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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flame retention head" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

The structure of the carbon black flame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE STRUCTURE OF THE CARBON BLACK FLAME A Dissertation By W1 111 ami Kermit Anderson THEHSR UCOF Approval as to style and content recommended Head of tiie Department of Chemistry A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural... and Mechanical College of. Texas in Parti ail Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE STRUCTURE OF THE CARBON BLACK FLAME Major Subject: Chemistry AB William Hermit Anderson:\\ t * August 1945 THE STRUCTURE OF THE. CARBON...

Anderson, W. Kermi

1945-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Direct numerical simulations of type Ia supernovae flames I: The landau-darrieus instability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simulations of Type Ia Supernovae Flames I: The Landau-Subject headings: supernovae: general — white dwarfs —could occur in Type Ia supernovae (Niemeyer & Woosley 1997),

Bell, J.B.; Day, M.S.; Rendleman, C.A.; Woosley, S.E.; Zingale, M.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Direct numerical simulations of type Ia supernovae flames II: The rayleigh-taylor instability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Weaver, T. A. 1994, in Supernovae, Les Houches, Session LIV,Simulations of Type Ia Supernovae Flames II: The Rayleigh-Subject headings: supernovae: general — white dwarfs —

Bell, J.B.; Day, M.S.; Rendleman, C.A.; Woosley, S.E.; Zingale, M.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Electrical probe diagnostics for the laminar flame quenching distance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simplified theory, previously developed for the general case of weakly ionized gas flow, is used to predict electrical probe response when the flame is quenched on the probe surface. This theory is based on the planar model of space charge sheaths around the measuring electrode. For the flame quenching case, by assuming that the sheath thickness is comparable with the thermal boundary layer thickness, probe current can be related to flame quenching distance. The theoretical assumptions made to obtain the analytical formulation of probe current were experimentally proved by using direct visualization and high-frequency PIV. The direct visualization method was also used to validate the results of flame quenching distance values obtained with electrical probe. The electrical probe diagnostics have been verified for both head-on and sidewall flame quenching regimes and for stoichiometric methane/air and propane/air mixtures in a pressure range of 0.05-0.6 MPa. (author)

Karrer, Maxime; Makarov, Maxime [Renault Technocentre, 78288 Guyancourt Cedex (France); Bellenoue, Marc; Labuda, Sergei; Sotton, Julien [Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique, CNRS, 86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil (France)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

5

On the Flame Height Definition for Upward Flame Spread   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Flame height is defined by the experimentalists as the average position of the luminous flame and, consequently is not directly linked with a quantitative value of a physical parameter. To determine flame heights from ...

Consalvi, Jean L; Pizzo, Yannick; Porterie, Bernard; Torero, Jose L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Flame front geometry in premixed turbulent flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental and numerical determinations of flame front curvature and orientation in premixed turbulent flames are presented. The experimental data is obtained from planar, cross sectional images of stagnation point flames at high Damkoehler number. A direct numerical simulation of a constant energy flow is combined with a zero-thickness, constant density flame model to provide the numerical results. The computational domain is a 32{sup 3} cube with periodic boundary conditions. The two-dimensional curvature distributions of the experiments and numerical simulations compare well at similar q{prime}/S{sub L} values with means close to zero and marked negative skewness. At higher turbulence levels the simulations show that the distributions become symmetric about zero. These features are also found in the three dimensional distributions of curvature. The simulations support assumptions which make it possible to determine the mean direction cosines from the experimental data. This leads to a reduction of 12% in the estimated flame surface area density in the middle of the flame brush. 18 refs.

Shepherd, I.G. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Ashurst, W.T. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Three-dimensional numerical simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor unstable flames in type Ia supernovae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Unstable Flames in Type Ia Supernovae M. Zingale 1 , S. E.Subject headings: supernovae: general — white dwarfs —ame in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is well recognized (M¨

Zingale, M.; Woosley, S.E.; Rendleman, C.A.; Day, M.S.; Bell, J.B.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Approaches to modeling thermonuclear flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Turbulence-flame interactions of thermonuclear fusion flames occurring in Type Ia Supernovae were studied by means of incompressible DNS with a highly simplified flame description. The flame is treated as a single diffusive scalar field with a nonlinear source term. It is characterized by its

J. C. Niemeyer; W. K. Bushe; G. R. Ruetsch

9

Approaches to modeling thermonuclear flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Turbulence-flame interactions of thermonuclear fusion flames occurring in Type Ia Supernovae were studied by means of incompressible DNS with a highly simplified flame description. The flame is treated as a single diffusive scalar field with a nonlinear source term. It is characterized by its Prandtl number, Pr ? 1, and laminar flame speed, SL. We find that if SL ? u ?,whereu ? is the rms amplitude of turbulent velocity fluctuations, the local flame propagation speed does not significantly deviate from SL even in the presence of velocity fluctuations on scales below the laminar flame thickness. This result is interpreted in the context of subgrid-scale modeling of supernova explosions. 1.

J. C. Niemeyer; W. K. Bushe; G. R. Ruetsch

10

Dynamics and structure of stretched flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program aims to gain fundamental understanding on the structure, geometry, and dynamics of laminar premixed flames, and relate these understanding to the practical issues of flame extinction and stabilization. The underlying fundamental interest here is the recent recognition that the response of premixed flames can be profoundly affected by flame stretch, as manifested by flow nonuniformity, flame curvature, and flame/flow unsteadiness. As such, many of the existing understanding on the behavior of premixed flames need to be qualitatively revised. The research program consists of three major thrusts: (1) detailed experimental and computational mapping of the structure of aerodynamically-strained planar flames, with emphasis on the effects of heat loss, nonequidiffusion, and finite residence time on the flame thickness, extent of incomplete reaction, and the state of extinction. (2) Analytical study of the geometry and dynamics of stretch-affected wrinkled flame sheets in simple configurations, as exemplified by the Bunsen flame and the spatially-periodic flame, with emphasis on the effects of nonlinear stretch, the phenomena of flame cusping, smoothing, and tip opening, and their implications on the structure and burning rate of turbulent flames. (3) Stabilization and blowoff of two-dimensional inverted premixed and stabilization and determining the criteria governing flame blowoff. The research is synergistically conducted through the use of laser-based diagnostics, computational simulation of the flame structure with detailed chemistry and transport, and mathematical analysis of the flame dynamics.

Law, C.K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Drug Retention Times  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user

Center for Human Reliability Studies

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Drug Retention Times  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

Center for Human Reliability Studies

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

aerosol flame deposition: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to modeling thermonuclear flames CiteSeer Summary: Turbulence-flame interactions of thermonuclear fusion flames occurring in Type Ia Supernovae were studied by means of...

14

On the critical flame radius and minimum ignition energy for spherical flame initiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spherical flame initiation from an ignition kernel is studied theoretically and numerically using different fuel/oxygen/helium/argon mixtures (fuel: hydrogen, methane, and propane). The emphasis is placed on investigating the critical flame radius controlling spherical flame initiation and its correlation with the minimum ignition energy. It is found that the critical flame radius is different from the flame thickness and the flame ball radius and that their relationship depends strongly on the Lewis number. Three different flame regimes in terms of the Lewis number are observed and a new criterion for the critical flame radius is introduced. For mixtures with Lewis number larger than a critical Lewis number above unity, the critical flame radius is smaller than the flame ball radius but larger than the flame thickness. As a result, the minimum ignition energy can be substantially over-predicted (under-predicted) based on the flame ball radius (the flame thickness). The results also show that the minimum ignition energy for successful spherical flame initiation is proportional to the cube of the critical flame radius. Furthermore, preferential diffusion of heat and mass (i.e. the Lewis number effect) is found to play an important role in both spherical flame initiation and flame kernel evolution after ignition. It is shown that the critical flame radius and the minimum ignition energy increase significantly with the Lewis number. Therefore, for transportation fuels with large Lewis numbers, blending of small molecule fuels or thermal and catalytic cracking will significantly reduce the minimum ignition energy.

Chen, Zheng; Burke, M. P.; Ju, Yiguang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Transient Supersonic Methane-Air Flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The purpose of this study was to investigate the thermochemical properties of a transient supersonic flame. Creation of the transient flame was controlled by pulsing air in 200 millisecond intervals into a combustor filled with flowing methane...

Richards, John L.

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

16

Production of fullerenic nanostructures in flames  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the production of fullerenic nanostructures is described in which unsaturated hydrocarbon fuel and oxygen are combusted in a burner chamber at a sub-atmospheric pressure, thereby establishing a flame. The condensibles of the flame are collected at a post-flame location. The condensibles contain fullerenic nanostructures, such as single and nested nanotubes, single and nested nanoparticles and giant fullerenes. The method of producing fullerenic soot from flames is also described.

Howard, Jack B. (Winchester, MA); Vander Sande, John B. (Newbury, MA); Chowdhury, K. Das (Cambridge, MA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Production Of Fullerenic Soot In Flames  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the production of fullerenic nanostructures is described in which unsaturated hydrocarbon fuel and oxygen are combusted in a burner chamber at a sub-atmospheric pressure, thereby establishing a flame. The condensibles of the flame are collected at a post-flame location. The condensibles contain fullerenic nanostructures, such as single and nested nanotubes, single and nested nanoparticles and giant fullerenes. The method of producing fullerenic soot from flames is also described.

Howard, Jack B. (Winchester, MA); Vander Sande, John B. (Newbury, MA); Chowdhury, K. Das (Cambridge, MA)

2000-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

18

Characterization of acoustically forced swirl flame dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the flame to acoustic excitation is required. This study presents an analysis of phase-locked OH PLIF images of acoustically excited swirl flames, to identify the key controlling physical processes and qualitatively discuss, and whose relative significance depends upon forcing frequency, amplitude of excitation, and flame

Lieuwen, Timothy C.

19

Premixed-gas flames Paul D. Ronney  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Premixed-gas flames Paul D. Ronney Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1453 USA ronney@usc.edu Keywords: Microgravity; premixed-gas; cool flames; turbulence. Reference: Ronney, P. D., "Premixed-Gas Flames," in: Microgravity Combustion

20

Flex-flame burner and combustion method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A combustion method and apparatus which produce a hybrid flame for heating metals and metal alloys, which hybrid flame has the characteristic of having an oxidant-lean portion proximate the metal or metal alloy and having an oxidant-rich portion disposed above the oxidant lean portion. This hybrid flame is produced by introducing fuel and primary combustion oxidant into the furnace chamber containing the metal or metal alloy in a substoichiometric ratio to produce a fuel-rich flame and by introducing a secondary combustion oxidant into the furnace chamber above the fuel-rich flame in a manner whereby mixing of the secondary combustion oxidant with the fuel-rich flame is delayed for a portion of the length of the flame.

Soupos, Vasilios (Chicago, IL); Zelepouga, Serguei (Hoffman Estates, IL); Rue, David M. (Chicago, IL); Abbasi, Hamid A. (Naperville, IL)

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flame retention head" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Segmented vs conventional numerals: legibility and long term retention  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the environmental chamber. Sub jects The subjects were thirty male students between the ages of 1g and 27 from the Industrial Engineering department at Texas A&M University. Subjects were divided into three groups of 10. Procedure Exposure time and number... December 1971 Ma]or Subject: Industrial Engineering SEGMENTED VS CONVENTIONAL NUMERALS: LEGIBILITY AND LONG TERM RETENTION A Thesis STEVE EDGAR HILL Approved as to style and content by: Elias Chairman of Committee) r. A. W. ortham (Head...

Hill, Steve Edgar

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Clothes That Care -- Flame Resistant Protection.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.. 8-1272 othes That Care- Flame Resistant Protection" TOoe ZTA245.7 8873 NQ.'2'T2 Texas Agricultural Extension Service . The Texas A&M University System Daniel C. Pfannstiel, Director, College Station, Texas , ? Clothes That Care- Flame... Resistant Protection Claudia Kerbel * Concern for a safer environment has led to changes in many of the everyday products we use , including clothing . In the' past dec ade, flame-resistant (FR) garments and fabrics have become more available than ever...

Kerbel, Claudia

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Flame retardant finishing of cotton fleece.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In this research, an inorganic phosphorus-containing flame retardant system was developed for cotton fleece. The aluminum hydroxyphosphate (AHP) formed in situ on cotton by the… (more)

Wu, Xialing

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT External Bypass Regeneration Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT External Bypass Regeneration...

25

Flame acceleration studies in the MINIFLAME facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) studies have been conducted in a 19.4-cm high, 14.5-cm wide, and 2. 242-m long channel (MINIFLAME) that is a 1:12.6 scale model of the 136-m{sup 3} FLAME facility. Tests were conducted with two levels of hydrogen concentration -- 20% and 30%, with and without obstacles in the channel, and with three levels of transverse top venting -- 0%, 13%, and 50%. The flame acceleration results in MINIFLAME are qualitatively similar to those in FLAME; however, the small-scale results are more benign quantitatively. The results show that insufficient venting, 13% venting in this case, can promote flame acceleration due to turbulence produced by the flow through the vents in smooth channels. However, with obstacle-generated turbulence in the channel, 13% top venting was found to be beneficial. Flame acceleration resulting in DDT was shown to occur in as little as 35 liters of mixture. Comparison of the DDT data with obstacles in MINIFLAME and FLAME supports d/{lambda} scaling of DDT, where {lambda} is the detonation cell width of the mixture and d is the characteristic open diameter of the channel. In the MINIFLAME and FLAME tests, DDT occurred for d/{lambda} greater than approximately three. Comparison with other experiments shows that the value of d/{lambda} for DDT is not constant but depends on the obstacle type, spacing, and channel geometry. The comparison of MINIFLAME and FLAME experiments extends the use of d/{lambda} scaling to different geometries and larger scales than previous studies. Small-scale-model testing of flame acceleration and DDT with the same combustible mixture as the full-scale prototype underpredicts flame speeds, overpressures, and the possibility of DDT. 18 refs., 16 figs.

Tieszen, S.R.; Sherman, M.P.; Benedick, W.B.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Correlation of flame speed with stretch in turbulent premixed methane/air flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the flamelet approach of turbulent premixed combustion, the flames are modeled as a wrinkled surface whose propagation speed, termed the {open_quotes}displacement speed,{close_quotes} is prescribed in terms of the local flow field and flame geometry. Theoretical studies suggest a linear relation between the flame speed and stretch for small values of stretch, S{sub L}/S{sub L}{sup 0} = 1 - MaKa, where S{sub L}{sup 0} is the laminar flame speed, Ka = {kappa}{delta}{sub F}/S{sub L}{sup 0} is the nondimensional stretch or the Karlovitz number, and Ma = L/{delta}{sub F} is the Markstein number. The nominal flame thickness, {delta}{sub F}, is determined as the ratio of the mass diffusivity of the unburnt mixture to the laminar flame speed. Thus, the turbulent flame model relies on an accurate estimate of the Markstein number in specific flame configurations. Experimental measurement of flame speed and stretch in turbulent flames, however, is extremely difficult. As a result, measurement of flame speeds under strained flow fields has been made in simpler geometries, in which the effect of flame curvature is often omitted. In this study we present results of direct numerical simulations of unsteady turbulent flames with detailed methane/air chemistry, thereby providing an alternative method of obtaining flame structure and propagation statistics. The objective is to determine the correlation between the displacement speed and stretch over a broad range of Karlovitz numbers. The observed response of the displacement speed is then interpreted in terms of local tangential strain rate and curvature effects. 13 refs., 3 figs.

Chen, J.H.; Im, Hong G.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

On the extraction of laminar flame speed and Markstein length from outwardly propagating spherical flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large discrepancies among the laminar flame speeds and Markstein lengths of methane/air mixtures measured by different researchers using the same constant-pressure spherical flame method are observed. As an effort to reduce these discrepancies, one linear model (LM, the stretched flame speed changes linearly with the stretch rate) and two non-linear models (NM I and NM II, the stretched flame speed changes non-linearly with the stretch rate) for extracting the laminar flame speed and Markstein length from propagating spherical flames are investigated. The accuracy and performance of the LM, NM I, and NM II are found to strongly depend on the Lewis number. It is demonstrated that NM I is the most accurate for mixtures with large Lewis number (positive Markstein length) while NM II is the most accurate for mixtures with small Lewis number (negative Markstein length). Therefore, in order to get accurate laminar flame speed and Markstein length from spherical flame experiments, different non-linear models should be used for different mixtures. The validity of the theoretical results is further demonstrated by numerical and experimental studies. The results of this study can be used directly in spherical flame experiments measuring the laminar flame speed and Markstein length. (author)

Chen, Zheng [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

28

RICH METHANE PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAMES DOPED BY LIGHT UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RICH METHANE PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAMES DOPED BY LIGHT UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS PART I: ALLENE Full-length article SHORTENED RUNNING TITLE : METHANE FLAMES DOPED BY ALLENE OR PROPYNE * E investigated: a pure methane flame and two methane flames doped by allene and propyne, respectively. The gases

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

29

Aromatics oxidation and soot formation in flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is concerned with the kinetics and mechanisms of aromatics oxidation and soot and fullerenes formation in flames. The scope includes detailed measurements of profiles of stable and radical species concentrations in low-pressure one-dimensional premixed flames. Intermediate species identifications and mole fractions, fluxes, and net reaction rates calculated from the measured profiles are used to test postulated reaction mechanisms. Particular objectives are to identify and to determine or confirm rate constants for the main benzene oxidation reactions in flames, and to characterize fullerenes and their formation mechanisms and kinetics.

Howard, J.B.; Pope, C.J.; Shandross, R.A.; Yadav, T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Enol Intermediates Unexpectedly Found in Flames  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

at ALS Chemical Dynamics Beamline 9.0.2. In the apparatus, premixed reagent gases enter the flame chamber through the porous flat face of a burner that translates...

31

Theory of DDT in unconfined flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper outlines a theoretical approach for predicting the onset of detonation in unconfined turbulent flames which is relevant both to problems of terrestrial combustion and to thermonuclear burning in Type Ia supernovae. Two basic assumuptions are made: 1) the gradient mechanism is the inherent mechanism that leads to DDT in unconfined conditions, and 2) the sole mechanism for preparing the gradient in induction time is by turbulent mixing and local flame quenching. The criterion for DDT is derived in terms of the one-dimensional detonation wave thickness, the laminar flame speed, and the laminar flame thickness in the reactive gas. This approach gives a lower-bound criterion for DDT for conditions where shock preheating, wall effects, and interactions with obstacles are absent. Regions in parameter space where unconfined DDT can and cannot occur are determined. A subsequent paper will address these issues specifically in the astrophysical context.

Khokhlov, A M; Wheeler, J C; Wheeler, J Craig

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Theory of DDT in Unconfined Flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper outlines a theoretical approach for predicting the onset of detonation in unconfined turbulent flames which is relevant both to problems of terrestrial combustion and to thermonuclear burning in Type Ia supernovae. Two basic assumuptions are made: 1) the gradient mechanism is the inherent mechanism that leads to DDT in unconfined conditions, and 2) the sole mechanism for preparing the gradient in induction time is by turbulent mixing and local flame quenching. The criterion for DDT is derived in terms of the one-dimensional detonation wave thickness, the laminar flame speed, and the laminar flame thickness in the reactive gas. This approach gives a lower-bound criterion for DDT for conditions where shock preheating, wall effects, and interactions with obstacles are absent. Regions in parameter space where unconfined DDT can and cannot occur are determined. A subsequent paper will address these issues specifically in the astrophysical context.

A. M. Khokhlov; E. S. Oran; J. Craig Wheeler

1996-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

33

NO concentration imaging in turbulent nonpremixed flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The importance of NO as a pollutant species is well known. An understanding of the formation characteristics of NO in turbulent hydrocarbon flames is important to both the desired reduction of pollutant emissions and the validation of proposed models for turbulent reacting flows. Of particular interest is the relationship between NO formation and the local flame zone, in which the fuel is oxidized and primary heat release occurs. Planar imaging of NO provides the multipoint statistics needed to relate NO formation to the both the flame zone and the local turbulence characteristics. Planar imaging of NO has been demonstrated in turbulent flames where NO was seeded into the flow at high concentrations (2000 ppm) to determine the gas temperature distribution. The NO concentrations in these experiments were significantly higher than those expected in typical hydrocarbon-air flames, which require a much lower detectability limit for NO measurements. An imaging technique based on laser-induced fluorescence with sufficient sensitivity to study the NO formation mechanism in the stabilization region of turbulent lifted-jet methane flames.

Schefer, R.W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Characterisation of an oxy-coal flame through digital imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents investigations into the impact of oxy-fuel combustion on flame characteristics through the application of digital imaging and image processing techniques. The characteristic parameters of the flame are derived from flame images that are captured using a vision-based flame monitoring system. Experiments were carried out on a 0.5 MW{sub th} coal combustion test facility. Different flue gas recycle ratios and furnace oxygen levels were created for two different coals. The characteristics of the flame and the correlation between the measured flame parameters and corresponding combustion conditions are described and discussed. The results show that the flame temperature decreases with the recycle ratio for both test coals, suggesting that the flame temperature is effectively controlled by the flue gas recycle ratio. The presence of high levels of CO{sub 2} at high flue gas recycle ratios may result in delayed combustion and thus has a detrimental effect on the flame stability. (author)

Smart, John; Riley, Gerry [RWE npower plc, Windmill Hill Business Park, Whitehill Way, Swindon SN5 6PB (United Kingdom); Lu, Gang; Yan, Yong [Instrumentation, Control and Embedded Systems Research Group, School of Engineering and Digital Arts, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NT (United Kingdom)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

35

On the critical flame radius and minimum ignition energy for spherical flame initiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, methane, and propane). The emphasis is placed on investigating the critical flame radius controlling to the cube of the critical flame radius. Furthermore, preferential diffusion of heat and mass (i.e. the Lewis igni- tion energy. Ă? 2010 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved

Ju, Yiguang

36

Bottom head assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs.

Fife, A.B.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Pentan isomers compound flame front structure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fuels (hexane, pentane, diethyl ether) and conditions investigated in this study are relevant to engine knock in spark- ignition engines. A review is provided of the field of low temperature hydrocarbon oxidation. Studies were made of radical and stable intermediate distribution in the front of cool flames: Maximum concentrations of H atoms and peroxy radicals were observed in the luminous zone of the cool flame front. Peroxy radicals appear before the luminous zone at 430 K due to diffusion. H atoms were found in cool flames of butane and hexane. H atoms diffuses from the luminous zone to the side of the fresh mixture, and they penetrate into the fresh mixture to a small depth. Extension of action sphear of peroxy radicals in the fresh mixture is much greater than that of H atoms due to their small activity and high concentrations.

Mansurov, Z.A.; Mironenko, A.W.; Bodikov, D.U.; Rachmetkaliev, K.N. [Kazakh Al-Farabi State National Univ., Almaty (Kazakhstan)

1995-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

38

FLAME SURFACE DENSITIES IN PREMIXED COMBUSTION AT MEDIUM TO HIGH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

premixed combustion diagrams. Small-scale transport of heat and species may be more important and chemistryFLAME SURFACE DENSITIES IN PREMIXED COMBUSTION AT MEDIUM TO HIGH TURBULENCE INTENSITIES O¨ MER L in turbulent premixed propane= air flames were determined experimentally. The instantaneous flame fronts were

GĂĽlder, Ă?mer L.

39

Flame front tracking by laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy and advanced  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

surface characteristics in turbulent premixed propane/air combustion," Combustion and Flame 120(4), 407 References and links 1. J. Warnatz, U. Maas, and R.W. Dibble, Combustion - physical and chemical fundamentals, "Characterization of flame front surfaces in turbulent premixed methane/air combustion," Combustion and Flame 101

Hamarneh, Ghassan

40

RICH METHANE PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAMES DOPED BY LIGHT UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RICH METHANE PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAMES DOPED BY LIGHT UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS PART II: 1,3-BUTADIENE-length article SHORTENED RUNNING TITLE : METHANE FLAMES DOPED BY 1,3-BUTADIENE * E-mail : Pierre of this paper, the structure of a laminar rich premixed methane flame doped with 1,3-butadiene has been

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flame retention head" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Computatonal and experimental study of laminar flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research has centered on an investigation of the effects of complex chemistry and detailed transport on the structure and extinction of hydrocarbon flames in counterflow, cylindrical and coflowing axisymmetric configurations. The authors have pursued both computational and experimental aspects of the research in parallel. The computational work has focused on the application of accurate and efficient numerical methods for the solution of the one and two-dimensional nonlinear boundary value problems describing the various reacting systems. Detailed experimental measurements were performed on axisymmetric coflow flames using two-dimensional imaging techniques. In particular, spontaneous Raman scattering and laser induced fluorescence were used to measure the temperature, major and minor species profiles.

Smooke, M.D.; Long, M.B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

The effect of flame structure on soot formation and transport in turbulent nonpremixed flames using direct numerical simulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Direct numerical simulations of a two-dimensional, nonpremixed, sooting ethylene flame are performed to examine the effects of soot-flame interactions and transport in an unsteady configuration. A 15-step, 19-species (with 10 quasi-steady species) chemical mechanism was used for gas chemistry, with a two-moment, four-step, semiempirical soot model. Flame curvature is shown to result in flames that move, relative to the fluid, either toward or away from rich soot formation regions, resulting in soot being essentially convected into or away from the flame. This relative motion of flame and soot results in a wide spread of soot in the mixture fraction coordinate. In regions where the center of curvature of the flame is in the fuel stream, the flame motion is toward the fuel and soot is located near the flame at high temperature and hence has higher reaction rates and radiative heat fluxes. Soot-flame breakthrough is also observed in these regions. Fluid convection and flame displacement velocity relative to fluid convection are of similar magnitudes while thermophoretic diffusion is 5-10 times lower. These results emphasize the importance of both unsteady and multidimensional effects on soot formation and transport in turbulent flames. (author)

Lignell, David O. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84098 (United States); Reacting Flow Research Department, Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Chen, Jacqueline H. [Reacting Flow Research Department, Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Smith, Philip J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84098 (United States); Lu, Tianfeng; Law, Chung K. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

43

COMBUSTION AND FLAME 24, 27-34 (1975) 27 Flame Emission Studies of Ozone with Metal Alkyls  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COMBUSTION AND FLAME 24, 27-34 (1975) 27 Flame Emission Studies of Ozone with Metal Alkyls: Zn (CH3 of combustion. Premixed [2, 3] anddiffusion [4] flames of metal alkyl compounds have been carried out to deter- tageous to study the combustion of polyatomic molecules under single-collision conditions, i

Zare, Richard N.

44

AIAA 010189 Ignition and Flame Studies for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

beyond the turbine blade material limit. Sirignano and Liu1,2 show by thermodynamic analysis-dimensional diffusion flame in a transonic flow with large pressure gradients typical of conditions in a turbine passage-to-weight ratio and to widen the range of engine operation. Since the flow in a turbine passage is accelerating

Liu, Feng

45

A Study of Prevention and Retention Strategies for Successful Urban Secondary High School Hispanic Students  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A STUDY OF PREVENTION AND RETENTION STRATEGIES FOR SUCCESSFUL URBAN SECONDARY HIGH SCHOOL HISPANIC STUDENTS A Dissertation by ROBERTO IBARRA LOPEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF EDUCATION Approved by: Chair of Committee, Mario S. Torres Committee Members, Virginia Collier Larry Dooley Ben Welch Head of Department, Fredrick M. Nafukho May 2013...

Lopez, Roberto I

2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

46

Maneuvering impact boring head  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An impact boring head may comprise a main body having an internal cavity with a front end and a rear end. A striker having a head end and a tail end is slidably mounted in the internal cavity of the main body so that the striker can be reciprocated between a forward position and an aft position in response to hydraulic pressure. A compressible gas contained in the internal cavity between the head end of the striker and the front end of the internal cavity returns the striker to the aft position upon removal of the hydraulic pressure.

Zollinger, W. Thor (Idaho Falls, ID); Reutzel, Edward W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Maneuvering impact boring head  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An impact boring head may comprise a main body having an internal cavity with a front end and a rear end. A striker having a head end and a tail end is slidably mounted in the internal cavity of the main body so that the striker can be reciprocated between a forward position and an aft position in response to hydraulic pressure. A compressible gas contained in the internal cavity between the head end of the striker and the front end of the internal cavity returns the striker to the aft position upon removal of the hydraulic pressure. 8 figs.

Zollinger, W.T.; Reutzel, E.W.

1998-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

48

Flame Propagation of Butanol Isomers/Air Mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental and computational study was conducted on the propagation of flames of saturated butanol isomers. The experiments were performed in the counterflow configuration under atmospheric pressure, unburned mixture temperature of 343 K, and for a wide range of equivalence ratios. The experiments were simulated using a recent kinetic model for the four isomers of butanol. Results indicate that n-butanol/air flames propagate somewhat faster than both sec-butanol/air and iso-butanol/air flames, and that tert-butanol/air flames propagate notably slower compared to the other three isomers. Reaction path analysis of tert-butanol/air flames revealed that iso-butene is a major intermediate, which subsequently reacts to form the resonantly stable iso-butenyl radical retarding thus the overall reactivity of tert-butanol/air flames relatively to the other three isomers. Through sensitivity analysis, it was determined that the mass burning rates of sec-butanol/air and iso-butanol/air flames are sensitive largely to hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and C{sub 1}–C{sub 2} hydrocarbon kinetics and not to fuel-specific reactions similarly to n-butanol/air flames. However, for tert-butanol/air flames notable sensitivity to fuel-specific reactions exists. While the numerical results predicted closely the experimental data for n-butanol/air and sec-butanol/air flames, they overpredicted and underpredicted the laminar flame speeds for iso-butanol/air and tert-butanol/air flames respectively. It was demonstrated further that the underprediction of the laminar flame speeds of tert-butanol/air flames by the model was most likely due to deficiencies of the C{sub 4}-alkene kinetics.

Veloo, Peter S.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Technetium Retention During LAW Vitrification  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf11-161-LNGInternational EnergyCommitteeRenewable1234 OFTechnetium Retention During LAW

50

from the Head  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as well as the many weekly seminars and colloquia, continually ... from the Head ... Meyer Jerison) received the 2009 George David Birkhoff Prize. The prize is ..... Virginia Mashin Scholars ... Alan Legg, Mariana Smit Vega Garcia, Lloyd West.

Sally Goeke

2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

51

Workforce Retention Work Group | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

skilled workforce retention; health, safety and productivity; and especially preventive health care. Inform and support improvement andor development of wellness, fitness, and...

52

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

2012-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

53

Flame quality monitor system for fixed firing rate oil burners  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for determining and indicating the flame quality, or efficiency of the air-fuel ratio, in a fixed firing rate heating unit, such as an oil burning furnace, is provided. When the flame brightness falls outside a preset range, the flame quality, or excess air, has changed to the point that the unit should be serviced. The flame quality indicator output is in the form of lights mounted on the front of the unit. A green light indicates that the flame is about in the same condition as when the burner was last serviced. A red light indicates a flame which is either too rich or too lean, and that servicing of the burner is required. At the end of each firing cycle, the flame quality indicator goes into a hold mode which is in effect during the period that the burner remains off. A yellow or amber light indicates that the burner is in the hold mode. In this mode, the flame quality lights indicate the flame condition immediately before the burner turned off. Thus the unit can be viewed when it is off, and the flame condition at the end of the previous firing cycle can be observed.

Butcher, Thomas A. (Pt. Jefferson, NY); Cerniglia, Philip (Moriches, NY)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

[Mechanism and enhancement of flame stabilization]. [Annual report, 1993--1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During this period, the following projects were completed: structural invariance of purely strained planar premixed flames, thermophoretic effects on seeding particles in LDV measurements, analysis of geometry of Bunsen flames, flame propagation in periodic flow fields, adiabatic flame stabilization, and chain-thermal theory of flame extinction.

Not Available

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Correlation of flame speed with stretch in turbulent premixed methane/air flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Direct numerical simulations of two-dimensional unsteady premixed methane/air flames are performed to determine the correlation of flame speed with stretch over a wide range of curvatures and strain rates generated by intense two-dimensional turbulence. Lean and stoichiometric premixtures are considered with a detailed C{sub 1}-mechanism for methane oxidation. The computed correlation shows the existence of two distinct stable branches. It further shows that exceedingly large negative values of stretch can be obtained solely through curvature effects which give rise to an overall nonlinear correlation of the flame speed with stretch. Over a narrower stretch range, {minus}1 {le} Ka {le} 1, which includes 90% of the sample, the correlation is approximately linear, and hence, the asymptotic theory for stretch is practically applicable. Overall, one-third of the sample has negative stretch. In this linear range, the Markstein number associated with the positive branch is determined and is consistent with values obtained from comparable steady counterflow computations. In addition to this conventional positive branch, a negative branch is identified. This negative branch occurs when a flame cusp, with a center of curvature in the burnt gases, is subjected to intense compressive strain, resulting in a negative displacement speed. Negative flame speeds are also encountered for extensive tangential strain rates exceeding a Karlovitz number of unity, a value consistent with steady counterflow computations.

Chen, J.H.; Im, H.G.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Non-premixed acoustically perturbed swirling flame dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An investigation into the response of non-premixed swirling flames to acoustic perturbations at various frequencies (f{sub p}=0-315 Hz) and swirl intensities (S=0.09 and 0.34) is carried out. Perturbations are generated using a loudspeaker at the base of an atmospheric co-flow burner with resulting velocity oscillation amplitudes vertical stroke u'/U{sub avg} vertical stroke in the 0.03-0.30 range. The dependence of flame dynamics on the relative richness of the flame is investigated by studying various constant fuel flow rate flame configurations. Flame heat release rate is quantitatively measured using a photomultiplier with a 430 nm bandpass filter for observing CH* chemiluminescence which is simultaneously imaged with a phase-locked CCD camera. The flame response is observed to exhibit a low-pass filter characteristic with minimal flame response beyond pulsing frequencies of 200 Hz. Flames at lower fuel flow rates are observed to remain attached to the central fuel pipe at all acoustic pulsing frequencies. PIV imaging of the associated isothermal fields show the amplification in flame aspect ratio is caused by the narrowing of the inner recirculation zone (IRZ). Good correlation is observed between the estimated flame surface area and the heat release rate signature at higher swirl intensity flame configurations. A flame response index analogous to the Rayleigh criterion in non-forced flames is used to assess the potential for a strong flame response at specific perturbation configurations and is found to be a good predictor of highly responsive modes. Phase conditioned analysis of the flame dynamics yield additional criteria in highly responsive modes to include the effective amplitude of velocity oscillations induced by the acoustic pulsing. In addition, highly responsive modes were characterized by velocity to heat release rate phase differences in the {+-}{pi}/2 range. A final observed characteristic in highly responsive flames is a Strouhal number between 1 and 3.5 based on the burner co-flow annulus diameter (St = f{sub p}U{sub avg}/d{sub m}). Finally, wavelet analyses of heat release rate perturbations indicate highly responsive modes are characterized by sustained low frequency oscillations which accompany the high amplitude velocity perturbations at these modes. Higher intensity low frequency heat release rate oscillations are observed for lean flame/low pulsing frequency conditions. (author)

Idahosa, Uyi; Saha, Abhishek; Xu, Chengying; Basu, Saptarshi [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

57

Turbulent Nonpremixed Flames (TNF): Experimental Data Archives and Computational Submodels  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

In the 1990s an international collaboration formed around a series of workshops that became known collectively as the International Workshop on Measurement and Computation of Turbulent Non-Premixed Flames (TNF). An online library, hosted by Sandia National Laboratory (California) was established that provides data sets and submodels or "mechanisms" for the study of turbulence-chemistry interactions in turbulent nonpremixed and partially premixed combustion. Data are organized by flame types: simple jet flames, piloted jet flames, bluff body flames, and swirl flames. These data sets provide a means for collaborative comparisons of both measured and simulated/modeled research results and also assist scientists in determining priorities for further research. More than 20 data sets or databases are available from this website, along with various downloadable files of chemical mechanisms. The website also provides an extensive bibliography and the proceedings of the workshops themselves from 1996 through 2012. Information continues to be added to this collection.

58

New developments in the theory of flame propagation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two topics in combustion fluid mechanics are discussed. The first is a theory of the outward propagating spherical flame in the regime of well-developed hydrodynamic instability. In a qualitative agreement with experimental observations it is shown that the flame assumes a fractal-like wrinkled structure resulting in the overall burning rate acceleration. In contrast to hydrodynamically unstable flames, the expanding flame subject exclusively to the effect of diffusive instability does not indicate any disposition toward acceleration. The second topic concerns the dynamics of diffusively unstable flames subjected to radiative heat losses. At high enough heat losses the flame breaks up into separate self-propagating cap-like flamelets while a significant portion of the fuel remains unconsumed.

Sivashinsky, G.I. [City College of the City Univ. of New York, NY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

59

The advanced flame quality indicator system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

By combining oil tank monitoring, systems diagnostics and flame quality monitoring in an affordable system that communicates directly with dealers by telephone modem, Insight Technologies offers new revenue opportunities and the capability for a new order of customer relations to oil dealers. With co-sponsorship from New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, we have incorporated several valuable functions to a new product based on the original Flame Quality Indicator concept licensed from the US DOE`s Brookhaven National Laboratory. The new system is the Advanced Flame Quality Indicator, or AFQI. As before, the AFQI monitors and reports the intensity of the burner flame relative to a calibration established when the burner is set up at AFQI installation. Repairs or adjustments are summoned by late-night outgoing telephone calls when limits are exceeded in either direction, indicating an impending contamination or other malfunction. A independently, a pressure transducer for monitoring oil tank level and filter condition, safety lockout alarms and a temperature monitor; all reporting automatically at instructed intervals via an on-board modem to a central station PC computer (CSC). Firmware on each AFQI unit and Insight-supplied software on the CSC automatically interact to maintain a customer database for an oil dealer, an OEM, or a regional service contractor. In addition to ensuring continuously clean and efficient operation, the AFQI offers the oil industry a new set of immediate payoffs, among which are reduced outages and emergency service calls, shorter service calls from cleaner operation, larger oil delivery drops, the opportunity to stretch service intervals to as along as three years in some cases, new selling features to keep and attract customers, and greatly enhanced customer contact, quality and reliability.

Oman, R.; Rossi, M.J.; Calia, V.S.; Davis, F.L.; Rudin, A. [Insight Technologies, Inc., Bohemia, NY (United States)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flame retention head" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Flame-wall interaction simulation in a turbulent channel flow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction between turbulent premixed flames and channel walls is studied. Combustion is represented by a simple irreversible reaction with a large activation temperature. A low heat release assumption is used, but feedback to the flowfield can be allowed through viscosity changes. The effect of wall distance on local and global flame structure is investigated. Quenching distances and maximum wall heat fluxed computed in laminar cases are compared to DNS results. It is found that quenching distances decrease and maximum heat fluxes increase relative to laminar flame values, scaling with the turbulent strain rate. It is shown that these effects are due to large coherent structures which push flame elements towards the wall. The effect of wall strain in flame-wall interaction is studied in a stagnation line flow; this is used to explain the DNS results. The effects of the flame on the flow through viscosity changes is studied. It is also shown that remarkable flame events are produced by flame interaction with a horseshoe vortex: burned gases are pushed towards the wall at high speed and induce quenching and high wall heat flux while fresh gases are expelled from the wall region and form finger-like structures. Effects of the wall on flame surface density are investigated.

Bruneaux, G.; Akselvoll, K.; Poinsot, T.; Ferziger, J.H.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

FIELD TEST OF THE FLAME QUALITY INDICATOR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The flame quality indicator concept was developed at BNL specifically to monitor the brightness of the flame in a small oil burner and to provide a ''call for service'' notification when the brightness has changed from its setpoint, either high or low. In prior development work BNL has explored the response of this system to operational upsets such as excess air changes, fouled atomizer nozzles, poor fuel quality, etc. Insight Technologies, Inc. and Honeywell, Inc. have licensed this technology from the U.S. Department of Energy and have been cooperating to develop product offerings which meet industry needs with an optimal combination of function and price. Honeywell has recently completed the development of the Flame Quality Monitor (FQM or Honeywell QS7100F). This is a small module which connects via a serial cable to the burners primary operating control. Primary advantages of this approach are simplicity, cost, and ease of installation. Call-for-service conditions are output in the form of front panel indicator lights and contact closure which can trigger a range of external communication options. Under this project a field test was conducted of the FQM in cooperation with service organizations in Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and Connecticut. At total of 83 field sites were included. At each site the FQM was installed in parallel with another embodiment of this concept--the Insight AFQI. The AFQI incorporates a modem and provides the ability to provide detailed information on the trends in the flame quality over the course of the two year test period. The test site population was comprised of 79.5% boilers, 13.7% warm air furnaces, and 6.8% water heaters. Nearly all were of residential size--with firing rates ranging from 0.6 gallons of oil per hour to 1.25. During the course of the test program the monitoring equipment successfully identified problems including: plugged fuel lines, fouled nozzles, collapsed combustion chambers, and poor fuel pump cut-off. Service organizations can use these early indications to reduce problems and service costs. There were also some ''call-for-service'' indications for which problems were not identified. The test program also showed that monitoring of the flame can provide information on burner run times and this can be used to estimate current oversize factors and to determine actual fuel usage, enabling more efficient fuel delivery procedures.

Andrew M. Rudin; Thomas Butcher; Henry Troost

2003-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

63

Reactor pressure vessel vented head  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell.

Sawabe, James K. (San Jose, CA)

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

64

Gravity effects on partially premixed flames: an experimental-numerical investigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gravity effects on partially premixed flames: an experimental-numerical investigation Andrew J and interactions between the various reaction zones are strongly influenced by gravity. The flames widen

Aggarwal, Suresh K.

65

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic absorption flame Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

flame Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: atomic absorption flame Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Appendix 1: Experimental Studies...

66

Formation mechanism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in methane flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Formation mechanism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in methane flames K. Siegmanna) Swiss 96822 Received 24 August 1999; accepted 13 October 1999 A laminar diffusion flame of methane exhausts,7­17 coal-fired, electricity generating power plants,18,19 tobacco smoke,20 residential wood

Sattler, Klaus

67

Introduction HYBRID FLAME: combustion of a combustible gas and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in numerous cases (e.g. explosion in coal mines) QUENCHING DISTANCES: narrowest passage through which aflame due to the difficulty of obtaining a hybrid flame. Setup Methodology Dust fed by actuator with methane Future Work Verify data obtained for methane and aluminum flame Run test with constant equivalence ratio

Barthelat, Francois

68

SIEMENS-UV OPTICAL FLAME DETECTION MONA HEMENDRA RAITHATHA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SIEMENS-UV OPTICAL FLAME DETECTION MONA HEMENDRA RAITHATHA College of Engineering University of tests conducted, as well as a cost and market analysis, the recommendation for Siemens would be to use.funginstitute.berkeley.edu #12;SIEMENS-UV OPTICAL FLAME DETECTION BY MONA HEMENDRA RAITHATHA THESIS Submitted in partial

Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

69

Modeling of NOx formation in circular laminar jet flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-premixed isolated circular laminar jet flame. The jet consists of the fuel rich inner region and the O2 rich outer region. The model estimates both thermal NOx and prompt NOx assuming single step kinetics for NOx formation and a thin flame model. Further the amount...

Siwatch, Vivek

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

70

Vortex phase-jitter in acoustically excited bluff body flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vortex phase-jitter in acoustically excited bluff body flames Santosh J. Shanbhogue, Michael disturbances. Phase locked particle image velocimetry was carried out over a range of conditions", manifested as cycle-to-cycle variation in flame and vorticity field at the same excitation phase. Phase

Lieuwen, Timothy C.

71

Adaptive low Mach number simulations of nuclear flame microphysics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptive low Mach number simulations of nuclear flame microphysics J. B. Bell, M. S. Day, C. A of nuclear flames in Type Ia su- pernovae. This model is based on a low Mach number formulation nuclear burning. The formulation presented here generalizes low Mach number models used in combustion

Bell, John B.

72

Measurements of Laminar Flame Velocity for Components of Natural Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, BP 20451, 1 Rue Grandville, 54001 Nancy, France 2 Division of Combustion Physics, Lund University flame velocity of components of natural gas, methane, ethane, propane, and nbutane as well as of binary performed by the heat flux method using a newly built flat flame adiabatic burner at atmospheric pressure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

73

Iron/soot interaction in a laminar ethylene nonpremixed flame  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A laminar, coannular, ethylene/air nonpremixed flame doped with ferrocene additive is employed to address the fundamental question of how iron becomes incorporated into the carbonaceous soot phase, thus interfering with the soot formation processes. The structure and chemical composition of individual aggregates are characterized with respect to flame coordinates via a combination of thermophoretic sampling, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry. Soot aggregate microstructure clearly reveals iron occlusion, as well as stratification of soot layers over the occluded phase. The study provides physical evidence that the soot and iron compounds combine in the flame to form a hybrid (inhomogeneous) particulate phase. The reported observations are consistent with the hypothesis that ferrocene decomposes early in the combustion process and before the onset of soot particle inception, thus forming a fine aerosol for the subsequent deposition of carbonaceous substances. Examination of a series of inhomogeneous soot aggregates shows that the flame aerosol composition varies with flame coordinates. In particular, aggregates transported in the soot annulus near the luminous flame front are primarily composed of carbon and oxygen, with traces of iron finely dispersed through the aggregate matrix. On the other hand, carbonaceous soot transported at low heights and near the flame axis contains iron in its elemental form. Finally, soot aggregates in all other areas of the flame contain both iron and oxygen, thus implying the possible presence of iron oxides within the carbonaceous matrix.

Zhang, J.; Megaridis, C.M. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

74

RICH METHANE PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAMES DOPED BY LIGHT UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RICH METHANE PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAMES DOPED BY LIGHT UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS PART III: CYCLOPENTENE-length article SHORTENED RUNNING TITLE : METHANE FLAMES DOPED BY CYCLOPENTENE * E-mail : pierre with the studies presented in the parts I and II of this paper, the structure of a laminar rich premixed methane

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

75

Bifurcations of flame filaments in chaotically mixed combustion reactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bifurcations of flame filaments in chaotically mixed combustion reactions Shakti N. Menon and Georg ranging fields. Be- sides in the case of combustion, where mixing-induced bifurcations may lead mixing has a significant effect on combustion processes and in particular on flame filamental structures

Gottwald, Georg A.

76

Nanotechnology finding its way into flame retardancy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanotechnology is one of the key technologies of the 21{sup st} century. The exploitation of 'new' effects that arise from materials structured on the nano-scale has also been proposed successfully for flame retardancy of polymers since the end of the 90s. Of all of the approaches these include, at this time the use of nanocomposites offers the best potential for industrial application, also some other ideas are sketched, such as using electrospun nanofibers mats or layer-by-layer deposits as protection coatings, as well as sub-micrometer multilayer coatings as effective IR-mirrors. The general phenomena, inducing a flow limit in the pyrolysing melt and changing the fire residue, are identified in nanocomposites. Key experiments are performed such as quasi online investigation of the protection layer formation to understand what is going on in detail. The flame retardancy mechanisms are discussed and their impact on fire behaviour quantified. With the latter, the presentation pushes forward the state of the art. For instance, the heat shielding is experimentally quantified for a layered silicate epoxy resin nanocomposite proving that it is the only import mechanism controlling the reduction in peak heat release rate in the investigated system for different irradiations. The flame retardancy performance is assessed comprehensively illuminating not only the strengths but also the weak points of the concepts. Guidelines for materials development are deduced and discussed. Apart from inorganic fillers (layered silicate, boehmite, etc.) not only carbon nanoobjects such as multiwall carbon nanotubes, multilayer graphene and graphene are investigated, but also nanoparticles that are more reactive and harbor the potential for more beneficial interactions with the polymer matrix.

Schartel, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.schartel@bam.de [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

77

Transition from cool flame to thermal flame in compression ignition process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mechanism that initiates thermal flames in compression ignition has been studied. Experimentally, a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine was used with DME, n-heptane, and n-decane. Arrhenius plots of the heat release rate in the HCCI experiments showed that rates of heat release with DME, n-heptane, and n-decane exhibited a certain activation energy that is identical to that of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition reaction. The same feature was observed in diesel engine operation using ordinary diesel fuel with advanced ignition timing to make ignition occur after the end of fuel injection. These experimental results were reproduced in nondimensional simulations using kinetic mechanisms for DME, n-heptane, and n-decane, the last being developed by extending the n-heptane mechanism. Methanol addition, which suppresses low-temperature oxidation (LTO) and delays the ignition timing, had no effect on the activation energy obtained from the Arrhenius plot of heat release rate. Nevertheless, methanol addition lowered the heat release rates during the prethermal flame process. This is because H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formation during cool flame was reduced by adding methanol. The mechanism during the transition process from cool flame to thermal flame can be explained quantitatively using thermal explosion theory, in which the rate-determining reaction is H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition, assuming that heat release in this period is caused by partial oxidation of DME and HCHO initiated with the reaction with OH produced though H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition. (author)

Yamada, Hiroyuki; Suzaki, Kotaro; Goto, Yuichi [National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory, 7-42-27 Jindaiji-Higashimachi, Chofu, Tokyo 182-0012 (Japan); Tezaki, Atsumu [Department of Mechanical and Intellectual Systems Engineering, University of Toyama, Gofuku 3190, Toyama-shi, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

78

Lean Flame Stabilization Ring - Energy Innovation Portal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6, 2011 LawrenceE C H N I C A L TAAboutAbout|Lean Flame

79

High-Pressure Flame Speed Measurements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinement plasmas in thein the AssemblyHigh-OrderFlame and Droplet

80

CEFRC_Egolfopoulos_Flames_Kinetics_Web.ppt  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation Sites Proposed Route SegmentsClean Energy Newsletter No.Laminar flame

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flame retention head" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Investigations of swirl flames in a gas turbine model combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A gas turbine model combustor for swirling CH{sub 4}/air diffusion flames at atmospheric pressure with good optical access for detailed laser measurements is discussed. Three flames with thermal powers between 7.6 and 34.9 kW and overall equivalence ratios between 0.55 and 0.75 were investigated. These behave differently with respect to combustion instabilities: Flame A burned stably, flame B exhibited pronounced thermoacoustic oscillations, and flame C, operated near the lean extinction limit, was subject to sudden liftoff with partial extinction and reanchoring. One aim of the studies was a detailed experimental characterization of flame behavior to better understand the underlying physical and chemical processes leading to instabilities. The second goal of the work was the establishment of a comprehensive database that can be used for validation and improvement of numerical combustion models. The flow field was measured by laser Doppler velocimetry, the flame structures were visualized by planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of OH and CH radicals, and the major species concentrations, temperature, and mixture fraction were determined by laser Raman scattering. The flow fields of the three flames were quite similar, with high velocities in the region of the injected gases, a pronounced inner recirculation zone, and an outer recirculation zone with low velocities. The flames were not attached to the fuel nozzle and thus were partially premixed before ignition. The near field of the flames was characterized by fast mixing and considerable finite-rate chemistry effects. CH PLIF images revealed that the reaction zones were thin (=<0.5 mm) and strongly corrugated and that the flame zones were short (h=<50 mm). Despite the similar flow fields of the three flames, the oscillating flame B was flatter and opened more widely than the others. In the current article, the flow field, structures, and mean and rms values of the temperature, mixture fraction, and species concentrations are discussed. Turbulence intensities, mixing, heat release, and reaction progress are addressed. In a second article, the turbulence-chemistry interactions in the three flames are treated.

Weigand, P.; Meier, W.; Duan, X.R.; Stricker, W.; Aigner, M. [Institut fuer Verbrennungstechnik, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Pfaffenwaldring 38, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Trapping and aerogelation of nanoparticles in negative gravity hydrocarbon flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the experimental realization of continuous carbon aerogel production using a flame aerosol reactor by operating it in negative gravity (?g; up-side-down configuration). Buoyancy opposes the fuel and air flow forces in ?g, which eliminates convectional outflow of nanoparticles from the flame and traps them in a distinctive non-tipping, flicker-free, cylindrical flame body, where they grow to millimeter-size aerogel particles and gravitationally fall out. Computational fluid dynamics simulations show that a closed-loop recirculation zone is set up in ?g flames, which reduces the time to gel for nanoparticles by ?10{sup 6}?s, compared to positive gravity (upward rising) flames. Our results open up new possibilities of one-step gas-phase synthesis of a wide variety of aerogels on an industrial scale.

Chakrabarty, Rajan K., E-mail: rajan.chakrabarty@gmail.com [Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Laboratory for Aerosol Science, Spectroscopy, and Optics, Desert Research Institute, Nevada System of Higher Education, Reno, Nevada 89512 (United States); Novosselov, Igor V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Enertechnix Inc., Maple Valley, Washington 98068 (United States); Beres, Nicholas D.; Moosmüller, Hans [Laboratory for Aerosol Science, Spectroscopy, and Optics, Desert Research Institute, Nevada System of Higher Education, Reno, Nevada 89512 (United States); Sorensen, Christopher M. [Condensed Matter Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States); Stipe, Christopher B. [TSI Incorporated, 500 Cardigan Rd, Shoreview, Minnesota 55126 (United States)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

83

Residential Refrigerator Recycling Ninth Year Retention Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Residential Refrigerator Recycling Ninth Year Retention Study Study ID Nos. 546B, 563 Prepared RECYCLING PROGRAMS Study ID Nos. 546B and 563 Prepared for Southern California Edison Rosemead, California

84

Turbulence-Flame Interactions in Type Ia Supernovae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The large range of time and length scales involved in type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) requires the use of flame models. As a prelude to exploring various options for flame models, we consider, in this paper, high-resolution three-dimensional simulations of the small-scale dynamics of nuclear flames in the supernova environment in which the details of the flame structure are fully resolved. The range of densities examined, 1 to $8 \\times 10^7$ g cm$^{-3}$, spans the transition from the laminar flamelet regime to the distributed burning regime where small scale turbulence disrupts the flame. The use of a low Mach number algorithm facilitates the accurate resolution of the thermal structure of the flame and the inviscid turbulent kinetic energy cascade, while implicitly incorporating kinetic energy dissipation at the grid-scale cutoff. For an assumed background of isotropic Kolmogorov turbulence with an energy characteristic of SN Ia, we find a transition density between 1 and $3 \\times 10^7$ g cm$^{-3}$ where the nature of the burning changes qualitatively. By $1 \\times 10^7$ g cm$^{-3}$, energy diffusion by conduction and radiation is exceeded, on the flame scale, by turbulent advection. As a result, the effective Lewis Number approaches unity. That is, the flame resembles a laminar flame, but is turbulently broadened with an effective diffusion coefficient, $D_T \\sim u' l$, where $u'$ is the turbulent intensity and $l$ is the integral scale. For the larger integral scales characteristic of a real supernova, the flame structure is predicted to become complex and unsteady. Implications for a possible transition to detonation are discussed.

A. J. Aspden; J. B. Bell; M. S. Day; S. E. Woosley; M. Zingale

2008-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

85

GRAVITATIONALLY UNSTABLE FLAMES: RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR STRETCHING VERSUS TURBULENT WRINKLING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we provide support for the Rayleigh-Taylor-(RT)-based subgrid model used in full-star simulations of deflagrations in Type Ia supernovae explosions. We use the results of a parameter study of two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of an RT unstable model flame to distinguish between the two main types of subgrid models (RT or turbulence dominated) in the flamelet regime. First, we give scalings for the turbulent flame speed, the Reynolds number, the viscous scale, and the size of the burning region as the non-dimensional gravity (G) is varied. The flame speed is well predicted by an RT-based flame speed model. Next, the above scalings are used to calculate the Karlovitz number (Ka) and to discuss appropriate combustion regimes. No transition to thin reaction zones is seen at Ka = 1, although such a transition is expected by turbulence-dominated subgrid models. Finally, we confirm a basic physical premise of the RT subgrid model, namely, that the flame is fractal, and thus self-similar. By modeling the turbulent flame speed, we demonstrate that it is affected more by large-scale RT stretching than by small-scale turbulent wrinkling. In this way, the RT instability controls the flame directly from the large scales. Overall, these results support the RT subgrid model.

Hicks, E. P. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and the Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Rosner, R., E-mail: eph2001@columbia.edu [Computation Institute, University of Chicago, 5735 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

2013-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

86

Extinction and structure of counterflow premixed flames. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A theoretical and experimental investigation of the extinction of a counterflow premixed flame was performed using methane as the fuel. The extinction limits were measured for a premixed flame stabilized between a premixed, fuel lean stream of methane, air and nitrogen and a stream of hot combustion product. The composition of the reactant mixture as a function of the strain rate was measured at extinction over a wide range of conditions. The results are interpreted using previously developed theories to derive overall chemical kinetic rate parameters. Temperature and composition profiles were obtained for several premixed flames near extinction.

Crump, J.K.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

REAL TIME FLAME MONITORING OF GASIFIER BURNER AND INJECTORS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is submitted to the United States Department of Energy in partial fulfillment of the contractual requirements for Phase I of the project titled, ''Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier Burner and Injectors'', under co-operative agreement number DE-FS26-02NT41585. The project is composed of three one-year budget periods. The work in each year is divided into separate Tasks to facilitate project management, orderly completion of all project objectives, budget control, and critical path application of personnel and equipment. This Topical Report presents results of the Task 1 and 2 work. The 2 D optical sensor was developed to monitor selected UV and visible wavelengths to collect accurate flame characterization information regarding mixing, flame shape, and flame rich/lean characteristic. Flame richness, for example, was determined using OH and CH intensity peaks in the 300 to 500 nanometer range of the UV and visible spectrum. The laboratory burner was operated over a wide range of air to fuel ratio conditions from fuel rich to fuel lean. The sooty oxygen enriched air flames were established to test the sensor ability to characterize flame structures with substantial presence of hot solid particles emitting strong ''black body radiation''. The knowledge gained in these experiments will be very important when the sensor is used for gasifier flame analyses. It is expected that the sensor when installed on the Global Energy gasifier will be exposed to complex radiation patterns. The measured energy will be a combination of spectra emitted by the combusting gases, hot solid particulates, and hot walls of the gasifier chamber. The ability to separate flame emissions from the ''black body emissions'' will allow the sensor to accurately determine flame location relative to the gasifier walls and the injectors, as well as to analyze the flame's structure and condition. Ultimately, this information should enable the gasification processes to be monitored and controlled and as a result increase durability and efficiency of the gasifier. To accomplish goals set for Task 2 GTI will utilize the CANMET Coal Gasification Research facility. The Entrained Coal Gasifier Burner Test Stand has been designed and is currently under construction in the CANMET Energy Technology Center (CETC), the research and technology arm of Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). This Gasifier Burner Stand (GBS) is a scaled-down mock-up of a working gasifier combustion system that can provide the flexible platform needed in the second year of the project to test the flame sensor. The GBS will be capable of simulating combustion and gasification processes occurring in commercial gasifiers, such as Texaco, Shell, and Wabash River.

James Servaites; Serguei Zelepouga; David Rue

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Reactor pressure vessel vented head  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell. 6 figures.

Sawabe, J.K.

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

89

Effect of Blending on High-Pressure Laminar Flame Speed Measurements, Markstein Lengths, and Flame Stability of Hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for pure fuels and their blends for laminar flame speed and high-temperature shock-tube and low-temperature RCM ignition target data (Lowry et al., 2010a; Petersen et al., 2007; Healy et al., 2008a, 2008b), for the laminar flame speed of pure DME... enthalpy (KJ/kg) Le Lewis Number g1865g4662 " Mass burning rate per unit area (kg/m2-s) g1839g3050 Molecular weight (kg/kmol) X Mole fraction (kmol/kmol) g1851 Mass fraction (kg/kg) Subscripts b Burned condition i For species i L Laminar flame u...

Lowry, William Baugh

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

90

Deuterium Retention in NSTX with Lithium Conditioning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High (? 90%) deuterium retention was observed in NSTX gas balance measurements both withand without lithiumization of the carbon plasma facing components. The gas retained in ohmic discharges was measured by comparing the vessel pressure rise after a discharge to that of a gasonly pulse with the pumping valves closed. For neutral beam heated discharges the gas input and gas pumped by the NB cryopanels were tracked. The discharges were followed by outgassing of deuterium that reduced the retention. The relationship between retention and surface chemistry was explored with a new plasma-material interface probe connected to an in-vacuo surface science station that exposed four material samples to the plasma. XPS and TDS analysis showed that the binding of D atoms is fundamentally changed by lithium - in particular atoms are weakly bonded in regions near lithium atoms bound to either oxygen or the carbon matrix.

C.H. Skinner, J.P. Allain, W. Blanchard, H.W. Kugel, R. Maingi, L. Roquemore, V. Soukhanovskii, C.N. Taylor

2010-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

91

Surface wettability studies of PDMS using flame plasma treatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The flame plasma treatment studied in this thesis was able to oxidize the surface of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) in a fraction of a second. It was found to be a much faster way to modify PDMS surface wettability than the ...

Wang, Xin C

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Theoretical Adiabatic Temperature and Chemical Composition of Sodium Combustion Flame  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sodium fire safety analysis requires fundamental combustion properties, e.g., heat of combustion, flame temperature, and composition. We developed the GENESYS code for a theoretical investigation of sodium combustion flame.Our principle conclusions on sodium combustion under atmospheric air conditions are (a) the maximum theoretical flame temperature is 1950 K, and it is not affected by the presence of moisture; the uppermost limiting factor is the chemical instability of the condensed sodium-oxide products under high temperature; (b) the main combustion product is liquid Na{sub 2}O in dry air condition and liquid Na{sub 2}O with gaseous NaOH in moist air; and (c) the chemical equilibrium prediction of the residual gaseous reactants in the flame is indispensable for sodium combustion modeling.

Okano, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Akira [O-arai Engineering Center (Japan)

2003-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

93

Probing flame chemistry with MBMS, theory, and modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective is to establish kinetics of combustion and molecular-weight growth in C{sub 3} hydrocarbon flames as part of an ongoing study of flame chemistry. Specific reactions being studied are (1) the growth reactions of C{sub 3}H{sub 5} and C{sub 3}H{sub 3} with themselves and with unsaturated hydrocarbons and (2) the oxidation reactions of O and OH with C{sub 3}`s. This approach combines molecular-beam mass spectrometry (MBMS) experiments on low-pressure flat flames; theoretical predictions of rate constants by thermochemical kinetics, Bimolecular Quantum-RRK, RRKM, and master-equation theory; and whole-flame modeling using full mechanisms of elementary reactions.

Westmoreland, P.R. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

The effect of fuel composition on flame dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As fuel sources diversify, the gas turbine industry is under increasing pressure to develop fuel-flexible plants, able to use fuels with a variety of compositions from a large range of sources. However, the dynamic characteristics vary considerably with composition, in many cases altering the thermoacoustic stability of the combustor. We compare the flame dynamics, or the response in heat release rate of the flame to acoustic perturbations, of the three major constituents of natural gas: methane, ethane, and propane. The heat release rate is quantified using OH* chemiluminescence and product gas temperature. Gas temperature is measured by tracking the absorption of two high-temperature water lines, via Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy. The flame dynamics of the three fuels differ significantly. The changes in flame dynamics due to variations in fuel composition have the potential to have a large effect on the thermoacoustic stability of the combustor. (author)

Hendricks, Adam G.; Vandsburger, Uri [Department of Mechanical Engineering - 0238, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

95

Experimental Endeavour on a Pillar of Flame: Space Shuttle Rises...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

flash and a flame . . . a rush and a roar . . . a bright white bird booming into a deep blue sky: Few science experiments ever begin in such spectacular fashion. Yet the Space...

96

Temperature field reconstruction of combustion flame based on high  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that sound propagates in a different medium with different speed, and its theo- retical cornerstone-known materials of solid, liquid, and gaseous states, flame is a kind of plasma1,2 of which temper- ature is one

97

Fuel Properties to Enable Lifted-Flame Combustion  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Page 1 E.Kurtz File Name.pptx Fuel Properties to Enable Lifted Flame Combustion Eric Kurtz Ford Motor Company June 19, 2014 FT017 This presentation does not contain any...

98

Gravity effects on triple flames: Flame structure and flow instability Riccardo Azzoni, Stefano Ratti, Ishwar K. Puri, and Suresh K. Aggarwala)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gravity effects on triple flames: Flame structure and flow instability Riccardo Azzoni, Stefano of this investigation is to examine gravity effects on the flame structure and flow instabilities related to partially is weakly affected by gravity, the central nonpremixed and outer lean premixed reaction zones exhibit

Aggarwal, Suresh K.

99

Modeling variable density effects in turbulent flames -- Some basic considerations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper discusses the basic physical phenomena involved in pressure-density interactions, and presents models of pressure-velocity, pressure-scalar, baroclinic and dilatation effects for variable density low Mach-number turbulence. Their implementation in the {kappa}-{epsilon} framework is then described and their performance evaluated. The models assume that both scalar transport and turbulence generation arising from pressure-density interactions in flames are caused by the motion of large scale turbulent thermals superposed on the normal turbulence mechanism. The velocity of the thermals is related directly to the mean pressure gradient and local density differences in the flames. It is furthermore assumed that the correction for dilatation effects in the {kappa}-{epsilon} system can be determined from the constraint of conservation of the angular momentum of turbulence per unit mass. Simple corrections of the {kappa}-{epsilon} system are proposed for fast chemistry diffusion and premixed flames subject to variable pressure gradients, which offer substantial improvements in the predictions of the flames. some problems remain, particularly in predictions of turbulence in premixed flames, owing to large scale instabilities of the flames observed in the experiments.

Chomiak, J.; Nisbet, J.R. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Thermo and Fluid Dynamics] [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Thermo and Fluid Dynamics

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Numerical and experimental investigation of vortical flow-flame interaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A massively parallel coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian low Mach number reacting flow code is developed and used to study the structure and dynamics of a forced planar buoyant jet flame in two dimensions. The numerical construction uses a finite difference scheme with adaptive mesh refinement for solving the scalar conservation equations, and the vortex method for the momentum equations, with the necessary coupling terms. The numerical model construction is presented, along with computational issues regarding the parallel implementation. An experimental acoustically forced planar jet burner apparatus is also developed and used to study the velocity and scalar fields in this flow, and to provide useful data for validation of the computed jet. Burner design and laser diagnostic details are discussed, along with the measured laboratory jet flame dynamics. The computed reacting jet flow is also presented, with focus on both large-scale outer buoyant structures and the lifted flame stabilization dynamics. A triple flame structure is observed at the flame base in the computed flow, as is theoretically expected, but was not observable with present diagnostic techniques in the laboratory flame. Computed and experimental results are compared, along with implications for model improvements.

Najm, H.N.; Schefer, R.W.; Milne, R.B.; Mueller, C.J. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Devine, K.D.; Kempka, S.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flame retention head" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

On the Evolution of Thermonuclear Flames on Large Scales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The thermonuclear explosion of a massive white dwarf in a Type Ia supernova explosion is characterized by vastly disparate spatial and temporal scales. The extreme dynamic range inherent to the problem prevents the use of direct numerical simulation and forces modelers to resort to subgrid models to describe physical processes taking place on unresolved scales. We consider the evolution of a model thermonuclear flame in a constant gravitational field on a periodic domain. The gravitational acceleration is aligned with the overall direction of the flame propagation, making the flame surface subject to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The flame evolution is followed through an extended initial transient phase well into the steady-state regime. The properties of the evolution of flame surface are examined. We confirm the form of the governing equation of the evolution suggested by Khokhlov (1995). The mechanism of vorticity production and the interaction between vortices and the flame surface are discussed. The results of our investigation provide the bases for revising and extending previous subgrid-scale model.

Ju Zhang; O. E. Bronson Messer; Alexei M. Khokhlov; Tomasz Plewa

2006-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

102

Experimental and Computational Study of Flame Inhibition Mechanisms of Halogenated Compounds in C1-C3 Alkanes Flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

suppressants on ignition and laminar flame propagation of C_(1)-C_(3) alkanes premixed mixtures, as good representatives of flammable gas fires (Class B fires). This methodology integrates model formulations and experimental designs in order to examine both...

Osorio Amado, Carmen H

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

103

Role Profile Head of School  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Role Profile Head of School Purpose of the Role The Head of School is accountable for:- · The provision of academic leadership, developing and delivering School objectives for, in particular, teaching, · The effective governance and management of the School and all of its resources. Context of the Role

Edinburgh, University of

104

High temperature ceramic composition for hydrogen retention  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ceramic coating for H retention in fuel elements is described. The coating has relatively low thermal neutron cross section, is not readily reduced by H at 1500 deg F, is adherent to the fuel element base metal, and is stable at reactor operating temperatures. (JRD)

Webb, R.W.

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Bear Head LNG Corporation and Bear Head LNG (USA), LLC - FE Dkt...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Bear Head LNG Corporation and Bear Head LNG (USA), LLC - FE Dkt. No. - 15-33-LNG Bear Head LNG Corporation and Bear Head LNG (USA), LLC - FE Dkt. No. - 15-33-LNG The Office of...

106

Recruiting, Retention & Advancement Recruiting: Searching for Excellence and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Recruiting, Retention & Advancement Recruiting: Searching for Excellence and Diversity: A Workshop for Faculty Search Committee Chairs Retention: Enhancing Department Climate: A Chair's Role Advancement: Senior women meetings #12;Recruiting 3-part workshops for chairs of hiring committees Based

Sheridan, Jennifer

107

West Virginia University -Main Campus Student Retention and Graduation Rates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

West Virginia University - Main Campus Student Retention and Graduation Rates First-Time, Full ---------------------------------------------------------------------Continuation Rates and Cumulative Graduation Rates

Mohaghegh, Shahab

108

Investigation of H2 Concentration and Combustion Instability Effects on the Kinetics of Strained Syngas Flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The flame extinction limits of syngas (H{sub 2}-CO) flames were measured using a twin-flame-counter-flow burner. Plots of Extinction limits vs. global stretch rates were generated at different mixture compositions and an extrapolation method was used to calculate the flame extinction limit corresponding to an experimentally unattainable zero-stretch condition. The zero-stretch extinction limit of H{sub 2}-CO mixtures decreases (from rich to lean) with the increase in H{sub 2} concentration in the mixture. The average difference between the measured flame extinction limit and the Le Chatelier's calculation is around {approx} 7%. The measured OH{sup -} chemiluminescent data indicates that regardless of mixture compositions the OH radical concentration reduces (within the experimental uncertainties) to an extinction value prior to the flame extinction. Flame extinction limits of H{sub 2}-CO mixtures measured in a flat-flame burner configuration also show a similar relation. Additionally, the measured laminar flame velocity close to the extinction indicates that regardless of fuel composition the premixed flame of hydrogen fuel blends extinguishes when the mixture laminar flame velocity falls below a critical value. The critical laminar flame velocity at extinction for H{sub 2}-CO premixed flames (measured in the flat flame burner configuration) is found to be 3.77({+-}0.38) cm/s. An externally perturbed H{sub 2}-CO twin flame was not experimentally achievable for the mixture conditions used in the present investigation. A slightest perturbation in the flow-field distorts the H{sub 2}-CO twin-flame. The flame becomes highly unstable with the introduction of an externally excited flow oscillation.

Ahsan R. Choudhuri

2006-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

109

Nonlinear effects of stretch on the flame front propagation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In all experimental configurations, the flames are affected by stretch (curvature and/or strain rate). To obtain the unstretched flame speed, independent of the experimental configuration, the measured flame speed needs to be corrected. Usually, a linear relationship linking the flame speed to stretch is used. However, this linear relation is the result of several assumptions, which may be incorrected. The present study aims at evaluating the error in the laminar burning speed evaluation induced by using the traditional linear methodology. Experiments were performed in a closed vessel at atmospheric pressure for two different mixtures: methane/air and iso-octane/air. The initial temperatures were respectively 300 K and 400 K for methane and iso-octane. Both methodologies (linear and nonlinear) are applied and results in terms of laminar speed and burned gas Markstein length are compared. Methane and iso-octane were chosen because they present opposite evolutions in their Markstein length when the equivalence ratio is increased. The error induced by the linear methodology is evaluated, taking the nonlinear methodology as the reference. It is observed that the use of the linear methodology starts to induce substantial errors after an equivalence ratio of 1.1 for methane/air mixtures and before an equivalence ratio of 1 for iso-octane/air mixtures. One solution to increase the accuracy of the linear methodology for these critical cases consists in reducing the number of points used in the linear methodology by increasing the initial flame radius used. (author)

Halter, F.; Tahtouh, T.; Mounaim-Rousselle, C. [Institut PRISME, Universite d'Orleans, 8 rue Leonard de Vinci, 45072 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

110

Layer-by-Layer Nanocoatings with Flame Retardant and Oxygen Barrier Properties: Moving Toward Renewable Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) clay to create a renewable flame retardant nanocoating for polyurethane foam. This coating system completely stops the melting of a flexible polyurethane foam when exposed to direct flame from a butane torch, with just 10 bilayers (~ 30 nm thick...

Laufer, Galina 1985-

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

111

E-Print Network 3.0 - adiabatic flame temperature Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Combustion Theory and Modelling Vol. 11, No. 3, June 2007, 427453 Summary: mixture, and Tad T + Y q CP is the adiabatic flame temperature of planar flame. By further......

112

Heater head for stirling engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

Corey, John A. (R.D. #2, Box 101 E, North Troy, NY 12182)

1985-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

113

Metrological tool for the characterization of flame fronts based on the coupling of heat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

° flame inclination angle due to wind [ ]th i W theoretical radiative heat flux received by the ith target

Boyer, Edmond

114

Kinetic effects of toluene blending on the extinction limit of n-decane diffusion flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

analyses of kinetic path ways and species transport on flame extinction were also conducted. The results and emission properties, such as the ignition delay times, extinction limits, flame speeds, species profilesKinetic effects of toluene blending on the extinction limit of n-decane diffusion flames Sang Hee

Ju, Yiguang

115

Fractal characterisation of high-pressure and hydrogen-enriched CH4air turbulent premixed flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fractal characterisation of high-pressure and hydrogen-enriched CH4­air turbulent premixed flames measurements were performed to obtain the flame front images, which were further analyzed for fractal of the flame front curvature as a function of the pressure. Fractal dimension showed a strong dependence

GĂĽlder, Ă?mer L.

116

Turbulent Oxygen Flames in Type Ia Supernovae A. J. Aspden1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Turbulent Oxygen Flames in Type Ia Supernovae A. J. Aspden1 , J. B. Bell1 , and S. E. Woosley2 oxygen flames. The two aims of the paper are to examine the response of the inductive oxygen flame to intense levels of turbulence, and to explore the possibility of transition to detonation in the oxygen

117

Large-eddy simulation of lean hydrogenemethane turbulent premixed flames in the methane-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Large-eddy simulation of lean hydrogenemethane turbulent premixed flames in the methane- dominated to available experimental data. The enriched flame has 20% H2 in terms of mole fraction and lies in the methane methane flame in the methane- dominated regime. Copyright ÂŞ 2014, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC

GĂĽlder, Ă?mer L.

118

LES/probability density function approach for the simulation of an ethanol spray flame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LES/probability density function approach for the simulation of an ethanol spray flame Colin Heye a an experimental pilot-stabilized ethanol spray flame. In this particular flame, droplet evaporation occurs away: Large-eddy simulation; Probability density function; Flamelet/progress variable approach; Ethanol

Raman, Venkat

119

Scalar dissipation rate based flamelet modelling of turbulent premixed flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 6.10 Comparison of turbulent flame speed expressions to the experimen- tal database of Abdel-Gayed et al. (1987) for two values of flame stretch parameter, K: (i) K = 0.053 and (ii) K = 0.15. . . . . . . 95 x LIST OF FIGURES 7.1 The regime diagram... space variable for c xix Chapter 1 Introduction Combustion is a phenomenon that occurs all around us: a burning candle, a do- mestic boiler, an aircraft engine etc., to name a few instances. Since the dawn of the industrial age, energy derived from...

Kolla, Hemanth

2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

120

Spatial resolution of temperature and chemical species in a flame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by Winefordner et al. (51). AE . /k A. g. I. B. ln ~ + ln ? + 1n? 1 A. g. i B. (36) where: subscript i = the level excited by the source subscript j = the thermally assisted level flame temperature AE . . ij the difference in energy between i and j.... Schweikert (Member) Abdel-Kad Ayou (Memb ) Vaneica . Y ng (Member) May 1984 ABSTRACT Spatial Resolution of Temperature and Chemical Species in a Flame. (May 1984) Fakhrildeen Niema Albahadily, B. S. , University of Basrah/Iraq Chairman of Advisory...

Albahadily, Fakhrildeen Niema

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flame retention head" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

INVESTIGATION ON THE FLAME EXTINCTION LIMIT OF FUEL BLENDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lean flame extinction limits of binary fuel mixtures of methane (CH{sub 4}), propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}), and ethane (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}) were measured using a twin-flame counter-flow burner. Experiments were conducted to generate an extinction equivalence ratio vs. global stretch rate plot and an extrapolation method was used to calculate the equivalence ratio corresponding to an experimentally unattainable zero-stretch condition. The foregoing gases were selected because they are the primary constitutes of natural gas, which is the primary focus of the present study. To validate the experimental setup and methodology, the flame extinction limit of pure fuels at zero stretch conditions were also estimated and compared with published values. The lean flame extinction limits of methane (f{sub ext} = 4.6%) and propane (f{sub ext} = 2.25%) flames measured in the present study agreed with the values reported in the literature. It was observed that the flame extinction limit of fuel blends have a polynomial relation with the concentration of component fuels in the mixture. This behavior contradicts with the commonly used linear Le Chatelier's approximation. The experimentally determined polynomial relations between the flame extinction limits of fuel blends (i.e. methane-propane and methane-ethane) and methane concentration are as follows: (1) Methane-Propane--%f{sub ext} = (1.05 x 10{sup -9}) f{sup 5}-(1.3644 x 10{sup -7}) f{sup 4}+(6.40299 x 10{sup -6}) f{sup 3}-(1.2108459 x 10{sup -4}) f{sup 2}+(2.87305329 x 10{sup -3}) f+2.2483; (2) Methane-Ethane--%f{sub ext} = (2.1 x 10{sup -9})f{sup 5}-(3.5752 x 10{sup -7}) f{sup 4}+(2.095425 x 10{sup -5}) f{sup 3}-(5.037353 x 10{sup -4}) f{sup 2} + 6.08980409 f + 2.8923. Where f{sub ext} is the extinction limits of methane-propane and methane-ethane fuel blends, and f is the concentration (% volume) of methane in the fuel mixture. The relations were obtained by fitting fifth order curve (polynomial regression) to experimentally measured extinction limits at different mixture conditions. To extend the study to a commercial fuel, the flame extinction limit for Birmingham natural gas (a blend of 95% methane, 5% ethane and 5% nitrogen) was experimentally determined and was found to be 3.62% fuel in the air-fuel mixture.

Ahsan R. Choudhuri

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

LES of a Hydrogen-Enriched Lean Turbulent Premixed Flame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LES of a Hydrogen-Enriched Lean Turbulent Premixed Flame Francisco E. Hern´andez-P´erez , Clinton the observed behaviour is examined. Hydrogen-hydrocarbon fuel blends appear to be a promising option to synergistically pave the way toward pure hydrogen-based combustion systems while alleviating green-house gas

Groth, Clinton P. T.

123

Reaction zone visualisation in swirling spray n-heptane flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

process and consumed in the subsequent high temperature oxidation. Formaldehyde LIF was used for autoignition of methane jets [6], methanol, ethanol and acetone spray jet flames [7,8], and diesel fuel [9-11] and n-heptane [11,12] in HCCI engines. Najm...

Yuan, R.; Kariuki, J.; Dowlut, A.; Balachandran, R.; Mastorakos, E.

2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

124

Structure of Partially Premixed Flames Using Detailed Chemistry Simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

obtained at Sandia National Labs in 2001. The study is focused on axisymmetric laminar partially-premixed methane/air flames with varying premixture strength values of 1.8, 2.2, and 3.17. The combination of computational and experimental results is used...

Kluzek, Celine D.

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

125

Investigation of polarization spectroscopy for detecting atomic hydrogen in flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The probe beam was tuned to the single-photon 486-nm n = 2 --> n = 4 resonance of the hydrogen atom by fundamental and frequency-doubled beams from a single 486-nm dye laser were used. The probe beam was linearly polarized entering the flame...

Kulatilaka, Waruna Dasal

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Flame Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes Using Low Calorific Value Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanostructures formed in diffusion flames of pure fuels [CH{sub 4}, C{sub 3}H{sub 8}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}] at different fuel flow rates have been analyzed. Synthesis samples have been also collected from diffusion flames of various fuel blends [H{sub 2}-CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}-CO, H{sub 2}-C{sub 3}H{sub 8}, H{sub 2}-C{sub 2}H{sub 2}] at different combustion conditions. SEM images of particulate samples collected from H{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} diffusion flames show formation of nanostructures. However, the formation of nanostructures only occurs at a narrow window of fuel compositions (< 10% H{sub 2} concentration in the mixture) and flow conditions (Jet Exit Reynolds number Re{sub j} = 200). At higher H{sub 2} concentration and flow velocity, formation of nanostructures diminishes and H{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} flames produce amorphous carbon and soot particles.

Jorge Camacho; Mahesh Subramanya; Ahsan R. Choudhuri

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

127

Modeling of combustion noise spectrum from turbulent premixed flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling of combustion noise spectrum from turbulent premixed flames Y. Liu, A. P. Dowling, T. D, Nantes, France 2321 #12;Turbulent combustion processes generate sound radiation due to temporal changes, this temporal correlation and its role in the modeling of combustion noise spectrum are studied by analyzing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

128

Paper # A02 Topic: Laminar Flames US Combustion Meeting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

been focused on synthetic fuel gas (syngas) combustion. Syngas is derived from coal throughPaper # A02 Topic: Laminar Flames 1 5th US Combustion Meeting Organized by the Western States Section of the Combustion Institute and Hosted by the University of California at San Diego March 25

Seitzman, Jerry M.

129

Europium-doped yttrium silicate nanophosphors prepared by flame synthesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Europium-doped yttrium silicate nanophosphors prepared by flame synthesis Xiao Qin a,*, Yiguang Ju; accepted 7 November 2006 Available online 22 December 2006 Abstract Europium-doped yttrium silicate (Y2SiO5 properties 1. Introduction Yttrium silicate (Y2SiO5) is an important luminescent host material for various

Bernhard, Stefan

130

Analyzing and Tracking Burning Structures in Lean Premixed Hydrogen Flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- bly burning ultra-lean hydrogen-air fuel mixtures. Such burners could, for example, be used as oneAnalyzing and Tracking Burning Structures in Lean Premixed Hydrogen Flames P.-T. Bremer1, G. Weber2 of the temporal behavior. We demonstrate our approach by analyzing three numerical simulations of lean hydrogen

131

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurement in methane and biodiesel flames using an ungated detector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to measure the equivalence ratio of CH4/air flames using gated detection. In this work, we have developed an ungated, miniature LIBS-based sensor for studying CH4/air and biodiesel flames. We have used this sensor to characterize the biodiesel flame. LIBS spectra of biodiesel flames were recorded with different ethanol concentrations in the biodiesel and also at different axial locations within the flame. The sensor performance was evaluated with a CH4/air flame. LIBS signals of N, O, and H from a CH4/air flame were used to determine the equivalence ratio. A linear relationship between the intensity ratio of H and O lines and the calculated equivalence ratio were obtained with this sensor.

Eseller, Kemal E.; Yueh, Fang Y.; Singh, Jagdish P

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Small-scale Interaction of Turbulence with Thermonuclear Flames in Type Ia Supernovae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microscopic turbulence-flame interactions of thermonuclear fusion flames occuring in Type Ia Supernovae were studied by means of incompressible direct numerical simulations with a highly simplified flame description. The flame is treated as a single diffusive scalar field with a nonlinear source term. It is characterized by its Prandtl number, Pr << 1, and laminar flame speed, S_L. We find that if S_L ~ u', where u' is the rms amplitude of turbulent velocity fluctuations, the local flame propagation speed does not significantly deviate from S_L even in the presence of velocity fluctuations on scales below the laminar flame thickness. This result is interpreted in the context of subgrid-scale modeling of supernova explosions and the mechanism for deflagration-detonation-transitions.

J. C. Niemeyer; W. K. Bushe; G. R. Ruetsch

1999-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

133

Heater head for Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a heater head for a Stirling engine comprising: a housing for enclosing the heater head with gas at a substantial elevated pressure; insulator means attached to the housing for insulating the heater head; inlet means attached to a regenerator in the housing for admission of relatively high pressure working fluid from the regenerator of a Stirling engine; a first annular heating wall in the housing attached to the inlet means for heating the working fluid; and, a second annular heating wall in the housing concentric with the first heating wall but of lesser diameters so that an annular space is formed between the first heating wall and the second heating wall for heating working fluid; and a third heating wall in the housing concentric with and smaller in diameter than the second heating wall forming the condensing area of a heat pipe between the second heating wall and the third heating wall.

White, M.A.; Emigh, S.G.

1987-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

134

Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier and Injectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is a multistage effort with the final goal to develop a practical and reliable nonintrusive gasifier injector monitor to assess burner wear and need for replacement. The project team included the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Gas Technology Institute (GTI), North Carolina State University, and ConocoPhillips. This report presents the results of the sensor development and testing initially at GTI combustion laboratory with natural gas flames, then at the Canada Energy Technology Center (CANMET), Canada in the atmospheric coal combustor as well as in the pilot scale pressurized entrained flow gasifier, and finally the sensor capabilities were demonstrated at the Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) Gasifier and the Wabash River Repowering plant located in West Terre Haute, IN. The initial tests demonstrated that GTI gasifier sensor technology was capable of detecting shape and rich/lean properties of natural gas air/oxygen enriched air flames. The following testing at the Vertical Combustor Research Facility (VCRF) was a logical transition step from the atmospheric natural gas flames to pressurized coal gasification environment. The results of testing with atmospheric coal flames showed that light emitted by excited OH* and CH* radicals in coal/air flames can be detected and quantified. The maximum emission intensities of OH*, CH*, and black body (char combustion) occur at different axial positions along the flame length. Therefore, the excitation rates of CH* and OH* are distinct at different stages of coal combustion and can be utilized to identify and characterize processes which occur during coal combustion such as devolatilization, char heating and burning. To accomplish the goals set for Tasks 4 and 5, GTI utilized the CANMET Pressurized Entrained Flow Gasifier (PEFG). The testing parameters of the PEFG were selected to simulate optimum gasifier operation as well as gasifier conditions normally resulting from improper operation or failed gasifier injectors. The sensor developed under previous tasks was used to assess the spectroscopic characteristics of the gasifier flame. The obtained spectral data were successfully translated into flame temperature measurements. It was also demonstrated that the reduced spectral data could be very well correlated with very important gasification process parameters such as the air/fuel and water/fuel ratio. Any of these parameters (temperature, air/fuel, and water/fuel) is sufficient to assess burner wear; however, the tested sensor was capable of monitoring all three of them plus the flame shape as functions of burner wear. This will likely be a very powerful tool which should enable significant improvements in gasifier efficiency, reliability, and availability. The sensor technology was presented to the projectâ??s industrial partner (ConocoPhillips). The partner expressed its strong interest in continuing to participate in the field validation phase of GTI's Flame Monitor Project. Finally the sensor was tested in the PWR (Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne) gasification plant located at GTIâ??s research campus and at the ConocoPhillips industrial scale gasifier at Wabash River Indiana. The field trials of the GTI Gasifier sensor modified to withstand high temperature and pressure corrosive atmosphere of the industrial entrain flow gasifier. The project team successfully demonstrated the Gasifier Sensor system ability to monitor gasifier interior temperature maintaining unobstructed optical access for in excess of six week without any maintenance. The sensor examination upon completion of the trial revealed that the system did not sustain any damage and required minor cleanup of the optics.

Zelepouga, Serguei; Saveliev, Alexei

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

135

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

136

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

137

Retention of Halogens in Waste Glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In spite of their potential roles as melting rate accelerators and foam breakers, halogens are generally viewed as troublesome components for glass processing. Of five halogens, F, Cl, Br, I, and At, all but At may occur in nuclear waste. A nuclear waste feed may contain up to 10 g of F, 4 g of Cl, and ?100 mg of Br and I per kg of glass. The main concern is halogen volatility, producing hazardous fumes and particulates, and the radioactive iodine 129 isotope of 1.7x10^7-year half life. Because F and Cl are soluble in oxide glasses and tend to precipitate on cooling, they can be retained in the waste glass in the form of dissolved constituents or as dispersed crystalline inclusions. This report compiles known halogen-retention data in both high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) glasses. Because of its radioactivity, the main focus is on I. Available data on F and Cl were compiled for comparison. Though Br is present in nuclear wastes, it is usually ignored; no data on Br retention were found.

Hrma, Pavel R.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Pressure testing of torispherical heads  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two vessels fabricated from SA516-70 steel with 6% knuckle radius torispherical heads were tested under internal pressure to failure. The D/t ratios of Vessel 1 and Vessel 2 were 238 and 185 respectively. The calculated maximum allowable working pressures of Vessel 1 and 2 heads using the ASME Section 8, Div. 1 rules and measured dimensions were 85 and 110 psi, respectively. Vessel 1 failed at a nozzle weld in the cylindrical shell at 700 psi pressure. Neither buckling nor any other objectionable deformation of the head was observed at a theoretical double-elastic-slope collapse pressure of 241 and a calculated buckling pressure of 270 psi. Buckles were observed developing slowly after 600 psi pressure, and a total of 22 buckles were observed after the test, having the maximum amplitude of 0.15 inch. Vessel 2 failed at the edge of the longitudinal weld of the cylindrical shell at 1,080 psi pressure. Neither buckling nor any other objectionable deformation of the head was observed up to the final pressure, which exceeded the theoretical double-elastic-slope collapse and calculated buckling pressures of 274 psi and 342 psi, respectively.

Rana, M.D. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Research and Development Dept.; Kalnins, A.; Updike, D.P. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Soot microstructure in steady and flickering laminar methane/air diffusion flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental investigation is presented to identify the mechanisms responsible for the enhanced sooting behavior of strongly flickering methane/air jet diffusion flames when compared to their steady counterparts. The work extends the implementation of thermophoretic sampling in flickering, co-flow, laminar, diffusion flames. Acoustic forcing of the fuel flow rate is used to phase lock the periodic flame flicker close to the natural flicker frequency ({approximately} 10 Hz for a burner diameter of {approximately} 1 cm). Soot primary sizes, determined as functions of flame coordinates, indicate that the largest soot primary units in strongly flickering methane/air flames are larger by {approximately} 60% than those measured in steady flames with the same mean reactant flow rates. The primary particle size measurements, when combined with the soot volume fractions reported by other investigators, indicate that soot surface areas in the flickering flame are three to four times larger than those under steady conditions. These results, along with the fact that residence times in the flickering flame are twice as long as those in the steady flame, suggest that specific soot surface growth rates under unsteady combustion conditions can be similar or even lower than those in the corresponding steady flames. Finally, the number of densities of soot primaries in flickering flames are found to be higher by 30--50% than those in steady flames, thus suggesting stronger and/or extended soot inception mechanisms under flickering conditions. The combination of longer flow residence times and greater population of incipient soot particles in flickering flames appears to be primarily responsible for the higher sooting propensity of methane under laminar unsteady combustion conditions.

Zhang, J.; Megaridis, C.M. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Development of a New Flame Speed Vessel to Measure the Effect of Steam Dilution on Laminar Flame Speeds of Syngas Fuel Blends at Elevated Pressures and Temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/s to 16.7 cm/s. The amount of carbon monoxide dilution in the fuel was shown to be the most influential factor on the laminar flame speed from fuel lean to fuel rich. This is verified by comparing the laminar flame speed of the atmospheric mixtures. Also...

Krejci, Michael

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flame retention head" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Analyzing pulse from head motions in video  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We extract heart rate and beat lengths from videos by measuring subtle head oscillations that accompany the cardiac cycle. Our method tracks features on the head, temporally filters their trajectories and performs principal ...

Balakrishnan, Guha

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Volatile Species Retention During Metallic Fuel Casting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metallic nuclear fuels are candidate transmutation fuel forms for advanced fuel cycles. Through the operation of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II metallic nuclear fuels have been shown to be robust and easily manufactured. However, concerns have been raised concerning loss of americium during the casting process because of its high vapor pressure. In order to address these concerns a gaseous diffusion model was developed and a series of experiments using both manganese and samarium as surrogates for americium were conducted. The modeling results showed that volatility losses can be controlled to essentially no losses with a modest overpressure. Experimental results also showed volatile species retention down to no detectable losses through overpressure, although the loss values varied from the model results the same trend was seen. Bases on these results it is very probably that americium losses through volatility can be controlled to no detectable losses through application of a modest overpressure during casting.

Randall S. Fielding; Douglas L. Proter

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

207-A retention basins system design description  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 242-A Evaporator is a waste treatment facility designed to reduce liquid waste volumes currently stored in the Hanford Area double shell Waste Storage Tanks. The evaporator uses evaporative concentration to achieve this volume reduction, returning the concentrated slurry to the double-shell tanks for storage. The process effluent is transferred to various retention/treatment facilities for eventual release to the environment. The process utilizes an evaporator vessel and various supporting systems for heating, evaporating, and condensing low-heat-generating liquid waste produced it the Hanford Site. The process reduces the total volume of the liquid waste requiring storage in a double shell tank, making it more manageable for current storage as well as for future treatment and disposal. The main components of the 242-A Evaporator are the Reboiler, Vapor-Liquid Separator, Recirculation Pump and Pump Loop, Slurry System, Condenser System, Steam Jet Vacuum System, Condensate Collection Tank, and Ion Exchange System.

Wahlquist, R.A.

1994-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

144

FLAME facility: The effect of obstacles and transverse venting on flame acceleration and transition on detonation for hydrogen-air mixtures at large scale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes research on flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) for hydrogen-air mixtures carried out in the FLAME facility, and describes its relevance to nuclear reactor safety. Flame acceleration and DDT can generate high peak pressures that may cause failure of containment. FLAME is a large rectangular channel 30.5 m long, 2.44 m high, and 1.83 m wide. It is closed on the ignition end and open on the far end. The three test variables were hydrogen mole fraction (12--30%), degree of transverse venting (by moving steel top plates---0%, 13%, and 50%), and the absence or presence of certain obstacles in the channel (zero or 33% blockage ratio). The most important variable was the hydrogen mole fraction. The presence of the obstacles tested greatly increased the flame speeds, overpressures, and tendency for DDT compared to similar tests without obstacles. Different obstacle configurations could have greater or lesser effects on flame acceleration and DDT. Large degrees of transverse venting reduced the flame speeds, overpressures, and possibility of DDT. For small degrees of transverse venting (13% top venting), the flame speeds and overpressures were higher than for no transverse venting with reactive mixtures (>18% H/sub 2/), but they were lower with leaner mixtures. The effect of the turbulence generated by the flow out the vents on increasing flame speed can be larger than the effect of venting gas out of the channel and hence reducing the overpressure. With no obstacles and 50% top venting, the flame speeds and overpressures were low, and there was no DDT. For all other cases, DDT was observed above some threshold hydrogen concentration. DDT was obtained at 15% H/sub 2/ with obstacles and no transverse venting. 67 refs., 62 figs.

Sherman, M.P.; Tieszen, S.R.; Benedick, W.B.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

On the small-scale stability of thermonuclear flames in Type Ia supernovae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a numerical model which allows us to investigate thermonuclear flames in Type Ia supernova explosions. The model is based on a finite-volume explicit hydrodynamics solver employing PPM. Using the level-set technique combined with in-cell reconstruction and flux-splitting schemes we are able to describe the flame in the discontinuity approximation. We apply our implementation to flame propagation in Chandrasekhar-mass Type Ia supernova models. In particular we concentrate on intermediate scales between the flame width and the Gibson-scale, where the burning front is subject to the Landau-Darrieus instability. We are able to reproduce the theoretical prediction on the growth rates of perturbations in the linear regime and observe the stabilization of the flame in a cellular shape. The increase of the mean burning velocity due to the enlarged flame surface is measured. Results of our simulation are in agreement with semianalytical studies.

F. K. Roepke; J. C. Niemeyer; W. Hillebrandt

2003-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

146

Fabrication of functional nanomaterials using flame assisted spray pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flame assisted spray pyrolysis (FASP) is a class of synthesis method for nanomaterials fabrication. The ability to control nanomaterials characteristics and easy to be-scaled up are the main features of FASP. The crystallinity and particles size of the prepared nanomaterials can be easily controlled by variation of fuel flow rate. The precursor concentration, carrier gas flow rate, and carrier gas can be also used to control the prepared nanomaterials. Energy related nanomaterials preparation uses as the example case in FASP application. These material are yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG:Ce) and tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}). It needs strategies to produce these materials into nano-sized order. YAG:Ce nanoparticles only can be synthesized by FASP using the urea addition. The decomposition of urea under high temperature of flame promotes the breakage of YAG:Ce particles into nanoparticles. In the preparation of WO{sub 3}, the high temperature flame can be used to gasify WO{sub 3} solid material. As a result, WO{sub 3} nanoparticles can be prepared easily. Generally, to produce nanoparticles via FASP method, the boiling point of the material is important to determine the strategy which will be used.

Purwanto, Agus, E-mail: aguspur@uns.ac.id [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta 632112 (Indonesia)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

147

Fuel control for gas turbine with continuous pilot flame  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved fuel control for a gas turbine engine having a continuous pilot flame and a fuel distribution system including a pump drawing fuel from a source and supplying a line to the main fuel nozzle of the engine, the improvement being a control loop between the pump outlet and the pump inlet to bypass fuel, an electronically controlled throttle valve to restrict flow in the control loop when main nozzle demand exists and to permit substantially unrestricted flow without main nozzle demand, a minimum flow valve in the control loop downstream of the throttle valve to maintain a minimum pressure in the loop ahead of the flow valve, a branch tube from the pilot flame nozzle to the control loop between the throttle valve and the minimum flow valve, an orifice in the branch tube, and a feedback tube from the branch tube downstream of the orifice to the minimum flow valve, the minimum flow valve being operative to maintain a substantially constant pressure differential across the orifice to maintain constant fuel flow to the pilot flame nozzle.

Swick, Robert M. (Indianapolis, IN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Fuel effects on flame lift-off under diesel conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An apparent relation between the lift-off length under diesel conditions and the ignition quality of a fuel has previously been reported. To cast light on the underlying mechanism, the current study aims to separate flame lift-off effects of the chemical ignition delay from those of other fuel properties under diesel conditions. Flame lift-off was measured in an optical diesel engine by high-speed video imaging of OH-chemiluminescence. Fuel and ambient-gas properties were varied during the experiment. Only a weak correlation was found between ignition delay and lift-off length. The data indicate that this correlation is due to a common, stronger correlation with the ambient oxygen concentration. The chemical ignition delay and the fuel type had similar, weak effects on the lift-off length. A recently proposed mechanism for lift-off stabilization was used to interpret the results. It assumes that reactants approaching the lift-off position of the jet are mixed with high-temperature products found along the edges of the flame, which trigger autoignition. In this picture, the fuel effect is most likely due to differences in the amount of mixing with high-temperature products that is required for autoignition. In the current experiment, all lift-off effects seem to arise from variations in the reactant and product temperatures, induced by fuel and ambient properties. (author)

Persson, Helena; Andersson, Oeivind; Egnell, Rolf [Lund University (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Sciences

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

149

In-Vessel Retention Technology Development and Use for Advanced PWR Designs in the USA and Korea  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In-Vessel Retention (IVR) of molten core debris by means of external reactor vessel flooding is a cornerstone of severe accident management for Westinghouse's AP600 (advanced passive light water reactor) design. The case for its effectiveness (made in previous work by the PI) has been thoroughly documented, reviewed as part of the licensing certification, and accepted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A successful IVR would terminate a severe accident, passively, with the core in a stable, coolable configuration (within the lower head), thus avoiding the largely uncertain accident evolution with the molten debris on the containment floor. This passive plant design has been upgraded by Westinghouse to the AP1000, a 1000 MWe plant very similar to the AP600. The severe accident management approach is very similar too, including In-Vessel Retention as the cornerstone feature, and initial evaluations indicated that this would be feasible at the higher power as well. A similar strategy is adopted in Korea for the APR1400 plant. The overall goal of this project is to provide experimental data and develop the necessary basic understanding so as to allow the robust extension of the AP600 In-Vessel Retention strategy for severe accident management to higher power reactors, and in particular, to the AP1000 advanced passive design.

T.G. Theofanous; S.J. Oh; J.H. Scobel

2004-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

150

Flame propagation enhancement by plasma excitation of oxygen. Part I: Effects of O{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermal and kinetic effects of O{sub 3} on flame propagation were investigated experimentally and numerically by using C{sub 3}H{sub 8}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} laminar lifted flames. Ozone produced by a dielectric barrier plasma discharge was isolated and measured quantitatively by using absorption spectroscopy. Significant kinetic enhancement by O{sub 3} was observed by comparing flame stabilization locations with and without O{sub 3} production. Experiments at atmospheric pressures showed an 8% enhancement in the flame propagation speed for 1260 ppm of O{sub 3} addition to the O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} oxidizer. Numerical simulations showed that the O{sub 3} decomposition and reaction with H early in the pre-heat zone of the flame produced O and OH, respectively, from which the O reacted rapidly with C{sub 3}H{sub 8} and produced additional OH. The subsequent reaction of OH with the fuel and fuel fragments, such as CH{sub 2}O, provided chemical heat release at lower temperatures to enhance the flame propagation speed. It was shown that the kinetic effect on flame propagation enhancement by O{sub 3} reaching the pre-heat zone of the flame for early oxidation of fuel was much greater than that by the thermal effect from the energy contained within O{sub 3}. For non-premixed laminar lifted flames, the kinetic enhancement by O{sub 3} also induced changes to the hydrodynamics at the flame front which provided additional enhancement of the flame propagation speed. The present results will have a direct impact on the development of detailed plasma-flame kinetic mechanisms and provided a foundation for the study of combustion enhancement by O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}{delta}{sub g}) in part II of this investigation. (author)

Ombrello, Timothy; Won, Sang Hee; Ju, Yiguang [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Engineering Quadrangle, Olden Street, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Williams, Skip [Air Force Research Laboratory, Propulsion Directorate, 1950 Fifth Street, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 (United States)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

151

In-vessel coolability and retention of a core melt. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The efficacy of external flooding of a reactor vessel as a severe accident management strategy is assessed for an AP600-like reactor design. The overall approach is based on the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM), and the assessment includes consideration of bounding scenarios and sensitivity studies, as well as arbitrary parametric evaluations that allow the delineation of the failure boundaries. Quantification of the input parameters is carried out for an AP600-like design, and the results of the assessment demonstrate that lower head failure is physically unreasonable. Use of this conclusion for any specific application is subject to verifying the required reliability of the depressurization and cavity-flooding systems, and to showing the appropriateness (in relation to the database presented here, or by further testing as necessary) of the thermal insulation design and of the external surface properties of the lower head, including any applicable coatings. The AP600 is particularly favorable to in-vessel retention. Some ideas to enhance the assessment basis as well as performance in this respect, for applications to larger and/or higher power density reactors are also provided.

Theofanous, T.G.; Liu, C.; Additon, S.; Angelini, S.; Kymaelaeinen, O.; Salmassi, T. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Center for Risk Studies and Safety

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

In-vessel coolability and retention of a core melt. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The efficacy of external flooding of a reactor vessel as a severe accident management strategy is assessed for an AP600-like reactor design. The overall approach is based on the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM), and the assessment includes consideration of bounding scenarios and sensitivity studies, as well as arbitrary parametric evaluations that allow the delineation of the failure boundaries. Quantification of the input parameters is carried out for an AP600-like design, and the results of the assessment demonstrate that lower head failure is physically unreasonable. Use of this conclusion for any specific application is subject to verifying the required reliability of the depressurization and cavity-flooding systems, and to showing the appropriateness (in relation to the database presented here, or by further testing as necessary) of the thermal insulation design and of the external surface properties of the lower head, including any applicable coatings. The AP600 is particularly favorable to in-vessel retention. Some ideas to enhance the assessment basis as well as performance in this respect, for applications to larger and/or higher power density reactors are also provided.

Theofanous, T.G.; Liu, C.; Additon, S.; Angelini, S.; Kymaelaeinen, O.; Salmassi, T. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Center for Risk Studies and Safety

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced in-vessel retention Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

L. (2008). Advances in modelling hysteretic water retention curve... COMPACTED CLAYEY SOILS: MODELLING THE WATER RETENTION BEHAVIOUR Della Vecchia, G. (dellavecchia......

154

Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report documents the technical results of the 3-year project entitled, “Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels,” funded under the NETL of DOE. The research was conducted under six main tasks: 1) program management and planning; 2) turbulent flame speed measurements of syngas mixtures; 3) laminar flame speed measurements with diluents; 4) NOx mechanism validation experiments; 5) fundamental NOx kinetics; and 6) the effect of impurities on NOx kinetics. Experiments were performed using primary constant-volume vessels for laminar and turbulent flame speeds and shock tubes for ignition delay times and species concentrations. In addition to the existing shock- tube and flame speed facilities, a new capability in measuring turbulent flame speeds was developed under this grant. Other highlights include an improved NOx kinetics mechanism; a database on syngas blends for real fuel mixtures with and without impurities; an improved hydrogen sulfide mechanism; an improved ammonia kintics mechanism; laminar flame speed data at high pressures with water addition; and the development of an inexpensive absorption spectroscopy diagnostic for shock-tube measurements of OH time histories. The Project Results for this work can be divided into 13 major sections, which form the basis of this report. These 13 topics are divided into the five areas: 1) laminar flame speeds; 2) Nitrogen Oxide and Ammonia chemical kinetics; 3) syngas impurities chemical kinetics; 4) turbulent flame speeds; and 5) OH absorption measurements for chemical kinetics.

Peterson, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankat; Plichta, Drew; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Camou, Alejandro; Aul, Christopher

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

155

Numerical and experimental studies of ethanol flames and autoignition theory for higher alkanes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was used to vaporize ethanol fuel. The vaporizer wasmixture of the evaporated ethanol fuel and the nitrogen gas.premixed flames of ethanol and other fuels for comparison

Saxena, Priyank

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic-absorption flame photometry Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: atomic-absorption flame photometry Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 MICROCHEMICALJOURNAL33,304-...

157

Numerical and experimental studies of ethanol flames and autoignition theory for higher alkanes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ethanol flames”, ASME TURBO EXPO 2006: Power for Land, Seaof GT2006, ASME Turbo Expo 2006: Power for Land, Sea and

Saxena, Priyank

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced flame quality Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

paper overviews the dynamics of bluff body... stabilized flames and describes the phenomenology of the blowoff process. The first section of the paper Source: Lieuwen, Timothy C....

159

The speciation and morphology of chromium oxide nanoparticles in a diffusion flame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shaffer et al. , 2001).Thermophoretic sampling was also usedwithin the flame. The thermophoretic sampling device wasbe discussed shortly. The thermophoretic drift velocity of

Guo, B; Kennedy, Ian M

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Combustion-derived flame generated ultrafine soot generates reactive oxygen species and activates Nrf2 antioxidants differently in neonatal and adult rat lungs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

article as: Chan et al. : Combustion-derived flame generatedRESEARCH Open Access Combustion-derived flame generated6]. Vehicle exhaust from combustion of gasoline, diesel and

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flame retention head" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Formation and retention of methane in coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

1992-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

162

Investigation of the nonlinear response of turbulent premixed flames to imposed inlet velocity oscillations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Acoustically forced lean premixed turbulent bluff-body stabilized flames are investigated using turbulent combustion CFD. The calculations simulate aspects of the experimental investigation by Balachandran et al. [R. Balachandran, B. Ayoola, C. Kaminski, A. Dowling, E. Mastorakos, Combust. Flame 143 (2005) 37-55] and focus on the amplitude dependence of the flame response. For the frequencies of interest in this investigation an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) approach is appropriate. The combustion is represented using a modified laminar flamelet approach with an algebraic representation of the flame surface density. The predictions are compared with flame surface density (FSD) and OH* chemiluminescence measurements. In the experiments the response of the flame has been quantified by means of a number of single-frequency, amplitude-dependent transfer functions. The predicted flame shape and position are in good agreement with the experiment. The dynamic response of the flame to inlet velocity forcing is also well captured by the calculations. At moderate frequencies nonlinear behavior of the transfer functions is observed as the forcing amplitude is increased. In the experiments this nonlinearity was attributed in part to the rollup of the reacting shear layer into vortices and in part to the collision of the inner and outer flame sheets. This transition to nonlinearity is also observed in the transfer functions obtained from the predictions. Furthermore, the vortex shedding and flame-sheet collapse may be seen in snapshots of the predicted flow field taken throughout the forcing cycle. The URANS methodology successfully predicts the behavior of the forced premixed turbulent flames and captures the effects of saturation in the transfer function of the response of the heat release to velocity fluctuations. (author)

Armitage, C.A.; Mastorakos, E.; Cant, R.S. [Department of Engineering, Trumpington Street, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Balachandran, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

163

Soot aerosol properties in laminar soot-emitting microgravity nonpremixed flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The spatial distributions and morphological properties of the soot aerosol are examined experimentally in a series of 0-g laminar gas-jet nonpremixed flames. The methodology deploys round jet diffusion flames of nitrogen-diluted acetylene fuel burning in quiescent air at atmospheric pressure. Full-field laser-light extinction is utilized to determine transient soot spatial distributions within the flames. Thermophoretic sampling is employed in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy to define soot microstructure within the soot-emitting 0-g flames. The microgravity tests indicate that the 0-g flames attain a quasi-steady state roughly 0.7 s after ignition, and sustain their annular structure even beyond their luminous flame tip. The measured peak soot volume fractions show a complex dependence on burner exit conditions, and decrease in a nonlinear fashion with decreasing characteristic flow residence times. Fuel preheat by {approximately}140K appears to accelerate the formation of soot near the flame axis via enhanced field pyrolysis rates. The increased soot presence caused by the elevated fuel injection temperatures triggers higher flame radiative losses, which may account for the premature suppression of soot growth observed along the annular region of preheated-fuel flames. Electron micrographs of soot aggregates collected in 0-g reveal the presence of soot precursor particles near the symmetry axis at midflame height. The observations also verify that soot primary particle sizes are nearly uniform among aggregates present at the same flame location, but vary considerably with radius at a fixed distance from the burner. The maximum primary size in 0-g is found to be by 40% larger than in 1-g, under the same burner exit conditions. Estimates of the number concentration of primary particles and surface area of soot particulate phase per unit volume of the combustion gases are also made for selected in-flame locations.

Konsur, B.; Megaridis, C.M.; Griffin, D.W.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Effects of fuel type and equivalence ratios on the flickering of triple flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental study has been conducted in axisymmetric, co-flowing triple flames with different equivalence ratios of the inner and outer reactant streams (2<{phi}{sub in}<3 and 0{<=}{phi}{sub out}<0.7). Different fuel combinations, like propane/propane, propane/methane or methane/methane in the inner and outer streams respectively, have been used in the experiments. The structures of the triple flames have been compared for the different fuel combinations and equivalence ratios. The conditions under which triple flames exhibit oscillation have been identified. During the oscillation, the non-premixed flame and the outer lean premixed flame flicker strongly, while the inner rich premixed flame remains more or less stable. The flickering frequency has been evaluated through image processing and fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the average pixel intensity of the image frames. It is observed that, for all the fuel combinations, the frequency decreases with the increase in the outer equivalence ratio, while it is relatively invariant with the change in the inner equivalence ratio. However, an increase in the inner equivalence ratio affects the structure of the flame by increasing the heights of the inner premixed flame and non-premixed flame and also enlarges the yellow soot-laden zone at the tip of the inner flame. A scaling analysis of the oscillating flames has been performed based on the measured parameters, which show a variation of Strouhal number (St) with Richardson number (Ri) as St {proportional_to} Ri{sup 0.5}. The fuel type is found to have no influence on this correlation. (author)

Sahu, K.B.; Kundu, A.; Ganguly, R.; Datta, A. [Department of Power Engineering, Jadavpur University, Salt Lake Campus, Kolkata 700098 (India)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

165

Reactor Pressure Vessel Head Packaging & Disposal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) Head replacements have come to the forefront due to erosion/corrosion and wastage problems resulting from the susceptibility of the RPV Head alloy steel material to water/boric acid corrosion from reactor coolant leakage through the various RPV Head penetrations. A case in point is the recent Davis-Besse RPV Head project, where detailed inspections in early 2002 revealed significant wastage of head material adjacent to one of the Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) nozzles. In lieu of making ASME weld repairs to the damaged head, Davis-Besse made the decision to replace the RPV Head. The decision was made on the basis that the required weld repair would be too extensive and almost impractical. This paper presents the packaging, transport, and disposal considerations for the damaged Davis-Besse RPV Head. It addresses the requirements necessary to meet Davis Besse needs, as well as the regulatory criteria, for shipping and burial of the head. It focuses on the radiological characterization, shipping/disposal package design, site preparation and packaging, and the transportation and emergency response plans that were developed for the Davis-Besse RPV Head project.

Wheeler, D. M.; Posivak, E.; Freitag, A.; Geddes, B.

2003-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

166

Bubble retention in synthetic sludge: Testing of alternative gas retention apparatus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several of the underground storage tanks currently used to store waste at Hanford have been placed on the Flammable Gas Watch List, because the waste is either known or suspected to generate, store, and episodically release flammable gases. The objective of this experimental study is to develop a method to measure gas bubble retention in simulated tank waste and in diluted simulant. The method and apparatus should (1) allow for reasonably rapid experiments, (2) minimize sample disturbance, and (3) provide realistic bubble nucleation and growth. The scope of this experimental study is to build an apparatus for measuring gas retention in simulated waste and to design the apparatus to be compatible with future testing on actual waste. The approach employed for creating bubbles in sludge involves dissolving a soluble gas into the supernatant liquid at an elevated pressure, recirculating the liquid containing the dissolved gas through the sludge, then reducing the pressure to allow bubbles to nucleate and grow. Results have been obtained for ammonia as the soluble gas and SY1-SIM-91A, a chemically representative simulated tank waste. In addition, proof-of-principle experiments were conducted with both ammonia and CO{sub 2} as soluble gases and sludge composed of 90-micron glass beads. Results are described.

Rassat, S.D.; Gauglitz, P.A.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Combustion and Flame 153 (2008) 367383 www.elsevier.com/locate/combustflame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for outwardly propagating spherical flames burning a mixture of natural gas and hydrogen. © 2008 The Combustion enrichment on the propagation characteristics of CH4­air triple flames Alejandro M. Briones a , Suresh K 22 February 2008 Available online 7 April 2008 Abstract The effects of H2 enrichment

Aggarwal, Suresh K.

168

Large eddy simulation of one diffusion swirling flame European Combustion Meeting 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.5 7200 75900 Numerical method This research use large eddy simulation (LES) in software ANASYS FLUENT Simulations of Swirling Non-premixed Flames With Flamelet Models: A Comparison of Numerical Methods. FlowLarge eddy simulation of one diffusion swirling flame European Combustion Meeting 2011 Introduction

Berning, Torsten

169

Prediction of oxy-coal flame stand-off using high-fidelity thermochemical models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, char oxi- dation and gasification are both considered. Results indicate that char oxidation and gasification are both significant during the later stages of devolatilization. The impact of radiative-coal combustion and gasification physics, in particular the ignition delay, flame stability and temperature, flame

170

Flame transfer function saturation mechanisms in a swirl-stabilized combustor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

oscillations using phase-locked, two-dimensional OH PLIF imaging. It focuses upon two repre- sentative An understanding of the amplitude dependence of the flame response to harmonic acoustic excitation is required during the phase of the cycle of peak instantaneous axial velocity. This causes the flame attachment

Lieuwen, Timothy C.

171

Timewise morphology of turbulent diffusion flame by means of image processing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental study is performed to investigate the dynamic behavior of jet diffusion flames from a vertical circular nozzle. A real-time image processing on slow-motion video recording using the high-speed video camera is employed to clarify the flame morphology. Emphasis is placed on the timewise variation of the flame length, H, the peripheral distance of the flame, L, and the projected area of the flame contour, S, based on the RGB values of the flame. Here, RGB implies the three primary colors, i.e., red, green and blue, respectively. Propane is used as fuel and a burner tube of 2.40 mm inside diameter is employed here. It is found from the study that (1) a real-time color image processing with the aid of a slow-motion video recording discriminates the flame shape and discloses the flame behavior with time, (2) H, L and S vary periodically with time, and (3) the time-averaged value of L{sup 2}/S and its turbulence intensity, which is defined here, are intensified with an increase in the Reynolds number.

Torii, Shuichi; Yano, Toshiaki; Tsuchino, Fumihiro

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Combustion and Flame 145 (2006) 324338 www.elsevier.com/locate/combustflame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Guo et al. / Combustion and Flame 145 (2006) 324­338 325 for ethylene, propane, and butane counterflowCombustion and Flame 145 (2006) 324­338 www.elsevier.com/locate/combustflame Numerical study into account. Radiation heat transfer from CO2, CO, H2O, and soot was calculated using the discrete- ordinates

GĂĽlder, Ă?mer L.

173

Growth of diamond films using an enclosed methyl-acetylene and propadiene combustion flame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Growth of diamond films using an enclosed methyl-acetylene and propadiene combustion flame K Abstract Diamond growth in low pressure combustion flames was studied using a safer, more economical and chemical kinetic time scales in the combustion reactor. 1 Present Address: 3M Corporation, Bldg. 60-1N-01

Dandy, David

174

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Flame Stabilization and Mixing Studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This increases chemical rates and flame speeds, contributing to the stability of the combustor. Fuel and air products created in this region reverse direction and are entrained into the oncoming reactants that flames with highly preheated combustion air were much more stable and homogeneous (both temporally

Seitzman, Jerry M.

175

Comparison of ultraviolet and ultraviolet-infrared flame detection systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

detectors view a s1ngle area and a majority of detectors must sense a fire to signal an alarm) and time delay ci r- cu1ts, sensitivity adjustments, and integral self-test lamps and circuitry. Infrared detectors were improved by the addition of vot1ng... have been improved through an evolutionary process to the point where they have become highly reliable, stable and sensitive detectors of flames. With the recent advances in micro- processor based e'lectronics, it has become possible to combine both...

Dayton, Robert Mark

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

176

Metal rich stars in omega Cen: preliminary FLAMES GTO results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I present preliminary results for a sample of ~700 red giants in omega Cen, observed during the Ital-FLAMES Consortium GTO time in May 2003, for the Bologna Project on omega Cen. Preliminary Fe and Ca abundances confirm previous results: while the metal-poor and intermediate populations show a normal halo alpha-enhancement of [alpha/Fe]=$+0.3, the most metal-rich stars show a significantly lower [alpha/Fe]=+0.1. If the metal-rich stars have evolved within the cluster in a process of self-enrichment, the only way to lower their alpha-enhancement would be SNe type Ia intervention.

Pancino, E

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Metal rich stars in omega Cen: preliminary FLAMES GTO results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I present preliminary results for a sample of ~700 red giants in omega Cen, observed during the Ital-FLAMES Consortium GTO time in May 2003, for the Bologna Project on omega Cen. Preliminary Fe and Ca abundances confirm previous results: while the metal-poor and intermediate populations show a normal halo alpha-enhancement of [alpha/Fe]=$+0.3, the most metal-rich stars show a significantly lower [alpha/Fe]=+0.1. If the metal-rich stars have evolved within the cluster in a process of self-enrichment, the only way to lower their alpha-enhancement would be SNe type Ia intervention.

E. Pancino

2004-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

178

Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in the antarctic environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the historical record of dioxins, PCBs and DDTs in the same cores showed a decreasing trend. At present, PBDEs are recognized as a worldwide pollution problem since they have reached remote areas such as the deep ocean, the Arctic and Antarctica (de Boer et al... that cheerful and warm Brazilian spirit. You are my Aggie family! viii NOMENCLATURE #1; critical value of a statistical test used to reject the null hypothesis ANOVA Analysis of Variance BDE Brominated Diphenyl Ether BFR Brominated Flame Retardant DC...

Yogui, Gilvan Takeshi

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

179

A New Type of Steady and Stable, Laminar, Premixed Flame in Ultra-Lean, Hydrogen-Air Combustion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A New Type of Steady and Stable, Laminar, Premixed Flame in Ultra-Lean, Hydrogen-Air Combustion in the development of combustion science. Several aspects of these two-dimensional flame cells are identified for premixed combustion when the other types of idealized flames are inapplicable. 1 #12;Nomenclature fuel

Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

180

Modeling of the formation of short-chain acids in propane flames F. Battin-Leclerc , 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling of the formation of short-chain acids in propane flames F. Battin-Leclerc , 1 , A. Simulations of lean (equivalence ratios from 0.9 to 0.48) laminar premixed flames of propane stabilized in a combustion apparatus which can easily be modeled, a laminar premixed flame of propane at atmospheric pressure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flame retention head" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Effects of copper catalytic reactions on the development of supersonic hydrogen flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Copper species are present in hydrogen flames in arc heated supersonic ramjet testing facilities. Homogeneous and heterogeneous copper catalytic reactions may affect the flame development by enhancing the recombination of hydrogen atoms. Computer simulation is used to investigate the effects of the catalytic reactions on the reaction and ignition times of the flames. The simulation uses a modified general chemical kinetics computer program to simulate the development of copper-contaminated hydrogen flames under scramjet testing conditions. Reaction times of hydrogen flames are found to be reduced due to the copper catalytic effects, but ignition times are much less sensitive to such effects. The reduction of reaction time depends on copper concentration, particle size (if copper is in the condensed phase), and Mach number (or initial temperature and pressure). As copper concentration increases or the particle size decreases, reaction time decreases. As Mach number increases (or pressure and temperature decrease), the copper catalytic effects are greater.

Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Berry, G.F.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Sudden acceleration of flames in open channels driven by hydraulic resistance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen-air deflagrations with venting at the end of obstructed tubes are studied experimentally and numerically. A shockless transition to the so-called chocked regime of the flame propagation is reported. Mixtures with 13% vol. of hydrogen were ignited from the open end of the tube at the interface between fuel and the ambient air. Three venting ratios were selected, closed, 40% and 100%. In all cases the flame initially propagates without acceleration at a velocity close to the laminar flame speed. The flame configuration excludes most of conventionally acknowledged phenomena of the DDT, namely, volumetric explosions, igniting shock and shock waves interactions. However, after an induction period, of the order of 1 sec, the flame accelerates more than 100 times, within a period of 3-30 ms, until the steady-state choked regime is established. The mechanism of such rapid acceleration is investigated both numerically and analytically. A one dimensional reduced description was suggested and analyzed to model ...

Yanez, J; Bykov, V

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Dynamics of premixed flames in a narrow channel with a step-wise wall temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of channel height, inflow velocity and wall temperature on the dynamics and stability of unity Lewis number premixed flames in channels with specified wall temperature is investigated with steady and transient numerical simulations using a two-dimensional thermo-diffusive model. The simplified model is capable of capturing many of the transitions and the combustion modes observed experimentally and in direct numerical simulations in micro- and meso-scale channels, and indicates that the thermal flame/wall interaction is the mechanism leading to the observed flame instabilities. Finally, an ad-hoc one-dimensional model based on the flame-sheet approximation is tested in its capacity to reproduce some of the flame dynamics of the two-dimensional thermo-diffusive model. (author)

Kurdyumov, Vadim N. [Department of Energy, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pizza, Gianmarco [Aerothermochemistry and Combustion Systems Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich CH-8092 (Switzerland); Combustion Research, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen CH-5232 (Switzerland); Frouzakis, Christos E. [Aerothermochemistry and Combustion Systems Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich CH-8092 (Switzerland); Mantzaras, John [Combustion Research, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen CH-5232 (Switzerland)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

184

An analytical model for flame propagation in low-Mach-number, variable-density flow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flame propagation is relevant in many practical applications involving heat transfer and the conversion of heat into mechanical work. Examples of such applications include spark-ignition engines, turbojets, ramjets, afterburners and rockets, although these devices may exhibit nonlocal and nonpropagating combustion phenomena as well. Here, a simple model problem is formulated to describe the coupling between premixed-flame and flow-field dynamics resulting from gas expansion within the flame. The energy conservation equation is integrated analytically across the flame in order to reduce the number of governing equations for the computational problem. A system of six equations and associated boundary conditions are formulated for computation of the time evolution of an initially prescribed three-dimensional velocity field and the flame surface.

Aldredge, R.C. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering] [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

HeadLock : wide-range head pose estimation for low resolution video  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis focuses on data mining technologies to extract head pose information from low resolution video recordings. Head pose, as an approximation of gaze direction, is a key indicator of human behavior and interaction. ...

DeCamp, Philip (Philip James)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Pocket formation and the flame surface density equation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The occurrence and properties of singularities in the equation for the surface density function {sigma} {triple_bond}{vert_bar}{del}{Phi}{vert_bar} are analyzed analytically and numerically using data from two dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS) of pocket formation in a premixed methane-air flame. The various stages and the relevant time scales associated with pocket formation were determined in a previous study. It was found that isolated pockets form if and only if a nondegenerate critical point of a saddle point type appears. The appearance of a singularity in the isoline representing the flame front may have implications to modeling of the terms in the surface density function (sdf) approach during such transient events as pocket formation. The sink and source terms in sdf are evaluated in the neighborhood of a critical point using DNS data during pocket formation, and an analytic representation of a scalar in the vicinity of the critical point which allows for the computation of all kinematic properties. The analytic and computational results show that the normal restoration and dissipation terms in the sdf become singular at the critical point when the pocket emerges. Furthermore, the analytic results show that the singularities exactly cancel, and therefore, the main conclusion is that it is unnecessary to model the singular behavior of these terms at critical points. However, closure of their sum is recommended.

Kollman, W. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Chen, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Understanding and predicting soot generation in turbulent non-premixed jet flames.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the results of a project funded by DoD's Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) on the science behind development of predictive models for soot emission from gas turbine engines. Measurements of soot formation were performed in laminar flat premixed flames and turbulent non-premixed jet flames at 1 atm pressure and in turbulent liquid spray flames under representative conditions for takeoff in a gas turbine engine. The laminar flames and open jet flames used both ethylene and a prevaporized JP-8 surrogate fuel composed of n-dodecane and m-xylene. The pressurized turbulent jet flame measurements used the JP-8 surrogate fuel and compared its combustion and sooting characteristics to a world-average JP-8 fuel sample. The pressurized jet flame measurements demonstrated that the surrogate was representative of JP-8, with a somewhat higher tendency to soot formation. The premixed flame measurements revealed that flame temperature has a strong impact on the rate of soot nucleation and particle coagulation, but little sensitivity in the overall trends was found with different fuels. An extensive array of non-intrusive optical and laser-based measurements was performed in turbulent non-premixed jet flames established on specially designed piloted burners. Soot concentration data was collected throughout the flames, together with instantaneous images showing the relationship between soot and the OH radical and soot and PAH. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for ethylene combustion, including fuel-rich chemistry and benzene formation steps, was compiled, validated, and reduced. The reduced ethylene mechanism was incorporated into a high-fidelity LES code, together with a moment-based soot model and models for thermal radiation, to evaluate the ability of the chemistry and soot models to predict soot formation in the jet diffusion flame. The LES results highlight the importance of including an optically-thick radiation model to accurately predict gas temperatures and thus soot formation rates. When including such a radiation model, the LES model predicts mean soot concentrations within 30% in the ethylene jet flame.

Wang, Hai (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA); Kook, Sanghoon; Doom, Jeffrey; Oefelein, Joseph Charles; Zhang, Jiayao; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Schefer, Robert W.; Pickett, Lyle M.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Head of Safety 020 7679 1948  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Head of Safety Paul Stirk 020 7679 1948 (Internal 41948) p.stirk@ucl.ac.uk Deputy Head of Safety & Biological Safety Advisor Jillian Deans 020 7679 1814 (Internal 41814) j.deans@ucl.ac.uk Safety Training Manager Kuen Yip Porter 020 7679 1299 (Internal 41299) k.yip-porter@ucl.ac.uk Safety Advisors Rhona Brown

Guillas, Serge

189

Finite-rate chemistry and transient effects in direct numerical simulations of turbulent nonpremixed flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three-dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent nonpremixed flames including finite-rate chemistry and heat release effects were performed. Two chemical reaction models were considered: (1) a single-step global reaction model in which the heat release and activation energy parameters are typical combustion applications, and (2) a two-step reaction model to stimulate radical production and consumption and to compare against the single-step model. The model problem consists of the interaction between an initially unstained laminar diffusion flame and a three-dimensional field of homogeneous turbulence. Conditions ranging from fast chemistry to the pure mixing limit were studied by varying a global Damkoehler number. Results suggest that turbulence-induced mixing acting along the stoichiometric line leads to a strong modification of the inner structure of the turbulent flame compared with a laminar strained flame, resulting in intermediate species concentrations well above the laminar prediction. This result is consistent the experimental observations. Comparison of the response of the turbulent flame structure due to changes in the scalar dissipation rate with a steady strained laminar flame reveals that unsteady strain rates experienced by the turbulent flame may be responsible for h3e observed high concentrations of reaction intermediates.

Mahalingam, S. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Center for Combustion Research] [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Center for Combustion Research; Chen, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility] [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Vervisch, L. [CORIA, Rouen (France). Laboratoire de Mechanique des Fluides Numeriques] [CORIA, Rouen (France). Laboratoire de Mechanique des Fluides Numeriques

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Stabilization of turbulent lifted jet flames assisted by pulsed high voltage discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To reduce fuel consumption or the pollutant emissions of combustion (furnaces, aircraft engines, turbo-reactors, etc.), attempts are made to obtain lean mixture combustion regimes. These lead to poor stability of the flame. Thus, it is particularly interesting to find new systems providing more flexibility in aiding flame stabilization than the usual processes (bluff-body, stabilizer, quarl, swirl, etc.). The objective is to enlarge the stability domain of flames while offering flexibility at a low energy cost. Evidence is presented that the stabilization of a turbulent partially premixed flame of more than 10 kW can be enhanced by pulsed high-voltage discharges with power consumption less than 0.1% of the power of the flame. The originality of this work is to demonstrate that very effective stabilization of turbulent flames is obtained when high-voltage pulses with very short rise times are used (a decrease by 300% in terms of liftoff height for a given exit jet velocity can be reached) and to provide measurements of minimum liftoff height obtained with discharge over a large range of the stability domain of the lifted jet flame.

Criner, K.; Cessou, A.; Louiche, J.; Vervisch, P. [CORIA UMR 6614 CNRS-Universite et INSA de Rouen, University of Rouen, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Sensor and model integration for the rapid prediction of concurrent flow flame spread   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fire Safety Engineering is required at every stage in the life cycle of modern-day buildings. Fire safety design, detection and suppression, and emergency response are all vital components of Structural Fire Safety but are usually perceived...Issues of accuracy aside, these models demand heavy resources and computational time periods that are far greater than the time associated with the processes being simulated. To be of use to emergency responders, the output would need to be produced faster than the event itself with lead time to enable planning of an intervention strategy. Therefore in isolation, model output is not robust or fast enough to be implemented in an emergency response scenario. The concept of super-real time predictions steered by measurements is studied in the simple yet meaningful scenario of concurrent flow flame spread. Experiments have been conducted with PMMA slabs to feed sensor data into a simple analytical model. Numerous sensing techniques have been adapted to feed a simple algebraic expression from the literature linking flame spread, flame characteristics and pyrolysis evolution in order to model upward flame spread. The measurements are continuously fed to the computations so that projections of the flame spread velocity and flame characteristics can be established at each instant in time, ahead of the real flame. It was observed that as the input parameters in the analytical models were optimised to the scenario, rapid convergence between the evolving experiment and the predictions was attained....

Cowlard, Adam

192

Numerical study of the direct pressure effect of acoustic waves in planar premixed flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently the unsteady response of 1-D premixed flames to acoustic pressure waves for the range of frequencies below and above the inverse of the flame transit time was investigated experimentally using OH chemiluminescence Wangher (2008). They compared the frequency dependence of the measured response to the prediction of an analytical model proposed by Clavin et al. (1990), derived from the standard flame model (one-step Arrhenius kinetics) and to a similar model proposed by McIntosh (1991). Discrepancies between the experimental results and the model led to the conclusion that the standard model does not provide an adequate description of the unsteady response of real flames and that it is necessary to investigate more realistic chemical models. Here we follow exactly this suggestion and perform numerical studies of the response of lean methane flames using different reaction mechanisms. We find that the global flame response obtained with both detailed chemistry (GRI3.0) and a reduced multi-step model by Peters (1996) lies slightly above the predictions of the analytical model, but is close to experimental results. We additionally used an irreversible one-step Arrhenius reaction model and show the effect of the pressure dependence of the global reaction rate in the flame response. Our results suggest first that the current models have to be extended to capture the amplitude and phase results of the detailed mechanisms, and second that the correlation between the heat release and the measured OH* chemiluminescence should be studied deeper. (author)

Schmidt, H. [BTU Cottbus, Siemens-Halske-Ring 14, D-03046 Cottbus (Germany); Jimenez, C. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Avenida Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

193

Soot volume fraction and temperature measurements in laminar nonpremixed flames using thermocouples  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermocouple particle densitometry (TPD), a new method for measuring absolute soot volume fraction in flames which was suggested by Eisner and Rosner, has been successfully implemented in several laminar nonpremixed flames. This diagnostic relies on measuring the junction temperature history of a thermocouple rapidly inserted into a soot-containing flame region, then optimizing the fit between this history and one calculated from the principles of thermophoretic mass transfer. The TPD method is very simple to implement experimentally, yields spatially resolved volume fractions directly, can easily measure small volume fractions, and does not depend on the prevailing soot particle size, morphology, or optical characteristics. In a series of methane and ethylene counterflow flames whose soot volume fractions varied by more than an order of magnitude, the TPD results agreed to within experimental error with the authors own laser extinction measurements. In axisymmetric methane and ethylene co-flowing flames, the shape of TPD profiles agreed well with published laser extinction measurements, but the TPD concentrations were significantly larger in the early regions of the ethylene flame and throughout the methane flame; these discrepancies are probably attributable to visible light-transparent particles that are detectable with TPD but not with laser extinction. The TPD method is not applicable to the upper regions of these co-flowing flames since OH concentrations there suffice to rapidly oxidize any soot particles that deposit. Gas temperatures were obtained simultaneously with volume fraction by averaging the junction temperature history shortly after insertion. The error in these temperatures due to soot deposition-imposed changes in the junction diameter and emissivity were assessed and found to be moderate, e.g., less than 60 K near the centerline of the ethylene coflowing flame where the volume fraction was 6 ppm and the gas temperature was 1,550 K.

Mcenally, C.S.; Koeylue, U.O.; Pfefferle, L.D.; Rosner, D.E. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)] [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

CONTROL OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS IN NATURAL GAS DIFFUSION FLAMES BY USING CASCADE BURNERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this exploratory research project is to control the pollutant emissions of diffusion flames by modifying the air infusion rate into the flame. The modification was achieved by installing a cascade of venturis around the burning gas jet. The basic idea behind this technique is controlling the stoichiometry of the flame through changing the flow dynamics and rates of mixing in the combustion zone with a set of venturis surrounding the flame. A natural gas jet diffusion flame at burner-exit Reynolds number of 5100 was examined with a set of venturis of specific sizes and spacing arrangement. The thermal and composition fields of the baseline and venturi-cascaded flames were numerically simulated using CFD-ACE+, an advanced computational environment software package. The instantaneous chemistry model was used as the reaction model. The concentration of NO was determined through CFD-POST, a post processing utility program for CFD-ACE+. The numerical results showed that, in the near-burner, midflame and far-burner regions, the venturi-cascaded flame had lower temperature by an average of 13%, 19% and 17%, respectively, and lower CO{sub 2} concentration by 35%, 37% and 32%, respectively, than the baseline flame. An opposite trend was noticed for O{sub 2} concentration; the cascaded flame has higher O{sub 2} concentration by 7%, 26% and 44%, in average values, in the near-burner, mid-flame and far-burner regions, respectively, than in the baseline case. The results also showed that, in the near-burner, mid-flame, and far-burner regions, the venturi-cascaded flame has lower NO concentrations by 89%, 70% and 70%, in average values, respectively, compared to the baseline case. The numerical results substantiate that venturi-cascading is a feasible method for controlling the pollutant emissions of a burning gas jet. In addition, the numerical results were useful to understand the thermo-chemical processes involved. The results showed that the prompt-NO mechanism plays an important role besides the conventional thermal-NO mechanism. The computational results of the present study need to be validated experimentally.

Dr. Ala Qubbaj

2001-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

195

Temperature measurement of axisymmetric flames under the influence of magnetic field using Talbot interferometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combustion process control is related with ecological improvement and the problem of energy efficiency; hence it has a wide interest at both economical and scientific levels. Application of a magnetic field is one of the most promising methods of combustion control. The presence of magnetic field induces the changes in flame behavior. The effect of uniform magnetic field developed by permanent magnet is studied by Talbot interferometry using circular gratings. Experimental results show a small decrease in flame temperature and increase in flame dimensions.

Agarwal, Shilpi, E-mail: sipi.agarwal@gmail.com, E-mail: manojklakra@gmail.com, E-mail: cshakher@iddc.iitd.ac.in; Kumar, Manoj, E-mail: sipi.agarwal@gmail.com, E-mail: manojklakra@gmail.com, E-mail: cshakher@iddc.iitd.ac.in; Shakher, Chandra, E-mail: sipi.agarwal@gmail.com, E-mail: manojklakra@gmail.com, E-mail: cshakher@iddc.iitd.ac.in [Instrument Design Development Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, HauzKhas, New Delhi - 110016 (India)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

196

Simulations of flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transitions in methane-air systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transitions (DDT) in large obstructed channels filled with a stoichiometric methane-air mixture are simulated using a single-step reaction mechanism. The reaction parameters are calibrated using known velocities and length scales of laminar flames and detonations. Calculations of the flame dynamics and DDT in channels with obstacles are compared to previously reported experimental data. The results obtained using the simple reaction model qualitatively, and in many cases, quantitatively match the experiments and are found to be largely insensitive to small variations in model parameters. (author)

Kessler, D.A.; Gamezo, V.N.; Oran, E.S. [Laboratory for Computational Physics and Fluid Dynamics, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

197

Pdf modeling of turbulent nonpremixed methane jet flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An expanded model of turbulent nonpremixed combustion is presented. In the model, the scalar mixing and reactions are described by a probability density function (pdf) submodel capable of handling five scalars, while the turbulent velocity field is described by a second-order moment closure. Two plausible chemical reaction models are considered: a five-scalar, four-step, reduced reaction mechanism, and a four-scalar constrained equilibrium model. Detailed comparisons of model predictions with laser Raman experimental dat provide a valuable evaluation of the model's ability in predicting nonequilibrium chemistry in turbulent nonpremixed flames. Overall, the model fails to predict greater departure from chemical equilibrium as mixing rates are increased. Interestingly, this failure is not due to the chemical model, both of which perform satisfactorily. Instead, the failure to predict greater departure from chemical equilibrium is a subtle artifact of the current Monte Carlo simulation of turbulent mixing and chemical reaction.

Chen, J.Y.; Kollmann, W.; Dibble, R.W. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA). Combustion Research Faclity)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

FLAME-SAMPLING PHOTOIONIZATION MASS SPECTROSCOPY - FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research focused on detailed studies of the complex combustion chemistry of oxygenated, bio-derived fuels. In particular, studies were done of the flame chemistry of simple methyl and ethyl esters chosen as surrogates for the long-chain esters that are primary constituents of biodiesel fuels. The principal goals of these studies were: (1) show how fuel-specific structural differences including degree of unsaturation, linear vs. branched chain structures, and methoxy vs. ethoxy functions affect fueldestruction pathways, (2) understand the chemistry leading to potential increases in the emissions of hazardous air pollutants including aldehydes and ketones inherent in the use of biodiesel fuels, and (3) define the key chemical reaction mechanisms responsible for observed reductions in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and particulate matter when oxygenated fuels are used as replacements for conventional fuels.

Hansen, Nils

2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

199

An Inverted Co-Flow Diffusion Flame for Producing Soot  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We developed an inverted, co-flow, methane/air/nitrogen burner that generates a wide range of soot particles sizes and concentrations. By adjusting the flow rates of air, methane, and nitrogen in the fuel, the mean electric mobility diameter and number concentration are varied. Additional dilution downstream of the flame allows us to generate particle concentrations spanning those produced by spark-ignited and diesel engines: particles with mean diameters between 50 and 250 nm and number concentrations from 4.7 {center_dot} 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 7} cm{sup -3}. The range of achievable number concentrations, and therefore volume concentrations, can be increased by a factor of 30 by reducing the dilution ratio. These operating conditions make this burner valuable for developing and calibrating diagnostics as well as for other studies involving soot particles.

Stipe, Christopher B.; Higgins, Brian S.; Lucas, Donald; Koshland, Catherine P.; Sawyer, Robert F.

2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

200

NO{sub x} control by flame management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the control of emissions from power generation boilers combustion modification, in the form of low NO{sub x} burner (LNB) design, is recognized as the basic and economic technique for minimising NO{sub x} production. Depending upon the application LNB`s alone may offer sufficient NO{sub x} control or may be used in conjunction with changes in boiler operating techniques to achieve ultra-low NO{sub x} operation. LNB designs are based on well established principles of fuel and air staging which control the mixing of fuel and combustion air in order to establish the flame chemistry and temperature conditions conducive to minimising NO{sub x} formation. These mixing processes need to be considered in conjunction with the fuel characteristics for maximum effectiveness.

Allen, J.W.; Beal, P.R. [International Combustion Ltd., Derby (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flame retention head" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Bear Head LNG Corporation and Bear Head LNG (USA), LLC- FE Dkt No. 15-14-NG  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

On January 23, 2015, Bear Head LNG Corporation and Bear Head LNG (USA), LLC (together, “Bear Head LNG”), filed an application for long-term, multi-contract authorization to engage in imports from,...

202

Bear Head LNG Corporation and Bear Head LNG (USA), LLC FE Docket No. 15-14-NG  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

On January 23, 2015, Bear Head LNG Corporation and Bear Head LNG (USA), LLC (together, “Bear Head LNG”), filed an application for long-term, multi-contract authorization to engage in imports from,...

203

DOE Head Contracting Authority (HCA) and Procurement Director...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

DOE Head Contracting Authority (HCA) and Procurement Director (PD) Directory DOE Head Contracting Authority (HCA) and Procurement Director (PD) Directory HCA and PD List Sept 23...

204

INTERNAL POSTING - Head of Technology Transfer, Patents & Publications...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

INTERNAL POSTING - Head of Technology Transfer, Patents & Publications Department: Best Practices Supervisor(s): John Delooper Staff: AM 7 Requisition Number: 1400936 The Head of...

205

Laboratory Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Laboratory Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower Turbine Laboratory Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower Turbine Laboratory Demonstration of a New...

206

Synthesis of Highly Efficient Flame Retardant High-Density Polyethylene Nanocomposites with Inorgano-Layered Double  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Synthesis of Highly Efficient Flame Retardant High-Density Polyethylene Nanocomposites, Harbin 150080, P. R. China ABSTRACT: High-density polyethylene (HDPE) polymer nanocomposites containing. INTRODUCTION High density polyethylene (HDPE) has good electrical proper- ties, high stiffness, and tensile

Guo, John Zhanhu

207

Large eddy simulations of premixed turbulent flame dynamics : combustion modeling, validation and analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High efficiency, low emissions and stable operation over a wide range of conditions are some of the key requirements of modem-day combustors. To achieve these objectives, lean premixed flames are generally preferred as ...

Kewlani, Gaurav

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

A numerical and experimental investigation of ``inverse'' triple flames Suresh K. Aggarwal,a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Therefore, the effects of heat and mass transfer, differential diffusion, and flame speed and curvature increases, their tips open, and the chemical activity in these zones decreases. While the oscillation

Aggarwal, Suresh K.

209

Acoustic Modes in Combustors with Complex Impedances and Multidimensional Active Flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Acoustic Modes in Combustors with Complex Impedances and Multidimensional Active Flames F. Nicoud for computing the thermoacoustic modes in combustors. In the case of a nonisothermal reacting medium, the wave

Nicoud, Franck

210

Combustion and Flame 150 (2007) 400403 www.elsevier.com/locate/combustflame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

velocity pro- file as the gases leave the foam elements. Fig. 1 shows the details of the experimental performed pre- viously with methane [1] and propane [2] diffusion flames at elevated pressures. A constant

GĂĽlder, Ă?mer L.

211

Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of combustion flames in four-burner impinging entrained-flow gasifier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On a laboratory-scale testing platform of impinging entrained-flow gasifier with four opposed burners, the flame images for diesel combustion and gasification process were measured with a single charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The two-dimensional multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis was employed to investigate the multifractal nature of the flame images. Sound power-law scaling in the annealed average of detrended fluctuations was unveiled when the order $q>0$ and the multifractal feature of flame images were confirmed. Further analyses identified two multifractal parameters, the minimum and maximum singularity $\\alpha_{\\min}$ and $\\alpha_{\\max}$, serving as characteristic parameters of the multifractal flames. These two characteristic multifractal parameters vary with respect to different experimental conditions.

Niu, Miao-Ren; Yan, Zhuo-Yong; Guo, Qing-Hua; Liang, Qin-Feng; Wang, Fu-Chen; Yu, Zun-Hong

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, and chemical reactant sources  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, chemical reactant sources, and related methods are disclosed. In one embodiment, a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor system comprising a reaction chamber, a combustion torch positioned to direct a flame into the reaction chamber, and one or more reactant feed assemblies configured to electrically energize at least one electrically conductive solid reactant structure to form a plasma and feed each electrically conductive solid reactant structure into the plasma to form at least one product is disclosed. In an additional embodiment, a chemical reactant source for a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor comprising an elongated electrically conductive reactant structure consisting essentially of at least one chemical reactant is disclosed. In further embodiments, methods of forming a chemical reactant source and methods of chemically converting at least one reactant into at least one product are disclosed.

Kong, Peter C

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

213

Studies of n-Propanol, iso-Propanol, and Propane Flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The phenomena of propagation and extinction of flames of saturated C{sub 3} alcohols and propane were studied experimentally and numerically in order to assess the effects of the presence and location of the hydroxyl radical in the fuel molecular structure. The experiments were carried out in the counterflow configuration under atmospheric pressure and for unreacted fuel-carrying stream temperature of 343 K. The simulations included detailed descriptions of molecular transport and chemical kinetics using a recently developed kinetic model for C{sub 3} alcohols. The experimental results revealed that the laminar flame speeds and extinction strain rates of n-propanol/air and propane/air flames are close to each other whereas those of iso-propanol/air flames are consistently lower. Similar behavior was observed also for the extinction strain rates of non-premixed n-propanol and iso-propanol flames. It was shown through sensitivity and reaction path analyses that there are two major differences between the intermediates of n-propanol/air and iso-propanol/air flames. In iso-propanol/air flames there are notably higher concentrations of propene whose consumption pathway results in the relatively unreactive allyl radicals, retarding thus the overall reactivity. In n-propanol/air flames there are notably higher concentrations of formaldehyde that reacts readily to form formyl radicals whose subsequent reactions enhance the overall reactivity. The kinetic model used in this study was found to overpredict the experimental results for rich n-propanol/air and propane/air flames. Analysis revealed that those discrepancies are most likely caused by deficiencies in the C{sub 3} alkane kinetics. Through sensitivity analysis, it was determined also that the propagation and extinction of n-propanol/air and iso-propanol/air flames are sensitive largely to hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and C{sub 1}–C{sub 3} kinetics and not to fuel-specific reactions. Finally, the relative sooting propensities of flames of these three fuels were assessed computationally.

Veloo, Peter S.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Epistemological resources 1 Running Head: EPISTEMOLOGICAL RESOURCES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Epistemological resources 1 Running Head: EPISTEMOLOGICAL RESOURCES Epistemological resources University Maryland, College Park Trisha Kagey Montgomery County Public Schools #12;Epistemological resources are better understood as made up of finer-grained cognitive resources whose activation depends sensitively

Elby, Andy

215

TMI-2 reactor vessel head removal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the safe removal and storage of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor vessel head. The head was removed in July 1984 to permit the removal of the plenum and the reactor core, which were damaged during the 1979 accident. From July 1982, plans and preparations were made using a standard head removal procedure modified by the necessary precautions and changes to account for conditions caused by the accident. After data acquisition, equipment and structure modifications, and training the head was safely removed and stored and the internals indexing fixture and a work platform were installed on top of the vessel. Dose rates during and after the operation were lower than expected; lessons were learned from the operation which will be applied to the continuing fuel removal operations activities.

Bengel, P.R.; Smith, M.D.; Estabrook, G.A.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

TMI-2 reactor vessel head removal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the safe removal and storage of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor vessel head. The head was removed in July 1984 to permit the removal of the plenum and the reactor core, which were damaged during the 1979 accident. From July 1982, plans and preparations were made using a standard head removal procedure modified by the necessary precautions and changes to account for conditions caused by the accident. After data acquisition, equipment and structure modifications, and training, the head was safely removed and stored; and the internals indexing fixture and a work platform were installed on top of the vessel. Dose rates during and after the operation were lower than expected; lessons were learned from the operation which will be applied to the continuing fuel removal operations activities.

Bengel, P.R.; Smith, M.D.; Estabrook, G.A.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

SPATIAL TRANSFORMATIONS 1 Running head: Spatial transformations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SPATIAL TRANSFORMATIONS 1 Running head: Spatial transformations Multiple Systems for Spatial Imagery: Transformations of Objects and Bodies Jeffrey M. Zacks* and Barbara Tversky * Washington COGNITION & COMPUTATION #12;SPATIAL TRANSFORMATIONS 2 Abstract Problem-solving often requires imagining

Zacks, Jeffrey M.

218

Predicting Student Retention and Academic Success at New Mexico Tech  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Predicting Student Retention and Academic Success at New Mexico Tech by Julie Luna Submitted Research and Statistics Option New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology Socorro, New Mexico August at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. Joe Franklin of the Information Services Department

Borchers, Brian

219

Retention of ferrite in AluminiumAlloyed TRIPassisted steels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Retention of ­ferrite in Aluminium­Alloyed TRIP­assisted steels Young Joo Choi1, Dong­Woo Suh1 of excess ­ferrite in the microstructure observed at ambient temperature. These provided valuable information for comparison against kinetic simulations which prove that the excess ferrite cannot

Cambridge, University of

220

Faculty Retention and Gender Adrienne Kertzer and Jenny Godley  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Faculty Retention and Gender Adrienne Kertzer and Jenny Godley Advisory Committee on the Status, and home faculty; by year, rank, and total number of faculty members across the 1 E-mail Adrienne Kertzer, and total number of faculty members in the home faculty.3 In January 2013, Jenny Godley, Department

Calgary, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flame retention head" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

PLASTICIZER RETENTION IN PVC GEOMEMBRANES T. D. Stark1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 PLASTICIZER RETENTION IN PVC GEOMEMBRANES T. D. Stark1 , H. Choi2 , and P. W. Diebel3 1, Ontario, Canada, N1R 5T6; PH (519)623-1630; email: PDiebel@cgtower.com ABSTRACT: Plasticizers are used to make PVC flexible so it can be used as a geomembrane for containment purposes. Plasticizers can migrate

222

Evolutionary Computing for Detection of Retentive Structures in Coastal Waters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,robillia,poty,fonlupt}@lil.univ-littoral.fr, Abstract-- The demography of anchovy fishes in the Gulf of Biscay seems to be related to the presence of so- called "retentive" hydrodynamical structures, that keep fish eggs and larvae in a favorable environment be used to decide fishing quotas or bans for the sake of preserving the natural resource. We propose two

Fernandez, Thomas

223

OH radical imaging in a DI diesel engine and the structure of the early diffusion flame  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser-sheet imaging studies have considerably advanced our understanding of diesel combustion; however, the location and nature of the flame zones within the combusting fuel jet have been largely unstudied. To address this issue, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of the OH radical has been applied to the reacting fuel jet of a direct-injection diesel engine of the ``heavy-duty`` size class, modified for optical access. An Nd:YAG-based laser system was used to pump the overlapping Q{sub 1}9 and Q{sub 2}8 lines of the (1,0) band of the A{yields}X transition at 284.01 nm, while the fluorescent emission from both the (0,O) and (1, I) bands (308 to 320 nm) was imaged with an intensified video camera. This scheme allowed rejection of elastically scattered laser light, PAH fluorescence, and laser-induced incandescence. OH PLIF is shown to be an excellent diagnostic for diesel diffusion flames. The signal is strong, and it is confined to a narrow region about the flame front because the threebody recombination reactions that reduce high flame-front OH concentrations to equilibrium levels occur rapidly at diesel pressures. No signal was evident in the fuel-rich premixed flame regions where calculations and burner experiments indicate that OH concentrations will be below detectable limits. Temporal sequences of OH PLIF images are presented showing the onset and development of the early diffusion flame up to the time that soot obscures the images. These images show that the diffusion flame develops around the periphery of the-downstream portion of the reacting fuel jet about half way through the premixed burn spike. Although affected by turbulence, the diffusion flame remains at the jet periphery for the rest of the imaged sequence.

Dec, J.E.; Coy, E.B.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

EIS-0351: Operation of Flaming Gorge Dam, Colorado River Storage Project, Colorado River, UT  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Secretary of the United States Department of the Interior (Secretary), acting through the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is considering whether to implement a proposed action under which Flaming Gorge Dam would be operated to achieve the flow and temperature regimes recommended in the September 2000 report Flow and Temperature Recommendations for Endangered Fishes in the Green River Downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam (2000 Flow and Temperature Recommendations), published by the Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program (Recovery Program).

225

Soot formation in laminar premixed ethylene/air flames at atmospheric pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soot formation was studied within laminar premixed ethylene/air flames (C/O ratios of 0.78--0.98) stabilized on a flat-flame burner operating at atmospheric pressure. Measurements included soot volume fractions by both laser extinction and gravimetric methods, temperatures by multiline emission, soot structure by thermophoretic sampling and transmission electric microscopy, major gas species concentrations by sampling and gas chromatography, concentrations of condensable hydrocarbons by gravimetric sampling, and velocities by laser velocimetry. These data were used to find soot surface growth rates and primary soot particle nucleation rates along the axes of the flames. Present measurements of soot surface growth rates were correlated successfully by predictions based on typical hydrogen-abstraction/carbon-addition (HACA) mechanisms of Frenklach and co-workers and Colket and Hall. These results suggest that reduced soot surface growth rates with increasing residence time seen in the present and other similar flames were mainly caused by reduced rates of surface activation due to reduced H atom concentrations as temperatures decrease as a result of radiative heat losses. Primary soot particle nucleation rates exhibited variations with temperature and acetylene concentrations that were similar to recent observations for diffusion flames; however, nucleation rates in the premixed flames were significantly lower than in the diffusion flames for reasons that still must be explained. Finally, predictions of yields of major gas species based on mechanisms from both Frenklach and co-workers and Leung and Lindstedt were in good agreement with present measurements and suggest that H atom concentrations (relevant to HACA mechanisms) approximate estimates based on local thermodynamic equilibrium in the present flames.

Xu, F.; Sunderland, P.B.; Faeth, G.M. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Electro-optic voltage sensor head  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is an electro-optic voltage sensor head designed for integration with existing types of high voltage transmission and distribution apparatus. The sensor head contains a transducer, which comprises a transducing material in which the Pockels electro-optic effect is observed. In the practice of the invention at least one beam of electromagnetic radiation is routed into the transducing material of the transducer in the sensor head. The beam undergoes an electro-optic effect in the sensor head when the transducing material is subjected to an E-field. The electro-optic effect is observed as a differential phase a shift, also called differential phase modulation, of the beam components in orthogonal planes of the electromagnetic radiation. In the preferred embodiment the beam is routed through the transducer along an initial axis and then reflected by a retro-reflector back substantially parallel to the initial axis, making a double pass through the transducer for increased measurement sensitivity. The preferred embodiment of the sensor head also includes a polarization state rotator and at least one beam splitter for orienting the beam along major and minor axes and for splitting the beam components into two signals which are independent converse amplitude-modulated signals carrying E-field magnitude and hence voltage information from the sensor head by way of optic fibers.

Crawford, Thomas M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davidson, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Woods, Gregory K. (Cornelius, OR)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Electro-optic voltage sensor head  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is an electro-optic voltage sensor head designed for integration with existing types of high voltage transmission and distribution apparatus. The sensor head contains a transducer, which comprises a transducing material in which the Pockels electro-optic effect is observed. In the practice of the invention at least one beam of electromagnetic radiation is routed into the transducing material of the transducer in the sensor head. The beam undergoes an electro-optic effect in the sensor head when the transducing material is subjected to an E-field. The electro-optic effect is observed as a differential phase a shift, also called differential phase modulation, of the beam components in orthogonal planes of the electromagnetic radiation. In the preferred embodiment the beam is routed through the transducer along an initial axis and then reflected by a retro-reflector back substantially parallel to the initial axis, making a double pass through the transducer for increased measurement sensitivity. The preferred embodiment of the sensor head also includes a polarization state rotator and at least one beam splitter for orienting the beam along major and minor axes and for splitting the beam components into two signals which are independent converse amplitude-modulated signals carrying E-field magnitude and hence voltage information from the sensor head by way of optic fibers. 6 figs.

Crawford, T.M.; Davidson, J.R.; Woods, G.K.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

228

Direct numerical simulations of type Ia supernovae flames I: The landau-darrieus instability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Planar flames are intrinsically unstable in open domains due to the thermal expansion across the burning front--the Landau-Darrieus instability. This instability leads to wrinkling and growth of the flame surface, and corresponding acceleration of the flame, until it is stabilized by cusp formation. We look at the Landau-Darrieus in stability for C/O thermonuclear flames at conditions relevant to the late stages of a Type Ia supernova explosion. Two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of both single-mode and multi-mode perturbations using a low Mach number hydrodynamics code are presented. We show the effect of the instability on the flame speed as a function of both the density and domain size, demonstrate the existence of the small scale cutoff to the growth of the instability, and look for the proposed breakdown of the non-linear stabilization at low densities. The effects of curvature on the flame as quantified through measurements of the growth rate and computation of the corresponding Markstein number. While accelerations of a few percent are observed, they are too small to have any direct outcome on the supernova explosion.

Bell, J.B.; Day, M.S.; Rendleman, C.A.; Woosley, S.E.; Zingale, M.

2003-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

229

Optical determination of incipient soot particle concentrations in ethene laminar diffusion flames.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent studies in premixed flames have shown the existence of ''transparent particles.'' These particles, 2 nm in size and in high number densities are considered to be a phase transitional between the gas phase PAH species and particulate soot. In the present study, various optical diagnostics were evaluated for measuring the concentration of these particles in situ, Through such evaluations, a technique using extinction at two wavelengths was found to be ideal. While employing such a technique, the volume fractions of these particles in an ethene laminar diffusion flame were measured. Low in the flame, these particles were found to be concentrated in the fuel rich core, while at higher locations, they could be found with appreciable volume fractions even in the soot laden regions. Having given due consideration for the errors due to uncertainties in the optical constants, we report the existence of these particles in an ethene flame with volume fractions comparable to those of soot. Also, similar measurements performed in a low sooting ethene/methanol flame show the concentration of these particles to be of the same order of magnitude as in a pure ethene flame.

Gupta, S. B.; Santoro, R. J.

1999-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

230

Effects of multi-component diffusion and heat release on laminar diffusion flame liftoff  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Numerical simulations were conducted of the liftoff and stabilization phenomena of laminar jet diffusion flames of inert-diluted C{sub 3}H{sub 8} and CH{sub 4} fuels. Both non-reacting and reacting jets were investigated, including multi-component diffusivities and heat release effects (buoyancy and gas expansion). The role of Schmidt number for non-reacting jets was investigated, with no conclusive Schmidt number criterion for liftoff previously arrived at in similarity solutions. The cold-flow simulation for He-diluted CH{sub 4} fuel does not predict flame liftoff; however, adding heat release reaction lead to the prediction of liftoff, which is consistent with experimental observations. Including reaction was also found to improve liftoff height prediction for C{sub 3}H{sub 8} flames, with the flame base location differing from that in the similarity solution - the intersection of the stoichiometric and iso-velocity (equal to 1-D flame speed) is not necessary for flame stabilization (and thus liftoff). Possible mechanisms other than that proposed for similarity solution may better help to explain the stabilization and liftoff phenomena. (author)

Li, Zhiliang; Chen, Ruey-Hung [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2450 (United States); Phuoc, Tran X. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, Department of Energy, P.O. Box 10940, MS 84-340, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

Investigation of the processes controlling the flame generation of refractory materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The processes involved in the formation of mixed oxides powders were studied using the counterflow diffusion flame burner. Powders of different morphologies were obtained by varying the flame conditions (temperature, residence time) and the concentration ratio of the oxides precursors. In-situ particle size and number density were determined using dynamic light scattering and 90{degrees} light scattering. A thermophoretic sampling method and a larger scale powder collection device also was used to collect particles, and their size and morphology examined using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and surface area measurement by gas absorption (BET). Our emphasis has been on TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}-GeO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2}. The powders had a core-mantle-like (one oxide coated by the other) at low elevations in the burner and uniform mixture at higher elevations. They form chain-like structures in a low temperature flame and spherical particles in a higher temperature flame. Nanometer sized homogeneous particles of Aluminum Titanate could be obtained using Al(CH{sub 3}){sub 3} and TiCl{sub 4} as precursors both in a hydrogen fueled and a methane fueled counterflow diffusion flame burner, as well as in a hydrogen fueled parallel-flow diffusion flame burner.

Katz, J.L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Autoignited laminar lifted flames of propane in coflow jets with tribrachial edge and mild combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Characteristics of laminar lifted flames have been investigated experimentally by varying the initial temperature of coflow air over 800 K in the non-premixed jets of propane diluted with nitrogen. The result showed that the lifted flame with the initial temperature below 860 K maintained the typical tribrachial structure at the leading edge, which was stabilized by the balance mechanism between the propagation speed of tribrachial flame and the local flow velocity. For the temperature above 860 K, the flame was autoignited without having any external ignition source. The autoignited lifted flames were categorized in two regimes. In the case with tribrachial edge structure, the liftoff height increased nonlinearly with jet velocity. Especially, for the critical condition near blowout, the lifted flame showed a repetitive behavior of extinction and reignition. In such a case, the autoignition was controlled by the non-adiabatic ignition delay time considering heat loss such that the autoignition height was correlated with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. In the case with mild combustion regime at excessively diluted conditions, the liftoff height increased linearly with jet velocity and was correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. (author)

Choi, B.C.; Kim, K.N.; Chung, S.H. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

233

Experimental and numerical study of the accuracy of flame-speed measurements for methane/air combustion in a slot burner  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measuring the velocities of premixed laminar flames with precision remains a controversial issue in the combustion community. This paper studies the accuracy of such measurements in two-dimensional slot burners and shows that while methane/air flame speeds can be measured with reasonable accuracy, the method may lack precision for other mixtures such as hydrogen/air. Curvature at the flame tip, strain on the flame sides and local quenching at the flame base can modify local flame speeds and require corrections which are studied using two-dimensional DNS. Numerical simulations also provide stretch, displacement and consumption flame speeds along the flame front. For methane/air flames, DNS show that the local stretch remains small so that the local consumption speed is very close to the unstretched premixed flame speed. The only correction needed to correctly predict flame speeds in this case is due to the finite aspect ratio of the slot used to inject the premixed gases which induces a flow acceleration in the measurement region (this correction can be evaluated from velocity measurement in the slot section or from an analytical solution). The method is applied to methane/air flames with and without water addition and results are compared to experimental data found in the literature. The paper then discusses the limitations of the slot-burner method to measure flame speeds for other mixtures and shows that it is not well adapted to mixtures with a Lewis number far from unity, such as hydrogen/air flames. (author)

Selle, L.; Ferret, B. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, IMFT, Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse (France); CNRS, IMFT, Toulouse (France); Poinsot, T. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, IMFT, Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse (France); CNRS, IMFT, Toulouse (France); CERFACS, Toulouse (France)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

234

Soil Water Retention Measurements Using a Combined Tensiometer-Coiled Time Domain Reflectometry Probe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soil Water Retention Measurements Using a Combined Tensiometer-Coiled Time Domain Reflectometry al., 1975; Arya et al.,that can be used to determine soil water retention curves in both 1975; Royer of a standard tensiometer. The combined tensiometer-coiled TDR probe was con- of soil water retention curves

Wildenschild, Dorthe

235

Transfer function characteristics of bluff-body stabilized, conical V-shaped premixed turbulent propane-air flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The response of bluff-body stabilized conical V-shaped premixed flames to periodic upstream velocity oscillations was characterized as a function of oscillation frequency, mean flow velocity, and equivalence ratio. The flame heat release response to the imposed velocity oscillations was determined from the CH* chemiluminescence captured by two photomultiplier (PMT) detectors at a wavelength of 430 nm. One of the PMTs viewed flame radiation in a 10-mm horizontal slice, 50 mm above the bluff-body. The second PMT observed the overall flame radiation. The flame transfer function characteristics were determined from the spectral analysis of the velocity and PMT signals. It was found that the flame heat release amplitude response is confined to low-frequency excitation below a Strouhal number of 4. The phase relationship of the transfer function for these turbulent flames was evaluated using the signal from the spatially masked PMT. The transfer function estimate based on these data exhibits second-order characteristics with a phase lag between the velocity and heat release signals. The localized heat-release response contains frequencies that are multiples of the excitation frequency, suggesting splitting and tilting of flame structures as well as some nonlinear effects. Increase of flame equivalence ratio from lean toward stoichiometric resulted in slight amplification of the high-frequency response. (author)

Chaparro, Andres; Landry, Eric; Cetegen, Baki M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Connecticut, 191 Auditorium Road, Storrs, CT 06269-3139 (United States)

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

236

Most Workers Who Suffer Head Injuries- Were Not Wearing Head Protection  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A survey by the U.S. Department of Labor’s Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) of accidents and injuries noted that most workers who suffered impact injuries to the head were not wearing head protection. In addition, the same survey showed that the majority of workers were injured while performing their normal jobs at their regular worksites.

237

Training and Certification of Lock Operators IMTS Heads-up Paper Heads-up Paper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Training and Certification of Lock Operators IMTS Heads-up Paper 1 Heads-up Paper Training called "Training and Certification of Lock and Dam Operators." Interested individuals can send ideas of the Training and Certification program. Examples of what will be in those draft documents are as follows

US Army Corps of Engineers

238

Dual, rotating stripper rubber drilling head  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a drilling head for a well bore through which a tool string of varying outside diameter is run, the drilling head sealing against fluid flow past the tool string to divert such fluid through a side outlet port, said drilling head including a housing having an axial passageway through which the tool string is run and a bearing assembly to facilitate rotation of the tool string within the axial passageway, the improved drilling head comprising: first and second stripper rubbers rotatably mounted within the drilling head housing in seating contact with the tool string, said stripper rubbers having substantially identical inner diameters through which the tool string extends, said first stripper rubber formed of an abrasive resistant material to divert fluid flow from the axial passageway of the housing to the side outlet port and said second stripper rubber formed on a sealingly resilient material which maintains sealing contact with the tool string extending there through preventing fluid flow past said tool string; said first stripper rubber being corrected to clamping means associated with the bearing assembly through a first drive ring such that said first stripper rubber rotates with the tool string; and said second stripper rubber is rotatably connected to said clamping means associated with the bearing assembly through a second drive ring, said first and second drive rings coaxially mounted within the housing whereby said first stripper rubber is positioned axially below said second stripper rubber in sealing contact with the tool string.

Bailey, T.F.; Campbell, J.E.

1993-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

239

Rotating head for rotary drilling rigs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A rotating head is claimed for a rotary drilling rig which is to be secured to the top of a well pipe having an inner rotating portion with an opening therethrough which permits passage of drill pipe, pipe joints, and Kelly tools; the rotating portion has an annular drive rubber formed integrally with the top portion thereof. A rotating head drive bushing having an opening with a cross-sectional shape generally conforming to the cross-section of the Kelly tool to permit only sliding motion therebetween is provided with helical external ridges which produce a disengagable gripping action with the opening in the drive rubber at the top of the rotating portion of the rotating head. The rotating portion has a conventional stripper rubber at the bottom thereof and is mounted with a double roller bearing to provide low friction motion with respect to the fixed portion of the head. The double roller bearing is lubricated with a viscous lubricating material and paddles are provided between the sets of rollers of the double roller bearing for distributing the viscous lubricating material and in particular propel it onto the upper set of bearings; the upper body portion of the rotating head is readily detachable from the lower sleeve portion which is normally welded to the well conductor pipe.

Adams, J.R.

1983-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

240

Measurements and modeling of soot formation and radiation in microgravity jet diffusion flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a computational and experimental study for soot formation and radiative heat transfer in jet diffusion flames under normal gravity (1-g) and microgravity (0-g) conditions. Instantaneous soot volume fraction maps are measured using a full-field imaging absorption technique developed by the authors. On modeling, the authors have coupled flame structure and soot formation models with detailed radiation transfer calculations. Favre-averaged boundary layer equations with a k-e-g turbulence model are used to predict the flow field, and a conserved scalar approach with an assumed {beta}-pdf are used to predict gaseous species mole fraction. Scalar transport equations are used to describe soot volume fraction and number density distributions, with formation and oxidation terms modeled by one-step rate equations and thermophoretic effects included. An energy equation is included to couple flame structure and radiation analyses through iterations, neglecting turbulence-radiation interactions. The YIX solution for a finite cylindrical enclosure is used for radiative heat transfer calculations. The spectral absorption coefficient for soot aggregates is calculated from the Rayleigh solution using complex refractive index data from a Drude-Lorentz model. The exponential-wide-band model is used to calculate the spectral absorption coefficient for H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}. Predicted soot volume fraction and temperature results agree well with published data for a normal gravity co-flow laminar flames and turbulent jet flames. Predicted soot volume fraction results also agree with the data for 1-g and 0-g laminar jet flames as well as 1-g turbulent jet flames.

Ku, J.C.; Tong, L. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Greenberg, P.S. [NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States). Microgravity Combustion Branch

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flame retention head" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Average Soil Water Retention Curves Measured by Neutron Radiography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water retention curves are essential for understanding the hydrologic behavior of partially-saturated porous media and modeling flow transport processes within the vadose zone. In this paper we report direct measurements of the main drying and wetting branches of the average water retention function obtained using 2-dimensional neutron radiography. Flint sand columns were saturated with water and then drained under quasi-equilibrium conditions using a hanging water column setup. Digital images (2048 x 2048 pixels) of the transmitted flux of neutrons were acquired at each imposed matric potential (~10-15 matric potential values per experiment) at the NCNR BT-2 neutron imaging beam line. Volumetric water contents were calculated on a pixel by pixel basis using Beer-Lambert s law after taking into account beam hardening and geometric corrections. To remove scattering effects at high water contents the volumetric water contents were normalized (to give relative saturations) by dividing the drying and wetting sequences of images by the images obtained at saturation and satiation, respectively. The resulting pixel values were then averaged and combined with information on the imposed basal matric potentials to give average water retention curves. The average relative saturations obtained by neutron radiography showed an approximate one-to-one relationship with the average values measured volumetrically using the hanging water column setup. There were no significant differences (at p < 0.05) between the parameters of the van Genuchten equation fitted to the average neutron radiography data and those estimated from replicated hanging water column data. Our results indicate that neutron imaging is a very effective tool for quantifying the average water retention curve.

Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Horita, Juske [Texas Tech University (TTU); Hussey, Dan [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Study of the performance of three micromixing models in transported scalar PDF simulations of a piloted jet diffusion flame ('Delft Flame III')  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Numerical simulation results are presented for a turbulent nonpremixed flame with local extinction and reignition. The transported scalar PDF approach is applied to the turbulence-chemistry interaction. The turbulent flow field is obtained with a nonlinear two-equation turbulence model. A C{sub 1} skeletal scheme is used as the chemistry model. The performance of three micromixing models is compared: the interaction by exchange with the mean model (IEM), the modified Curl's coalescence/dispersion model (CD) and the Euclidean minimum spanning tree model (EMST). With the IEM model, global extinction occurs. With the standard value of model constant C{sub f}=2, the CD model yields a lifted flame, unlike the experiments, while with the EMST model the correct flame shape is obtained. However, the conditional variances of the thermochemical quantities are underestimated with the EMST model, due to a lack of local extinction in the simulations. With the CD model, the flame becomes attached when either the value of C{sub f} is increased to 3 or the pilot flame thermal power is increased by a factor of 1.5. With increased value of C{sub f} better results for mixture fraction variance are obtained with both the CD and the EMST model. Lowering the value of C{sub f} leads to better predictions for mean temperature with EMST, but at the cost of stronger overprediction of mixture fraction variance. These trends are explained as a consequence of variance production by macroscopic inhomogeneity and the specific properties of the micromixing models. Local time stepping is applied so that convergence is obtained more quickly. Iteration averaging reduces statistical error so that the limited number of 50 particles per cell is sufficient to obtain accurate results. (author)

Merci, Bart [Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics, Ghent University-UGent, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Roekaerts, Dirk [Department of Multi-Scale Physics, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Naud, Bertrand [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Compact organic vapor jet printing print head  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A first device is provided. The first device includes a print head, and a first gas source hermetically sealed to the print head. The print header further includes a first layer comprising a plurality of apertures, each aperture having a smallest dimension of 0.5 to 500 microns. A second layer is bonded to the first layer. The second layer includes a first via in fluid communication with the first gas source and at least one of the apertures. The second layer is made of an insulating material.

Forrest, Stephen R; McGraw, Gregory

2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

244

Experimental and modeling investigation of aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in a premixed ethylene flame  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modeling has been performed to investigate aromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbon formation pathways in a rich, sooting, ethylene-oxygen-argon premixed flame. An atmospheric pressure, laminar flat flame operated at an equivalence ratio of 2.5 was used to acquire experimental data for model validation. Gas composition analysis was conducted by an on-line gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) technique. Measurements were made in the flame and post-flame zone for a number of low molecular weight species, aliphatics, aromatics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranging from two to five-aromatic fused rings. The modeling results show the key reaction sequences leading to aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon growth involve the combination of resonantly stabilized radicals. In particular, propargyl and 1-methylallenyl combination reactions lead to benzene and methyl substituted benzene formation, while polycyclic aromatics are formed from cyclopentadienyl radicals and fused rings that have a shared C{sub 5} side structure. Naphthalene production through the reaction step of cyclopentadienyl self-combination and phenanthrene formation from indenyl and cyclopentadienyl combination were shown to be important in the flame modeling study. The removal of phenyl by O{sub 2} leading to cyclopentadienyl formation is expected to play a pivotal role in the PAH or soot precursor growth process under fuel-rich oxidation conditions.

Castaldi, M.J.; Marinov, N.M.; Melius, C.F. [and others

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Flame acceleration and DDT in channels with obstacles: Effect of obstacle spacing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in obstructed channels using 2D reactive Navier-Stokes numerical simulations. The energy release rate for the stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixture is modeled by one-step Arrhenius kinetics. Computations performed for channels with symmetrical and staggered obstacle configurations show two main effects of obstacle spacing S. First, more obstacles per unit length create more perturbations that increase the flame surface area more quickly, and therefore the flame speed grows faster. Second, DDT occurs more easily when the obstacle spacing is large enough for Mach stems to form between obstacles. These two effects are responsible for three different regimes of flame acceleration and DDT observed in simulations: (1) Detonation is ignited when a Mach stem formed by the diffracting shock reflecting from the side wall collides with an obstacle, (2) Mach stems do not form, and the detonation is not ignited, and (3) Mach stems do not form, but the leading shock becomes strong enough to ignite a detonation by direct collision with the top of an obstacle. Regime 3 is observed for small S and involves multiple isolated detonations that appear between obstacles and play a key role in final stages of flame and shock acceleration. For Regime 1 and staggered obstacle configurations, we observe resonance phenomena that significantly reduce the DDT time when S/2 is comparable to the channel width. Effects of imposed symmetry and stochasticity on DDT phenomena are also considered. (author)

Gamezo, Vadim N.; Oran, Elaine S. [Laboratory for Computational Physics and Fluid Dynamics, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Ogawa, Takanobu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Seikei University, Kichijoji-Kitamachi, Musashino-shi, Tokyo, 180-8633 (Japan)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

246

In situ flame chemistry tracing by imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Adaptation of a low-pressure flat flame burner with a flame-sampling interface to the imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence spectrometer (iPEPICO) of the VUV beamline at the Swiss Light Source is presented. The combination of molecular-beam mass spectrometry and iPEPICO provides a new powerful analytical tool for the detailed investigation of reaction networks in flames. First results demonstrate the applicability of the new instrument to comprehensive flame diagnostics and the potentially high impact for reaction mechanism development for conventional and alternative fuels. Isomer specific identification of stable and radical flame species is demonstrated with unrivaled precision. Radical detection and identification is achieved for the initial H-abstraction products of fuel molecules as well as for the reaction controlling H, O, and OH radicals. Furthermore, quantitative evaluation of changing species concentrations during the combustion process and the applicability of respective results for kinetic model validation are demonstrated. Utilization of mass-selected threshold photoelectron spectra is shown to ensure precise signal assignment and highly reliable spatial profiles.

Oßwald, P.; Köhler, M. [German Aerospace Center (DLR) – Institute of Combustion Technology, Stuttgart 70569 (Germany)] [German Aerospace Center (DLR) – Institute of Combustion Technology, Stuttgart 70569 (Germany); Hemberger, P.; Bodi, A.; Gerber, T. [Molecular Dynamics Group, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)] [Molecular Dynamics Group, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Bierkandt, T.; Akyildiz, E.; Kasper, T., E-mail: tina.kasper@uni-due.de [Mass Spectrometry in Reactive Flows - Thermodynamics (IVG), University of Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg (Germany)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

247

Effect of a uniform electric field on soot in laminar premixed ethylene/air flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of a nominally uniform electric field on the initially uniform distribution of soot has been assessed for laminar premixed ethylene/air flames from a McKenna burner. An electrophoretic influence on charged soot particles was measured through changes to the deposition rate of soot on the McKenna plug, using laser extinction (LE). Soot volume fraction was measured in situ using laser-induced incandescence (LII). Particle size and morphologies were assessed through ex situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using thermophoretic sampling particle diagnostics (TSPD). The results show that the majority of these soot particles are positively charged. The presence of a negatively charged plug was found to decrease the particle residence times in the flame and to influence the formation and oxidation progress. A positively charged plug has the opposite effect. The effect on soot volume fraction, particles size and morphology with electric field strength is also reported. Flame stability was also found to be affected by the presence of the electric field, with the balance of the electrophoretic force and drag force controlling the transition to unstable flame flicker. The presence of charged species generated by the flame was found to reduce the dielectric field strength to one seventh that of air. (author)

Wang, Y.; Yao, Q. [Key Laboratory of Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing (China); Nathan, G.J. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, S.A. 5005 (Australia); Alwahabi, Z.T.; King, K.D.; Ho, K. [School of Chemical Engineering, Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, S.A. 5005 (Australia)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

248

Soot formation in laminar premixed methane/oxygen flames at atmospheric pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flame structure and soot formation were studied within soot-containing laminar premixed methane/oxygen flames at atmospheric pressure. The following measurements were made: soot volume fractions by laser extinction, soot temperatures by multiline emission, gas temperatures (where soot was absent) by corrected fine-wire thermocouples, soot structure by thermophoretic sampling and transmission electron microscope (TEM), major gas species concentrations by sampling and gas chromatography, and gas velocities by laser velocimetry. Present measurements of gas species concentrations were in reasonably good agreement with earlier measurements due to Ramer et al. as well as predictions based on the detailed mechanisms of Frenklach and co-workers and Leung and Lindstedt; the predictions also suggest that H atom concentrations are in local thermodynamic equilibrium throughout the soot formation region. Using this information, it was found that measured soot surface growth rates could be correlated successfully by predictions based on the hydrogen-abstraction/carbon-addition (HACA) mechanisms of both Frenklach and co-workers and Colket and Hall, extending an earlier assessment of these mechanisms for premixed ethylene/air flames to conditions having larger H/C ratios and acetylene concentrations. Measured primary soot particle nucleation rates were somewhat lower than the earlier observations for laminar premixed ethylene/air flames and were significantly lower than corresponding rates in laminar diffusion flames, for reasons that still must be explained.

Xu, F.; Lin, K.C.; Faeth, G.M. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Reduction of soot emissions by iron pentacarbonyl in isooctane diffusion flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Light-scattering measurements, in situ laser-induced fluorescence, and thermophoretic sampling with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, were performed in laboratory isooctane diffusion flames seeded with 4000 ppm iron pentacarbonyl. These measurements allowed the determination of the evolution of the size, number density, and volume fraction of soot particles through the flame. Comparison to unseeded flame data provided a detailed assessment of the effects of iron addition on soot particle inception, growth, and oxidation processes. Iron was found to produce a minor soot-enhancing effect at early residence times, while subsequent soot particle growth was largely unaffected. It is concluded that primarily elemental iron is incorporated within the soot particles during particle inception and growth. However, iron addition was found to enhance the rate of soot oxidation during the soot burnout regime, yielding a two-thirds reduction in overall soot emissions. In situ spectroscopic measurements probed the transient nature of elemental iron throughout the flame, revealing significant loss of elemental iron, presumably to iron oxides, with increasing flame residence, suggesting catalysis of soot oxidation via iron oxide species. (author)

Kim, K.B.; Masiello, K.A.; Hahn, D.W. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

250

Soot suppression by ferrocene in laminar ethylene/air nonpremixed flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental investigation is presented on the origin of the soot suppressing role of ferrocene additive in laminar, coannular, ethylene/air nonpremixed flames. The conditions examined involve laminar flames operating above and below their smoke point. In-flame diagnostics are employed to discern the interaction between the soot matrix and additive combustion products. The data presented in a previous study, as produced by thermophoretic sampling, transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution microanalysis techniques, are supplemented by soot volume fraction, temperature, and soot primary size measurements to unravel the mechanisms through which ferrocene combustion products influence soot formation processes. Furthermore, Z-contrast scanning/transmission electron microscopy is used to examine the over-fire aerosol and, in turn, provide insight on the fine-scale dispersion of iron fragments within the carbonaceous soot matrix. It is shown that ferrocene seeding of the fuel stream accelerates the particular inception mechanisms, but does not influence soot loadings when soot growth is dominant. Ferrocene is also found to enhance soot oxidation rates near the flame terminus. It is concluded that the fine-scale incorporation of iron compounds within the soot matrix is a primary factor for the soot suppressing role of ferrocene in nonpremixed flames.

Zhang, J.; Megaridis, C.M. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering] [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

A Decentralized Public Key Infrastructure with Identity Retention Conner Fromknecht (conner@mit.edu), Dragos Velicanu (velicanu@mit.edu),  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

provided by cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin and Namecoin to build a PKI that ensures identity retention

252

Chapter 3.5: Freshman Undergraduate Retention1 Improve retention and graduation rates for all first-year engineering undergraduate students,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 3.5: Freshman Undergraduate Retention1 Objective Improve retention and graduation rates graduation rate for transfer student. Strategies 1. Develop a program that continuously improves the delivery pass/fail efforts, either continue or adopt best practices form project for long-term implementation. 2

253

Feature Article Negative pressure dependence of mass burning rates of H2/CO/O2/diluent flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with predominantly CO, CO2, and H2O) as a fuel itself as synthetic gas or ``syngas" from coal or biomass gasification of burning rates, analysis of the key reactions and kinetic pathways, and modeling studies were performed and temperature dependence compared to Ar-diluted flames of the same flame temperature. Simulations were performed

Ju, Yiguang

254

On Flame-Wall Thermal-Coupling in Micro Combustors Yong Fan, Yuji Suzuki, and Nobuhide Kasagi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On Flame-Wall Thermal-Coupling in Micro Combustors Yong Fan, Yuji Suzuki, and Nobuhide Kasagi Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Japan Keywords: Micro combustor, Premixed of premixed CH4/Air flame propagation and quenching in three quartz combustors with chamber depth of 0.7 mm, 1

Kasagi, Nobuhide

255

VICE CHANCELLOR Signature of Head of School  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

VICE CHANCELLOR Signature of Head of School Date (dd/mm/yy) Following is a report on the professional and consultative work of my School/section over the twelve months of (year) School/Section One. Yes No (Nil Return) Total number of staff within School/Section at year end who are eligible to engage

Tobar, Michael

256

The Head-Neck Sensory Motor System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Head-Neck Sensory Motor System Edited by Alain Berthoz Laboratoire de Physiologie, sideslip, and thrust) determine its loca- tion in space, and rotations (yaw, pitch, and roll) change its, no functional significance can be attributed to this multiple sampling. Oculomotor System of Calliphora

257

Judith Sheine Professor and Department Head  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Environmental Design, Department of Architecture Chair, 2002- present Professor, 2002 - present; AssociateJudith Sheine Professor and Department Head Department of Architecture School of Architecture) 346-3626 e-mail: jesheine@uoregon.edu Education 1979 Princeton University, School of Architecture

258

Probability Primer 1 Running head: PROBABILITY PRIMER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

provides the opportunity to draw upon work in computer science, engineering, mathematics, and statisticsProbability Primer 1 Running head: PROBABILITY PRIMER A Primer on Probabilistic Inference Thomas L. Griffiths Department of Psychology University of California, Berkeley Alan Yuille Department of Statistics

Yuille, Alan L.

259

Department Heads Meeting D. MacFarlane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Department Heads Meeting D. MacFarlane March 21, 2013 #12;Snowmass working groups Snowmass web-7 at SLAC Energy Frontier All Hands: » April 3-6 at Brookhaven (web site) » June 30-July 3 at U. Washington a world leading cosmic frontier program » Cosmology, cosmic ray, dark matter & dark energy emphasis

Wechsler, Risa H.

260

Measurement of temperature distributions in large pool fires with the use of directional flame thermometers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Temperatures inside the flame zone of large regulatory pool fires measured during tests of radioactive materials packages vary widely with both time and position. Measurements made with several Directional Flame Thermometers, in which a thermocouple is attached to a thin metal sheet that quickly approaches flame temperatures, have been used to construct fire temperature distributions and cumulative probability distributions. As an aid to computer simulations of these large fires, these distributions are presented. The distributions are constructed by sorting fire temperature data into bins 10 C wide. A typical fire temperature distribution curve has a gradual increase starting at about 600 C, with the number of observations increasing to a peak near 1000 C, followed by an abrupt decrease in frequency, with no temperatures observed above 1200 C.

KOSKI,JORMAN A.

2000-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flame retention head" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Mapping of soot particles in a weakly sooting diffusion flame by aerosol techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The evolution of detailed particle size distributions has been measured along the centerline of an axisymmetric diffusion flame of CH{sub 4} + Ar burning in air at 1 atm. Soot particles with mean diameters of 3--18 nm were observed. Changes in the size distribution exhibited zones where either nucleation, coagulation, or destruction of soot particles dominated. These highly sensitive measurements were made by microprobe sampling with an immediate dilution of 1:400, to quench the aerosol, and by subsequent application of aerosol measurement techniques. In parallel, the yield of photoemitted electrons from size-selected particles was determined. The yield shows a characteristic dependence on location in the flame, indicating changes of the particle`s surface. Multiphoton, time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to investigate the correlation between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the flame and enhanced photoemission yield from the soot particles.

Hepp, H.; Siegmann, K. [Federal Inst. of Tech., Zuerich (Switzerland). Lab. for Solid State Physics] [Federal Inst. of Tech., Zuerich (Switzerland). Lab. for Solid State Physics

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Detailed modeling and laser-induced fluorescence imaging of nitric oxide in a NH3-seeded non-premixed methane/air flame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

non-premixed methane/air flame John B. Bell, Marcus S. Day, Joseph F. Grcar Computing Sciences-induced fluorescence imaging of nitric oxide in a NH3-seeded non-premixed methane/air flame Abstract In this paper we study the formation of NO in laminar, nitrogen diluted methane diffusion flames that are seeded

Bell, John B.

263

24.01.01.Q0.07 Use of Pyrotechnics or Flame Effects Page 1 of 2 STANDARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

24.01.01.Q0.07 Use of Pyrotechnics or Flame Effects Page 1 of 2 STANDARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE: September 5, 2015 Standard Administrative Procedure Statement Use of pyrotechnics or flame effects during Building. This procedure pertains to the use of pyrotechnical and flame effects within the TAMUQ

264

The retention time of inorganic mercury in the brain — A systematic review of the evidence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reports from human case studies indicate a half-life for inorganic mercury in the brain in the order of years—contradicting older radioisotope studies that estimated half-lives in the order of weeks to months in duration. This study systematically reviews available evidence on the retention time of inorganic mercury in humans and primates to better understand this conflicting evidence. A broad search strategy was used to capture 16,539 abstracts on the Pubmed database. Abstracts were screened to include only study types containing relevant information. 131 studies of interest were identified. Only 1 primate study made a numeric estimate for the half-life of inorganic mercury (227–540 days). Eighteen human mercury poisoning cases were followed up long term including autopsy. Brain inorganic mercury concentrations at death were consistent with a half-life of several years or longer. 5 radionucleotide studies were found, one of which estimated head half-life (21 days). This estimate has sometimes been misinterpreted to be equivalent to brain half-life—which ignores several confounding factors including limited radioactive half-life and radioactive decay from surrounding tissues including circulating blood. No autopsy cohort study estimated a half-life for inorganic mercury, although some noted bioaccumulation of brain mercury with age. Modelling studies provided some extreme estimates (69 days vs 22 years). Estimates from modelling studies appear sensitive to model assumptions, however predications based on a long half-life (27.4 years) are consistent with autopsy findings. In summary, shorter estimates of half-life are not supported by evidence from animal studies, human case studies, or modelling studies based on appropriate assumptions. Evidence from such studies point to a half-life of inorganic mercury in human brains of several years to several decades. This finding carries important implications for pharmcokinetic modelling of mercury and potentially for the regulatory toxicology of mercury.

Rooney, James P.K., E-mail: jrooney@rcsi.ie

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Laser-saturated fluorescence of nitric oxide and chemiluminescence measurements in premixed ethanol flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, nitric oxide laser-saturated fluorescence (LSF) measurements were acquired from premixed ethanol flames at atmospheric pressure in a burner. NO-LSF experimental profiles for fuel-rich premixed ethanol flames ({phi} = 1.34 and {phi} = 1.66) were determined through the excitation/detection scheme of the Q{sub 2}(26.5) rotational line in the A{sup 2}{sigma}{sup +} - X{sup 2}{pi} (0,0) vibronic band and {gamma}(0,1) emission band. A calibration procedure by NO doping into the flame was applied to establish the NO concentration profiles in these flames. Chemiluminescent emission measurements in the (0, 0) vibronic emission bands of the OH{sup *} (A{sup 2}{sigma}{sup +} - X{sup 2}{pi}) and CH{sup *}(A{sup 2}{delta} - X{sup 2}{pi}) radicals were also obtained with high spatial and spectral resolution for fuel-rich premixed ethanol flames to correlate them with NO concentrations. Experimental chemiluminescence profiles and the ratios of the integrated areas under emission spectra (A{sub CH*}/A{sub CH*}(max.) and A{sub CH*}/A{sub OH*}) were determined. The relationships between chemiluminescence and NO concentrations were established along the premixed ethanol flames. There was a strong connection between CH{sup *} radical chemiluminescence and NO formation and the prompt-NO was identified as the governing mechanism for NO production. The results suggest the optimum ratio of the chemiluminescence of two radicals (A{sub CH*}/A{sub OH*}) for NO diagnostic purposes. (author)

Marques, Carla S.T.; Barreta, Luiz G.; Sbampato, Maria E.; dos Santos, Alberto M. [Aerothermodynamic and Hypersonic Division, Institute of Advanced Studies - General Command of Aerospatial Technology, Rodovia dos Tamoios, km 5.5, 12228-001 Sao Jose dos Campos - SP (Brazil)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

266

Turbulent flame speeds in ducts and the deflagration/detonation transition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A methodology is proposed for determining whether a deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) might occur for flame propagation along a duct with baffles, closed at the ignition end. A flammable mixture can attain a maximum turbulent burning velocity. If this is sufficiently high, a strong shock is formed ahead of the flame. It is assumed that this maximum burning velocity is soon attained and on the basis of previous studies, this value can be obtained for the given conditions. The increase in temperature and pressure of the reactants, due to the shock, further increases the maximum turbulent burning velocity. The gas velocity ahead of the flame is linked to one-dimensional shock wave equations in a numerical analysis. The predicted duct flame speeds with the appropriate maximum turbulent burning velocities are in good agreement with those measured in the slow and fast flame regimes of a range of CH{sub 4}-air and H{sub 2}-air mixtures. DDTs are possible if autoignition of the reactants occurs in the time available, and if the projected flame speed approaches the Chapman-Jouguet velocity at the same temperature and pressure. Prediction of the first condition requires values of the autoignition delay time of the mixture at the shocked temperatures and pressures. Prediction of the second requires values of the laminar burning velocity and Markstein number. With the appropriate values of these parameters, it is shown numerically that there is no DDT with CH{sub 4}-air. With H{sub 2}-air, the onset of DDT occurs close to the values of equivalence ratio at which it has been observed experimentally. The effects of different duct sizes also are predicted, although details of the DDT cannot be predicted. Extension of the study to a wider range of fuels requires more data on their laminar burning velocities and Markstein numbers at higher temperatures and pressures and on autoignition delay times at lower temperatures and pressures. (author)

Bradley, D.; Lawes, M.; Liu, Kexin [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

267

Probe measurements and numerical model predictions of evolving size distributions in premixed flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Particle size distributions (PSDs), measured with a dilution probe and a Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA), and numerical predictions of these PSDs, based on a model that includes only coagulation or alternatively inception and coagulation, are compared to investigate particle growth processes and possible sampling artifacts in the post-flame region of a C/O = 0.65 premixed laminar ethylene-air flame. Inputs to the numerical model are the PSD measured early in the flame (the initial condition for the aerosol population) and the temperature profile measured along the flame's axial centerline. The measured PSDs are initially unimodal, with a modal mobility diameter of 2.2 nm, and become bimodal later in the post-flame region. The smaller mode is best predicted with a size-dependent coagulation model, which allows some fraction of the smallest particles to escape collisions without resulting in coalescence or coagulation through the size-dependent coagulation efficiency ({gamma}{sub SD}). Instead, when {gamma} = 1 and the coagulation rate is equal to the collision rate for all particles regardless of their size, the coagulation model significantly under predicts the number concentration of both modes and over predicts the size of the largest particles in the distribution compared to the measured size distributions at various heights above the burner. The coagulation ({gamma}{sub SD}) model alone is unable to reproduce well the larger particle mode (mode II). Combining persistent nucleation with size-dependent coagulation brings the predicted PSDs to within experimental error of the measurements, which seems to suggest that surface growth processes are relatively insignificant in these flames. Shifting measured PSDs a few mm closer to the burner surface, generally adopted to correct for probe perturbations, does not produce a better matching between the experimental and the numerical results. (author)

De Filippo, A.; Sgro, L.A.; Lanzuolo, G.; D'Alessio, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

268

Mitigation of thermoacoustic instability utilizing steady air injection near the flame anchoring zone  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to investigate the effectiveness of steady air injection near the flame anchoring zone in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities driven by flame-vortex interaction mechanism. We perform a systematic experimental study which involves using two different configurations of air injection in an atmospheric pressure backward-facing step combustor. The first configuration utilizes a row of micro-diameter holes allowing for air injection in the cross-stream direction just upstream of the step. The second configuration utilizes an array of micro-diameter holes located on the face of the step, allowing for air injection in the streamwise direction. The effects of each of these configurations are analyzed to determine which one is more effective in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities at different operating conditions. The tests are conducted while varying the equivalence ratio and the inlet temperature. The secondary air temperature is always the same as the inlet temperature. We used pure propane or propane/hydrogen mixtures as fuels. Combustion dynamics are explored through simultaneous pressure and heat release-rate measurements, and high-speed video images. When the equivalence ratio of the reactant mixture is high, it causes the flame to flashback towards the inlet channel. When air is injected in the cross-stream direction, the flame anchors slightly upstream of the step, which suppresses the instability. When air is injected in the streamwise direction near the edge of step, thermoacoustic instability could be eliminated at an optimum secondary air flow rate, which depends on the operating conditions. When effective, the streamwise air injection prevents the shedding of an unsteady vortex, thus eliminating the flame-vortex interaction mechanism and resulting in a compact, stable flame to form near the step. (author)

Murat Altay, H.; Hudgins, Duane E.; Speth, Raymond L.; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

269

Method for producing flame retardant porous products and products produced thereby  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for fire retarding porous products used for thermal energy storage and products produced thereby is provided. The method includes treating the surface of the phase change material-containing porous products with a urea fire-retarding agent. Upon exposure to a flame, the urea forms an adduct with the phase change material which will not sustain combustion (is self-extinguishing) in air. No halogens or metal oxides are contained in the fire retardant, so no potentially noxious halide smoke or fumes are emitted if the product is continuously exposed to a flame. 1 fig.

Salyer, I.O.

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

270

Method for producing flame retardant porous products and products produced thereby  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for fire retarding porous products used for thermal energy storage and products produced thereby is provided. The method includes treating the surface of the phase change material-containing porous products with a urea fire-retarding agent. Upon exposure to a flame, the urea forms an adduct with the phase change material which will not sustain combustion (is self-extinguishing) in air. No halogens or metal oxides are contained in the fire retardant, so no potentially noxious halide smoke or fumes are emitted if the product is continuously exposed to a flame.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

271

Method for Producing Flame Retardant Porous Products and Products Produced Thereby  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for fire retarding porous products used for thermal energy storage and products produced thereby is provided. The method includes treating the surface of the phase change material-containing porous products with a urea fire-retarding agent. Upon exposure to a flame, the urea forms an adduct with the phase change material which will not sustain combustion (is self-extinguishing) in air. No halogens or metal oxides are contained in the fire retardant, so no potentially noxious halide smoke or fumes are emitted if the product is continuously exposed to a flame.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

272

Increasing the chemical content of turbulent flame models through the use of parallel computing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report outlines the effort to model a time-dependent, 2- dimensional, turbulent, nonpremixed flame with full chemistry with the aid of parallel computing tools. In this study, the mixing process and the chemical reactions occurring in the flow field are described in terms of the single-point probability density function (PDF), while the turbulent viscosity is determined by the standard kappa-epsilon model. The initial problem solved is a H[sub 2]/Air flame whose chemistry is described by 28 elementary reactions involving 9 chemical species.

Yam, C.G.; Armstrong, R.; Koszykowski, M.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Chen, J.Y. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Bui-Pham, M.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

3D head anthropometric analysis Reyes Enciso*ab  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a current three-dimensional image-based face modeling technique using a plaster head model. We will also. In this paper we acquired and validated 3-dimensional images of a plaster head using structured-light image

Shahabi, Cyrus

274

Gas cushion control of OVJP print head position  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An OVJP apparatus and method for applying organic vapor or other flowable material to a substrate using a printing head mechanism in which the print head spacing from the substrate is controllable using a cushion of air or other gas applied between the print head and substrate. The print head is mounted for translational movement towards and away from the substrate and is biased toward the substrate by springs or other means. A gas cushion feed assembly supplies a gas under pressure between the print head and substrate which opposes the biasing of the print head toward the substrate so as to form a space between the print head and substrate. By controlling the pressure of gas supplied, the print head separation from the substrate can be precisely controlled.

Forrest, Stephen R

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

275

A 3-D display head-set for personalized computing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis covers the design and implementation of a binocular display head-set akin to Dr . Ivan E. Sutherland's head-mounted display, but using several new technologies and new techniques in computer graphics: small ...

Callahan, Mark A

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

1 INTRODUCTION High-head storage hydropower plants operate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 INTRODUCTION High-head storage hydropower plants operate their turbines during periods of high Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland ABSTRACT: High-head storage hydropower plants

Floreano, Dario

277

Type B Accident Investigation Board Report on the Head Injury...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

on the Head Injury to a Miner at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, New Mexico - August 25, 2004 Type B Accident Investigation Board Report on the Head Injury to a Miner at...

278

Workforce Retention Work Group Status Overview - July 2012 | Department of  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartment of EnergyofProject isNovember 07,Energy Workforce Retention Work Group Status

279

Investigation on Flame Characteristics and Burner Operability Issues of Oxy-Fuel Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxy-fuel combustion has been used previously in a wide range of industrial applications. Oxy- combustion is carried out by burning a hydrocarbon fuel with oxygen instead of air. Flames burning in this configuration achieve higher flame temperatures which present opportunities for significant efficiency improvements and direct capture of CO{sub 2} from the exhaust stream. In an effort to better understand and characterize the fundamental flame characteristics of oxy-fuel combustion this research presents the experimental measurements of flame stability of various oxyfuel flames. Effects of H{sub 2} concentration, fuel composition, exhaust gas recirculation ratio, firing inputs, and burner diameters on the flame stability of these fuels are discussed. Effects of exhaust gas recirculation i.e. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O (steam) acting as diluents on burner operability are also presented. The roles of firing input on flame stability are then analyzed. For this study it was observed that many oxy-flames did not stabilize without exhaust gas recirculation due to their higher burning velocities. In addition, the stability regime of all compositions was observed to decrease as the burner diameter increased. A flashback model is also presented, using the critical velocity gradient g{sub F}) values for CH{sub 4}-O{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} flames. The scaling relation (𝐠{sub F} = 𝐜 𝐒{sub 𝐋}{sup 2}/𝛂) for different burner diameters was obtained for various diameter burners. The report shows that results correlated linearly with a scaling value of c =0.0174. The second part of the study focuses on the experimental measurements of the flow field characteristics of premixed CH{sub 4}/21%O{sub 2}/79%N{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}/38%O{sub 2}/72%CO{sub 2} mixtures at constant firing input of 7.5 kW, constant, equivalence ratio of 0.8, constant swirl number of 0.92 and constant Reynolds Numbers. These measurements were taken in a swirl stabilized combustor at atmospheric pressure. The flow field visualization using Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) technique is implemented to make a better understanding of the turbulence characteristics of CH{sub 4}/air and CH{sub 4}/38%O{sub 2}/72%CO{sub 2} combustion. The velocity fluctuations, turbulence intensities and local propagation velocities along the combustion chamber have been determined. The turbulent intensities increase as we move away from the combustor axis. CH{sub 4}-38%O{sub 2}-72%CO{sub 2} flames have low radial velocity and turbulent intensity distributions at different axial distances when compared with CH{sub 4}-Air flames.

Choudhuri, Ahsan

2013-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

280

Automatic Tissue Classification for the Human Head from Multispectral MRI  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Automatic Tissue Classification for the Human Head from Multispectral MRI Tolga Tasdizen, David for classifying multispectral MR scans of the human head into nine tissue classes. User initialization is adopted. #12;Chapter 1 Introduction Classification of head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data

Utah, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flame retention head" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Oculomotor Responses to Active Head Movements in Darkness  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

information on head rotation from the vestibular system to the saccade-generating mechanism in the brain stem482 Oculomotor Responses to Active Head Movements in Darkness Formulation and Testing Sistemistica, Universitŕ di Pavia, Pavia, Italy Passive head rotation in darkness produces vestibular nystagmus

Ramat, Stefano

282

Nuclear reactor melt-retention structure to mitigate direct containment heating  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A light water nuclear reactor melt-retention structure to mitigate the extent of direct containment heating of the reactor containment building. The structure includes a retention chamber for retaining molten core material away from the upper regions of the reactor containment building when a severe accident causes the bottom of the pressure vessel of the reactor to fail and discharge such molten material under high pressure through the reactor cavity into the retention chamber. In combination with the melt-retention chamber there is provided a passageway that includes molten core droplet deflector vanes and has gas vent means in its upper surface, which means are operable to deflect molten core droplets into the retention chamber while allowing high pressure steam and gases to be vented into the upper regions of the containment building. A plurality of platforms are mounted within the passageway and the melt-retention structure to direct the flow of molten core material and help retain it within the melt-retention chamber. In addition, ribs are mounted at spaced positions on the floor of the melt-retention chamber, and grid means are positioned at the entrance side of the retention chamber. The grid means develop gas back pressure that helps separate the molten core droplets from discharged high pressure steam and gases, thereby forcing the steam and gases to vent into the upper regions of the reactor containment building.

Tutu, Narinder K. (Manorville, NY); Ginsberg, Theodore (East Setauket, NY); Klages, John R. (Mattituck, NY)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

E-Print Network 3.0 - age-dependent skeletal retention Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Riparian Forest Soil Jodi B. Lyons... of nutrients movingfrom the upland areas to aquatic eco- systems (Lowrance, 1991). Nutrient retention varies... is considered to be generally...

284

E-Print Network 3.0 - analysis retention behaviour Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Delage (eds) 2008, Ecole des Ponts ParisTech, Champs-sur-Marne Summary: COMPACTED CLAYEY SOILS: MODELLING THE WATER RETENTION BEHAVIOUR Della Vecchia, G. (dellavecchia......

285

E-Print Network 3.0 - adopted hydraulic retention Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

curve for compacted clayey soils Different variables may adopted... COMPACTED CLAYEY SOILS: MODELLING THE WATER RETENTION BEHAVIOUR Della Vecchia, G. (dellavecchia......

286

E-Print Network 3.0 - additional retentive features Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

R. - Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Kansas Collection: Chemistry 8 Records Management USER GUIDE | II Summary: retention periods. In addition to the common...

287

Surface treatment of magnetic recording heads  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Surface modification of magnetic recording heads using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition is disclosed. This method may be carried out using a vacuum arc deposition system with a metallic or carbon cathode. By operating a plasma gun in a long-pulse mode and biasing the substrate holder with short pulses of a high negative voltage, direct ion implantation, recoil implantation, and surface deposition are combined to modify the near-surface regions of the head or substrate in processing times which may be less than 5 min. The modified regions are atomically mixed into the substrate. This surface modification improves the surface smoothness and hardness and enhances the tribological characteristics under conditions of contact-start-stop and continuous sliding. These results are obtained while maintaining original tolerances. 15 figs.

Komvopoulos, K.; Brown, I.G.; Wei, B.; Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Bhatia, S.C.

1995-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

288

Head erosion with emittance growth in PWFA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Head erosion is one of the limiting factors in plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA). We present a study of head erosion with emittance growth in field-ionized plasma from the PWFA experiments performed at the FACET user facility at SLAC. At FACET, a 20.3 GeV bunch with 1.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} electrons is optimized in beam transverse size and combined with a high density lithium plasma for beam-driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiments. A target foil is inserted upstream of the plasma source to increase the bunch emittance through multiple scattering. Its effect on beamplasma interaction is observed with an energy spectrometer after a vertical bend magnet. Results from the first experiments show that increasing the emittance has suppressed vapor field-ionization and plasma wakefields excitation. Plans for the future are presented.

Li, S. Z.; Adli, E.; England, R. J.; Frederico, J.; Gessner, S. J.; Hogan, M. J.; Litos, M. D.; Walz, D. R.; Muggli, P.; An, W.; Clayton, C. E.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K. A.; Mori, W.; Vafaei, N. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States) and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States) and University of Oslo, Oslo, N-0316 (Norway) and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

289

Multi-timescale modeling of ignition and flame regimes of n-heptane-air mixtures near spark assisted homogeneous charge compression ignition conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The flame regimes of ignition and flame propagation as well as transitions between different flame regimes of n-heptane-air mixtures in a one-dimensional, cylindrical, spark assisted homogeneously charged compression ignition (HCCI) reactor are numerically modeled using a multi-timescale method with reduced kinetic mechanism. It is found that the initial mixture temperature and pressure have a dramatic impact on flame dynamics. Depending on the initial temperature gradient, there exist at least six different combustion regimes, an initial single flame front propagation regime, a coupled low temperature and high temperature double-flame regime, a decoupled low temperature and high temperature double-flame regime, a low temperature ignition regime, a single high temperature flame regime, and a hot ignition regime. The results show that the low temperature and high temperature flames have distinct kinetic and transport properties as well as flame speeds, and are strongly influenced by the low temperature chemistry. The pressure and heat release rates are affected by the appearance of different flame regimes and the transitions between them. Furthermore, it is found that the critical temperature gradient for ignition and acoustic wave coupling becomes singular at the negative temperature coefficient (NTC) region. The results show that both the NTC effect and the acoustic wave propagation in a closed reactor have a dramatic impact on the ignition front and acoustic interaction.

Ju, Yiguang; Sun, Wenting; Burke, M. P.; Gou, Xiaolong; Chen, Zheng

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Establishing criteria for the design of a combination parallel and cross-flaming covered burner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

it with the two open flame practices. This evaluation was performed by moving the burners over an area that would monitor the temperatures at specified heights and locations. Temperatures were measured using thermocouples placed at heights 7-mm, 150-mm, and 300...

Stark, Christopher Charles

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Effect of Hydrogen Addition on the Flammability Limit of Stretched Methane/Air Premixed Flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

], thereby enabling stable combustion at lean mixture conditions. In the case of natural gas engines, enriching the fuel with hydrogen has the proven benefits of improving the combustion stability and reducingEffect of Hydrogen Addition on the Flammability Limit of Stretched Methane/Air Premixed Flames

Im, Hong G.

292

Testing of a Hydrogen Diffusion Flame Array Injector at Gas Turbine Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-hydrogen gas turbines enable integration of carbon sequestration into coal-gasifying power plants, though NO{sub x} emissions are often high. This work explores nitrogen dilution of hydrogen diffusion flames to reduce thermal NO{sub x} emissions and avoid problems with premixing hydrogen at gas turbine pressures and temperatures. The burner design includes an array of high-velocity coaxial fuel and air injectors, which balances stability and ignition performance, combustor pressure drop, and flame residence time. Testing of this array injector at representative gas turbine conditions (16 atm and 1750 K firing temperature) yields 4.4 ppmv NO{sub x} at 15% O{sub 2} equivalent. NO{sub x} emissions are proportional to flame residence times, though these deviate from expected scaling due to active combustor cooling and merged flame behavior. The results demonstrate that nitrogen dilution in combination with high velocities can provide low NO{sub x} hydrogen combustion at gas turbine conditions, with significant potential for further NO{sub x} reductions via suggested design changes.

Weiland, Nathan T.; Sidwell, Todd G.; Strakey, Peter A.

2013-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

293

On the nonlinear thermal diffusive theory of curved flames M. L. Frankel and G. I. Sivashinsky (*)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

E 25 On the nonlinear thermal diffusive theory of curved flames M. L. Frankel and G. I. Sivashinsky Dth is the thermal diffusivity of the gaseous mixture and Vb the propagation velocity of the plane magnitudes, these equations may be written as follows : Article published online by EDP Sciences

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

294

Numerical simulation of Lewis number effects on lean premixed turbulent flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

turbulent flames for lean hydrogen, propane and methane mixtures in two dimensions. Each simulation or syngas, obtained from coal gasification, has sparked interest in the development of burners that can for propane, methane and hydrogen using de- tailed chemistry and transport, corresponding to Le > 1, Le 1

295

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 86, 036314 (2012) ac electric fields drive steady flows in flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 86, 036314 (2012) ac electric fields drive steady flows in flames Aaron M. Drews June 2012; published 20 September 2012) We show that time-oscillating electric fields applied-averaged force that drives the steady flows observed experimentally. A quantitative model describes the response

Heller, Eric

296

Multiscale Modeling of TiO2 Nanoparticle Production in Flame Reactors: Effect of Chemical Mechanism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multiscale Modeling of TiO2 Nanoparticle Production in Flame Reactors: Effect of Chemical Mechanism and Engineering Mechanics, The UniVersity of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 For titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles, catalysis, energy, and semiconductors. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are traditionally used

Raman, Venkat

297

A combined computational and experimental characterization of lean premixed turbulent low swirl laboratory flames.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of these alternate fuels will vary significantly with the type of feedstocks and their treatment processes , Vince Beckner1 and Robert Cheng3 , 1 Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering, Lawrence, and then use the simulation data to further probe the time-dependent, 3D structure of the flames

Bell, John B.

298

Cellular burning in lean premixed turbulent hydrogen-air flames: coupling experimental and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of burners, particularly for alternative fuels, depends on improving our understanding of basic flame. Beckner1, M. J. Lijewski1 1 Center for Computational Science and Engineering, Lawrence Berkeley National for burning the fuel-lean mixtures of hydrogen or hydrogen-rich syngas fuels obtained from the gasification

299

Combustion and Flame 145 (2006) 128144 www.elsevier.com/locate/combustflame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Keywords: Ignition; Direct numerical simulation; HCCI; Multizone model * Corresponding author. Fax: +1 925]. In contrast to con- ventional compression-ignition (CI) engines, HCCI engines exploit a lean intake charge and Flame 145 (2006) 128­144 129 prior to combustion. HCCI engines may thus pro- vide efficiency gains over

Im, Hong G.

300

Copyright 2007 by ASME1 Laminar Flame Speeds and Strain Sensitivities of Mixtures of H2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to rich. [Keywords: Syngas, laminar flame speed, reactant preheat, CO2 dilution, N2 dilution] INTRODUCTION emissions. Synthetic gas (syngas) fuels derived from coal are particularly promising in this regard. Syngas, provides a significant barrier to syngas usage. Understanding the impact of this variability on combustor

Seitzman, Jerry M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flame retention head" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

A numerical and experimental study of counterflow syngas flames at different pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A numerical and experimental study of counterflow syngas flames at different pressures S. Som, A Synthesis gas or ``Syngas'' is being recognized as a viable energy source worldwide, particularly. There are, however, gaps in the fundamental understanding of syngas combustion and emissions characteristics

Aggarwal, Suresh K.

302

Carbon nanotubes grow in combustion flames Issued on March 31, 2014  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon nanotubes grow in combustion flames Issued on March 31, 2014 Quantum chemical simulations reveal an unprecedented relationship between the mechanism of carbon nanotube growth and hydrocarbon of carbon nanotube (CNT) growth and hydrocarbon combustion actually share many similarities. In studies

Takahashi, Ryo

303

Response of a laminar premixed flame to flow oscillations: A kinematic model and thermoacoustic instability results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combustion instability is a resonance phenomenon that arises due to the coupling between the system acoustics and the unsteady heat release. The constructive feedback between the two processes, which is known to occur as a certain phase relationship between the pressure and the unsteady heat release rate is satisfied, depends on many parameters among which is the acoustic mode, the flame holder characteristics, and the dominant burning pattern. In this paper, the authors construct an analytical model to describe the dynamic response of a laminar premixed flame stabilized on the rim of a tube to velocity oscillation. They consider uniform and nonuniform velocity perturbations superimposed on a pipe flow velocity profile. The model results show that the magnitude of heat release perturbation and its phase with respect to the dynamic perturbation dependent primarily on the flame Strohal number, representing the ratio of the dominant frequency times the tube radius to the laminar burning velocity. In terms of this number, high-frequency perturbations pass through the flame while low frequencies lead to a strong response. The phase with respect to the velocity perturbation behaves in the opposite way. Results of this model are shown to agree with experimental observations and to be useful in determining how the combustion excited model is selected among all the acoustic unstable modes. The model is then used to obtain a time-domain differential equation describing the relationship between the velocity perturbation and the heat release response over the entire frequency range.

Fleifil, M.; Annaswamy, A.M.; Ghoneim, A.F. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ghoneim, Z.A. [Ain Shams Univ., Abassia (Egypt)] [Ain Shams Univ., Abassia (Egypt)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Flame Stability Analysis in an Ultra Compact Combustor Using Large-Eddy Simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Flame Stability Analysis in an Ultra Compact Combustor Using Large-Eddy Simulation C. Lietz , C Base, Ohio 45433 Large eddy simulation (LES) of an experimental ultra-compact combustor (UCC as a conven- tional combustor path. In order to reduce the penalty due to increased weight of these burners

Raman, Venkat

305

Kinetic effects of non-equilibrium plasma-assisted methane oxidation on diffusion flame extinction limits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

08544, USA b US Air Force Research Laboratory, Propulsion Directorate, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 plasma assisted combustion resulted in fast chemical heat release and extended the extinction limits processes in plasma­flame interactions [1­17]. However, plasma assisted combustion involves strong coupling

Ju, Yiguang

306

Solution of Laminar Diffusion Flames Using a Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement Algorithm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, chemical kinetics, and thermodynamic properties of the reactants and products), each with their own to the prediction of the structure of non-premixed axisymmetric methane-air laminar diffusion flames. The parallel refers to the complex physical/chemical processes by which a fuel and oxidizer undergo irre- versible

Groth, Clinton P. T.

307

Assessment of EEM approach for 3D expanding wrinkled premixed flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/methane, air/propane and air/hydrogen flames are measured at atmo- spheric pressure. An internal combustion engine-like configuration, with an optically accessible cylindrical combustion chamber has also been contitute a basic fundamental configuration for pre-mixed laminar and turbulent gaseous combustion

Boyer, Edmond

308

Effects of Lewis number and ignition energy on the determination of laminar flame speed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, it affects the fuel burning rate in internal combustion engines and the engine's performance and emissions Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA Abstract The trajectories of outwardly propagating. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of The Combustion Institute. Keywords: Laminar flame speed; Spherical

Ju, Yiguang

309

Grid resolution effects on LES of a piloted methane-air flame K. A. Kemenov  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

not only for canonical geome- tries like laboratory jet flames but also for complex ones like gas-turbine and temperature fields are modeled based on the evolution of mixture fraction combined with a steady flamelet model. However, to minimize interpolation uncertainties that are routinely introduced by a standard

310

Electric fields effect on liftoff and blowoff of nonpremixed laminar jet flames in a coflow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The stabilization characteristics of liftoff and blowoff in nonpremixed laminar jet flames in a coflow have been investigated experimentally for propane fuel by applying AC and DC electric fields to the fuel nozzle with a single-electrode configuration. The liftoff and blowoff velocities have been measured by varying the applied voltage and frequency of AC and the voltage and the polarity of DC. The result showed that the AC electric fields extended the stabilization regime of nozzle-attached flame in terms of jet velocity. As the applied AC voltage increased, the nozzle-attached flame was maintained even over the blowout velocity without having electric fields. In such a case, a blowoff occurred directly without experiencing a lifted flame. While for the DC cases, the influence on liftoff was minimal. There existed three different regimes depending on the applied AC voltage. In the low voltage regime, the nozzle-detachment velocity of either liftoff or blowoff increased linearly with the applied voltage, while nonlinearly with the AC frequency. In the intermediate voltage regime, the detachment velocity decreased with the applied voltage and reasonably independent of the AC frequency. At the high voltage regime, the detachment was significantly influenced by the generation of discharges. (author)

Kim, M.K.; Ryu, S.K.; Won, S.H. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea); Chung, S.H. [Clean Combustion Research Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

311

Gravity Effects on Steady Two-Dimensional Partially Premixed MethaneAir Flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cases due to buoyancy- induced entrainment, since advection of air into the outer reaction zone in an opposite direction to the gravity vector, causing air entrainment that enhances the fuel­air mixing andGravity Effects on Steady Two-Dimensional Partially Premixed Methane­Air Flames ZHUANG SHU, CHUN W

Aggarwal, Suresh K.

312

Finite-rate chemistry and transient effects in Direct Numerical Simulations of turbulent non-premixed flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent non-premixed flames including finite-rate chemistry and heat release effects were performed. Two chemical reaction models were considered: (1) a single-step global reaction model in which the heat release and activation energy parameters are chosen to model methane-air combustion, and (2) a two-step reaction model to simulate radical production and consumption and to compare against the single-step model. The model problem consists of the interaction between an initially unstrained laminar diffusion flame and a three-dimensional field of homogeneous turbulence. Conditions ranging from fast chemistry to the pure mixing limit were studied by varying a global Damkoehler number. Results suggest that turbulence-induced mixing acting along the stoichiometric line leads to a strong modification of the inner structure of the turbulent flame compared with a laminar strained flame, resulting in intermediate species concentrations well above the laminar prediction. This result is consistent with experimental observations. Comparison of the response of the turbulent flame structure due to changes in the scalar dissipation rate with a steady strained laminar flame reveals that unsteady strain rates experienced by the turbulent flame may be responsible for the observed high concentrations of reaction intermediates.

Mahalingam, S. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Chen, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Vervisch, L. [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides, Numeriques (France)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Margin for In-Vessel Retention in the APR1400 - VESTA and SCDAP/RELAP5-3D Analyses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

If cooling is inadequate during a reactor accident, a significant amount of core material could become molten and relocate to the lower head of the reactor vessel, as happened in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. If it is possible to ensure that the lower head remains intact so that relocated core materials are retained within the vessel, the enhanced safety associated with such plants can reduce concerns about containment failure and associated risk. For example, the enhanced safety of the Westinghouse Advanced 600 MWe pressurized water reactor (PWR) (AP600), which relied upon external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) for in-vessel retention (IVR), resulted in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) approving the design without requiring certain conventional features common to existing light water reactors (LWRs). IVR of core melt is therefore a key severe accident management strategy adopted by some operating nuclear power plants and proposed for some advanced LWRs. However, it is not clear that currently proposed ERVC without additional enhancements could provide sufficient heat removal for higher-power reactors (up to 1500 MWe). Hence, a three-year, United States (U.S.) -Korean International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (INERI) project was initiated in which the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Seoul National University (SNU), Pennsylvania State University (PSU), and the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) explored options, such as enhanced ERVC performance and an enhanced in-vessel core catcher (IVCC), that have the potential to ensure that IVR is feasible for higher power reactors.

Joy Rempe; D. Knudson

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Flame-vortex interaction driven combustion dynamics in a backward-facing step combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The combustion dynamics of propane-hydrogen mixtures are investigated in an atmospheric pressure, lean, premixed backward-facing step combustor. We systematically vary the equivalence ratio, inlet temperature and fuel composition to determine the stability map of the combustor. Simultaneous pressure, velocity, heat release rate and equivalence ratio measurements and high-speed video from the experiments are used to identify and characterize several distinct operating modes. When fuel is injected far upstream from the step, the equivalence ratio entering the flame is temporally and spatially uniform, and the combustion dynamics are governed only by flame-vortex interactions. Four distinct dynamic regimes are observed depending on the operating parameters. At high but lean equivalence ratios, the flame is unstable and oscillates strongly as it is wrapped around the large unsteady wake vortex. At intermediate equivalence ratios, weakly oscillating quasi-stable flames are observed. Near the lean blowout limit, long stable flames extending from the corner of the step are formed. At atmospheric inlet temperature, the unstable mode resonates at the 1/4 wavemode of the combustor. As the inlet temperature is increased, the 5/4 wavemode of the combustor is excited at high but lean equivalence ratios, forming the high-frequency unstable flames. Higher hydrogen concentration in the fuel and higher inlet temperatures reduce the equivalence ratios at which the transitions between regimes are observed. We plot combustion dynamics maps or the response curves, that is the overall sound pressure level as a function of the equivalence ratio, for different operating conditions. We demonstrate that numerical results of strained premixed flames can be used to collapse the response curves describing the transitions among the dynamic modes onto a function of the heat release rate parameter alone, rather than a function dependent on the equivalence ratio, inlet temperature and fuel composition separately. We formulate a theory for predicting the critical values of the heat release parameter at which quasi-stable to unstable and unstable to high-frequency unstable modes take place. (author)

Altay, H. Murat; Speth, Raymond L.; Hudgins, Duane E.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

315

Physical characterization of laminar spray flames in the pressure range 0.1-0.9 MPa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental study is reported on the physical characterization of the structure of ethanol/argon/oxygen coflow laminar spray diffusion flames in the pressure range 0.1-0.9 MPa. Diagnostic techniques include phase Doppler anemometry to measure the droplet size distribution and the axial and radial velocity components of the droplets. The gas-phase velocity is determined using measurements from the smallest (low Stokes number) droplets and is corrected for thermophoretic effects. Temperature information is obtained using thin-film pyrometry combined with an infrared camera. All flames present a cold inner core, in which little or no vaporization takes place, surrounded by an envelope flame buried in a thermal boundary layer, where most of the droplet evaporation occurs. The thickness of this thermal boundary layer scales with the inverse of the Peclet number. Especially near the base of the flame, photographic evidence of streaks, which in some case even reveal the presence of soot, suggests that some droplets survive the common envelope flame and burn isolated on the oxidizer side in a mixed regime of internal/external group combustion. The reconstruction of the entire droplet vaporization history confirms this evidence quantitatively. A criterion for droplet survival beyond the envelope flame based on the critical value of a suitably defined vaporization Damkohler number is proposed. The scaling and self-similar behavior of the investigated flames suggest that a mixed regime is established, with a momentum-controlled cold core and a buoyancy-controlled high-temperature boundary layer, the thickness of which varies significantly with pressure, as expected from Peclet number scaling. The growth of this layer and the thickness of the vaporization region are reduced at pressures above atmospheric because of density effects on thermal diffusivity. Some aspects of the design of the combustion chamber and of the atomizer system are discussed in detail since they are critical to the suppression of instabilities and to the establishment of a well-defined high-pressure quasi-steady laminar environment. (author)

Russo, Stefano; Gomez, Alessandro [Yale Center for Combustion Studies, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yale University, P.O. Box 208286, New Haven, CT 06520-8286 (United States)

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

316

Radiation turbulence interactions in pulverized coal flames. Technical progress report, third year, second quarter, December 15, 1995--March 15, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, the authors discuss an experimental and theoretical methodology to characterize soot volume fraction fluctuations in turbulent diffusion flames via chaotic maps. The approach is based on the hypothesis that the fluctuations of properties in turbulent flames is deterministic in nature, rather than statistical. To this extent, the authors measured the time series of soot scattering coefficient in an ethylene diffusion flame from light scattering experiments. Following this, corresponding power spectra and delay maps were calculated. It was shown that if the data were averaged, the characteristics of the fluctuations were almost completely washed out. The psds from experiments were successfully modeled using a series of logistic maps.

Menguec, M.P.; McDonough, J.M.; Manickavasagam, S.; Mukerji, S.; Swabb, S.; Ghosal, S.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Multicomponent aerosol dynamic of the Pb-O[sub 2] system in a bench scale flame incinerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The article gives results of a study to understand the formation and growth of lead particles in a flame incinerator. A bench scale flame incinerator was used to perform controlled experiments with lead acetate as a test compound. A dilution probe (in conjunction with real-time aerosol instruments) was used to measure the evolution of the particle size distribution at different locations in the flame region. A multicomponent lognormal aerosol model was developed accounting for the chemistry of the lead-oxygen system, and for such aerosol dynamic phenomena as nucleation, coagulation, and condensation. Reasonable agreement was obtained between the predictions of the model using appropriate kinetic parameters and the experimental results.

Lin, W.Y.; Sethi, V.; Biswas, P.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

UNC Tomorrow Phase II Campus Response Faculty and Staff Recruitment and Retention  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 UNC Tomorrow Phase II Campus Response Faculty and Staff Recruitment and Retention Submitted to/Tenure Track Faculty Hires 2009-2017 #12; 4 The projected demand for faculty and EPA and SPA staff create a range of implications for recruitment and retention in academic and non- academic units. The most

319

PPPL-3311, Preprint: August 1998, UC-420, 423 Modeling of Tritium Retention in TFTR*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- 1 - PPPL-3311, Preprint: August 1998, UC-420, 423 Modeling of Tritium Retention in TFTR* C Fusion Test Reactor tritium retention experience is reviewed and the data related to models of plasma surface interactions. Over 3.5 years of TFTR DT operations, approximately 51% of the tritium injected

320

Use of rare earth elements as external markers for mean retention time measurements in ruminants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Review Use of rare earth elements as external markers for mean retention time measurements -- The present review deals with the utilisation of rare earth (RE) elements as particulate markers for ruminant earth / retention time / feedstuff / methodology / ruminant Résumé -- Utilisation des terres rares comme

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flame retention head" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Retention of Butt-End Aluminum Leg Bands by Wild Turkeys  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Note Retention of Butt-End Aluminum Leg Bands by Wild Turkeys MATTHEW J. BUTLER,1,2 Department wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) captured in Texas and Kansas, USA, 2000­2009. We examined 187 recaptured or harvested radiotagged wild turkeys to determine band retention and modeled band

Butler, Matthew J.

322

A LANDSCAPE SCALE EVALUATION OF PHOSPHORUS RETENTION IN WETLANDS OF THE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

217 A LANDSCAPE SCALE EVALUATION OF PHOSPHORUS RETENTION IN WETLANDS OF THE LAPLATTE RIVER BASIN approach to examine phosphorus retention in wetlands of the LaPlatte River basin (13,723 ha), Vermont information system. Most wetland variables had significant (p

Wang, Deane

323

Oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation treatment to enhance data retention of tungsten nanocrystal nonvolatile memory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Data retention characteristics of tungsten nanocrystal (W-NC) memory devices using an oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) treatment are investigated. With an increase of oxygen PIII bias voltage and treatment time, the capacitance–voltage hysteresis memory window is increased but the data retention characteristics become degraded. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images show that this poor data retention is a result of plasma damage on the tunneling oxide layer, which can be prevented by lowering the bias voltage to 7?kV. In addition, by using the elevated temperature retention measurement technique, the effective charge trapping level of the WO{sub 3} film surrounding the W-NCs can be extracted. This measurement reveals that a higher oxygen PIII bias voltage and treatment time induces more shallow traps within the WO{sub 3} film, degrading the retention behavior of the W-NC memory.

Wang, Jer-Chyi, E-mail: jcwang@mail.cgu.edu.tw; Chang, Wei-Cheng; Lai, Chao-Sung, E-mail: cslai@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kweishan 333, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chang, Li-Chun [Department of Material Engineering and Center for Thin Film Technologies and Applications, Ming Chi University of Technology, Taishan 24301, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Ai, Chi-Fong; Tsai, Wen-Fa [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, Longtan 325, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

Integrated head package for top mounted nuclear instrumentation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nuclear reactor such as a pressurized water reactor has an integrated head package providing structural support and increasing shielding leading toward the vessel head. A reactor vessel head engages the reactor vessel, and a control rod guide mechanism over the vessel head raises and lowers control rods in certain of the thimble tubes, traversing penetrations in the reactor vessel head, and being coupled to the control rods. An instrumentation tube structure includes instrumentation tubes with sensors movable into certain thimble tubes disposed in the fuel assemblies. Couplings for the sensors also traverse penetrations in the reactor vessel head. A shroud is attached over the reactor vessel head and encloses the control rod guide mechanism and at least a portion of the instrumentation tubes when retracted. The shroud forms a structural element of sufficient strength to support the vessel head, the control rod guide mechanism and the instrumentation tube structure, and includes radiation shielding material for limiting passage of radiation from retracted instrumentation tubes. The shroud is thicker at the bottom adjacent the vessel head, where the more irradiated lower ends of retracted sensors reside. The vessel head, shroud and contents thus can be removed from the reactor as a unit and rested safely and securely on a support.

Malandra, Louis J. (McKeesport, PA); Hornak, Leonard P. (Forest Hills, PA); Meuschke, Robert E. (Monroeville, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Estimating IMU heading error from SAR images.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Angular orientation errors of the real antenna for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) will manifest as undesired illumination gradients in SAR images. These gradients can be measured, and the pointing error can be calculated. This can be done for single images, but done more robustly using multi-image methods. Several methods are provided in this report. The pointing error can then be fed back to the navigation Kalman filter to correct for problematic heading (yaw) error drift. This can mitigate the need for uncomfortable and undesired IMU alignment maneuvers such as S-turns.

Doerry, Armin Walter

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

The effects of strain rate and curvature on surface density function transport in turbulent premixed methane-air and hydrogen-air flames: A comparative study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of tangential strain rate and curvature on the surface density function (SDF) and on source terms within the SDF transport equation are studied for lean methane-air and hydrogen-air flames using two-dimensional direct numerical simulations with detailed chemistry. A positive correlation is observed between the SDF and the tangential strain rate, and this is explained in terms of the interaction between the local tangential strain rate and the dilatation rate due to heat release. Curvature is also seen to affect the SDF through the curvature response of both tangential strain rate and dilatation rate on a given flame isosurface. Strain rate and curvature are found to have an appreciable effect on several terms of the SDF transport equation. The SDF straining term in both methane and hydrogen flames is correlated positively with tangential strain rate, as expected, and is also correlated negatively with curvature. For methane flames, the SDF propagation term is found to correlate negatively with flame curvature toward the reactant side of the flame and positively toward the product side. By contrast, for hydrogen flames the SDF propagation term is negatively correlated with curvature throughout the flame brush. The variation of the SDF curvature term with local flame curvature for both methane and hydrogen flames is found to be nonlinear due to the additional stretch induced by the tangential diffusion component of the displacement speed. Physical explanations are provided for all of these effects, and the modeling implications are considered in detail. (author)

Chakraborty, N. [Engineering Department, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Hawkes, E.R. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Chen, J.H. [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Cant, R.S. [Engineering Department, Cambridge University, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

327

The time evolution of a vortex-flame interaction observed via planar imaging of CH and OH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging diagnostics of OH and CH are used to examine a premixed laminar flame subjected to a strong line-vortex pair. Results are reported for a fuel-rcih lamiar CH{sub 4}-air-N{sub 2} rod-stabilized flame. The flow studied was highly reproducible, which enabled the use of phase-sampled imaging to provide time-resolved image sequences. Image sequences are shown for a condition sufficient to produce localized extinction of the primary flame. Results indicate that a breakage in the CH front is not preceded by any distinct change in the OH front. The structure of the CH and OH profiles during the transient leading up to, and through the breakage of the CH front do not appear to be consistent with the concept of a strained laminar flame.

Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Paul, P.H.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Radiation-turbulence interactions in pulverized-coal flames. Quarterly report No. III, March 15, 1994--June 15, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work concerns the development of computer codes for the simulation of radiation turbulence interactions in coal flames. Experimental studies in tandem with the turbulence calculations are based on optical observation of scattered light from coal particles under combustion conditions.

Menguec, M.P.; McDonough, J.M.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Investigation of the Difference in Cool Flame Characteristics between Petroleum Diesel and Soybean Biodiesel Operating in Low Temperature Combustion Mode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The focus of this study is to investigate the difference in the cool flame combustion characteristics between petroleum diesel and soybean biodiesel, when operating in low temperature combustion mode. Previous studies have attributed the absence of the cool...

Muthu Narayanan, Aditya

2014-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

330

A New Type of Steady and Stable, Laminar, Premixed Flame in Ultra-Lean, Hydrogen-Air Combustion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

411–422. [9] I. Glassman, Combustion, 3rd Edition, AcademicB. Lewis, G. von Elbe, Combustion, Flames and Explosions ofin Ultra-Lean, Hydrogen-Air Combustion Joseph F. Grcar a a

Grcar, Joseph F

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Onderwerpscodes Chemie -Farmacie / Subject headings Chemistry -Pharmacy, 2009, April1 Rubrieken Chemie -Farmacie: Subject headings Chemistry -  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

chemie 07 Inorganic chemistry 11.14 - 08 Organische chemie 08 Organic chemistry 12.11 - 10 Didactics and priciples of chemistry 14.03 - 16 Vervolgwerken - Annuals 16 Book series and annuals 14Onderwerpscodes Chemie - Farmacie / Subject headings Chemistry - Pharmacy, 2009, April1 Rubrieken

Galis, Frietson

332

A study of the phenomenon of liquid-flame combustion; I. Visual examinations and high-speed photography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A liquid-flame combustion phenomenon, which has been revealed for pressed mixtures of tetrazole and sodium tetrazolate, was studied using high-speed photography and photography of high spatial resolution. New, previously unknown, peculiarities of the origin and development of the liquid-flame structure, pertinent, in particular, to its external texture and interaction with the melt on the pellet surface, as well as some features of the dispersion of condensed products were found.

Astashinsky, V.M.; Kostyukevich, E.A. (Byelorussian Academy of Science, Minsk (Belarus). Inst. of Molecular and Atomic Physics); Ivashkevich, O.A.; Lesnikovich, A.I.; Krasitsky, V.A. (Byelorussian State Univ., Minsk (Belarus))

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Physical and chemical comparison of soot in hydrocarbon and biodiesel fuel diffusion flames: A study of model and commercial fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Data are presented to compare soot formation in both surrogate and practical fatty acid methyl ester biodiesel and petroleum fuel diffusion flames. The approach here uses differential mobility analysis to follow the size distributions and electrical charge of soot particles as they evolve in the flame, and laser ablation particle mass spectrometry to elucidate their composition. Qualitatively, these soot properties exhibit a remarkably similar development along the flames. The size distributions begin as a single mode of precursor nanoparticles, evolve through a bimodal phase marking the onset of aggregate formation, and end in a self preserving mode of fractal-like particles. Both biodiesel and hydrocarbon fuels yield a common soot composition dominated by C{sub x}H{sub y}{sup +} ions, stabilomer PAHs, and fullerenes in the positive ion mass spectrum, and C{sub x}{sup -} and C{sub 2x}H{sup -} in the negative ion spectrum. These ion intensities initially grow with height in the diffusion flames, but then decline during later stages, consistent with soot carbonization. There are important quantitative differences between fuels. The surrogate biodiesel fuel methyl butanoate substantially reduces soot levels, but soot formation and evolution in this flame are delayed relative to both soy and petroleum fuels. In contrast, soots from soy and hexadecane flames exhibit nearly quantitative agreement in their size distribution and composition profiles with height, suggesting similar soot precursor chemistry. (author)

Matti Maricq, M. [Research and Advanced Engineering, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

334

Investigation of the processes controlling the flame generation of refractory materials. Progress report, July 1, 1991--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The processes involved in the formation of mixed oxides powders were studied using the counterflow diffusion flame burner. Powders of different morphologies were obtained by varying the flame conditions (temperature, residence time) and the concentration ratio of the oxides precursors. In-situ particle size and number density were determined using dynamic light scattering and 90{degrees} light scattering. A thermophoretic sampling method and a larger scale powder collection device also was used to collect particles, and their size and morphology examined using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and surface area measurement by gas absorption (BET). Our emphasis has been on TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}-GeO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2}. The powders had a core-mantle-like (one oxide coated by the other) at low elevations in the burner and uniform mixture at higher elevations. They form chain-like structures in a low temperature flame and spherical particles in a higher temperature flame. Nanometer sized homogeneous particles of Aluminum Titanate could be obtained using Al(CH{sub 3}){sub 3} and TiCl{sub 4} as precursors both in a hydrogen fueled and a methane fueled counterflow diffusion flame burner, as well as in a hydrogen fueled parallel-flow diffusion flame burner.

Katz, J.L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Experimental study on thermophoretic deposition of soot particles in laminar diffusion flames along a solid wall in microgravity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soot deposition process in diffusion flames along a solid wall has been investigated experimentally under a microgravity environment. An ethylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) diffusion flame was formed around a cylindrical rod-burner with the surrounding air velocities of V{sub a} = 2.5, 5, and 10 cm/s, the oxygen concentration of 35%, and the burner wall temperature of 300 K. A laser extinction method was adopted to measure the distribution of soot volume fraction. The experiments determined the trace of maximum soot concentration together with the relative distance of the trace of flame. Results showed that the distance was about 2-5 mm. As the surrounding air velocity increased, the region of the soot particle distribution moved closer to the burner wall. The soot particles near the flame zone tended to move away from the flame zone because of the thermophoretic force and to concentrate at a certain narrow region inside the flame. Because of the simultaneous effects of convection and the thermophoresis, soot particles finally adhered to the burner wall. It has been found that there existed an optimal air velocity for the early deposition of soot on the furnace wall. (author)

Choi, Jae-Hyuk; Chung, Suk Ho [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea); Fujita, Osamu; Tsuiki, Takafumi [Division of Mechanical and Space Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Kim, Junhong [Laboratoire E.M2.C., UPR 288 C.N.R.S Ecole Centrale Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes 92295 (France)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

Understory plant communities of boreal mixedwood forests in western Canada: Natural patterns and response to variable-retention harvesting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and response to variable-retention harvesting S. Ellen Macdonald *, Treena E. Fenniak Department of Renewable, mixedwood, conifer) in Alberta, Canada, before and for 2 years following variable-retention harvesting conditions. Variable-retention harvesting had little effect on understory cover, richness, or diversity

Macdonald, Ellen

337

antigenic polar heads: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Stenger; Robert L. Modlin; Ian A. Wilson; Steven A. Porcelli; Michael B. Brenner 1999-01-01 11 Head: Vacancy Quality & Standards Mathematics Websites Summary: : Dr Sarah...

338

Council on Environmental Quality - Memorandum for Heads of Federal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Memorandum: Council on Environmental Quality - Memorandum for Heads of Federal Departments and Agencies Abstract This...

339

Dr. Jim Wright Acting Head, Division of Radiation Oncology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dr. Jim Wright Acting Head, Division of Radiation Oncology Associate Professor Department outstanding contributions to the care and treatment of cancer patients through research. Dr. Jim Wright has

Haykin, Simon

340

Second Law Comparisons of Volumetric and Flame Combustion in an Ideal Engine with Exhaust Heat Recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We summarize the results of a theoretical second law (exergy) analysis of an idealized internal combustion engine operating in flame versus volumetric (e.g., HCCI-like) combustion modes. We also consider the impact of exhaust heat recovery. Our primary objective is to better understand the fundamental differences (if any) in thermodynamic irreversibility among these different combustion modes and the resulting impact on engine work output. By combustion irreversibility, we mean that portion of the fuel energy that becomes unavailable for producing useful work due to entropy generation in the combustion process, exclusive of all other heat and friction losses. A key question is whether or not volumetric combustion offers any significant irreversibility advantage over conventional flame combustion. Another key issue is how exhaust heat recovery would be expected to change the net work output of an ideal piston engine. Based on these results, we recommend specific research directions for improving the fuel efficiency of advanced engines.

Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Graves, Ronald L [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flame retention head" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

The influence of initial temperature on flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The influence of initial mixture temperature on deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) has been investigated experimentally. The experiments were carried out in a 27-cm-inner diameter, 21.3-meter-long heated detonation tube, which was equipped with periodic orifice plates to promote flame acceleration. Hydrogen-air-steam mixtures were tested at a range of temperatures up to 650K and at an initial pressure of 0.1 MPa. In most cases, the limiting hydrogen mole fraction which resulted in transition to detonation corresponded to the mixture whose detonation cell size, {lambda}, was approximately equal to the inner diameter of the orifice plate, d (e.g., d/{lambda}{approximately}1). The only exception was in dry hydrogen-air mixtures at 650K where the DDT limit was observed to be 11 percent hydrogen, corresponding to a value of d/{lambda} equal to 5.5. For a 10.5 percent hydrogen mixture at 650K, the flame accelerated to a maximum velocity of about 120 m/s and then decelerated to below 2 m/s. This observation indicates that the d/{lambda} = 1 DDT limit criterion provides a necessary condition but not a sufficient one for the onset of DDT in obstacle-laden ducts. In this particular case, the mixture initial condition (i.e., temperature) resulted in the inability of the mixture to sustain flame acceleration to the point where DDT could occur. It was also observed that the distance required for the flame to accelerate to the onset of detonation was a function of both the hydrogen mole fraction and the mixture initial temperature. For example, decreasing the hydrogen mole fraction or increasing the initial mixture temperature resulted in longer transition distances.

Ciccarelli, G.; Boccio, J.L.; Ginsberg, T. [and others

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Similarity solutions and applications to turbulent upward flame spread on noncharring materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary achievement in this work has been the discovery that turbulent upward flame spread on noncharring materials (for pyrolysis lengths less than 1.8m) can be directly predicted by using measurable flammability parameters. These parameters are: a characteristic length scale which is proportional to a turbulent combustion and mixing related length scale parameter ({dot q}{double_prime}{sub net}({Delta}H{sub c}/{Delta}H{sub v})){sup 2}, a pyrolysis or ignition time {tau}{sub p}, and a parameter which determines the transient pyrolysis history of a non-charring material: {lambda} = L/c{Delta}T{sub p} = ratio of the latent heat to the sensible heat of the pyrolysis temperature of the material. In the length scale parameter, {dot q}{double_prime}{sub net} is the total net heat flux from the flames to the wall (i.e., total heat flux minus reradiation losses), {Delta}H{sub c} is the heat of combustion and {Delta}H{sub v} is an effective heat of gasification for the material. The pyrolysis or ignition time depends (for thermally thick conditions) on the material thermal inertia, the pyrolysis temperature, and the total heat flux from the flames to the wall, {dot q}{double_prime}{sub fw}. The present discovery was made possible by using both a numerical simulation, developed earlier, and exact similarity solutions, which are developed in this work. The predictions of the analysis have been validated by comparison with upward flame spread experiments on PMMA.

Delichatsios, M.A.; Delichatsios, M.; Chen, Y. [Factory Mutual Research Corporation, Norwood, MA (United States)] [Factory Mutual Research Corporation, Norwood, MA (United States); Hasemi, Y. [Ministry of Construction, Tsukuba (Japan). Building Research Inst.] [Ministry of Construction, Tsukuba (Japan). Building Research Inst.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Low and High Temperature Combustion Chemistry of Butanol Isomers in Premixed Flames and Autoignition Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Butanol is a fuel that has been proposed as a bio-derived alternative to conventional petroleum derived fuels. The structural isomer in traditional 'bio-butanol' fuel is n-butanol, but newer conversion technologies produce iso-butanol as a fuel. In order to better understand the combustion chemistry of bio-butanol, this study presents a comprehensive chemical kinetic model for all the four isomers of butanol (e.g., 1-, 2-, iso- and tert-butanol). The proposed model includes detailed high temperature and low temperature reaction pathways. In this study, the primary experimental validation target for the model is premixed flat low-pressure flame species profiles obtained using molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). The model is also validated against previously published data for premixed flame velocity and n-butanol rapid compression machine and shock tube ignition delay. The agreement with these data sets is reasonably good. The dominant reaction pathways at the various pressures and temperatures studied are elucidated. At low temperature conditions, we found that the reaction of alphahydroxybutyl with O{sub 2} was important in controlling the reactivity of the system, and for correctly predicting C{sub 4} aldehyde profiles in low pressure premixed flames. Enol-keto isomerization reactions assisted by HO{sub 2} were also found to be important in converting enols to aldehydes and ketones in the low pressure premixed flames. In the paper, we describe how the structural features of the four different butanol isomers lead to differences in the combustion properties of each isomer.

Sarathy, S M; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Yasunaga, K; Curran, H J; Tsujimura, T; Osswald, P; Kohse-Hoinghaus, K

2010-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

344

The oxidation of soot and carbon monoxide in hydrocarbon diffusion flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quantitative hydroxyl radical concentrations and primary soot particle sizes have been determined in the soot oxidation regions of axisymmetric diffusion flames burning methane, methane/butane, and methane/1-butene in air at atmospheric pressure. The total carbon flow rate was held constant in these flames while the maximum amount of soot varied by a factor of seven along the centerline. Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of OH were placed on an absolute basis by calibration against earlier absorption results. The primary size measurements of the soot particles were made using thermophoretic sampling and transmission electron microscopy. OH concentrations are greatly reduced in the presence of soot particles. Whereas large super-equilibrium ratios are observed in the high-temperature reaction zones in the absence of soot, the OH concentrations approach equilibrium values when the soot loading is high. The diminished OH concentrations are found to arise from reactions with the soot particles and only to a minor degree from lower temperatures due to soot radiation losses. Analysis of the soot oxidation rates computed from the primary particle size profiles as a function of time along the flame centerlines shows that OH is the dominant oxidizer of soot, with O[sub 2] making only a small contribution. Higher collision efficiencies of OH reactions with soot particles are found for the flames containing larger soot concentrations at lower temperatures. A comparison of the soot and CO oxidation rates shows that although CO is inherently more reactive than soot, the soot successfully competes with CO for OH and hence suppresses CO oxidation for large soot concentrations.

Puri, R.; Santoro, R.J. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Smyth, K.C. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Building and Fire Research Lab.)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Soot formation in weakly buoyant acetylene-fueled laminar jet diffusion flames burning in air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structure and soot properties of weakly buoyant, acetylene-fueled, laminar jet diffusion flames were studied experimentally for combustion in air at pressures of 0.125--0.250 atm. The following measurements were made: soot volume fractions using laser extinction, temperatures using both thermocouples and multiline emission, soot structure using thermophoretic sampling and analysis by transmission electron microscopy, concentrations of major gas species using sampling and analysis by gas chromatography, and velocities using laser velocimetry. As distance increased along the axis of the present acetylene-fueled flames, significant soot formation began when temperatures exceeded roughly 1250 K, and ended when fuel-equivalence ratios decreased to roughly 1.7, where the concentration of acetylene became small. This behavior allowed observations of soot growth and nucleation for acetylene concentrations of 6 [times] 10[sup [minus]6]--1 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] and temperatures of 1,000--2,100 K. Over this range of conditions, soot growth rates were comparable to past observations of new soot in premixed flames, and after correction for effects of soot oxidation yielded essentially first-order growth with respect to acetylene concentrations with a negligible activation energy, and an acetylene/soot collision efficiency of 0.53%. Present measurements of soot nucleation rates also suggested first-order behavior with respect to acetylene concentrations but with an activation energy of 32 kcal/gmol and with rates that were significantly lower than earlier estimates in the literature. Nevertheless, uncertainties about the effects of soot oxidation and age on soot growth, and about effects of surface area estimates and translucent objects on soot nucleation, must be resolved in order to adequately define soot formation processes in diffusion flames.

Sunderland, P.B.; Koeylue, U.O.; Faeth, G.M. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

The use of particle tracking to obtain planar velocity measurements in an unsteady laminar diffusion flame  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An investigation of the flame-flow interaction in an unsteady laminar co-flowing jet diffusion flame is underway. The flame is made periodic by acoustic excitation of the fuel stream. The objective of the research is to develop a better understanding of the relationship between the flowfield and combustion process by superimposing measurements of the vector velocity field on planar measurements of reactive and passive scalars. In this connection a technique is being developed to obtain instantaneous two-dimensional velocity measurements from multiply-exposed photographic images of scattered light from speed particles in the flow. The technique involves simple photographic images taken at a right angle to a thin laser sheet on the diametric center of the jet. The illumination source is pulsed Cu vapor laser. The important issues considered have included the particle type and size as they relate to the particle's ability to follow the flow and to withstand combustion temperatures. Also of concern is the effect of thermophoretic forces on the measurement accuracy. Both Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and TiO/sub 2/ have been used successfully and detailed information about the size and geometry of TiO/sub 2/ particles has been obtained through scanning electron microscope photographs. The TiO/sub 2/ particles have been produced from the reaction of TiCl/sub 4/ and water. The technique has been successfully demonstrated by measuring a cold laminar jet exit velocity profile. Also, good particle images have been obtained in a pulsed diffusion flame.

Lewis, G.S.; Cantwell, B.J.; Lecuona, A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

On the structure, propagation, and stabilization of laminar premixed flames. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of the funded program was to qualitatively understand and quantitatively determine the structure and dynamics of laminar premixed flames. The investigation was conducted using laser-based experimentation, computational simulation with detailed chemistry and transport, and activation energy asymptotic analysis. Highlights of accomplishments were discussed in the annual reports submitted to the program monitor for this project. Details are reported in the thirty journal publications cited in the journal article list which is the major component of this final report.

Law, Chung K.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

OH and CH luminescence in opposed flow methane oxy-flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emission spectroscopy is a 2-D nonintrusive diagnostic technique that offers spatially resolved data for combustion optimization and control. The UV and visible chemiluminescence of the excited radicals CH(A{sup 2}{delta},B{sup 2}{sigma}{sup -}) and OH(A{sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}) is studied experimentally and numerically in opposed-flow diffusion flames of methane and oxygen-enriched air. The oxidized oxygen content is varied from 21 to 100% while the range of the studied strain rates spans from 20 to 40 s{sup -1}. The spectrally resolved imaging is obtained by two different methods: scattering through a grating monochromator and interposition of interference filters along the optical path. Absolute measured chemiluminescence intensities, coupled with a numerical model based on the opposed flow flame code, are used to evaluate the chemical kinetics of the excited species. The predictions of the selected model are in good agreement with the experimental data over the range of the studied flame conditions. (author)

De Leo, Maurizio; Saveliev, Alexei; Kennedy, Lawrence A. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Zelepouga, Serguei A. [Gas Technology Institute, Des Plaines, IL 60018 (United States)

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

349

Evidence of thermonuclear flame spreading on neutron stars from burst rise oscillations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Burst oscillations during the rising phases of thermonuclear X-ray bursts are usually believed to originate from flame spreading on the neutron star surface. However, the decrease of fractional oscillation amplitude with rise time, which provides a main observational support for the flame spreading model, have so far been reported from only a few bursts. Moreover, the non-detection and intermittent detections of rise oscillations from many bursts are not yet understood considering the flame spreading scenario. Here, we report the decreasing trend of fractional oscillation amplitude from an extensive analysis of a large sample of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array bursts from ten neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries. This trend is 99.99% significant for the best case, which provides, to the best of our knowledge, by far the strongest evidence of such trend. Moreover, it is important to note that an opposite trend is not found from any of the bursts. The concave shape of the fractional ampli...

Chakraborty, Manoneeta

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Rotational effects in thermonuclear Type I Bursts: equatorial crossing and directionality of flame spreading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In a previous study on thermonuclear (Type I) Bursts on accreting neutron stars we addressed and demonstrated the importance of the effects of rotation, through the Coriolis force, on the propagation of the burning flame. However, that study only analysed cases of longitudinal propagation, where the Coriolis force coefficient $2\\Omega\\cos\\theta$ was constant. In this paper, we study the effects of rotation on propagation in the meridional (latitudinal) direction, where the Coriolis force changes from its maximum at the poles to zero at the equator. We find that the zero Coriolis force at the equator, while affecting the structure of the flame, does not prevent its propagation from one hemisphere to another. We also observe structural differences between the flame propagating towards the equator and that propagating towards the pole, the second being faster. In the light of the recent discovery of the low spin frequency of burster IGR~J17480-2446 rotating at 11 Hz (for which Coriolis effects should be negligib...

Cavecchi, Yuri; Levin, Yuri; Braithwaite, Jonathan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Large eddy simulation of soot formation in a turbulent non-premixed jet flame  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A recently developed subgrid model for soot dynamics [H. El-Asrag, T. Lu, C.K. Law, S. Menon, Combust. Flame 150 (2007) 108-126] is used to study the soot formation in a non-premixed turbulent flame. The model allows coupling between reaction, diffusion and soot (including soot diffusion and thermophoretic forces) processes in the subgrid domain without requiring ad hoc filtering or model parameter adjustments. The combined model includes the entire process, from the initial phase, when the soot nucleus diameter is much smaller than the mean free path, to the final phase, after coagulation and aggregation, where it can be considered in the continuum regime. A relatively detailed but reduced kinetics for ethylene-air is used to simulate an experimentally studied non-premixed ethylene/air jet diffusion flame. Acetylene is used as a soot precursor species. The soot volume fraction order of magnitude, the location of its maxima, and the soot particle size distribution are all captured reasonably. Along the centerline, an initial region dominated by nucleation and surface growth is established followed by an oxidation region. The diffusion effect is found to be most important in the nucleation regime, while the thermophoretic forces become more influential downstream of the potential core in the oxidation zone. The particle size distribution shows a log-normal distribution in the nucleation region, and a more Gaussian like distribution further downstream. Limitations of the current approach and possible solution strategies are also discussed. (author)

El-Asrag, Hossam [Center For Turbulence Research, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Menon, Suresh [School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

352

Molecular Characterization of Organic Content of Soot along the Centerline of a Coflow Diffusion Flame  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-resolution mass spectrometry coupled with nanospray desorption electrospray ionization was used to probe chemical constituents of young soot particles sampled along the centerline of a coflow diffusion flame of a three-component Jet-A1 surrogate. In lower positions where particles are transparent to light extinction (n= 632.8 nm), peri-condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are found to be the major components of the particle material. These particles become enriched with aliphatic components as they grow in mass and size. Before carbonization occurs, the constituent species in young soot particles are aliphatic and aromatic compounds 200-600 amu in mass, some of which are oxygenated. Particles dominated by PAHs or mixtures of PAHs and aliphatics can both exhibit liquid-like appearance observed by electron microscopy and be transparent to visible light. The variations in chemical composition observed here indicate that the molecular processes of soot formation in coflow diffusion flames may be more complex than previously thought. For example, the mass growth and enrichment of aliphatic components in an initially, mostly aromatic structure region of the flame that is absent of H atoms or other free radicals indicates that there must exist at least another mechanism of soot mass growth in addition to the hydrogen-abstraction-carbon addition mechanism currently considered in fundamental models of soot formation.

Cain, Jeremy P.; Laskin, Alexander; Kholghy, Mohammad Reza; Thomson, Murray; Wang, Hai

2014-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

353

Light water reactor lower head failure analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents the results from a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission-sponsored research program to investigate the mode and timing of vessel lower head failure. Major objectives of the analysis were to identify plausible failure mechanisms and to develop a method for determining which failure mode would occur first in different light water reactor designs and accident conditions. Failure mechanisms, such as tube ejection, tube rupture, global vessel failure, and localized vessel creep rupture, were studied. Newly developed models and existing models were applied to predict which failure mechanism would occur first in various severe accident scenarios. So that a broader range of conditions could be considered simultaneously, calculations relied heavily on models with closed-form or simplified numerical solution techniques. Finite element techniques-were employed for analytical model verification and examining more detailed phenomena. High-temperature creep and tensile data were obtained for predicting vessel and penetration structural response.

Rempe, J.L.; Chavez, S.A.; Thinnes, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Closure head for a nuclear reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A closure head for a nuclear reactor includes a stationary outer ring integral with the reactor vessel with a first rotatable plug disposed within the stationary outer ring and supported from the stationary outer ring by a bearing assembly. A sealing system is associated with the bearing assembly to seal the annulus defined between the first rotatable plug and the stationary outer ring. The sealing system comprises tubular seal elements disposed in the annulus with load springs contacting the tubular seal elements so as to force the tubular seal elements against the annulus in a manner to seal the annulus. The sealing system also comprises a sealing fluid which is pumped through the annulus and over the tubular seal elements causing the load springs to compress thereby reducing the friction between the tubular seal elements and the rotatable components while maintaining a gas-tight seal therebetween.

Wade, Elman E. (South Huntingdon, PA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Retention of Hydrogen Isotopes in Neutron Irradiated Tungsten  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To investigate the effects of neutron irradiation on hydrogen isotope retention in tungsten, disk-type specimens of pure tungsten were irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor in Oak Ridge National Laboratory followed by exposure to high flux deuterium (D) plasma in Idaho National Laboratory. The results obtained for low dose n-irradiated specimens (0.025 dpa for tungsten) are reviewed in this paper. Irradiation at coolant temperature of the reactor (around 50 degrees C) resulted in the formation of strong trapping sites for D atoms. The concentrations of D in n-irradiated specimens were ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 mol% after exposure to D plasma at 200 and 500 degrees C and significantly higher than those in non-irradiated specimens because of D-trapping by radiation defects. Deep penetration of D up to a depth of 50-100 µm was observed at 500 degrees C. Release of D in subsequent thermal desorption measurements continued up to 900 degrees C. These results were compared with the behaviour of D in ion-irradiated tungsten, and distinctive features of n-irradiation were discussed.

Yuji Hatano; Masashi Shimada; Yasuhisa Oya; Guoping Cao; Makoto Kobayashi; Masanori Hara; Brad J. Merrill; Kenji Okuno; Mikhail A. Sokolov; Yutai Katoh

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Increased intrapulmonary retention of radiolabeled neutrophils in early oxygen toxicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sequential lung injuries, such as oxygen toxicity followed by septicemia, are common during the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). As these forms of vascular injury may be mediated in part by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), aberrant interactions between PMN and previously injured pulmonary endothelium are of both theoretical interest and clinical importance. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that early oxygen toxicity at a dose that injuries pulmonary endothelium relatively selectively alters intrapulmonary neutrophil kinetics. Unanesthetized rats breathing 1.0 atmospheres oxygen for 36 h showed ultrastructural endothelial damage but no edema, injury, or neutrophilic inflammation by histologic criteria. However, in these oxygen-toxic animals, whereas initial accumulation of radiolabeled PMN in lungs was normal, washout of PMN was abnormal at 120 min after infusion, at which point the pulmonary retention of radiolabeled PMN in the lungs of oxygen-treated animals was significantly higher than in control animals (139% of control, p less than 0.0096). Features of our methodology, including avoidance of osmotic stress and use of paired control animals, appear to have greatly enhanced the sensitivity of radiolabeled neutrophils for detecting a subtle abnormality of neutrophil-endothelial interactions. Our studies in the oxygen toxicity model provide the first demonstration in vivo of abnormal intrapulmonary neutrophil kinetics in early oxygen toxicity prior to the onset of histologic evidence of lung injury or inflammation.

Rinaldo, J.E.; English, D.; Levine, J.; Stiller, R.; Henson, J.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Formation and retention of methane in coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

1992-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

358

The effect of initial temperature on flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transition phenomenon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The High-Temperature Combustion Facility at BNL was used to conduct deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) experiments. Periodic orifice plates were installed inside the entire length of the detonation tube in order to promote flame acceleration. The orifice plates are 27.3-cm-outer diameter, which is equivalent to the inner diameter of the tube, and 20.6-cm-inner diameter. The detonation tube length is 21.3-meters long, and the spacing of the orifice plates is one tube diameter. A standard automobile diesel engine glow plug was used to ignite the test mixture at one end of the tube. Hydrogen-air-steam mixtures were tested at a range of temperatures up to 650K and at an initial pressure of 0.1 MPa. In most cases, the limiting hydrogen mole fraction which resulted in DDT corresponded to the mixture whose detonation cell size, {lambda}, was equal to the inner diameter of the orifice plate, d (e.g., d/{lambda}=1). The only exception was in the dry hydrogen-air mixtures at 650K where the DDT limit was observed to be 11 percent hydrogen, corresponding to a value of d/{lambda} equal to 5.5. For a 10.5 percent hydrogen mixture at 650K, the flame accelerated to a maximum velocity of about 120 mIs and then decelerated to below 2 mIs. By maintaining the first 6.1 meters of the vessel at the ignition end at 400K, and the rest of the vessel at 650K, the DDT limit was reduced to 9.5 percent hydrogen (d/{lambda}=4.2). This observation indicates that the d/{lambda}=1 DDT limit criteria provides a necessary condition but not a sufficient one for the onset of DDT in obstacle laden ducts. In this particular case, the mixture initial condition (i.e., temperature) resulted in the inability of the mixture to sustain flame acceleration to the point where DDT could occur. It was also observed that the distance required for the flame to accelerate to the point of detonation initiation, referred to as the run-up distance, was found to be a function of both the hydrogen mole fraction and the mixture initial temperature. Decreasing the hydrogen mole fraction or increasing the initial mixture temperature resulted in longer run-up distances. The density ratio across the flame and the speed of sound in the unburned mixture were found to be two parameters which influence the run-up distance.

Ciccarelli, G.; Boccio, J.L.; Ginsberg, T.; Finfrock, C.; Gerlach, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Tagawa, H. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Malliakos, A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Topic Models to Interpret MeSH MEDLINE's Medical Subject Headings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

://ii.nlm.nih.gov/mti.shtml #12;MeSH heading Major MeSH heading Major qualifier MeSH-qualifier combination Humans Brain metabolism Brain (metabolism) Table 1. Most frequent MeSH headings, major MeSH headings, major qualifiers and MeTopic Models to Interpret MeSH ­ MEDLINE's Medical Subject Headings David Newman12 , Sarvnaz Karimi

Newman, David

360

Mobile Museum Tours 1 RUNNING HEAD: MOBILE MUSEUM TOURS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mobile Museum Tours 1 RUNNING HEAD: MOBILE MUSEUM TOURS Using mobile technologies for multimedia MUSEUM TOURS Abstract Mobile technology was used to deliver learner-centred experiences to visitors: Across generations and cultures, Banff : Canada (2006)" #12;Mobile Museum Tours 2 RUNNING HEAD: MOBILE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

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361

Poverty and Productivity in Female-Headed Households in Zimbabwe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A household survey conducted in rural Zimbabwe in 2001 is used to compare the position of de facto and de jure female-headed households to those with a male head. These households are characterised by different forms of poverty that impinge...

Horrell, Sara; Krishnan, Pramila

362

SOIL MOISTURE RETENTION CHARACTERISTICS AND HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY FOR DIFFERENT AREAS IN INDIA IN SELECTED STATES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOIL MOISTURE RETENTION CHARACTERISTICS AND HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY FOR DIFFERENT AREAS IN INDIA systems require knowledge of the relationships between soil moisture content (), soil water pressure (h) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K). This study involved field and laboratory determination of soil

Kumar, C.P.

363

CHEMICAL TRACER RETENTION IN POROUS MEDIA Submitted to the Department of Petroleum Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

* CHEMICAL TRACER RETENTION IN POROUS MEDIA A Report Submitted to the Department of Petroleum Engineering of Stanford University in Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Master of Science

Stanford University

364

An Analysis of Texas Superintendents' Bilingual/ESL Teacher Recruitment and Retention Practices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

year prior to the AAEE report, the Urban Teacher Collaborative Bilingual/ESL Teacher Recruitment/Retention 4 had already determined that bilingual educators were in very high demand, as were ESL teachers (The Urban Teacher Collaborative, 2000... organizations/conferences. Bilingual/ESL Teacher Recruitment/Retention 13 Several other questions related to recruitment were included on the survey. Response to a question related to in-district/in-state recruitment indicated that 53.4% (N=285...

Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Galloway, Martha; Irby, Beverly J.; Brown, Genevieve

2010-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

365

Retention of passive integrated transponder tags in largemouth bass brood fish  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags were injected into 22 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) brood fish to determine the retention rate of the tags, the effect on spawning success, and the utility of the tags as a means of individual fish identification. Fish were evaluated 12, 17, and 24 months after implantation. All tags were retained and all tagged fish were recognized. Tag injection and retention had no discernible effect on spawning success.

Harvey, W.D.; Campbell, D.L. (Texas Parks and Wildlife Dept., Austin (USA))

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

A Study of Strain Rate Effects for Turbulent Premixed Flames with Application to LES of a Gas Turbine Combustor Model  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Large-scale strain rate field, a resolved quantity which is easily computable in large-eddy simulations (LES), could have profound effects on the premixed flame properties by altering the turbulent flame speed and inducing local extinction. The role of the resolved strain rate has been investigated in a posterior LES study of GE lean premixed dry low NOx emissions LM6000 gas turbine combustor model. A novel approach which is based on the coupling of the lineareddy model with a one-dimensional counter-flow solver has been applied to obtain the parameterizations of the resolved premixed flame properties in terms of the reactive progress variable, the local strain rate measure, and local Reynolds and Karlovitz numbers. The strain rate effects have been analyzed by comparing LES statistics for several models of the turbulent flame speed, i.e, with and without accounting for the local strain rate effects, with available experimental data. The sensitivity of the simulation results to the inflow velocity conditions as well as the grid resolution have been also studied. Overall, the results suggest the necessity to represent the strain rate effects accurately in order to improve LES modeling of the turbulent flame speed.

Kemenov, Konstantin A.; Calhoon, William H.

2015-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

367

Design of a dual stage actuator tape head with high-bandwidth track following capability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the voice coil motor (VCM). A leaf spring on top of thespring Slot Air bearing surface Read/write elements (in slot) Bracket (b) Servo head Read head Write head Voice coil

Raeymaekers, Bart; Graham, Matthew R.; Callafon, Raymond A.; Talke, Frank E.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

High energy activation data library (HEAD-2009)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A proton activation data library for 682 nuclides from 1 H to 210Po in the energy range from 150 MeV up to 1 GeV was developed. To calculate proton activation data, the MCNPX 2.6.0 and CASCADE/INPE codes were chosen. Different intranuclear cascade, preequilibrium, and equilibrium nuclear reaction models and their combinations were used. The optimum calculation models have been chosen on the basis of statistical correlations for calculated and experimental proton data taken from the EXFOR library of experimental nuclear data. All the data are written in ENDF-6 format. The library is called HEPAD-2008 (High-Energy Proton Activation Data). A revision of IEAF-2005 neutron activation data library has been performed. A set of nuclides for which the cross-section data can be (and were) updated using more modern and improved models is specified, and the corresponding calculations have been made in the present work. The new version of the library is called IEAF-2009. The HEPAD-2008 and IEAF-2009 are merged to the final HEAD-2009 library.

Mashnik, Stepan G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korovin, Yury A [NON LANL; Natalenko, Anatoly A [NON LANL; Konobeyev, Alexander Yu [NON LANL; Stankovskiy, A Yu [NON LANL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal Preprint typeset using L ATEX style emulateapj v. 11/26/04 ON THE EVOLUTION OF THERMONUCLEAR FLAMES ON LARGE SCALES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The thermonuclear explosion of a massive white dwarf in a Type Ia supernova explosion is characterized by vastly disparate spatial and temporal scales. The extreme dynamic range inherent to the problem prevents the use of direct numerical simulation and forces modelers to resort to subgrid models to describe physical processes taking place on unresolved scales. We consider the evolution of a model thermonuclear flame in a constant gravitational field on a periodic domain. The gravitational acceleration is aligned with the overall direction of the flame propagation, making the flame surface subject to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The flame evolution is followed through an extended initial transient phase well into the steady-state regime. The properties of the evolution of flame surface are examined. We confirm the form of the governing equation of the evolution suggested by Khokhlov (1995). The mechanism of vorticity production and the interaction between vortices and the flame surface are discussed. Previously observed periodic behavior of the flame evolution is reproduced and is found to be caused by the turnover of the largest eddies. The characteristic timescales are found to be similar to the turnover time of these eddies. Relations between flame surface creation and destruction

Ju Zhang; O. E. Bronson Messer; Alexei M. Khokhlov; Tomasz Plewa

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Plasmas and Polymers, Vol. 8, No. 1, March 2003 ( C 2003) A Comparison of Corona-Treated and Flame-Treated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Plasmas and Polymers, Vol. 8, No. 1, March 2003 ( C 2003) A Comparison of Corona-Treated and Flame-Treated of corona-treated and flame-treated polypropylene (PP) films provides insight into the mechanism-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS or ESCA) were used to characterize surface-treated biaxially oriented PP. While

Kushner, Mark

371

Phase-locked OH-PLIF of Oscillating Flame in Micro Channels FAN, Yong1*, SUZUKI, Yuji1, KASAGI, Nobuhide1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

excitation lines [6]. Experimental setup of phase-locked OH-PLIF imaging has been developedPhase-locked OH-PLIF of Oscillating Flame in Micro Channels FAN, Yong1*, SUZUKI, Yuji1, KASAGI in the oscillation process are investigated with phase-locked OH-PLIF imaging technique. 2. Flame velocity Figures. 1

Kasagi, Nobuhide

372

Scaling and efficiency of PRISM in adaptive simulations of turbulent premixed flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dominant computational cost in modeling turbulent combustion phenomena numerically with high fidelity chemical mechanisms is the time required to solve the ordinary differential equations associated with chemical kinetics. One approach to reducing that computational cost is to develop an inexpensive surrogate model that accurately represents evolution of chemical kinetics. One such approach, PRISM, develops a polynomial representation of the chemistry evolution in a local region of chemical composition space. This representation is then stored for later use. As the computation proceeds, the chemistry evolution for other points within the same region are computed by evaluating these polynomials instead of calling an ordinary differential equation solver. If initial data for advancing the chemistry is encountered that is not in any region for which a polynomial is defined, the methodology dynamically samples that region and constructs a new representation for that region. The utility of this approach is determined by the size of the regions over which the representation provides a good approximation to the kinetics and the number of these regions that are necessary to model the subset of composition space that is active during a simulation. In this paper, we assess the PRISM methodology in the context of a turbulent premixed flame in two dimensions. We consider a range of turbulent intensities ranging from weak turbulence that has little effect on the flame to strong turbulence that tears pockets of burning fluid from the main flame. For each case, we explore a range of sizes for the local regions and determine the scaling behavior as a function of region size and turbulent intensity.

Tonse, Shaheen R.; Bell, J.B.; Brown, N.J.; Day, M.S.; Frenklach, M.; Grcar, J.F.; Propp, R.M.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Fiber optic spectroscopic digital imaging sensor and method for flame properties monitoring  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for real-time monitoring of flame properties in combustors and gasifiers which includes an imaging fiber optic bundle having a light receiving end and a light output end and a spectroscopic imaging system operably connected with the light output end of the imaging fiber optic bundle. Focusing of the light received by the light receiving end of the imaging fiber optic bundle by a wall disposed between the light receiving end of the fiber optic bundle and a light source, which wall forms a pinhole opening aligned with the light receiving end.

Zelepouga, Serguei A. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Rue, David M. (Chicago, IL); Saveliev, Alexei V. (Chicago, IL)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

374

Demonstration of triple pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in a jet diffusion flame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. A. Theory 1. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering basics B. Dual-pump and triple-pump CARS processes 1. Dual-pump CARS 2. Triple pump CARS C. Thermometry and species detection EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS A. Initial experimental system 1. Laser.... Laser Alignment and Performance I . Nd: YAG laser 2. Narrow band dye laser (ND6000) alignment 3. Broad-band dye laser alignment B. Triple-pump CARS set-up 1. CARS phase-matching alignment 2. Diffusion flame burner C. Results I. Results from first...

Velur Natarajan, Viswanathan

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Systems and methods for detecting a flame in a fuel nozzle of a gas turbine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system may detect a flame about a fuel nozzle of a gas turbine. The gas turbine may have a compressor and a combustor. The system may include a first pressure sensor, a second pressure sensor, and a transducer. The first pressure sensor may detect a first pressure upstream of the fuel nozzle. The second pressure sensor may detect a second pressure downstream of the fuel nozzle. The transducer may be operable to detect a pressure difference between the first pressure sensor and the second pressure sensor.

Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Storey, James Michael; Lipinski, John; Mestroni, Julio Enrique; Williamson, David Lee; Marshall, Jason Randolph; Krull, Anthony

2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

376

Global modes, receptivity, and sensitivity analysis of diffusion flames coupled with duct  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the performance of the system. These oscillations are a persistent problem. Their comprehension, prediction and control in the design of gas turbines and rocket engines are areas of current research, as reviewed by Lieuwen & Yang (2005); Culick (2006... ,B,C,D and in the online supplementary material. 2. Thermo-acoustic model The thermo-acoustic model consists of a diffusion flame placed in an acoustic duct (figure 1). The acoustic waves cause perturbations in the velocity field. In turn, these Receptivity and sensitivity...

Magri, Luca; Juniper, Matthew P.

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

OPPDIF: A Fortran program for computing opposed-flow diffusion flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

OPPDIF is a Fortran program that computes the diffusion flame between two opposing nozzles. A similarity transformation reduces the two-dimensional axisymmetric flow field to a one-dimensional problem. Assuming that the radial component of velocity is linear in radius, the dependent variables become functions of the axial direction only. OPPDIF solves for the temperature, species mass fractions, axial and radial velocity components, and radial pressure gradient, which is an eigenvalue in the problem. The TWOPNT software solves the two-point boundary value problem for the steady-state form of the discretized equations. The CHEMKIN package evaluates chemical reaction rates and thermodynamic and transport properties.

Lutz, A.E.; Kee, R.J.; Grcar, J.F.; Rupley, F.M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Thermal and Plasma Processes Dept.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Effect of graded hypoxia on retention of technetium-99m-nitroheterocycle in perfused rat heart  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of graded hypoxia on the retention of a {sup 99m}Tc-labeled nitroimidazole. Rat hearts were perfused retrogradely with Krebs-Henseleit buffer at 37{degrees}C and paced at 5 Hz. After a 20-min stabilization period, coronary flow was maintained at 8 ml/min/g wet wt and the hearts were perfused with media equilibrated with gas mixtures containing 5% CO{sub 2} and various levels of O{sub 2}, from 544 to 29 Torr. Technetium-99m-O(PnAO-1-(2-nitroimidazole)), BMS-181321, was infused for 20 min into a side port of the aortic cannula. Perfusion continued for an additional 40 min to allow for compound clearance. Each decrease of perfusate PO{sub 2} brought about an increase in the retention of BMS-181321, resulting in a good correlation between its retention and perfusate PO{sub 2} (r=0.97). Myocardial oxygen consumption was independent of oxygen delivery when the perfusate oxygen pressure was greater than 350 Torr. Below this value, oxygen consumption declined markedly as influent PO{sub 2}. A good correlation was obtained between retention of the nitroheterocycle and the cytosolic lactate/pyruvate ratio (r=0.98). When glucose was omitted from the perfusate (PO{sub 2}=27 Torr), retention of the nitroheterocycle was increased by about 25% as compared to hearts perfused in the presence of this substrate. These results indicate that myocardial retention of BMS-181321 is coupled to the level of tissue oxygenation and that hypoxic retention may be affected by substrate input. 24 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Rumsey, W.L.; Patel, B.; Linder, K.E. [Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Inst., Princeton, NJ (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Two-dimensional imaging of gas-to-particle transition in flames by laser-induced nanoplasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two-dimensional imaging of gas/particle phase transition of metal oxides in their native high-temperature flow conditions, using laser-driven localized nanoplasmas, was obtained by utilizing the gap between the excitation energies of the gas and particle phases such that only the Ti atoms in the particle phase were selectively excited without detectable Bremsstrahlung background. These in situ images of the particle phase Ti distribution allow the quantitative visualization of the transition of the gas precursors to the nanoparticle phase across the flame sheet as well as diffusion of the particle concentration in the post-flame zone.

Zhang, Yiyang [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety of Ministry of Education, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Shuiqing, E-mail: lishuiqing@tsinghua.edu.cn; Ren, Yihua; Yao, Qiang [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Law, Chung K. [Center for Combustion Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-5263 (United States)

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

380

Theoretical collapse pressures for two pressurized torispherical heads  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to determine the pressures at which real torispherical heads fail upon a single application of pressure, two heads were pressurized in recent Praxair tests, and displacements and strains were recorded at various locations. In this paper, theoretical results for the two test heads are presented in the form of curves of pressure versus crown deflections, using the available geometry and material parameters. From these curves, limit and collapse pressures are calculated, using procedures permitted by the ASME B and PV Code Section 8/Div.2. These pressures are shown to vary widely, depending on the method and model used to calculate them. The effect of no stress relief on the behavior of the Praxair test heads is also evaluated and found to be of no significance for neither the objectives of the tests nor the objectives of this paper. The results of this paper are submitted as an enhancement to the experimental results recorded during the Praxair tests.

Kalnins, A.; Updike, D.P. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Rana, M.D. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Research and Development Dept.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flame retention head" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

World's Largest Solar Energy Project Heads to Mojave | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Largest Solar Energy Project Heads to Mojave April 16, 2010 - 4:47pm Addthis A California company will harness the Mojave Desert sunshine to create the world's largest solar...

382

Zeroth-order inversion of transient head observations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high-frequency, asymptotic solution for transient head,appropriate for a medium containing smoothly varying heterogeneity,provides a basis for efficient inverse modeling. The semi analyticsolution is trajectory based, akin to ray methods used in modeling wavepropagation, and may be constructed by post processing the output of anumerical simulator. For high frequencies, the amplitude sensitivities,the relationship between changes in flow properties and changes in headampliude, are dominated by the phase term which may be computed directlyfrom the output of the simulator. Thus, transient head waveforms may beinverted with little more computation than is required to invert arrivaltimes. An applicatino to synthetic head values indicates that thetechnique can be used to improve the fit to waveforms. An application totransient head data from the Migration experiment in Switzerland revealsa narrow, high conductivity pathway within a 0.5 m thick zone offracturing.

Vasco, D.W.

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

Multi-atlas segmentation in head and neck CT scans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate automating the task of segmenting structures in head and neck CT scans, to minimize time spent on manual contouring of structures of interest. We focus on the brainstem and left and right parotids. To generate ...

Arbisser, Amelia M

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Metastasis of genitourinary tumors to the head and neck region  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· D. Rogers · C. Head · C. Bennett Received: 14 SeptemberO. Ogunyemi · A. Rojas · C. Bennett David GeVen School ofLos Angeles, CA, USA C. Bennett Department of Urology,

Ogunyemi, Ore; Rojas, A.; Hematpour, K.; Rogers, D.; Head, C.; Bennett, C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

arsenic affects head: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and ecological analyses. In A. Kirlik (Ed Gray, Wayne 430 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

386

acute head injury: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and ecological analyses. In A. Kirlik (Ed Gray, Wayne 336 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

387

active head lice: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and ecological analyses. In A. Kirlik (Ed Gray, Wayne 251 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

388

affects head kidney: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and ecological analyses. In A. Kirlik (Ed Gray, Wayne 344 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

389

advanced inoperable head: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and ecological analyses. In A. Kirlik (Ed Gray, Wayne 208 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

390

acute severe head: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and ecological analyses. In A. Kirlik (Ed Gray, Wayne 252 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

391

adult human head: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and ecological analyses. In A. Kirlik (Ed Gray, Wayne 350 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

392

Multiresponse multilayer vadose zone model calibration using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation and field water retention data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and field water retention data Thomas Wöhling1,2 and Jasper A. Vrugt3,4,5 Received 4 March 2010; revised 14

Vrugt, Jasper A.

393

MODELING SHALLOW GROUNDWATER TABLE CONTRIBUTION TO SOIL WATER RETENTION IN THE UNSATURATED ZONE OF A CALCAREOUS SOIL OF SOUTH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 MODELING SHALLOW GROUNDWATER TABLE CONTRIBUTION TO SOIL WATER RETENTION IN THE UNSATURATED ZONE...................................................................................................................................13 CHAPTER 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................................15 Shallow Groundwater Capillarity

Migliaccio, Kati White

394

Chemical kinetic considerations for postflame synthesis of carbon nanotubes in premixed flames using a support catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on a grid supported cobalt nanocatalyst were grown, by exposing it to combustion gases from ethylene/air rich premixed flames. Ten equivalence ratios ({phi}) were investigated, as follows: 1.37, 1.44, 1.47, 1.50, 1.55, 1.57, 1.62, 1.75, 1.82, and 1.91. MWCNT growth could be observed for the range of equivalence ratios between 1.45 and 1.75, with the best yield restricted to the range 1.5-1.6. A one-dimensional premixed flame code with a postflame heat loss model, including detailed chemistry, was used to estimate the gas phase chemical composition that favors MWCNT growth. The results of the calculations show that the mixture, including the water gas shift reaction, is not even in partial chemical equilibrium. Therefore, past discussions of compositional parameters that relate to optimum carbon nanotube (CNT) growth are revised to include chemical kinetic effects. Specifically, rapid departures of the water gas shift reaction from partial equilibrium and changes in mole fraction ratios of unburned C{sub 2} hydrocarbons to hydrogen correlate well with experimentally observed CNT yields. (author)

Gopinath, Prarthana; Gore, Jay [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

395

Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of the Operation of a Flame Ionization Sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sensors and controls research group at the United States Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is continuing to develop the Combustion Control and Diagnostics Sensor (CCADS) for gas turbine applications. CCADS uses the electrical conduction of the charged species generated during the combustion process to detect combustion instabilities and monitor equivalence ratio. As part of this effort, combustion models are being developed which include the interaction between the electric field and the transport of charged species. The primary combustion process is computed using a flame wrinkling model (Weller et. al. 1998) which is a component of the OpenFOAM toolkit (Jasak et. al. 2004). A sub-model for the transport of charged species is attached to this model. The formulation of the charged-species model similar that applied by Penderson and Brown (1993) for the simulation of laminar flames. The sub-model consists of an additional flux due to the electric field (drift flux) added to the equations for the charged species concentrations and the solution the electric potential from the resolved charge density. The subgrid interactions between the electric field and charged species transport have been neglected. Using the above procedure, numerical simulations are performed and the results compared with several recent CCADS experiments.

Huckaby, E.D.; Chorpening, B.T.; Thornton, J.D.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Comparative study of micromixing models in transported scalar PDF simulations of turbulent nonpremixed bluff body flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Numerical simulation results are presented for turbulent jet diffusion flames with various levels of turbulence-chemistry interaction, stabilized behind a bluff body (Sydney Flames HM1-3). Interaction between turbulence and combustion is modeled with the transported joint-scalar PDF approach. The mass density function transport equation is solved in a Lagrangian manner. A second-moment-closure turbulence model is applied to obtain accurate mean flow and turbulent mixing fields. The behavior of two micromixing models is discussed: the Euclidean minimum spanning tree model and the modified Curl coalescence dispersion model. The impact of the micromixing model choice on the results in physical space is small, although some influence becomes visible as the amount of local extinction increases. Scatter plots and profiles of conditional means and variances of thermochemical quantities, conditioned on the mixture fraction, are discussed both within and downstream of the recirculation region. A distinction is made between local extinction and incomplete combustion, based on the CO species mass fraction. The differences in qualitative behavior between the micromixing models are explained and quantitative comparison to experimental data is made. (author)

Merci, Bart [Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics, Ghent University-UGent, Ghent (Belgium); Roekaerts, Dirk [Department of Multi-Scale Physics, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Naud, Bertrand [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Pope, Stephen B. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

397

Effects of radiation on NO kinetics in turbulent hydrogen/air diffusion flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors describe a coupled radiation and NO kinetics calculation of turbulent hydrogen/air diffusion flame properties. Transport equations for mass, momentum, mixture fraction, enthalpy (sensible + chemical) including gas band radiation, and NO mass fraction are solved. NO kinetics is described by a one step thermal production mechanism. The local temperature is obtained by solving the enthalpy equation taking radiation loss from H{sub 2}O into consideration. Radiation/turbulence and chemical kinetics/turbulence interactions are treated using a clipped Gaussian probability density function (PDF) for the mixture fraction, and a delta PDF for the enthalpy. The source terms in the enthalpy and mass fraction of NO equations are treated using assumed PDF integration over the mixture fraction space. The results of the simulation are compared with existing measurements of the Emission Indices of NO (EINO) in turbulent H{sub 2}/air diffusion flames. The major conclusion of the paper is that coupled turbulence/radiation interactions should be taken into account while computing the EINO.

Sivathanu, Y.R.; Gore, J.P.; Laurendeau, N.M.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Proceedings of the international workshop on measurement and computation of turbulent nonpremixed flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the proceedings of the International Workshop on Measurement and Computation of Turbulent Nonpremixed Flames, held in Naples, Italy on July 26--27, 1996. Contents include materials that were distributed to participants at the beginning of the workshop, as well as a Summary of Workshop Accomplishments that was generated at the close to this Naples meeting. The Naples workshop involved sixty-one people from eleven countries. The primary objectives were: (1) to select a set of well-documented and relatively simple flames that would be appropriate for collaborative comparisons of model predictions; and (2) to specify common submodels to be used in these predictions, such that models for the coupling of turbulence and chemistry might be isolated and better understood. Studies involve hydrogen and natural gas fuels. These proceedings are also published on the Web and those interested in the ongoing process of data selection and model comparison should consult the workshop page for the most recent and complete information on these collaborative research efforts. The URL is: http://www/ca.sandia/gov/tdf/Workshop.html.

Barlow, R.S. [ed.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Transported PDF Modeling of Nonpremixed Turbulent CO/H-2/N-2 Jet Flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Turbulent CO/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} (“syngas”) flames are simulated using a transported composition probability density function (PDF) method. A consistent hybrid Lagrangian particle/Eulerian mesh algorithm is used to solve the modeled PDF transport equation. The model includes standard k–? turbulence, gradient transport for scalars, and Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST) mixing. Sensitivities of model results to variations in the turbulence model, the treatment of radiation heat transfer, the choice of chemical mechanism, and the PDF mixing model are explored. A baseline model reproduces the measured mean and rms temperature, major species, and minor species profiles reasonably well, and captures the scaling that is observed in the experiments. Both our results and the literature suggest that further improvements can be realized with adjustments in the turbulence model, the radiation heat transfer model, and the chemical mechanism. Although radiation effects are relatively small in these flames, consideration of radiation is important for accurate NO prediction. Chemical mechanisms that have been developed specifically for fuels with high concentrations of CO and H{sub 2} perform better than a methane mechanism that was not designed for this purpose. It is important to account explicitly for turbulence–chemistry interactions, although the details of the mixing model do not make a large difference in the results, within reasonable limits.

Zhao, xinyu; Haworth, D. C.; Huckaby, E. David

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Thermonuclear Flame Spreading on Rapidly Spinning Neutron Stars: Indications of the Coriolis Force?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Millisecond period brightness oscillations during the intensity rise of thermonuclear X-ray bursts are likely caused by an azimuthally asymmetric, expanding burning region on the stellar surface. The time evolution of the oscillation amplitude during the intensity rise encodes information on how the thermonuclear flames spread across the stellar surface. This process depends on properties of the accreted burning layer, surface fluid motions, and the surface magnetic field structure, and thus can provide insight into these stellar properties. We present two examples of bursts from different sources that show a decrease in oscillation amplitude during the intensity rise. Using theoretical modeling, we demonstrate that the observed amplitude evolution of these bursts is not well described by a uniformly expanding circular burning region. We further show that by including in our model the salient aspects of the Coriolis force (as described by Spitkovsky, Levin, and Ushomirsky) we can qualitatively reproduce the observed evolution curves. Our modeling shows that the evolutionary structure of burst oscillation amplitude is sensitive to the nature of flame spreading, while the actual amplitude values can be very useful to constrain some source parameters.

Sudip Bhattacharyya; Tod E. Strohmayer

2007-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flame retention head" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Modeling of the formation of short-chain acids in propane flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to better understand their potential formation in combustion systems, a detailed kinetic mechanism for the formation of short-chain monocarboxylic acids, formic (HCOOH), acetic (CH3COOH), propionic (C2H5COOH) and propenic (C2H3COOH)) acids, has been developed. Simulations of lean (equivalence ratios from 0.9 to 0.48) laminar premixed flames of propane stabilized at atmospheric pressure with nitrogen as diluent have been performed. It was found that amounts up to 25 ppm of acetic acid, 15 ppm of formic acid and 1 ppm of C3 acid can be formed for some positions in the flames. Simulations showed that the more abundant C3 acid formed is propenic acid. A quite acceptable agreement has been obtained with the scarce results from the literature concerning oxygenated compounds, including aldehydes (CH2O, CH3CHO) and acids. A reaction pathways analysis demonstrated that each acid is mainly derived from the aldehyde of similar structure.

Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Jaffrezo, J L; Legrand, M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Bear Head LNG Corporation and Bear Head LNG (USA), LLC- FE Dkt. No.- 15-33-LNG  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Office of Fossil Energy gives notice of receipt of an application filed on February 25, 2015, by Bear Head LNG, requesting long-term multi-contract authority as further described in their...

403

Retention system and method for the blades of a rotary machine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A retention system and method for the blades of a rotary machine for preventing forward or aft axial movement of the rotor blades includes a circumferential hub slot formed about a circumference of the machine hub. The rotor blades have machined therein a blade retention slot which is aligned with the circumferential hub slot when the blades are received in correspondingly shaped openings in the hub. At least one ring segment is secured in the blade retention slots and the circumferential hub slot to retain the blades from axial movement. A key assembly is used to secure the ring segments in the aligned slots via a hook portion receiving the ring segments and a threaded portion that is driven radially outwardly by a nut. A cap may be provided to provide a redundant back-up load path for the centrifugal loads on the key. Alternatively, the key assembly may be formed in the blade dovetail.

Pedersen, Poul D. (Cincinnati, OH); Glynn, Christopher C. (Hamilton, OH); Walker, Roger C. (Piedmont, SC)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Chapter 17 Eye-head Gaze shifts Oxford Handbook on Eye Movements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Chapter 17 Eye-head Gaze shifts Oxford Handbook on Eye Movements "The Neural Basis of Gaze Shifts" 1. Kinematics of eye-head gaze shifts a. Terminology for describing eye-head gaze shifts b. Variability in eye and head motion during gaze shifts c. Gaze shifts in complex environments d. Bottom

Corneil, Brian D.

405

SAYA's head-eye coordination system Correspondence of image-width and angle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SAYA's head-eye coordination system Correspondence of image-width and angle 335 - 359 [deg] 0 - 25 - 25 [deg] is input, head and eyes move to right side. b) If the angle within 335 - 359 [deg] is input, head and eyes move to left side. SAYA's head-eye coordination system Correspondence of image

Beimel, Amos

406

Competing retention pathways of uranium upon reaction with Fe(II)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biogeochemical retention processes, including adsorption, reductive precipitation, and incorporation into host minerals, are important in contaminant transport, remediation, and geologic deposition of uranium. Recent work has shown that U can become incorporated into iron (hydr)oxide minerals, with a key pathway arising from Fe(II)-induced transformation of ferrihydrite, (Fe(OH)3•nH2O) to goethite (?-FeO(OH)); this is a possible U retention mechanism in soils and sediments. Several key questions, however, remain unanswered regarding U incorporation into iron (hydr)oxides and this pathway’s contribution to U retention, including: (i) the competitiveness of U incorporation versus reduction to U(IV) and subsequent precipitation of UO2; (ii) the oxidation state of incorporated U; (iii) the effects of uranyl aqueous speciation on U incorporation; and, (iv) the mechanism of U incorporation. Here we use a series of batch reactions conducted at pH ~7, [U(VI)] from 1 to 170 ?M, [Fe(II)] from 0 to 3 mM, and [Ca] at 0 or 4 mM) coupled with spectroscopic examination of reaction products of Fe(II)-induced ferrihydrite transformation to address these outstanding questions. Uranium retention pathways were identified and quantified using extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, x-ray powder diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Analysis of EXAFS spectra showed that 14 to 89% of total U was incorporated into goethite, upon reaction with Fe(II) and ferrihydrite. Uranium incorporation was a particularly dominant retention pathway at U concentrations ? 50 ?M when either uranyl-carbonato or calcium-uranyl-carbonato complexes were dominant, accounting for 64 to 89% of total U. With increasing U(VI) and Fe(II) concentrations, U(VI) reduction to U(IV) became more prevalent, but U incorporation remained a functioning retention pathway. These findings highlight the potential importance of U(V) incorporation within iron oxides as a retention process of U across a wide range of biogeochemical environments and the sensitivity of uranium retention processes to operative (bio)geochemical conditions.

Massey, Michael S.; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Jones, Morris; Ilton, Eugene S.; Cerrato, Jose M.; Bargar, John R.; Fendorf, Scott

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Assessment of kinetic modeling for lean H2/CH4/O2/diluent flames at high pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) and HO2 + H with the main branching reactions. Methane addition is shown to influence the pressure: Hydrogen; Methane; Syngas; Flame speed; Chemical mechanism 1. Introduction The H2/O2 reaction system CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other small hydrocarbons (synthetic gas or "syngas") from coal or biomass

Ju, Yiguang

408

An analytical investigation of primary zone combustion temperatures and NOx production for turbulent jet flames using low-BTU fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The objective of this research project was to identify and determine the effect of jet burner operating variables that influence combustion of low-BTU gases. This was done by simulating the combustion of a low-BTU fuel in a jet flame and predicting...

Carney, Christopher Mark

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

MIE and Flame velocity of partially oxidised aluminium dust Stphane Bernard, Philippe Gillard, Fabrice Foucher, Christine Mounam-Rousselle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

present dust explosion hazards. The prevention of these hazards can be achieved by the characterisation in the oxide shell which increases the reactivity of the oxidised aluminium dust. Keywords : DUST EXPLOSIONSMIE and Flame velocity of partially oxidised aluminium dust Stéphane Bernard, Philippe Gillard

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

410

Fractal Analysis of Flame-Synthesized Nanostructured Silica and Titania Powders Using Small-Angle X-ray  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fractal Analysis of Flame-Synthesized Nanostructured Silica and Titania Powders Using Small-Angle X these powders display mass-fractal morphologies, which are composed of ramified aggregates of nanoscale primary particles. Primary particle size, aggregate size, fractal dimension, and specific surface area are obtained

Beaucage, Gregory

411

Nonpremixed ignition, laminar flame propagation, and mechanism reduction of n-butanol, iso-butanol, and methyl butanoate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The non-premixed ignition temperature of n-butanol (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH), iso-butanol ((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CHCH{sub 2}OH) and methyl butanoate (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COOCH{sub 3}) was measured in a liquid pool assembly by heated oxidizer in a stagnation flow for system pressures of 1 and 3 atm. In addition, the stretch-corrected laminar flame speeds of mixtures of air–n-butanol/iso-butanol/methyl butanoate were determined from the outwardly propagating spherical flame at initial pressures of up to 2 atm, for an extensive range of equivalence ratio. The ignition temperature and laminar flame speeds of n-butanol and methyl butanoate were computationally simulated with three recently developed kinetic mechanisms in the literature. Dominant reaction pathways to ignition and flame propagation were identified and discussed through a chemical explosive mode analysis (CEMA) and sensitivity analysis. The detailed models were further reduced through a series of systematic strategies. The reduced mechanisms provided excellent agreement in both homogeneous and diffusive combustion environments and greatly improved the computation efficiency.

Lu, Wei; Kelley, A. P.; Law, C. K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Simultaneous measurements of soot volume fraction and particle size/microstructure in flames using a thermophoretic sampling technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new particle volume fraction measurement technique was developed using electron microscope analysis of thermophoretically sampled particles/aggregates based on a theoretical treatment of particle deposition to a cold surface immersed in a flame. This experimental method, referred to as the thermophoretic sampling particle diagnostic (TSPD), can yield all particle parameters of principal interest (particle volume fraction, particle and aggregate sizes, and fractal properties) without requiring knowledge of particle bulk density and refractive index. To assess its reliability, the TSPD technique was implemented at various heights on the centerline of a soot-containing coflowing ethylene/air nonpremixed laminar flame. Inferred soot volume fractions agreed with previous laser extinction and thermocouple particle densitometry measurements within experimental uncertainties at sampling positions where only aggregates of mature particles were present. However, TSPD-soot volume fractions were about a factor of 3 higher than light extinction results in the lower part of the flame. This significant difference was evidently a result of the presence of translucent precursor soot particles, which do not absorb as much visible light as mature particles, but can be quantified with the electron microscope. Clearly, this ability of TSPD to separately measure the concentration and morphology of each type of soot is a significant advantage over other available diagnostics, making it extremely valuable for studying particle formation in flames.

Koeylue, U.O.; McEnally, C.S.; Rosner, D.E.; Pfefferle, L.D. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Volume 28, 2000/pp. 903910 TURBULENT FLAME DYNAMICS OF HOMOGENEOUS SOLID PROPELLANT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

903 Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Volume 28, 2000/pp. 903­910 TURBULENT FLAME DYNAMICS University Park, PA 16802, USA A comprehensive numerical analysis has been conducted to study the combustion development and its influence on propellant combustion. The formulation is based on the Favre

Apte, Sourabh V.

414

Detailed investigation of a pulverized fuel swirl flame in CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} atmosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel approach to oxycoal flame stabilization has been developed at the Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer at RWTH Aachen University [D. Toporov, M. Foerster, R. Kneer, in: Third Int. Conf. on Clean Coal Technologies for Our Future, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy, 15-17 May 2007]. The swirl burner design and its operating conditions have been adjusted in order to enforce CO formation thus stabilizing the flame and obtaining a full burnout at levels of O{sub 2} content in the O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixture similar to those in air. The paper presents results of detailed numerical and experimental investigations of a stable oxy-fired pulverized coal swirl flame (type-2) obtained with a 21 vol% O{sub 2} concentration. The combustion tests were performed in a vertical pilot-scale furnace (100 kW{sub th}) in the framework of the OXYCOAL-AC research project aiming to develop a membrane-based oxyfuel process. The experimental results concerning gas velocities, gas and particle temperatures, and gas compositions are presented and discussed, focusing on the underlying mechanisms as well as on the aerodynamics of the oxycoal flame. A comparison between measurements and simulations has shown the validity of the numerical method used. The reported data set can be used for validation of numerical models developed for prediction of oxyfuel combustion. (author)

Toporov, D.; Bocian, P.; Heil, P.; Kellermann, A.; Stadler, H.; Tschunko, S.; Foerster, M.; Kneer, R. [Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer, RWTH Aachen University, Eilfschornsteinstrasse 18, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

415

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory report LBNL-725E 1 A New Type of Steady and Stable, Laminar, Premixed Flame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Premixed Flame in Ultra-Lean, Hydrogen-Air Combustion Joseph F. Grcara a Center for Computational Science and Engineering Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, CA 94720-8142, USA Abstract Ultra-lean, hydrogen propagating cells. These cells were the original meaning of the word "flamelet" when they were observed

416

A STUDY ON SPHERICAL EXPANDING FLAME SPEEDS OF METHANE, ETHANE, AND METHANE/ETHANE MIXTURES AT ELEVATED PRESSURES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-pressure experiments and chemical kinetics modeling were performed for laminar spherically expanding flames for methane/air, ethane/air, methane/ethane/air and propane/air mixtures at pressures between 1 and 10 atm and equivalence ratios...

De Vries, Jaap

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

417

Detailed modeling and laser-induced fluorescence imaging of nitric oxide in a NH(i)-seeded non-premixed methane/air flame  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper we study the formation of NO in laminar, nitrogen diluted methane diffusion flames that are seeded with ammonia in the fuel stream. We have performed numerical simulations with detailed chemistry as well as laser-induced fluorescence imaging measurements for a range of ammonia injection rates. For comparison with the experimental data, synthetic LIF images are calculated based on the numerical data accounting for temperature and fluorescence quenching effects. We demonstrate good agreement between measurements and computations. The LIF corrections inferred from the simulation are then used to calculate absolute NO mole fractions from the measured signal.The NO formation in both doped and undoped flames occurs in the flame sheet. In the undoped flame, four different mechanisms including thermal and prompt NO appear to contribute to NO formation. As the NH3 seeding level increases, fuel-NO becomes the dominant mechanism and N2 shifts from being a net reactant to being a net product. Nitric oxide in the undoped flame as well as in the core region of the doped flames are underpredicted by the model; we attribute this mainly to inaccuracies in the NO recycling chemistry on the fuel-rich side of the flame sheet.

Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Grcar, Joseph F.; Bessler, Wolfgang G.; Schulz, Christof; Glarborg, Peter; Jensen, Anker D.

2001-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

418

NO{sub x} emissions of a jet diffusion flame which is surrounded by a shroud of combustion air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present work reports an experimental study on the behavior of a jet flame surrounded by a shroud of combustion air. Measurements focussed on the flame length and the emissions of NO{sub x}, total unburned hydrocarbons, CO{sub 2}, and O{sub 2}. Four different fuel flow rates (40.0, 78.33, 138.33, and 166.6 cm/s), air flow rates up to 2500 cm{sup 3}/s and four different air injector diameters (0.079 cm, 0. 158 cm, 0.237 cm, and 0.316 cm) were used. The shroud of combustion air causes the flame length to decrease by a factor proportional to 1/[p{sub a}/p{sub f} + C{sub 2}({mu}{sub a}Re,a/{mu}{sub f}Re,f){sup 2}]{sup {1/2}}. A substantial shortening of the flame length occurred by increasing the air injection velocity keeping fuel rate fixed or conversely by lowering the fuel flow rate keeping air flow rate constant. NO{sub x} emissions ranging from 5 ppm to 64 ppm were observed and the emission of NO{sub x} decreased strongly with the increased air velocity. The decrease of NO{sub x} emissions was found to follow a similar scaling law as does the flame length. However, the emission of the total hydrocarbons increased with the increased air velocity or the decreased fuel flow rate. A crossover condition where both NO{sub x} and unburned- hydrocarbon emissions are low, was identified. At an air-to-fuel velocity ratio of about 1, the emissions of NO{sub x} and the total hydrocarbons were found to be under 20 ppm.

Tran, P.X.; White, F.P.; Mathur, M.P.; Ekmann, J.M.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Simulation analysis of within-day flow fluctuation effects on trout below flaming Gorge Dam.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In addition to being renewable, hydropower has the advantage of allowing rapid load-following, in that the generation rate can easily be varied within a day to match the demand for power. However, the flow fluctuations that result from load-following can be controversial, in part because they may affect downstream fish populations. At Flaming Gorge Dam, located on the Green River in northeastern Utah, concern has been raised about whether flow fluctuations caused by the dam disrupt feeding at a tailwater trout fishery, as fish move in response to flow changes and as the flow changes alter the amount or timing of the invertebrate drift that trout feed on. Western Area Power Administration (Western), which controls power production on submonthly time scales, has made several operational changes to address concerns about flow fluctuation effects on fisheries. These changes include reducing the number of daily flow peaks from two to one and operating within a restricted range of flows. These changes significantly reduce the value of the power produced at Flaming Gorge Dam and put higher load-following pressure on other power plants. Consequently, Western has great interest in understanding what benefits these restrictions provide to the fishery and whether adjusting the restrictions could provide a better tradeoff between power and non-power concerns. Directly evaluating the effects of flow fluctuations on fish populations is unfortunately difficult. Effects are expected to be relatively small, so tightly controlled experiments with large sample sizes and long study durations would be needed to evaluate them. Such experiments would be extremely expensive and would be subject to the confounding effects of uncontrollable variations in factors such as runoff and weather. Computer simulation using individual-based models (IBMs) is an alternative study approach for ecological problems that are not amenable to analysis using field studies alone. An IBM simulates how a population responds to environmental changes by representing how the population's individuals interact with their environment and each other. IBMs represent key characteristics of both individual organisms (trout, in this case) and the environment, thus allowing controlled simulation experiments to analyze the effects of changes in the key variables. For the flow fluctuation problem at Flaming Gorge Dam, the key environmental variables are flow rates and invertebrate drift concentrations, and the most important processes involve how trout adapt to changes (over space and time) in growth potential and mortality risk. This report documents simulation analyses of flow fluctuation effects on trout populations. The analyses were conducted in a highly controlled fashion: an IBM was used to predict production (survival and growth) of trout populations under a variety of scenarios that differ only in the level or type of flow fluctuation.

Railsback, S. F.; Hayse, J. W.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division; EPRI

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Integrated head package cable carrier for a nuclear power plant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cabling arrangement is provided for a nuclear reactor located within a containment. Structure inside the containment is characterized by a wall having a near side surrounding the reactor vessel defining a cavity, an operating deck outside the cavity, a sub-space below the deck and on a far side of the wall spaced from the near side, and an operating area above the deck. The arrangement includes a movable frame supporting a plurality of cables extending through the frame, each connectable at a first end to a head package on the reactor vessel and each having a second end located in the sub-space. The frame is movable, with the cables, between a first position during normal operation of the reactor when the cables are connected to the head package, located outside the sub-space proximate the head package, and a second position during refueling when the cables are disconnected from the head package, located in the sub-space. In a preferred embodiment, the frame straddles the top of the wall in a substantially horizontal orientation in the first position, pivots about an end distal from the head package to a substantially vertically oriented intermediate position, and is guided, while remaining about vertically oriented, along a track in the sub-space to the second position.

Meuschke, Robert E. (Monroeville, PA); Trombola, Daniel M. (Murrysville, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flame retention head" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Remote controlled ISI devices for RPV bottom head  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bottom head of a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) of the boiling water reactor (BWR) is one of the areas on which it is very difficult to perform an inservice inspection (ISI). Welds in a bottom head central disk and a drain nozzle are required to be inspected, but its accessibility is restricted by a RPV skirt, a thermal insulation, control rod drive housings and incore monitor housings. Therefore, the remote mechanized scanners are necessary to access and examine the welds. Two kinds of new device were developed to accomplish this inspection. The bottom head central disk weld inspection device has a parallel link mechanism scanning arm with a combined-transducer module to get as much as wide scanning area between control rod drive housings. The device is driven along the weld by moving on the separable track which is set temporally on the bottom head insulation. The drain nozzle weld inspection device has a horseshoe shaped gear mechanism to drive a combined-transducer module. The device is set up on to the drain nozzle using an insertion handle. Both devices have an emergency retrieval mechanism to withdraw the devices in case of power loss accident. Those devices were demonstrated by a mock-up test to be applicable to the inspection of the RPV bottom head.

Shiga, S. [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Mori, H. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. (Japan); Kobayashi, K. Sasaki, T. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Uptake and retention kinetics of para-fluorine-18-fluorobenzylguanidine in isolated rat heart  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Para-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzylguanidine ([{sup 18}F]PFBG) is a newly developed tracer for imaging myocardial sympathetic neuronal innervation. This study investigated the uptake and retention mechanisms of [{sup 18}F]PFBG in perfused, isolated rat heart. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Berry, C.R.; Garg, P.K.; Zalutsky, M.R. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)]|[Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)] [and others

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

SOIL MOISTURE RETENTION CHARACTERISTICS AT RD 838 OF I. G. N. P. STAGE -II  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

soil physical properties are those which govern the transport and storage of energy, momentum and mass1 SOIL MOISTURE RETENTION CHARACTERISTICS AT RD 838 OF I. G. N. P. STAGE - II C. P. Kumar* Sanjay knowledge of the relationships between soil moisture content (), soil water pressure (h) and unsaturated

Kumar, C.P.

424

A mathematical model for variation in water-retention curves among sandy soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

activity in soil varies with water content, soil texture and structure, temperature, energy and nutrientA mathematical model for variation in water-retention curves among sandy soils H.W. HUNT1 *, A@nrel.colostate.edu Abstract: Equations were developed to predict soil matric potential as a function of soil water content

Wall, Diana

425

Finance Program Retention for FALL 2014 Instructions for Transcript Review Form  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Finance Program ­ Retention for FALL 2014 Instructions for Transcript Review Form College of Business at Northern Illinois University The Department of Finance Transcript Review Form should in the finance core). All NIU students are eligible to declare a major in Finance; however, students must meet

Kostic, Milivoje M.

426

Ca RETENTION IN YOUNG PULLETS AND LAYING HENS FED A Ca47 LABELLED DIET  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ca RETENTION IN YOUNG PULLETS AND LAYING HENS FED A Ca47 LABELLED DIET OF DIFFERENT Ca LEVELS K levels of dietary calcium. A basal diet poor in calcium but otherwise optimal was supplemented with CaC03 and Na2HP04 as seen below : #12;CaCO, supplement of the diet was replaced by Ca&dquo; labelled Calcium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

427

Endoplasmic reticulum retention is a common defect associated with tyrosinase-negative albinism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Endoplasmic reticulum retention is a common defect associated with tyrosinase-negative albinism, March 16, 2000 (received for review February 17, 2000) Tyrosinase is a melanocyte-specific enzyme albino substitution TYR(T373K), and the temperature-sensitive tyrosinase TYR(R402Q) Tyr(H402A) found

Hebert, Daniel N.

428

Influence of plasticizer molecular weight on plasticizer retention in PVC geomembranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PROOFS Influence of plasticizer molecular weight on plasticizer retention in PVC geomembranes T. D, accepted 31 October 2004 ABSTRACT: Plasticizers are used to make PVC flexible so it can be used as a geomembrane. Plasticizers can migrate from PVC geomembranes over time because of contact with air, liquid, and

429

Influence of addition order and contact time on thorium (IV) retention by hematite in the presence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Influence of addition order and contact time on thorium (IV) retention by hematite.reiller@cea.fr The influence of addition order and contact time in the system hematite (-Fe2O3) ­ humic acid (HA) ­ thorium (IV) was studied in batch experiments. Thorium (IV) is considered here as a chemical analogue of other actinides

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

430

Mesh Width Influences Prey Retention in Spider Orb Webs Todd A. Blackledge & Jacquelyn M. Zevenbergen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mesh Width Influences Prey Retention in Spider Orb Webs Todd A. Blackledge & Jacquelyn M. Zevenbergen Department of Biology, The University of Akron, Akron, OH, USA Introduction Orb webs depend upon threads, the sticky spirals of orb webs perform two important functions during prey cap- ture. First

Blackledge, Todd

431

Recent Advances on Hydrogenic Retention in ITER's Plasma-Facing Materials: BE, C, W.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Management of tritium inventory remains one of the grand challenges in the development of fusion energy and the choice of plasma-facing materials is a key factor for in-vessel tritium retention. The Atomic and Molecular Data Unit of the International Atomic Energy Agency organized a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the overall topic of tritium inventory in fusion reactors during the period 2001-2006. This dealt with hydrogenic retention in ITER's plasma-facing materials, Be, C, W, and in compounds (mixed materials) of these elements as well as tritium removal techniques. The results of the CRP are summarized in this article together with recommendations for ITER. Basic parameters of diffusivity, solubility and trapping in Be, C and W are reviewed. For Be, the development of open porosity can account for transient hydrogenic pumping but long term retention will be dominated by codeposition. Codeposition is also the dominant retention mechanism for carbon and remains a serious concern for both Be and C containing layers. Hydrogenic trapping in unirradiated tungsten is low but will increase with ion and neutron damage. Mixed materials will be formed in a tokamak and these can also retain significant amounts of hydrogen isotopes. Oxidative and photon-based techniques for detritiation of plasma-facing components are described.

Skinner, C H; Alimov, Kh; Bekris, N; Causey, R A; Clark, R.E.H.; Coad, J P; Davis, J W; Doerner, R P; Mayer, M; Pisarev, A; Roth, J; Tanabe, T

2008-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

432

Digestibility and energy retention by young rabbits fed different levels of intake  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Note Digestibility and energy retention by young rabbits fed different levels of intake Fernando in digestibility cages, were fed a standard diet at four levels of intake: ad libitum (AL), 60, 40 and 10 % of the AL intake. Digestibility of dietary dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract and ash

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

433

Non-normality in combustion-acoustic interaction in diffusion flames: a critical revision  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Perturbations in a non-normal system can grow transiently even if the system is linearly stable. If this transient growth is sufficiently large, it can trigger self-sustained oscillations from small initial disturbances. This has important practical consequences for combustion-acoustic oscillations, which are a continual problem in rocket and aircraft engines. Balasubramanian and Sujith (Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2008, 594, 29-57) modelled an infinite-rate chemistry diffusion flame in an acoustic duct and found that the transient growth in this system can amplify the initial energy by a factor, $G_{max}$, of order $10^5$ to $10^7$. However, recent investigations by L. Magri & M. P. Juniper have brought to light certain errors in that paper. When the errors are corrected, $G_{max}$ is found to be of order 1 to 10, revealing that non-normality is not as influential as it was thought to be.

Magri, Luca; Sujith, R I; Juniper, Matthew P

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Effect of Nitrogen Additives on Flame Retardant Action of Tributyl Phosphate: Phosphorus – Nitrogen Synergism  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of nitrogen additives like urea, guanidine carbonate and melamine formaldehyde on the flame retardant efficacy of tributyl phosphate (TBP) has been investigated. From the LOI tests on treated cotton it is clear that the nitrogen additives have synergistic action. Estimation of activation energy of decomposition of treated cotton indicated that nitrogen additives enhance the thermal stability during the burning process. SEM pictures of chars formed after LOI test showed the formation of protective polymeric coating on the surface. The surface of chars formed were evaluated using FTIR-ATR and XPS analysis which showed that the coating was composed of Phosphorus-Nitrogen-Oxygen containing species. Formation of this coating during the burning process could lead to the synergistic interaction of phosphorus and nitrogen. Based on the experimental data we have further proposed several reaction mechanisms which could contribute to synergistic action and formation of protective coating on the surface of char.

Gaan, Sabyasachi; Sun, Gang; Hutches, Katherine; Engelhard, Mark H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Experimental study of head loss and filtration for LOCA debris  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of controlled experiments were conducted to obtain head loss and filtration characteristics of debris beds formed of NUKON{trademark} fibrous fragments, and obtain data to validate the semi-theoretical head loss model developed in NUREG/CR-6224. A thermally insulated closed-loop test set-up was used to conduct experiments using beds formed of fibers only and fibers intermixed with particulate debris. A total of three particulate mixes were used to simulate the particulate debris. The head loss data were obtained for theoretical fiber bed thicknesses of 0.125 inches to 4.0 inches; approach velocities of 0.15 to 1.5 ft/s; temperatures of 75 F and 125 F; and sludge-to-fiber nominal concentration ratios of 0 to 60. Concentration measurements obtained during the first flushing cycle were used to estimate the filtration efficiencies of the debris beds. For test conditions where the beds are fairly uniform, the head loss data were predictable within an acceptable accuracy range by the semi-theoretical model. The model was equally applicable for both pure fiber beds and the mixed beds. Typically the model over-predicted the head losses for very thin beds and for thin beds at high sludge-to-fiber mass ratios. This is attributable to the non-uniformity of such debris beds. In this range the correlation can be interpreted to provide upper bound estimates of head loss. This is pertinent for loss of coolant accidents in boiling water reactors.

Rao, D.V.; Souto, F.J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

An improved dosimetric model of the head and brain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Br). Other radionuclides considered may deposit in bone withm the head region (cranium or the spinal skeleton) (is'I, 2P, ssP, tssRe, 'ssRe, 'ssSm, "7~Sb, ssSr, s Sr, "nY, ss~Tc, tsiCs, ss"Ra), or m the thyroid fss~ Tc, and all iodme radionuclides... tagged to them (i. e. , radiopharmaceuticals). Nevertheless, studies of the small-scale dosimetry of the bram, and more generally, the organs of the head (brain, eyes thyroid, skull, skin), have not kept pace with the current advances in nuclear...

Bouchet, Lionel Gerard

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Strong-Sludge Gas Retention and Release Mechanisms in Clay Simulants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Site has 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) and 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. The mission of the Department of Energy's River Protection Project is to retrieve and treat the Hanford tank waste for disposal and close the tank farms. A key aspect of the mission is to retrieve and transfer waste from the SSTs, which are at greater risk for leaking, into DSTs for interim storage until the waste is transferred to and treated in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. There is, however, limited space in the existing DSTs to accept waste transfers from the SSTs, and approaches to overcoming the limited DST space will benefit the overall mission. The purpose of this study is to summarize and analyze the key previous experiment that forms the basis for the relaxed controls and to summarize progress and results on new experiments focused on understanding the conditions that result in low gas retention. The previous large-scale test used about 50 m3 of sediment, which would be unwieldy for doing multiple parametric experiments. Accordingly, experiments began with smaller-scale tests to determine whether the desired mechanisms can be studied without the difficulty of conducting very large experiments. The most significant results from the current experiments are that progressively lower gas retention occurs in tests with progressively deeper sediment layers and that the method of gas generation also affects the maximum retention. Based on the results of this study, it is plausible that relatively low gas retention could occur in sufficiently deep tank waste in DSTs. The current studies and previous work, however, have not explored how gas retention and release will behave when two or more layers with different properties are present.

Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Buchmiller, William C.; Probert, Samuel G.; Owen, Antionette T.; Brockman, Fred J.

2012-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

438

Enhancements of a Combustion Vessel to Determine Laminar Flame Speeds of Hydrocarbon Blends with Helium Dilution at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in conjunction with National University of Ireland Galway compared favorably with the data, while the literature data showed discrepancies at stoichiometric to rich conditions. An in-depth flame speed uncertainty analysis yielded a wide range of values from 0...

Plichta, Drew

2013-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

439

In-vessel Retention Strategy for High Power Reactors - K-INERI Final Report (includes SBLB Test Results for Task 3 on External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) Boiling Data and CHF Enhancement Correlations)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In-vessel retention (IVR) of core melt is a key severe accident management strategy adopted by some operating nuclear power plants and proposed for some advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). If there were inadequate cooling during a reactor accident, a significant amount of core material could become molten and relocate to the lower head of the reactor vessel, as happened in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. If it is possible to ensure that the vessel head remains intact so that relocated core materials are retained within the vessel, the enhanced safety associated with these plants can reduce concerns about containment failure and associated risk. For example, the enhanced safety of the Westinghouse Advanced 600 MWe PWR (AP600), which relied upon External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) for IVR, resulted in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) approving the design without requiring certain conventional features common to existing LWRs. However, it is not clear that currently proposed external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) without additional enhancements could provide sufficient heat removal for higher-power reactors (up to 1500 MWe). Hence, a collaborative, three-year, U.S. - Korean International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (INERI) project was completed in which the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Seoul National University (SNU), Pennsylvania State University (PSU), and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) investigated the performance of ERVC and an in-vessel core catcher (IVCC) to determine if IVR is feasible for reactors up to 1500 MWe.

F. B. Cheung; J. Yang; M. B. Dizon; J. Rempe

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Development of combustion data to utilize low-Btu gases as industrial process fuels: modification of flame characteristics. Project 61041 quarterly report, 1 January-31 March 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program consists of an experimental program to determine the burner modifications that will yield suitable flame characteristics and shapes with oxygen-blown gases manufactured from coal. Experiments will also be conducted to evaluate methods of enchancing the flame characteristics of manufactured gases from air-blown gasifiers. Progress to date includes a partial completion of the oxygen-enrichment system, preparation of the furnace for the trials, and discussions of the burner modifications needed for combustion trials with the burner manufacturer.

Waibel, R.T.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flame retention head" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Head-Tail Modes for Strong Space Charge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Head-tail modes are described here for the space charge tune shift significantly exceeding the synchrotron tune. General equation for the modes is derived. Spatial shapes of the modes, their frequencies, and coherent growth rates are explored. The Landau damping rates are also found. Suppression of the transverse mode coupling instability by the space charge is explained.

Burov, Alexey

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Simultaneous multi-headed imager geometry calibration method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for calibrating multi-headed high sensitivity and high spatial resolution dynamic imaging systems, especially those useful in the acquisition of tomographic images of small animals. The method of the present invention comprises: simultaneously calibrating two or more detectors to the same coordinate system; and functionally correcting for unwanted detector movement due to gantry flexing.

Tran, Vi-Hoa (Newport News, VA); Meikle, Steven Richard (Penshurst, AU); Smith, Mark Frederick (Yorktown, VA)

2008-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

443

EARLY HEAD START Effects of Fathers, Neighborhoods and Family Structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

randomly assigned - 1,513 to Early Head Start - 1,488 to other child care program #12;Highlights of the EHS disorder and aggression ­ Depression ­ Alcoholism and other drug abuse · Parental history of relationship Expulsion Lost Job Arrested Substance Abuse % No % Yes #12;Father Antisocial Behavior · 86.1% Low Risk (

444

Computational Modeling of Brain Dynamics during Repetitive Head Motions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computational Modeling of Brain Dynamics during Repetitive Head Motions Igor Szczyrba School motions in traumatic scenarios that are as- sociated with severe brain injuries. Our results are based on the linear Kelvin-Voigt brain injury model, which treats the brain matter as a viscoelastic solid, and on our

Burtscher, Martin

445

Beam Head Erosion in Self-Ionized Plasma Wakefield Accelerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the recent plasma wakefield accelerator experiments at SLAC, the energy of the particles in the tail of the 42 GeV electron beam were doubled in less than one meter [1]. Simulations suggest that the acceleration length was limited by a new phenomenon--beam head erosion in self-ionized plasmas. In vacuum, a particle beam expands transversely in a distance given by {beta}*. In the blowout regime of a plasma wakefield [2], the majority of the beam is focused by the ion channel, while the beam head slowly spreads since it takes a finite time for the ion channel to form. It is observed that in self-ionized plasmas, the head spreading is exacerbated compared to that in pre-ionized plasmas, causing the ionization front to move backward (erode). A simple theoretical model is used to estimate the upper limit of the erosion rate for a bi-gaussian beam by assuming free expansion of the beam head before the ionization front. Comparison with simulations suggests that half this maximum value can serve as an estimate for the erosion rate. Critical parameters to the erosion rate are discussed.

Berry, M.K.; Blumenfeld, I.; Decker, F.J.; Hogan, M.J.; Ischebeck, R.; Iverson, R.H.; Kirby, N.A.; Siemann, Robert H.; Walz, D.R.; /SLAC; Clayton, C.E.; Huang, C.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.B.; Zhou, M.; /UCLA; Katsouleas, T.C.; Muggli, P.; Oz, E.; /Southern California U.

2008-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

446

Brief Communications Optic Flow Stimuli Update Anterodorsal Thalamus Head  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

orientation in the yaw plane relative to environmental landmark cues. Head movements provoke optic field flow)istheonlyknownprojectionofheaddirectioninformationtoentorhinalgridcellsandhippocampalplacecells,yawplaneoptic flow signals likely influence representations in this spatial reference coordinate system to the body, independently of the ani- mal's ongoing behavior and of its spatial location. The HD cell system

Arleo, Angelo

447

UNITED STATES: NOAA Head Vows to Protect Marine Re-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Flshmg Off U. West Coas Saury Flshing f U.. to Be R duced Sharply Resume Canned-Tuna Sales to U.S. 1971 for FISh Culture Flshery Aid Mlssion to VISit 'Thlrd World' ·'ev; ·'lchlro Head Stresses 'Systematiza- tion

448

PPA Department Heads Initial Impressions and SLAC Challenges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 PPA Department Heads Initial Impressions and SLAC Challenges James Tarpinian ES&H Director January 19, 2012 #12;2 Agenda · Initial impressions · 2011 Performance · ES&H focus areas and initiatives for 2012 ES&H Director Chief Safety Officer #12;3 Initial impressions Evolutionary change

Wechsler, Risa H.

449

New Director Heads Actuarial Science Program - Department of ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Department of Mathematics x Purdue University x West Lafayette, Indiana. Summer 2001 ... information as well as the current (new) plan of study. ... Allen Weitsman, Associate Head. Lawrence Brown .... Professor J. J. Price was the featured speaker in Purdue's “Focus on Teaching” ..... Virginia Mashin Scholarship ($2,500).

Sally

2002-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

450

Running Head: TESTOSTERONE AND POWER Testosterone and power  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Running Head: TESTOSTERONE AND POWER Testosterone and power Steven J. Stanton and Oliver C. Schultheiss University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA To appear in: K. Dowding (Ed.), Encyclopedia of power-647-9440, email: stantons@umich.edu #12;Testosterone and power 2 Across many studies in humans, two functional

Schultheiss, Oliver C.

451

HIGH RESOLUTION, MRI-BASED, SEGMENTED, COMPUTERIZED HEAD PHANTOM.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was created from 124 transverse MRI images of a healthy normal. The transverse T2 slices, recorded in a 256x. Internal volumes compare favorably to those described in the ICRP Reference Man. Conclusion and improved. We have developed a voxel based head phantom by manually drawing contours on 124 transverse MRI

Duncan, James S.

452

IMAGINED TRANSFORMATIONS 1 Running head: IMAGINED TRANSFORMATION OF BODIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IMAGINED TRANSFORMATIONS 1 Running head: IMAGINED TRANSFORMATION OF BODIES Imagined Transformations TRANSFORMATIONS 2 Abstract A number of spatial reasoning problems can be solved by performing an imagined transformation of one's egocentric perspective. A series of experiments were carried out to characterize

Zacks, Jeffrey M.

453

Ms. Maushumi, Head Mistress Babul Sarkar, Vice President  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ms. Maushumi, Head Mistress Babul Sarkar, Vice President Char Domdoama Primary School Vill: Char Razzaq-Shamsun Best Teacher Award and Abdul Awal Sarkar Best Student Awards in Char Domdoma Primary School Dear Ms. Maushumi and Mr. Sarkar, My proposal for the introduction of one teaching and three

Nahar, Sultana Nurun

454

THE RECONSTRUCTION OF GROUNDWATER PARAMETERS FROM HEAD DATA IN AN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ancillary data is fundamental to the process of modelling a groundwater system. In an unconfined aquifer of the unconfined groundwater parameters as the unique minimum of a convex functional. 1. Introduction It is commonTHE RECONSTRUCTION OF GROUNDWATER PARAMETERS FROM HEAD DATA IN AN UNCONFINED AQUIFER IAN KNOWLES

Knowles, Ian W.

455

Managing Fusarium Head Blight in Virginia Small Grains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Breeder, Dept. of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech. cgriffey@vt.edu C.J. LIN Vice@vt.edu WADE THOMASON Extension Grains Specialist, Dept. of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia TechManaging Fusarium Head Blight in Virginia Small Grains MELISSA KELLER Graduate Student, Dept

Liskiewicz, Maciej

456

Recto Running Head 1 Available Potential Energy and Exergy in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) remains the main framework for studying the atmospheric and oceanic energy cycles. Because the APE energy cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Classical view of the ocean energy cycleRecto Running Head 1 Available Potential Energy and Exergy in Stratified Fluids R´emi Tailleux

Tailleux, Remi

457

A Discussion of SY-101 Crust Gas Retention and Release Mechanisms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The flammable gas hazard in Hanford waste tanks was made an issue by the behavior of double-shell Tank (DST) 241-SY-101 (SY-101). Shortly after SY-101 was filled in 1980, the waste level began rising periodically, due to the generation and retention of gases within the slurry, and then suddenly dropping as the gases were released. An intensive study of the tank's behavior revealed that these episodic releases posed a safety hazard because the released gas was flammable, and, in some cases, the volume of gas released was sufficient to exceed the lower flammability limit (LFL) in the tank headspace (Allemann et al. 1993). A mixer pump was installed in SY-101 in late 1993 to prevent gases from building up in the settled solids layer, and the large episodic gas releases have since ceased (Allemann et al. 1994; Stewart et al. 1994; Brewster et al. 1995). However, the surface level of SY-101 has been increasing since at least 1995, and in recent months the level growth has shown significant and unexpected acceleration. Based on a number of observations and measurements, including data from the void fraction instrument (VFI), we have concluded that the level growth is caused largely by increased gas retention in the floating crust. In September 1998, the crust contained between about 21 and 43% void based on VFI measurements (Stewart et al. 1998). Accordingly, it is important to understand the dominant mechanisms of gas retention, why the gas retention is increasing, and whether the accelerating level increase will continue, diminish or even reverse. It is expected that the retained gas in the crust is flammable, with hydrogen as a major constituent. This gas inventory would pose a flammable gas hazard if it were to release suddenly. In May 1997, the mechanisms of bubble retention and release from crust material were the subject of a workshop. The evaluation of the crust and potential hazards assumed a more typical void of roughly 15% gas. It could be similar to percolati on in single-shell tank (SST) waste forms. The much higher void being currently observed in SY-101 represents essentially a new crust configuration, and the mechanisms for sudden gas release need to be evaluated. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the situation of gas bubbles in crust based on the previous work on gas bubble retention, migration, and release in simulants and actual waste. We have also conducted some visual observations of bubble migration through simulated crusts to help understand the interaction of the various mechanisms.

SD Rassat; PA Gauglitz; SM Caley; LA Mahoney; DP Mendoza

1999-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

458

Turbulence radiation interaction in Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations of nonpremixed piloted turbulent laboratory-scale flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Numerical simulation results are presented for two axisymmetric, nonluminous turbulent piloted jet diffusion flames: Sandia Flame D (SFD) and Delft Flame III (DFIII). Turbulence is represented by a Reynolds stress transport model, while chemistry is modeled by means of steady laminar flamelets. We use the preassumed PDF approach for turbulence-chemistry interaction. A weighted sum of gray gases model is used for the gas radiative properties. The radiative transfer equation is solved using the discrete ordinates method in the conservative finite-volume formulation. The radiative loss leads to a decrease in mean temperature, but does not significantly influence the flow and mixing fields, in terms either of mean values or of rms values of fluctuations. A systematic analysis of turbulence-radiation interaction (TRI) is carried out. By considering five different TRI formulations, and comparing also with a simple optically thin model, individual TRI contributions are isolated and quantified. For both flames, effects are demonstrated of (1) influence of temperature fluctuations on the mean Planck function, (2) temperature and composition fluctuations on the mean absorption coefficient, and (3) correlation between absorption coefficient and Planck function. The strength of the last effect is stronger in DFIII than in SFD, because of stronger turbulence-chemistry interaction and lower mean temperature in DFIII. The impact of the choice of TRI model on the prediction of the temperature-sensitive minor species NO is determined in a postprocessing step with fixed flow and mixing fields. Best agreement for NO is obtained using the most complete representation of TRI. (author)

Habibi, A.; Merci, B. [Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Roekaerts, D. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

459

TIME-VARYING FLAME IONIZATION SENSING APPLIED TO NATURAL GAS AND PROPANE BLENDS IN A PRESSURIZED LEAN PREMIXED (LPM) COMBUSTOR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In-situ monitoring of combustion phenomena is a critical need for optimal operation and control of advanced gas turbine combustion systems. The concept described in this paper is based on naturally occurring flame ionization processes that accompany the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. Previous work has shown that flame ionization techniques may be applied to detect flashback, lean blowout, and some aspects of thermo-acoustic combustion instabilities. Previous work has focused on application of DC electric fields. By application of time-varying electric fields, significant improvements to sensor capabilities have been observed. These data have been collected in a lean premixed combustion test rig operating at 0.51-0.76 MPa (5-7.5 atm) with air preheated to 588 K (600°F). Five percent of the total fuel flow is injected through the centerbody tip as a diffusion pilot. The fuel composition is varied independently by blending approximately 5% (volume) propane with the pipeline natural gas. The reference velocity through the premixing annulus is kept constant for all conditions at a nominal value of 70 m/s. The fuel-air equivalence ratio is varied independently from 0.46 – 0.58. Relative to the DC field version, the time-varying combustion control and diagnostic sensor (TV-CCADS) shows a significant improvement in the correlation between the measured flame ionization current and local fuel-air equivalence ratio. In testing with different fuel compositions, the triangle wave data show the most distinct change in flame ionization current in response to an increase in propane content. Continued development of this sensor technology will improve the capability to control advanced gas turbine combustion systems, and help address issues associated with variations in fuel supplies.

D. L. Straub; B. T. Chorpening; E. D. Huckaby; J. D. Thornton; W. L. Fincham

2008-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

460

Large eddy simulation/conditional moment closure modeling of swirl-stabilized non-premixed flames with local extinction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Engineering University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, United Kingdom Tel: +44 1223 332690, Fax: +44 1223 332662 Email: hz283@cam.ac.uk Colloquium topic: 5. Turbulent flames Alternative Colloquium topic: 11. IC engine and gas turbine combustion... mm+10) ? (2.2 words/mm) ? (1 column) + (12 words in caption) = 143 Total = 5966 words Supplemental Material: none Color reproduction: no (color figures are to be printed in gray scale)   1 Large eddy simulation/conditional moment closure...

Zhang, Huangwei; Garmory, Andrew; Cavaliere, Davide E.; Mastorakos, Epaminondas

2014-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flame retention head" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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461

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced head-and-neck squamous Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

this costlet... -based approach have been reported for various clinical sites, including brain (Vineberg, 1999), head-and-neck... for a specific head-and-neck case, and compare...

462

Geostatistical inference of hydraulic conductivity and dispersivities from hydraulic heads and tracer data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Geostatistical inference of hydraulic conductivity and dispersivities from hydraulic heads; accepted 25 April 2006; published 10 August 2006. [1] In groundwater, hydraulic heads and solute arrival times depend primarily on the hydraulic conductivity field and hydraulic boundary conditions. The spread

Cirpka, Olaf Arie

463

A representation of changing heading direction in human cortical areas pVIP and CSv  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Running title: Changing heading direction in the human brain Keywords: egomotion; f1 A representation of changing heading direction in human cortical in the environment, we continually change direction. Much work has examined how the brain

Royal Holloway, University of London

464

Dr. Martin Wolf, Ph. D Head of Biomedical Optics Research Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and oxygenation of the brain and muscle. Since 2002 he heads the Biomedical Optics Research LaboratoryDr. Martin Wolf, Ph. D Head of Biomedical Optics Research Laboratory Clinic of Neonatology

Zanibbi, Richard

465

E-Print Network 3.0 - actin-bound myosin heads Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: of actin-bound myosin heads in spin-labeled myofibrils in the presence of the ATP analogs AMPPNP (5... -Si have demonstrated that actin-bound myosin heads are...

466

June 8, 2006 15.8 ASSISTANT DEPARTMENT HEAD/DIVISION DIRECTOR ADDENDUM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

June 8, 2006 15.8 ASSISTANT DEPARTMENT HEAD/DIVISION DIRECTOR ADDENDUM THIS ASSISTANT DEPARTMENT HEAD / DIVISION DIRECTOR ADDENDUM, hereinafter the "Addendum," is entered into by Colorado School

467

Development and technology transfer of the BNL flame quality indicator for oil-fired applications: Project report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of a flame quality indicator is to continuously and closely monitor the quality of the flame to determine a heating system`s operating performance. The most efficient operation of a system is achieved under clean burning conditions at low excess air level. By adjusting a burner to function in such a manner, monitoring the unit to maintain these conditions can be accomplished with a simple, cheap and reliable device. This report details the development of the Flame Quality Indicator (FQI) at Brookhaven National Laboratory for residential oil-heating equipment. It includes information on the initial testing of the original design, field testing with other cooperating organizations, changes and improvements to the design, and finally technology transfer and commercialization activities geared towards the development of commercially available products designed for the oil heat marketplace. As a result of this work, a patent for the technology was obtained by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Efforts to commercialize the technology have resulted in a high level of interest amongst industry members including boiler manufacturers, controls manufacturers, oil dealers, and service organizations. To date DOE has issued licenses to three different manufacturers, on a non-exclusive basis, to design, build, and sell FQIs.

Butcher, T.A.; Litzke, Wai Lin; McDonald, R.J.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Effects of Globally Waste Disturbing Activities on Gas Generation, Retention, and Release in Hanford Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Various operations are authorized in Hanford single- and double-shell tanks that disturb all or a large fraction of the waste. These globally waste-disturbing activities have the potential to release a large fraction of the retained flammable gas and to affect future gas generation, retention, and release behavior. This report presents analyses of the expected flammable gas release mechanisms and the potential release rates and volumes resulting from these activities. The background of the flammable gas safety issue at Hanford is summarized, as is the current understanding of gas generation, retention, and release phenomena. Considerations for gas monitoring and assessment of the potential for changes in tank classification and steady-state flammability are given.

Stewart, Charles W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Wells, Beric E.

2005-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

469

Rayleigh-Taylor Instability within Sediment Layers Due to Gas Retention: Preliminary Theory and Experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In Hanford underground waste storage tanks, a typical waste configuration is settled beds of waste particles beneath liquid layers. The settled beds are typically composed of layers, and these layers can have different physical and chemical properties. One postulated configuration within the settled bed is a less-dense layer beneath a more-dense layer. The different densities can be a result of different gas retention in the layers or different degrees of settling and compaction in the layers. This configuration can experience a Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability where the less dense lower layer rises into the upper layer. Previous studies of gas retention and release have not considered potential buoyant motion within a settle bed of solids. The purpose of this report is to provide a review of RT instabilities, discuss predictions of RT behavior for sediment layers, and summarize preliminary experimental observations of RT instabilities in simulant experiments.

Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Wells, Beric E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Rassat, Scot D.

2013-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

470

Retention sleeve for a thermal medium carrying tube in a gas turbine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Multiple tubes are connected to steam supply and spent cooling steam return manifolds for supplying cooling steam to buckets and returning spent cooling steam from the buckets to the manifolds, respectively. The tubes are prevented from axial movement in one direction by flanges engaging end faces of the spacer between the first and second-stage wheels. Retention sleeves are disposed about cantilevered ends of the tubes. One end of the retention sleeve engages an enlarged flange on the tube, while an opposite end is spaced axially from an end face of the adjoining wheel, forming a gap, enabling thermal expansion of the tubes and limiting axial displacement of the tube in the opposite direction.

Lathrop, Norman Douglas (Ballston Lake, NY); Czachor, Robert Paul (Cincinnati, OH)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Study of liquid retention in fixed-bed reactors with upward flow of gas and liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A literature survey of the measurement techniques for the determination of liquid retention in cocurrent upward gas and liquid flow in fixed-bed reactors is presented. A number of these techniques were used in this work in columns of different diameters (Dc = 0.05 m, 0.10 m, and 0.15 m). Porous alumina particles of two different diameters (dp = 0.002 m and 0.0028 m) with both nonfoaming (water, cyclohexane, heptane, and propanol) and foaming liquids (kerosene, LCO, and diesel fuel) have been investigated. The gas used was either air or N[sub 2]. The methods investigated include volumetry, gravimetry, gammametry, and determination of residence-time distribution by tracer technique. A simple correlation for the prediction of total gas and liquid retention for bubble and pulsed flow is proposed and verified.

Yang, X.L.; Euzen, J.P. (Inst. Francais du Petrole, Vernaison (France)); Wild, G. (Lab. des Sciences du Genie Chimique, Nancy (France))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Flame aerosol nano-technology has been developed to preparation of thin and defect-free porous membrane from the gas phase as a one step method in preparation of membrane for gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract Flame aerosol nano-technology has been developed to preparation of thin and defect on deposition of nano particles (-Al2O3, MgO or spinel MgAl2O4), formed in the premixed flame reactor through/or aluminium precursors in the flame to form nano-particles of -Al2O3, MgO or MgAl2O4 spinel. The generated

473

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. 51, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2004 2129 Influence of Head Tissue Conductivity in Forward  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. 51, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2004 2129 Influence of Head Tissue Conductivity in Forward and Inverse Magnetoencephalographic Simulations Using Realistic Head Abstract--The influence of head tissue conductivity on mag- netoencephalography (MEG) was investigated

Utah, University of

474

Model 923-B Mouse Gas Anesthesia Head Holder Adaptor Adjustment Features  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model 923-B Mouse Gas Anesthesia Head Holder Adaptor Adjustment Features Dorsal/Ventral dial.352.3139 Toll Free: 1.877.352.3275 ^^ci&ion Q)e&i^n^^^r ^esea/H^/i Model 923-B Mouse Gas Anesthesia Head Holder 923B-1/07 #12;MODEL 923-B MOUSE GAS ANESTHESIA HEAD HOLDER The KOPF Mouse Gas Anesthesia Head Holder

Kleinfeld, David

475

Recruitment and retention initiatives for African American and Hispanic teachers in selected school districts in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION INITIATIVES FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN AND HISPANIC TEACHERS IN SELECTED SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN TEXAS A Dissertation by ANITA JANE PERRY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... IN SELECTED SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN TEXAS A Dissertation by ANITA JANE PERRY Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved as to style and content by...

Perry, Anita Jane

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

476

Heterosis and Heterosis Retention for Reproductive and Maternal Traits in Nellore-Angus Crossbred Cows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HETEROSIS AND HETEROSIS RETENTION FOR REPRODUCTIVE AND MATERNAL TRAITS IN NELLORE-ANGUS CROSSBRED COWS A Dissertation by MOHAMMAD DIYA TALAL HAMED OBEIDAT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... Subject: Animal Breeding Copyright 2013 Mohammad Diya Talal Hamed Obeidat ii ABSTRACT Calving rate, weaning rate, birth weight, weaning weight, and ADG from 1997 to 2011 were investigated in Angus, Nellore, F1 Nellore-Angus, first generation 3...

Obeidat, Mohammad Diya Talal Hamed

2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

477

Professional School Psychology Programs' Recruitment and Retention of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

graduate students of color. American Psychologist, 61, 143-156. Sanders, J. B., Wilson, M., & Jones, J. (2010). Generating Markets: Recruitment for programs and program faculty, encouraging diversity. Trainers Forum, 29 (2),32-35. Solomon, David J... PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY PROGRAMS? RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION OF CULTURALLY AND LINGUISTICALLY DIVERSE STUDENTS Major: Mathematics April 2011 Submitted to the Office of Undergraduate Research Texas A&M University...

Smith, Leann

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

478

USE OF GCLS TO CONTROL LEAKAGE THROUGH GEOMEMBRANE DEFECTS UNDER HIGH HYDRAULIC HEADS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

USE OF GCLS TO CONTROL LEAKAGE THROUGH GEOMEMBRANE DEFECTS UNDER HIGH HYDRAULIC HEADS Christine T liners under conditions representative of dams (i.e., high hydraulic heads). Specifically, the objective of interface contact, hydraulic head, and GCL hydration procedures on the leakage rate were considered

Zornberg, Jorge G.

479

Modeling Attractor Deformation in the Rodent Head-Direction JEREMY P. GOODRIDGE1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling Attractor Deformation in the Rodent Head-Direction System JEREMY P. GOODRIDGE1 AND DAVID S attractor deformation in the rodent head-direction system. J Neurophysiol 83: 3402­3410, 2000. We present a model of the head-direction circuit in the rat that improves on earlier models in several respects

Touretzky, David S.

480

Volume Currents in Forward and Inverse Magnetoencephalographic Simulations Using Realistic Head Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Volume Currents in Forward and Inverse Magnetoencephalographic Simulations Using Realistic Head of magnetoencephalographic MEG forward or in- verse simulations in realistic