved gas levels were measured within chum salmon spawning areas near Ives Island and Multnomah Falls on the Columbia River. Water quality sensors screened at egg pocket depth and to the river were installed at both sites. At each location, we also measured dissolved oxygen, temperature, specific conductance, and water depth to assist with the interpretation of TDG results. Total dissolved gas was depth-compensated to determine when levels were high enough to potentially affect sac fry. This report provides detailed descriptions of the two study sites downstream of Bonneville Dam, as well as the equipment and procedures employed to monitor the TDG levels at the study sites. Results of the monitoring at both sites are then presented in both text and graphics. The findings and recommendations for further research are discussed, followed by a listing of the references cited in the report.

Arntzen, Evan V.; Geist, David R.; Panther, Jennifer L.; Dawley, Earl

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

336

Flame-driven deflagration-to-detonation transitions in Type Ia supernovae?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Although delayed detonation models of thermonuclear explosions of white dwarfs seem promising for reproducing Type Ia supernovae, the transition of the flame propagation mode from subsonic deflagration to supersonic detonation remains hypothetical. A potential instant for this transition to occur is the onset of the distributed burning regime, i.e. the moment when turbulence first affects the internal flame structure. Some studies of the burning microphysics indicate that a deflagration-to-detonation transition may be possible here, provided the turbulent intensities are strong enough. Consequently, the magnitude of turbulent velocity fluctuations generated by the deflagration flame is analyzed at the onset of the distributed burning regime in several three-dimensional simulations of deflagrations in thermonuclear supernovae. It is shown that the corresponding probability density functions fall off towards high turbulent velocity fluctuations much more slowly than a Gaussian distribution. Thus, values claimed to be necessary for triggering a detonation are likely to be found in sufficiently large patches of the flame. Although the microphysical evolution of the burning is not followed and a successful deflagration-to-detonation transition cannot be guaranteed from simulations presented here, the results still indicate that such events may be possible in Type Ia supernova explosions.

F. K. Roepke

2007-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

337

Response of a laminar premixed flame to flow oscillations: A kinematic model and thermoacoustic instability results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combustion instability is a resonance phenomenon that arises due to the coupling between the system acoustics and the unsteady heat release. The constructive feedback between the two processes, which is known to occur as a certain phase relationship between the pressure and the unsteady heat release rate is satisfied, depends on many parameters among which is the acoustic mode, the flame holder characteristics, and the dominant burning pattern. In this paper, the authors construct an analytical model to describe the dynamic response of a laminar premixed flame stabilized on the rim of a tube to velocity oscillation. They consider uniform and nonuniform velocity perturbations superimposed on a pipe flow velocity profile. The model results show that the magnitude of heat release perturbation and its phase with respect to the dynamic perturbation dependent primarily on the flame Strohal number, representing the ratio of the dominant frequency times the tube radius to the laminar burning velocity. In terms of this number, high-frequency perturbations pass through the flame while low frequencies lead to a strong response. The phase with respect to the velocity perturbation behaves in the opposite way. Results of this model are shown to agree with experimental observations and to be useful in determining how the combustion excited model is selected among all the acoustic unstable modes. The model is then used to obtain a time-domain differential equation describing the relationship between the velocity perturbation and the heat release response over the entire frequency range.

Fleifil, M.; Annaswamy, A.M.; Ghoneim, A.F. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ghoneim, Z.A. [Ain Shams Univ., Abassia (Egypt)] [Ain Shams Univ., Abassia (Egypt)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Syngas production from burner-stabilized methane/air flames: The effect of preheated reactants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of preheated reactants on syngas production from a methane/air flame was investigated over a range of inlet temperatures up to 630 K. In addition to experimental measurements, the results from a burner-stabilized flame and freely-propagating flame models are presented. A comparison of the modeling and experimental results in terms of flame standoff distance, stability limit conditions and species yields show excellent agreement across a broad range of equivalence ratios and preheat temperatures. Preheating of reactants increased the rich limit for stable operation from 1.26 to 1.75 for a given inlet velocity, and syngas yields were shown to increase with equivalence ratio. The preheat temperature of the reactants was shown to have little impact on syngas yields beyond extending the limits of stable operation. The results of this study are useful for the design and analysis of heat recirculating reactors and other reactors that are designed for producing syngas through the combustion of rich mixtures.

Colin H. Smith; Daniel I. Pineda; Janet L. Ellzey

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Heat Transfer from Augmented Flames and Plasma Jets Based on Magnetically Rotated Arcs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...November 1971 research-article Heat Transfer from Augmented Flames and Plasma...Jones F. J. Weinberg Rates of heat transfer to the inner surface of a surrounding...experimental data on a computer to yield heat transfer coefficients is developed on this...

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Carbon nanotubes grow in combustion flames Issued on March 31, 2014  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon nanotubes grow in combustion flames Issued on March 31, 2014 Quantum chemical simulations reveal an unprecedented relationship between the mechanism of carbon nanotube growth and hydrocarbon of carbon nanotube (CNT) growth and hydrocarbon combustion actually share many similarities. In studies

Takahashi, Ryo

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flaming gorge dam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Visualization of Turbulent Flame Fronts with Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...TWO-DIMENSIONAL GAS CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENTS...flames at atmospheric pressure. More-over, the...carried out at constant pressure and the molecular...win-dows in the combustor. A simple fused...because ofthe often high and rapid-ly fluctuating...made it an ideal natural laboratory for the...

GEORGE KYCHAKOFF; ROBERT D. HOWE; RONALD K. HANSON; MICHAEL C. DRAKE; ROBERT W. PITZ; MARSHALL LAPP; C. MURRAY PENNEY

1984-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

342

Advancing predictive models for particulate formation in turbulent flames via massively parallel direct numerical simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...147. The pressure is atmospheric. The gas-phase hydrodynamics...formulation is the high-order inter...aeroderivative combustors, while the...fraction is highest (figure-4...scavenging gas-phase precursors...flame of natural gas and air...based on the high Da number...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

VisionGuided Flame Control Using Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the combustion processes are not amenable to mathematical modeling based on simple physical and chemical laws to a vision­guided closed loop control for stationary luminous flames. The image processing technique is used automatically. 2 #12; 1 Introduction Combustion, as one of the most important industrial processes, is a very

344

Testing of a Hydrogen Diffusion Flame Array Injector at Gas Turbine Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-hydrogen gas turbines enable integration of carbon sequestration into coal-gasifying power plants, though NO{sub x} emissions are often high. This work explores nitrogen dilution of hydrogen diffusion flames to reduce thermal NO{sub x} emissions and avoid problems with premixing hydrogen at gas turbine pressures and temperatures. The burner design includes an array of high-velocity coaxial fuel and air injectors, which balances stability and ignition performance, combustor pressure drop, and flame residence time. Testing of this array injector at representative gas turbine conditions (16 atm and 1750 K firing temperature) yields 4.4 ppmv NO{sub x} at 15% O{sub 2} equivalent. NO{sub x} emissions are proportional to flame residence times, though these deviate from expected scaling due to active combustor cooling and merged flame behavior. The results demonstrate that nitrogen dilution in combination with high velocities can provide low NO{sub x} hydrogen combustion at gas turbine conditions, with significant potential for further NO{sub x} reductions via suggested design changes.

Weiland, Nathan T.; Sidwell, Todd G.; Strakey, Peter A.

2013-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

345

Synthesis of carbon nanotubes on metal alloy substrates with voltage bias in methane inverse diffusion flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the hydrocarbon fuel intrinsically provides not only the source of process heat to establish the requisite; Catalytically grown carbon; Combustion; Raman spectroscopy 1. Introduction Since IijimaÃ?s discovery [1] of CNTs-volume production, without the need for expensive starting materi- als. In flame synthesis, combustion

Tse, Stephen D.

346

Numerical simulation of Lewis number effects on lean premixed turbulent flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

turbulent flames for lean hydrogen, propane and methane mixtures in two dimensions. Each simulation or syngas, obtained from coal gasification, has sparked interest in the development of burners that can for propane, methane and hydrogen using de- tailed chemistry and transport, corresponding to Le > 1, Le 1

347

Flame-Retardant Epoxy Resin Nanocomposites Reinforced with Polyaniline-Stabilized Silica Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Henry A. Colorado, Suying Wei,*,# and Zhanhu Guo*, Integrated Composites Lab (ICL), Dan F. Smith silsesquioxanes (POSS) reinforced epoxy composites.10 For the third method, the inorganic nanoparticles are often (ATH),13 silica (SiO2),14 nanoclay,15 and newly developed phosphorus- containing flame retardants 9

Guo, John Zhanhu

348

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 86, 036314 (2012) ac electric fields drive steady flows in flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 86, 036314 (2012) ac electric fields drive steady flows in flames Aaron M. Drews June 2012; published 20 September 2012) We show that time-oscillating electric fields applied-averaged force that drives the steady flows observed experimentally. A quantitative model describes the response

Heller, Eric

349

A combined computational and experimental characterization of lean premixed turbulent low swirl laboratory flames.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of these alternate fuels will vary significantly with the type of feedstocks and their treatment processes , Vince Beckner1 and Robert Cheng3 , 1 Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering, Lawrence, and then use the simulation data to further probe the time-dependent, 3D structure of the flames

Bell, John B.

350

Cellular burning in lean premixed turbulent hydrogen-air flames: coupling experimental and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of burners, particularly for alternative fuels, depends on improving our understanding of basic flame. Beckner1, M. J. Lijewski1 1 Center for Computational Science and Engineering, Lawrence Berkeley National for burning the fuel-lean mixtures of hydrogen or hydrogen-rich syngas fuels obtained from the gasification

351

Electric fields effect on liftoff and blowoff of nonpremixed laminar jet flames in a coflow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The stabilization characteristics of liftoff and blowoff in nonpremixed laminar jet flames in a coflow have been investigated experimentally for propane fuel by applying AC and DC electric fields to the fuel nozzle with a single-electrode configuration. The liftoff and blowoff velocities have been measured by varying the applied voltage and frequency of AC and the voltage and the polarity of DC. The result showed that the AC electric fields extended the stabilization regime of nozzle-attached flame in terms of jet velocity. As the applied AC voltage increased, the nozzle-attached flame was maintained even over the blowout velocity without having electric fields. In such a case, a blowoff occurred directly without experiencing a lifted flame. While for the DC cases, the influence on liftoff was minimal. There existed three different regimes depending on the applied AC voltage. In the low voltage regime, the nozzle-detachment velocity of either liftoff or blowoff increased linearly with the applied voltage, while nonlinearly with the AC frequency. In the intermediate voltage regime, the detachment velocity decreased with the applied voltage and reasonably independent of the AC frequency. At the high voltage regime, the detachment was significantly influenced by the generation of discharges. (author)

Kim, M.K.; Ryu, S.K.; Won, S.H. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea); Chung, S.H. [Clean Combustion Research Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

352

Strategies for laser-induced fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in high-pressure flames.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

engines and gas turbines where the combustion chamber is at high pressure. Despite the use of catalyticStrategies for laser-induced fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in high-pressure flames. II. A combustion systems3�13 and thus develop new schemes to mini- mize NO effluent. The high operating pressure

Lee, Tonghun

353

Copyright 2007 by ASME1 Laminar Flame Speeds and Strain Sensitivities of Mixtures of H2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to rich. [Keywords: Syngas, laminar flame speed, reactant preheat, CO2 dilution, N2 dilution] INTRODUCTION Technologies such as integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants enable combustion of coal, biomass emissions. Synthetic gas (syngas) fuels derived from coal are particularly promising in this regard. Syngas

Seitzman, Jerry M.

354

EFFECT OF FUEL TYPE ON FLAME IGNITION BY TRANSIENT PLASMA Jianbang Liu1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to electrical energy consumed to produce the discharge.) Consequently, ignition by laser sources has beenEFFECT OF FUEL TYPE ON FLAME IGNITION BY TRANSIENT PLASMA DISCHARGES Jianbang Liu1,2 , Fei Wang1 with air ignited by transient plasma discharge were investigated and compared with spark discharge ignition

355

Flame Front Matching and Tracking in PLIF Images Using Geodesic Paths and Level Sets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Successive images of the combustion process captured in controlled experiments are smoothed by non combustion processes of varying types and turbulence levels. The local intensity in the recorded images) imaging of OH radicals in combustion processes. The data includes both premixed flames subjected

Hamarneh, Ghassan

356

Combustion and Flame 151 (2007) 235244 www.elsevier.com/locate/combustflame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combustion and Flame 151 (2007) 235­244 www.elsevier.com/locate/combustflame Effect of ethanol Available online 26 July 2007 Abstract The effect of fuel-side ethanol addition on the chemical structure of average structural parameters. The results indicate that the ethanol effect on the aromatic components

Utah, University of

357

Stability characteristics of non-premixed turbulent jet flames of hydrogen and syngas blends with coaxial air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The stability characteristics of attached hydrogen (H2) and syngas (H2/CO) turbulent jet flames with coaxial air were studied experimentally. The flame stability was investigated by varying the fuel and air stream velocities. Effects of the coaxial nozzle diameter, fuel nozzle lip thickness and syngas fuel composition are addressed in detail. The detachment stability limit of the syngas single jet flame was found to decrease with increasing amount of carbon monoxide in the fuel. For jet flames with coaxial air, the critical coaxial air velocity leading to flame detachment first increases with increasing fuel jet velocity and subsequently decreases. This non-monotonic trend appears for all syngas composition herein investigated (50/50 ? 100/0% H2/CO). OH? chemiluminescence imaging was performed to qualitatively identify the mechanisms responsible for the flame detachment. For all fuel compositions, local extinction close to the burner rim is observed at lower fuel velocities (ascending stability limit), while local flame extinction downstream of the burner rim is observed at higher fuel velocities (descending stability limit). Extrema of the non-monotonic trends appear to be identical when the nozzle fuel velocity is normalized by the critical fuel velocity obtained for the single jet cases.

Jeongjae Hwang; Nicolas Bouvet; Kitae Sohn; Youngbin Yoon

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Soot formation in aerodynamically strained methane-air and ethylene-air diffusion flames with chloromethane addition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of chloromethane (CH{sub 3}Cl) addition on soot inception in methane-air and ethylene-air counterflow diffusion flames were investigated by varying the concentrations of chloromethane and nitrogen in the fuel stream. Experiments showed a monotonic increase in the critical sooting stretch rate for methane-air flames when methane was replaced by chloromethane, while ethylene and chloromethane flames exhibited a larger sooting tendency than flames under comparable conditions and burning either ethylene or chloromethane alone. For the conditions investigated, the critical sooting stretch rates of methane-chloromethane-nitrogen flames were shown to be primarily a function of the chloromethane loading in the fuel stream. The structure of these flames was modeled using detailed chemistry and transport. Modeling results suggested that the enhancement of soot formation in ethylene-chloromethane flames may be a combined result of increased concentrations of C{sub 2} species and chlorinated C{sub 1} radicals (CH{sub 2}Cl and CHCl). A large rate of the reactions among these species may be the first steps in the molecular growth processes, which leads to the inception of soot particles. (author)

Leylegian, J.C. [ATK GASL NY Operations, 77 Raynor Avenue, Ronkonkoma, NY 11779-6648 (United States)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

359

Acoustic Telemetry Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at John Day Dam with Emphasis on the Prototype Surface Flow Outlet, 2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance of Top Spill Weirs installed at two spillbays at John Day Dam and evaluate the effectiveness of these surface flow outlets at attracting juvenile salmon away from the powerhouse and reducing turbine passage. The Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was used to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids passing the dam and also for calculating performance metrics used to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the dam at passing juvenile salmonids.

Weiland, Mark A.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao; Monter, Tyrell J.; Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, Richard L.; Skalski, John R.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Light-Emitting Tag Testing in Conjunction with Testing of the Minimum Gap Runner Turbine Design at Bonneville Dam Powerhouse 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a pilot study conducted by Tom Carlson of PNNL and Mark Weiland of MEVATEC Corp to test the feasibility of using light-emitting tags to visually track objects passing through the turbine environment of a hydroelectric dam. Light sticks were released at the blade tip, mid-blade, and hub in the MGR turbine and a Kaplan turbine at Bonneville Dam and videotaped passing thru the dam to determine visibility and object trajectories.

Carlson, Thomas J.; Weiland, Mark A.

2001-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flaming gorge dam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Synthesis of Sensor Fish Data for Assessment of Fish Passage Conditions at Turbines, Spillways, and Bypass Facilities – Phase 1: The Dalles Dam Spillway Case Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the characterization of spillway passage conditions at The Dalles Dam in 2006 and the effort to complete a comprehensive database for data sets from The Dalles Dam spillway Sensor Fish and balloon-tagged live fish experiments. Through The Dalles Dam spillway case study, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers evaluated the database as an efficient means for accessing and retrieving system-wide data for the U.S Army Corps of Engineers (USACE).

Deng, Zhiqun; Serkowski, John A.; Fu, Tao; Carlson, Thomas J.; Richmond, Marshall C.

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

362

Characterization of Fish Passage Conditions through the Fish Weir and Turbine Unit 1 at Foster Dam, Oregon, Using Sensor Fish, 2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents investigations of downstream fish passage research involving a spillway fish weir and turbine passage conditions at Foster Dam in May 2012.

Duncan, Joanne P.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

The influence of controlled floods on fine sediment storage in debris fan-affected canyons of the Colorado River basin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Prior to the construction of large dams on the Green and Colorado Rivers, annual floods aggraded sandbars in lateral flow-recirculation eddies with fine sediment scoured from the bed and delivered from upstream. Flows greater than normal dam operations may be used to mimic this process in an attempt to increase time-averaged sandbar size. These controlled floods may rebuild sandbars, but sediment deficit conditions downstream from the dams restrict the frequency that controlled floods produce beneficial results. Here, we integrate complimentary, long-term monitoring data sets from the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons downstream from Glen Canyon dam and the Green River in the Canyon of Lodore downstream from Flaming Gorge dam. Since the mid-1990s, several controlled floods have occurred in these canyon rivers. These controlled floods scour fine sediment from the bed and build sandbars in eddies, thus increasing channel relief. These changes are short-lived, however, as interflood dam operations erode sandbars within several months to years. Controlled flood response and interflood changes in bed elevation are more variable in Marble Canyon and Grand Canyon, likely reflecting more variable fine sediment supply and stronger transience in channel bed sediment storage. Despite these differences, neither system shows a trend in fine-sediment storage during the period in which controlled floods were monitored. These results demonstrate that controlled floods build eddy sandbars and increase channel relief for short interflood periods, and this response may be typical in other dam-influenced canyon rivers. The degree to which these features persist depends on the frequency of controlled floods, but careful consideration of sediment supply is necessary to avoid increasing the long-term sediment deficit.

Erich R. Mueller; Paul E. Grams; John C. Schmidt; Joseph E. Hazel Jr.; Jason S. Alexander; Matt Kaplinski

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Reducing the Impacts of Hydroelectric Dams on Juvenile Anadromous Fishes: Bioengineering Evaluations Using Acoustic Imaging in the Columbia River, USA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dams impact the survival of juvenile anadromous fishes by obstructing migration corridors, lowering water quality, delaying migrations, and entraining fish in turbine discharge. To reduce these impacts, structural and operational modifications to dams— such as voluntary spill discharge, turbine intake guidance screens, and surface flow outlets—are instituted. Over the last six years, we have used acoustic imaging technology to evaluate the effects of these modifications on fish behavior, passage rates, entrainment zones, and fish/flow relationships at hydroelectric projects on the Columbia River. The imaging technique has evolved from studies documenting simple movement patterns to automated tracking of images to merging and analysis with concurrent hydraulic data. This chapter chronicles this evolution and shows how the information gleaned from the scientific evaluations has been applied to improve passage conditions for juvenile salmonids. We present data from Bonneville and The Dalles dams that document fish behavior and entrainment zones at sluiceway outlets (14 to 142 m3/s), fish passage rates through a gap at a turbine intake screen, and the relationship between fish swimming effort and hydraulic conditions. Dam operators and fisheries managers have applied these data to support decisions on operational and structural changes to the dams for the benefit of anadromous fish populations in the Columbia River basin.

Johnson, Gary E.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hedgepeth, J.; Khan, Fenton; Mueller, Robert P.; Nagy, William T.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Weiland, Mark A.

2008-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

365

Ignition of Deflagration and Detonation Ahead of the Flame due to Radiative Preheating of Suspended Micro Particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study a flame propagating in the gaseous combustible mixture with suspended inert solid micro particles. The gaseous mixture is assumed to be transparent for thermal radiation emitted by the hot combustion products, while particles absorb and reemit the radiation. Thermal radiation heats the particles, which in turn transfer the heat to the surrounding unburned gaseous mixture by means of thermal heat transfer. Different scenarios are possible depending on the spatial distribution of the particles, their size and the number density. In the case of uniform spatial distribution the radiation absorption ahead of the flame causes a modest increase of the combustion wave velocity. On the contrary, in the case of non-uniform distribution of the particles, such that the particles number density increases far ahead of the flame, the preheating caused by the thermal radiation may trigger additional source of ignition. Far enough ahead of the flame, where number density of particles is higher, the temperature due to...

Ivanov, M F; Liberman, M A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

CX-010106: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Flaming Gorge Microwave Site Communications Building Access Road Repairs CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 04/01/2013 Location(s): Utah Offices(s): Western Area Power Administration-Rocky Mountain Region

367

Survival Rates of Juvenile Salmonids Passing Through the Bonneville Dam and Spillway in 2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a 2008 acoustic telemetry survival study conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The study estimated the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead passing Bonneville Dam (BON) and its spillway. Of particular interest was the relative survival of smolts detected passing through end spill bays 1-3 and 16-18, which had deep flow deflectors immediately downstream of spill gates, versus survival of smolts passing middle spill bays 4-15, which had shallow flow deflectors.

Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Johnson, Gary E.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.; McComas, Roy L.; Everett, Jason

2009-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

368

A study of the phenomenon of liquid-flame combustion; I. Visual examinations and high-speed photography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A liquid-flame combustion phenomenon, which has been revealed for pressed mixtures of tetrazole and sodium tetrazolate, was studied using high-speed photography and photography of high spatial resolution. New, previously unknown, peculiarities of the origin and development of the liquid-flame structure, pertinent, in particular, to its external texture and interaction with the melt on the pellet surface, as well as some features of the dispersion of condensed products were found.

Astashinsky, V.M.; Kostyukevich, E.A. (Byelorussian Academy of Science, Minsk (Belarus). Inst. of Molecular and Atomic Physics); Ivashkevich, O.A.; Lesnikovich, A.I.; Krasitsky, V.A. (Byelorussian State Univ., Minsk (Belarus))

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Evolution of soot size distribution in premixed ethylene/air and ethylene/benzene/air flames: Experimental and modeling study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of benzene concentration in the initial fuel on the evolution of soot size distribution in ethylene/air and ethylene/benzene/air flat flames was characterized by experimental measurements and model predictions of size and number concentration within the flames. Experimentally, a scanning mobility particle sizer was used to allow spatially resolved and online measurements of particle concentration and sizes in the nanometer-size range. The model couples a detailed kinetic scheme with a discrete-sectional approach to follow the transition from gas-phase to nascent particles and their coagulation to larger soot particles. The evolution of soot size distribution (experimental and modeled) in pure ethylene and ethylene flames doped with benzene showed a typical nucleation-sized (since particles do not actually nucleate in the classical sense particle inception is often used in place of nucleation) mode close to the burner surface, and a bimodal behavior at greater height above burner (HAB). However, major features were distinguished between the data sets. The growth of nucleation and agglomeration-sized particles was faster for ethylene/benzene/air flames, evidenced by the earlier presence of bimodality in these flames. The most significant changes in size distribution were attributed to an increase in benzene concentration in the initial fuel. However, these changes were more evident for high temperature flames. In agreement with the experimental data, the model also predicted the decrease of nucleation-sized particles in the postflame region for ethylene flames doped with benzene. This behavior was associated with the decrease of soot precursors after the main oxidation zone of the flames. (author)

Echavarria, Carlos A.; Sarofim, Adel F.; Lighty, JoAnn S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); D'Anna, Andrea [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita ''Federico II'' di Napoli, Naples (Italy)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

Sept.2002  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

paddled the dam-controlled waters of the Ocoee, which flows through a gorge in the Cherokee National Forest. The group chose to go for gold by tackling the upper stretch of the...

371

FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT AMERICAN RECOVERY AND REINVESTMENT ACT NORTH FORK SKOKOMISH POWERHOUSE AT CUSHMAN NO. 2 DAM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to add generating capacity on an in-stream flow release at Tacoma Power's Cushman hydroelectric project, Cushman No. 2 Dam, FERC Project P-460. The flow that is being used to generate additional electricity was being discharged from a valve at the base of the dam without recovery of the energy. A second objective to the project was to incorporate upstream fish passage by use of a fish collection structure attached to the draft tubes of the hydroelectric units. This will enable reintroduction of native anadromous fish above the dams which have blocked fish passage since the late 1920's. The project was funded in part by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act through the Department of Energy, Office of Energy, Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Wind and Water Power Program.

Fischer, Steve; Wilson, Matthew

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

372

Three-dimensional simulations of cellular non-premixed jet flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation, dynamics and structure of cellular flames in circular non-premixed jets are examined with three-dimensional numerical simulations incorporating detailed descriptions of chemistry and transport. Similar to past experiments reported in the literature, CO{sub 2}-diluted hydrogen in diluted or pure oxygen co-flowing streams in the proximity of the extinction limit are considered. As in the experiments, several preferred cellular states are found to co-exist with the particular state realized depending on initial conditions as well as on the jet characteristics. The simulations provide additionally the temporal transitions to different stationary or rotating cellular flames, their detailed structure, and the dependence of the scaling of the realized number of cells with the vorticity thickness. (author)

Valaer, A.L.; Frouzakis, C.E.; Boulouchos, K. [Aerothermochemistry and Combustion System Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Papas, P. [Division of Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Tomboulides, A.G. [Department of Engineering and Management of Energy Resources, University of Western Macedonia, 50100 Kozani (Greece)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

373

Development of flame retarded self-reinforced composites from automotive shredder plastic waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Multilayered self-reinforced composites were developed from a density-separated light fraction of automotive shredder waste of high polyolefin content, which can fulfil the current technical, safety and environmental requirements of structural materials. The significantly enhanced mechanical properties of the recycled composites were ensured by polypropylene fabric reinforcement; meanwhile, reduced flammability was obtained by modifying the matrix layers, made of secondary raw materials, with phosphorous-containing flame retardant additive. The results of the new flame retarded composite systems allowed the discussion of a novel mechanistic observation. The mechanical and flammability properties of the prepared self-reinforced composites are compared to conventional glass fabric reinforced composites and to compounds without reinforcement.

Katalin Bocz; Andrea Toldy; Ákos Kmetty; Tamás Bárány; Tamás Igricz; György Marosi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Development of an energy efficient curtain flame ignition system for sintering of iron ore fines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Research and Development Centre for Iron and Steel (RDCIS) of Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) has developed a 'curtain flame' ignition system for sinter mix ignition. Conventionally, either horizontal fired burners or top fired or a combination of both are used for ignition of sinter mix. These burners big in size but few in number are mounted on a rectangular box type furnace. This is associated with non-uniform heating of sinter mix. In the new system, small capacity burners are installed on the roof across the sinter bed in a single row. Here, the top layer of the sinter bed gets heated by the direct impingement of the flame. This has resulted in reduction in specific fuel gas consumption by more than 30% and savings in refractory consumption. Implementation of the system led to reduction in green house gas (GHG) emission also.

V.T. Selvan; T.S. Reddy; A. Das

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Heat transfer characteristics of laminar methane/air flame impinging normal to a cylindrical surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental study has been conducted to determine the heat transfer characteristics of methane/air laminar flames impinging normal to a cylindrical surface. Effects of variations in the values of Reynolds number (Re = 600-1300), equivalence ratio ({phi} = 0.8-1.3), dimensionless separation distance (H/d = 1-5), and burner diameter to cylinder diameter ratio (d/D = 0.0538-0.1076) have been investigated. Three important configurations, viz., flame inner reaction zone far away, just touching and intercepted by the impingement surface, were examined in detail. High stagnation point heat fluxes were obtained when tip of the flame inner reaction zone just touched the target surface. Stagnation point heat fluxes were either zero or negative when the inner reaction zone was intercepted by the impingement surface. An off-stagnation peak in heat flux was obtained at moderate separation distances above the flame tip. Both stagnation point and peak heat fluxes increased with Re when the inner reaction zone length was less than the separation distance. Heat fluxes in the wall-jet region were high at high Re. Maximum heat fluxes were obtained for initially fuel-rich mixture conditions due to entrainment of the surrounding air. Smaller burner diameters produced high heat flux at the stagnation region for fixed Reynolds number and opposite trends were seen in the wall-jet region. A secondary rise in stagnation point heat flux was obtained at larger separation distances. This secondary rise in heat flux was quite significant for larger burner diameters and at low flow rates. Correlations were developed for stagnation point heat flux. Results were also compared with flat plate under identical operating conditions. (author)

Chander, Subhash; Ray, Anjan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

376

Similarity solutions and applications to turbulent upward flame spread on noncharring materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary achievement in this work has been the discovery that turbulent upward flame spread on noncharring materials (for pyrolysis lengths less than 1.8m) can be directly predicted by using measurable flammability parameters. These parameters are: a characteristic length scale which is proportional to a turbulent combustion and mixing related length scale parameter ({dot q}{double_prime}{sub net}({Delta}H{sub c}/{Delta}H{sub v})){sup 2}, a pyrolysis or ignition time {tau}{sub p}, and a parameter which determines the transient pyrolysis history of a non-charring material: {lambda} = L/c{Delta}T{sub p} = ratio of the latent heat to the sensible heat of the pyrolysis temperature of the material. In the length scale parameter, {dot q}{double_prime}{sub net} is the total net heat flux from the flames to the wall (i.e., total heat flux minus reradiation losses), {Delta}H{sub c} is the heat of combustion and {Delta}H{sub v} is an effective heat of gasification for the material. The pyrolysis or ignition time depends (for thermally thick conditions) on the material thermal inertia, the pyrolysis temperature, and the total heat flux from the flames to the wall, {dot q}{double_prime}{sub fw}. The present discovery was made possible by using both a numerical simulation, developed earlier, and exact similarity solutions, which are developed in this work. The predictions of the analysis have been validated by comparison with upward flame spread experiments on PMMA.

Delichatsios, M.A.; Delichatsios, M.; Chen, Y. [Factory Mutual Research Corporation, Norwood, MA (United States)] [Factory Mutual Research Corporation, Norwood, MA (United States); Hasemi, Y. [Ministry of Construction, Tsukuba (Japan). Building Research Inst.] [Ministry of Construction, Tsukuba (Japan). Building Research Inst.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Mechanism for Inhibition of Atmospheric-Pressure Syngas/Air Flames by Trimethylphosphate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gasification processes allow for a wide range of solid combustibles, including coal, biomass, and municipal solid wastes, to be converted into syngas mixtures that can be burned in gas turbines to generate electricity. ... Burning velocity was measured using a Mache–Hebra nozzle burner(22) and the total area method(23) from flame images, as was performed by Linteris and Truett. ... Recommendations are made as to the most suitable methods of measuring burning velocity for both closed vessels and burners. ...

Vladimir M. Shvartsberg; Andrey G. Shmakov; Tatyana A. Bolshova; Oleg P. Korobeinichev

2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

378

Low and High Temperature Combustion Chemistry of Butanol Isomers in Premixed Flames and Autoignition Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Butanol is a fuel that has been proposed as a bio-derived alternative to conventional petroleum derived fuels. The structural isomer in traditional 'bio-butanol' fuel is n-butanol, but newer conversion technologies produce iso-butanol as a fuel. In order to better understand the combustion chemistry of bio-butanol, this study presents a comprehensive chemical kinetic model for all the four isomers of butanol (e.g., 1-, 2-, iso- and tert-butanol). The proposed model includes detailed high temperature and low temperature reaction pathways. In this study, the primary experimental validation target for the model is premixed flat low-pressure flame species profiles obtained using molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). The model is also validated against previously published data for premixed flame velocity and n-butanol rapid compression machine and shock tube ignition delay. The agreement with these data sets is reasonably good. The dominant reaction pathways at the various pressures and temperatures studied are elucidated. At low temperature conditions, we found that the reaction of alphahydroxybutyl with O{sub 2} was important in controlling the reactivity of the system, and for correctly predicting C{sub 4} aldehyde profiles in low pressure premixed flames. Enol-keto isomerization reactions assisted by HO{sub 2} were also found to be important in converting enols to aldehydes and ketones in the low pressure premixed flames. In the paper, we describe how the structural features of the four different butanol isomers lead to differences in the combustion properties of each isomer.

Sarathy, S M; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Yasunaga, K; Curran, H J; Tsujimura, T; Osswald, P; Kohse-Hoinghaus, K

2010-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

379

Under very extreme conditions a flood that threatens to overtop a dam may be combined with strong winds that generate waves in the reservoir.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Under very extreme conditions a flood that threatens to overtop a dam may be combined with strong winds that generate waves in the reservoir. Prolonged wave overtopping or a combination of wave the actions of wind generated waves and wave overtopping. The uneven elevations of the dam crest

Bowles, David S.

380

Impacts of elevation data spatial resolution on two-dimensional dam break flood simulation and consequence assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A grid resolution sensitivity analysis using a two-dimensional flood inundation model has been presented in this paper. Simulations for 6 dam breaches located randomly in the United States were run at 10,30,60,90, and 120 meter resolutions. The dams represent a range of topographic conditions, ranging from 0% slope to 1.5% downstream of the dam. Using 10 meter digital elevation model (DEM) simulation results as the baseline, the coarser simulation results were compared in terms of flood inundation area, peak depths, flood wave travel time, daytime and nighttime population in flooded area, and economic impacts. The results of the study were consistent with previous grid resolution studies in terms of inundated area, depths, and velocity impacts. The results showed that as grid resolution is decreased, the relative fit of inundated area between the baseline and coarser resolution decreased slightly. This is further characterized by increasing over prediction as well as increasing under prediction with decreasing resolution. Comparison of average peak depths showed that depths generally decreased as resolution decreased, as well as the velocity. It is, however, noted that the trends in depth and velocity showed less consistency than the inundation area metrics. This may indicate that for studies in which velocity and depths must be resolved more accurately (urban environments when flow around buildings is important in the calculation of drag effects), higher resolution DEM data should be used. Perhaps the most significant finding from this study is the perceived insensitivity of socio-economic impacts to grid resolution. The difference in population at risk (PAR) and economic cost generally remained within 10% of the estimated impacts using the high resolution DEM. This insensitivity has been attributed to over estimated flood area and associated socio-economic impacts compensating for under estimated flooded area and associated socio-economic impacts. The United States has many dams that are classified as high-hazard potential that need an emergency action plan (EAP). It has been found that the development of EAPs for all high-hazard dams is handicapped due to funding limitations. The majority of the cost associated with developing an EAP is determining the flooded area. The results of this study have shown that coarse resolution dam breach studies can be used to provide an acceptable estimate of the inundated area and economic impacts, with very little computational cost. Therefore, the solution to limited funding may be to perform coarse resolution dam breach studies on high-hazard potential dams and use the results to help prioritize the order in which detailed EAPs should be developed.

Judi, David R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcpherson, Timothy N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Burian, Steven J [UNIV OF UTAH

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flaming gorge dam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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381

White Sturgeon Mitgation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2003-2004 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on our progress from April 2003 through March 2004 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

Rein, Thomas A.; Hughes, Michele L.; Kern, J. Chris (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Prediction of Total Dissolved Gas (TDG) at Hydropower Dams throughout the Columbia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. The entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin cause elevated levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) saturation. Physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been characterized throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and at real-time water quality monitoring stations. These data have been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange which are site specific and account for the fate of spillway and powerhouse flows in the tailrace channel and resultant transport and exchange in route to the downstream dam. Currently, there exists a need to summarize the findings from operational and structural TDG abatement programs conducted throughout the CRB and for the development of a generalized prediction model that pools data collected at multiple projects with similar structural attributes. A generalized TDG exchange model can be tuned to specific projects and coupled with water regulation models to allow for the formulation of optimal water regulation schedules subject to water quality constraints for TDG supersaturation. It is proposed to develop a methodology for predicting TDG levels downstream of hydropower facilities with similar structural properties as a function of a set of variables that affect TDG exchange; such as tailwater depth, spill discharge and pattern, project head, and entrainment of powerhouse releases.

Pasha, MD Fayzul K [ORNL] [ORNL; Hadjerioua, Boualem [ORNL] [ORNL; Stewart, Kevin M [ORNL] [ORNL; Bender, Merlynn [Bureau of Reclamation] [Bureau of Reclamation; Schneider, Michael L. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers] [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Water Velocity Measurements on a Vertical Barrier Screen at the Bonneville Dam Second Powerhouse  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fish screens at hydroelectric dams help to protect rearing and migrating fish by preventing them from passing through the turbines and directing them towards the bypass channels by providing a sweeping flow parallel to the screen. However, fish screens may actually be harmful to fish if they become impinged on the surface of the screen or become disoriented due to poor flow conditions near the screen. Recent modifications to the vertical barrier screens (VBS) at the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse (B2) intended to increase the guidance of juvenile salmonids into the juvenile bypass system (JBS) have resulted in high mortality and descaling rates of hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon during the 2008 juvenile salmonid passage season. To investigate the potential cause of the high mortality and descaling rates, an in situ water velocity measurement study was conducted using acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADV) in the gatewell slot at Units 12A and 14A of B2. From the measurements collected the average approach velocity, sweep velocity, and the root mean square (RMS) value of the velocity fluctuations were calculated. The approach velocities measured across the face of the VBS varied but were mostly less than 0.3 m/s. The sweep velocities also showed large variances across the face of the VBS with most measurements being less than 1.5 m/s. This study revealed that the approach velocities exceeded criteria recommended by NOAA Fisheries and Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife intended to improve fish passage conditions.

Hughes, James S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Weiland, Mark A.; Martinez, Jayson J.; Yuan, Yong

2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

384

A young stellar environment for the superluminous supernova PTF12dam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The progenitors of super luminous supernovae (SLSNe) are still a mystery. Hydrogen-poor SLSN hosts are often highly star-forming dwarf galaxies and the majority belongs to the class of extreme emission line galaxies hosting young and highly star-forming stellar populations. Here we present a resolved long-slit study of the host of the hydrogen-poor SLSN PTF12dam probing the kpc environment of the SN site to determine the age of the progenitor. The galaxy is a "tadpole" with uniform properties and the SN occurred in a star-forming region in the head of the tadpole. The galaxy experienced a recent star-burst superimposed on an underlying old stellar population. We measure a very young stellar population at the SN site with an age of ~3 Myr and a metallicity of 12+log(O/H)=8.0 at the SN site but do not observe any WR features. The progenitor of PTF12dam must have been a massive star of at least 60 M_solar and one of the first stars exploding as a SN in this extremely young starburst.

Thöne, C C; García-Benito, R; Leloudas, G; Schulze, S; Amorín, R

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Molecular Characterization of Organic Content of Soot along the Centerline of a Coflow Diffusion Flame  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-resolution mass spectrometry coupled with nanospray desorption electrospray ionization was used to probe chemical constituents of young soot particles sampled along the centerline of a coflow diffusion flame of a three-component Jet-A1 surrogate. In lower positions where particles are transparent to light extinction (n= 632.8 nm), peri-condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are found to be the major components of the particle material. These particles become enriched with aliphatic components as they grow in mass and size. Before carbonization occurs, the constituent species in young soot particles are aliphatic and aromatic compounds 200-600 amu in mass, some of which are oxygenated. Particles dominated by PAHs or mixtures of PAHs and aliphatics can both exhibit liquid-like appearance observed by electron microscopy and be transparent to visible light. The variations in chemical composition observed here indicate that the molecular processes of soot formation in coflow diffusion flames may be more complex than previously thought. For example, the mass growth and enrichment of aliphatic components in an initially, mostly aromatic structure region of the flame that is absent of H atoms or other free radicals indicates that there must exist at least another mechanism of soot mass growth in addition to the hydrogen-abstraction-carbon addition mechanism currently considered in fundamental models of soot formation.

Cain, Jeremy P.; Laskin, Alexander; Kholghy, Mohammad Reza; Thomson, Murray; Wang, Hai

2014-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

386

Flame Evolution During Type Ia Supernovae and the Deflagration Phase in the Gravitationally Confined Detonation Scenario  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We develop an improved method for tracking the nuclear flame during the deflagration phase of a Type Ia supernova, and apply it to study the variation in outcomes expected from the gravitationally confined detonation (GCD) paradigm. A simplified 3-stage burning model and a non-static ash state are integrated with an artificially thickened advection-diffusion-reaction (ADR) flame front in order to provide an accurate but highly efficient representation of the energy release and electron capture in and after the unresolvable flame. We demonstrate that both our ADR and energy release methods do not generate significant acoustic noise, as has been a problem with previous ADR-based schemes. We proceed to model aspects of the deflagration, particularly the role of buoyancy of the hot ash, and find that our methods are reasonably well-behaved with respect to numerical resolution. We show that if a detonation occurs in material swept up by the material ejected by the first rising bubble but gravitationally confined to the white dwarf (WD) surface (the GCD paradigm), the density structure of the WD at detonation is systematically correlated with the distance of the deflagration ignition point from the center of the star. Coupled to a suitably stochastic ignition process, this correlation may provide a plausible explanation for the variety of nickel masses seen in Type Ia Supernovae.

D. M. Townsley; A. C. Calder; S. M. Asida; I. R. Seitenzahl; F. Peng; N. Vladimirova; D. Q. Lamb; J. W. Truran

2007-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

387

Nanoengineering core/shell structured brucite@polyphosphate@amine hybrid system for enhanced flame retardant properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A novel organic-inorganic hybrid flame retardant consisting of a brucite core and a dodecylamine polyphosphate shell was synthesized by a facile nanoengineering route. The flammability characterization and synergistic flame retardant mechanism of the core/shell flame retardant (CFR) in ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) blends had been compared with EVA/physical mixture (PM, with the given proportion of brucite and dodecylamine polyphosphate as well as CFR) and EVA/brucite blends. With the same loading amount (40 wt%) of fillers in EVA, the peak heat release rate and smoke production rate of EVA/CFR blends were significantly reduced to 49% and 48% of that of EVA/PM blends, respectively. Meanwhile, the limiting oxygen index (LOI) was increased up to 32 (14.3% higher than that of EVA/PM blends) and the UL-94 test could achieve the V-0 rating. These remarkable properties were obtained just by nanoengineeing the core/shell structured brucite@polyphosphate@amine hybrid system, facilitating the formation of intact and compact residue with fence structure in process of polymer composite burning.

Xuesong Wang; Hongchang Pang; Wendan Chen; Yuan Lin; Guiling Ning

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Flame propagation and counterflow nonpremixed ignition of mixtures of methane and ethylene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ignition temperature of nitrogen-diluted mixtures of methane and ethylene counterflowing against heated air was measured up to five atmospheres. In addition, the stretch-corrected laminar flame speeds of mixtures of air, methane and ethylene were determined from outwardly-propagating spherical flames up to 10 atmospheres, for extensive range of the lean-to-rich equivalence ratio. These experimental data, relevant to low- to moderately-high-temperature ignition chemistry and high-temperature flame chemistry, respectively, were subsequently compared with calculations using two detailed kinetic mechanisms. A chemical explosive mode analysis (CEMA) was then conducted to identify the dominant ignition chemistry and the role of ethylene addition in facilitating nonpremixed ignition. Furthermore, the hierarchical structure of the associated oxidation kinetics was examined by comparing the sizes and constituents of the skeletal mechanisms of the pure fuels and their mixtures, derived using the method of directed relation graph (DRG). The skeletal mechanism was further reduced by time-scale analysis, leading to a 24-species reduced mechanism from the detailed mechanism of USC Mech II, validated within the parameter space of the conducted experiments. (author)

Liu, W.; Kelley, A.P.; Law, C.K. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Evidence of thermonuclear flame spreading on neutron stars from burst rise oscillations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Burst oscillations during the rising phases of thermonuclear X-ray bursts are usually believed to originate from flame spreading on the neutron star surface. However, the decrease of fractional oscillation amplitude with rise time, which provides a main observational support for the flame spreading model, have so far been reported from only a few bursts. Moreover, the non-detection and intermittent detections of rise oscillations from many bursts are not yet understood considering the flame spreading scenario. Here, we report the decreasing trend of fractional oscillation amplitude from an extensive analysis of a large sample of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array bursts from ten neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries. This trend is 99.99% significant for the best case, which provides, to the best of our knowledge, by far the strongest evidence of such trend. Moreover, it is important to note that an opposite trend is not found from any of the bursts. The concave shape of the fractional ampli...

Chakraborty, Manoneeta

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Rotational effects in thermonuclear Type I Bursts: equatorial crossing and directionality of flame spreading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In a previous study on thermonuclear (Type I) Bursts on accreting neutron stars we addressed and demonstrated the importance of the effects of rotation, through the Coriolis force, on the propagation of the burning flame. However, that study only analysed cases of longitudinal propagation, where the Coriolis force coefficient $2\\Omega\\cos\\theta$ was constant. In this paper, we study the effects of rotation on propagation in the meridional (latitudinal) direction, where the Coriolis force changes from its maximum at the poles to zero at the equator. We find that the zero Coriolis force at the equator, while affecting the structure of the flame, does not prevent its propagation from one hemisphere to another. We also observe structural differences between the flame propagating towards the equator and that propagating towards the pole, the second being faster. In the light of the recent discovery of the low spin frequency of burster IGR~J17480-2446 rotating at 11 Hz (for which Coriolis effects should be negligib...

Cavecchi, Yuri; Levin, Yuri; Braithwaite, Jonathan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Detroit Dam, 2011  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Detroit Dam (DET) on the North Santiam River, Oregon for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to provide data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at DET and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project. This study was conducted in response to regulatory requirements necessitated by the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. The goal of the study was to provide information of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at DET from February 2011 through February 2012. The results of the hydroacoustic study provide new and, in some cases, first-ever data on passage estimates, run timing, distributions, and relationships between fish passage and environmental variables at the dam. This information will inform management decisions on the design and development of surface passage and collection devices to help restore Chinook salmon populations in the North Santiam River watershed above DET. During the entire study period, an estimated total of 182,526 smolt-size fish (±4,660 fish, 95% CI) passed through turbine penstock intakes. Run timing peaked in winter and early spring months. Passage rates were highest during late fall, winter and early spring months and low during summer. Horizontal distribution for hours when both turbine units were operated simultaneously indicated Unit 2 passed almost twice as much fish as Unit 1. Diel distribution for smolt-size fish during the study period was fairly uniform, indicating fish were passing the turbines at all times of the day. A total of 5,083 smolt-size fish (± 312 fish, 95% CI) were estimated passed via the spillway when it was open between June 23 and September 27, 2011. Daily passage was low at the spillway during the June-August period, and increased somewhat in September 2011. When the spillway was operated simultaneously with the turbines, spillway efficiency (efficiency is estimated as spillway passage divided by total project passage) was 0.72 and effectiveness (fish:flow ratio—proportion fish passage at a route (e.g., spillway) divided by proportion water through that route out of the total project) was 2.69. That is, when the spillway was open, 72% of the fish passing the dam used the spillway and 28% passed into the turbine penstocks. Diel distribution for smolt-size fish at the spillway shows a distinct peak in passage between mid-morning and mid-afternoon and low passage at night. We estimated that 23,339 smolt-size fish (± 572 fish, 95% CI) passed via the Regulating Outlet (RO) when it was open from October 29 through November 12, 2011, January 2-6, and January 20 through February 3, 2012. During the October–November period, RO passage peaked at 1,086 fish on November 5, with a second peak on November 7 (1,075 fish). When the RO was operated simultaneously with the turbines, RO efficiency was 0.33 and effectiveness was 0.89. In multiple regression analyses, a relatively parsimonious model was selected that predicted the observed fish passage data well. The best model included forebay temperature at depth, forebay elevation, total discharge, hours of daylight, and the operation period. The vertical distribution of fish in the forebay near the face of the dam where the transducers sampled showed fish were generally distributed throughout the water column during all four operational periods. During the refill and full pool periods, vertical distribution was bi-modal with surface-layer and mid-water modes. Patterns for day and night distributions were variable. Fish were distributed above and below the thermocline when it was present (full pool and drawdown periods).

Khan, Fenton; Royer, Ida M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Ham, Kenneth D.

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

392

Libby Mitigation Program, 2007 Annual Progress Report: Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Libby Reservoir was created under an International Columbia River Treaty between the United States and Canada for cooperative water development of the Columbia River Basin (Columbia River Treaty 1964). Libby Reservoir inundated 109 stream miles of the mainstem Kootenai River in the United States and Canada, and 40 miles of tributary streams in the U.S. that provided habitat for spawning, juvenile rearing, and migratory passage (Figure 1). The authorized purpose of the dam is to provide power (91.5%), flood control (8.3%), and navigation and other benefits (0.2%; Storm et al. 1982). The Pacific Northwest Power Act of 1980 recognized possible conflicts stemming from hydroelectric projects in the northwest and directed Bonneville Power Administration to 'protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife to the extent affected by the development and operation of any hydroelectric project of the Columbia River and its tributaries' (4(h)(10)(A)). Under the Act, the Northwest Power Planning Council was created and recommendations for a comprehensive fish and wildlife program were solicited from the region's federal, state, and tribal fish and wildlife agencies. Among Montana's recommendations was the proposal that research be initiated to quantify acceptable seasonal minimum pool elevations to maintain or enhance the existing fisheries (Graham et al. 1982). Research to determine how operations of Libby Dam affect the reservoir and river fishery and to suggest ways to lessen these effects began in May 1983. The framework for the Libby Reservoir Model (LRMOD) was completed in 1989. Development of Integrated Rule Curves (IRCs) for Libby Dam operation was completed in 1996 (Marotz et al. 1996). The Libby Reservoir Model and the IRCs continue to be refined (Marotz et al 1999). Initiation of mitigation projects such as lake rehabilitation and stream restoration began in 1996. The primary focus of the Libby Mitigation project now is to restore the fisheries and fish habitat in basin streams and lakes. 'Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam' is part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. The objectives of Phase III of the project (1996 through present) are to implement habitat enhancement measures to mitigate for dam effects, to provide data for implementation of operational strategies that benefit resident fish, monitor reservoir and river conditions, and monitor mitigation projects for effectiveness. This project completes urgent and high priority mitigation actions as directed by the Kootenai Subbasin Plan.

Dunnigan, James; DeShazer, J.; Garrow, L.

2009-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

393

Factors Affecting Route Selection and Survival of Steelhead Kelts at Snake River Dams in 2012 and 2013  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2012 and 2013, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a study that summarized the passage proportions and route-specific survival rates of steelhead kelts that passed through Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) dams. To accomplish this, a total of 811 steelhead kelts were tagged with Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) transmitters. Acoustic receivers, both autonomous and cabled, were deployed throughout the FCRPS to monitor the downstream movements of tagged-kelts. Kelts were also tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder tags to monitor passage through juvenile bypass systems and detect returning fish. The current study evaluated data collected in 2012 and 2013 to identify individual, behavioral, environmental and dam operation variables that were related to passage and survival of steelhead kelts that passed through FCRPS dams. Bayesian model averaging of multivariable logistic regression models was used to identify the environmental, temporal, operational, individual, and behavioral variables that had the highest probability of influencing the route of passage and the route-specific survival probabilities for kelts that passed Lower Granite (LGR), Little Goose (LGS), and Lower Monumental (LMN) dams in 2012 and 2013. The posterior probabilities of the best models for predicting route of passage ranged from 0.106 for traditional spill at LMN to 0.720 for turbine passage at LGS. Generally, the behavior (depth and near-dam searching activity) of kelts in the forebay appeared to have the greatest influence on their route of passage. Shallower-migrating kelts had a higher probability of passing via the weir and deeper-migrating kelts had a higher probability of passing via the JBS and turbines than other routes. Kelts that displayed a higher level of near-dam searching activity had a higher probability of passing via the spillway weir and those that did less near-dam searching had a higher probability of passing via the JBS and turbines. The side of the river in which kelts approached the dam and dam operations also affected route of passage. Dam operations and the size and condition of kelts were found to have the greatest effect on route-specific survival probabilities for fish that passed via the spillway at LGS. That is, longer kelts and those in fair condition had a lower probability of survival for fish that passed via the spillway weir. The survival of spillway weir- and deep-spill passed kelts was positively correlated with the percent of the total discharge that passed through turbine unit 4. Too few kelts passed through the traditional spill, JBS, and turbine units to evaluate survival through these routes. The information gathered in this study describes Snake River steelhead kelt passage behavior, rates, and distributions through the FCRPS as well as provide information to biologists and engineers about the dam operations and abiotic conditions that are related to passage and survival of steelhead kelts.

Harnish, Ryan A.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Li, Xinya; Ham, Kenneth D.; Deng, Zhiqun

2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

394

Al/Al2O3 Composite Coating Deposited by Flame Spraying for Marine Applications: Alumina Skeleton Enhances Anti-Corrosion and Wear Performances  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Here we report aluminum-alumina composite coatings fabricated by flame spraying for potential marine applications against both corrosion and wear. Microstructure examination suggested dense coating structures and...

Jing Huang; Yi Liu; Jianhui Yuan; Hua Li

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Figure 1. The wet area is flooded by damming up a small stream adjacent to the study area once a year for a period of 2-3 months. By  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Figure 1. The wet area is flooded by damming up a small stream adjacent to the study area once. Figure 1.g The wet area is flooded by damming up a small streamded by damming up a smded by damwet area Vegetation data are obtained from two ri- parian grassland sites with strong hydro- logical gradients

Schierup, Mikkel Heide

396

Use of an autonomous sensor to evaluate the biological performance of the advanced turbine at Wanapum Dam  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Hydropower is the largest renewable energy resource in the United States and the world. However, hydropower dams have adverse ecological impacts because migrating fish may be injured or killed when they pass through hydroturbines. In the Columbia and Snake River basins, dam operators and engineers are required to make those hydroelectric facilities more fish-friendly through changes in hydroturbine design and operation after fish population declines and the subsequent listing of several species of Pacific salmon under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington, requested authorization from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to replace the ten turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines designed to improve survival for fish passing through the turbines while improving operation efficiency and increasing power generation. As an additional measure to the primary metric of direct injury and mortality rates of juvenile Chinook salmon using balloon tag-recapture methodology, this study used an autonomous sensor device - the Sensor Fish - to provide insight into the specific hydraulic conditions and physical stresses experienced by the fish as well as the specific causes of fish biological response. We found that the new hydroturbine blade shape and the corresponding reduction of turbulence in the advanced hydropower turbine were effective in meeting the objectives of improving fish survival while enhancing operational efficiency of the dam. The frequency of severe events based on Sensor Fish pressure and acceleration measurements showed trends similar to those of fish survival determined by the balloon tag-recapture methodology. In addition, the new turbine provided a better pressure and rate of pressure change environment for fish passage. Overall, the Sensor Fish data indicated that the advanced hydroturbine design improved passage of juvenile salmon at Wanapum Dam.

Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Dauble, Dennis D.

2010-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

397

Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE), to provide data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE's Willamette Valley Project. This study was conducted in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. We conducted a hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011. Findings from this 1 year of study should be applied carefully because annual variation can be expected due to variability in adult salmon escapement, egg-to-fry and fry-to-smolt survival rates, reservoir rearing and predation, dam operations, and weather. Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> {approx}90 mm and < 300 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. Passage peaks were also evident in early spring, early summer, and late fall. During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish {+-} 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt-size fish passed through turbine penstock intakes. Of this total, 84% passed during December-January. Run timing for small-size fish ({approx}65-90 mm) peaked (702 fish) on December 18. Diel periodicity of smolt-size fish showing crepuscular peaks was evident in fish passage into turbine penstock intakes. Relatively few fish passed into the Regulating Outlets (ROs) when they were open in summer (2 fish/d) and winter (8 fish/d). Overall, when the ROs were open, RO efficiency (RO passage divided by total project passage) was 0.004. In linear regression analyses, daily fish passage (turbines and ROs combined) for smolt-size fish was significantly related to project discharge (P<0.001). This relationship was positive, but there was no relationship between total project passage and forebay elevation (P=0.48) or forebay elevation delta, i.e., day-to-day change in forebay elevation (P=0.16). In multiple regression analyses, a relatively parsimonious model was selected that predicted the observed data well. The multiple regression model indicates a positive trend between expected daily fish passage and each of the three variables in the model-Julian day, log(discharge), and log(abs(forebay delta)); i.e., as any of the environmental variables increase, expected daily fish passage increases. For vertical distribution of fish at the face of the dam, fish were surface-oriented with 62%-80% occurring above 10 m deep. The highest percentage of fish (30%-60%) was found between 5-10-m-deep. During spring and summer, mean target strengths for the analysis periods ranged from -44.2 to -42.1 dB. These values are indicative of yearling-sized juvenile salmon. In contrast, mean target strengths in fall and winter were about -49.0 dB, which are representative of subyearling-sized fish. The high-resolution spatial and temporal data reported herein provide detailed information about vertical, horizontal, diel, daily, and seasonal fish passage rates and distributions at LOP from March 2010 through January 2011. This information will support management decisions on design and development of surface passage and collection devices to help restore Chinook salmon populations in the Middle Fork Willamette River watershed above LOP.

Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

398

An Assessment of Energy Potential at Non-Powered Dams in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

fleet by 15%. A majority of this potential is concentrated in just 100 NPDs, which could contribute approximately 8 GW of clean, reliable hydropower; the top 10 facilities alone could add up to 3 GW of new hydropower. Eighty-one of the 100 top NPDs are U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) facilities, many of which, including all of the top 10, are navigation locks on the Ohio River, Mississippi River, Alabama River, and Arkansas River, as well as their major tributaries. This study also shows that dams owned by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation hold the potential to add approximately 260 MW of capacity; the Bureau has also engaged in an effort to conduct a more detailed evaluation of its own facilities.

Hadjerioua, Boualem [ORNL; Wei, Yaxing [ORNL; Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Little Goose Dam Full Flow PIT-Tag Detection System Project Summary.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2006, the design phase of this project was kicked off and was for the most part modeled after the Full Flow PIT installation installed at Lower Monumental Dam during winter and spring of 2006 and 2007. As the Goose Full Flow design progressed and the project started to move towards construction, issues within contracting occurred and the project was put on delay for 1 year. Starting in mid December of 2008, Harcon Inc. was awarded the contract and construction of the new Goose Full Flow PIT-tag detection system began. The purpose of this document is to summarize the installation of the Little Goose Full Flow project from start to finish and to highlight the notable successes and challenges that the installation presented along with the final results and current status.

Warf, Don; Livingston, Scott [Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission

2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

400

Evaluation of Fish Passage Conditions for Juvenile Salmonids Using Sensor Fish at Detroit Dam, Oregon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fish passage conditions through two spillways at Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River in Oregon were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objective of the study was to describe and compare passage exposure conditions through Spillbay 3 and Spillbay 6 at 1.5- and 3.5-ft gate openings, identifying potential fish injury regions of the routes. The study was performed in July 2009, concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish and live fish were deployed at elevations approximately 3 ft above structure at depths determined using a computational fluid dynamics model. Data collected were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe collision and shear events by passage route sub-regions; 2) differences in passage conditions between passage routes; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates.

Duncan, Joanne P.

2010-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flaming gorge dam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir : Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impacts.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This notice announces BPA`s decision to fund the construction, operation, and maintenance of the Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir on the Duck Valley Reservation. This project is part of a continuing effort to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses caused by the development of the hydropower system in the Columbia River Basin. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the Proposed Action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Shoshone-Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Reservation, Nevada.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

White Sturgeon Mitigation & Restoration in the Columbia & Snake River Upstream from Bonneville Dam  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

29, 2003 29, 2003 To: People Interested in the Project to Mitigate and Restore White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has prepared the Final Environmental Assessment (EA), which includes a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI), for the White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam Project. The document is enclosed for your information. Background: Since 1986, State, Federal, and Tribal fisheries agencies have been gathering data and studying habitats, movements, population dynamics, feeding, and distribution of white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. With the decline in anadromous salmonid runs there has been an increase in the importance of the white sturgeon fisheries. The Oregon Department of

403

Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 1, Summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western`s power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western`s firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action altemative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Sections 1-16  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Ex post power economic analysis of record of decision operational restrictions at Glen Canyon Dam.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On October 9, 1996, Bruce Babbitt, then-Secretary of the U.S. Department of the Interior signed the Record of Decision (ROD) on operating criteria for the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD). Criteria selected were based on the Modified Low Fluctuating Flow (MLFF) Alternative as described in the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam, Colorado River Storage Project, Arizona, Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (Reclamation 1995). These restrictions reduced the operating flexibility of the hydroelectric power plant and therefore its economic value. The EIS provided impact information to support the ROD, including an analysis of operating criteria alternatives on power system economics. This ex post study reevaluates ROD power economic impacts and compares these results to the economic analysis performed prior (ex ante) to the ROD for the MLFF Alternative. On the basis of the methodology used in the ex ante analysis, anticipated annual economic impacts of the ROD were estimated to range from approximately $15.1 million to $44.2 million in terms of 1991 dollars ($1991). This ex post analysis incorporates historical events that took place between 1997 and 2005, including the evolution of power markets in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council as reflected in market prices for capacity and energy. Prompted by ROD operational restrictions, this analysis also incorporates a decision made by the Western Area Power Administration to modify commitments that it made to its customers. Simulated operations of GCD were based on the premise that hourly production patterns would maximize the economic value of the hydropower resource. On the basis of this assumption, it was estimated that economic impacts were on average $26.3 million in $1991, or $39 million in $2009.

Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration

2010-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

406

Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, 2004-2005 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2004 fish collection season at Lower Granite Dam (LGR) was characterized by above average water temperatures, below average flows and spill, low levels of debris. The number of smolts collected for all species groups (with the exception of clipped and unclipped sockeye/kokanee) exceeded all previous collection numbers. With the continued release of unclipped supplementation chinook, steelhead and sockeye above LGR, we can not accurately distinguish wild chinook, wild steelhead and wild sockeye/kokanee from hatchery reared unclipped chinook and sockeye/kokanee in the sample. Wild steelhead can be identified from hatchery steelhead by the eroded dorsal and pectoral fins exhibited on unclipped hatchery steelhead. The numbers in the wild columns beginning in 1998 include wild and unclipped hatchery origin smolts. This season a total of 11,787,539 juvenile salmonids was collected at LGR. Of these, 11,253,837 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 11,164,132 by barge and 89,705 by truck. An additional 501,395 fish were bypassed to the river due to over-capacity of the raceways and for research purposes. According to the PTAGIS database, 177,009 PIT-tagged fish were detected at LGR in 2004. Of these, 105,894 (59.8%) were bypassed through the PIT-tag diversion system, 69,130 (39.1%) were diverted to the raceways to be transported, 1,640 (0.9%) were diverted to the sample tank, sampled and then transported, 345 (0.2%) were undetected at any of the bypass, raceway or sample exit monitors.

Mensik, Fred; Rapp, Shawn; Ross Doug (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Total Dissolved Gas Effects on Incubating Chum Salmon Below Bonneville Dam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE; Portland District), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) undertook a project in 2006 to look further into issues of total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in the lower Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam. In FY 2008, the third year of the project, PNNL conducted field monitoring and laboratory toxicity testing to both verify results from 2007 and answer some additional questions about how salmonid sac fry respond to elevated TDG in the field and the laboratory. For FY 2008, three objectives were 1) to repeat the 2006-2007 field effort to collect empirical data on TDG from the Ives Island and Multnomah Falls study sites; 2) to repeat the static laboratory toxicity tests on hatchery chum salmon fry to verify 2007 results and to expose wild chum salmon fry to incremental increases in TDG, above those of the static test, until external symptoms of gas bubble disease were clearly present; and 3) to assess physiological responses to TDG levels in wild chum salmon sac fry incubating below Bonneville Dam during spill operations. This report summarizes the tasks conducted and results obtained in pursuit of the three objectives. Chapter 1 discusses the field monitoring, Chapter 2 reports the findings of the laboratory toxicity tests, and Chapter 3 describes the field-sampling task. Each chapter contains an objective-specific introduction, description of the study site and methods, results of research, and discussion of findings. Literature cited throughout this report is listed in Chapter 4. Additional details on the monitoring methodology and results are provided in Appendices A and B included on the compact disc bound inside the back cover of the printed version of this report.

Arntzen, Evan V.; Hand, Kristine D.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Geist, David R.; Murray, Katherine J.; Dawley, Earl M.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Elston, Ralph A.; Vavrinec, John

2009-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

408

Coupling glacial lake impact, dam breach, and flood processes: A modeling perspective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) are highly mobile mixtures of water and sediment that occur suddenly and are capable of traveling tens to hundreds of kilometers with peak discharges and volumes several orders of magnitude larger than those of normal floods. They travel along existing river channels, in some instances into populated downstream regions, and thus pose a risk to people and infrastructure. Many recent events involve process chains, such as mass movements impacting glacial lakes and triggering dam breaches with subsequent outburst floods. A concern is that effects of climate change and associated increased instability of high mountain slopes may exacerbate such process chains and associated extreme flows. Modeling tools can be used to assess the hazard of potential future GLOFs, and process modeling can provide insights into complex processes that are difficult to observe in nature. A number of numerical models have been developed and applied to simulate different types of extreme flows, but such modeling faces challenges stemming from a lack of process understanding and difficulties in measuring extreme flows for calibration purposes. Here we review the state of knowledge of key aspects of modeling GLOFs, with a focus on process cascades. Analysis and simulation of the onset, propagation, and potential impact of \\{GLOFs\\} are based on illustrative case studies. Numerical models are presently available for simulating impact waves in lakes, dam failures, and flow propagation but have been used only to a limited extent for integrated simulations of process cascades. We present a spectrum of case studies from Patagonia, the European Alps, central Asia, and the Himalayas in which we simulate single processes and process chains of past and potential future events. We conclude that process understanding and process chain modeling need to be strengthened and that research efforts should focus on a more integrative treatment of processes in numerical models.

Raphael Worni; Christian Huggel; John J. Clague; Yvonne Schaub; Markus Stoffel

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Physical characteristics of the performance and increase of the reliability of functioning of overflow dams with a {open_quotes}second limit state{close_quotes} of the rock foundation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main danger for the stability of high-head overflow dams having large safety factors is related to unfavorable processes in two zones of the foundation - near the upstream and downstream sides of the dam - due to fracturing of the rock foundation next to the dam by flood discharges. Fracturing of the toe of a dam, especially a gravity-arch dam, is accompanied by an increase of shear stresses in the rock under it to values exceeding the design values, and owing to fracturing of the rock below the dam foundation deformation movements of the dam toward the lower pool increase markedly, moreover, the greater amount, the more considerable the depth of fracturing below the dam foundation. As a result the tensile stresses in the rock in front of the dam increase to values exceeding the allowable, which intensifies cracking of this rock zone to a greater depth, the deeper the fracturing of the rock beyond the dam. Owing to this, the stress state of the foundation directly under the dam, accompanied by a decrease of the bearing capacity of the rock and increase of its deformation with loss of the required seepage strength, worsens.

Khlopenkov, P.R.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Nonlinearity 10 (1997) 12. Printed in the UK PII: S0951-7715(97)79608-7 Cover illustration: Non-premixed hydrocarbon flame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by the density difference from the combustion heat release and resulting temperature rise. The Reynolds number Publishing Ltd and LMS Publishing Ltd 1 #12;2 P E Dimotakis Combustion in non-premixed hydrocarbon flames-premixed hydrocarbon flame Paul E Dimotakis Graduate Aeronautical Laboratories, California Institute of Technology

Dimotakis, Paul E.

411

Linear eddy mixing based tabulation and artificial neural networks for large eddy simulations of turbulent flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A large eddy simulation (LES) sub-grid model is developed based on the artificial neural network (ANN) approach to calculate the species instantaneous reaction rates for multi-step, multi-species chemical kinetics mechanisms. The proposed methodology depends on training the ANNs off-line on a thermo-chemical database representative of the actual composition and turbulence (but not the actual geometrical problem) of interest, and later using them to replace the stiff ODE solver (direct integration (DI)) to calculate the reaction rates in the sub-grid. The thermo-chemical database is tabulated with respect to the thermodynamic state vector without any reduction in the number of state variables. The thermo-chemistry is evolved by stand-alone linear eddy mixing (LEM) model simulations under both premixed and non-premixed conditions, where the unsteady interaction of turbulence with chemical kinetics is included as a part of the training database. The proposed methodology is tested in LES and in stand-alone LEM studies of three distinct test cases with different reduced mechanisms and conditions. LES of premixed flame-turbulence-vortex interaction provides direct comparison of the proposed ANN method against DI and ANNs trained on thermo-chemical database created using another type of tabulation method. It is shown that the ANN trained on the LEM database can capture the correct flame physics with accuracy comparable to DI, which cannot be achieved by ANN trained on a laminar premix flame database. A priori evaluation of the ANN generality within and outside its training domain is carried out using stand-alone LEM simulations as well. Results in general are satisfactory, and it is shown that the ANN provides considerable amount of memory saving and speed-up with reasonable and reliable accuracy. The speed-up is strongly affected by the stiffness of the reduced mechanism used for the computations, whereas the memory saving is considerable regardless. (author)

Sen, Baris Ali; Menon, Suresh [School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 270 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332-0150 (United States)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

412

On molecular transport effects in real gas laminar diffusion flames at large pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Direct numerical simulations are conducted of unsteady exothermic and one-dimensional laminar diffusionflames at large pressures. The simulations are used to assess the impact of molecular diffusion and real gas effects under high pressure conditions with simplified chemical kinetics. The formulation includes the fully compressible form of the governing equations real gas effects modeled by the cubic Peng–Robinson equation of state and a generalized form of the Soret and Dufour mass and heat diffusion vectors derived from nonequilibrium thermodynamics and fluctuation theory. The cross diffusion fluxes are derived for a ternary species system and include the effects of both heat and mass diffusion in the presence of temperature concentration and pressure gradients (i.e. Soret and Dufour diffusion). The ternary species formulation is applied to a simplified single step reaction elucidating molecular and thermodynamic effects apparent in general combustion. Realistic models for pressure temperature and species dependent heat capacities viscosities thermal conductivities and mass diffusivities are also included. Three different model reactions are simulated both including and neglecting Soret and Dufour cross diffusion. The simulation results show that Soret and Dufour effects are negligible for reactions comprised of species with equal or near equal molecular weights. However Soret diffusion effects are apparent when species with nonequal molecular weights are involved in the reaction and result in reductions of the peak flame temperature. In addition it is shown that neglect of cross diffusion leads to deviations in the predicted flame thicknesses with under predictions for a hydrogen-oxygen system and over predictions for a heavy hydrocarbon reaction. These effects are explained in detail through examinations of the individual heat and mass flux vectors as well as through associated thermodynamic properties. A parametric study addresses the effects of the ambient pressure the initial “flame Reynolds number ” the Damkohler number and the heat release parameter.

Sridhar Palle; Christopher Nolan; Richard S. Miller

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Scaling and efficiency of PRISM in adaptive simulations of turbulent premixed flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dominant computational cost in modeling turbulent combustion phenomena numerically with high fidelity chemical mechanisms is the time required to solve the ordinary differential equations associated with chemical kinetics. One approach to reducing that computational cost is to develop an inexpensive surrogate model that accurately represents evolution of chemical kinetics. One such approach, PRISM, develops a polynomial representation of the chemistry evolution in a local region of chemical composition space. This representation is then stored for later use. As the computation proceeds, the chemistry evolution for other points within the same region are computed by evaluating these polynomials instead of calling an ordinary differential equation solver. If initial data for advancing the chemistry is encountered that is not in any region for which a polynomial is defined, the methodology dynamically samples that region and constructs a new representation for that region. The utility of this approach is determined by the size of the regions over which the representation provides a good approximation to the kinetics and the number of these regions that are necessary to model the subset of composition space that is active during a simulation. In this paper, we assess the PRISM methodology in the context of a turbulent premixed flame in two dimensions. We consider a range of turbulent intensities ranging from weak turbulence that has little effect on the flame to strong turbulence that tears pockets of burning fluid from the main flame. For each case, we explore a range of sizes for the local regions and determine the scaling behavior as a function of region size and turbulent intensity.

Tonse, Shaheen R.; Bell, J.B.; Brown, N.J.; Day, M.S.; Frenklach, M.; Grcar, J.F.; Propp, R.M.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Demonstration of triple pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in a jet diffusion flame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. A. Theory 1. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering basics B. Dual-pump and triple-pump CARS processes 1. Dual-pump CARS 2. Triple pump CARS C. Thermometry and species detection EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS A. Initial experimental system 1. Laser.... Laser Alignment and Performance I . Nd: YAG laser 2. Narrow band dye laser (ND6000) alignment 3. Broad-band dye laser alignment B. Triple-pump CARS set-up 1. CARS phase-matching alignment 2. Diffusion flame burner C. Results I. Results from first...

Velur Natarajan, Viswanathan

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

415

Fiber optic spectroscopic digital imaging sensor and method for flame properties monitoring  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for real-time monitoring of flame properties in combustors and gasifiers which includes an imaging fiber optic bundle having a light receiving end and a light output end and a spectroscopic imaging system operably connected with the light output end of the imaging fiber optic bundle. Focusing of the light received by the light receiving end of the imaging fiber optic bundle by a wall disposed between the light receiving end of the fiber optic bundle and a light source, which wall forms a pinhole opening aligned with the light receiving end.

Zelepouga, Serguei A. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Rue, David M. (Chicago, IL); Saveliev, Alexei V. (Chicago, IL)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

416

A Study of Gasification of Municipal Solid Waste Using a Double Inverse Diffusion Flame Burner  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Study of Gasification of Municipal Solid Waste Using a Double Inverse Diffusion Flame Burner ... Furthermore, the experiences of the waste incineration industry driven in the past by regulatory as well as technical issues may facilitate their commercial potentials outside the common market, especially in highly populated developing countries such as Korea with scarce landfill sites. ... Recently, several new technologies that involve gasification or combinations of pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification processes are currently being brought into the market for energy-efficient, environmentally friendly and economically sound methods of thermal processing of wastes. ...

Tae-Heon Kwak; Seungmoon Lee; Sanjeev Maken; Ho-Chul Shin; Jin-Won Park; Young Done Yoo

2005-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

417

Conditional Moment Closure Modeling for a Three-Dimensional Turbulent Non-premixed Syngas Flame with a Cooling Wall  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Conditional Moment Closure Modeling for a Three-Dimensional Turbulent Non-premixed Syngas Flame with a Cooling Wall ... In the experiment,(13) the burner is mounted to an air-cooled combustion chamber and the burner consists of a central fuel tube and an annular air tube. ... It can be seen that the velocity field at the pure-mixing entrance region is highly deflected by the flame holder, and the burned mixtures are partially impinged on the cooling wall (Tw = 600 K). ...

Gunhong Kim; Sungmo Kang; Yongmo Kim; Kwan-Soo Lee

2008-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

418

Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2005 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon O. nerka smolts during the 2005 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2005 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, the age-1 and older fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Age-0 Chinook salmon are more difficult to distinguish between wild and non-adclipped hatchery fish and therefore classified as unknown rearing. The total annual hatchery spring/summer Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 0.34 times greater in 2005 than in 2004. The wild spring/summer Chinook catch was 0.34 times less than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 0.67 times less than in 2004. Wild steelhead trout catch was 0.72 times less than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 1,152 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2005, the Snake River trap captured 219 hatchery and 44 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 110 coho salmon O. kisutch of unknown rearing. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. Trap operations began on March 6 and were terminated on June 3. The trap was out of operation for a total of one day due to heavy debris. FPC requested that the trap be restarted on June 15 through June 22 to collect and PIT tag age-0 Chinook salmon. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 1.06 times greater and wild Chinook salmon catch was 1.26 times greater than in 2004. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2005 was 1.41 times greater and wild steelhead trout collection was 1.27 times greater than the previous year. Trap operations began on March 6 and were terminated on May 17 due to high flows. There were two days when the trap was taken out of service because of mechanical failure. Travel time (d) and migration rate (km/d) through Lower Granite Reservoir for passive integrated transponder (PIT) tagged Chinook salmon and steelhead trout marked at the Snake River trap were affected by discharge. Statistical analysis of 2005 data detected a relation between migration rate and discharge for hatchery Chinook but was unable to detect a relation for wild Chinook. The inability to detect a migration rate discharge relation for wild Chinook salmon was caused by a lack of data. For hatchery Chinook salmon there was a 1.8-fold increase in migration rate between 50 and 100 kcfs. For steelhead trout tagged at the Snake River trap, statistical analysis detected a significant relation between migration rate and lower Granite Reservoir inflow discharge. For hatchery and wild steelhead trout, there was a 2.2-fold and a 2.2-fold increase in migration rate, respectively, between 50 and 100 kcfs. Travel time and migration rate to Lower Granite Dam for fish marked at the Salmon River trap were calculated. Statistical analysis of the 2005 data detected a significant relation between migration rate and Lower Granite Reservoir inflow discharge for hatchery Chinook salmon, wild Chinook salmon, hatchery steelhead trout, and wild steelhead trout. Migration rate increased 4.2-fold for hatchery Chinook salmon, 2.9-fold for wild Chinook salmon and 2.5-fold for hatchery steelhead, and 1.7-fold for wild steelhead as discharge increased between 50 kcfs and 100 kcfs. Fish tagged with PIT tags at the Snake River and Salmon River traps were interrogated at four dams with PIT tag detection systems (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental and McNary dams). Because of the addition of the fourth interrogation site (Lower Monumental) in 1993 and the installation of the Removable Spillway Weir at Lower Granite Dam in 2001, caution must be used in comparing cumulative interrogation data. Cumulative interrogations at the fo

Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A. [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

2009-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

419

Study of the comprehensive risk analysis of dam-break flooding based on the numerical simulation of flood routing. Part I: model development  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dam-break floods have been of increasing concern to safety ... of complex terrain in inundation areas multiplies the simulation difficulty of flood routing. In previous studies, representing the flood routing par...

Ruirui Sun; Xiaoling Wang; Zhengyin Zhou; Xuefei Ao; Xiaopei Sun…

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Study of the comprehensive risk analysis of dam-break flooding based on the numerical simulation of flood routing. Part II: Model application and results  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present model and methodology described in Part I of this work are applied to perform a comprehensive risk analysis of the dam-break flood of five reservoirs in the Haihe River ... The results indicate that t...

Zhengyin Zhou; Xiaoling Wang; Ruirui Sun; Xuefei Ao; Xiaopei Sun…

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

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421

Resident Fish Stock above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams; 2002 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1980, the United States Congress enacted the Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act (PL 96-501, 1980), which established the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC), formerly the Northwest Power Planning Council. The NPCC was directed by Congress to develop a regional Power Plan and also the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP) to restore or replace losses of fish caused by construction and operation of hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin. In developing the FWP, Congress specifically directed NPCC to solicit recommendations for measures to be included in the Program from the region's fish and wildlife agencies and Indian tribes. All measures adopted by the Council were also required to be consistent with the management objectives of the agencies and tribes [Section 4.(h)(6)(A)], the legal rights of Indian tribes in the region [Section 4.(h)(6)(D)] and be based upon and supported by the best available scientific knowledge [Section 4.(h)(6)(B)]. The Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams Project, also known as the Joint Stock Assessment Project (JSAP) specifically addresses NPPC Council measure 10.8B.26 of the 1994 program. The Joint Stock Assessment Project is a management tool using ecosystem principles to manage artificial fish assemblages and native fish in altered environments existing in the Columbia River System above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams (Blocked Area). A three-phase approach of this project will enhance the fisheries resources of the Blocked Area by identifying data gaps, filling data gaps with research, and implementing management recommendations based on research results. The Blocked Area fisheries information is housed in a central location, allowing managers to view the entire system while making decisions, rather than basing management decisions on isolated portions of the system. The JSAP is designed and guided jointly by fisheries managers in the Blocked Area. The initial year of the project (1997) identified the need for a central data storage and analysis facility, coordination with the StreamNet project, compilation of Blocked Area fisheries information, and a report on the ecological condition of the Spokane River System. These needs were addressed in 1998 by acquiring a central location with a data storage and analysis system, coordinating a pilot project with StreamNet, compiling fisheries distribution data throughout the Blocked Area, identifying data gaps based on compiled information, and researching the ecological condition of the Spokane River. In order to ensure that any additional information collected throughout the life of this project will be easily stored and manipulated by the central storage facility, it was necessary to develop standardized methodologies between the JSAP fisheries managers. Common collection and analytical methodologies were developed in 1999. In 1999, 2000, and 2001 the project began addressing some of the identified data gaps throughout the Blocked Area. Data collection of established projects and a variety of newly developed sampling projects are ongoing. Projects developed and undertaken by JSAP fisheries managers include investigations of the Pend Orielle River and its tributaries, the Little Spokane River and its tributaries, and water bodies within and near the Spokane Indian Reservation. Migration patterns of adfluvial and reservoir fish in Box Canyon Reservoir and its tributaries, a baseline assessment of Boundary Reservoir and its tributaries, ecological assessment of mountain lakes in Pend Oreille County, and assessments of streams and lakes on the Spokane Indian Reservation were completed by 2001. Assessments of the Little Spokane River and its tributaries, tributaries to the Pend Oreille River, small lakes in Pend Oreille County, WA, and water bodies within and near the Spokane Indian Reservation were conducted in 2002. This work was done in accordance with the scope of work approved by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA).

Connor, Jason M. (Kalispel Department of Natural Resources, Usk, WA); McLellan, Jason G. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Spokane, WA); Butler, Chris (Spokane Tribe of Indians, Department of Natural Resources, Wellpinit, WA)

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Resident Fish Stock above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams; 2003-2004 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1980, the United States Congress enacted the Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act (PL 96-501, 1980), which established the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC), formerly the Northwest Power Planning Council. The NPCC was directed by Congress to develop a regional Power Plan and also the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP) to restore or replace losses of fish caused by construction and operation of hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin. In developing the FWP, Congress specifically directed NPCC to solicit recommendations for measures to be included in the Program from the region's fish and wildlife agencies and Indian tribes. All measures adopted by the Council were also required to be consistent with the management objectives of the agencies and tribes [Section 4.(h)(6)(A)], the legal rights of Indian tribes in the region [Section 4.(h)(6)(D)] and be based upon and supported by the best available scientific knowledge [Section 4.(h)(6)(B)]. The Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams Project, also known as the Joint Stock Assessment Project (JSAP) specifically addresses NPPC Council measure 10.8B.26 of the 1994 program. The Joint Stock Assessment Project is a management tool using ecosystem principles to manage artificial and native fish assemblages in altered environments existing in the Columbia River System above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams (Blocked Area). A three-phase approach of this project will enhance the fisheries resources of the Blocked Area by identifying data gaps, filling data gaps with research, and implementing management recommendations based on research results. The Blocked Area fisheries information is housed in a central location, allowing managers to view the entire system while making decisions, rather than basing management decisions on isolated portions of the system. The JSAP is designed and guided jointly by fisheries managers in the Blocked Area. The initial year of the project (1997) identified the need for a central data storage and analysis facility, coordination with the StreamNet project, compilation of Blocked Area fisheries information, and a report on the ecological condition of the Spokane River System. These needs were addressed in 1998 by acquiring a central location with a data storage and analysis system, coordinating a pilot project with StreamNet, compiling fisheries distribution data throughout the Blocked Area, identifying data gaps based on compiled information, and researching the ecological condition of the Spokane River. In order to ensure that any additional information collected throughout the life of this project will be easily stored and manipulated by the central storage facility, it was necessary to develop standardized methodologies between the JSAP fisheries managers. Common collection and analytical methodologies were developed in 1999. The project began addressing identified data gaps throughout the Blocked Area in 1999. Data collection of established projects and a variety of newly developed sampling projects are ongoing. Projects developed and undertaken by JSAP fisheries managers include investigations of the Pend Orielle River and its tributaries, the Little Spokane River and its tributaries, and water bodies within and near the Spokane Indian Reservation. Migration patterns of adfluvial and reservoir fish in Box Canyon Reservoir and its tributaries, a baseline assessment of Boundary Reservoir and its tributaries, ecological assessment of mountain lakes in Pend Oreille County, and assessments of streams and lakes on the Spokane Indian Reservation were completed by 2001. Assessments of the Little Spokane River and its tributaries, Spokane River below Spokane Falls, tributaries to the Pend Oreille River, small lakes in Pend Oreille County, WA, and water bodies within and near the Spokane Indian Reservation were conducted in 2002 and 2003. This work was done in accordance with the scope of work approved by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA).

Connor, Jason M. (Kalispel Tribe of Indians, Usk, WA); McLellan, Jason G. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA); Butler, Chris (Spokane Tribe of Indians, Wellpinit, WA)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams; 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1980, the United States Congress enacted the Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act (PL 96-501, 1980), which established the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC). The NPPC was directed by Congress to develop a regional Power Plan and also the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP) to restore or replace losses of fish caused by construction and operation of hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin. In developing the FWP, Congress specifically directed NPPC to solicit recommendations for measures to be included in the Program from the region's fish and wildlife agencies and Indian tribes. All measures adopted by the Council were also required to be consistent with the management objectives of the agencies and tribes [Section 4.(h)(6)(A)], the legal rights of Indian tribes in the region [Section 4.(h)(6)(D)] and be based upon and supported by the best available scientific knowledge [Section 4.(h)(6)(B)]. The Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams Project, also known as the Joint Stock Assessment Project (JSAP) specifically addresses NPPC Council measure 10.8B.26 of the 1994 program. The Joint Stock Assessment Project is a management tool using ecosystem principles to manage artificial fish assemblages and native fish in altered environments existing in the Columbia River System above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams (Blocked Area). A three-phase approach of this project will enhance the fisheries resources of the Blocked Area by identifying data gaps, filling data gaps with research, and implementing management recommendations based on research results. The Blocked Area fisheries information is housed in a central location, allowing managers to view the entire system while making decisions, rather than basing management decisions on isolated portions of the system. The JSAP is designed and guided jointly by fisheries managers in the Blocked Area and the Columbia Basin Blocked Area Management Plan (1998). The initial year of the project (1997) identified the need for a central data storage and analysis facility, coordination with the StreamNet project, compilation of Blocked Area fisheries information, and a report on the ecological condition of the Spokane River System. These needs were addressed in 1998 by acquiring a central location with a data storage and analysis system, coordinating a pilot project with StreamNet, compiling fisheries distribution data throughout the Blocked Area, identifying data gaps based on compiled information, and researching the ecological condition of the Spokane River. In order to ensure that any additional information collected throughout the life of this project will be easily stored and manipulated by the central storage facility, it was necessary to develop standardized methodologies between the JSAP fisheries managers. Common collection and analytical methodologies were developed in 1999. In 1999, 2000, and 2001 the project began addressing some of the identified data gaps throughout the Blocked Area. Data collection of established projects and a variety of newly developed sampling projects are ongoing. Projects developed and undertaken by JSAP fisheries managers include investigations of the Pend Orielle River and its tributaries, the Little Spokane River and its tributaries, and water bodies within and near the Spokane Indian Reservation. Migration patterns of adfluvial and reservoir fish in Box Canyon Reservoir and its tributaries, a baseline assessment of Boundary Reservoir and its tributaries, ecological assessment of mountain lakes in Pend Oreille County, and assessments of seven streams and four lakes on the Spokane Indian Reservation were completed by 2000. Assessments of the Little Spokane River and its tributaries, tributaries to the Pend Oreille River, small lakes in southern Pend Oreille County, and water bodies within and near the Spokane Indian Reservation were conducted in 2001. This work was done in accordance with the scope of work approved by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA).

Connor, Jason M. (Kalispell Department of Natural Resources, Usk, WA); McLellan, Jason G. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Spokane, WA); O'Connor, Dick (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams; 2002-2003 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1980, the United States Congress enacted the Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act (PL 96-501, 1980), which established the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC), formerly the Northwest Power Planning Council. The NPCC was directed by Congress to develop a regional Power Plan and also the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP) to restore or replace losses of fish caused by construction and operation of hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin. In developing the FWP, Congress specifically directed NPCC to solicit recommendations for measures to be included in the Program from the region's fish and wildlife agencies and Indian tribes. All measures adopted by the Council were also required to be consistent with the management objectives of the agencies and tribes [Section 4.(h)(6)(A)], the legal rights of Indian tribes in the region [Section 4.(h)(6)(D)] and be based upon and supported by the best available scientific knowledge [Section 4.(h)(6)(B)]. The Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams Project, also known as the Joint Stock Assessment Project (JSAP) specifically addresses NPPC Council measure 10.8B.26 of the 1994 program. The Joint Stock Assessment Project is a management tool using ecosystem principles to manage artificial and native fish assemblages in altered environments existing in the Columbia River System above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams (Blocked Area). A three-phase approach of this project will enhance the fisheries resources of the Blocked Area by identifying data gaps, filling data gaps with research, and implementing management recommendations based on research results. The Blocked Area fisheries information is housed in a central location, allowing managers to view the entire system while making decisions, rather than basing management decisions on isolated portions of the system. The JSAP is designed and guided jointly by fisheries managers in the Blocked Area. The initial year of the project (1997) identified the need for a central data storage and analysis facility, coordination with the StreamNet project, compilation of Blocked Area fisheries information, and a report on the ecological condition of the Spokane River System. These needs were addressed in 1998 by acquiring a central location with a data storage and analysis system, coordinating a pilot project with StreamNet, compiling fisheries distribution data throughout the Blocked Area, identifying data gaps based on compiled information, and researching the ecological condition of the Spokane River. In order to ensure that any additional information collected throughout the life of this project will be easily stored and manipulated by the central storage facility, it was necessary to develop standardized methodologies between the JSAP fisheries managers. Common collection and analytical methodologies were developed in 1999. The project began addressing identified data gaps throughout the Blocked Area in 1999. Data collection of established projects and a variety of newly developed sampling projects are ongoing. Projects developed and undertaken by JSAP fisheries managers include investigations of the Pend Orielle River and its tributaries, the Little Spokane River and its tributaries, and water bodies within and near the Spokane Indian Reservation. Migration patterns of adfluvial and reservoir fish in Box Canyon Reservoir and its tributaries, a baseline assessment of Boundary Reservoir and its tributaries, ecological assessment of mountain lakes in Pend Oreille County, and assessments of streams and lakes on the Spokane Indian Reservation were completed by 2001. Assessments of the Little Spokane River and its tributaries, Spokane River below Spokane Falls, tributaries to the Pend Oreille River, small lakes in Pend Oreille County, WA, and water bodies within and near the Spokane Indian Reservation were conducted in 2002 and 2003. This work was done in accordance with the scope of work approved by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA).

Connor, Jason M. (Kalispel Tribe of Indians, Usk, WA); McLellan, Jason G. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife); Butler, Chris (Spokane Tribe of Indians, Wellpinit, WA)

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Comparative study of micromixing models in transported scalar PDF simulations of turbulent nonpremixed bluff body flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Numerical simulation results are presented for turbulent jet diffusion flames with various levels of turbulence-chemistry interaction, stabilized behind a bluff body (Sydney Flames HM1-3). Interaction between turbulence and combustion is modeled with the transported joint-scalar PDF approach. The mass density function transport equation is solved in a Lagrangian manner. A second-moment-closure turbulence model is applied to obtain accurate mean flow and turbulent mixing fields. The behavior of two micromixing models is discussed: the Euclidean minimum spanning tree model and the modified Curl coalescence dispersion model. The impact of the micromixing model choice on the results in physical space is small, although some influence becomes visible as the amount of local extinction increases. Scatter plots and profiles of conditional means and variances of thermochemical quantities, conditioned on the mixture fraction, are discussed both within and downstream of the recirculation region. A distinction is made between local extinction and incomplete combustion, based on the CO species mass fraction. The differences in qualitative behavior between the micromixing models are explained and quantitative comparison to experimental data is made. (author)

Merci, Bart [Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics, Ghent University-UGent, Ghent (Belgium); Roekaerts, Dirk [Department of Multi-Scale Physics, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Naud, Bertrand [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Pope, Stephen B. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

426

Effects of radiation on NO kinetics in turbulent hydrogen/air diffusion flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors describe a coupled radiation and NO kinetics calculation of turbulent hydrogen/air diffusion flame properties. Transport equations for mass, momentum, mixture fraction, enthalpy (sensible + chemical) including gas band radiation, and NO mass fraction are solved. NO kinetics is described by a one step thermal production mechanism. The local temperature is obtained by solving the enthalpy equation taking radiation loss from H{sub 2}O into consideration. Radiation/turbulence and chemical kinetics/turbulence interactions are treated using a clipped Gaussian probability density function (PDF) for the mixture fraction, and a delta PDF for the enthalpy. The source terms in the enthalpy and mass fraction of NO equations are treated using assumed PDF integration over the mixture fraction space. The results of the simulation are compared with existing measurements of the Emission Indices of NO (EINO) in turbulent H{sub 2}/air diffusion flames. The major conclusion of the paper is that coupled turbulence/radiation interactions should be taken into account while computing the EINO.

Sivathanu, Y.R.; Gore, J.P.; Laurendeau, N.M.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Transported PDF Modeling of Nonpremixed Turbulent CO/H-2/N-2 Jet Flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Turbulent CO/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} (“syngas”) flames are simulated using a transported composition probability density function (PDF) method. A consistent hybrid Lagrangian particle/Eulerian mesh algorithm is used to solve the modeled PDF transport equation. The model includes standard k–? turbulence, gradient transport for scalars, and Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST) mixing. Sensitivities of model results to variations in the turbulence model, the treatment of radiation heat transfer, the choice of chemical mechanism, and the PDF mixing model are explored. A baseline model reproduces the measured mean and rms temperature, major species, and minor species profiles reasonably well, and captures the scaling that is observed in the experiments. Both our results and the literature suggest that further improvements can be realized with adjustments in the turbulence model, the radiation heat transfer model, and the chemical mechanism. Although radiation effects are relatively small in these flames, consideration of radiation is important for accurate NO prediction. Chemical mechanisms that have been developed specifically for fuels with high concentrations of CO and H{sub 2} perform better than a methane mechanism that was not designed for this purpose. It is important to account explicitly for turbulence–chemistry interactions, although the details of the mixing model do not make a large difference in the results, within reasonable limits.

Zhao, xinyu; Haworth, D. C.; Huckaby, E. David

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Polymer/clay aerogel composites with flame retardant agents: Mechanical, thermal and fire behavior  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Aerogel is a class of material characterized by its high void content and extreme lightness. Different polymer/clay aerogels have been prepared by a simply freeze–thaw process from a suspension with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) and clay (Na+-MMT). Low density polymer/clay aerogels modified with flame retardant agents were prepared using a similar approach. The addition of flame retardant agents slightly increased the apparent density of the final composites whereas the compression properties were reduced due to the decrease in the polymer/clay interfacial bonding. An exception was the sample containing Al(OH)3 that exhibited higher modulus and stress at maximum deformation. Regarding thermal properties, the presence of ammonium polyphosphate (APP) or silica gel (SG) significantly slowed the rate of aerogel decomposition at the temperature range from 250 °C to 500 °C while the onset of polymer decomposition was not affected. Fire behavior was analyzed through cone calorimeter suggesting that either the presence of Al(OH)3 or APP reduced the heat release rate of PVOH/clay systems.

Liang Wang; Miguel Sánchez-Soto; Maria Lluisa Maspoch

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Chemical kinetic considerations for postflame synthesis of carbon nanotubes in premixed flames using a support catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on a grid supported cobalt nanocatalyst were grown, by exposing it to combustion gases from ethylene/air rich premixed flames. Ten equivalence ratios ({phi}) were investigated, as follows: 1.37, 1.44, 1.47, 1.50, 1.55, 1.57, 1.62, 1.75, 1.82, and 1.91. MWCNT growth could be observed for the range of equivalence ratios between 1.45 and 1.75, with the best yield restricted to the range 1.5-1.6. A one-dimensional premixed flame code with a postflame heat loss model, including detailed chemistry, was used to estimate the gas phase chemical composition that favors MWCNT growth. The results of the calculations show that the mixture, including the water gas shift reaction, is not even in partial chemical equilibrium. Therefore, past discussions of compositional parameters that relate to optimum carbon nanotube (CNT) growth are revised to include chemical kinetic effects. Specifically, rapid departures of the water gas shift reaction from partial equilibrium and changes in mole fraction ratios of unburned C{sub 2} hydrocarbons to hydrogen correlate well with experimentally observed CNT yields. (author)

Gopinath, Prarthana; Gore, Jay [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

430

Synergistic flame retardant effect of metal hydroxide and nanoclay in EVA composites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study focused on the flame retardancy of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) in combination with metal hydroxide and nanoclay. Fire tests, such as limiting oxygen index (LOI), flammability (UL-94), cone calorimeter, and smoke density chamber were employed to evaluate the effect of composition variation for the metal hydroxide and the nanoclay in EVA composites. The experimental results showed that when the nanoclay of 1 or 2 weight per cent was substituted for the aluminum hydroxide or magnesium hydroxide in EVA blends, the LOI value was significantly improved while the V-0 rating was maintained. The data obtained from the cone calorimeter test indicated that the peak heat release rate (pk-HRR) is reduced by about 28%–47%. The smoke density data (maximal smoke density, Dm) showed a reduction by about 16%–25%. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data also showed that the nanoclay increased the thermal stability and char residue of the EVA samples. Hence, it is suggested that the metal oxide layer on the burning surface is reinforced by the formation of silicate layer, which is both structured and compacted and acts as the insulation, and the newly formed layer responds to the synergistic effect of flame retardancy as well as smoke suppression observed in the EVA blends.

Ynh-Yue Yen; Hsin-Ta Wang; Wen-Jen Guo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Modeling of the formation of short-chain acids in propane flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to better understand their potential formation in combustion systems, a detailed kinetic mechanism for the formation of short-chain monocarboxylic acids, formic (HCOOH), acetic (CH3COOH), propionic (C2H5COOH) and propenic (C2H3COOH)) acids, has been developed. Simulations of lean (equivalence ratios from 0.9 to 0.48) laminar premixed flames of propane stabilized at atmospheric pressure with nitrogen as diluent have been performed. It was found that amounts up to 25 ppm of acetic acid, 15 ppm of formic acid and 1 ppm of C3 acid can be formed for some positions in the flames. Simulations showed that the more abundant C3 acid formed is propenic acid. A quite acceptable agreement has been obtained with the scarce results from the literature concerning oxygenated compounds, including aldehydes (CH2O, CH3CHO) and acids. A reaction pathways analysis demonstrated that each acid is mainly derived from the aldehyde of similar structure.

Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Jaffrezo, J L; Legrand, M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Proceedings of the international workshop on measurement and computation of turbulent nonpremixed flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the proceedings of the International Workshop on Measurement and Computation of Turbulent Nonpremixed Flames, held in Naples, Italy on July 26--27, 1996. Contents include materials that were distributed to participants at the beginning of the workshop, as well as a Summary of Workshop Accomplishments that was generated at the close to this Naples meeting. The Naples workshop involved sixty-one people from eleven countries. The primary objectives were: (1) to select a set of well-documented and relatively simple flames that would be appropriate for collaborative comparisons of model predictions; and (2) to specify common submodels to be used in these predictions, such that models for the coupling of turbulence and chemistry might be isolated and better understood. Studies involve hydrogen and natural gas fuels. These proceedings are also published on the Web and those interested in the ongoing process of data selection and model comparison should consult the workshop page for the most recent and complete information on these collaborative research efforts. The URL is: http://www/ca.sandia/gov/tdf/Workshop.html.

Barlow, R.S. [ed.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Thermonuclear Flame Spreading on Rapidly Spinning Neutron Stars: Indications of the Coriolis Force?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Millisecond period brightness oscillations during the intensity rise of thermonuclear X-ray bursts are likely caused by an azimuthally asymmetric, expanding burning region on the stellar surface. The time evolution of the oscillation amplitude during the intensity rise encodes information on how the thermonuclear flames spread across the stellar surface. This process depends on properties of the accreted burning layer, surface fluid motions, and the surface magnetic field structure, and thus can provide insight into these stellar properties. We present two examples of bursts from different sources that show a decrease in oscillation amplitude during the intensity rise. Using theoretical modeling, we demonstrate that the observed amplitude evolution of these bursts is not well described by a uniformly expanding circular burning region. We further show that by including in our model the salient aspects of the Coriolis force (as described by Spitkovsky, Levin, and Ushomirsky) we can qualitatively reproduce the observed evolution curves. Our modeling shows that the evolutionary structure of burst oscillation amplitude is sensitive to the nature of flame spreading, while the actual amplitude values can be very useful to constrain some source parameters.

Sudip Bhattacharyya; Tod E. Strohmayer

2007-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

434

Passage Distribution and Federal Columbia River Power System Survival for Steelhead Kelts Tagged Above and at Lower Granite Dam, Year 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations have declined throughout their range in the last century and many populations, including those of the Snake River Basin are listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. The reasons for their decline are many and complex, but include habitat loss and degradation, overharvesting, and dam construction. The 2008 Biological Opinion calls for an increase in the abundance of female steelhead through an increase in iteroparity (i.e., repeat spawning) and this can be realized through a combination of reconditioning and in-river survival of migrating kelts. The goal of this study is to provide the data necessary to inform fisheries managers and dam operators of Snake River kelt migration patterns, survival, and routes of dam passage. Steelhead kelts (n = 487) were captured and implanted with acoustic transmitters and passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tags at the Lower Granite Dam (LGR) Juvenile Fish Facility and at weirs located in tributaries of the Snake and Clearwater rivers upstream of LGR. Kelts were monitored as they moved downstream through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) by 15 autonomous and 3 cabled acoustic receiver arrays. Cabled receiver arrays deployed on the dam faces allowed for three-dimensional tracking of fish as they approached the dam face and were used to determine the route of dam passage. Overall, 27.3% of the kelts tagged in this study successfully migrated to Martin Bluff (rkm 126, as measured from the mouth of the Columbia River), which is located downstream of all FCRPS dams. Within individual river reaches, survival per kilometer estimates ranged from 0.958 to 0.999; the lowest estimates were observed in the immediate forebay of FCRPS dams. Steelhead kelts tagged in this study passed over the spillway routes (spillway weirs, traditional spill bays) in greater proportions and survived at higher rates compared to the few fish passed through powerhouse routes (turbines and juvenile bypass systems). The results of this study provide information about the route of passage and subsequent survival of steelhead kelts that migrated through the Snake and Columbia rivers from LGR to Bonneville Dam in 2013. These data may be used by fisheries managers and dam operators to identify potential ways to increase the survival of kelts during their seaward migrations.

Colotelo, Alison HA; Harnish, Ryan A.; Jones, Bryan W.; Hanson, Amanda C.; Trott, Donna M.; Greiner, Michael J.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Deng, Zhiqun; Brown, Richard S.; Weiland, Mark A.; Li, X.; Fu, Tao

2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

435

Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams; 2000 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams Project, commonly known as the Joint Stock Assessment Project (JSAP) is a management tool using ecosystem principles to manage artificial fish assemblages and native fish in altered environments existing in the Columbia River System above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams (blocked area). The three-phase approach of this project will enhance the fisheries resources of the blocked area by identifying data gaps, filling data gaps with research, and implementing management recommendations based on research results. The Blocked Area fisheries information housed in a central location will allow managers to view the entire system while making decisions, rather than basing management decisions on isolated portions of the system. The JSAP (NWPPC program measure 10.8B.26) is designed and guided jointly by fisheries managers in the blocked area and the Columbia Basin blocked area management plan (1998). The initial year of the project (1997) identified the need for a central data storage and analysis facility, coordination with the StreamNet project, compilation of blocked area fisheries information, and a report on the ecological condition of the Spokane River System. These needs were addressed in 1998 by acquiring a central location with a data storage and analysis system, coordinating a pilot project with StreamNet, compiling fisheries distribution data throughout the blocked area, identifying data gaps based on compiled information, and researching the ecological condition of the Spokane River. In order to ensure that any additional information collected throughout the life of this project will be easily stored and manipulated by the central storage facility, it was necessary to develop standardized methodologies between the JSAP fisheries managers. The use of common collection and analytical tools is essential to the process of streamlining joint management decisions. In 1999 and 2000 the project began to address some of the identified data gaps, throughout the blocked area, with a variety of newly developed sampling projects, as well as, continuing with ongoing data collection of established projects.

Crossley, Brian (Spokane Tribe of Indians, Department of Natural Resources, Wellpinit, WA); Lockwood, Jr., Neil W. (Kalispel Tribe of Indians, Usk, WA); McLellan, Jason G. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Spokane, WA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, 2005-2006 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2005 fish collection season at Lower Granite Dam (LGR) was characterized by average water temperatures, below average flows, above average spill, low levels of debris and the record number of smolts collected compared to the previous five years. With the continued release of unclipped supplementation chinook and steelhead above LGR, we cannot accurately distinguish wild chinook, steelhead, and sockeye/kokanee in the sample. For the purposes of this report we will designate fish as clipped and unclipped. This season a total of 13,030,967 juvenile salmonids were collected at LGR. Of these, 12,099,019 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 12,032,623 by barge and 66,396 by truck. An additional 898,235 fish were bypassed to the river due to over-capacity of the raceways, barges or trucks and for research purposes. This was the first season of summer spill at LGR. Spill was initiated at 12:01am June 20 as directed by the ruling set forth by Judge James Redden of the United States District Court (Order CV 01-640-RE). In addition, the Lower Granite project also conducted a summer spill test alternating spill and spill patterns between spill to the gas cap without the removable spillway weir (RSW) and spill with up to 20 kcfs utilizing the RSW. Because of the forecast low flow this year, most hatchery reared subyearling fall chinook were released up to three weeks early. With the unexpected high flows in late May and early June, more than 90% of the subyearling chinook were collected prior to the initiation of the court ordered summer spill program. Collection number fluctuations reflect river flow and project operations for any given year. For example, low flow years (2001, 2004 and 2005) result in higher collection numbers. Court ordered spill throughout the summer migration will directly affect collection of fall subyearling chinook collection numbers. The editors of this report urge the reader to use caution when comparing fish collection numbers between years, considering both annual river flows and annual project operations, because both affect fish migration and collection.

Mensik, Fred; Rapp, Shawn; Ross, Doug (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, Annual Report 2005-2006.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2005 fish collection season at Lower Granite Dam (LGR) was characterized by average water temperatures, below average flows, above average spill, low levels of debris and the record number of smolts collected compared to the previous five years. With the continued release of unclipped supplementation chinook and steelhead above LGR, we cannot accurately distinguish wild chinook, steelhead, and sockeye/kokanee in the sample. For the purposes of this report we will designate fish as clipped and unclipped. This season a total of 13,030,967 juvenile salmonids were collected at LGR. Of these, 12,099,019 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 12,032,623 by barge and 66,396 by truck. An additional 898,235 fish were bypassed to the river due to over-capacity of the raceways, barges or trucks and for research purposes. This was the first season of summer spill at LGR. Spill was initiated at 12:01am June 20 as directed by the ruling set forth by Judge James Redden of the United States District Court (Order CV 01-640-RE). In addition, the Lower Granite project also conducted a summer spill test alternating spill and spill patterns between spill to the gas cap without the removable spillway weir (RSW) and spill with up to 20 kcfs utilizing the RSW. Because of the forecast low flow this year, most hatchery reared subyearling fall chinook were released up to three weeks early. With the unexpected high flows in late May and early June, more than 90% of the subyearling chinook were collected prior to the initiation of the court ordered summer spill program. Collection number fluctuations reflect river flow and project operations for any given year. For example, low flow years (2001, 2004 and 2005) result in higher collection numbers. Court ordered spill throughout the summer migration will directly affect collection of fall subyearling chinook collection numbers. The editors of this report urge the reader to use caution when comparing fish collection numbers between years, considering both annual river flows and annual project operations, because both affect fish migration and collection.

Menski, Fred

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Use of an Autonomous Sensor to Evaluate the Biological Performance of the Advanced Turbine at Wanapum Dam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydropower is the largest renewable energy resource in the world and the United States. However, Hydropower dams have adverse ecological impacts because migrating fish may be injured or killed when they pass through hydro turbines. In the Columbia and Snake River basins, dam operators and engineers are required to make these hydroelectric facilities more fish-friendly through changes in hydro-turbine design and operation after fish population declines and the subsequent listing of several species of Pacific salmon in the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Grant County Public Utility District (Grant PUD) requested authorization from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to replace the 10 turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines that are designed to improve survival for fish passing through the turbines while improving operation efficiency and increasing power generation. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy provided co-funding to Grant PUD for aspects of performance testing that supported the application. As an additional measure to the primary evaluation measure of direct injury and mortality rates of juvenile Chinook salmon using balloon tag-recapture methodology, this study used an autonomous sensor device to provide insight into the specific hydraulic conditions or physical stresses that the fish experienced or the specific causes of the biological response. We found that the new blade shape and the corresponding reduction of turbulence in the advanced hydropower turbine were effective. The frequency of severe events based on Sensor Fish pressure and acceleration measurements showed trends similar to those of fish survival determined by balloon tag-recapture tests. In addition, the new turbine provided a better pressure and rate of change environment for fish passage. Overall, the Sensor Fish data indicated that the advanced hydro turbine design met the desired fish passage goals for Wanapum Dam.

Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Dauble, Dennis D.

2010-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

439

Placement of the dam for the no. 2 kambaratinskaya HPP by large-scale blasting: some observations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of complex instrument observations of large-scale blasting during construction of the dam for the No. 2 Kambaratinskaya HPP on the Naryn River in the Republic of Kirgizia are analyzed. The purpose of these observations was: to determine the actual parameters of the seismic process, evaluate the effect of air and acoustic shock waves, and investigate the kinematics of the surface formed by the blast in its core region within the mass of fractured rocks.

Shuifer, M. I.; Argal, E. S. [JSC 'SPII Gidroproekt' (Russian Federation)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

440

Movements and Distribution of Northern Squawfish Downstream of Lower Snake River Dams Relative to the Migration of Juvenile Salmonids, 1992-1993 Completion Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis movements were monitored downstream of two lower Snake River dams during the juvenile salmonid migrations of 1992 and 1993. During a high flow year in 1993, the abundance of squawfish in the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam peaked in July, after the majority of juveniles had moved past Lower Granite Dam, and peak abundance was inversely related to river discharge. Few squawfish moved into the tailrace of Ice Harbor Dam in 1993 because of the extended period of spill. Distributions of squawfish in the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam varied between and within years and shifted in response to changing prey densities, flow patterns, water temperature, and diel cycles, but fish consistently used low velocity habitats. Data from Ice Harbor Dam is less extensive, but squawfish distributions there appeared to be affected by changing flow patterns and fish used low velocity habitats. The changes in distribution and abundance of squawfish in tailrace areas are evidence that predation on seaward migrating salmonids depends on the timing of migration and size and timing of runoff. Juvenile salmonids migrating in the spring and early summer will probably be less affected by squawfish predation in tailrace areas than salmon that migrate later in the summer.

Isaak, D.J.; Bjornn, T.C. (University of Idaho, Idaho Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Moscow, ID)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flaming gorge dam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Route-Specific Passage and Survival of Steelhead Kelts at The Dalles and Bonneville Dams, 2012 - Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was mainly focused on evaluating the route-specific passage and migration success of steelhead kelts passing downstream through The Dalles Dam (TDA) and Bonneville Dam (BON) at Columbia River (CR) river kilometers 309 and 234 respectively. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) personnel collected, tagged and released out-migrating steelhead kelts in the tributaries of the Deschutes River, 15 Mile Creek and Hood River between April 14 and June 4, 2012. A PIT tag was injected into each kelt’s dorsal sinus whereas a Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic micro-transmitter was attached to an external FLoy T-bar tag and inserted into the dorsal back musculature using a Floy tagging gun. JSATS cabled arrays were deployed at TDA and BON and autonomous node arrays were deployed near Celilo, Oregon (CR325); the BON forebay (CR236); the BON tailrace (CR233); near Knapp, Washington (CR156); and near Kalama, Washington (CR113) to monitor the kelts movement while passing through the dams and above mentioned river cross-sections.

Rayamajhi, Bishes; Ploskey, Gene R.; Woodley, Christa M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derek M.; Kim, Jin A.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao

2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

442

Survival and Passage of Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead at The Dalles Dam, Spring 2011 - FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study reported herein was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington (UW) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The PNNL and UW project managers were Drs. Thomas J. Carlson and John R. Skalski, respectively. The USACE technical lead was Mr. Brad Eppard. The study was designed to estimate dam passage survival and other performance measures at The Dalles Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion (BiOp) and the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords. The study is being documented in two types of reports: compliance and technical. A compliance report is delivered within 6 months of the completion of the field season and focuses on results of the performance metrics outlined in the 2008 BiOp and Fish Accords. A technical report is produced within the 18 months after field work, providing comprehensive documentation of a given study and results on route-specific survival estimates and fish passage distributions, which are not included in compliance reports. This technical report concerns the 2011 acoustic telemetry study at The Dalles Dam.

Johnson, Gary E.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Batten, G.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao; Hughes, James S.; Martinez, Jayson J.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Royer, Ida M.; Townsend, Richard L.; Woodley, Christa M.; Kim, Jeongkwon; Etherington, D. J.; Skalski, J. R.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Fisher, Erik J.; Greiner, Michael J.; Khan, Fenton; Mitchell, T. D.; Rayamajhi, Bishes; Seaburg, Adam; Weiland, Mark A.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Cellular burning in lean premixed turbulent hydrogen-air flames: Coupling experimental and computational analysis at the laboratory scale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One strategy for reducing US dependence on petroleum is to develop new combustion technologies for burning the fuel-lean mixtures of hydrogen or hydrogen-rich syngas fuels obtained from the gasification of coal and biomass. Fuel-flexible combustion systems based on lean premixed combustion have the potential for dramatically reducing pollutant emissions in transportation systems, heat and stationary power generation. However, lean premixed flames are highly susceptible to fluid-dynamical combustion instabilities making robust and reliable systems difficult to design. Low swirl burners are emerging as an important technology for meeting design requirements in terms of both reliability and emissions for next generation combustion devices. In this paper, we present simulations of a lean, premixed hydrogen flame stabilized on a laboratory-scale low swirl burner. The simulations use detailed chemistry and transport without incorporating explicit models for turbulence or turbulence/chemistry interaction. Here we discuss the overall structure of the flame and compare with experimental data. We also use the simulation data to elucidate the characteristics of the turbulent flame interaction and how this impacts the analysis of experimental measurements.

M S Day; J B Bell; R K Cheng; S Tachibana; V E Beckner; M J Lijewski

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Effects of Fuel-Side Nitrogen Dilution on Structure and NOx Formation of Turbulent Syngas Non-premixed Jet Flames  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this syngas non-premixed burner, the nozzle inner and outer diameters are 7.72 mm and 9.46 mm, respectively. ... Prathap, C.; Ray, A.; Ravi, M. R.Investigation of nitrogen dilution effects on laminar burning velocity and flame stability of syngas fuel at atmospheric condition Combust. ...

Jeongwon Lee; Sangwoon Park; Yongmo Kim

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

OH-PLIF Measurements of High-Pressure, Hydrogen Augmented Premixed Flames in the SimVal Combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) measurements of the hydroxyl radical in lean, premixed natural gas flames augmented with hydrogen are presented. The experiments were conducted in the SimVal combustor at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) at operating pressures from 1 to 8 atmospheres. The data, which was collected in a combustor with well controlled boundary conditions, is intended to be used for validating Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models under conditions directly relevant to land-based gas turbine engines. The images, which show significant effects of hydrogen on local flame quenching are discussed in terms of a turbulent premixed combustion regime and non-dimensional parameters such as Karlovitz number. Pressure was found to thin the OH region, but only had a secondary effect on overall flame shape compared to the effects of hydrogen addition which was found to decrease local quenching and shorten the turbulent flame brush. A method to process the individual images based on local gradients of fluorescence intensity is proposed and results are presented. Finally, the results of several Large Eddy Simulations (LES) are presented and compared to the experimental data in an effort to understand the issues related to model validation, especially for simulations that do not include OH as an intermediate species.

Strakey, P.A.; Woodruff, S.D.; Williams, T.C. (Sandia); Schefer, R.W. (Sandia)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Acoustic near-field characteristics of a conical, premixed flame Doh-Hyoung Lee and Tim C. Lieuwena)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

system failure. They gener- ally occur at frequencies associated with the combustor's natural it is influenced by oscillation frequency, combustor geometry, flame length and temperature ratio. The results processing,1 solid and liquid rockets,2,3 ramjets,4 afterburners, and land-based gas turbines.5

Lieuwen, Timothy C.

447

Assessment of kinetic modeling for lean H2/CH4/O2/diluent flames at high pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) and HO2 + H with the main branching reactions. Methane addition is shown to influence the pressure: Hydrogen; Methane; Syngas; Flame speed; Chemical mechanism 1. Introduction The H2/O2 reaction system CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other small hydrocarbons (synthetic gas or "syngas") from coal or biomass

Ju, Yiguang

448

Detailed investigation of a pulverized fuel swirl flame in CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} atmosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel approach to oxycoal flame stabilization has been developed at the Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer at RWTH Aachen University [D. Toporov, M. Foerster, R. Kneer, in: Third Int. Conf. on Clean Coal Technologies for Our Future, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy, 15-17 May 2007]. The swirl burner design and its operating conditions have been adjusted in order to enforce CO formation thus stabilizing the flame and obtaining a full burnout at levels of O{sub 2} content in the O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixture similar to those in air. The paper presents results of detailed numerical and experimental investigations of a stable oxy-fired pulverized coal swirl flame (type-2) obtained with a 21 vol% O{sub 2} concentration. The combustion tests were performed in a vertical pilot-scale furnace (100 kW{sub th}) in the framework of the OXYCOAL-AC research project aiming to develop a membrane-based oxyfuel process. The experimental results concerning gas velocities, gas and particle temperatures, and gas compositions are presented and discussed, focusing on the underlying mechanisms as well as on the aerodynamics of the oxycoal flame. A comparison between measurements and simulations has shown the validity of the numerical method used. The reported data set can be used for validation of numerical models developed for prediction of oxyfuel combustion. (author)

Toporov, D.; Bocian, P.; Heil, P.; Kellermann, A.; Stadler, H.; Tschunko, S.; Foerster, M.; Kneer, R. [Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer, RWTH Aachen University, Eilfschornsteinstrasse 18, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

449

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory report LBNL-725E 1 A New Type of Steady and Stable, Laminar, Premixed Flame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Premixed Flame in Ultra-Lean, Hydrogen-Air Combustion Joseph F. Grcara a Center for Computational Science and Engineering Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, CA 94720-8142, USA Abstract Ultra-lean, hydrogen propagating cells. These cells were the original meaning of the word "flamelet" when they were observed

450

A STUDY ON SPHERICAL EXPANDING FLAME SPEEDS OF METHANE, ETHANE, AND METHANE/ETHANE MIXTURES AT ELEVATED PRESSURES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-pressure experiments and chemical kinetics modeling were performed for laminar spherically expanding flames for methane/air, ethane/air, methane/ethane/air and propane/air mixtures at pressures between 1 and 10 atm and equivalence ratios...

De Vries, Jaap

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

451

Large eddy simulation/conditional moment closure modeling of swirl-stabilized non-premixed flames with local extinction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, L. Vervisch, P. Domingo, Combust. Flame 146 (2006), 635-648. 28. S. Navarro-Martinez, A. Kronenburg, F.D. Mare, Flow Turbul. Combust. 75 (2005), 245-274. 29. A. Triantafyllidis, E. Mastorakos, Flow Turbul. Combust. 84 (2010), 481-512. 30. M...

Zhang, Huangwei; Garmory, Andrew; Cavaliere, Davide E.; Mastorakos, Epaminondas

2014-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

452

Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2004 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon O. nerka smolts during the 2004 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2004 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 1.1 times greater in 2004 than in 2003. The wild Chinook catch was 1.1 times greater than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 1.2 times greater than in 2003. Wild steelhead trout catch was 1.6 times greater than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 978 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2004, the Snake River trap captured 23 hatchery and 18 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 60 coho salmon O. kisutch of unknown rearing. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. Trap operations began on March 7 and were terminated on June 4. The trap was out of operation for a total of zero days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 10.8% less and wild Chinook salmon catch was 19.0% less than in 2003. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2004 was 20.0% less and wild steelhead trout collection was 22.3% less than the previous year. Trap operations began on March 7 and were terminated on May 28 due to high flows. There were two days when the trap was taken out of service because wild Chinook catch was very low, hatchery Chinook catch was very high, and the weekly quota of PIT tagged hatchery Chinook had been met. Travel time (d) and migration rate (km/d) through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT-tagged Chinook salmon and steelhead trout marked at the Snake River trap were affected by discharge. Statistical analysis of 2004 data detected a relation between migration rate and discharge for wild Chinook salmon but was unable to detect a relation for hatchery Chinook. The inability to detect a migration rate discharge relation for hatchery Chinook salmon was caused by age-0 fall Chinook being mixed in with the age 1 Chinook. Age-0 fall Chinook migrate much slower than age-1 Chinook, which would confuse the ability to detect the migration rate discharge relation. When several groups, which consisted of significant numbers of age-0 Chinook salmon, were removed from the analysis a relation was detected. For hatchery and wild Chinook salmon there was a 2.8-fold and a 2.4-fold increase in migration rate, respectively, between 50 and 100 kcfs. For steelhead trout tagged at the Snake River trap, statistical analysis detected a significant relation between migration rate and Lower Granite Reservoir inflow discharge. For hatchery and wild steelhead trout, there was a 2.3-fold and a 2.0-fold increase in migration rate, respectively, between 50 and 100 kcfs. Travel time and migration rate to Lower Granite Dam for fish marked at the Salmon River trap were calculated. Statistical analysis of the 2004 data detected a significant relation between migration rate and Lower Granite Reservoir inflow discharge for hatchery Chinook salmon, wild Chinook salmon and hatchery steelhead trout. Not enough data were available to perform the analysis for wild steelhead trout. Migration rate increased 7.0-fold for hatchery Chinook salmon, 4.7-fold for wild Chinook salmon and 3.8-fold for hatchery steelhead as discharge increased between 50 kcfs and 100 kcfs. Fish tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags at the Snake River and Salmon River traps were interrogated at four dams with PIT tag detection systems (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and McNary dams). Because of the addition of the fourth interrogation site (Lower Monume

Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A. [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

2009-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

453

Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2002 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon smolts O. nerka during the 2002 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2002 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 11.4 times greater in 2002 than in 2001. The wild Chinook catch was 15.5 times greater than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 2.9 times greater than in 2001. Wild steelhead trout catch was 2.8 times greater than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 3,996 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2002, the Snake River trap captured 69 hatchery and 235 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 114 hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. The significant increase in catch in 2002 was due to a 3.1 fold increase in hatchery Chinook production and a more normal spring runoff. Trap operations began on March 10 and were terminated on June 7. The trap was out of operation for a total of four days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 4.2 times greater and wild Chinook salmon catch was 2.4 times greater than in 2001. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2002 was 81% of the 2001 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 2002 was 81% of the previous year's catch. Trap operations began on March 10 and were terminated on May 29 due to high flows. The trap was out of operation for four days due to high flow or debris. The increase in hatchery Chinook catch in 2002 was due to a 3.1 fold increase in hatchery production and differences in flow between years. Changes in hatchery and wild steelhead catch are probably due to differences in flow between years. Travel time (d) and migration rate (km/d) through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT-tagged Chinook salmon and steelhead trout marked at the Snake River trap were affected by discharge. Statistical analysis of 2002 data detected a relation between migration rate and discharge for hatchery and wild Chinook salmon. For hatchery and wild Chinook salmon there was a 4.7-fold and a 3.7-fold increase in migration rate, respectively, between 50 and 100 kcfs. For steelhead trout tagged at the Snake River trap, statistical analysis detected a significant relation between migration rate and Lower Granite Reservoir inflow discharge. For hatchery and wild steelhead trout, there was a 1.8-fold and a 1.7-fold increase in migration rate, respectively, between 50 and 100 kcfs. Travel time and migration rate to Lower Granite Dam for fish marked at the Salmon River trap were calculated. Statistical analysis of the 2002 data detected a significant relation between migration rate and Lower Granite Reservoir inflow discharge for wild Chinook salmon and hatchery steelhead trout. The analysis was unable to detect a relation between migration rate and discharge for hatchery Chinook salmon. The lack of a detectable relation was probably a result of the migration rate data being spread over a very narrow range of discharge. Not enough data were available to perform the analysis for wild steelhead trout. Migration rate increased 4.3-fold for wild Chinook salmon and 2.2-fold for hatchery steelhead between 50 kcfs and 100 kcfs. Fish tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags at the Snake River trap were interrogated at four dams with PIT tag detection systems (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and McNary dams). Because of the addition of the fourth interrogation site (Lower Monumental) in 1993 and the installation of the Removable Spillway Weir at

Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A. [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

2009-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

454

Characterization of The Dalles Dam Spillbay 6 Vortex Using Surface Entrained Sensor Fish Device: Preliminary Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes the pilot study to characterize The Dalles Dam Spillbay 6 vortex using a surface entrained Sensor Fish device. It was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on April 13 and 14, 2006. The total spill was controlled at approximately 110 kcfs, the forebay elevation was 157.89 ft, and the discharge of Bay 6 at the tested gate opening of 14 ft was approximately 18 kcfs. The objectives of the full study are to (1) develop baseline conditions for the detailed analysis of Sensor Fish measurements by deploying Sensor Fish in different surface locations in the vortex periphery; (2) observe the entrainment pattern and extract hydraulic data of interest such as acceleration, rotation, pressure, and estimated velocity of Sensor Fish or drogues; (3) integrate the experimental results with companion computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and inertial particle tracking studies. A total of 12 Sensor Fish were released in the surface at upstream edge, left edge, downstream edge, and the core of the vortex at Bay 6. Because of the high discharge, the vortex patterns at the test condition were less consistent than the patterns observed at lower discharges. Compared with the Sensor Fish released at mid-bay at Bay 6, Sensor Fish released from the surface at the vortex experienced higher pressure fluctuations, a larger percentage of severe events, and much more rapid angular velocities.

Deng, Zhiqun; Richmond, Marshall C.; Carlson, Thomas J.

2006-06-22T23:59:59.000Z